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Sample records for artemia franciscana kellog

  1. Production dynamics of Brine Shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Abundance, stage structure and population dynamics of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in pond M4 of the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge were documented...

  2. Morphometric characterization of thalassohaline Artemia franciscana populations from the Colombian Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, W.N.; Ely, J.S.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To establish possible interpopulation relationships among Colombian Artemia franciscana (Crustacea, Anostraca) populations.Location: Colombian Caribbean coast (Manaure, Galerazamba, Salina Cero and Tayrona) and a similar thalassohaline reference population from San Francisco Bay (SFB-USA). Methods: Morphometric characters of male and female cultured individuals of A. franciscana were measured. The populations were grouped according to: (1) population type (populations grouped according t...

  3. Bioencapsulation of Two Different Vibrio Species in Nauplii of the Brine Shrimp (Artemia franciscana)

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Herrera-Vega, Maria A.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Roque, Ana

    1998-01-01

    Two groups of nauplii from the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) were enriched with different bacteria, and the dynamics of bacterial uptake by the nauplii were observed. This study showed that the efficiency of Artemia nauplii in bioencapsulating bacteria strongly depends on the type of bacteria used, time of exposure, and status (live or dead) of the bacteria.

  4. Peningkatan Kuantitas dan Kualitas Kista Artemia franciscana setelah Pemberian Silase Ikan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDAH BUDI SULISTYOWATI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Artemia is one of live feed needed in aquaculture as fishes and crustacean. Commercially, Artemia usually sold in dry cysts which can kept for years. The aim of this research were to know increasing quantity and quality A. franciscana cysts after exposing various concentration of fish silage as artificial food and to know optimal concentration of fish silage that can increase quantity and quality A. franciscana cysts. This research was done in Laboratory of Live Feed BBPBAP Jepara Central Java. This research was conducted by 5 treatments. Treatments were grouped based on amount of concentration given, i.e: control (coconut cake with concentrate 10 g/m3, fish silage concentrate 10, 20, 30, and 40 g/m3. Parameter investigated were number of cysts produced by individual female A. franciscana, diameter of A. franciscana cysts, hatching percentage, and hatching rate of A. franciscana cysts. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and continued using Tukeys test at significant level 5%. The result of this research showed that exposing fish silage can increase quantity and quality A. franciscana cysts. They were increase number of cysts production by individual females, decrease cysts diameter, increase hatching percentage and hatching rate. Optimal concentration of fish silage on increase quantity and quality of A. franciscana cysts was 20 g/m3.

  5. Potential utilization of Artemia franciscana eggs as food for Coleomegilla maculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that Artemia franciscana Kellogg (brine shrimp, Anostraca: Artemiidae) eggs are suitable factitious, i.e., alternative, food to support the life history of a predatory ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Using progeny from a stock colo...

  6. Maladaptive Sex Ratio Adjustment in the Invasive Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Eva J P; Henriques, Gil J B; Michalakis, Yannis; Lenormand, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Sex allocation theory is often hailed as the most successful area of evolutionary theory due to its striking success as a predictor of empirical observations [1]. Most naturally occurring sex ratios can be explained by the principle of equal investment in the sexes [2-4] or by cases of "extraordinary" sex allocation [5]. Deviations from the expected sex ratio are often correlated with weak selection or low environmental predictability (e.g., [6, 7]); true cases of aberrant sex allocation are surprisingly rare [8]. Here, we present a case of long-lasting maladaptive sex allocation, which we discovered in invasive populations of the exclusively sexual brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. A. franciscana was introduced to Southern France roughly 500 generations ago [9]; since then, it has coexisted with the native asexual species Artemia parthenogenetica [10]. Although we expect A. franciscana to produce balanced offspring sex ratios, we regularly observed extremely male-biased sex ratios in invasive A. franciscana, which were significantly correlated to the proportion of asexuals in the overall population. We experimentally proved that both invasive- and native-range A. franciscana overproduced sons when exposed to excess females, without distinguishing between conspecific and asexual females. We conclude that A. franciscana adjust their offspring sex ratio in function of the adult sex ratio but are information limited in the presence of asexual females. Their facultative adjustment trait, which is presumably adaptive in their native range, has thus become maladaptive in the invasive range where asexuals occur. Despite this, it has persisted unchanged for hundreds of generations. PMID:27185556

  7. Sharp Phylogeographic Breaks and Patterns of Genealogical Concordance in the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana

    OpenAIRE

    Theodora Farmaki; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Baxevanis, Athanasios D.; Stefania Maniatsi; Ilias Kappas

    2009-01-01

    Genealogical concordance is a critical overlay of all phylogenetic analyses, irrespective of taxonomic level. To assess such patterns of congruence we have compiled and derived sequence data for two mitochondrial (16S rRNA, COI) and two nuclear (ITS1, p26) markers in 14 American populations of the hypersaline branchiopod Artemia franciscana. Cladistic analysis revealed three reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial clades. For nuclear DNA, incomplete lineage sorting was evident presumably as a...

  8. Oxygen bioavailability and haemoglobins in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, B; Blust, R.; Decleir, W.

    1992-01-01

    Bioavailability of oxygen for the saline-water invertebrate Artemia franciscana was studied, since both oxygen concentration and oxygen diffusion rate change with salinity. Total haemoglobin concentration and the relative contribution of each of three haemoglobins was measured in specimens acclimated to different salinities and oxygen concentrations. Both haemoglobin concentration and contribution were influenced by salinity and the group observed (males, females with and females without eggs...

  9. Assessment of endemic microalgae as potential food for Artemia franciscana culture

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    Juan M Pacheco-Vega

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five microalgal strains were isolated from Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico and identified as Grammatophora sp., Navícula sp., Rhabdonema sp., Schizochytrium sp., and Nitzschia sp., and their evaluation as potential food for Artemia franciscana. The isolated strains were cultured outdoors and harvested after four days. Chaetoceros muelleri was cultured under laboratory conditions and used as control. The protein, lipid, and carbohydrate composition and the fatty acid profiles of the strains were determined by gas chromatography. To assess the effect of microalgal strains on A. franciscana, decapsulated cysts were cultured at outdoor conditions in 15 L containers. The experiment was conducted for twelve days. Samples from the five different feeding treatments were taken at the beginning and end of the experiment to assess number, size, and weight of Artemia larvae. Treatment with Rhabdonema sp. showed larvae with a lower percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs while Grammatophora sp. showed those with the greatest PUFA proportion, even more than those fed Chaetoceros muelleri (control. Larvae consuming Schizochytrium sp. had no docosahexanoic (DHA nor eicosapentaenoic (EPA fatty acid content. Growth and survival of A. franciscana did not show significant differences among feed treatments, except when it was fed Nitzschia sp., showing lower survival and dry weight. Treatment based on Schizochytrium sp. and Rhabdonema sp. had a greater A. franciscana size but reduced dry weight; additional tests including two or more algal species for every treatment should be carried out to determine the best yield.

  10. May arsenic pollution contribute to limiting Artemia franciscana invasion in southern Spain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Petit, Cathleen; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A; Green, Andy J

    2016-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding the complex interactions between biological invasions, pollution, and climate change. Most studies indicate that pollution tends to favor invasive species. Here, we provide evidence that arsenic (As) pollution may have a role in limiting the invasion of the exotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. We tested As toxicity in natural populations of Artemia parthenogenetica (a native taxon) and A. franciscana from localities in southern Spain with differing degrees of As contamination. Tests were conducted both under current mean temperature conditions (25 °C), and as per a future climate scenario (i.e., an increase in mean temperature of 4 °C). Acute toxicity was estimated on the basis of the median lethal concentration (at 24 h), and chronic toxicity was evaluated by measuring Artemia survival and growth under sublethal exposures (after 26 days). At 25 °C, native A. parthenogenetica from the highly polluted Odiel and Tinto estuary was much more resistant to acute As stress (LC50-24 h, 24.67 mg L(-1)) than A. franciscana (15.78 mg L(-1)) and A. parthenogenetica from unpolluted sites (12.04 mg L(-1))-suggesting that local adaptation to polluted conditions may occur. At 29 °C, resistance of A. parthenogenetica from Odiel decreased significantly, and there were no statistical differences in sensitivity between the three species/populations, suggesting that climate change may enhance the probability of invasion. Resistance increased with developmental stage from nauplii to adults, and was extremely high in cysts which still hatched at As concentrations of up to 6400 mg L(-1). Under sublethal chronic exposure A. franciscana performed better (survival and growth) than A. parthenogenetica, and both species experienced a faster growth when exposed to As, compared with unexposed (control) individuals, probably due to the hormesis. We discuss the ecological implications of our results. PMID:26925327

  11. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Muñoz; Francisco Amat; Green, Andy J.; Jordi Figuerola; Africa Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Since Darwin’s time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs), and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. ...

  12. Intracellular localization of group 3 LEA proteins in embryos of Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Leaf C; Hand, Steven C

    2014-12-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are accumulated by anhydrobiotic organisms in response to desiccation and improve survivorship during water stress. In this study we provide the first direct evidence for the subcellular localizations of AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m (and its subforms) in anhydrobiotic embryos of Artemia franciscana. Immunohistochemistry shows AfrLEA2 to reside in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and the four AfrLEA3m proteins to be localized to the mitochondrion. Cellular locations are supported by Western blots of mitochondrial, nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. The presence of LEA proteins in multiple subcellular compartments of A. franciscana embryos suggests the need to protect biological structures in many areas of a cell in order for an organism to survive desiccation stress, and may explain in part why a multitude of different LEA proteins are expressed by a single organism. PMID:25311474

  13. Toxicidad de nauplios de Artemia franciscana a dos piretroides de uso comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Arencibia Carballo, G.; Tizol Correa, R. A.; Rodríguez, R. O.

    2010-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de la determinación de la LC50 para 24 h de exposición mediante una prueba de toxicidad aguda en Artemia franciscana. Se caracterizó una cepa, la cual según los resultados se evaluó de primera calidad y se aplicaron criterios importantes para el empleo de sus nauplios en dichas pruebas. Se determinó la toxicidad de los insecticidas piretroides, cipermetrina y permetrina reportándose los valores de 4,72 y 26,7 μg/mL de CL50 para 24 h respectivame...

  14. Marine Lactobacillus pentosus H16 protects Artemia franciscana from Vibrio alginolyticus pathogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, M E; Sequeiros, C; Olivera, N L

    2015-02-10

    Vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen which may affect different aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the probiotic properties and the protective mode of action of Lactobacillus pentosus H16 against V. alginolyticus 03/8525, through in vitro and in vivo studies using Artemia franciscana (hereafter Artemia). This strain showed antimicrobial activity against V. alginolyticus 03/8525 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC33658 possibly related to lactobacilli organic acid production. It was able to survive at high rainbow trout bile concentrations and showed high selective adhesion to rainbow trout mucus (1.2×10(5)±8.0×10(3) cells cm(-2)). H16 outcompeted V. alginolyticus 03/8525 and A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC33658, greatly reducing their adherence to rainbow trout mucus (64.8 and 74.1%, respectively). Moreover, H16 produced a cell-bound biosurfactant which caused an important decrease in the surface tension. H16 also protected Artemia nauplii against mortality when it was administered previous to V. alginolyticus 03/8525 inoculation. Furthermore, H16 bioencapsulated in Artemia, suggesting that it is possible to use live carriers in its administration. We conclude that the ability of L. pentosus H16 to selectively adhere to mucosal surfaces and produce cell-bound biosurfactants, displacing pathogenic strains, in addition to its antimicrobial activity, confer H16 competitive advantages against pathogens as demonstrated in in vivo challenge experiments. Thus, L. pentosus H16, a marine bacterium from the intestinal tract of hake, is an interesting probiotic for Artemia culture and also has the potential to prevent vibriosis in other aquaculture activities such as larvae culture and fish farming. PMID:25667335

  15. Mass selection for small-sized cysts in Artemia franciscana produced in Vinh Chau salt ponds, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Van, N.T.H.; Van Hoa, N.; Bossier, P.; Sorgeloos, P; Van Stappen, G.

    2014-01-01

    Unidirectional mass truncation selection for small-sized cysts was carried out on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana Kellogg 1906), Vinh Chau strain, Vietnam, through cyst sieving and then culturing the selected individuals (

  16. Impacts of harvesting on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Shayna A; Belovsky, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Selective harvesting can cause evolutionary responses in populations via shifts in phenotypic characteristics, especially those affecting life history. Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts in Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA are commercially harvested with techniques that select against floating cysts. This selective pressure could cause evolutionary changes over time. Our objectives are to (1) determine if there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy, (2) determine if cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality have changed over time, and (3) to examine GSL environmental conditions over time to distinguish whether selective harvesting pressure or a trend in environmental conditions caused changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality. Mating crosses between floating and sinking parental phenotypes with two food concentrations (low and high) indicated there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy. Using cysts harvested from 1991-2011, we found cyst buoyancy decreased and nauplii mortality increased over time. Data on water temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a concentration in GSL from 1994 to 2011 indicated that although water temperature has increased over time and chlorophyll a concentration has decreased over time, the selective harvesting pressure against floating cysts is a better predictor of changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality over time than trends in environmental conditions. Harvesting of GSL A. franciscana cysts is causing evolutionary changes, which has implications for the sustainable management and harvesting of these cysts. Monitoring phenotypic characteristics and life-history traits of the population should be implemented and appropriate responses taken to reduce the impacts of the selective harvesting. PMID:27209783

  17. Risk associated with toxic blooms of marine phytoplankton functional groups on Artemia franciscana

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    Ana D’ors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study mortality of copepod Artemia franciscana against the occurrence of harmful marine algae and possible toxicological changes exhibited by binary and tertiary combinations of these harmful algae toxins. Methods: Tweenty four hours acute toxicity assays were performed with selected concentrations of Alexandrium minutum, Prorocentrum lima and Nitzschia N1c1 living cells. Additionally, the results were analyzed using the median-effect/combination index (CI-isobologram equation to assess possible changes in the toxic effect induced by phytoplankton functional groups. Results: Biotoxin equivalent values obtained by immunodetection were (2.12±0.10, (8.60±1.30 and (4.32±1.67 pg/cell for saxitoxin, okadaic acid and domoic acid, respectively. The 24-h LC50 values estimated to saxitoxin and okadaic acid equivalents were 4.06 and 6.27 µg/L, significantly below the value obtained for Nitzschia N1c1, which was established at 467.33 µg/L. CI analysis applied on phytoplankton assemblages showed that both ternary mixture as the binary combinations exhibited antagonic action on toxic effects in Artemia nauplii, which were significantly lower than the toxic effect exhibited by each species studied. Conclusions: These results show that, although these harmful algae represent a serious risk to estuarine zooplankton community, the presence of phytoplankton functional groups within the same bloom can reduce the potential risk compared to the expected risk when each of the phytoplankton groups are evaluated individually.

  18. A gene catalogue for post-diapause development of an anhydrobiotic arthropod Artemia franciscana

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    Yu Jun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diapause is a reversible state of developmental suspension and found among diverse taxa, from plants to animals, including marsupials and some other mammals. Although previous work has accumulated ample data, the molecular mechanism underlying diapause and reactivation from it remain elusive. Results Using Artemia franciscana, a model organism to study the development of post-diapause embryos in Arthropod, we sequenced random clones up to a total of 28,039 ESTs from four cDNA libraries made from dehydrated cysts and three time points after rehydration/reactivation, which were assembled into 8,018 unigene clusters. We identified 324 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs, P Conclusion We found that the first 5-hour period after rehydration is most important for embryonic reactivation of Artemia. As the total number of expressed genes increases significantly, the majority of DEGs were also identified in this period, including a group of water-deficient-induced genes. A group of genes with similar functions have been described in plant seeds; for instance, one of the novel LEA members shares ~70% amino-acid identity with an Arabidopsis EM (embryonic abundant protein, the closest animal relative to plant LEA families identified thus far. Our findings also suggested that not only nutrition, but also mRNAs are produced and stored during cyst formation to support rapid development after reactivation.

  19. Bioencapsulation of the antibacterial drug sarafloxacin in nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, B.A.; Van Poucke, S; Chair, M; Dehasque, M.; Nelis, H J; Sorgeloos, P.; De Leenheer, A P

    1995-01-01

    Nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were enriched with the antibacterial drug sarafloxacin hydrochloride to determine if levels effective against four pathogenetic strains of Vibrio spp. would accumulate in brine shrimp. Three vibrio strains were Vibrio anguillarum; the fourth was V. vulnificus. Concentrations of sarafloxacin ranging from 1 to 40% (weight: volume) were incorporated into the oil phase of Super Selco brine shrimp diets. Enriched nauplii and controls were sampled at ...

  20. Group 1 LEA proteins contribute to the desiccation and freeze tolerance of Artemia franciscana embryos during diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxopeus, Jantina; Warner, Alden H; MacRae, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    Water loss either by desiccation or freezing causes multiple forms of cellular damage. The encysted embryos (cysts) of the crustacean Artemia franciscana have several molecular mechanisms to enable anhydrobiosis-life without water-during diapause. To better understand how cysts survive reduced hydration, group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, hydrophilic unstructured proteins that accumulate in the stress-tolerant cysts of A. franciscana, were knocked down using RNA interference (RNAi). Embryos lacking group 1 LEA proteins showed significantly lower survival than control embryos after desiccation and freezing, or freezing alone, demonstrating a role for group 1 LEA proteins in A. franciscana tolerance of low water conditions. In contrast, regardless of group 1 LEA protein presence, cysts responded similarly to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure, indicating little to no function for these proteins in diapause termination. This is the first in vivo study of group 1 LEA proteins in an animal and it contributes to the fundamental understanding of these proteins. Knowing how LEA proteins protect A. franciscana cysts from desiccation and freezing may have applied significance in aquaculture, where Artemia is an important feed source, and in the cryopreservation of cells for therapeutic applications. PMID:24846336

  1. Risk associated with toxic blooms of marine phytoplankton functional groups on Artemia franciscana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Dors; Mara Carmen Bartolom; Sebastin Snchez-Fortn

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study mortality of copepod Artemia franciscana against the occurrence of harmful marine algae and possible toxicological changes exhibited by binary and tertiary combinations of these harmful algae toxins. Methods:Tweenty four hours acute toxicity assays were performed with selected concentrations of Alexandrium minutum, Prorocentrum lima and Nitzschia N1c1 living cells. Additionally, the results were analyzed using the median-effect/combination index (CI)-isobologram equation to assess possible changes in the toxic effect induced by phytoplankton functional groups. Results:Biotoxin equivalent values obtained by immunodetection were (2.12±0.10), (8.60±1.30) and (4.32±1.67) pg/cell for saxitoxin, okadaic acid and domoic acid, respectively. The 24-h LC50 values estimated to saxitoxin and okadaic acid equivalents were 4.06 and 6.27 µg/L, significantly below the value obtained for Nitzschia N1c1, which was established at 467.33 µg/L. CI analysis applied on phytoplankton assemblages showed that both ternary mixture as the binary combinations exhibited antagonic action on toxic effects in Artemia nauplii, which were significantly lower than the toxic effect exhibited by each species studied. Conclusions:These results show that, although these harmful algae represent a serious risk to estuarine zooplankton community, the presence of phytoplankton functional groups within the same bloom can reduce the potential risk compared to the expected risk when each of the phytoplankton groups are evaluated individually.

  2. Does a Change from Whole to Powdered Food (Artemia franciscana eggs Increase Oviposition in the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata?

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    Eric W. Riddick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The limited availability of alternative foods to replace natural prey hinders cost-effective mass production of ladybird beetles for augmentative biological control. We compared the effects of powdered vs. whole Artemia franciscana (A. franciscana (brine shrimp eggs with or without a dietary supplement on development and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata (C. maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. We tested the hypotheses that (1 powdered A. franciscana eggs are more suitable than whole eggs; and (2 palmitic acid, a common fatty acid in natural prey, i.e., aphids, is an effective dietary supplement. Development time, pre-imaginal survival, sex ratio, and body weight of adults did not differ significantly amongst individuals fed powdered vs. whole eggs, with or without 5% palmitic acid. Significantly more oviposition occurred when females were fed powdered eggs than whole eggs and powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid than whole eggs with or without 5% palmitic acid. A weak functional relationship was found between pre-oviposition time and total oviposition by females fed powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid; pre-oviposition time decreased as oviposition increased. Food treatments had no significant differential effect on progeny (egg hatch rate. In conclusion, a simple change in A. franciscana egg texture and particle size (i.e., blending whole eggs into a dust-like powder increases oviposition in C. maculata. Supplementing powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid might accelerate oogenesis (egg maturation in some females.

  3. Effect of low doses of ionizing radiation, azoxystrobin and selected heavy metals on the model organism of species Artemia franciscana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to observe the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation, azoxystrobin, zinc and chrome on the lethality of Artemia franciscana. Significant increase of the lethality was observed after 72 and 96 hours of exposure to azoxystrobin and chrome as well as to azoxystrobin, chrome and irradiation. On the other hand, we observed significant decrease of the lethality in the groups exposed to pesticide and chrome or pesticide and zinc in combination with ionizing radiation with the dose of 50 Gy at time interval of 96 hours in comparison to non-irradiated groups. (authors)

  4. Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Furanones Protect the Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana from Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates†

    OpenAIRE

    Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests.

  5. Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Furanones Protect the Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana from Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests. PMID:16957276

  6. Recreating the seawater mixture composition of HOCs in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana by passive dosing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Nieto, E., E-mail: elisa.rojo@uca.es [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Smith, K.E.C. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Perales, J.A. [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Mayer, P. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aquatic media is generally challenging, and this is even more problematic for mixtures. The hydrophobic properties of these compounds make them difficult to dissolve, and subsequently to maintain constant exposure concentrations. Evaporative and sorptive losses are highly compound-specific, which can alter not only total concentrations, but also the proportions between the compounds in the mixture. Therefore, the general aim of this study was to explore the potential of passive dosing for testing the toxicity of a PAH mixture that recreates the mixture composition found in seawater from a coastal area of Spain, the Bay of Algeciras. First, solvent spiking and passive dosing were compared for their suitability to determine the acute toxicity to Artemia franciscana nauplii of several PAHs at their respective solubility limits. Second, passive dosing was applied to recreate the seawater mixture composition of PAHs measured in a Spanish monitoring program, to test the toxicity of this mixture at different levels. HPLC analysis was used to confirm the reproducibility of the dissolved exposure concentrations for the individual PAHs and mixtures. This study shows that passive dosing has some important benefits in comparison with solvent spiking for testing HOCs in aquatic media. These include maintaining constant exposure concentrations, leading to higher reproducibility and a relative increase in toxicity. Passive dosing is also able to faithfully reproduce real mixtures of HOCs such as PAHs, in toxicity tests, reproducing both the levels and proportions of the different compounds. This provides a useful approach for studying the toxicity of environmental mixtures of HOCs, both with a view to investigating their toxicity but also for determining safety factors before such mixtures result in detrimental effects.

  7. Recreating the seawater mixture composition of HOCs in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana by passive dosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aquatic media is generally challenging, and this is even more problematic for mixtures. The hydrophobic properties of these compounds make them difficult to dissolve, and subsequently to maintain constant exposure concentrations. Evaporative and sorptive losses are highly compound-specific, which can alter not only total concentrations, but also the proportions between the compounds in the mixture. Therefore, the general aim of this study was to explore the potential of passive dosing for testing the toxicity of a PAH mixture that recreates the mixture composition found in seawater from a coastal area of Spain, the Bay of Algeciras. First, solvent spiking and passive dosing were compared for their suitability to determine the acute toxicity to Artemia franciscana nauplii of several PAHs at their respective solubility limits. Second, passive dosing was applied to recreate the seawater mixture composition of PAHs measured in a Spanish monitoring program, to test the toxicity of this mixture at different levels. HPLC analysis was used to confirm the reproducibility of the dissolved exposure concentrations for the individual PAHs and mixtures. This study shows that passive dosing has some important benefits in comparison with solvent spiking for testing HOCs in aquatic media. These include maintaining constant exposure concentrations, leading to higher reproducibility and a relative increase in toxicity. Passive dosing is also able to faithfully reproduce real mixtures of HOCs such as PAHs, in toxicity tests, reproducing both the levels and proportions of the different compounds. This provides a useful approach for studying the toxicity of environmental mixtures of HOCs, both with a view to investigating their toxicity but also for determining safety factors before such mixtures result in detrimental effects.

  8. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. PMID:26422775

  9. Liposomes with diverse compositions are protected during desiccation by LEA proteins from Artemia franciscana and trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Daniel S; Hansen, Richard; Hand, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins and the disaccharide trehalose is associated with cellular desiccation tolerance in a number of animal species. Two LEA proteins from anhydrobiotic embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were tested for the ability to protect liposomes of various compositions against desiccation-induced damage in the presence and absence of trehalose. Damage was assessed by carboxyfluorescein leakage after drying and rehydration. Further, using a cytoplasmic-localized (AfrLEA2) and a mitochondrial-targeted (AfrLEA3m) LEA protein allowed us to evaluate whether each may preferentially stabilize membranes of a particular lipid composition based on the protein's subcellular location. Both LEA proteins were able to offset damage during drying of liposomes that mimicked the lipid compositions of the inner mitochondrial membrane (with cardiolipin), outer mitochondrial membrane, and the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Thus liposome stabilization by AfrLEA3m or AfrLEA2 was not dependent on lipid composition, provided physiological amounts of bilayer and non-bilayer-forming lipids were present (liposomes with a non-biological composition of 100% phosphatidylcholine were not protected by either protein). Additive protection by LEA proteins plus trehalose was dependent on the lipid composition of the target membrane. Minimal additional damage occurred to liposomes stored at room temperature in the dried state for one week compared to liposomes rehydrated after 24h. Consistent with the ability to stabilize lipid bilayers, molecular modeling of the secondary structures for AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m revealed bands of charged amino acids similar to other amphipathic proteins that interact directly with membranes. PMID:26518519

  10. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since Darwin’s time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs, and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (ΦST of 0.92, indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern. RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result

  11. Quiescence in Artemia franciscana embryos: reversible arrest of metabolism and gene expression at low oxygen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, S C

    1998-04-01

    Depression of the production and consumption of cellular energy appears to be a prerequisite for the survival of prolonged bouts of anoxia. A correlation exists between the degree of metabolic depression under anoxia and the duration of anoxia tolerance. In the case of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) embryos, oxygen deprivation induces a reversible quiescent state that can be tolerated for several years with substantial survivorship. A global arrest of cytoplasmic translation accompanies the transition into anoxia, and rates of protein synthesis in mitochondria from these embryos appears to be markedly reduced in response to anoxia. Previous evidence suggests that the acute acidification of intracellular pH (pHi) by over 1.0 unit during the transition into anoxia contributes to the depression of biosynthesis, but message limitation does not appear to play a role in the down-regulation in either cellular compartment. The ontogenetic increase in mRNA levels for a mitochondrial-encoded subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX I) and for nuclear-encoded actin is blocked by anoxia and aerobic acidosis (artificial quiescence imposed by intracellular acidification under aerobic conditions). Further, the levels of COX I and actin mRNA do not decline appreciably during 6 h bouts of quiescence, even though protein synthesis is acutely arrested across this same period. Thus, the constancy of mRNA levels during quiescence indicates that reduced protein synthesis is not caused by message limitation but, instead, is probably controlled at the translational level. This apparent stabilization of mRNA under anoxia is mirrored in an extension of protein half-life. The ubiquitin-dependent pathway for protein degradation is depressed under anoxia and aerobic acidosis, as judged by the acute drop in levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. Mitochondrial protein synthesis is responsive to both acidification of pHi and removal of oxygen per se. Matrix pH declines in parallel with pHi, and

  12. Depression of nuclear transcription and extension of mRNA half-life under anoxia in Artemia franciscana embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breukelen, F; Maier, R; Hand, S C

    2000-04-01

    Transcriptional activity, as assessed by nuclear run-on assays, was constant during 10 h of normoxic development for embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Exposure of embryos to only 4 h of anoxia resulted in a 79.3+/-1 % decrease in levels of in-vivo-initiated transcripts, and transcription was depressed by 88. 2+/-0.7 % compared with normoxic controls after 24 h of anoxia (means +/- s.e.m., N=3). Initiation of transcription was fully restored after 1 h of normoxic recovery. Artificially lowering the intracellular pH of aerobic embryos to the value reflective of anoxia (pH 6.7) showed that acidification alone explained over half the transcriptional arrest. Initiation of transcription was not rescued by application of 80 % carbon monoxide under anoxia, which suggests that heme-based oxygen sensing is not involved in this global arrest. When these transcriptional data are combined with the finding that mRNA levels are unchanged for at least 6 h of anoxia, it is clear that the half-life of mRNA is extended at least 8.5-fold compared with that in aerobic embryos. In contrast to the activation of compensatory mechanisms to cope with anoxia that occurs in mammalian cells, A. franciscana embryos enter a metabolically depressed state in which gene expression and mRNA turnover are cellular costs apparently not compatible with survival and in which extended tolerance supercedes the requirement for continued metabolic function. PMID:10708633

  13. Effect of hydrogen ions and inorganic complexing on the uptake of copper by the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    OpenAIRE

    Blust, R.; Fontaine, A.; Decleir, W.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen ions and inorganic complexing on copper uptake in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana has been studied in chemically defined saltwater solutions. Uptake increases with decreasing hydrogen ion concentration and decreases with increasing carbonate complexation. A simple non-linear model that combines the effect of hydrogen ions on the transport of the metal across the solution-body interface and the effect of hydrogen ions and complexation on the speciation of the metal ...

  14. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacteria protect gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halet, Dirk; Defoirdt, Tom; Van Damme, Petra; Vervaeren, Han; Forrez, Ilse; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Verstraete, Willy

    2007-06-01

    A poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)-accumulating enrichment culture was obtained using activated sludge from a polyphosphate-accumulating reactor as inoculum. PHB accumulated by the enrichment culture significantly enhanced the survival of Artemia nauplii, infected with the virulent pathogen Vibrio campbellii LMG 21363. A strain was isolated from the enrichment culture, based on its ability to accumulate PHB, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the isolate revealed 99% sequence similarity to Brachymonas denitrificans AS-P1. The isolate, named PHB2, showed good PHB-accumulating activity (up to 32% of the cell dry weight). PHB accumulated by isolate PHB2 was able to protect Artemia completely from the V. campbellii strain. Our data indicate that PHB-accumulating bacteria, such as B. denitrificans PHB2, could be used as an an effective and economically interesting alternative strategy to control infections in aquaculture. PMID:17391334

  15. A novel heparan sulphate with high degree of N-sulphation and high heparin cofactor-II activity from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavante, S F; Santos, E A; Oliveira, F W; Guerrini, M; Torri, G; Casu, B; Dietrich, C P; Nader, H B

    2000-03-16

    With the aid of heparinase and heparitinases from Flavobacterium heparinum and 13C and IH NMR spectroscopy it was shown that the heparan sulphate isolated from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana exhibits structural features intermediate between those of mammalian heparins and heparan sulphates. These include an unusually high degree of N-sulphation (with corresponding very low degree of N-acetylation), a relatively high content of iduronic acid residues (both unsulphated and 2-O-sulphated) and a relatively low degree of 6-O-sulphation of the glucosamine residues. The major sequences (glucuronic acid-->N-sulphated glucosamine and glucuronic acid-->N, 6-disulphated glucosamine) are most probably arranged in blocks. Although exhibiting negligible anticlotting activity in the APTT and anti-factor Xa assays the A. franciscana heparan sulphate has a high heparin cofactor-II activity (about 1/3 that of heparin). PMID:10704986

  16. A first AFLP-Based Genetic Linkage Map for Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana and Its Application in Mapping the Sex Locus

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Stephanie; Bossier, Peter; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Vercauteren, Ilse; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Vuylsteke, Marnik

    2013-01-01

    We report on the construction of sex-specific linkage maps, the identification of sex-linked markers and the genome size estimation for the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Overall, from the analysis of 433 AFLP markers segregating in a 112 full-sib family we identified 21 male and 22 female linkage groups (2n = 42), covering 1,041 and 1,313 cM respectively. Fifteen putatively homologous linkage groups, including the sex linkage groups, were identified between the female and male linkage map...

  17. Quorum sensing-disrupting brominated furanones protect the gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Defoirdt, T; Crab, R.; Wood, T. K.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstraete, W; P. Bossier

    2006-01-01

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests.

  18. Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant proteins from embryos of Artemia franciscana: structural properties and protective abilities during desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Leaf C; Menze, Michael A; Hand, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are highly hydrophilic, and their expression is associated with desiccation tolerance in both plants and animals. Here we show that two LEA proteins from embryos of Artemia franciscana, AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m, are intrinsically disordered in solution but upon desiccation gain secondary structure, as measured by circular dichroism. Trifluoroethanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate are both shown to induce α-helical structure in AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m. Bioinformatic predictions of secondary-structure content for both proteins correspond most closely to conformations measured in the dry state. Because some LEA proteins afford protection to desiccation-sensitive proteins during drying and subsequent rehydration, we tested for this capacity in AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m. The protective capacities vary, depending on the target enzyme. For the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, neither AfrLEA2 nor AfrLEA3m, with or without trehalose present, was able to afford protection better than that provided by bovine serum albumin (BSA) under the same conditions. However, for another cytoplasmic enzyme, phosphofructokinase, both AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m in the presence of trehalose were able to afford protection far greater than that provided by BSA with trehalose. Finally, for the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase, 400-μg/mL AfrLEA3m without trehalose provided significantly more protection than the same concentration of either AfrLEA2 or BSA. PMID:25244376

  19. Profiles of nuclear and mitochondrial encoded mRNAs in developing and quiescent embryos of Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardewig, I; Anchordoguy, T J; Crawford, D L; Hand, S C

    1996-05-24

    Embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able to withstand long bouts of environmental anoxia by entering a quiescent state during which metabolism is greatly depressed. Recent evidence supports a global arrest of protein synthesis during quiescence. In this study we measured the amounts of mRNA for a mitochondrial-encoded subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX I) and for nuclear-encoded actin during aerobic development, anaerobiosis, and aerobic acidosis (artificial quiescence imposed by intracellular acidification under aerobic conditions). The levels of both COX I and actin transcripts increased significantly during aerobic development. COX I mRNA levels were tightly correlated with previous measures of COX catalytic activity, which suggests that COX synthesis could be regulated by message concentration during aerobic development. The ontogenetic increase for these mRNAs was blocked by anoxia and aerobic acidosis. Importantly, the levels of COX I and actin mRNA did not decline appreciably during the 6 h bouts of quiescence, even though protein synthesis is acutely arrested by these same treatments. Thus, the constancy of mRNA levels during quiescence indicate that reduced protein synthesis is not caused by message limitation, but rather, is likely controlled at the translational level. One advantage of this regulatory mechanism is the conservation of mRNA molecules during quiescence, which would potentially favor a quick resumption of translation as soon as oxygen is returned to the embryos. Finally, because anoxia and aerobic acidosis are both characterized by acidic intracellular pH, the reduction in pH may serve, directly or indirectly, as one signal regulating levels of mRNA in this embryo during quiescence. PMID:8817476

  20. A case study to optimise and validate the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana immobilisation assay with silver nanoparticles: The role of harmonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Drobne, Damjana; Singh, Shashi; Kalčíková, Gabriela; Kühnel, Dana; Rohit, Rekulapelly; Gotvajn, Andreja Žgajnar; Jemec, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been recognised as an important ecotoxicity and nanotoxicity test model organism for salt-rich aquatic environments, but currently there is still no harmonised testing protocol which would ensure the comparable results for hazard identification. In this paper we aimed to design the harmonised protocol for nanomaterial toxicity testing using Artemia franciscana and present a case study to validate the protocol with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We (i) revised the existing nanotoxicity test protocols with Artemia sp. (ii) optimised certain methodological steps based on the experiments with AgNPs and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as a soluble reference chemical and (iii) tested the optimised protocol in an international inter-laboratory exercise conducted within the EU FP7 NanoValid project. The intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the proposed protocol with a soluble reference chemical K2Cr2O7 was good, which confirms the suitability of this assay for conventional chemicals. However, the variability of AgNPs toxicity results was very high showing again that nanomaterials are inherently challenging for toxicity studies, especially those which toxic effect is linked to shed metal ions. Among the identified sources for this variability were: the hatching conditions, the type of test plate incubation and the illumination regime. The latter induced variations assumingly due to the changes in bioavailable silver species concentrations. Up to our knowledge this is the first inter-laboratory comparison of the Artemia sp. toxicity study involving nanomaterials. Although the inter-laboratory exercise revealed poor repeatability of AgNPs toxicity results, this study provides valuable information regarding the importance of harmonisation of all steps in the test procedure. Also, the presented AgNPs toxicity case study may serve as a platform for further validation steps with other types of NMs. PMID:26895539

  1. Determinación de la toxicidad aguda (cl50) del extracto de polvillo de carbón frente a larvas de artemia franciscana

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco Gómez, Jesús David

    2011-01-01

    El carbón es una de las fuentes de energía más utilizada, su uso es globalizado y está muy ligado con el desarrollo industrial, sin embargo, es considerado como el contaminante de fuente de energía fósil más importante del mundo y su explotación está relacionada con la aparición de efectos tóxicos en diferentes organismos. El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo determinar la concentración letal media (CL50) del extracto metanólico de polvillo de carbón frente a larvas de Artemia franciscana; l...

  2. Characterization of the virulence of Harveyi clade vibrios isolated from a shrimp hatchery in vitro and in vivo, in a brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) model system

    OpenAIRE

    Vanmaele, S.; Defoirdt, T; Cleenwerck, I; Vos, P; P. Bossier

    2015-01-01

    Vibrios belonging to the Harveyi clade are important pathogens of a large number of marine animals in the aquaculture industry. In this study, six isolates (H1 to H6) were obtained from a shrimp hatchery in Rio Grande do Norte (Natal-Area, Brazil), which had been confronted with disease outbreaks in 2009. The aim was to characterize the virulence of these isolates, both in vitro (virulence factor production) and in vivo (virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, larvae)...

  3. A novel model of early development in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, and its use in assessing the effects of environmental variables on development, emergence, and hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Courtney H; Gerlach, Jamie L; Ruggiero, Kristin M; Covi, Joseph A

    2015-03-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), is a zooplankton that is commonly used in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, Artemia embryos are often cultured under conditions that alter early development, and reports based on these cultures oversimplify or fail to describe morphological phenotypes. This is due in part to the lack of a comprehensive developmental model that is applicable to observations of live specimens. The objective of this study was to build and test a descriptive model of post-diapause development in Artemia franciscana using observations made with a standard dissecting microscope. The working model presented is the first to comprehensively place all known "abnormal" embryonic and naupliar phenotypes within the context of a classic hatching profile. Contrary to previous reports, embryos and nauplii with aberrant phenotypes often recover and develop normally. Oval prenauplii may emerge as normal prenauplii (E2 stage). A delay of this transition leads to incomplete hatching or direct hatching of first instar larvae with a curved thoracoabdomen. When hatching is incomplete, retained cuticular remnants are shed during the next molt, and a "normal" second instar larva is produced. By differentiating between molting events and gross embryonic patterning in live embryos, this new model facilitates fine time-scale analyses of chemical and environmental impacts on early development. A small increase in salinity within what is commonly believed to be a permissive range (20‰-35‰) produced aberrant morphology by delaying emergence without slowing development. A similar effect was observed by decreasing culture density within a range commonly applied in toxicological studies. These findings clearly demonstrate that morphological data from end-point studies are highly dependent on the time points chosen. An alternate assessment method is proposed, and the potential impact of heavy metals, hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, and cis

  4. Non-lethal heat shock protects gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae against virulent Vibrios

    OpenAIRE

    Yik Sung, Y.; Van Damme, E.J.M.; Sorgeloos, P.; Bossier, P

    2007-01-01

    Brine shrimp Artemia were exposed under gnotobiotic conditions to a non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) from 28 to 32, 37 and 40°C. Different recovery periods (2, 6, 12 and 24 h) and different heat-exposure times (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) were tested. After these NLHS, Artemia was subsequently challenged with Vibrio. Challenge tests were performed in stressed and unstressed nauplii at concentrations of 107 cells ml-1 of pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio proteolyticus. A NLHS with an op...

  5. Trophic transfer of lead through a model marine four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica, Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei, and Haemulon scudderi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Jiménez, M F; Arellano-Fiore, C; Rocha-Velarde, R; Jara-Marini, M E; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) → Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) → Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) → Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences in Pb concentrations were found between exposed organisms of the different trophic levels and the control. Particularly, Pb concentrations in fish of the simulated trophic chain were two-to three times higher in the exposed specimens than in the control. Levels of Pb in phytoplankton showed a substantial increase with respect to the solution (level I), with bioconcentration factors averaging from 930 to 3630. In contrast, a strong decrease in Pb concentration from phytoplankton to zooplankton (level II) and from zooplankton to shrimp tissues (level III) was evidenced by bioaccumulation factors metal transfer observed in these two predators, Pb concentration in the grunt fish (level IV) was higher than in the shrimp (level III) (bioaccumulation factor >1.0). Some of the added Pb is transferred from the phytoplankton along the food chain, thus producing a net accumulation of Pb mainly in fish and, to a lesser extent, in shrimp tissues. Because Pb is one of the most pervasive contaminants in coastal ecosystems, its transference by way of diet and potential net accumulation in higher predators is of ecologic importance for marine life. In addition, because shrimp and adult Haemulon scudderi are commercially important resources, this issue is of particular relevance to the safety of marine products. PMID:21082317

  6. The gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) model system reveals that the phenolic compound pyrogallol protects against infection through its prooxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Duy Phong, Ho Phuong Pham; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Defoirdt, Tom; Bossier, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phenolic compound pyrogallol is the functional unit of many polyphenols and currently there has been a growing interest in using this compound in human and animal health owing to its health-promoting effects. The biological actions of pyrogallol moiety (and polyphenols) in inducing health benefitting effects have been studied; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear yet. Here, we aimed at unravelling the underlying mechanism of action behind the protective effects of pyrogallol against bacterial infection by using the gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi as host-pathogen model system. The gnotobiotic test system represents an exceptional system for carrying out such studies because it eliminates any possible interference of microbial communities (naturally present in the experimental system) in mechanistic studies and furthermore facilitates the interpretation of the results in terms of a cause effect relationship. We provided clear evidences suggesting that pyrogallol pretreament, at an optimum concentration, induced protective effects in the brine shrimp against V. harveyi infection. By pretreating brine shrimp with pyrogallol in the presence or absence of an antioxidant enzyme mixture (catalase and superoxide dismutase), we showed that the Vibrio-protective effect of the compound was caused by its prooxidant action (e.g. generation of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2). We showed further that generation of prooxidant is linked to the induction of heat shock protein Hsp70, which is involved in eliciting the prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase immune responses. The ability of pyrogallol to induce protective immunity makes it a potential natural protective agent that might be a potential preventive modality for different host-pathogen systems. PMID:26459033

  7. Efeito da oferta de náuplios de Artemia franciscana enriquecidos com ácidos graxos poliinsaturados sobre o desenvolvimento de pós-larvas do camarão marinho Farfantepenaeus paulensis Effect of poliunsaturated fatty acid enriched Artemia franciscana nauplii on development of Farfantepenaeus paulensis shrimp post-larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Soares Pontes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da técnica de enriquecimento de náuplios de Artemia franciscana, em emulsões de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (AGP para a alimentação de pós-larvas do camarão marinho Farfantepenaeus paulensis. Este procedimento visou o acréscimo dos ácidos eicosapentaenóico (EPA e docosahexaenóico (DHA, essenciais para organismos marinhos, mas deficientes na composição de náuplios provenientes de ecossistemas aquáticos continentais. Os náuplios foram divididos em cinco tratamentos: um grupo controle, composto por indivíduos recém-eclodidos, e quatro grupos enriquecidos cada um com as emulsões Selco, Super Selco, AlgaMac 2000 e emulsão formulada em laboratório à base de óleo de fígado de bacalhau, e então ofertados às pós-larvas. Foram comparados os efeitos das dietas quanto à taxa de sobrevivência, ao ganho de peso e à resistência ao estresse nos estádios de PL10 e de PL20. Observou-se que as emulsões Super Selco e Selco foram as que proporcionaram aumento mais destacado dos níveis de EPA e DHA nos náuplios. Entretanto, nenhuma das emulsões aplicadas induziu a diferenças significativas para os parâmetros estudados em comparação com as pós-larvas alimentadas com os náuplios do grupo de controle, indicando que o aumento nos níveis de EPA e DHA não exerceu influência na melhora do desenvolvimento de pós-larvas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Artemia franciscana nauplii, in poliunsturated fatty acid enriched emulsions, for marine shrimp (Farfantepenaeus paulensis postlarvae feeding. This proceeding aimed the addiction to their diets of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, essential fatty acids for marine organisms, but scarce in nauplii originated in aquatic continental ecosystems. The nauplii were divided in five treatments: a control one with newly-hatched individuals and other four groups, each one enriched with the

  8. Reactive oxygen species generated by a heat shock protein (Hsp) inducing product contributes to Hsp70 production and Hsp70-mediated protective immunity in Artemia franciscana against pathogenic vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Linayati, Linayati; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The cytoprotective role of heat shock protein (Hsp70) described in a variety of animal disease models, including vibriosis in farmed aquatic animals, suggests that new protective strategies relying upon the use of compounds that selectively turn on Hsp genes could be developed. The product Tex-OE® (hereafter referred to as Hspi), an extract from the skin of the prickly pear fruit, Opuntia ficus indica, was previously shown to trigger Hsp70 synthesis in a non-stressful situation in a variety of animals, including in a gnotobiotically (germ-free) cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana model system. This model system offers great potential for carrying out high-throughput, live-animal screens of compounds that have health benefit effects. By using this model system, we aimed to disclose the underlying cause behind the induction of Hsp70 by Hspi in the shrimp host, and to determine whether the product affects the shrimp in inducing resistance towards pathogenic vibrios. We provide unequivocal evidences indicating that during the pretreatment period with Hspi, there is an initial release of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and/or superoxide anion), generated by the added product, in the rearing water and associated with the host. The reactive molecules generated are the triggering factors responsible for causing Hsp70 induction within Artemia. We have also shown that Hspi acts prophylactically at an optimum dose regimen to confer protection against pathogenic vibrios. This salutary effect was associated with upregulation of two important immune genes, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase of the innate immune system. These findings suggest that inducers of stress protein (e.g. Hsp70) are potentially important modulator of immune responses and might be exploited to confer protection to cultured shrimp against Vibrio infection. PMID:24950414

  9. UTILIZAÇÃO DA CIANOBACTÉRIA Spirulina maxima E DA LEVEDURA Saccharomyces cerevisiae COMO DIETAS COMPLEMENTARES NO CULTIVO DE Artemia franciscana

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanildo Surini de Souza; Pedro Hercílio Cavalcante de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Diferentes combinações da cianobactéria S. maxima e da levedura S. cerevisiae foram utilizadas no cultivo de A. franciscana, com o objetivo de avaliar dietas de baixo custo e fácil manuseio, e que mantivessem as larvas desse microcrustáceo em laboratório, de modo a propiciar estudos de sua ecologia, biologia e uso na aquicultura. Para isso, 12 cones de Imhoff contendo 1 L de água do mar filtrada foram estocados com 100 náuplios e submetidos à aeração contínua, monitoramento do pH, temperatura...

  10. UTILIZAÇÃO DA CIANOBACTÉRIA Spirulina maxima E DA LEVEDURA Saccharomyces cerevisiae COMO DIETAS COMPLEMENTARES NO CULTIVO DE Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Surini de Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes combinações da cianobactéria S. maxima e da levedura S. cerevisiae foram utilizadas no cultivo de A. franciscana, com o objetivo de avaliar dietas de baixo custo e fácil manuseio, e que mantivessem as larvas desse microcrustáceo em laboratório, de modo a propiciar estudos de sua ecologia, biologia e uso na aquicultura. Para isso, 12 cones de Imhoff contendo 1 L de água do mar filtrada foram estocados com 100 náuplios e submetidos à aeração contínua, monitoramento do pH, temperatura, salinidade, oxigênio dissolvido e luminosidade, além de renovação diária de 50 % do volume de água. Durante dez dias, os náuplios foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia com 25 mg de diferentes combinações de S. maxima e S. cerevisiae, nas seguintes proporções: 100/0; 75/25; 50/50; 25/75 e 0/100. Foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência, proporção sexual, proporção juvenis/adultos e performance reprodutiva. Os resultados indicaram um melhor desempenho zootécnico de A. franciscana nos tratamentos que associaram S. maxima à S. cerevisiae (75/25, 50/50 e 25/75, e desta maneira, demonstram que a referida mistura dietética, em tais proporções, é viável para manter as larvas em cultivo laboratorial.

  11. Comparación biométrica del lóbulo frontal en poblaciones americanas de Artemia (Anostraca, Artemiidae Biometric comparision of the frontal knob in american populations of Artemia (Anostraca, Artemiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO R DE LOS RIOS

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon el diámetro del lóbulo frontal y su relación con la longitud corporal, en poblaciones de Artemia franciscana (Chile y Estados Unidos, A. persimilis (Argentina y Artemia sp. (Chile, cultivadas en laboratorio bajo condiciones controladas. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en ambos parámetros entre las poblaciones de A. franciscana y Artemia sp., de Salina El Convento (Chile y entre A. persimilis y Artemia sp. de Torres del Paine (Chile. Se discuten en el presente trabajo los factores geográficos, ecológicos y genéticos que determinaron la especiación de Artemia en Chile y Argentina, y como ésta se manifiesta en distintos patrones morfométricosThe frontal knob diameter and its relationship with the total body lenght among populations of Artemia franciscana (Chile and U.S.A, A. persimilis (Argentina, and Artemia sp. (Chile, were asessed. All populations were cultured under laboratory conditions. Significant differences in both parameters between A. franciscana and Artemia sp. from Salina el Convento (Chile, and between A. persimilis and Artemia sp. from Amarga Lagoon (Chile were recorded.Geographical, ecological and genetic aspects which affected the speciation of Artemia populations in Chile and Argentina, and their expression in morphometric characters are discussed

  12. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi;

    2009-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a complex genus containing sexual species and parthenogenetic lineages. Artemia franciscana is native to America and its cysts (diapausing eggs) are used worldwide as a food source in aquaculture. As a consequence, this anostracan has become an invasive species in many...

  13. Genetic characterization of Artemia tibetiana (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    OpenAIRE

    Abatzopoulos, T.J.; Kappas, I.; Bossier, P.; Sorgeloos, P.; Beardmore, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia consists of a number of bisexual species and a large number of parthenogenetic forms, which collectively, inhabit a wide range of hypersaline habitats. A recently described species (A. tibetiana) from a carbonate lake (Lagkor Co) in Tibet at an altitude of 4490 m has been tested with New World (A. franciscana USA, and A. franciscana feral population Vietnam) and Old World species (A. salina, A. urmiana, A. sinica) for cross fertility. These tests show complete inferti...

  14. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  15. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varó, I., E-mail: inma@iats.csic.es [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Redón, S. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Garcia-Roger, E.M. [Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Amat, F.; Guinot, D. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Serrano, R. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), Avda. Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain); Navarro, J.C. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  16. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF A SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW LARVAE AND JUVENILES ON A DIET OF 'ARTEMIA' NAUPLII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two geographic strains of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii were evaluated for nutritional quality as a food source for young sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Although there was no mortality of fish fed either strain, fish reared on brine shrimp nauplii from S...

  17. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW LARVAE AND JUVENILES ON A DIET OF 'ARTEMIA' NAUPLII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two geographic strains of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii were evaluated for nutritional quality as a food source for young sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Although there was no mortality of fish fed either strain, fish reared on brine shrimp nauplii from S...

  18. Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J.;

    2008-01-01

    There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading to...... their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI or cox1) gene to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of A. salina, an extreme halophilic sexual brine shrimp, over its known distribution range (Mediterranean Basin and South...

  19. Species-specific RFLP pattern in the Heat Shock Protein26 gene (Hsp26): a single-locus tool for species identification and experimental testing of habitat-induced isolation in the New World Artemia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, P; Gajardo, G; Bossier, P

    2010-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda), a paradigmatic inhabitant of hypersaline lakes, has molecular features to survive under stressful conditions, such as the p26 heat shock protein. We report the RFLP fingerprinting pattern (four restriction enzymes) of a 217 bp fragment of exon2 of the Hsp26 gene in six Artemia franciscana and four Artemia persimilis populations, the most genetically divergent Artemia species co-occurring in latitudinal extremes of Chile. The species-specific RFLP pattern observed is a simple and cost-effective single-locus tool for species delimitation and experimental testing the habitat-induced isolation barrier between them. PMID:21565017

  20. A small heat shock/α-crystallin protein from encysted Artemia embryos suppresses tubulin denaturation

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Rossalyn M.; Gupta, Jagdish S.; MacRae, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    Small heat shock/α-crystallin proteins function as molecular chaperones, protecting other proteins from irreversible denaturation by an energy-independent process. The brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, produces a small heat shock/α-crystallin protein termed p26, found in embryos undergoing encystment, diapause, and metabolic arrest. These embryos withstand long-term anoxia and other stresses normally expected to cause death, a property likely dependent on molecular chaperone activity. The as...

  1. Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Y.; Defoirdt, T; K. Baruah; Van de Wiele, T.; Dong, L.; P. Bossier

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia fra...

  2. Co-feeding of microalgae and bacteria may result in increased N assimilation in Artemia as compared to mono-diets, as demonstrated by a 15N isotope uptake laboratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, H.T.; Boeckx, P.; Sorgeloos, P.; Bossier, P.; Van Stappen, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the co-feeding of bacteria and microalgae on nitrogen (N) assimilation in an Artemia franciscana gnotobiotic laboratory culture test. Two strains of bacteria were used, HT3 and HT6, isolated from previous Artemia laboratory cultures. These were fed in combination with microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta strains, either the high quality DT 19/6B or the low quality DT 19/27 strain. Each combination of algae and bacteria was offered in different proportions, i....

  3. The effects of dietary administration with chemical treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 on the growth of aquatic invertebrates in Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Shekarchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the biological effects of β-glucans in cell wall of new identified strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 on the growth of aquatic invertebrates, in Artemia as model organism. Methods: All yeasts used in the present study were isolated from Rainbow trout intestine and then cultured in yeast extract-peptone-glycerol medium. Activation of β-glucan in yeasts was performed by chemical treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME (3.5% v/v. Then nauplii and larvae individuals of Artemia urmiana and Artemia franciscana (two different species of Artemia as test organisms were fed with 2ME-treated yeasts during the culture. At the end of experiment, after feeding individual length (total length and growth rate in adult individuals of Artemia was measured. Results: Following this administration, growth in both species of Artemia was improved (P < 0.05. So, the results showed that Artemia urmiana adults individuals that fed with 2MEtreated yeasts had the highest growth and total length. These results were confirmed with growth measurement in adult individuals of Artemia. Conclusions: This study suggested that 2ME-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 yeasts can be used for enhancing the growth of other aquatic invertebrates like shrimps as probiotic supplement and growth promoter.

  4. HACIA UNA PEDAGOGÍA FRANCISCANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Soto Forero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca presentar como mediante toda una manera de actuar, de ver y de pensar, se va construyendo una propuesta pedagógica franciscana; inspirada en el Evangelio y en la manera como Francisco de Asís vivió el mismo, buscando siempre la importancia de la persona humana, la fraternidad universal, el respeto por lo diferente, viviendo la cotidianidad de una manera alegre y festiva, donde la propuesta pedagógica franciscana se va dando en el caminar con el otro desde la fraternidad y el servicio.

  5. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-08-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by intrduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degress of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  6. The effects of dietary administration with chemical treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 on the growth of aquatic invertebrates in Artemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behnam Shekarchi; Ali Nekuiefard; Ramin Manaffar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biological effects of β-glucans in cell wall of new identified strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 on the growth of aquatic invertebrates, in Artemia as model organism. Methods: All yeasts used in the present study were isolated from Rainbow trout intestine and then cultured in yeast extract-peptone-glycerol medium. Activation of β-glucan in yeasts was performed by chemical treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) (3.5% v/v). Then nauplii and larvae individuals of Artemia urmiana and Artemia franciscana (two different species of Artemia as test organisms) were fed with 2ME-treated yeasts during the culture. At the end of experiment, after feeding individual length (total length and growth rate) in adult individuals of Artemia was measured. Results: Following this administration, growth in both species of Artemia was improved (P Conclusions: This study suggested that 2ME-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 yeasts can be used for enhancing the growth of other aquatic invertebrates like shrimps as probiotic supplement and growth promoter.

  7. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on th

  8. Coadaptation: lessons from the brine shrimp Artemia, "the aquatic Drosophila" (Crustacea; Anostraca Coadaptación: lecciones desde el camarón de salmuera Artemia, "la Drosophila acuática" (Crustacea; Anostraca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZALO GAJARDO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available During the fifties Brncic and the Dobzhansky's school, using the fruit fly Drosophila as a test organism, introduced the term integration of the genotype, or genetic coadaptation, which has had great impact on thinking in today's evolutionary biology. In this work we use the brine shrimp Artemia - in many respects a sort of aquatic Drosophila- as a model organism to evaluate the relationship between population structure, potential for divergence and the degree of morphological and/or genetic change. These aspects, tightly linked with the organization of the genotype, are important to understanding how recombination and adaptive release of genetic and phenotypic variation affect the speciation process in Artemia. Analysis of genetic (allozyme, diploid and chromocentre numbers, morphological (Mahalanobis distances and reproductive data (cross-fertility tests available for populations of the bisexual, endemic species of the Americas, Artemia franciscana and A. persimilis, indicate that: (i A. franciscana and A. persimilis are morphologically distinct in correspondence with observed genetic differences (D Nei > 1; 2n = 42 and 44; 12.5 and 1.5 mean chromocentre numbers, respectively; (ii populations from Chile and other South American localities (mainly A. franciscana display high levels of genetic variability and a trend to develop large genetic distances between populations; (iii the plasticity of Artemia gene pool is associated, at least in part, with ecological heterogeneity. Hence an adaptive divergence mode is thought to best define the speciation process in Artemia; (iv the succesful production of laboratory hybrids in the allopatric Artemia populations studied in the Americas, a feature seen in other anostracods, could be explained by the fact that formerly allopatric populations have not achieved later sympatry, as required by the allopatric speciation paradigmEn los años cincuenta Brncic y la escuela de Dobzhansky introdujeron el t

  9. Motion control of a population of Artemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fortuna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the collective behavior of Artemia Salina is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Several experiments have been designed to investigate the Artemia motion under different environment conditions. From the results of such experiments, a strategy to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population, by exploiting their sensitivity to light, has been derived and then implemented.

  10. Complexity in a population of Artemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Experiments on collective motion of populations of animals (Artemia salina). → Design of low-cost experimental setup for complex systems. → Control of collective motion of populations of Artemia. → Models of collective motion of populations of Artemia. - Abstract: Artemia salina belongs to a genus of very primordial crustaceans, whose behavior is not widely investigated in literature. Their collective behavior is studied in this paper both experimentally and theoretically. Different experiments have been designed to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population by exploiting their sensitivity to light and to measure the response of the population to light at different wavelengths. Mathematical models have been also derived, explaining the mechanisms underlying Artemia flocking formation when a light spot is applied to the system. The results obtained allow to develop new strategies for distributed control of agents and to test them in a simple and low cost experimental setup.

  11. Complexity in a population of Artemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A.A., E-mail: abduladem1@yahoo.co [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah (Iraq); Fortuna, L., E-mail: lfortuna@diees.unict.i [DIEEI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Frasca, M., E-mail: mfrasca@diees.unict.i [DIEEI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Rashid, M.T., E-mail: mofid76@yahoo.co [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah (Iraq); Xibilia, M.G., E-mail: mxibilia@ingegneria.unime.i [DiSIA, Faculty of Engineering, University of Messina (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: Experiments on collective motion of populations of animals (Artemia salina). Design of low-cost experimental setup for complex systems. Control of collective motion of populations of Artemia. Models of collective motion of populations of Artemia. - Abstract: Artemia salina belongs to a genus of very primordial crustaceans, whose behavior is not widely investigated in literature. Their collective behavior is studied in this paper both experimentally and theoretically. Different experiments have been designed to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population by exploiting their sensitivity to light and to measure the response of the population to light at different wavelengths. Mathematical models have been also derived, explaining the mechanisms underlying Artemia flocking formation when a light spot is applied to the system. The results obtained allow to develop new strategies for distributed control of agents and to test them in a simple and low cost experimental setup.

  12. Multiple γ-glutamylation: A novel type of post-translational modification in a diapausing Artemia cyst protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly hydrophilic, glutamate-rich protein was identified in the aqueous phenol extract from the cytosolic fraction of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) diapausing cysts and termed Artemia phenol soluble protein (PSP). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many protein peaks around m/z 11,000, separated by 129 atomic mass units; this value corresponds to that of glutamate, which is strongly suggestive of heterogeneous polyglutamylation. Polyglutamylation has long been known as the functionally important post-translational modification of tubulins, which carry poly(L-glutamic acid) chains of heterogeneous length branching off from the main chain at the γ-carboxy groups of a few specific glutamate residues. In Artemia PSP, however, Edman degradation of enzymatic peptides revealed that at least 13, and presumably 16, glutamate residues were modified by the attachment of a single L-glutamate, representing a hitherto undescribed type of post-translational modification: namely, multiple γ-glutamylation or the addition of a large number of glutamate residues along the polypeptide chain. Although biological significance of PSP and its modification is yet to be established, suppression of in vitro thermal aggregation of lactate dehydrogenase by glutamylated PSP was observed.

  13. Multiple {gamma}-glutamylation: A novel type of post-translational modification in a diapausing Artemia cyst protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Mai [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ikeda, Yuka [Institute of High Polymer Research, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1, Tokida, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan); Kanzawa, Hideaki [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Sakamoto, Mika [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Goto, Mina [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tsunasawa, Susumu [Analytical and Measuring Instruments Division, Shimadzu Corporation, Nishinokyo Kuwabaracho 1, Nakagyo-Ku, Kyoto 604-8511 (Japan); Uchiumi, Toshio, E-mail: uchiumi@bio.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Odani, Shoji [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2010-03-26

    A highly hydrophilic, glutamate-rich protein was identified in the aqueous phenol extract from the cytosolic fraction of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) diapausing cysts and termed Artemia phenol soluble protein (PSP). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many protein peaks around m/z 11,000, separated by 129 atomic mass units; this value corresponds to that of glutamate, which is strongly suggestive of heterogeneous polyglutamylation. Polyglutamylation has long been known as the functionally important post-translational modification of tubulins, which carry poly(L-glutamic acid) chains of heterogeneous length branching off from the main chain at the {gamma}-carboxy groups of a few specific glutamate residues. In Artemia PSP, however, Edman degradation of enzymatic peptides revealed that at least 13, and presumably 16, glutamate residues were modified by the attachment of a single L-glutamate, representing a hitherto undescribed type of post-translational modification: namely, multiple {gamma}-glutamylation or the addition of a large number of glutamate residues along the polypeptide chain. Although biological significance of PSP and its modification is yet to be established, suppression of in vitro thermal aggregation of lactate dehydrogenase by glutamylated PSP was observed.

  14. Habitat diversity and adaptation to environmental stress in encysted embryos of the crustacean Artemia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joshua A Tanguay; Reno C Reyes; James S Clegg

    2004-12-01

    Encysted embryos (cysts) of the brine shrimp, Artemia, provide excellent opportunities for the study of biochemical and biophysical adaptation to extremes of environmental stress in animals. Among other virtues, this organism is found in a wide variety of hypersaline habitats, ranging from deserts, to tropics, to mountains. One adaptation implicated in the ecological success of Artemia is p26, a small heat shock protein that previous evidence indicates plays the role of a molecular chaperone in these embryos. We add to that evidence here. We summarize recently published work on thermal tolerance and stress protein levels in embryos from the San Francisco Bay (SFB) of California inoculated into experimental ponds in southern Vietnam where water temperatures are much higher. New results on the relative contents of three stress proteins (hsp70, artemin and p26) will be presented along with data on cysts of A. tibetiana collected from the high plateau of Tibet about 4.5 km above sea level. Unpublished results on the stress protein artemin are discussed briefly in the context of this paper, and its potential role as an RNA chaperone. Interestingly, we show that the substantial tolerance of A. franciscana embryos to ultraviolet (UV) light does not seem to result from intracellular biochemistry but, rather, from their surrounding thick shell, a biophysical adaptation of considerable importance since these embryos receive heavy doses of UV in nature.

  15. Study of model systems to test the potential function of Artemia group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alden H; Guo, Zhi-hao; Moshi, Sandra; Hudson, John W; Kozarova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, are genetically programmed to develop either ovoviparously or oviparously depending on environmental conditions. Shortly upon their release from the female, oviparous embryos enter diapause during which time they undergo major metabolic rate depression while simultaneously synthesize proteins that permit them to tolerate a wide range of stressful environmental events including prolonged periods of desiccation, freezing, and anoxia. Among the known stress-related proteins that accumulate in embryos entering diapause are the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. This large group of intrinsically disordered proteins has been proposed to act as molecular shields or chaperones of macromolecules which are otherwise intolerant to harsh conditions associated with diapause. In this research, we used two model systems to study the potential function of the group 1 LEA proteins from Artemia. Expression of the Artemia group 1 gene (AfrLEA-1) in Escherichia coli inhibited growth in proportion to the number of 20-mer amino acid motifs expressed. As well, clones of E. coli, transformed with the AfrLEA-1 gene, expressed multiple bands of LEA proteins, either intrinsically or upon induction with isopropyl-β-thiogalactoside (IPTG), in a vector-specific manner. Expression of AfrLEA-1 in E. coli did not overcome the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of NaCl and KCl but modulated growth inhibition resulting from high concentrations of sorbitol in the growth medium. In contrast, expression of the AfrLEA-1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not alter the growth kinetics or permit yeast to tolerate high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, or sorbitol. However, expression of AfrLEA-1 in yeast improved its tolerance to drying (desiccation) and freezing. Under our experimental conditions, both E. coli and S. cerevisiae appear to be potentially suitable hosts to study the function of Artemia group 1 LEA proteins under environmentally

  16. The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimirad, Mahmood; Meshkini, Saeed; Ahmadifard, Nasrollah; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding on synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia franciscana on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial weight 3.2 ± 0.13 g were randomly divided into twelve aquaria (50 L) assigned to four groups in triplicates. Fish were fed for 7 weeks with dietary treatments, including treatment 1: feeding adult Artemia without enrichment (control group), treatment 2: feeding adult Artemia enriched with lyophilised probiotic P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)), 3: feeding adult Artemia enriched with prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (100 mg L(-1)), group 4: feeding adult Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)) + FOS (100 mg L(-1))). Skin mucus immune responses (lysozyme activity, total Immunoglobulin and protease), stress resistance against environmental stress (acute decrease of temperature and increase salinity), intestinal microbiota as well as growth indices were measured at the end of feeding trial. Artemia enriched with synbiotic significantly improved growth performance compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). The highest weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in synbiotic fed fish (P < 0.05). Compared to the other treatments, the population of lactic acid bacteria was significantly higher in the intestinal microbiota of fish fed synbiotic supplemented diet (P < 0.05). In the environmental stress challenge test, the maximum resistance to abrupt decrease of temperature (17 °C) or elevation of salinity (12 g per liter) was observed in the synbiotic treatment. Also, the total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity level of skin mucus was significantly elevated in fish fed Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P < 0.05). These results revealed that feeding angelfish with synbiotic

  17. Acute toxicity against Artemia franciscana of essential oils isolated from plants of the genus Lippia and Piper collected in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús OLIVERO-VERBEL; Jorge GÜETTE-FERNANDEZ; Elena STASHENKO

    2009-01-01

    Treinta y dos aceites esenciales, veinte de plantas pertenecientes al género Lippia (L. alba, L. citrodora, L. dulcis, L. micromera, and L. origanoides), y doce al género Piper (P. auritum, P. bogotense, P. brachypodom, P. bredemeyeri, P. divaricatum, P. eriopodon, P. lanceifolium, P. marginatum, and P. septuplinervium), colectadas en diferentes sitios de Colombia, fueron aislados usando hidrodestilación asistida por microondas, y su citotoxicidad medida como la concentración letal media (CL5...

  18. Comparison of the Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana bioassays for toxicity of Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thangapandi Veni; Thambusamy Pushpanathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate leaves extract of Azima tetracantha and Gmelina asiatica for lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana). Methods: The plant materials were extracted based on polarity gradients of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol. The extracts were investigated for their cytotoxic potential. Results: In the brine shrimp lethality assay of all extracts, exception of acetone, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts Gmelina asiatica displayed 100%mortality at 1 000 μg/mL by Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana. Chloroform extract was the most potent and presented the highest percentage of mortality with the lowest LC50 values by both assay too. Conclusions:The results of the present study suggest the presence of photochemical possessing cytotoxic agents.

  19. Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca in Chile: a review of basic and applied biology Artemia Crustacea, Anostraca en Chile: revisión de la biología básica y aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Rios-Escalante

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia in Chile has been studied since the 1980s, initially on populations inhabiting shallow coastal and inland mountain ponds, and saltworks in northern and central Chile. Based on morphometric and molecular evidence, these populations were identified as A. franciscana. In the 1990s, A. persimilis was recorded from southern Patagonia, a species previously considered endemic to Argentina. Recently, two new populations of A.franciscana have been recorded, from one saline coastal pond in northern Chile and from a saltwork in central Chile. The scope for further research to increase both understanding of the strain characterization and basic population ecology descriptions of the Chilean brine shrimps and improve their conservation status is discussed. It is suggested that future studies should investigate first the management of local brine shrimp population for local aquaculture or conservation resources, other direction would be the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposition that is notoriously high in brine shrimp habitats. This last factor is very important because the UVR is an important mutagen on the genetic structure of the populations. In this scenario, it is suggest a carefully management for introduced brine shrimp populations for local aquaculture for avoid alterations in native populations that due their genetic isolation would need conservation procedures for avoid local extinctions.El camarón de salmuera o Artemia ha sido estudiado en Chile desde la década de 1980, las primeras descripciones de poblaciones fueron para lagunas someras en zonas costeras y de montana, y en salinas artificiales en la zona central y norte de Chile. Sobre la base de evidencias morfométricas y moleculares estas poblaciones fueron descritas como A. franciscana. En la década de 1990, se describió la presencia de A. persimilis en la zona sur de la Patagonia, lo cual fue una ampliación del rango de distribución significativa

  20. Nonhatching Decapsulated Artemia Cysts As a Replacement to Artemia Nauplii in Juvenile and Adult Zebrafish Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, Marc; Rider, Dana; Duffy, Elizabeth A; Seubert, Adam; Lothert, Brogen; Schimmenti, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Feeding Artemia nauplii as the main nutrition source for zebrafish is a common practice for many research facilities. Culturing live feed can be time-consuming and requires additional equipment to be purchased, maintained, and cleaned. Nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts (decaps) are a commercially available product that can be fed directly to fish. Several other ornamental fish species have been successfully cultured using decaps. Replacing Artemia nauplii with decaps could reduce the overall time and costs associated with the operation of a zebrafish facility. The objective of this study was to determine if decaps could be a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture. Wild-type zebrafish were fed one of three dietary treatments: decaps only, nauplii only, or a standard consisting of nauplii plus a commercially prepared pellet food. Survival, growth (length and weight), and embryo production were analyzed between the treatments. Fish receiving the decap diet demonstrated a significantly higher growth and embryo production when compared to the fish receiving the nauplii-only diet. When comparing the decap fish to the standard fish, no significant difference was found in mean survival, mean weight at 90 days postfertilization, or mean embryo production. It was determined that nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts can be used as a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture. PMID:25495227

  1. Toxicity Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Brine Shrimp Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnasamy Arulvasu; Samou Michael Jennifer; Durai Prabhu; Devakumar Chandhirasekar

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in Artemia nauplii and evaluated the mortality rate, hatching percentage, and genotoxic effect in Artemia nauplii/cysts. The AgNPs were commercially purchased and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were spherical in nature and with size range of 30–40 nm. Artemia cysts were collected from salt pan, processed, and hatched in sea water...

  2. Prospects of Artemia culture in the coastal zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of the brine shrimp Artemia as live feed in shrimp hatcheries has been pointed out. The paper deals with the resource potential and status of cyst production in India. There is a need for setting up a Pilot Project for Artemia cyst...

  3. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed

  4. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Bruno S. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal) and Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: bruno@ufp.pt; Carvalho, Felix D. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Toxicologia da Faculdade de Farmacia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha, 164, 4050-047 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia M. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal); Van Stappen, Gilbert [Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Centre, Ghent University, Rozier 44, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed.

  5. Use of brine shrimp, Artemia spp., in larval crustacean nutrition: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P.; Coutteau, P.; Dhert, Ph.; Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.

    1998-01-01

    Because of convenience in production and their suitable biochemical composition, brine shrimp Artemia spp. nauplii have been adopted as a standard diet in the commercial larviculture of several crustacean species. The nutritional value of Artemia, however, is not constant, but varies both geographically and temporally. During the past decade both the causes of Artemia nutritional variability and methods to improve poor-quality Artemia have been identified. Enriching Artemia spp. with emulsifi...

  6. Larvicidal activity of some marine macrophytes against Artemia salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    and Microdictyon pseudohapteron, seagrasses (Halophila ovalis and Syringodium isoetifolium and lichens (Umbilicaria arpina) were tested for larvicidal activity using Artemia salina nauplii. The LC50 values for the PE-fraction of M. pseudohapteron and A. muscoides...

  7. Strong environmental tolerance of Artemia under very high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown by the present authors group that a tardigrade in its tun-state can survive after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 13 hours. We have extended this experiment to other tiny animals searching for lives under extreme conditions of high hydrostatic pressure. Artemia, a kind of planktons, in its dried egg-state have strong environmental tolerance. Dozens of Artemia eggs were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium, and exposed to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. After the pressure was released, they were soaked in seawater to observe hatching rate. It was proved that 80-90% of the Artemia eggs were alive and hatched into Nauplii after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 48 hours. Comparing with Tardigrades, Artemia are four-times stronger against high pressure.

  8. Artemia in aquatic toxicology: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Persoone, G.; Wells, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Due to commercial availability of dried cysts from which live test material can be hatched at will, Artemia is used extensively in research and applied toxicology.Despite the extensive literature on dose-effect relationships of chemicals on brine shrimp, it was not until 1980 that an experimental protocol was developed for a simple acute toxicity test with Artemia nauplii, meeting the prerequisites for standardization.The reliability and accuracy of this short-term test were determined during...

  9. Specific anion effects in Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Ninham, Barry W; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero

    2015-09-01

    The specific anion effect on the vitality of Artemia salina was investigated by measuring the Lethal Time LT50 of the crustaceans in the presence of different sodium salts solutions at room temperature and at the same ionic strength as natural seawater. Fluoride, thiocyanate and perchlorate are the most toxic agents, while chloride, bromide and sulfate are well tolerated. The rates of oxygen consumption of brine shrimps were recorded in mixed NaCl+NaF or NaCl+NaSCN solutions as a function of time. The results are discussed in terms of the Hofmeister series, and suggest that, besides the biochemical processes that involve F(-), SCN(-) and ClO4(-), the different physico-chemical properties of the strong kosmotropic and chaotropic anions may contribute in determining their strong toxicity for A. salina. PMID:25978674

  10. Fine scale distribution constrains cadmium accumulation rates in two geographical groups of Franciscana dolphin from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fine scale distribution of two Argentine stocks constrains the Cd accumulation rates. • Cadmium levels and accumulation patterns were different between geographic groups. • Marine diet has a major influence than the impact degree of origin environment. • Engraulis anchoita is the main Cd vector species in Argentine shelf for Franciscana. • Information is valuable for the conservation of Franciscana, a vulnerable species. -- Abstract: Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified as Vulnerable A3d by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Cadmium accumulation was assessed in two geographic groups from Argentina; one inhabits the La Plata River estuary, a high anthropogenic impacted environment, and the other is distributed in marine coastal, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, marine dolphins showed an increase of renal Cd concentrations since trophic independence; while in estuarine dolphins was from 6 years. This is associated with dietary Argentine anchovy which was absent in the diet of estuarine dolphins, being a trophic vector of cadmium in shelf waters of Argentina. Cluster analysis also showed high levels of cd in association with the presence of anchovy in the stomach. The difference in the fine scale distribution of species influences dietary exposure to Cd and, along with other data, indicates two stocks in Argentina

  11. Morphological analysis of the flippers in the Franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, applying X-ray technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Daniela Laura; Panebianco, María Victoria; Negri, María Fernanda; Cappozzo, Humberto Luis

    2014-07-01

    Pectoral flippers of cetaceans function to provide stability and maneuverability during locomotion. Directional asymmetry (DA) is a common feature among odontocete cetaceans, as well as sexual dimorphism (SD). For the first time DA, allometry, physical maturity, and SD of the flipper skeleton--by X-ray technique--of Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The number of carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, and morphometric characters from the humerus, radius, ulna, and digit two were studied in franciscana dolphins from Buenos Aires, Argentina. The number of visible epiphyses and their degree of fusion at the proximal and distal ends of the humerus, radius, and ulna were also analyzed. The flipper skeleton was symmetrical, showing a negative allometric trend, with similar growth patterns in both sexes with the exception of the width of the radius (P ≤ 0.01). SD was found on the number of phalanges of digit two (P ≤ 0.01), ulna and digit two lengths. Females showed a higher relative ulna length and shorter relative digit two length, and the opposite occurred in males (P ≤ 0.01). Epiphyseal fusion pattern proved to be a tool to determine dolphin's age; franciscana dolphins with a mature flipper were, at least, four years old. This study indicates that the flippers of franciscana dolphins are symmetrical; both sexes show a negative allometric trend; SD is observed in radius, ulna, and digit two; and flipper skeleton allows determine the age class of the dolphins. PMID:24700648

  12. Variant subunit specificity in the quaternary structure of Artemia hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Cassandra J; Matthews, Charles M; Trotman, Clive N A

    2002-08-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia has three extracellular hemoglobins (Hbs) that are developmentally expressed and exhibit distinct oxygen-binding characteristics (Heip, Moens, and Kondo 1978; Heip et al. 1978 ). These Hbs are composed of two polymers, each of which comprises nine covalently linked globin domains. Although the cDNA sequences of two nine-domain globins from Artemia have been published, there is evidence for the existence of further expressed globin genes (Manning, Trotman, and Tate 1990 ). In the present study extensive analysis at the cDNA and genomic levels was performed in order to determine the globin gene copy number in Artemia. Sequence and Southern analysis suggest that four Hb polymers (T1, T2, C1, and C2) are expressed in Artemia. In addition, there is also at least one globin pseudogene. Protein sequencing of the native Hbs revealed that there are limitations on which two polymers can associate. The composition of the Hbs has been determined to be: Hb I, C1C2; Hb II, C1T2; and Hb III, T1T2. These pairings allow the levels of the three Artemia Hbs to be regulated independently by polymer expression alone, therefore explaining the previously inconsistent developmental and hypoxia-induced expression patterns. PMID:12140240

  13. EFECTO DEL ENRIQUECIMIENTO DE Artemia FRANCISCANA CON DIFERENTES PROPORCIONES DE ω-3 DHA/EPA SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE JUVENILES DE PEZ BLANCO Menidia estor.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Téllez, Ana Rosa

    2012-01-01

    La inclusión de los ácidos grasos ω-3 DHA y EPA en el alimento, es un factor importante para lograr mejor supervivencia y crecimiento en la mayoría de los peces cultivados. Dentro del desarrollo tecnológico para el cultivo del pez blanco de Pátzcuaro Menidia estor, se desconoce el requerimiento de ácidos grasos ω-3 DHA/EPA, y el efecto que éstos tienen en el crecimiento y supervivencia de juveniles en cautiverio. En esta especie como en otras, el alimento vivo (nauplio de Artem...

  14. A plant-based heat shock protein inducing compound modulates host-pathogen interactions between Artemia franciscana and Vibrio campbellii

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Y.; Norouzitallab, P.; Baruah, K.; L. Dong; Bossier, P.

    2014-01-01

    Induction of heat shock proteins (e.g. Hsp70) has been considered as a potential disease control and health management strategies in aquaculture. Recently, the compound Tex-OE®, a patented extract from the skin of the prickly pear fruit, Opuntia ficus indica, was reported to enhance the production of Hsp70 in fish and shrimp tissues without any adverse effect, protecting the animals against various abiotic stressors. Most of the studies on this compound primarily focused on the positive effec...

  15. Effects of Artemia enriched with unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin C on growth, survival and resistance Salmo trutta caspius larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Javaheri baboli, Mehran

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of using n-3 HUFA and Vitamin C enriched Artemia urmiana Nauplii Five difference treament were tested: for Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius) larvae compare with artificial food in five treatment: (1) Artificial food, (2) Newly hatched Artemia (3) n-3 HUFA enriched Artemia (4) n-3 HUFA + 10% Ascorbyl Palmitate enriched Artemia (5) n-3 HUFA+20% Ascorbyl palmitate enriched Artemia during 15 days then all treatment were fe...

  16. Field culture of American strain of Artemia in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.

    Pilot scale culture of Artemia was carried out in a 0.22 ha condenser unit of salt pans. Pond was fertilized with inorganic salts. The nauplii of San Francisco Bay, USA strain were inoculated. Within a period of 5 months a production of 20.6 kg dry...

  17. The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of

  18. Origin and Genetic Diversity of Diploid Parthenogenetic Artemia in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Marta; Amat, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2013-01-01

    There is wide interest in understanding how genetic diversity is generated and maintained in parthenogenetic lineages, as it will help clarify the debate of the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction. There are three mechanisms that can be responsible for the generation of genetic diversity of parthenogenetic lineages: contagious parthenogenesis, repeated hybridization and microorganism infections (e.g. Wolbachia). Brine shrimps of the genus Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca) are a good model system to investigate evolutionary transitions between reproductive systems as they include sexual species and lineages of obligate parthenogenetic populations of different ploidy level, which often co-occur. Diploid parthenogenetic lineages produce occasional fully functional rare males, interspecific hybridization is known to occur, but the mechanisms of origin of asexual lineages are not completely understood. Here we sequenced and analysed fragments of one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from an extensive set of populations of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia and sexual species from Central and East Asia to investigate the evolutionary origin of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, and geographic origin of the parental taxa. Our results indicate that there are at least two, possibly three independent and recent maternal origins of parthenogenetic lineages, related to A. urmiana and Artemia sp. from Kazakhstan, but that the nuclear genes are very closely related in all the sexual species and parthenogegetic lineages except for A. sinica, who presumable took no part on the origin of diploid parthenogenetic strains. Our data cannot rule out either hybridization between any of the very closely related Asiatic sexual species or rare events of contagious parthenogenesis via rare males as the contributing mechanisms to the generation of genetic diversity in diploid parthenogenetic Artemia lineages. PMID:24376692

  19. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON ARTEMIA XXII: NUTRITION IN AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY--DIET QUALITY OF GEOGRAPHICAL STRAINS OF THE BRINE SHRIMP, ARTEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reference and four geographical strains of brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) nauplii were evaluated as diets for the larvae of a marine fish, the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia). The survival of fish fed the various strains was significantly different and ranged from 82 to 57 p...

  20. Environmental predictors of habitat suitability and biogeographical range of Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan J. Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use species distribution models to estimate the effects of environmental variables on the habitat suitability of river dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei (franciscanas along their overall biogeographical distribution. Based on the literature, we selected six environmental variables to be included in the models; four climatic factors (surface sea temperature, salinity, turbidity and productivity and two biotic factors (prey availability and fishing effort. We determined that the biographic range is under the following limits: temperature less than 19°C, a salinity of 36 psu and a minimal probability of the occurrence of fish C. guatucupa of 0.297. In the discussion, we postulate hypotheses on the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that cause these associations between environmental predictors and Franciscanas distribution. There was a good fit between the distribution predicted by the species distribution model and the one proposed by the experts of the International Union for Conservation of Nature; however, our analysis failed to highlight the fundamental role of bycatch as the main threat to this dolphin species.

  1. Plastic ingestion in Franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844), from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denuncio, Pablo; Bastida, Ricardo; Dassis, Mariela; Giardino, Gisela; Gerpe, Marcela; Rodríguez, Diego

    2011-08-01

    Plastic debris (PD) ingestion was examined in 106 Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of the northern coast of Argentina. Twenty-eight percent of the dolphins presented PD in their stomach, but no ulcerations or obstructions were recorded in the digestive tracts. PD ingestion was more frequent in estuarine (34.6%) than in marine (19.2%) environments, but the type of debris was similar. Packaging debris (cellophane, bags, and bands) was found in 64.3% of the dolphins, with a lesser proportion (35.7%) ingesting fishery gear fragments (monofilament lines, ropes, and nets) or of unknown sources (25.0%). PD ingestion correlated with ontogenetic changes in feeding regimes, reaching maximum values in recently weaned dolphins. Because a simultaneous increase in gillnet entanglement and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals take place at this stage, the first months after trophic independence should be considered as a key phase for the conservation of Franciscana dolphin stocks in northern Argentina. PMID:21616509

  2. The sequence of the 5S ribosomal RNA of the crustacean Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    Diels, Ludo; De Baere, Raymond; Vandenberghe, Antoon; De Wachter, Rupert

    1981-01-01

    The primary structure of the 5 S rRNA isolated from the cryptobiotic cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia salina is pACCAACGGCCAUACCACGUUGAAAGUACCCAGUCUCGUCAGAUCCUGGAAGUCACACAACGUCGGGCCCGGUCAGUACUUGGAUGGGUGACCGCCUGGGAACACCGGGUGCUGUUGGCAU OH.

  3. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON 'ARTEMIA': 21. INVESTIGATIONS INTO WHY SOME STRAINS OF 'ARTEMIA' ARE BETTER FOOD SOURCES THAN OTHERS. FURTHER NUTRITIONAL WORK WITH LARVAE OF THE MUD CRAB, 'RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII'

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a series of studies conducted by members of the International Study on Artemia, differences in nutritional quality were documented between geographical strains of the brine shrimp Artemia. Concomitant with, and possibly related to nutritional effectiveness are differences in b...

  4. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  5. ANALYTICAL VARIATION IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF STANDARD PREPARATIONS OF BRINE SHRIMP ARTEMIA: AN INTERLABORATORY EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international interlaboratory exercise was conducted to investigate the variability associated with the preparation and analysis of samples and the reporting of fatty acid composition data for tvo samples of Artemia supplied to the laboratories by the Artemia Reference Center ...

  6. Comparison live adult Artemia and squid meat on the growth of Penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Royan, J.P.

    An experiment lasting 14 weeks was conducted to compare the efficiency of live adult Artemia with fresh squid meat on growth of penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni. The shrimps were found actively feeding on live Artemia and grew 84% more than those...

  7. Radiation Damage to Artemia Cysts:Effects of Water Vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, W C; Gordy, W

    1963-10-25

    Water vapor altered the form and greatly increased the rate of decay of the electron-spin resonance pattern of long-lived free radicals obtained upon gamma irradiation of Artemia salina cysts ( brine shrimp eggs). These results, combined with data on radiation survival, indicate that the water vapor protects the cysts from radiation damage, or heals the damage. They also indicate that water protects the cysts from the effect of oxygen by neutralizing the radiation-induced free radicals before they can interact with oxygen to produce irreversible damage. PMID:17748168

  8. Isolation by environmental distance in mobile marine species: molecular ecology of franciscana dolphins at their southern range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Subramaniam, Ajit; Yackulic, Charles; Bordino, Pablo

    2010-06-01

    The assessment of population structure is a valuable tool for studying the ecology of endangered species and drafting conservation strategies. As we enhance our understanding about the structuring of natural populations, it becomes important that we also understand the processes behind these patterns. However, there are few rigorous assessments of the influence of environmental factors on genetic patterns in mobile marine species. Given their dispersal capabilities and localized habitat preferences, coastal cetaceans are adequate study species for evaluating environmental effects on marine population structure. The franciscana dolphin, a rare coastal cetacean endemic to the Western South Atlantic, was studied to examine these issues. We analysed genetic data from the mitochondrial DNA and 12 microsatellite markers for 275 franciscana samples utilizing frequency-based, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian algorithms to assess population structure and migration patterns. This information was combined with 10 years of remote sensing environmental data (chlorophyll concentration, water turbidity and surface temperature). Our analyses show the occurrence of genetically isolated populations within Argentina, in areas that are environmentally distinct. Combined evidence of genetic and environmental structure suggests that isolation by distance and a process here termed isolation by environmental distance can explain the observed correlations. Our approach elucidated important ecological and conservation aspects of franciscana dolphins, and has the potential to increase our understanding of ecological processes influencing genetic patterns in other marine species. PMID:20465582

  9. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  10. Growth and survival of Hippocampus erectus (Perry, 1810 juveniles fed on Artemia with different HUFA levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Vite-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival during first months after birth is one of the bottlenecks for consolidating the seahorse farming industry. In this work, Artemia metanauplii enriched with two highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA rich commercial emulsions with different docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels (63% and 14% of total lipids, a vegetable oil with no DHA, and non-enriched Artemia as control, were used to feed 5-day-old juvenile Hippocampus erectus for 60 days. Enriched Artemia had similar levels of DHA (13% and 9%, despite great differences of DHA in the emulsions, with traces of DHA in non-enriched and vegetable oil enriched Artemia. More than 20% of DHA was found in 24 h starved juveniles fed both DHA-enriched treatments, similar to values in newly born juveniles, but those fed vegetable oil enriched Artemia or non-enriched Artemia had 5% of DHA. Total lipid and protein levels were similar in juveniles from the four treatments. The n-3/n-6 ratio was almost four-fold higher in seahorses fed DHA-enriched treatments compared to juveniles fed the non-enriched treatments. Survival of seahorses only partially reflected the DHA levels: it was lower in the vegetable oil treatment, similar in the seahorses fed Artemia with higher DHA and in the control treatment, and higher in seahorses fed the HUFA-enriched Artemia with lower DHA levels, although growth was similar in the two DHA-enriched Artemia treatments. Juvenile H. erectus seahorses perform better when they have at least 20% of DHA in their tissues, and these levels can be attained with no more than 14% of DHA in emulsions, eliminating the need for more expensive emulsions with higher DHA levels.

  11. Prey consumed by Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae and franciscana dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine environment in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Cremer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides information about the diet of sympatric populations of small cetaceans in the Babitonga Bay estuary. This is the first study on the diet of these species in direct sympatry. The stomach contents of seven Guiana dolphins Sotalia guianensis and eight franciscanas Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The prey of both cetaceans was mostly teleost fishes, followed by cephalopods. We identified 13 teleost fishes as part of the diet of the franciscanas, and 20 as part of the diet of Guiana dolphins. Lolliguncula brevis was the only cephalopod recorded, and was the most important prey for both cetaceans. Stellifer rastrifer and Gobionellus oceanicus were also important for franciscana, so as Mugil curema and Micropogonias furnieri were important for Guiana dolphins. Stellifer rastrifer and Cetengraulis edentulus were the fishes with the highest frequency of occurrence for franciscana (50%, while Achirus lineatus, C. edentulus, S. brasiliensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, M. furnieri, M. curema, Diapterus rhombeus, Eugerres brasilianus and G. oceanicus showed 28.6% of frequency of occurrence for Guiana dolphins. Franciscanas captured greater cephalopods than the Guiana dolphins in both total length (z= -3.38; n= 40; p< 0.05 and biomass (z = -2.46; n = 40; p<0.05. All of the prey species identified occur inside the estuary, which represents a safe habitat against predators and food availability, reinforcing the importance of the Babitonga Bay for these cetacean populations.

  12. Diffusive properties of water in Artemia cysts as determined from quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra. [Artemia shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trantham, E.C.; Rorschach, H.E.; Clegg, J.S.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Nicklow, R.M.; Wakabayashi, N.

    1984-05-01

    Results have been obtained on the quasi-elastic spectra of neutrons scattered from pure water, 20% agarose gel (hydration four grams H/sub 2/O per gram of dry solid) and cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia for hydrations between 0.10 and 1.2 grams H/sub 2/O per gram of dry solids. The spectra were interpreted using a two-component model that included contributions from the covalently bonded protons and the hydration water, and a mobile water fraction. The mobile fraction was described by a jump-diffusion correlation function for the translation motion and a simple diffusive orientational correlation function. The results for the line widths ..gamma..(Q/sup 2/) for pure water were in good agreement with previous measurements. The agarose results were consistent with NMR measurements that show a slightly reduced translational diffusion for the mobile water fraction. The Artemia results show that the translational diffusion coefficient of the mobile water fraction was greatly reduced from that of pure water. The line width was determined mainly by the rotational motion, which was also substantially reduced from the pure water value as determined from dielectric relaxation studies. The translational and rotational diffusion parameters were consistent with the NMR measurements of diffusion and relaxation. Values for the hydration fraction and the mean square thermal displacement as determined from the Q-dependence of line areas were also obtained.

  13. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  14. Evaluation of mono- and mixed diets as food for intensive Artemia culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lavens, P.; De Meulemeester, A.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1987-01-01

    In order to alleviate the problems encountered when using live algae or rice bran as Artemia food in intensive culturing, different alternative types of brine shrimp diets have been evaluated. Using a high-density flow-through recirculation culture system, a Single Cell Protein yeast and mixed diets, consisting of this yeast and micronized waste products from agricultural corps, were selected as suitable Artemia feeds.Production yields after 2 weeks culturing varied from 2 to 5 kg live weight...

  15. Potentials of converting microalgae into brine shrimp Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P

    1985-01-01

    High densities of brine shrimp Artemia can be cultured in flow-through systems using the effluent of microalgae cultures as a combined source of culture medium and food. It has been proven at the "St. Croix Artificial Upwelling Mariculture Project" that in comparison with the fast growing clam Tapes japonica, brine shrimp assure a much more efficient conversion of plant into animal biomass. It appears from the given examples that microalgae conversion into brine shrimp Artemia offers efficien...

  16. Toxic Assessment of Triclosan and Triclocarban on Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolu; Lu, Yin; Zhang, Deyong; Wang, Yinyin; Zhou, Xianshan; Xu, Huiying; Mei, Yu

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the possible acute toxic and genotoxic effects of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) on Artemia salina. Genotoxicity was evaluated using single-cell gel electrophoresis and apoptotic frequency assays (Annexin V-FITC/PI assay). Acute toxicity test results showed that TCC (LC50-24 h = 17.8 µg/L) was more toxic than TCS (LC50-24 h = 171.1 µg/L). Significant increases in both genotoxic biomarkers were observed at 24 h after initial exposure, indicating that these two chemicals are potentially dangerous for this aquatic biological model. Although further studies are required, a comparison of data both in vitro and in vivo allowed us to suggest possible mechanisms of action for TCS and TCC in this sentinel organism. PMID:26310128

  17. Population Genetics of Franciscana Dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei): Introducing a New Population from the Southern Edge of Their Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariboldi, María Constanza; Túnez, Juan Ignacio; Dejean, Cristina Beatriz; Failla, Mauricio; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel; Negri, María Fernanda; Cappozzo, Humberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic factors, the franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, is the most threatened small cetacean on the Atlantic coast of South America. Four Franciscana Management Areas have been proposed: Espiritu Santo to Rio de Janeiro (FMA I), São Paulo to Santa Catarina (FMA II), Rio Grande do Sul to Uruguay (FMA III), and Argentina (FMA IV). Further genetic studies distinguished additional populations within these FMAs. We analyzed the population structure, phylogeography, and demographic history in the southernmost portion of the species range. From the analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences, 5 novel haplotypes were found, totalizing 60 haplotypes for the entire distribution range. The haplotype network did not show an apparent phylogeographical signal for the southern FMAs. Two populations were identified: Monte Hermoso (MH) and Necochea (NC)+Claromecó (CL)+Río Negro (RN). The low levels of genetic variability, the relative constant size over time, and the low levels of gene flow may indicate that MH has been colonized by a few maternal lineages and became isolated from geographically close populations. The apparent increase in NC+CL+RN size would be consistent with the higher genetic variability found, since genetic diversity is generally higher in older and expanding populations. Additionally, RN may have experienced a recent split from CL and NC; current high levels of gene flow may be occurring between the latter ones. FMA IV would comprise four franciscana dolphin populations: Samborombón West+Samborombón South, Cabo San Antonio+Buenos Aires East, NC+CL+Buenos Aires Southwest+RN and MH. Results achieved in this study need to be taken into account in order to ensure the long-term survival of the species. PMID:26221960

  18. Nutritional Content of Artemia sp. Fed with Chaetoceros calcitrans and Skeletonema costatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVI ENDAR HERAWATI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemia sp. is a natural food with high protein content, especially amino acid. Nowadays, Indonesia still relies on import for its supply. Hence, the utilization of local Artemia sp. as an alternative to the imported product is recommended as it contains more protein and less expensive. The advantages of local Artemia sp. is its better crystal quality as it is still fresh. It also provides better income for salt farmers because waste water from salt farm can be used to culture Artemia sp.. This research is aimed at determining the quality of locally-produced Artemia sp., by evaluation of its essential amino acid and fatty acid profiles after treatments. Our results indicated that Artemia sp. cysts with good quality were produced after 8 hours and Artemia sp. reaches a hatching rate of 1,320,000 cysts (95% after 27 hours. We also found an indication that the best feed concentration was a mix of 60% Chaetoceros calcitrans with 40% Skeletonema costatum. Fatty acid profile analyses showed that the highest SAFA (12.86% and PUFA (29.91% were gained after feeding with Chaetoceros calcitrans, whereas the highest HUFA (4.93% was gained after feeding with Skeletonemacostatum. Essential amino acid profile analyses revealed the highest content of amino acid (18912.62 ppm was after feeding with a combination of Chaetoceros calcitrans and Skeletonema costatum. Finally, the proper water quality during research was at 25-30 oC of temperature, 30-31 ppt of salinity, pH 7.8-8.9, and DO was at 3.0-4.4 mg/L.

  19. Stress tolerance during diapause and quiescence of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Oviparously developing embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia, arrest at gastrulation and are released from females as cysts before entering diapause, a state of dormancy and stress tolerance. Diapause is terminated by an external signal, and growth resumes if conditions are permissible. However, if circumstances are unfavorable, cysts enter quiescence, a dormant stage that continues as long as adverse conditions persist. Artemia embryos in diapause and quiescence are remarkably resistant to environmental and physiological stressors, withstanding desiccation, cold, heat, oxidation, ultraviolet radiation, and years of anoxia at ambient temperature when fully hydrated. Cysts have adapted to stress in several ways; they are surrounded by a rigid cell wall impermeable to most chemical compounds and which functions as a shield against ultraviolet radiation. Artemia cysts contain large amounts of trehalose, a non-reducing sugar thought to preserve membranes and proteins during desiccation by replacing water molecules and/or contributing to vitrification. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins similar to those in seeds and other anhydrobiotic organisms are found in cysts, and they safeguard cell organelles and proteins during desiccation. Artemia cysts contain abundant amounts of p26, a small heat shock protein, and artemin, a ferritin homologue, both ATP-independent molecular chaperones important in stress tolerance. The evidence provided in this review supports the conclusion that it is the interplay of these protective elements that make Artemia one of the most stress tolerant of all metazoan organisms. PMID:26334984

  20. Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the Large Aral Sea: Abundance, distribution, population structure and cyst production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashkevich, Elena G.; Sapozhnikov, P. V.; Soloviov, K. A.; Kudyshkin, T. V.; Zavialov, P. O.

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica appeared in the Large Aral Sea (Central Asia) in 1998 when mineralization reached 63 ppt. Data on Artemia abundance and biomass, along with temperature and salinity measurements were collected in the western basin during 2002-2006, primarily in the autumn. During the study period, population density grew progressively, both in terms of number, from 250 to 1260 individuals per m 3, and in terms of biomass, from 0.3 to 1.3 g per m 3. In 2005, the population density and spatial distribution in the different parts of the sea (western and eastern basins and strait) was assessed. The horizontal distribution of the Artemia population was uniform in the deep central part of the western basin, although the distribution was quite patchy in the shallow coastal zone. Depth habitat of Artemia was restricted to the upper 20-25 m of depth, as the oxygen depletion and formation of anoxic layer prevented distribution of Artemia to the deeper waters. In autumn, all females reproduced oviparously, with an average clutch size of 30-35 eggs per female. The number of eggs in a clutch was positively correlated with female body length ( r2 = 0.36-0.44).

  1. Brine shrimp Artemia in coastal saltworks: inexpensive source of food for vertically integrated aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P.

    1983-01-01

    Proper Artemia introduction and management should lead not only to optimal salt production outputs but at the same time provide opportunities for the exploitation of valuable by-products, i.e. Artemia cysts and adult biomass as cheap sources of high quality food for intensive fish or crustacean farming.

  2. Global biodiversity and geographical distribution of diapausing aquatic invertebrates: the case of the cosmopolitan brine shrimp, Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Pacios, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The genus Artemia comprises passively dispersed anostracan species with a distribution all around the world, except in Antarctica. We used both published and personal data to assess and update existing knowledge on the diversity and distribution of Artemia, in particular compiling also genetic an...

  3. Purification and characterization of a carboxymethyl cellulase from Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Hyun Woo; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Choi, Tae Jin

    2014-01-01

    Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) belong to a group of crustaceans that feed on microalgae and require a cellulase enzyme that can be used in ethanol production from marine algae. Protein with potential cellulase activity was purified and the activity analyzed under different conditions. After initial identification of cellulase activity by CMC cellulase, surface sterilization and PCR using 16s rRNA primers was conducted to confirm that the cellulase activity was not produced from contaminating bacteria. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. After the final purification, a 70-fold increase in specific enzyme activity was observed. SDS-PAGE results revealed that the cellulase enzyme had a molecular mass of 96 kDa. Temperature, pH, and salinity values were found to be optimal at 55 °C, pH 8.0, and 600 mM NaCl, respectively. Specifically, the enzyme showed a fivefold increase in enzyme activity in seawater compared to 600 mM NaCl in phosphate buffer. Further analysis of the purified enzyme by molecular spectrometry showed no match to known cellulases, indicating this enzyme could be a novel halophilic cellulase that can be used for the production of bioethanol from marine macroalgae. PMID:24291747

  4. Phaeobacter inhibens as Probiotic Bacteria in Non-Axenic Artemia and Algae Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben; D'Alvise, Paul; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel;

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial diseases are a major constraint in aquaculture, especially in larviculture. Antibiotics that can control pathogens should be avoided due to risk of antibiotic resistance. We have shown in axenic systems of live larval feed that marine Roseobacter clade bacteria can antagonize fish...... (Phaeobacter inhibens) were studied in an Artemia and a Dunaliella tertiolecta challenge setup, and a controlled microbiota of four bacteria isolated from aquaculture was added. P. inhibens grew well in Artemia and D. tertiolecta cultures, also with a background microbiota. V. anguillarum was decreased...... demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can be introduced at the stage of live feed and have a pathogen reducing effect in both an Artemia and a D. tertiolecta challenge setup. This can potentially limit the subsequent use of antibiotics for control of pathogenic bacteria....

  5. [Artemia sp. (Crustacea, Anostracea) as intermediate host of Eurycestus avoceti Clark, 1954 (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrion, C; MacDonald, G

    1980-01-01

    Examination of Artemia sp. (Crustacé, Anostracé) for natural infection by cysticercoids of Flamingolepis liguloides, Cestode of the Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) shows the presence of three other cysticercoids of cestode parasites of the Flamingo in the hemocoele of the Branchiopode. A fourth one is reported as the cysticercoid of Eurycestus avoceti, Clark, 1954, which parasitizes the Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta). The systematic position of this Cestode is always unknown. This report shows the importance of Artemia in the life cycle of Cestodes of Anseriforms and Charadriiforms birds in saline lagoons. PMID:7406422

  6. Bacteria contribute to Artemia nutrition in algae-limited conditions: A laboratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, H.T.; P. Boeckx; Sorgeloos, P.; Bossier, P; Van Stappen, G.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the stimulation of bacterial growth on Artemia performance in combination with a standard and with a low algal feeding regime. In both regimes, organic carbon (supplied as sucrose or soluble potato starch) and 15N labeled inorganic nitrogen (supplied as NaNO3) were used to stimulate bacterial growth in the Artemia cultures at C/N ratio 10 and 50. After a culture period of 15 days, significantly improved biomass production was obtained in all treatments with the l...

  7. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  8. Radiation-pathological examinations of Artemia Salina L. after exposure to heavy nuclei of cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation damage incurring in the development of Artemia salina (L) are investigated for the case when the eggs of this salt crab are not by a heavy nucleus of cosmic radiation. These are atom nuclei heavier than helium which possess relatively high energy. The investigations belong to the series of biostack experiments in which very intensively explored standard objects, embedded in water-soluble plastics (PVH), are exposed to space conditions. Artemia salina (L.) proved esp. suitable because of its extraordinary resistance against chemical and physical damaging factors. (orig./AJ)

  9. Intracellular water in Artemia cysts (brine shrimp): Investigations by deuterium and oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Kasturi, S. R.; Seitz, P. K.; Chang, D. C.; Hazlewood, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    The dormant cysts of Artemia undergo cycles of hydration-dehydration without losing viability. Therefore, Artemia cysts serve as an excellent intact cellular system for studying the dynamics of water-protein interactions as a function of hydration. Deuterium spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times of water in cysts hydrated with D2O have been measured for hydrations between 1.5 and 0.1 g of D2O per gram of dry solids. When the relaxation rates (I/T1, I/T2) of 2H and 17O are plot...

  10. Purification and characterization of phenoloxidase from brine shrimp Artemia sinica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingjun Fan; Zhao Jing; Xianyuan Fan; Miaomiao Yu; Guojian Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Phenoloxidase from Artemia sinica (AsPO) was purified by Superdex 200 gel-filtration and Q Sepharose fast flow ionexchange chromatography,and its properties were characterized biochemically and enzymatically by using L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the specific substrate.Results showed that AsPO was isolated as a monomeric protein of 125.5 kDa in molecular mass.The optimal pH value and temperature are 7.0 and 50℃,respectively,for its PO activity.The AsPO had an apparent Km value of 4.2 mM on L-DOPA,and 10.9 mM on catechol,respectively.Oxidase inhibitor on PO activity showed that the AsPO was extremely sensitive to ascorbic acid,sodium sulfite,and citric acid; and was very sensitive to cysteine,benzoic acid,and l-phenyl-2-thiourea.Combined with its specific enzyme activity on L-DOPA and catechol,it can be concluded that AsPO is most probably a typical catechol-type O-diphenoloxidase.Its PO activity was also sensitive to metal ions and chelators,and 20 mM DETC-inhibited PO activity was obviously recovered by 15 mM Cu2+,indicating that AsPO is most probably a copper-containing metalloenzyme.All these data about specific substrate,sensitivity to oxidase inhibitor metal ions and chelators indicate that the AsPO has the properties of a catechol-type copper-containing Odiphenoloxidase that functions as a vital humoral factor in host defense via melaninization as in other Crustaceans.

  11. The role of metallothioneins, selenium and transfer to offspring in mercury detoxification in Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M B; Polizzi, P; Chiodi, L; Das, K; Gerpe, M

    2016-08-15

    The concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and metallothioneins (MT) were evaluated in fetuses, calves, juveniles and adults of the endangered coastal Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) from Argentina. Mercury concentrations varied among analyzed tissues (liver, kidney, muscle and brain), with liver showing the higher concentrations in all specimens. An age-dependent accumulation was found in liver, kidney and brain. No significant relationship between Hg and MT concentrations was found for all tissues analyzed. Hepatic Hg molar concentrations were positively correlated with those of Se, indicating a great affinity between these two elements. Furthermore, dark granules of HgSe were observed in Kupffer cells in the liver by electron microscopy, suggesting the role of this macrophage in the detoxification of Hg. A transfer of Hg through placenta was proved. The presence of Hg in brain in all age classes did not show concentrations associated with neurotoxicity. PMID:27210558

  12. Survival of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus in seawater and its bioencapsulation in the brine shrimp Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ofelio

    2014-06-01

    The results obtained in the first test showed that the L. rhamnosus was able to survive in seawater during the whole experiment (30h, maintaining densities of 10e7 CFU/ml during the first 6h although decreasing progressively afterwards (10e3 CFU/ml at 30h. This allows adequate levels at sufficient time for Artemia to incorporate the probiotic. In fact, bioencapsulation test demonstrated that Artemia metanauplii were able to bioencapsulate the probiotic, reaching the highest concentration in Artemia after 30 min of bioencapsulation (10e4 CFU/Artemia. A slight further decrease (10e3 CFU/Artemia was observed after 24h. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus reduced in 1Log total Vibrionaceae bacteria in Artemia during the 3 first hours. Therefore, 3 hours was the time established for the bioencapsulation protocol and further studies are in progress to determine the ability of Artemia metanauplii to maintain bioencapsulated L. rhamnosus once transferred to rearing tanks. Also, the capability of the probiotic to inhibit potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria will be assessed.

  13. Assessment of cyst production potential of a natural population of brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.

    Studies on a natural population of Artemia in the salterns of Jamnagar indicated that the population is parthenogenetic. These shrimps reach a maximum size of 9 mm. Number of cysts per brood varies from 10-32. Adults form about 68% of the total...

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis of Brine Shrimp (Artemia) in China Using DNA Barcoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Wang; Jun Yu; Qibin Luo; Haiyan Guo; Peter Bossier; Gilbert Van Stappen; Patrick Sorgeloos; Naihong Xin; Qishi Sun; Songnian Hu

    2008-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a powerful approach for characterizing species of organisms,especially those with almost identical morphological features, thereby helping to to establish phylogenetic relationships and reveal evolutionary histories. In this study, we chose a 648-bp segment of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), as a standard barcode region to establish phylogenetic relationships among brine shrimp (Artemia) species from major habitats around the world and further focused on the biodiversity of Artemia species in China, especially in the Tibetan Plateau. Samples from five major salt lakes of the Tibetan Plateau located at altitudes over 4,000 m showed clear differences from other Artemia populations in China. We also observed two consistent amino acid changes, 153A/V and 183L/F, in the COI gene between the high and low altitude species in China.Moreover, indels in the COI sequence were identified in cyst and adult samples unique to the Co Qen population from the Tibetan Plateau, demonstrating the need for additional investigations of the mitochondrial genome among Tibetan Artemia populations.

  15. Effect of artificial regulations of Artemia n-3 HUFA content on growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Ke

    1998-06-01

    The requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was tested using Artemia with various levels of n-3 HUFA. Four treatments with Artemia differing in their n-3 HUFA were prepared by feeding them various oil emulsions. The results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influences fish n-3 HUFA levels and are necessary for good growth and survival of black seabream larvae. The proper value of n-3 HUFA level and DHA, EPA level in Artemia should be 4.273% and 0.873% (wet weight) for good growth and survival in black seabream larvae respectively.

  16. Successful inoculation of Artemia and production of cysts in man-made salterns in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    de los Santos, C. Jr.; Sorgeloos, P.; Laviña, E.; Bernardino, A.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the inoculation described in this paper was to test the feasibility of culturing Artemia in man-made earthen salterns and of producing adults and cysts for use in aquaculture projects in the Philippines. San Francisco Bay (California, USA) Artemia were inoculated in two concrete tanks and in four earthen ponds which are part of a small local salt factory. It was found that Artemia can be grown (with continuous production of nauplii and cysts) year-round in covered concrete ta...

  17. Feeding adult of Artemia salina (Crustacea-Branchiopoda) on the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum (Gymnodiniales) and the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica

    OpenAIRE

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa; Maria Luise Koening; Luci Cajueiro Carneiro Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on feeding performance and survival rates of adult Artemia salina exposed to no axenic strains of the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum and of the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. Filtration rates on R. baltica and G. corsicum varied from 3.35 to 7.14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 and from 2.97 to 15.86 ml.artemia-1.h-1, respectively. The ingestion rates observed for A. salina did not indicate any digestive dysfunction or physiological impairment for organisms fed on G. corsi...

  18. The genus Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: I. True and false taxonomical descriptions El género Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: I. Descripciones taxonómicas verdaderas y falsas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is important for aquaculture since it is bighly nutritious. It is also used widely in biological studies because it is easy to culture. The aim of the present study is to review the literature on the taxonomical nomenclature of Artemia. The present study indicates the existence of seven species: three living in the Americas, one in Europe, and three in Asia.El camarón de salmuera Artemia es importante para la acuicultura por su alta calidad nutricional y es muy utilizado para estudios biológicos por ser de fácil cultivo. El objetivo del presente estudio es revisar la literatura sobre la nomenclatura taxonómica de Artemia. Se determina la existencia de siete especies; tres de ellas viven en América, una en Europa y tres en Asia.

  19. Baker's yeast as a potential substitute for live algae in aquaculture diets: Artemia as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Coutteau, P.; Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1990-01-01

    In this study baker's yeast was evaluated as a substitute for live Dunaliella tertiolecta algae in the culture of the brine shrimp Artemia . Consumption of fresh baker's yeast resulted in poor growth and survival of brine shrimp. However, the nutritional value of the yeast significantly improved after complete removal of the yeast cell wall by enzymatic treatment. Baker's yeast was also made digestible for Artemia by simple chemical treatment which did not reduce rigidity of the yeast cell. T...

  20. Bycatch of franciscana dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and the dynamic of artisanal fisheries in the species' southernmost area of distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Negri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina, the franciscana dolphin is one of the most vulnerable cetaceans regularly entangled in coastal artisanal fishery nets. The aim of this paper is to estimate the species' incidental mortality on the Southern coast of Buenos Aires province through interviews with the captains of artisanal fishing vessels, in the period 2006-2009. Franciscana bycatch was reported for gillnets and shrimper gear all year round but it occurred more frequently between October and February, at 5 km offshore and 10-20 m depth. The estimated mean annual incidental mortality was 107 dolphins (CI 95% = 87-129, 92 caught in gillnets (CI 95% = 73-112 and 15 in shrimpers' gear (CI 95% = 8-25 with a capture per unit effort of 0.029 dolphins per km of gillnet (CI 95% = 0.023-0.036 and 0.022 per shrimpe r's net (CI 95% = 0.012-0.035. Annual fluctuations were due to differences in the number of gillnetting fishing days. If mortality estimates for the Northern coast are also taken into account, values attain a maximum of 360-539 dolphins bycaught in the entire Buenos Aires province, representing 2.5-3.7% of the species' abundance in Argentina. This will inevitably lead to the decline of franciscana dolphin populations in the near future unless alternative fishing grounds are identified and alternative gearadopted.Na Argentina, a toninha é um dos cetáceos mais vulneráveis devido às capturas por rede de pesca artesanal. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar as capturas acidentais no sul da província de Buenos Aires, através de entrevistas aos capitães de barcos de pesca artesanal, entre os anos 2006-2009. As capturas foram reportadas para redes de emalhe e de camarão; com as mais altas frequências entre outubro e fevereiro, a 5 km da costa e 10-20 m de profundidade. A mortalidade acidental média anual estimada foi de 107 golfinhos (IC 95% = 87-129, 92 em redes de emalhe (IC 95% = 73-112 e 15 em redes de camarão (IC 95% = 8-25, com uma captura de 0

  1. Evolutionary Origin and Phylogeography of the Diploid Obligate Parthenogen Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Understanding the evolutionary origin and the phylogeographic patterns of asexual taxa can shed light on the origin and maintenance of sexual reproduction. We assessed the geographic origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic history of obligate parthenogen diploid Artemia...... the phylogenetic relationships of diploid A. parthenogenetica and its closest sexual relatives. Populations displayed an extremely low level of mitochondrial genetic diversity, with one widespread haplotype shared by over 79% of individuals analysed. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses indicated......, and probably to the rest of its current geographic distribution. This contrasts with the restricted geographic distribution, strong genetic structure, and regional endemism of sexual Artemia lineages and other passively dispersed sexual continental aquatic invertebrates. We hypothesize that diploid...

  2. Effect of ultra-high pressure on small animals, tardigrades and Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihisa Ono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research shows that small animals, tardigrades (Milnesium tardigradum in tun (dehydrated state and Artemia salina cists (dried eggs can tolerate the very high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. It was really surprising that living organisms can survive after exposure to such a high pressure. We extended these studies to the extremely high pressure of 20 GPa by using a Kawai-type octahedral anvil press. After exposure to this pressure for 30 min, the tardigrades were soaked in pure water and investigated under a microscope. Their bodies regained metabolic state and no serious injury could be seen. But they were not alive. A few of Artemia eggs went part of the way to hatching after soaked in sea water, but they never grew any further. Comparing with the case of blue-green alga, these animals are weaker under ultra-high pressure.

  3. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

  4. Vaccination of European sea bass fry through bioencapsulation of Artemia nauplii

    OpenAIRE

    Chair, M.; Gapasin, R.S.J.; Dehasque, M.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1994-01-01

    European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fry vaccinated orally by bioencapsulation in Artemia nauplii or by bath method exhibited better performance than control fish in terms of growth, food conversion and resistance to stress. The comparable survival between vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals suggests that vaccination methods are stressful. The present study shows that oral vaccination can be used to enhance growth in fish fry.

  5. Monitoring the Effect of Metal Ions on the Mobility of Artemia salina Nauplii

    OpenAIRE

    Varvara Kokkali; Ioannis Katramados; Newman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the effect of toxic aqueous solutions of metals on the mobility of Artemia salina nauplii by using digital image processing. The instrument consists of a camera with a macro lens, a dark chamber, a light source and a laptop computer. Four nauplii were inserted into a macro cuvette, which contained copper, cadmium, iron and zinc ions at various concentrations. The nauplii were then filmed inside the dark chamber for two minutes and the video sequence was processed by...

  6. AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN Rhizopora mucronata TERHADAP LARVA UDANG Artemia salina Leach DAN SEL RAJI

    OpenAIRE

    Hartiwi Diastuti; Warsinah; Purwati

    2009-01-01

    The mangrove plant have been long used the people for traditional medicine to cure various diseases, one of them to cancer therapy. Investigation the anticancer potent of R. mucronata has not been carried yet. This research was aimed to toxicity test of R. mucronta leaf extracts againts Artemia salina Leach, then cytotoxicity test of R. mucronata leave extracts againts Raji cancer cells. The extraction of R. mucronata leaf was peformed by maseration with ethanol. The ethanol extracts was part...

  7. Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test

    OpenAIRE

    Geethaa, Sahgal; Thavamany, Priscilla Jayanthi; Chiew, Siah Poh; Thong, Ong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT]) to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the ...

  8. Elimination of negative effects of cadmium after addition ionizing radiation in Artemia franciscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor failures present a risk of global contamination which can be affected by other environmental factors, such as chemical elements. The present study investigated the effect of low doses of gamma radiation in relation to the presence of low of Cd. We used an alternative biotest of 2nd generation - Artemia franciscan a. Interaction between irradiation and the action of cadmium chloride could result in a protective effect of ionizing radiation at some concentration of cadmium chloride. (authors)

  9. Morphological changes about Artemia Salina by the effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direction Council of Europe require restriction of laboratory vertebrae in biological experiments. Once by possibilities is using biological test II. generation among which belongs to and test for Artemia salina. Still this time published test however value only lethality in dependence on dose, exposition and time survival. This work document possibility watch of expressive morphological changes, which consist in retardation development brine shrimps stage in dependence on dose gamma radiation 60Co. (authors)

  10. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50  1000 µg/ml). Our subsequent studies of conifer heartwoods with strong activity confirm the assay's value for identifying new investigational leads for materials with insecticidal and fungicidal activity. PMID:27186474

  11. Automatic Estimation of Artemia Hatching Rate Using an Object Discrimination Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing is a process to analyze a large volume of information on digital images. In this study, Artemia hatching rate was measured by automatically classifying and counting cysts and larvae based on color imaging data from cyst hatching experiments using an image processing technique. The Artemia hatching rate estimation consists of a series of processes; a step to convert the scanned image data to a binary image data, a process to detect objects and to extract their shape information in the converted image data, an analysis step to choose an optimal discriminant function, and a step to recognize and classify the objects using the function. The function to classify Artemia cysts and larvae is optimally estimated based on the classification performance using the areas and the plan-form factors of the detected objects. The hatching rate using the image data obtained under the different experimental conditions was estimated in the range of 34-48%. It was shown that the maximum difference is about 19.7% and the average root-mean squared difference is about 10.9% as the difference between the results using an automatic counting (this study and a manual counting were compared. This technique can be applied to biological specimen analysis using similar imaging information.

  12. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, P<0.05). This observation suggests that EO of N. sativa protected the Artemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. PMID:26945773

  13. Assessment of toxic potential of Cerrado fruit seeds using Artemia salina bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíza Cavalcante Fonseca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemia salina bioassay was used to assess toxicity of seeds and kernels of Brazilian fruits from cerrado (central high plains region and other inner regions of the country. Water extracts of the kernels were filtered and added to Artemia cultures containing ten individuals per mL. Dose - response curves were constructed, and LD50 values were calculated. Pure potassium cyanide standard was used to draw a calibration curve for comparison to detect the presence of cyanide in the samples tested. Extracts of the seeds of araticum, mangaba, cagaita, jatobá, and tucumã were found toxic to Artemia salina, and some of the dose - response curves were very similar in shape to those obtained with pure potassium cyanide standards, while the samples of baru, cajá-manga, siriguela, trauma, and veludo showed no toxicity at all. The Guignard test, specific for cyanide detection, showed negative results in all toxic samples, suggesting the presence of other toxic compounds rather than cyanide. The comparison of araticum dose - response curve with those of other annonaceous fruits suggests the presence acetogenins as the main toxic compounds in the seeds. These results could be useful to prevent poisoning by industrial derivatives of the fruits studied.

  14. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maccari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Contagious parthenogenesis—a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring—is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model.

  15. El espacio sujeto al tiempo en la cronística franciscana: una relectura de la "Conquista Espiritual do Oriente" de Fr. Paulo da Trindade

    OpenAIRE

    Biedermann, Z. A.

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la Conquista Espiritual do Oriente de Fr. Paulo da Trindade, obra mayor de la cronística franciscana portuguesa, escrita en Goa en la década de 1630. El objetivo principal de la in - vestigación reside en identificar cómo se articularon los aspectos espaciales y temporales en la narrativa de Trindade, especialmente en los capítulos relativos a Ceilán, que son una pieza central en la economía simbólica del texto y de la propia orden seráfica en Orient...

  16. Feeding of the brine shrimp Artemia on yeast: effect of mechanical disturbance, animal density, water quality and light intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Coutteau, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1989-01-01

    Details are given of experiments conducted to determine the effects of tank culture conditions on the feeding of Artemia. Mechanical disturbance, animal density and water quality were found to affect the feeding rate of Artemia. The importance of culture conditions in maintaining a rate of food consumption which does not limit the growth of the brine shrimp is stressed.

  17. A short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay with Hediste diversicolor (Polychaeta) for estuarine sediments based on postexposure feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Susana Maria; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Ribeiro, Rui

    2005-08-01

    This study evaluated a short-term sublethal endpoint for in situ toxicity assays for estuarine sediments, based on postexposure feeding of the polychaete Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Müller. A method for precisely quantifying postexposure feeding rates of H. diversicolor was established under laboratory conditions using Artemia franciscana Kellog nauplii. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response to copper was investigated by comparing postexposure feeding rates to growth and lethality. The 48-h and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) of copper were 241 and 125 microg/L, respectively, whereas the 48-h median inhibitory concentration (IC50) for postexposure feeding and the 20-d IC50 for growth were 52 and 25 microg/L of copper, respectively. The influence of different exposure conditions (substrate, temperature, salinity, food availability, and light) on H. diversicolor postexposure feeding was assessed; temperature and salinity were found to influence significantly postexposure feeding. The effectiveness of the proposed in situ assay was investigated by deploying it at two reference and six contaminated Portuguese estuaries. A 48-h exposure period was followed by a 1-h postexposure feeding period. High organism recoveries (89-100%) were obtained. Postexposure feeding was depressed significantly (17-90%) at all contaminated sites relatively to reference sites. The proposed in situ assay with H. diversicolor was shown to be a potential useful tool for estuarine sediment toxicity testing. PMID:16152974

  18. The influence of different rotifer and Artemia enrichment diets on growth, survival and pigmentation in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Attramadal, Y.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment was carried out on turbot larvae fed three different rotifer enrichment diets: Dry Selco, Protein Selco and ICES low-HUFA (an enrichment emulsion containing low amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids-HUFA). Seven tanks were set up for each diet. After the rotifer stage, approxima......An experiment was carried out on turbot larvae fed three different rotifer enrichment diets: Dry Selco, Protein Selco and ICES low-HUFA (an enrichment emulsion containing low amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids-HUFA). Seven tanks were set up for each diet. After the rotifer stage......, approximately seven days after hatching, the larvae were fed newly-hatched Artemia salina nauplii (AT-1; Brazil strain). From day 10, enriched Great Salt Lake Artemia nauplii were introduced. Each set of seven tansk was further subdivided and the larvae fed Artemia nauplii enriched with one of four enrichment...

  19. Toxicity of Five Phenolic Compounds to Brine Shrimp Artemia sinica(Crustacea:Artemiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Shaukat; LIU Guangxing; LI Zhengyan; XU Donghui; HUANG Yousong; CHEN Hongju

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of five phenolic compounds each to 15 d old Artemia sinica was determined in this study. The brine shrimp A. sinica was hatched from the encysted dry eggs (Bohai Bay Brand) produced by Dongying Ocean Artemia Co., Ltd., China at 27℃± 1℃in pre-filtered (through pores of 0.45 µm in diameter) and autoclaved seawater (salinity 31, pH 7.5-8.0) in a cilindroconical glass beaker (2000 mL in volume) under continuous illumination (provided by a side set 20 W fluorescent lamp) with slight aeration. Ten Artemia individuals from the same batch of the hatched were cultured in 10 mL toxicant solution prepared with seawater (salinity 31, pH 7.5-8.0) at room temperature (about 20℃) to determine 24 h, 48 h and 72 h medium lethal concentration (LC50) of 5 phenolic compounds each. It was found that the toxicity of n-heptylphenol was the highest followed by nonylphenol, t-butylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and bisphenol A in order. The LC50 values of the 5 compounds were calculated with regression analysis. The real concentration (in µg L-1) of 5 phenolic compounds each in toxicant solutions was measured with GC/MS analysis. Significant loss of phenolic compounds caused by either adsorption or desorption was not found. The significant difference of LC50 values was found among the five compounds 3 exposure times each. The range between the highest no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and 100%death causing concentration of five phenolic compounds each was determined. The toxicity in term of 24 h LC50 value of n-HP was 9.10 times higher than that of BPA, 1.71 times higher than t-BP, 1.53 times higher than 2,4-DCP and 1.36 times higher than NP, respectively.

  20. Physical, biochemical and functional characterization of haemoglobin from three strains of Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, Vasudevan; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2007-02-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, an inhabitant of coastal and inland salterns, encounter fluctuations in the salinity which in turn influences the oxygen availability of their habitat. Hence, experiments were performed to analyze variations in haemoglobin structure and patterns of three strains of Artemia from South India and also to reflect the effect of varying oxygen levels in their habitat. Haemoglobins were purified on a DEAE-Sephadex column and haemoglobin types were analyzed by comparing their relative mobility on a non-denaturing medium. Furthermore, their molecular masses were determined by gel filtration in Sepharose column and by dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results clearly reveal the presence of three distinct extracellular haemoglobins Hb I, Hb II and Hb III in Tuticorin strain while the other strains displayed only trails or the complete absence of Hb III and Hb II. Estimated molecular masses of these haemoglobins are 235,000-250,000 Da. Denaturation of the reduced and alkylated haemoglobins revealed apparently one polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 124,000 Da. Upon denaturing gel electrophoresis of native haemoglobin Hb II, it was found that the 124,000 Da, polypeptide was cleaved specifically into two unequally-sized fragments of 50,400 and 79,800 Da. With regard to oxygen affinity, Hb III has a very high affinity for oxygen, an almost negligible Bohr effect and a good physiological adaptation to temperature changes. By combining the three haemoglobins in different proportions Artemia strains must be able to withstand diverging environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of Hb III in Puthalam and its occurrence as a faint band in Thamaraikulam could be correlated to the oxygen levels of their habitats. PMID:17185017

  1. Live preys in shrimp culture: nutritional and sanitary considerations on the use of Artemia in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Dominique; Wabete, Nelly; Maillez, Jean-rene; Broutoi, Francis; Chim, Liet

    2009-01-01

    In aquaculture, Artemia nauplii are commonly used as live prey; and represent 40 % of the total aquaculture feed demands in the early stages. However, the production of Brine shrimp is very unstable from one year to another and in the late 90’s, only 20 % of the world aquaculture need was covered. An insufficient offer leads to higher prices of the Artemia cysts and consequently, the price of shrimp juveniles from hatchery. In New Caledonia, marine aquaculture is mainly based on the blue s...

  2. Biomass production of Artemia in air-water-lift raceway system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    is in great demand as a source of high quality food in fish and crustacean fanning (Persoone and Sorgeloos, 1982). Recent studies have proved that adult Artemia have higher nutritive value, contain 60% protein and rich in all essential amino and fatty acids... sources for Arternia and this can 164 ROYANetal be converted to nutritive animal protein. It was found that the shrimp Met)ipenaeus monoceros was able to,convert maximum of the food into body tissue "Vhen..fed aciult Artemiil inpelleted form (Sumi...

  3. The primary structure of elongation factor EF-1 alpha from the brine shrimp Artemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hemert, F.J. van; Amons, R; Pluijms, W J; van Ormondt, H; Möller, W.

    1984-01-01

    cDNA as well as amino acid sequencing has revealed the complete primary structure of elongation factor EF-1 alpha from the brine shrimp Artemia. A comparison with the published sequences of bacterial EF-Tu, mitochondrial EF-Tu and chloroplastic EF-Tu shows that distinct areas of these polypeptide chains are conserved in evolution. The evolutionary distance between prokaryotic and eukaryotic types of EF-Tu is larger than among bacterial and organellar EF- Tus . A number of regions present in b...

  4. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  5. Quaternary structure of Artemia haemoglobin II: analysis of T and C polymer alignment and interpolymer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawle Vincent L

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The brine shrimp Artemia expresses four different types of haemoglobin subunits namely C1, C2, T1 and T2. Two of these four subunits dimerize in different combinations to produce the three isoforms of the heterodimeric Artemia haemoglobin: HbI (C1 and C2, HbII (C1 and T2 and HbIII (T1 and T2. Previous biochemical, biophysical and computational analyses demonstrate that the T and C polymers are rings of nine concatenated globin domains, which are covalently joined by interdomain linkers. Two such rings stacked coaxially give the functional molecule. This research aimed to construct a quaternary structural model of Artemia HbII that shows the interpolymer interface and domain-domain alignment, using the MS3D (mass spectrometry for three dimensional analysis approach. This involved introducing chemical crosslinks between the two polymers, cleaving with trypsin and analyzing the resulting products by mass spectrometry. This was followed by computational analysis of the mass spectrometry data using the program SearchXlinks to identify putatively crosslinked peptides. Results Six putative EGS (ethylene glycol bis [succinimidylsuccinate] crosslinked tryptic peptides were identified. All of them support a model in which the EF helices of all domains are in contact along the interpolymer surface, and Domain 1 of the T-polymer aligns with Domain 1 of the C-polymer. Any two adjacent interpolymer domain pairs contact through the early Helix H and early Helix A. The orientation of domains is different from the subunit proposed model proposed previously by this group. Crosslinking with GMBS (N- [γ-maleimidobutyryloxy]succinimide ester was also performed, and the results show good agreement with this model. Conclusion The interpolymer EF-contact allows the hydrophobic E and F helices to be buried in the interface and therefore allow the complex to solubilize readily to facilitate efficient oxygen transport. Furthermore the EF-contact is a

  6. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  7. Comparing the potential for dispersal via waterbirds of a native and an invasive brine shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Hortas, F.; Figuerola, Jordi; Green, Andy J.

    2012-01-01

    Migratory waterbirds are likely to have a major role in the spread of many exotic aquatic invertebrates by passive dispersal. However, in the field, this has so far only been confirmed in the case of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, which is spreading quickly around the Mediterranean region. We compared experimentally the capacity of A. franciscana and the native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica to disperse via migratory shorebirds. After Artemia resting eggs (cysts) were f...

  8. Diffusive properties of water in Artemia cysts as determined from quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results have been obtained on the quasi-elastic spectra of neutrons scattered from pure water, 20% agarose gel (hydration four grams H2O per gram of dry solid) and cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia for hydrations between 0.10 and 1.2 grams H2O per gram of dry solids. The spectra were interpreted using a two-component model that included contributions from the covalently bonded protons and the hydration water, and a mobile water fraction. The mobile fraction was described by a jump-diffusion correlation function for the translation motion and a simple diffusive orientational correlation function. The results for the line widths γ(Q2) for pure water were in good agreement with previous measurements. The agarose results were consistent with NMR measurements that show a slightly reduced translational diffusion for the mobile water fraction. The Artemia results show that the translational diffusion coefficient of the mobile water fraction was greatly reduced from that of pure water. The line width was determined mainly by the rotational motion, which was also substantially reduced from the pure water value as determined from dielectric relaxation studies. The translational and rotational diffusion parameters were consistent with the NMR measurements of diffusion and relaxation. Values for the hydration fraction and the mean square thermal displacement 2> as determined from the Q-dependence of line areas were also obtained

  9. Cloning and Expression Analysis of p26 Gene in Artemia sinica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijuan JIANG; Lin HOU; Xiangyang ZOU; Ruifeng ZHANG; Jiaqing WANG; Wenjing SUN; Xintao ZHAO; Jialu AN

    2007-01-01

    The protein p26 is a small heat shock protein that functions as a molecular chaperone to protect embryos by preventing irreversible protein damage during embryonic development. A 542 bp fragment of the p26 gene was cloned and sequenced. The fragment encoded 174 amino acid residues and the amino acid sequence contained the α-crystallin domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that eight Artemia populations were divided into four major groups. Artemia sinica (YC) belonged to the East Asia bisexual group. Expression of the p26 gene at different developmental stages of A. sinica was quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction followed by cloning and sequencing. The relationship between the quantity of p26 gene expression and embryonic development was analyzed. The results indicated that massive amounts of p26 were expressed during the development of A. sinica. At the developmental stage of 0 h, A. sinica expressed the highest level of p26. As development proceeded, expression levels of the p26 gene reduced significantly. There was a small quantity of p26 gene expression at the developmental stages of 16 h and 24 h. We concluded that p26 might be involved in protecting the embryo from physiological stress during embryonic development.

  10. Intentional introduction of Artemia sinica (Anostraca) in the high-altitude Tibetan lake Dangxiong Co: the new population and consequences for the environment and for humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qinxian; Anufriieva, Elena; Liu, Xifang; Kong, Fanjing; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    The imbalance between supply and demand of Artemia cysts in China and around the world is increasing now. Salt lakes in Tibet may contribute to the solution of the problem. In Northern Tibet there are 26 saline lakes whose salinity and temperature may support Artemia survival at an altitude of 4 000-5 100 m. We found Artemia in 15 of these lakes. The saline lakes with Artemia populations mainly belong to the shallow basin lakes, and the majority of these lakes are small in area. The total area of lakes without Artemia is more than 1 000 km2. Lake Dangxiong Co (Co means lake in Tibet) was chosen for the intentional introduction of Artemia sinica. In 2004, 850 g of A. sinica cysts, originating from Qinghai, were introduced in the lake. Surveys in 2006-2014 showed that the average abundance of Artemia adults in the lake gradually increased from 20 ind./m3 in 2006 to 1950 ind./m3 in 2013. We assume that two subpopulations of A. sinica, separated by depth, may exist in the lake. The new Artemia population caused an increase in the number of species of phytoplankton and heterotrophic protozoa with a decrease of their total abundance. Water transparency also increased. Dominance in phytoplankton passed from cyanobacteria to diatoms. Changes occurred not only in the lake ecosystem; the number of water birds using the lakes also dramatically increased. Preliminary calculations showed that is it possible to harvest at least about 150 t cysts per year from the lake as well as 3.2 thousand tons of frozen or 350 t of dried biomass of adult Artemia.

  11. Sudden weaning of angel fish pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein) (Pisces; Cichlidae) larvae from brine shrimp (Artemia sp) nauplii to formulated larval feed

    OpenAIRE

    Herath, Sandamali Sakunthala; Atapaththu, Kerthi Sri Senarathna

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sudden weaning of angel fish larvae (Pteraphylum scalari) from Artemia nauplii to commercial larval feed. Four days post hatch (DPH) larvae were reared in four different weaning protocols (TR1-TR4) with triplicates in a complete randomize design. Larvae in TR1 and TR4 were exclusively fed Artemia nauplii and dry feed respectively. In TR2 and TR3, larvae were initially fed Artemia nauplii and suddenly wean to formulated feed on 14 DPH and 7 DPH respective...

  12. Cytotoxicity of antimalarial plant extracts from Kenyan biodiversity to the brine shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mwanzia Nguta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Artemia salina (Artemiidae, the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemicals and natural products. In this study the medium lethal concentration fifty (LC50 values of 45 antimalarial plant extracts and positive controls, cyclophosphamide and etoposide were determined using Artemia salina (Artemiidae. Out of the 45 organic extracts screened for activity against Artemia salina larvae, 23 (51% of the crude extracts demonstrated activity at or below 100 μg/mL, and were categorized as having strong cytotoxic activity, 18 (40% of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 100 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL, and were categorized as having moderate cytotoxicity, 2 (4.5% of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 500 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL, and were considered to have weak cytotoxic activity, while 2 (4.5% of the crude extracts had LC50 values greater than 1000 μg/mL and were considered to be non toxic. Approximately 20% (9 of the aqueous extracts demonstrated activity at or below 100 g/mL and were considered to have strong cytotoxic activity, 40% (18 of the screened aqueous crude extracts had LC50 values between 100 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL and were considered to be moderately cytotoxic, 16% (7 of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 500 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL and were considered to have weak cytotoxic activity while 24% (11 of the aqueous extracts had LC50 values greater than 1000μg/mL and were categorized as non toxic The positive controls, cyclophosphamide and etoposide exhibited strong cytotoxicity with LC50 values of 95 μg/mL and 6 μg/mL respectively in a 24 hour lethality study, validating their use as anticancer agents. In the current study, 95.5% of all the screened organic extracts and 76% of the investigated aqueous extracts demonstrated LC50 values <1000 g/mL, indicating that these plants could not make safe anti-malarial treatments. This calls for dose adjustment amongst the

  13. Some observations on the growth and cyst production characteristics of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Gujarat strain) in pond culture and its potential for import substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, P.; Krishna Raju, V.; Thaker, S R

    1989-01-01

    Experimental culture of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Gujarat strain) and production of cyst is discussed. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the cyst and its economic potential for import substitution are highlighted.

  14. Growth, longevity, and reproduction capacity of the marine crustacean Mysidopsis bahia Molenock fed on brine shrimp Artemia produced in two salt farms in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Rasowo, J.

    1986-01-01

    The standard culture test using the mysid Mysidopsis bahia (M.) juveniles as predators was used to determine the nutritional quality possessed by the first batch of brine shrimp Artemia cysts collected one month after innoculation of the brine shrimp in two salt farms north of Malindi Town, Kenya. Good growth and survival was observed in all the cases. There was no significant difference in survival and growth resulting from Artemia collected from the different ecological zones. Fatty acids p...

  15. The ARC-test: a standardized short-term routine toxicity test with Artemia nauplii: methodology and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhaecke, P.; Persoone, G.

    1984-01-01

    Considering the need for reliable standardized routine toxicity tests for the marine environment, a short-term bioassay with Artemia nauplii has been developed for routine testing. The major reason for the selection of brine shrimp as test species is the continuous availability of Artemia under the form of dry cysts from which the larvae are hatched very easily. This unique advantage solves one of the major problems of aquatic ecotoxicological tests, namely stock recruitment and/or culturing;...

  16. Uji Sitotoksik Fraksi Etilasetat Daun Bangun-Bangun (Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) terhadap Larva Artemia salina Leach dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT)

    OpenAIRE

    Pardede, E. Roslina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bangun-Bangun leaves (Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng is one of the plants that have the potential to be developed as a cancer chemopreventive agent. The Purpose: The aim of the study were to find out the cytotoxic effect of ethylacetate fraction bangun-bangun leaves (FEDBB) on Artemia salina Leach larvae. Methods: This experimental study using 800 Artemia salina Leach larvae were divided into one control group negative 1 and 5 positive control group concentration10 μ...

  17. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides β-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  18. Preliminary results of the Artemia salina experiments in biostack on LDEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mosaic egg of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, resting in blastula or gastrula state represents a system that during further development, proceeds without any further development to the larval stage, the free swimming nauplius. Therefore, injury to a single cell of the egg will be manifest in the larvae. In several experiments, it was shown that the passage of a single heavy ion through the shrimp egg damaged a cellular area large enough to disturb either embryogenesis or further development of the larvae, or the integrity of the adult individual. Emergence from the egg shell was heavily disturbed by the heavy ions as was hatching. Additional late effects, due to a hit by a heavy ion, are delayed of growth and of sexual maturity, and reduced fertility. Anomalies in the body and the extremities could be observed more frequently for the nauplii which had developed from eggs hit by heavy ions

  19. Genetic variation in parthenogenetic Artemia from the Shandong Peninsula, P.R.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charles E.; Zhao, Yuqi; Liu, Xin; Li, Mingren

    1988-06-01

    Results are presented of a survey of isozyme frequencies in parthenogenetic Artimia from six salterns in the Shandong Peninsula, P.R.C. Three of the eleven enzymes we scored using polyacryamide gel electrophoresis proved to be useful for analysis of electromorph frequency variation. These enzymes are tetrazolium oxidase (TO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Each of these systems showed extensive isozyme variation both within and between salterns. In addition, we have examined the possibility that electromorph frequencies may vary as the result of natural selection for adaptation to specific salinity, or salinity-associated environmental conditions. An indication of clinal variation was found in two series of ponds differing in salinity, however more extensive data are needed before it is possible to conclude that these patterns are the result of natural selection. Finally, the use of isozyme analyses such as ours, for unraveling taxonomic problems in Artemia is discussed.

  20. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK SPONS Ianthella basta TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sri Sukmarianti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to determine the toxicity of extracts sponge Ianthella basta against Artemia salina larvae and to identify the chemical compounds contained in those toxic isolates. The preliminary test of the anticancer activity has conducted by Brine Shrimp Letalithy (BST test. The results showed that the chloroform extract was the most toxic with LC50 value of 22,39 ppm. Futher, the cloroform extract was separated and purified by coloumn chromatography using eluent of solvent mixture of chloroform : ethyl acetate : n-hexane by 7 : 2 : 1 and 4 fractions were obtained. The most toxic fraction was the fraction C with LC50 value of 35,36 ppm. Based on the GC-MS results, the toxic isolate is allegedly containing chemicals compound of hexadecanoic methyl ester and hexadecanoic acid.

  1. Intracellular water in Artemia cysts (brine shrimp): Investigations by deuterium and oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, S R; Seitz, P K; Chang, D C; Hazlewood, C F

    1990-08-01

    The dormant cysts of Artemia undergo cycles of hydration-dehydration without losing viability. Therefore, Artemia cysts serve as an excellent intact cellular system for studying the dynamics of water-protein interactions as a function of hydration. Deuterium spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation times of water in cysts hydrated with D(2)O have been measured for hydrations between 1.5 and 0.1 g of D(2)O per gram of dry solids. When the relaxation rates (I/T(1), I/T(2)) of (2)H and (17)O are plotted as a function of the reciprocal of hydration (1/H), an abrupt change in slope is observed near 0.6 g of D(2)O (or H(2) (17)O)/gram of dry solids, the hydration at which conventional metabolism is activated in this system. The results have been discussed in terms of the two-site and multisite exchange models for the water-protein interaction as well as protein dynamics models. The (2)H and (17)O relaxation rates as a function of hydration show striking similarities to those observed for anisotropic motion of water molecules in protein crystals.It is suggested here that although the simple two-site exchange model or n-site exchange model could be used to explain our data at high hydration levels, such models are not adequate at low hydration levels (<0.6 g H(2)O/g) where several complex interactions between water and proteins play a predominant role in the relaxation of water nuclei. We further suggest that the abrupt change in the slope of I/T(1) as a function of hydration in the vicinity of 0.6 g H(2)O/g is due to a change in water-protein interactions resulting from a variation in the dynamics of protein motion. PMID:19431762

  2. Involvement of cyclin K posttranscriptional regulation in the formation of Artemia diapause cysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Artemia eggs tend to develop ovoviviparously to yield nauplius larvae in good rearing conditions; while under adverse situations, they tend to develop oviparously and encysted diapause embryos are formed instead. However, the intrinsic mechanisms regulating this process are not well understood. PRINCIPAL FINDING: This study has characterized the function of cyclin K, a regulatory subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb in the two different developmental pathways of Artemia. In the diapause-destined embryo, Western blots showed that the cyclin K protein was down-regulated as the embryo entered dormancy and reverted to relatively high levels of expression once development resumed, consistent with the fluctuations in phosphorylation of position 2 serines (Ser2 in the C-terminal domain (CTD of the largest subunit (Rpb1 of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II. Interestingly, the cyclin K transcript levels remained constant during this process. In vitro translation data indicated that the template activity of cyclin K mRNA stored in the postdiapause cyst was repressed. In addition, in vivo knockdown of cyclin K in developing embryos by RNA interference eliminated phosphorylation of the CTD Ser2 of RNAP II and induced apoptosis by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK survival signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these findings reveal a role for cyclin K in regulating RNAP II activity during diapause embryo development, which involves the post-transcriptional regulation of cyclin K. In addition, a further role was identified for cyclin K in regulating the control of cell survival during embryogenesis through ERK signaling pathways.

  3. Feeding adult of Artemia salina (Crustacea-Branchiopoda on the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum (Gymnodiniales and the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out on feeding performance and survival rates of adult Artemia salina exposed to no axenic strains of the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum and of the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. Filtration rates on R. baltica and G. corsicum varied from 3.35 to 7.14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 and from 2.97 to 15.86 ml.artemia-1.h-1, respectively. The ingestion rates observed for A. salina did not indicate any digestive dysfunction or physiological impairment for organisms fed on G. corsicum and their functional response were similar to those observed for other organisms like copepod fed on different food concentrations. Mortality rates oscillated from 2.5% to 100% when A. salina was fed on R. baltica or G. corsicum, respectively. Highest mortality rates observed for organisms fed on G. corsicum indicated that this dinoflagellate presented a hazard effect on A. salina that was not possible to confirm if it was related to toxin production or to nutritive inadequacy of this dinoflagellate as food for organisms of this species.Experimentos foram desenvolvidos para estudar as taxas de alimentação e de sobrevivência de Artemia salina alimentada com cepas não tóxicas do dinoflagelado Gyrodinium corsicum e da Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. As taxas de filtração sobre R. baltica e G. corsicum variaram entre 3,35 e 7,14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 e 2,97 e 15,86 ml.artemia-1.h-, respectivamente. As taxas de ingestão observadas para A. salina não indicaram disfunção digestiva ou prejuízo fisiológico nos organismos alimentados com G. corsicum, sendo a resposta funcional destes organismos similar a observada em copépodos alimentados com diferentes concentrações de alimento. As taxas de mortalidade de A. salina oscilaram entre 2,5 e 100% quando alimentada com R. baltica e G. corsicum, respectivamente. As maiores taxas de mortalidade observadas para os organismos alimentados com G. corsicum indicam que este dinoflagelado apresenta algum efeito

  4. Prospecção fitoquímica de Sonchus oleraceus e sua toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina Phytochemical prospecting of Sonchus oleraceus and its toxicity to Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Lima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Sonchus oleraceus é uma planta daninha presente em diversas culturas no Brasil e de utilização na medicina popular. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a prospecção fitoquímica dessa espécie com extratos em etanol, água e diclorometano, bem como testes de toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina. O extrato aquoso apresentou em sua composição açúcares redutores, compostos fenólicos, taninos, flavonóides e cumarinas. No extrato etanólico, observaram-se os mesmos compostos qualificados no extrato aquoso, com exceção de cumarinas. Em diclorometano, verificou se a presença de saponinas, derivados triterpênicos e esteróides. No teste de toxicidade sobre Artemia salina, os dados convergiram para frações de extrato aquoso de 5.117,2 ppm, indicando ser um extrato de baixa toxicidade.Sonchus oleraceus is a common weed in Brazil, also used as a medicinal plant. Phytochemical prospecting of this species was carried out in this work using extracts obtained in ethanol, water and dichloromethane. A toxicity study of the aqueous extract was also conducted, using the micro crustaceous Artemia salina. The aqueous extract presented sugar reducers, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and coumarins in its composition. The compounds found in the aqueous extract were also detected in the ethanol extract, except for the coumarins. Saponin, triterpenes and steroids were identified in the dichloromethane extract. The toxicity test on Artemia salina pointed to aqueous extract fractions of 5,117.2 ppm, indicative of low toxicity.

  5. Effect of salinity on the uptake of cadmium by the brine shrimp Artemia fransiscana

    OpenAIRE

    Blust, R.; Kockelbergh, E.; Baillieul, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of salinity on cadmium uptake by the brine shrimp Artemia fransiscana was studied in chemically defined saltwater solutions. Shrimp were acclimated to different salinities and exposed to the metal in solutions of differing salinity and composition. Within each acclimation group, the cadmium uptake decreased with increasing salinity of exposure. Most of this variation was explained by changes in the activity of the free metal ion. Among the acclimation groups, uptake increased by in...

  6. Impact of enriching larval brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) with a supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids on their growth and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Prusińska Maja; Kushniry Olga; Khudyi Oleksii; Khuda Lidiia; Kolman Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact the commercial supplement S.presso (INVE Aquaculture, Belgium), a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids to enrich the proximate composition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.), had on their growth and mortality. Four different enrichment protocols were investigated: the supplement was given in one or two doses at various time intervals. The results indicate that while S.presso increased nauplius mortality slightly, administering the appropriate dose ...

  7. Design, operation, and potential of a culture system for the continuous production of Artemia nauplii

    OpenAIRE

    Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P

    1987-01-01

    A flow-through system is described for the controlled production of Artemia nauplii. High densities of adult brine shrimp are induced to ovoviviparity through diet manipulation, optimal culture water exchange, and high constant oxygen levels. The nauplii produced are separated from the culture tank effluents in a special recuperation filter system. The culture water is recirculated over a rotating biodisc, a cross-flow sieve, and a plate separator.The potential of this nauplii production syst...

  8. 卤虫属分类研究进展%Progress on Researches of Taxonomy on Genus Artemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟峰; 郝浩永; 陈莉

    2008-01-01

    卤虫(Anemia)属于节肢动物门(Phylum Arthropoda),甲壳纲(Class Crustacea),鳃足亚纲(SubclassBranchiopoda),无甲目(Order Anostraca),卤虫科(Family Artemidae).世界卤虫根据生殖方式可分为两性生殖卤虫和孤雌生殖卤虫两大类.利用生殖隔离实验将世界两性卤虫分为8个种:Anemiafranciscana Kellogg、Artemia persimilis Piccinelli et Prosdoeimi、Anemia rnonica Verrill、Anemia salina Linnaeus、Artemia urmianaGünther、Anemia tunisiana Bowen et Sterling、Anemia sinica Cai和Anemia tibetiana Abatzopouios,Zhang et Sorge-loos.其中,我国发现有A.sinica和A.tibetiana两种两性卤虫.孤雌生殖卤虫统称为Artemia parthenogenetica,并在其后加上产地的地名以示区别.

  9. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Mayorga; Karen R. Pérez; Sully M. Cruz; Armando Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  10. Optimum level of fish liver oil as enrichment for Artemia fed to the tiger tail seahorse Hippocampus comes for reproduction and juvenile survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Nhu Binh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of broodstocks and juvenile stress resistance of seahorseHippocampus comes afed Artemia enriched with varying fish liver oil (FLO were evaluated. Artemia wasenriched in seven media with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 10% FLO supplemented with egg yolk,baker’s yeast and vitamins 12 h before feeding to seahorse broodstocks. In general, responseparameters increased at lower concentration of FLO, peaked at 5% and decreased at 10%; thus, forparabolic relationships, the quadratic regression was appropriate to estimate quantitative optimum level.Artemia enrichment with FLO increased considerably its saturated FA content in the form of myristic acidand the total HUFA content, particularly DHA and arachidonic acid. Feeding seahorse broodstock with FLOenriched Artemia resulted in: (1 significant increase in brood size both during the first and secondbrooding, (2 significant shortening of interbrooding period, and (3 significant extension of the time tototal mortality during the salinity shock test of juveniles. Quantitative estimates of mean optimum FLOlevel for the enrichment of Artemia fed to H. comes awas 6.3% (range 5.9–7.0% using each responseparameter fitted in a quadratic model.

  11. Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahgal Geethaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT] to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC 50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO, 6.4% (methanol, 3.4% (ethanol and 2.5% (Tween 20. The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT.

  12. Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Aodhán D; Cunningham, John A; Budd, Graham E; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils provide major insights into the evolutionary history of life. Microbial activity is thought to play a pivotal role in both the decay of organisms and the preservation of soft tissue in the fossil record, though this has been the subject of very little experimental investigation. To remedy this, we undertook an experimental study of the decay of the brine shrimp Artemia, examining the roles of autolysis, microbial activity, oxygen diffusion and reducing conditions. Our findings indicate that endogenous gut bacteria are the main factor controlling decay. Following gut wall rupture, but prior to cuticle failure, gut-derived microbes spread into the body cavity, consuming tissues and forming biofilms capable of mediating authigenic mineralization, that pseudomorph tissues and structures such as limbs and the haemocoel. These observations explain patterns observed in exceptionally preserved fossil arthropods. For example, guts are preserved relatively frequently, while preservation of other internal anatomy is rare. They also suggest that gut-derived microbes play a key role in the preservation of internal anatomy and that differential preservation between exceptional deposits might be because of factors that control autolysis and microbial activity. The findings also suggest that the evolution of a through gut and its bacterial microflora increased the potential for exceptional fossil preservation in bilaterians, providing one explanation for the extreme rarity of internal preservation in those animals that lack a through gut. PMID:25972468

  13. Investigations of the effects of cosmic rays on Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds: results of Exobloc II experiment, flown aboard Biocosmos 1887

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemia (Brine shrimp) cysts and tobacco seeds, dormant biological material devoid of metabolic activity, were flown aboard the Soviet Biocosmos 1887 in order to investigate the effects of cosmic rays. Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds were used in bulk or in monolayers sandwiched with track detectors. Biological and physical units were located outside and inside the spacecraft. Stacks included lead shielding in order to expose the objects to different doses of radiation. Total dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent detectors. In spite of low levels of doses, the space flight resulted in a decrease in developmental capacity of Artemia cysts, and in a higher mutation rate in tobacco seeds. The more obvious responses occurred, in both cases, in biological objects exposed to the highest doses. These results are compared to those of previous space experiments. (author)

  14. Avaliação da bioatividade dos extratos de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata Bioactivity evaluation of the turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae extracts in Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. M. da Silva Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cúrcuma é o rizoma limpo, em boas condições, seco e moído da Curcuma longa L., uma planta herbácea da família Zingiberaceae. Visando novas alternativas para o controle da esquistossomose, os extratos de Curcuma longa L. foram testados para a avaliação da atividade moluscicida contra caramujos adultos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. A oleoresina e o óleo essencial de cúrcuma foram ativos contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 80,43 e CL50 = 319,82 μg/mL, respectivamente e também ativos contra os indivíduos adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 58,3 e CL50 = 46,73 μg/mL, respectivamente. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde ser concluído que ambos os extratos podem constituir uma alternativa no controle da população desses caramujos e na redução da esquistossomose.The turmeric is the clean rhizome at good conditions, dried and powdered of Curcuma longa L., an herbaceous plant of Zingiberaceae family. Aiming new alternatives for Schistosomiasis control, the Curcuma longa L. extracts were tested for molluscicidal activity evaluation against adult snails of Biomphalaria glabrata specie, and the toxicity (Brine Shrimp Lethality-BSL-bioassay. The oleoresin and the essential oil of turmeric were active against Artemia salina (CL50 = 80.43 and CL50 = 319.82 μg.mL-1, respectively and also active against the adult snails of Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 58.3 and CL50 = 46.73 μg.mL-1, respectively. From the obtained results it was concluded that both extracts can constitute an alternative to population control of these snails and in the reduction of Schistosomiasis.

  15. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  16. Identification of the glycerol kinase gene and its role in diapause embryo restart and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Yao, Feng; Chu, Bing; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization by transferring a phosphate from ATP to glycerol, yielding glycerol 3-phosphate, which is an important intermediate for both energy metabolism and glycerolipid production. Artemia sinica has an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity, low temperature and lack of food. In the process, diapause embryos of A. sinica (brine shrimp) accumulate high concentrations of glycerol as a cryoprotectant to prevent low temperature damage to embryos. Upon embryo restart, glycerol is converted into glucose and other carbohydrates. Therefore, GK plays an important role in the diapause embryo restart process. However, the role of GK in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. In the present study, a 2096 bp full-length cDNA of gk from A. sinica (As-gk) was obtained, encoding putative 551 amino acids, 60.6 kDa protein. As a crucial enzyme in glycerol uptake and metabolism, GK has been conserved structurally and functionally during evolution. The expression pattern of As-gk was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expression locations of As-gk were analyzed using in situ hybridization. As-gk was widely distributed in the early embryo and several main parts of Artemia after differentiation. The expression of As-GK was also induced by stresses such as cold exposure and high salinity. This initial research into the expression pattern and stress response of GK in Artemia provides a sound basis for further understanding of the function and regulation of genes in early embryonic development in A. sinica and the stress response. PMID:24365596

  17. Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 in milk on the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Lejla Duraković; Mihaela Blažinkov; Andrea Skelin; Sanja Sikora; Frane Delaš; Mirna Mrkonjić-Fuka; Katarina Huić-Babić; Sulejman Redžepović

    2011-01-01

    Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were studied using the brine shrimp Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator in the temperature range from 20 °C to 40 °C. Increase in the incubation temperature resulted in sensitivity increase by the brine shrimp to AFM1. Optimum sensitivity occured at 30 °C. Positive results were obtained at 0.18 μg AFM1 x L-1 of whole pasteurized milk with a mortality of over 15%. Greater than 90 % mortality occurred at dose levels of 0.9 μg ...

  18. Naked eye instant reversible sensing of Cu(2+) and its in situ imaging in live brine shrimp Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ratish R; Raju, M; Patel, Neha P; Raval, Ishan H; Suresh, E; Haldar, Soumya; Chatterjee, Pabitra B

    2015-08-21

    A Cu(2+)-specific colorimetric reversible fluorescent receptor was designed and synthesized which showed a naked eye observable colour change from colourless to pink on addition of an aqueous buffer (pH 7.4) solution of 30 ppb Cu(2+). Short response time (≤5 s) and low detection limit (nearly 3 ppb) make suitable as a reliable "dip-in" open eye sensor for Cu(2+). Bio-imaging application in live brine shrimp Artemia enabled to detect Cu(2+) at as low as 10 ppb exposure. PMID:26145434

  19. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp,Artemia sinica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周茜; 吴长功; 董波; 李富花; 刘凤岐; 相建海

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica.Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified.Three spots were up-expressed and identified:actin, heat shock protein 70,and chaperone subunit 1;three down-regulated proteins were identified:arginine kinase,elongation factor-2,and glycine-rich protein;and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin....

  20. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Three Plants of Pigweed, Bermuda grass and Burdock via Artemia Salina Test

    OpenAIRE

    parisa sadighara; tahere aliesfahani; mahdie jafari; atousa ziaei; tahere farkhondeh

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Pigweed is a weed which grows in the pastures of Iran. Local people use the plant leaves to cook traditional food. Bermuda grass with its rapid growth and distribution is regarded a real threat to prairies and it can lead to tremors syndrome in cattle and sheep. Burdock which also grows in many parts of Iran is used as a medicinal herb. In this study, the cytotoxicity potential of the three plants was assessed via Artemia Salina test. Methods: Pigweed, Bermuda grass and burdock ...

  1. Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Filho, Cláudio A A; Albuquerque, Lidiane P; Silva, Luanna R S; Silva, Patrícia C B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Albuquerque, Monica C P A; Melo, Ana Maria M A; Napoleão, Thiago H; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the effect of an aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. flowers on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults and on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The extract contains tannins, saponins, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The toxicity of the extract on Artemia salina larvae was also investigated to determine the safety of its use for schistosomiasis control. After incubation for 24h, the flower extract significantly (p<0.05) delayed the development of B. glabrata embryos and promoted mortality of adult snails (LC50: 2.37±0.5mgmL(-1)). Furthermore, treatment with the extract disrupted the development of embryos generated by snails, with most of them remaining in the blastula stage while control embryos were already in the gastrula stage. Flower extract killed A. salina larvae with a LC50 value (0.2±0.015mgmL(-1)) lower than that determined for snails. A small reduction (17%) in molluscicidal activity was detected when flower extract (2.37mgmL(-1)) was exposed to tropical environmental conditions (UVI index ranging from 1 to 14, temperature from 25 to 30°C, and 65% relative humidity). Toxicity to A. salina was also reduced (LC50 value of 0.28±0.01mgmL(-1)). In conclusion, M. oleifera flower extract had deleterious effects on B. glabrata adults and embryos. However, unrestricted use to control schistosomiasis should be avoided due to the toxicity of this extract on A. salina. PMID:25867917

  2. Biological screening of chitosan derivatives using Artemia spp. (brine shrimp test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reported on the screening of six selected chitosan derivatives using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the irradiation effects towards the compounds at 25 kGy were also studied. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, extracted from the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects as well as walls of some bacteria and fungi. Brine shrimp test is employed for the screening of toxicity of chitosan derivatives. Toxicity test was carried out by adding different concentrations of tested samples to approximately 5 to 15 Artemia salina larvae. Biological activity using the brine shrimp bioassay was recorded as LC50 i.e. lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 hours of contact with the samples. Compounds are considered toxic when the LC50 value is lower than 1 mg/ml by brine shrimp bioassay and practically non-toxic when the value is larger. Of the samples tested, none were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC50 > 1 mg/ml). The LC50 values of all chitosan derivatives tested, control and irradiated at 25 kGy were above 1 mg/ml thus all tested samples are considered non-toxic. This study demonstrated that irradiation at 25 kGy showed no significant effects towards the toxicity of the chitosan derivatives. After irradiation, only NO-CMC exhibited marked decrease in LC50 value, reduced by 3-fold from 34.96 mg/ml to 11.07 mg/ml while O-CMC (5.45 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml) showed no clear differences based on rough estimation. This study suggested that brine shrimp bioassay is a simple, reliable and convenient method that could provide useful clues of the relative toxic potential of the sample tested. (Author)

  3. Distribution, abundance and density estimates of franciscanas, Pontoporia blainvillei (Cetacea: Pontoporiidae, in Babitonga bay, southern Brazil Distribuição e estimativas de abundância e densidade de franciscanas, Pontoporia blainvillei (Cetacea: Pontoporiidae, na baía da Babitonga, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Cremer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844 is threatened throughout its distribution. The species can be found year-round in the Babitonga bay estuary (26º 02'-26º 28'S and 48º28'-48º50'W, in the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Boat surveys were conducted in order to evaluate its abundance and density between 2000 and 2003. Sampling was random and stratified, with 46 transects in five sub-areas, comprising a total area of 160 km². Data collection was conducted following the linear transect method with distance sampling. A total of 1174.7 km was scanned and 38 groups were observed. Franciscanas were not uniformly distributed in Babitonga bay. Group size ranged from one to 13 animals (mean ± SD = 5.02 ± 3.62. Model 1 (Half-Normal showed the best fit to the data. The estimated population size was 50 animals and the density was 0.32 individuals km-2. Density estimates evaluated in the sub-areas where franciscanas occurred resulted in a density of 0.46 individuals km-2. Monitoring this population is of considerable importance due to the constant threats that this species faces in this bay.Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844 ocorre ao longo de todo o ano no estuário da baía da Babitonga, no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Foram realizadas amostragens com o objetivo de obter informações sobre sua abundância e densidade populacional nesta área entre os anos de 2000 e 2003. A amostragem foi aleatória e estratificada, com 46 transecções estabelecidas em cinco grandes sub-áreas, compreendendo 160 km². A coleta de dados foi conduzida utilizando o método de transecções lineares com amostragem de distância. Foram percorridos 1174,7 km e 38 grupos foram registrados. As franciscanas não apresentaram uma distribuição uniforme na baía da Babitonga. O tamanho de grupo variou de um a 13 animais (5,02 ± 3,62. O Modelo 1 (Meio-Normal promoveu o melhor ajustamento dos parâmetros. A

  4. Effect of municipal waste water effluent upon the expression of Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes of brine shrimp Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammou, Athina; Papadimitriou, Chrisa; Samaras, Peter; Vasara, Eleni; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I

    2011-06-01

    Multiple isoenzymes of the detoxification enzyme family Glutathione S-transferase are expressed in the brine shrimp Artemia. The number of the major ones detected in crude extract by means of chromatofocusing varied between three and four, depending on the age. Two isoenzymes, one alkaline and one neutral (with corresponding isoelectric points of 8.5 and 7.2) appear to be dominant in all three developmental stages studied, (24, 48, and 72 h after hatching). Culturing Artemia for 48 h after hatching, in artificial sea water prepared by municipal wastewater effluent resulted to significant alterations of the isoenzyme profile. In comparison to organisms cultured for the same period of time in artificial sea water prepared by filtered tap water, the expression of the alkaline isoenzyme decreased by 62% while that of the neutral isoenzyme increased by 58%. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of the major isoenzyme of the acidic area increased by more than two folds. It is worth mentioning that although the specific activity of the total enzyme in the whole body homogenate was elevated, no statistically significant alteration of the Km value was observed. These findings suggest that study of the isoenzyme profile of Glutathione S-transferase may offer high sensitivity in detecting environmental pollution and needs to be further investigated. PMID:21429555

  5. A note on the biogeographical origin of the brine shrimp Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899 from Urmia Lake, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimanifar, Amin; Asem, Alireza; Djamali, Morteza; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia urmiana, an abundant inhabitant of the hypersaline Urmia Lake in northwestern Iran, has recently been described from Lake Koyashskoe, also a shallow hypersaline lake that is located on the Black Sea coast of the Crimean Peninsula (Ukraine). This discovery has questioned the endemicity of A. urmiana in Urmia Lake and has also brought into question the biogeographical origin of this species. In the present study, we combined recent genetic divergence data (mtDNA-COI) with palaeoecological evidence to address the biogeographical origin of A. urmiana. Calibration of the molecular clock of the COI region was set by assigning the age of the micro-crustacean Daphnia pulex minimally at 145 Mya. The divergence age of A. urmiana in Urmia Lake dates back to 383,000 years, whereas Ukrainian Artemia reflects a very young populations that diverged about 196,000 years ago. Palaeoecological evidence suggests that the age of the major habitat of A. urmiana i.e. Urmia Lake goes back to the Tertiary Period while the Ukranian habitats of the species are very young, by virtue of geological features of the Holocene age. We conclude that the biogeographical origin of A. urmiana is outside of Europe and the current state of knowledge strongly suggests that Urmia Lake has been the major source of its expansion into its modern habitats in Europe. PMID:27394547

  6. Probing the phenomenon of trained immunity in invertebrates during a transgenerational study, using brine shrimp Artemia as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzitallab, Parisa; Baruah, Kartik; Biswas, Priyanka; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bossier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate's innate immune system was reported to show some form of adaptive features, termed trained immunity. However, the memory characteristics of innate immune system and the mechanisms behind such phenomena remain unclear. Using the invertebrate model Artemia, we verified the possibility or impossibility of trained immunity, examining the presence or absence of enduring memory against homologous and heterologous antigens (Vibrio spp.) during a transgenerational study. We also determined the mechanisms behind such phenomenon. Our results showed the occurrence of memory and partial discrimination in Artemia's immune system, as manifested by increased resistance, for three successive generations, of the progenies of Vibrio-exposed ancestors towards a homologous bacterial strain, rather than to a heterologous strain. This increased resistance phenotype was associated with elevated levels of hsp70 and hmgb1 signaling molecules and alteration in the expression of key innate immunity-related genes. Our results also showed stochastic pattern in the acetylation and methylation levels of H4 and H3K4me3 histones, respectively, in the progenies whose ancestors were challenged. Overall results suggest that innate immune responses in invertebrates have the capacity to be trained, and epigenetic reprogramming of (selected) innate immune effectors is likely to have central place in the mechanisms leading to trained immunity. PMID:26876951

  7. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Three Plants of Pigweed, Bermuda grass and Burdock via Artemia Salina Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa sadighara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pigweed is a weed which grows in the pastures of Iran. Local people use the plant leaves to cook traditional food. Bermuda grass with its rapid growth and distribution is regarded a real threat to prairies and it can lead to tremors syndrome in cattle and sheep. Burdock which also grows in many parts of Iran is used as a medicinal herb. In this study, the cytotoxicity potential of the three plants was assessed via Artemia Salina test. Methods: Pigweed, Bermuda grass and burdock were collected from Ghaemshahr in the North of Iran. The leaves were dried and the essence of the three plants was extracted. The larvaes were hatched from cysts of Artemia salina at 26˚C in filtered seawater. The plant extracts with different concentration (10,100 and 1000ppm were added to the solution larvaes. Results: The LC50 values (the concentration which needed to die half the larvaes were measured for pigweed, Bermuda grass and burdock at 1640, 990, and 840 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that compared to the two other species, there is more priority for burdock to be studied in further studies for identification and assessment of toxicity

  8. Culture of Artemia on rice bran: the conversion of a waste-product into highly nutritive animal protein

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P.; Baeza-Mesa, M.; Bossuyt, E.; Bruggeman, E.; Dobbeleir, J.; Versichele, D.; Laviña, E.; Bernardino, A.

    1980-01-01

    The age-old problem of finding a cheap and suitable food for Artemia is finally solved with rice bran, in fact a waste-product which is available at a very low price in many countries all over the world.

  9. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine): the use of brine shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.; Have, van der T.M.; Winden, van der J.; Chernichko, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferrugi

  10. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine) : The use of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y; Van der Have, TM; Van der Winden, J; Chernichko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferrugi

  11. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  12. Oxygen-binding characteristics of three extracellular haemoglobins of Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, J; Moens, L; Heip, J; D'Hondt, A; Kondo, M

    1978-06-01

    The oxygen-binding characteristics of the three extracellular haemoglobins of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) were studied in vitro by using highly purified preparations. Haemoglobin I is induced last in the development of brine shrimps when functional gills are formed. It has the lowest oxygen affinity (p(50) 5.34mmHg), an intermediate Bohr effect (ø -0.09 at 20 degrees C) above pH8 and a temperature-sensitivity (DeltaH -44.8 to -45.6kJ/mol at pH8-9) comparable with those observed with other invertebrate haemoglobins [Weber & Heidemann (1977) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A57, 151-155]. Haemoglobin II, which is the first to be induced, soon after hatching of nauplius larvae, persists generally throughout the whole adult life. It has an intermediate oxygen affinity (p(50) 3.7mmHg), the highest Bohr effect (ø -0.21 at 20 degrees C) above pH8 and a similar temperature-sensitivity (DeltaH -46.0 to -54.8kJ/mol at pH8-9) as haemoglobin I. However, haemoglobin III, which is induced second several hours after the induction of haemoglobin II but disappearing from the haemolymph in the middle of adult life, has the highest oxygen affinity (p(50) 1.8mmHg), the lowest Bohr effect (ø -0.03 at 20 degrees C) above pH8.5 and a high resistance against temperature variation between 10 and 25 degrees C at pH8.5-9 (DeltaH -22.6 to -23.0kJ/mol). At pH7.5-8, haemoglobin III exhibits a similar temperature-sensitivity under 30 degrees C as do other haemoglobins. All three haemoglobins have a rather low co-operativity, with Hill coefficients (h 1.6-1.9 at pH8.5), which are dependent on both pH and temperature. The highest co-operativity was observed at 20 degrees C and pH9 for haemoglobins I and II, whereas it was at 27 degrees C and pH8.5 for haemoglobin III. Thus the oxygen-binding behaviour of haemoglobin III in vitro is significantly different from those of haemoglobins I and II and indicates possibly its specific physiological role in vivo in the adaptive process in the natural

  13. Efeito alelopático e toxicidade frente à Artemia salina Leach dos extatos do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius Allelopathic effects and toxicity against Artemia salina Leach of extracts of the fruit of Euterpe edulis Martius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é um processo envolvendo metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas que infl uenciam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas. Devido à toxicidade dos herbicidas sintéticos para o meio ambiente e para a saúde humana tem-se aumentado o interesse na exploração da alelopatia como uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho avaliou efeito dos extratos dos frutos de Euterpe edulis Martius sobre o desenvolvimento de cipselas e plântulas de Lactuca sativa Linné, foram determinados o índice de velocidade de germinação, o crescimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. Para a avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi realizado o ensaio de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach determinando-se a CL50 e percentual de mortalidade. A fração remanescente demonstrou efeito alelopático, pois todas as concentrações alteraram os valores do índice de velocidade de germinação e as concentrações de 0,2 e 0,4 mg inibiram tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto o crescimento do hipocótilo. No ensaio de toxicidade todos os extratos apresentaram CL50 superior a 1000 ppm e 0% de mortalidade das artemias, indicando a não toxicidade dos extratos.Allelopathy is a process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants that influence growth and development of agricultural systems. Because of the toxicity of synthetic herbicides to the environment and human health, there has been increased interest in exploiting allelopathy as an alternative for weed control. This study evaluated the eff ect of extracts of Euterpe edulis Martius fruits on the development of cypselae and seedlings of Lactuca sativa Linné; the germination speed index, radicle and hypocotyl growth were determined. To evaluate the toxicity of the extracts the toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach was used, where the LC50 and mortality rate were determined. Th e remaining fraction showed allelopathic effect

  14. The potential role of As-sumo-1 in the embryonic diapause process and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

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    Bing Chu

    Full Text Available During embryonic development of Artemia sinica, environmental stresses induce the embryo diapause phenomenon, required to resist apoptosis and regulate cell cycle activity. The small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO, a reversible post-translational protein modifier, plays an important role in embryo development. SUMO regulates multiple cellular processes, including development and other biological processes. The molecular mechanism of diapause, diapause termination and the role of As-sumo-1 in this processes and in early embryo development of Artemia sinica still remains unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the sumo-1 homolog, sumo ligase homolog, caspase-1 homolog and cyclin B homolog from Artemia sinica were cloned. The mRNA expression patterns of As-sumo-1, sumo ligase, caspase-1, cyclin B and the location of As-sumo-1 were investigated. SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E proteins were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo of A. sinica. Small interfering RNA (siRNA was used to verify the function of sumo-1 in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-sumo-1 was 476 bp, encoding a 92 amino acid protein. The As-caspases-1 cDNA was 966 bp, encoding a 245 amino-acid protein. The As-sumo ligase cDNA was 1556 bp encoding, a 343 amino acid protein, and the cyclin B cDNA was 739 bp, encoding a 133 amino acid protein. The expressions of As-sumo-1, As-caspase-1 and As-cyclin B were highest at the 10 h stage of embryonic development, and As-sumo ligase showed its highest expression at 0 h. The expression of As-SUMO-1 showed no tissue or organ specificity. Western blotting showed high expression of As-SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E at the 10 h stage. The siRNA caused abnormal development of the embryo, with increased malformation and mortality. As-SUMO-1 is a crucial regulation and modification protein resumption of embryonic diapause and early embryo development of A. sinica.

  15. Observações preliminares sobre a toxicidade do ϒBHC e do cloreto de mercúrio à Artemia salina Preliminary observations on the toxicity of ϒBHC and mercuric cloride on Artemia salina

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    Salvador Airton Gaeta

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de bioensaios com larvas de Artemia salinacolocadas em misturas de γBHC e HgCl2, a fim de se compararem os efeitos das mesmas com aqueles obtidos quando essas duas substancias atuam isoladamente. A CL50 para o yBHC foi quase que o dobro do valor para o HgCl2. O efeito da primeira dose foi observado para aproximadamente 16% da população (CL16, enquanto que, para o γBHC, o foi em 2,3% da população (CL2,3. Assim, as doses subseqüentes foram mais efetivas para o HgCl2 que para o γBHC. A dose efetiva 50% (ED50 ê mais ou menos igual para o γBHC e para o γBHC + HgCl2, mas em doses altas o YBHC seria mais efetivo, enquanto que em doses baixas a mistura e que o seria.Results of bio-assays using Artemia salina larvae in γBHC-HgCl2 mixture are presented. The results obtained are compared with those obtained using the two chemicals separately. The LC50 for γBHC was almost double that for HgCl2. The effect due to the primary dose of HgCl2 was observed for approximately 16% of the population (LC2.3 while for γBHC the population percentage was 2.3 (LC2.3. As a consequence, subsequent doses were more effective for HgCl2 than for γBHC. The effective dose 50% (ED50 is about the same for γBHC and for γBHC + HgCl2 mixture, though in higher doses BHC would be more effective, while in smaller doses the mixture would predominate.

  16. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Changgong; Dong, Bo; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Fengqi; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-03-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica. Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified. Three spots were up-expressed and identified: actin, heat shock protein 70, and chaperone subunit 1; three down-regulated proteins were identified: arginine kinase, elongation factor-2, and glycine-rich protein; and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin. The study indicates the involvement of all the differentially expressed proteins in the early responses of protein expression, and in the survival of A. sinica in the presence of copper and other heavy metals; the findings improve understanding of the organism’s adaptive responses and resistance.

  17. Optimizing the co-feeding strategy of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae using Artemia nauplii and formulated diet

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    Naser Agh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and labor costs are associated with first-feeding sturgeon culture, particularly during the period of dietary transition from live to formulated feed. Therefore we investigated the effects of various feeding treatments on the survival and growth of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae during a 20-day culture period. Three replicate groups (250 fish/replicate of first-feeding larvae were fed according to four main feeding regimes: (1 live food (live nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia urmiana; (2 indirect transition (5 days live food followed by gradual transition to formulated diet; (3 direct transition (using different combinations of live and formulated diet from the start feeding onwards; (4 formulated feed (FD from the start feeding. Results indicated that growth and survival were higher in the indirect transition feeding regime than in other regimes. Based on our study, co-feeding of A. persicus should start five days after prior feeding with live food.

  18. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  19. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  20. Síntese de 1,3,5-triazinas substituídas e avaliação da toxicidade frente a Artemia Salina leach Synthesis of substituted 1,3,5-triazines and toxicity evaluation against Artemia Salina leach

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    Márcia Ferreira Cavalcante

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of ten symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 1,3,5-triazines by Phase Transfer Catalysis (PTC method is described. Their toxicities were determined against Artemia salina Leach. The LD50 values have also been obtained for these compounds.

  1. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

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    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.Três bioensaios de letalidade com o crustáceo de água salgada Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (teste convencional em microplaca de 96 poós Artoxkit microbiotest M e o crustáceo de água doce Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae (Thamnotoxkit microbiotest F, foram comparados utilizando extratos de dez espécies de plantas da Guatemala. Foi previamente observado que cinco delas possuem atividade anti-Artemia

  2. Aplicación del bioensayo de Artemia salina en el análisis general de plantas medicinales brasileñas

    OpenAIRE

    Montanher, Ana Beatriz Pimentel; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa

    2002-01-01

    Extractos de once especies de la flora brasileña fueron estudiados para evaluar la actividad citotóxica por el test de Artemia salina. Las plantas seleccionadas fueron: Baccharis pseudotenuifolia, Baccharis ligustrina, Baccharis platypoda, Baccharis coridifolia, Polygala paniculata, Polygala sabulosa, Croton celtidifolius, Cyathea phalerata, Trichilia catigua, Eugenia uniflora y Schinus molle. Los resultados obtenidos para los extractos crudos de B. pseudotenuifolia, B. ligustrina, B. c...

  3. Evaluation of growth and survival rate of Artemia parthenogenetica feed with micro algae (Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella vulgaris and bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Mehdi Dehghan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate growth and survival rate of Maharloo lake artemia (ArtemiaParthenogenetica (Bowen & Sterling, 1978 which feed with two species of microalgae (IsochrysisGalbana and Chlorella vulgaris and bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different nutritiousingredients for 15 days. We evaluated them in 3rd, 7th, 11th and 15thdays of cultivation period for 4 times. This experiment was done in completely randomized design with 4 treatments (3 treatments and 1 control and each treatment has 3 replicates. Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii were feed with three different types of food that includes Isochrysis galbana microalgae (T1, Chlorella vulgaris (T2 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (T4. Control had feed with blend of these three matters. After 15 days the highest survival rate was observed in control (84.00 and the lowest one was related to the T4 (59.58 which feed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (p<0.05. The highest growth rate was observed in T4, T3, followed by T1 and T2 respectively. Achievement results showed significantdifferences between control and other treatments (p<0.05. This study proved that treatments whichfeed with blend of two micro algae's species and bakery yeast have higher survival ability than theother treatments.

  4. Sudden weaning of angel fish pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein) (Pisces; Cichlidae) larvae from brine shrimp (Artemia sp) nauplii to formulated larval feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Sandamali Sakunthala; Atapaththu, Kerthi Sri Senarathna

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sudden weaning of angel fish larvae (Pteraphylum scalari) from Artemia nauplii to commercial larval feed. Four days post hatch (DPH) larvae were reared in four different weaning protocols (TR1-TR4) with triplicates in a complete randomize design. Larvae in TR1 and TR4 were exclusively fed Artemia nauplii and dry feed respectively. In TR2 and TR3, larvae were initially fed Artemia nauplii and suddenly wean to formulated feed on 14 DPH and 7 DPH respectively. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, final mean weight (FW), total length (FL), height (FH), Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), survival and stress index were compared. Significantly highest (P < 0.05) FW, DWG and SGR were observed in TR1 and TR2 while former values of TR3 were not significantly different from TR1. Highest FL observed in TR1 and TR2 while FL of TR2 was statistically similar to that of TR3. The poorest growth was observed in larvae solely fed formulated feed. Survival and the stress index were independent from weaning methods. Although sudden weaning is possible on 7 DPH, larvae showed comparatively higher growth when switch off to formulate feed on 14 DPH. PMID:23626927

  5. Anticipation of Artemia sp. supply in the larviculture of the barber goby Elacatinus figaro (Gobiidae: Teleostei influenced growth, metamorphosis and alkaline protease activity

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    Maria Fernanda da Silva-Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The barber goby Elacatinus figaro is considered endangered due to overexploitation by the ornamental industry. Farming marine ornamental fishes, especially the threatened ones, can be one of the measures to minimize the pressure on the natural stocks. Among the priority issues for their production is the determination of the most appropriate feeding management. The feeding protocol commonly used in the larviculture of barber goby, when the start of Artemia sp. offer occurred at the 18th DAH (days after hatching (treatment T18, was modified, by anticipating brine shrimp supply in 6 days (treatment T12. Alkaline proteases activity, growth and metamorphosis of larvae were evaluated in both protocols. Juveniles at T12 showed higher weight (0.04 ± 0.001 g and lower activity of total alkaline proteases (1.3 ± 0.2 mU mg-1 protein compared to T18 (0.02 ± 0.001 g; 2.8 ± 0.4 mU mg-1 protein, respectively. With anticipation of brine shrimp, the commencing and end of larval transformation was observed earlier (at 24 and 34 DAH, respectively in comparison to those with the supply of Artemia sp. at 18 DAH (27 and 41 DAH, respectively. Thus, the Artemia sp. anticipation was beneficial during the larviculture of the barber goby, considering that larvae reached metamorphosis earlier.

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHA813 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AACAAGAATAT GAGAAGTTGGTAGAGGAATGTTCATAGAAAAGTTTTTAAATAAATAAAAAATAAAAAAT Length of 3' end seq. 779 Connected seq. ID VHA813P Connect...CAATGGAT TACAAAACAAGAATATGAGAAGTTGGTAGAGGAATGTTCATAGAAAAGTTTTTAAATAAA TAAAAAATAAAAAAT Length of connected se...86 |AJ269586.1 Artemia franciscana mRNA for actin (actin 302 gene), clone RT-PCR-14. 68 5e-23 3 AJ269585 |AJ269585.1 Artemia francis...cana mRNA for actin (actin 302 gene), clone RT-PCR-7. 68 5e-23 3 AJ269584 |AJ269584.1 Artemia francis... AJ269583 |AJ269583.1 Artemia franciscana mRNA for actin (actin 302 gene), clone RT-PCR-3. 68 5e-23 3 AJ2695

  7. Copper(II) complexes with 2-pyridineformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones: Spectral studies and toxicity against Artemia salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Karina O.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Wardell, James L.; Louro, Sonia R. W.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2009-07-01

    The copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2Am4DH)Cl 2] ( 1), [Cu(H2Am4Me)Cl 2] ( 2), [Cu(H2Am4Et)Cl 2] ( 3) and [Cu(2Am4Ph)Cl] ( 4) with 2-pyridineformamide thiosemicarbazone (H2Am4DH) and its N(4)-methyl (H2Am4Me), N(4)-ethyl (H2Am4Et) and N(4)-phenyl (H2Am4Ph) derivatives were studied by means of infrared and EPR spectral techniques. The crystal structure of 4 was determined. The studied compounds proved to be toxic to Artemia salina, suggesting that they could present cytotoxic activity against solid tumors. Among the free thiosemicarbazones H2Am4Ph presented higher toxicity than all other compounds, which showed comparable effects. In the case of complexes 2 and 3 toxicity is probably attributable to the complex as an entity or to a synergistic effect involving the thiosemicarbazone and copper. H2Am4Ph and complexes 2 and 3 revealed to be the most promising compounds as potential antineoplasic agents.

  8. Primary Screening of the Bioactivity of Brackishwater Cyanobacteria: Toxicity of Crude Extracts to Artemia salina Larvae and Paracentrotus lividus Embryos

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    Viviana R. Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microalgae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of benthic and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria isolated from estuarine environments, towards the nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The A. salina lethality test was used as a frontline screen and then complemented by the more specific sea urchin embryo-larval assay. Eighteen cyanobacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Nodularia, Nostoc and Synechocystis, were tested. Aqueous extracts of cyanobacteria strains showed potent toxicity against A. salina, whereas in P. lividus, methanolic and aqueous extracts showed embryo toxicity, with clear effects on development during early stages. The results suggest that the brackishwater cyanobacteria are producers of bioactive compounds with toxicological effects that may interfere with the dynamics of invertebrate populations.

  9. Reporting a new siderophore based Ca(2+) selective chemosensor that works as a staining agent in the live organism Artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M; Nair, Ratish R; Raval, Ishan H; Haldar, Soumya; Chatterjee, Pabitra B

    2015-11-21

    A Ca(2+)-specific chemosensor involving acyclic non-ether and non-carboxylato-type metal chelating ligands is rare. The tetradentate OONO artificial receptor, HL, possessing a sulfur-containing intermediate siderophore aeruginic acid, tethered to a rhodamine 6G based signalling unit in a single molecule has been synthesized. The fluoroionophore required excitation in the visible wavelength (510 nm) and showed highly selective and sensitive detection of Ca(2+) ions in 100% water solution in HEPES buffer at physiological pH (7.4). The probe HL, with LOD as low as 70 nM, behaves reversibly and showed nearly 17-fold enhanced selectivity for Ca(2+) over other cell abundant alkali and alkaline metal ions such as Na(+), K(+), Li(+), and Mg(2+) without any intervention. Job's plot, (1)H NMR titration and ESI-MS data provided corroborative evidence in support of 1 : 1 association between HL and Ca(2+). From a wide range of transition and heavy metal ions series, HL also binds Cu(2+). However, the use of l-cysteine removes the interference from Cu(2+) and results in highly selective detection specificity of HL for Ca(2+). As a reversible "off-on-off" fluorescent chemosensor, it is possible to detect Ca(2+) at as low as 5 μM in the midgut region of the gastrointestinal tract of the live animal Artemia, a brine shrimp. PMID:26460620

  10. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine Avaliação da bioatividade frente à Artemia salina Leach de plantas medicinais utilizadas na medicina popular na Região Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    DDR. Arcanjo; ACM. Albuquerque; B. Melo-Neto; LCLR. Santana; MGF Medeiros; AMGL. Citó

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Just...

  11. Kinetic properties and heme pocket structure of two domains of the polymeric hemoglobin of Artemia in comparison with the native molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Heshmat Akbari; Berghmans, Herald; Trashin, Stanislav; De Wael, Karolien; Fago, Angela; Moens, Luc; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-10-01

    In this project, we studied some physicochemical properties of two different globin domains of the polymeric hemoglobin of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and compared them with those of the native molecule. Two domains (AsHbC1D1 and AsHbC1D5) were cloned and expressed in BL21(DE3)pLysS strain of Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins as well as the native hemoglobin (AfHb) were purified from bacteria and frozen Artemia, respectively by standard chromatographic methods and assessed by SDS-PAGE. The heme environment of these proteins was studied by optical spectroscopy and ligand-binding kinetics (e.g. CO association and O2 binding affinity) were measured for the two recombinant proteins and the native hemoglobin. This indicates that the CO association rate for AsHbC1D1 is higher than that of AsHbC1D5 and AfHb, while the calculated P50 value for AsHbC1D1 is lower than that of AsHbC1D5 and AfHb. The geminate and bimolecular rebinding parameters indicate a significant difference between both domains. Moreover, EPR results showed that the heme pocket in AfHb is in a more closed conformation than the heme pocket in myoglobin. Finally, the reduction potential of -0.13V versus the standard hydrogen electrode was determined for AfHb by direct electrochemical measurements. It is about 0.06V higher than the potential of the single domain AsHbC1D5. This work shows that each domain in the hemoglobin of Artemia has different characteristics of ligand binding. PMID:26004089

  12. Efficacy of fish oil- and linseed oil-enriched Artemia nauplii on growth performance and stress resistance of tiger barb larvae (Puntius tetrazona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Abolhasani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil is the important fat source in fish nutrition. High demand for fish oil and low global supply arise a need of alternative oils in fish culture. Plant oils are a good candidate in this case. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of fish oil and linseed oil on growth and stress resistance of tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona larvae. Artemia nauplii were enriched by 2.5, 5 and 7.5 of each oil. The enriched nauplii were offered to larvae for 14 d. thereafter, fish were fed non-enriched nauplii for another 14 d. At the end of the trial, larvae were subjected to osmotic stress and their survival was recorded. There was no significant difference in final weight, SGR and weight gain among the treatments at day 14. However, oil type and oil levels significantly affected these parameters after 28 d. Fish of 2.5-LO and 5-FO groups showed the best and worst performance, respectively. There was no significant difference in survival rate among the treatments, after 14 and 28 d; however, oil type significantly affected survival of the larvae after osmotic stress. Survival of larvae fed on linseed oil-enriched nauplii was significantly higher than that of those fed on fish oil-enriched nauplii. Linseed oil showed significantly better results in growth performance and stress resistance compared to fish oil. It is concluded that linseed oil is more suitable than fish oil for Artemia enrichment to feed tiger barb larvae. The potential reasons for the better performance of larvae fed on linseed oil-enriched Artemia were discussed.

  13. Optimización del enriquecimiento de nauplios de Artemia mediante el uso de emulsiones lipídicas formuladas a partir de aceites sintéticos ricos en DHA

    OpenAIRE

    Viciano Delibano, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Los nauplios de Artemia se utilizan como presa viva en criaderos de organimos marinos de todo el mundo debido a su disponibilidad y digestibilidad, pero su valor nutricional no se ajusta a las demandas o necesidades de las larvas de peces, moluscos o crustáceos marinos, ya que carecen de los ácidos grasos esenciales (EFA, Essential Fatty Acids) para estos organismos. Por tanto, es indispensable llevar a cabo un enriquecimiento de los nauplios de Artemia. El enriquecimiento consiste en incubac...

  14. Contributions towards a specific DHA enrichment in the live food Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, Ph.; Sorgeloos, P.; Devresse, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on enrichment techniques oriented towards a specific DHA accumulation in the live prey Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia sp. The product used in these experiments (DHA7) is an experimental emulsion with a DHA/EPA ratio 6.7:1. Rotifers enriched with this pure DHA7 emulsion contained up to 69 mg/g DW DHA and a DHA/EPA ratio of 1.6. The DHA/EPA ration could be increased to a much higher level by different enrichment techniques. Dilution of the DHA7 emulsion with coconut oil pr...

  15. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Aracelli de Sousa Leite; Alisson Ferreira Dantas; George Laylson da Silva Oliveira; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L.; Sidney Gonçalo de Lima; Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó; de Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C.; José Arimateia Dantas Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems’ root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuS...

  16. Efficacy of fish oil- and linseed oil-enriched Artemia nauplii on growth performance and stress resistance of tiger barb larvae (Puntius tetrazona)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil is the important fat source in fish nutrition. High demand for fish oil and low global supply arise a need of alternative oils in fish culture. Plant oils are a good candidate in this case. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of fish oil and linseed oil on growth and stress resistance of tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona) larvae. Artemia nauplii were enriched by 2.5, 5 and 7.5 of each oil. The enriched nauplii were offered to larvae for 14 d. thereafter, fish were fe...

  17. Mestizaje y globalización en la arquitectura en Filipinas. Obando y Los Baños, dos casos de iglesias franciscanas de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luengo Gutiérrez, Pedro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Franciscan presence around Manila had a high architectonic relevance during the second half of the eighteenth century. Recently two new drawings of that time have been found in AFIO. They are plans of the Church of Virgen de Salambao (1765 and that of Los Baños (1782. The Franciscan constitutions had a special attention to architecture, therefore specific solutions were proposed, affecting later works.La presencia de los franciscanos en los alrededores de Manila tuvo una gran relevancia arquitectónica durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. Recientemente se han localizado en el AFIO dos nuevos dibujos de esta fecha. Se trata de los croquis de la ermita de la Virgen de Salambao (1765 y de la iglesia de Los Baños (1782. Las constituciones franciscanas tenían especial cuidado con la arquitectura, lo que obligó a plantear soluciones concretas que afectarían más tarde a otras obras.

  18. The effects of probiotic bacillus for promotion of growth and feeding parameters in beluga (Huso huso larvae via feeding by bioencapsulated Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Jafaryan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study five species of probiotic bacillus as bacterial blend under the commercial title ofProtexin aquatic were used for bioencapsulation of Artemia urmiana (Gunther, 1899. This experimentwas conducted in a completely random design. A. urmiana naupli I was used as a vector to carryprobiotic bacillus to digestive tract of Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Nauplii with threeconcentrations of bacteria, 1×105, 2×105 and 3×105 bacteria per milliliter in suspension of broth for 10hours were bioencapsulated and beluga larvae were fed by them. Beluga larvae were fed 50 percent oftheir body weight for 6 times a day. The control treatment was fed by unbioencapsulated artemia nauplii.The results indicated that the probiotic bacillus could influence on growth and feeding parameters inbeluga larvae. The final body weight and specific growth rate (SGR for weight in experimentaltreatments had significant difference in comparison to control treatment (P0.05. In experimentaltreatments the Food efficiency was increased significantly in comparison with control. The probioticbacillus had significant positive effects on conversion efficiency ratio (CER, Daily growth coefficient(DGC and average weight gain (AWG in comparison to control treatment (P-1 significantly increased (P<0.05.

  19. Potencial toxicológico frente Artemia Salina em plantas condimentares comercializadas no município de Campina Grande-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Moreira Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do potencial toxicológico das plantas é um fator primordial para estipular o limite consumível. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o potencial toxicológico de plantas condimentares frente Artemia salina, expostas às concentrações dos extratos das plantas erva-doce (Pimpinella anisum L., pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, endro (Anethum graveolens L. e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos - LEA pertencente ao Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-PB. A erva doce apresentou uma baixa toxicidade, atingindo uma DL50 de 428ppm do extrato. Já a pimenta malagueta exibiu um comportamento similar, atingindo o seu potencial toxicológico máximo na terceira diluição com DL50 716,1ppm. Para o endro, observou-se uma baixa taxa de mortalidade, consequentemente foi considerada não toxica, apresentando a DL50, com 2.624,5ppm. O alecrim apresentou baixos percentuais de mortalidade em náuplios de Artemia, sendo a DL50 com 3.720,6ppm, sendo considerado não toxico. No entanto necessita-se de estudos mais aprofundados para caracterizar a composição química das plantas estudadas e um teste in vivo para as que apresentaram baixa toxicidade.

  20. Real-time PCR detection and quantification of fish probiotic Phaeobacter strain 27-4 and fish pathogenic Vibrio in microalgae, rotifer, Artemia and first feeding turbot (Psetta maxima) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prol, M.J.; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Pintado, J.; Gram, Lone

    2009-01-01

    presence of microalgae (Isochrysis galbana), rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), Artemia nauplii or turbot (Psetta maxima) larvae by real-time PCR based on primers directed at genetic loci coding for antagonistic and virulence-related functions respectively. The optimized protocol was used to study...

  1. Nutritional value of brine shrimp cysts as a factitious food for Orius laevigatus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    De Clercq, P.; Arijs, Y.; Van Meir, T.; G. Van Stappen; Sorgeloos, P.; K. DEWETTINCK; Rey, M; Grenier, S.; Febvay, G.

    2005-01-01

    Decapsulated cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were assessed as a factitious food for rearing the anthocorid predator Orius laevigatus. Developmental and reproductive traits of O. laevigatus reared for a single generation on A. franciscana from three geographical locations or on gamma-irradiated eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella were compared. There was no effect of diet on nymphal survival but nymphal period on E. kuehniella eggs (12.2 days) was 0.7-1.6 day...

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHN502 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTTTTTCGGATCAATGGATTACAAAACAAGAATAT Length of 3' end seq. 710 Connected seq. ID CHN502P Connected seq. >CHN5...TGTGGTGGTTCG GTTTTAGGGATCTTAAAACTTTTTCGGATCAATGGATTACAAAACAAGAATAT Length of connect...yidyqin h--- ---llqfi*qfkpfslcmhlvvplvpywivvmvfvipcqsmkvilfhmqlkesisvvvis qsi*cvyslkevmlslqppkeksyviskrklhlslkism...), clone RT-PCR-7. 68 3e-23 3 AJ269586 |AJ269586.1 Artemia franciscana mRNA for actin (actin 302 gene), clone...n (actin 302 gene), clone RT-PCR-6. 68 3e-23 3 AJ269583 |AJ269583.1 Artemia franciscana mRNA for actin (acti

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHH533 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TAATAAATAATATTTTAAA Length of 3' end seq. 800 Connected seq. ID CHH533P Connected...GAT TACAAAACAAGAATATGATGAAGTTGGTAGAGGAATTGTTCATAGAAAATGTTTTTAAAT AAATAAAATAATAAATAATATTTTAAA Length of connect...82346.1 Cryptosporidium baileyi isolate 764 actin gene, partial cds. 90 9e-21 2 BP189654 |BP189654.1 Dugesia japonica cDNA, clone...n 302 gene), clone RT-PCR-14. 66 2e-20 3 AJ269585 |AJ269585.1 Artemia franciscana mRNA for actin (acti...cana mRNA for actin (actin 302 gene), clone RT-PCR-6. 66 2e-20 3 AJ269583 |AJ269583.1 Artemia franciscana mRNA for acti

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHC638 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Artemia franciscana cathepsin L-li... 172 8e-42 DQ474246_1( DQ474246 |pid:none) Lygus lineolaris cathepsin...-L mRNA,... 172 8e-42 AY795054_1( AY795054 |pid:none) Artemia franciscana cathepsin ...69 |S58669.1 Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase precursor (ACP1) gene, partial cds. 54 2e-06 2 AZ5471...L pr... 172 8e-42 AY363263_1( AY363263 |pid:none) Triatoma infestans cathepsin L-...307 |M27307.1 Entamoeba histolytica cysteine protease gene, partial cds. 54 0.003 1 BQ834906 |BQ834906.1 Po_

  5. Dicty_cDB: SFI542 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF326781.1 Triticum monococcum actin (ACT-1) gene, partial cds; putative chromosome condensation factor (CCF...cidon perlevis cathepsin L ... 163 3e-39 AF147207_1( AF147207 |pid:none) Artemia franciscana cathepsin...3e-39 AY795054_1( AY795054 |pid:none) Artemia franciscana cathepsin L pr... 163 3... L-li... 163 3e-39 AY363263_1( AY363263 |pid:none) Triatoma infestans cathepsin L-lik... 163 ...c 28.0 %: nuclear 12.0 %: Golgi 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> predict

  6. The Cytotoxicity Study of Carboxymethyl Starch (CMS) of Sago Starch (Metro xylon sago) by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (Artemia salina nauplii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMS can be produced by substitution of the hydroxyl groups with sodium monochloroacetate in the presence of strong alkali. Carboxy methylation can be performed in water as a solvent or in a water-miscible organic solvent containing a small amount of water such as ethanol, isopropanol, methanol or toluene. The use of organic solvent will preserve the final product in the granular form and the side product can be washed out easily but some of them may be having potential toxicity and carcinogenic effect. In this study, CMS was investigated the level of toxicity by using brine shrimp lethality (BSLT). Brine shrimp test method was used to screen CMS for their biological activity. The screening results showed that the LC50, of CMS is more than 100 mg/ ml dose concentration. In conclusion, CMS is not cytotoxicity to Artemia salina nauplii and BSLT method is simple, inexpensive and convenient assay for the detection of cytotoxic compound. (author)

  7. Effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming velocity of the copepod Acartia tonsa, brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Madsen, C.V.; Riisgard, H.U.

    2008-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles for swimming in many zooplanktonic aquatic organisms, including many invertebrate larvae, rotifers and ciliates, but other planktonic organisms, such as copepods and brine shrimps, use muscle-powered swimming appendages. In recent studies we found that the...... of swimming velocity for a 10 degrees C temperature reduction) that is found to be largest for the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplius (37 %) and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (26%), but negligible for the copepod Acartia tonsa (4%). We suggest that experimental data on change in swimming...... velocity (V) due to change in kinematic viscosity (v) be correlated in terms of a power law, V proportional to v(-m). The present data on swimming velocity of copepods, brine shrimps and rotifers show values of exponent m approximate to 1.5 to 3, with a trend of decreasing values for increasing size of...

  8. Isolation of TDA-producing Phaeobacter strains from sea bass larval rearing units and their probiotic effect against pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Artemia cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul; Dourala, Nancy; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gram, Lone

    2016-05-01

    Fish-pathogenic Vibrio can cause large-scale crashes in marine larval rearing units and, since the use of antibiotics can result in bacterial antibiotic resistance, new strategies for disease prevention are needed. Roseobacter-clade bacteria from turbot larval rearing facilities can antagonize Vibrio anguillarum and reduce mortality in V. anguillarum-infected cod and turbot larvae. In this study, it was demonstrated that antagonistic Roseobacter-clade bacteria could be isolated from sea bass larval rearing units. In addition, it was shown that they not only antagonized V. anguillarum but also V. harveyi, which is the major bacterial pathogen in crustaceans and Mediterranean sea bass larvae cultures. Concomitantly, they significantly improved survival of V. harveyi-infected brine shrimp. 16S rRNA gene sequence homology identified the antagonists as Phaeobacter sp., and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that they could belong to a new species. The genomes contained genes involved in synthesis of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), and its production was confirmed by UHPLC-TOFMS. The new Phaeobacter colonized live feed (Artemia) cultures and reduced Vibrio counts significantly, since they reached only 10(4)CFUmL(-1), as opposed to 10(8)CFUmL(-1) in non-Phaeobacter treated controls. Survival of V. anguillarum-challenged Artemia nauplii was enhanced by the presence of wild type Phaeobacter compared to challenged control cultures (89±1.0% vs 8±3.2%). In conclusion, TDA-producing Phaeobacter isolated from Mediterranean marine larviculture are promising probiotic bacteria against pathogenic Vibrio in crustacean live-feed cultures for marine fish larvae. PMID:26922490

  9. Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae fed Artemia nauplii enriched with poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB): effect on growth performance, body composition, digestive enzymes, gut microbial community, gut histology and stress tests

    OpenAIRE

    Najdegerami, H; K. Baruah; Shiri, A.; Rekecki, A.; Van Den Broeck, W.; Sorgeloos, P.; Boon, N.; P. Bossier; De Schryver, P.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of feeding Artemia nauplii enriched with or without poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and/or highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae were investigated. Feeding larvae with PHB-enriched nauplii (PHB, PHB + HUFA) decreased the growth performance of the larvae. PHB affected the body composition by increasing the lipid content of the whole body and decreasing total saturated, monoenoic, n3, n6 and decosahexanoeic acid (DHA) in the larvae, indica...

  10. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  11. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracelli de Sousa Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL. There are both natural (iCNSL and technical (tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O on the meristems’ root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-, during (co-, and after (post- treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.

  12. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration-dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5mg/mL carbon black and 0.1mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change. PMID:25889088

  13. Short-term effects on Artemia salina of aponin and Gomphosphaeria aponina in unialgal cultures and in mixed cultures with gymnodinium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng-Wilmot, D L; Martin, D F

    1979-08-01

    Previous investigations showed that the natural marine substance aponin, produced by the blue-gree alga Gomphosphaeria sponina, was cytolytic towards Florida's red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve. As part of a study of the aponin-alga biological interactions, the effects of unialgal (G. aponina) and mixed cultures (G. aponina + G. breve) on the viability of artemia salina were investigated. Two contrasting effects were observed in mixed cultures: survival of A. salina was promoted in low G. aponina populations, while enhanced toxicity of G. breve to A. salina occurred at higher culture populations. Unialgal G. aponina cultures exerted no adverse effects on A. salina. The apparent protective effect is thought to result from the observed change in G. breve morphology (motile to sessile); toxicity was the result of enhanced toxin release by cytolyzed G. breve cells. In dose-response studies, aponin exhibited no adverse effect on A. salina at concentrations (1 unit) that were deleterious to G. breve. However, at higher applied levels (4--6 units), mortality was substantial (greater than 70%) after 48 hr of incubation. Probit analysis yielded an apparent LD50 of 2.3 units, where 1 unit was that amount required to cytolyze 50% of the G. breve cells (2000 cells/ml) after 20 hr of incubation. PMID:113525

  14. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the water quality in Hangzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Xu, Xiaolu; Li, Tian; Xu, Yifei; Wu, Xu

    2012-03-01

    As physical and chemical tests alone are not sufficient enough for the assessment of potential effects on aquatic organisms, bioassays are required for the integrated evaluation of water pollution. In this study, invertebrate crustacean Artemia salina (brine shrimp) was applied as an indicator to assess the water quality of Hangzhou Section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. The percentage mortality of brine shrimp was recorded after 24-h exposure to the Canal water. The water samples were collected from five typical sites during October 2008 and April 2009. It exhibited 11% ± 8.3%, 26.7% ± 17%, 31.7% ± 8.5%, 28.0% ± 11.7%, and 4% ± 4.3% percentage mortality for the sample from Tangxi Bridge, Yi Bridge, Gongchen Bridge, Maiyu Bridge, and Gujia Bridge in 2008, respectively. And it exhibited 5.7% ± 4.2%, 10.3% ± 8.2%, 24.3% ± 12.3%, 16.0% ± 12.3%, and 0%, percentage mortality in 2009, respectively. According to the results, a relative improvement in water quality was observed, although the results were not significantly different at the p water toxicity when alternative bioassays were unavailable. PMID:22187021

  15. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesarič, Tina, E-mail: tina.mesaric84@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gambardella, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.gambardella@ge.ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Milivojević, Tamara, E-mail: milivojevictamara@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faimali, Marco, E-mail: marco.faimali@ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Drobne, Damjana, E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CO Nanocentre), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Falugi, Carla, E-mail: carlafalugi@hotmail.it [Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Makovec, Darko, E-mail: darko.makovec@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sepčić, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.sepcic@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change.

  16. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change

  17. Sustitución de Artemia por nematodos en la alimentación de postlarvas (PL 6 a PL 10 del camarón marino (Penaeus vannamei boone 1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Emigdio Palacios Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar la viabilidad de una cepa nativa de nemátodo en la alimentación de estados postlarvales avanzados (PL 6 – PL 10 de Penaeus vannamei, se realizó un experimento con tres regímenes alimenticios. En el primero se alimentaron postlarvas con un peso húmedo determinado de nauplios de Artemia, en el segundo se alimentó con la misma ración pero con nemátodos y en el tercero se alimentó con nemátodos con el doble de la ración. Al final de la prueba se comparó la calidad de las postlarvas analizando talla, sobrevivencia, desarrollo branquial, prueba de estrés y dispersión de talla, obteniéndose como resultado que las postlarvas alimentadas con Artemia tuvieron las mejores tallas (6,4 ± 0,8 mm y sobrevivencias promedio (89%, en comparación con el segundo (6,2 ± 0,8 mm y 75% y el tercer tratamiento (5,9 ± 0,7 mm y 69%. En las pruebas de desarrollo branquial y prueba de estrés no se observo ninguna diferencia significativa entre tratamientos. La dispersión de tallas en ninguno de los tratamientos superó el máximo límite fijado por CLIFFORD (1992 del 15%. Se concluye que la cepa nativa de nemátodo puede sustituir a la Artemia sp. en la alimentación de postlarvas (PL 6 a PL 10 del camarón P. vannamei.

  18. Contribución a la caracterización molecular, citogenética, morfométrica y bioquímica del camarón de salmuera Artemia de Cuba y sur de México

    OpenAIRE

    Tizol Correa, Rafael Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Poblaciones de Artemia de salinas tropicales de América Central y el Caribe, provenientes de ocho localidades de México [Celestún (YCE), San Crisanto (YSC), Xtampú (YX) y Chuburna (YC), en Yucatán, Laguna La Colorada en Oaxaca (OX) y Real de Salinas en Campeche (CP)] y dos sitios de Cuba [salina El Real, Camagüey (CM) y Frank País, Guantánamo (CGA)], fueron evaluadas para determinar su posición sistemática y relaciones filogenéticas. Para ello se utilizaron análisis moleculares (secuencias de...

  19. 拟穴青蟹大眼幼体对卤虫的摄食率和摄食选择%Feeding rates and foraging preference of Scylla paramamosain megalopae on Artemia sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学雷; 陈思; 李少菁; 林琼武; 王桂忠

    2011-01-01

    研究了拟穴青蟹(Scylla paramamosain)大眼幼体在不同饵料密度和组合条件下对卤虫(Ar-temia sp.)无节幼体及成体的摄食率、摄食节律等,发现:光照-视觉因素对拟穴青蟹大眼幼体捕食卤虫无节幼体的数量无显著影响,但对捕食卤虫成体的影响显著(p)时,饵料密度与拟穴青蟹大眼幼体摄食率呈正相关;饵料密度较高时饵料密度变化对拟穴青蟹大眼幼体摄食率的影响不显著(p>0.05).禁食后投饵,在高饵料密度(如卤虫无节幼体密度≥10 incL/cm)下拟穴青蟹大眼幼体的摄食率在短时间(如4 h)较高,随供饵时间的延续摄食率开始下降,较长时间(24 h)摄食率显著较低.以干重计,拟穴青蟹大眼幼体对卤虫成体的摄食率全面高于对卤虫无节幼体;但混合投喂卤虫无节幼体和成体时拟穴青蟹大眼幼体摄食的卤虫成体数量较少,表明在卤虫无节幼体和成体同时存在的情况下拟穴青蟹大眼幼体倾向于放弃卤虫成体捕食无节幼体.拟穴青蟹大眼幼体的摄食行为受到被捕食风险和饵料斑块分布的显著影响.育苗生产中对拟穴青蟹大眼幼体投喂卤虫无节幼体的密度无需高于10 ind/cm.%Scylla paramamosain is distributed widely in Chinese and Southeast Asian coastal waters as an important commercial crustacean. Scylla paramamosain megalopae mainly feed on Artemia sp. nauplii and adults in aquaculture systems. This paper employs an experimental ecological method and energy measure to study the feeding rates,foraging preferences and foraging rhythms of Scylla paramamosain megalopae on Artemia sp. nauplii and adults under different food density and food combinations, and aims to improve the food efficiency for Scylla paramamosain megalopae in aquaculture systems. There are four findings to the study. ( 1 ) Visible-optical factors do not affect the foraging of Scylla paramamosain megalopae on Artemia sp. nauplii but do influence foraging on

  20. Bioensayo General de Letalidad en Artemia Salina, a Las Fracciones del Extracto Etanólico De Psidium Guajava. L y Psidium Guineense. Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Sánchez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se centró en la evaluación y verificación de la letalidad de las fracciones acetato de etilo, obtenida de los extractos etanólicos de los frutos en estado de madurez, verde y pintón, utilizando la cáscara y pulpa de las especies guayaba (Psidium guajava L y Choba (Psidium guineense Sw. La valoración se llevó a cabo mediante el bioensayo en Artemia salina, a través del cual, se evidencia el siguiente proceso: determinar la concentración letal 50 (CL50 utilizando el medio artificial a Ph 7-8, burbujear con el fin de saturar de oxígeno la solución, controlar la eclosión de los huevos a 25 °C despuésde 48 horas, preparar la solución madre y las de trabajo a concentraciones de 1500, 1000, 500,100, 10 g/ml, control positivo estricnina a 80, 70, 60, 50 g/ml, blanco solvente etanol a 80 g/ml. El ensayo biológico se realizó siguiendo las metodologías propuestas por Gualdrón, R (1994; Cyted (1995;Martínez, C (1999 y McLaughlin, J (1997. Comprobada la letalidad de las fracciones acetato del extracto etanólico de Psidium guajava. L y Psidium guineense. Sw mostró CL50 de 181.4 y 221.30g/ml respectivamente, los resultados se evaluaron según Gautret (2000.

  1. Bioatividade de três espécies vegetais nativas da Floresta Atlântica brasileira frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M Pompilho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo a investigação fitoquímica e propriedades antioxidantes de extratos das folhas de Trigynaea oblongifolia Schltdl (Annonaceae, Ottonia frutescens Trel (Piperaceae, e Bathysa australis (St Hill Hooz (Rubiaceae, bem como avaliar, in vitro, a letalidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach. Os extratos foram preparados por maceração em metanol 10% (p/v por sete dias, à temperatura ambiente. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos foi determinada pela metodologia que utiliza o radical estável DPPH. A toxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada frente ao microcrustáceo A. salina. Os extratos de O. frutescens e B. australis apresentaram as seguintes classes de metabólitos secundários: Alcalóides, Antraquinonas, Cumarinas, Polifenóis (Taninos, Saponinas. Nos extratos de T. oblongifolia, além dos metabólitos citados anteriormente, foi detectada a presença de Flavonóides. A atividade antioxidante, observada em 30 minutos na concentração de 24 µg/mL de extrato, foi de: O. frutescens - 38,3%, T. oblongifolia - 32,3%, e B. australis - 32,1%. A Concentração Letal, CL50, dos extratos em A. salina foi de: O. frutescens - 149,75 ± 1,02 µg/mL, T. oblongifolia - 148,8 ± 1,74 µg/mL, e B. australis - 684 ± 9,04 µg/mL. Neste contexto, destacamos as espécies, nativas da Floresta Atlântica, O. frutescens e T. oblongifolia de grande potencial na bioprospecção de moléculas biologicamente ativas.

  2. Cloning and expression of retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 gene in embryo diapause termination and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolu; Yao, Feng; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Ren; Jia, Baolin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-10-15

    Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) is a nuclear protein with four WD-repeat sequences and thus belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of proteins with such domains. This retinoblastoma-binding protein plays an important role in nucleosome assembly and histone modification, which influences gene transcription and regulates cell cycle and proliferation. Artemia sinica (brine shrimp) undergoes an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity and low temperature. However, the role of RBBP4 in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. Here, the full-length cDNA of the As-rbbp4 gene was obtained from A. sinica and found to contain 1411 nucleotides, including a 1281 bp open reading frame (ORF), 63 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 67-bp 3'-UTR, which encodes a 427 amino acid (48 kDa) protein. Bioinformatic analysis indicated As-RBBP4 to be mainly located in the nucleus, with a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Protein sequence domain analysis showed that As-RBBP4 is a conserved protein, especially in the WD40 domain. No specificity in expression of this gene was observed in tissues or organs by in situ hybridization. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses of As-RBBP4 gene and protein expression, respectively, showed notably high levels at 10 h and a subsequent downward trend. Obvious trends in upregulation of As-RBBP4 were observed under conditions of low temperature and high salinity stress. As-E2F1 and As-CyclinE also presented similar trends as that of As-RBBP4 in Western blots. Analysis of the RBBP4 expression in early embryonic development of A. sinica indicated that this protein plays an important role in diapause termination and cell cycle regulation. PMID:27267406

  3. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  4. Avaliação da atividade tóxica em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata de extratos de quatro espécies do gênero Eleocharis (Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.T.G. Ruiz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. compreende cerca de 200 espécies, ocorrendo em ambientes úmidos tais como brejos e margens de rios e lagos. Procurando novos agentes moluscicidas, os extratos de Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult. e Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth foram testados para atividade moluscicida, contra caramujos adultos e desovas, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. O extrato hexânico de Eleocharis acutangula (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 476,00 mg/mL, enquanto os demais extratos apresentaram CL50 >> 10³ mg/mL, sugerindo baixa toxicidade. O extrato hidro-etanólico de Eleocharis sellowiana (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 24,27 mg/mL mas inativo contra indivíduos adultos. Os demais extratos testados não apresentaram atividade moluscicida.

  5. 高原盐湖盐藻和卤虫资源的开发和利用%Development and Utilization of Salt Algae (Dunaliella salina) and Brine Shrimp (Artemia spp.) in the Plateau Salt Lake of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印象初; 印红; 周可新; 张道川; 施鉴屏

    2001-01-01

    叙述了我国高原盐湖的名称、地理位置、面积、水深、海拔和盐湖类型等基本情况;盐湖中盐藻和卤虫的种类、生物学和生态学特性。并对它们的经济价值和开发利用作了初步的讨论。%In the paper, the name, geographical position, area, depth ofwater, altitude, brine type of salt lake from Plateau; ecology, biology and economy of salt algae (Dunaliella salina) and brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) are described. The development and utilization of the sources of salt lake are preliminarily discussed.

  6. Extratos de Moringa oleifera e Vernonia sp. sobre Candida albicans e Microsporum canis isolados de cães e gatos e análise da toxicidade em Artemia sp. Moringa oleifera and Vernonia sp. extracts against Candida albicans and Microsporum canis isolates from dogs and cats and analysis of toxicity to Artemia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da incidência das infecções fúngicas, bem como o registro crescente de resistência e falha terapêutica, têm impulsionado a realização de estudos de prospecção de fitoquímicos com propriedades antifúngicas. Diante do exposto, o presente estudo investigou o potencial antifúngico de extratos de Baccharis ligustrina, B. schultzii, Croton jacobinensis, Licania rigida, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia sp. e V. brasiliana, e de óleos essenciais de Lippia alba (Quimiotipos 1, 2, 3 e 4 e Ocimum gratissimum. Inicialmente, foi realizada uma avaliação qualitativa da atividade antifúngica de cada amostra por meio do método de difusão em ágar, frente a cepas de Candida albicans e Microsporum canis, mostrando que apenas os extratos de M. oleifera (MLF-C e Vernonia sp. (TVS-H apresentaram atividade frente a C. albicans e M. canis, com halos de inibição =10mm. Também foram determinadas a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, frente a 12 cepas de C. albicans e M. canis, e a toxicidade aguda de MLF-C e TVS-H, através de protocolos do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI e ensaio com Artemia sp., respectivamente. A CIM (80% de MLF-C e TVS-H variou de 0,156 a 2,5mg mL-1 frente C. albicans e de 0,039 a 1,25 e 0,039 a 0,625mg mL-1 para M. canis, respectivamente. A CIM (100% de MLF-C e TVS-H variou de 0,625 a 2,5mg mL-1 frente C. albicans é de 0,039 a 2,5 e 0,078 a 1,25mg mL-1 para M. canis, respectivamente. As doses letais (DL50 para o MLF-C e TVS-H foram de 201,09 e 204,17mg mL-1, respectivamente, sendo, portanto, demonstrada a baixa toxicidade desses extratos. Os extratos de M. oileifera e Vernonia sp. apresentaram atividade antifúngica frente cepas de C. albicans e M. canis, abrindo a perspectiva de estudos para caracterização dos seus componentes bioativos.The increase in the incidence of fungal infections and the frequent report of resistance and therapeutic failure has promoted the performance of phytochemical

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13836-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 5e-13 DQ825653_1( DQ825653 |pid:none) Artemia franciscana protein kinase... 79 ... 5e-13 DQ825654_1( DQ825654 |pid:none) Artemia franciscana protein kinase... 79 5e-13 AF509737_1( AF509737 |pid:none..... 91 2e-16 AY335743_1( AY335743 |pid:none) Synthetic construct Homo sapiens C... 90 2e-16 ( O14757 ) RecName: Full=Serine/threonine...) Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromoso... 84 2e-14 AK032316_1( AK032316 |pid:none) Mus m...... 84 2e-14 CR936503_695( CR936503 |pid:none) Lactobacillus sakei strain 23K c... 84 2e-14 (Q75L42) Rec

  8. The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, Francisco; Hontoria, Francisco; Ruiz, Olga; Green, Andy J.; Sánchez, Marta I.; Figuerola, Jordi; Hortas, F.

    2005-01-01

    The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France, the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco) contain autochthonous forms of the brine shrimp Artemia, with parthenogenetic diploid and tetraploid strains coexisting with the bisexual species A. sal- ina. Introduced populations of the American brine shrimp A. franciscana have also been recorded in these Mediterranean environments since the 1980s. Based on brine shrimp cyst samples...

  9. Winter Waterbird Ecology on the Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Interactions with Commercial Harvest of Brine Shrimp Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among commercial fisheries and birds have been studied in open ocean ecosystems and at aquaculture facilities. On the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA, a commercial harvest of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) eggs (i.e. cysts) occurs annually during fall and winter. Coinciding with commercial harvest is the use of the GSL by millions of waterbirds which has the potential to result in conflict among industry and birds. The objectives of my research were to examine fall and winte...

  10. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  11. Gut reaction by heartless shrimps: experimental evidence for the role of the gut in generating circulation before cardiac ontogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, John I

    2006-01-01

    Before the appearance of a functional heart in many invertebrate species, the assumption was that general body movements provide circulatory function. Consequently, I investigated the frequency of gut movements in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, immediately post-hatch to the point when a functional heart appeared. Prior to cardiac ontogeny, movements of internal musculature and gut provided pre-cardiac circulatory currents with the rate of gut movements increasing when swimming limbs w...

  12. The effects of mixture commercial live bakers’ yeast and probiotic bacillus on growth and feeding performance and survival rate of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix larvae via bioencapsulated Artemia urmiana nauplii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Adineh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844 larvae is an important species forfreshwater aquaculture. This study evaluated the effects of feeding a blend of probiotic bacilli bacteria(B. polymixa, B. licheniformis, B. circulans and baker´s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth and feeding parameters and survival rate of Silver carp larvae. Artemia urmiana (Gǘnther, 1899 nauplii is an important live food that was used as a vector to carry probiotic bacillus to digestive tract of silver carp larvae. The fish larvae were fed at a level of 10 percent body weight at 4 times a day for 30 days. Fish larvae in experimental treatments were fed A. urmiana nauplii that were enriched by blend of 50 percent of Bacillus spp. with concentrations of 1×105, 2×105, 3×105 and 4×105 CFU mL-1 and 50 percent of baker´s yeast with concentrations of 1×105, 2×105, 3×105 and 4×105 cellsmL-1 (T1, T2, T3, T4, respectively and were compared to fish larvae fed control diets of unbioencapsulated A. urmiananauplii. The experiment indicated that feeding and growth parameters in fish fed experimental treatments were significantly higher than fish fed control diets (P<0.05 but survival rate did not significantly differ. Overall, the best group was fed the highest level of yeast and probiotic.

  13. The Potential Roles of the G1LEA and G3LEA Proteins in Early Embryo Development and in Response to Low Temperature and High Salinity in Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Yao, Feng; Zhang, Mengchen; Jing, Ting; Zhang, Shuang; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA) are stress resistance-related proteins that play crucial roles in protecting against desiccation, cold and high salinity in a variety of animals and plants. However, the expression pattern, distribution and functions of LEA proteins in the post-diapause period of Artemia sinica, and under high salinity and low temperature stresses, remain unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the group 1 LEA (As-g1lea) and group 3 LEA (As-g3lea) genes from A. sinica were cloned. The expression patterns and location of As-G1LEA and As-G1LEA were investigated. The protein abundances of As-G1LEA, As-G3LEA and Trehalase were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo and under low temperature and high salinity stresses in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-g1lea was 960 bp, encoding a 182 amino acid protein, and As-g3lea was 2089 bp, encoding a 364 amino acid protein. As-g1lea and As-g3lea showed their highest expressions at 0 h of embryonic development and both showed higher relative expression in embryonic, rather than adult, development stages. The abundances of As-G1LEA, As-G3LEA and trehalose were upregulated under low temperature and downregulated under high salinity stress. These two genes did not show any tissue or organ specific expression. Our results suggested that these LEA proteins might play a pivotal role in stress tolerance in A. sinica. PMID:27603306

  14. Avaliação de extratos de macroalgas bênticas do litoral catarinense utilizando o teste de letalidade para Artemia salina Evaluation of macroalgae from Santa Catarina’s coast with the brine shrimp assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Lhullier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de algas marinhas de 19 espécies (sendo 4 pertencentes ao filo Chlorophyta, 5 ao filo Phaeophyta e 10 ao filo Rhodophyta em dois locais do litoral catarinense. Os extratos etanólicos foram submetidos ao teste de letalidade para larvas de Artemia salina com objetivo de realizar uma triagem das espécies. Dos 26 extratos testados, 25 apresentaram toxicidade significativa em pelo menos uma das 3 concentrações testadas. O grupo de algas vermelhas (Rhodophyta foi o que obteve maior porcentagem de extratos com resultados estatisticamente significativos pelo método do qui-quadrado e também menores valores de CL50, com destaque para Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis e Pterocladiella capillacea. Observaram-se diferenças entre as espécies de um mesmo gênero (Codium decorticatum e Codium isthmocladium e também a influência de fatores ambientais (Hypnea musciformis na toxicidade dos extratos.Samples of 19 macroalgae species (4 Chlorophyta, 5 Phaeophyta and 10 Rhodophyta have been collected from two points of Santa Catarina's coast. The ethanolic extracts were avaluated with the brine shrimp assay in order to perform a screening for potential toxicity. A total of 25 extracts presented significant results in one or more of the tested concentrations. The phylum Rhodophyta presented more statistically significant results with the chi-square test, as well as lower values of LC50. The extracts of Acanthophora spicifera (from Canasvieiras and Ilha do Francês, Hypnea musciformis and Pterocladiella capillacea (both from Ilha do Francês presented LC50 below 50 mg/mL. Differences between the species of same genus (Codium decorticatum and Codium isthmocladium and the influence of environmental factors (Hypnea musciformis were observed.

  15. S. V. Karpenko, ed., Meždu Rossiej i Stalinym | Michael Kellog, The Russian Roots of Nazism

    OpenAIRE

    Cœuré, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Ces deux ouvrages viennent, chacun à sa manière, enrichir les connaissances sur l’histoire politique de l’émigration dite « russe » ou « blanche » (c’est-à-dire issue de l’empire tsariste) des années 1920 à 1945. Ils ont pour point commun de mettre l’accent sur la grande diversité des solutions idéologiques et pratiques apportées par les mouvements et les partis des émigrations implantées en Europe, mais aussi en Mandchourie ou aux États-Unis, à la situation géopolitique créée par l’arrivée d...

  16. Functional Role of Native and Invasive Filter-Feeders, and the Effect of Parasites: Learning from Hypersaline Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Filter-feeding organisms are often keystone species with a major influence on the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. Studies of filtering rates in such taxa are therefore vital in order to understand ecosystem functioning and the impact of natural and anthropogenic stressors such as parasites, climate warming and invasive species. Brine shrimps Artemia spp. are the dominant grazers in hypersaline systems and are a good example of such keystone taxa. Hypersaline ecosystems are relatively simplified environments compared with much more complex freshwater and marine ecosystems, making them suitable model systems to address these questions. The aim of this study was to compare feeding rates at different salinities and temperatures between clonal A. parthenogenetica (native to Eurasia and Africa) and the invasive American brine shrimp A. franciscana, which is excluding native Artemia from many localities. We considered how differences observed in laboratory experiments upscale at the ecosystem level across both spatial and temporal scales (as indicated by chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity). In laboratory experiments, feeding rates increased at higher temperatures and salinities in both Artemia species and sexes, whilst A. franciscana consistently fed at higher rates. A field study of temporal dynamics revealed significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll-a in sites occupied by A. parthenogenetica, supporting our experimental findings. Artemia parthenogenetica density and biomass were negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration at the spatial scale. We also tested the effect of cestode parasites, which are highly prevalent in native Artemia but much rarer in the invasive species. The cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides and Anomotaenia tringae decreased feeding rates in native Artemia, whilst Confluaria podicipina had no significant effect. Total parasite prevalence was positively correlated with turbidity. Overall, parasites are likely to reduce

  17. Functional Role of Native and Invasive Filter-Feeders, and the Effect of Parasites: Learning from Hypersaline Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Paredes, Irene; Lebouvier, Marion; Green, Andy J

    2016-01-01

    Filter-feeding organisms are often keystone species with a major influence on the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. Studies of filtering rates in such taxa are therefore vital in order to understand ecosystem functioning and the impact of natural and anthropogenic stressors such as parasites, climate warming and invasive species. Brine shrimps Artemia spp. are the dominant grazers in hypersaline systems and are a good example of such keystone taxa. Hypersaline ecosystems are relatively simplified environments compared with much more complex freshwater and marine ecosystems, making them suitable model systems to address these questions. The aim of this study was to compare feeding rates at different salinities and temperatures between clonal A. parthenogenetica (native to Eurasia and Africa) and the invasive American brine shrimp A. franciscana, which is excluding native Artemia from many localities. We considered how differences observed in laboratory experiments upscale at the ecosystem level across both spatial and temporal scales (as indicated by chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity). In laboratory experiments, feeding rates increased at higher temperatures and salinities in both Artemia species and sexes, whilst A. franciscana consistently fed at higher rates. A field study of temporal dynamics revealed significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll-a in sites occupied by A. parthenogenetica, supporting our experimental findings. Artemia parthenogenetica density and biomass were negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration at the spatial scale. We also tested the effect of cestode parasites, which are highly prevalent in native Artemia but much rarer in the invasive species. The cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides and Anomotaenia tringae decreased feeding rates in native Artemia, whilst Confluaria podicipina had no significant effect. Total parasite prevalence was positively correlated with turbidity. Overall, parasites are likely to reduce

  18. Dicty_cDB: AFH148 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available toma infestans cathepsin L-lik... 191 1e-47 EF670319_1( EF670319 |pid:none) Artemia persimilis cathepsin... AF147207_1( AF147207 |pid:none) Artemia franciscana cathepsin L-li... 193 2e-48 AY795054_1( AY795054 |pid:none) Artemia...L (CAT-L1)... 191 8e-48 ( P13277 ) RecName: Full=Digestive cysteine proteinase 1; ... 191 1e-47 AY363263_1( AY363263 |pid:none) Tria...N S58669 |S58669.1 Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase precursor (ACP1) gene, partial cds. 54 2e-06 2 ...c, DNA sequence. 40 0.019 2 AF326781 |AF326781.1 Triticum monococcum actin (ACT-1) gene, partial cds; putative chrom

  19. Análise fitoquímica, potencial antioxidante e toxicidade do extrato bruto etanólico e das frações da espécie Senecio westermaniiDusén frente à Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.Z. MERINO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A espécie Senecio westermanii Dusén pertencente à família Asteraceae é planta endêmica e nativa do Brasil encontrada na região da Floresta Atlântica, nos estados do Paraná e São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição fitoquímica do extrato bruto etanólico e frações das partes aéreas (folha e caule de S. westermanii utilizando-se a análise fitoquímica qualitativa e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos (CLAE-DAD, avaliar in vitro a toxicidade preliminar utilizando Artemia salina e o potencial antioxidante. O estudo fitoquímico qualitativo revelou a presença de alcaloides, flavonoides, iridoides, esteroides/triterpenos, heterosídeos saponínicos e aminogrupos. Através da análise realizada por CLAE-DAD obteve-se o fingerprint característico de cada amostra. No ensaio frente à A. salina houve ausência de toxicidade das amostras, o resultado da DL50 para todas as amostras foi superior a 1000 μg/mL. Todas as amostras apresentaram atividade antioxidante pela redução do complexo fosfomolibdênio, com destaque para a fração clorofórmio que apresentou atividade antioxidante de 92,51% em relação ao padrão rutina. Com relação ao ensaio de redução do radical DPPH•, a fração acetato de etila apresentou IC50 de 26,98 μg/mL. Pelo ensaio do ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS a fração hexano apresentou o melhor índice antioxidante em relação ao padrão rutina. Os resultados obtidos demonstram evidências de que a espécie é fonte potencial de antioxidantes naturais, estimulando assim novos estudos que viabilizam sua utilização no tratamento de patologias associadas aos radicais livres. Além disso, a espécie não apresentou atividade tóxica preliminar, assegurando sua aplicabilidade.

  20. Estudo fitoquímico e bioensaio toxicológico frente a larvas de Artemia salina Leach. de três espécies medicinais do gênero Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. NASCIMENTO

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico e a toxicidade de três espécies do gênero Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. amarus e P. tenellus, coletadas em diferentes localidades do estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Os extratos brutos das três espécies foram submetidos a testes convencionais por cromatografia em camada delgada analítica para verificação das classes de metabólitos presentes, e testados frente a larvas de Artemia salina para obtenção das concentrações letais médias (CL50. Os testes fitoquímicos demonstraram a presença de flavonóides, saponinas, terpenos, naftoquinonas, alcalóides, antraquinonas, lignanas e taninos. As três espécies de Phyllanthus apresentaram variações na composição fitoquímica e na toxicidade frente a A. salina. Dependendo do local de coleta, os valores de CL50 variaram de 404,43 ± 49,64 µg/mL a 770,84 ± 51,78 µg/mL para P. niruri, 837,65 ± 61,45 µg/mL a 1075,89 ± 70,72 µg/mL para P. amarus e 534,60 ± 46,83 µg/mL a 1003,62 ± 65,15 µg/mL para P. tenellus. Palavras-chave: Phyllanthus niruri; Phyllanthus amarus,/i>; Phyllanthus tenellus; análise fitoquímica preliminar; bioensaio toxicológico; CL50

  1. Green synthesis of Silver nanoparticles through Calotropis gigantea leaf extracts and evaluation of antibacterial activity against Vibrio alginolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaseeharan Baskaralingam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Calotropis gigantea leaf extract were used to study the inhibitory activity against pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus, isolated from wild Artemia franciscana cysts. Silver nanoparticle synthesis was observed using UV-visible spectroscopy and the morphological characteristics were analyzed by atomic force microscope (AFM. In the present study, increasing concentrations of silver nanoparticles synthesized on LB agar plates effectively reduced the number of colonies of V. alginolyticus. A decrease in colonies (CFUs was observed at 5 mg/mL of silver nanoparticle concentration and the complete inhibition of V. alginolyticus was observed at 20 mg/mL of silver nanoparticle concentration on LB agar plates. In vivo controlling efficiency of silver nanoparticles was tested in an A. franciscana hatching system. Effective control of V. alginolyticus in brine shrimp A. franciscana hatching units was achieved by experimental infection and treatment with silver nanoparticles. Experimental infection studies showed that V. alginolyticus infected Artemia nauplii treated with silver nanoparticles (10 mg/mL had greater survival (>40% than silver nanoparticles not treated with nauplii. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that low concentrations of green synthesized silver nanoparticles should be further investigated for other potential experimental models to control potential medical pathogens.

  2. Alimento vivo como alternativa en la dieta de larvas y juveniles de Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luna-Figueroa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La nutrición en los estadios iniciales de los peces constituye uno de los principales problemas de cultivo, debido a que es la etapa en la que se presenta la mayor mortalidad. En el presente estudio se evaluó, como alternativa en la alimentación de larvas y juveniles de Pterophyllum scalare, el efecto de tres alimentos vivos (Moina wierzejski, Artemia franciscana y Panagrellus redivivus y un alimento comercial (Aquarian Tropical Flakes sobre la tasa específica de crecimiento (TEC y la sobrevivencia. La TEC de larvas resultó más alta con nauplios de A. franciscana (17.57 ± 0.39a% peso corporal ganado mg/ día, seguida de M. wierzejski (16.63 ± 0.41b, P. redivivus (14.25 ± 0.42c y del alimento comercial (13.20 ± 0.42d (P<0.05. En los juveniles, la TEC fue mayor con M. wierzejski (6.28 ± 0.21a% peso corporal ganado mg/día, seguida de A. franciscana (6.04 ± 0.23b, P. redivivus (4.86 ± 0.23c y del alimento comercial (4.39 ± 0.23d (P<0.05. La sobrevivencia de las larvas fue 80.00 ± 10.00a% con A. franciscana y M. wierzejski, mayor 25 y 40.62% con respecto a P. redivivus (60.00 ± 10.00b% y al alimento comercial (45.00 ± 10.00b% (P<0.05. En los juveniles, la sobrevivencia del 100% no difirió con ningún alimento. Finalmente, los nauplios de Artemia en la etapa larval y la Moina en juveniles estimularon favorablemente la TEC y la sobrevivencia de P. scalare.

  3. Composição química, atividade antibacteriana in vitro e toxicidade em Artemia salina do óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae Chemical composition, antibacterial activity in vitro and brine-shrimp toxicity of the essential oil from inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise L. Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG/EM. Os constituintes majoritários identificados foram eugenol (81,94% e γ-muuroleno (12,58%. O óleo essencial das inflorescências demonstrou atividade antibacteriana frente a todas as cepas bacterianas testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Merece destaque a atividade verificada frente às cepas resistentes de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Os valores obtidos de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM variaram, respectivamente, entre 0,5-2 mg/mL e 1-4 mg/mL. Valores de CL50 de 233,8 (200,7-272,0 µg/mL para o óleo essencial e 186,1 (144,1-228,5 µg/mL para o eugenol, utilizado como controle positivo, foram observados frente à Artemia salina L.The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L. was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were eugenol (81.94% and γ-muurolene (12.58%. Antibacterial activity was shown against all assayed strains by the broth microdilution method. It's worth noting the activity against resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values ranged between 0.5-2 mg/mL and 1-4 mg/mL, respectively. Preliminary toxicity assayed by the brine-shrimp (Artemia salina L. test showed LC50 values of 233.8 (200.7 - 272.0 µg/mL and 186.1 (144.1 - 228.5 µg/mL, respectively for the essential oil and eugenol (positive control.

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHF491 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GATTACAAAACAA GAATATGATGAAGTTGGTAGAGGAATTGTTCATAGAAAATGTTTTTAAATAAATAAAATA ATAAATAATATTTTAAAATA Length of 3' end seq. 800 Connect...ed seq. ID CHF491P Connected seq. >CHF491P.Seq AATAAACTACAAATTTGGATGTTAAATTAATTATAATTTG...TTTTTAAATAAATAAAATA ATAAATAATATTTTAAAATA Length of connected seq. 1450 Full length Seq ID - Full length Seq. - Length of full length seq. - ... ... LGfact mRNA f... 310 8e-83 AY305013_1( AY305013 |pid:none) Gromia oviformis actin mRNA, parti...al cds. 101 5e-24 3 AJ269586 |AJ269586.1 Artemia franciscana mRNA for actin (actin 302 gene), clone

  5. Índice de desarrollo y supervivencia de larvas del camarón azul Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson, 1871), alimentadas con diferentes concentraciones de Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel E Godínez; Arnulfo H Díaz; María del C Gallo

    2005-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo ensayos alimenticios con larvas del camarón azul (Litopenaeus stylirostris) utilizando cuatro diferentes concentraciones de la microalga Chaetoceroscalcitrans (30000, 60000, 90000 y 120000 cél/ml), con una concentración constante por tratamiento de 10000 cél/ml de Tetraselmis suecica y seis nauplios por ml de Artemia franciscana recién eclosionada. El período de prueba se inició a partir del sub estadio zoea 1 y concluyó hasta la aparición de misis 3. En cada ensayo fueron...

  6. Dicty_cDB: SLK566 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nslated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ---csqlpirycs*knddasrsc*yslfkhlgllgkdchp*rsncllqrcfikchqrfr...e: Full=Mitochondrial substrate carrier family pr... 164 9e-40 ( Q27238 ) RecName: Full=ADP,ATP carrier protein..... 105 6e-22 FJ263906_1( FJ263906 |pid:none) Artemia franciscana clone 19AG2.08... 104 8e-22 protein update ...AA CATACATGAAATATAAAATAAAACTTTTTA sequence update 1998. 9. 8 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---VVSYPFDTVRRRM...DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AF039211 |AF039211.1 Dictyostelium discoideum ADP/ATP tra

  7. Effect of repeated insertions of curved sequences in DNA plasmids: a light-scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Stefano; Chirico, Giuseppe; Baldini, Giancarlo; Kapp, U.; Badaracco, G.

    1993-06-01

    The effect of the insertion of different amounts (from 0 to 6) of the curved sequence AluI in pUC18m plasmid (2686 base pairs, bp) is studied by dynamic light scattering. This sequence is a highly repeated 113 base pairs long sequence from Artemia Franciscana shrimp. A 30% compaction of the plasmids containing 2 and 6 adjacent AluI sequences compared to pUC8 plasmid (2717 bp) is observed. Furthermore the behavior of the translational diffusion coefficient Dt versus the number of adjacent AluI insertion is not monotonic.

  8. Alimento vivo como alternativa en la dieta de larvas y juveniles de Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Luna-Figueroa; Z. T. de J. Vargas; T. J. Figueroa

    2010-01-01

    La nutrición en los estadios iniciales de los peces constituye uno de los principales problemas de cultivo, debido a que es la etapa en la que se presenta la mayor mortalidad. En el presente estudio se evaluó, como alternativa en la alimentación de larvas y juveniles de Pterophyllum scalare, el efecto de tres alimentos vivos (Moina wierzejski, Artemia franciscana y Panagrellus redivivus) y un alimento comercial (Aquarian Tropical Flakes) sobre la tasa específica de crecimiento (TEC) y la sobr...

  9. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  10. Global arrest of translation during invertebrate quiescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, G E; Hand, S C

    1994-01-01

    Comparing the translational capacities of cell-free systems from aerobically developing embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana vs. quiescent embryos has revealed a global arrest of protein synthesis. Incorporation rates of [3H]leucine by lysates from 4-h anoxic embryos were 8% of those from aerobic (control) embryos, when assayed at the respective pH values measured for each treatment in vivo. Exposure of embryos to 4 h of aerobic acidosis (elevated CO2 in the presence of oxygen) sup...

  11. Dicty_cDB: SFL106 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 AY363263_1( AY363263 |pid:none) Triatoma infestans cathepsin L-lik... 167 2e-40 AY795054_1( AY795054 |pid:none) Artemia... L ... 167 2e-40 AF147207_1( AF147207 |pid:none) Artemia franciscana cathepsin L-li... 167 2e-4..., partial cds; putative chromosome condensation factor (CCF), putative resistance protein...ey sequence. 54 0.002 1 M27307 |M27307.1 Entamoeba histolytica cysteine protease gene, partial cds. 54 0.002...ase precursor (ACP1) gene, partial cds. 54 0.002 1 AF326781 |AF326781.1 Triticum monococcum actin (ACT-1) gene

  12. Dicty_cDB: SFC724 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AY363263_1( AY363263 |pid:none) Triatoma infestans cathepsin L-lik... 167 1e-40 AY795054_1( AY795054 |pid:none) Artemia... L ... 167 1e-40 AF147207_1( AF147207 |pid:none) Artemia franciscana cathepsin L-li... 167 1e-40 ..., partial cds; putative chromosome condensation factor (CCF), putative resistance protein...lytica cysteine protease gene, partial cds. 54 0.002 1 X87214 |X87214.1 E.histo...GGTTATGT Length of 3' end seq. 507 Connected seq. ID - Connected seq. - Length of connected seq. - Full length Seq ID - Full length Seq. - Length of full length seq. - ...

  13. Integrated microfluidic technology for sub-lethal and behavioral marine ecotoxicity biotests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yushi; Reyes Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Persoone, Guido; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-06-01

    Changes in behavioral traits exhibited by small aquatic invertebrates are increasingly postulated as ethically acceptable and more sensitive endpoints for detection of water-born ecotoxicity than conventional mortality assays. Despite importance of such behavioral biotests, their implementation is profoundly limited by the lack of appropriate biocompatible automation, integrated optoelectronic sensors, and the associated electronics and analysis algorithms. This work outlines development of a proof-of-concept miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for rapid water toxicity tests based on changes in swimming patterns exhibited by Artemia franciscana (Artoxkit M™) nauplii. In contrast to conventionally performed end-point analysis based on counting numbers of dead/immobile specimens we performed a time-resolved video data analysis to dynamically assess impact of a reference toxicant on swimming pattern of A. franciscana. Our system design combined: (i) innovative microfluidic device keeping free swimming Artemia sp. nauplii under continuous microperfusion as a mean of toxin delivery; (ii) mechatronic interface for user-friendly fluidic actuation of the chip; and (iii) miniaturized video acquisition for movement analysis of test specimens. The system was capable of performing fully programmable time-lapse and video-microscopy of multiple samples for rapid ecotoxicity analysis. It enabled development of a user-friendly and inexpensive test protocol to dynamically detect sub-lethal behavioral end-points such as changes in speed of movement or distance traveled by each animal.

  14. 葡萄糖和盐度对卤虫生长、养殖系统生物絮团形成及其微生物多样性的影响%EFFECTS OF GLUCOSE AND SALINITY ON ARTEMIA GROWTH, BIOFLOC FORMATION, AND MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN CULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娇; 马灌楠; 邓元告; 隋丽英

    2015-01-01

    在零换水卤虫养殖系统中,研究葡萄糖和盐度对卤虫Artemia franciscana生长、卤水中生物絮团形成、水质及其微生物多样性的影响.实验设四组,每组三个平行,分别在盐度为50、100和150的养殖水体中添加葡萄糖(添加量随着卤虫的生长逐渐增加从每天12mg/L到37mg/L),对照组盐度为50且不添加葡萄糖.单位养殖水体为1L,卤虫起始密度约为1200ind/L,投喂浓缩杜氏藻Dunaliella viridis,养殖周期为20天.结果显示,添加葡萄糖可以显著提高生物絮团体积,降低水中的铵盐、亚硝酸盐、硝酸盐和总氮水平,提高卤虫总生物量(P<0.05).但随着盐度升高,卤虫生物量显著降低(P<0.05),亚硝酸盐和总氮水平显著升高(P<0.05),絮团体积有所升高.另外,葡萄糖添加和盐度对卤虫粗蛋白和脂肪酸含量无显著影响(P>0.05).PCR-DGGE分析表明,γ-变形菌纲(γ-proteobacterium)为生物絮团中优势菌群且以海洋细菌为主.与对照组相比,添加葡萄糖和升高盐度显著降低菌群丰富度指数(P<0.05),环境承载力下降.本研究结果为高盐环境条件下生物絮团的形成机理及其在卤虫人工养殖中的应用提供了参考.

  15. Supplementation of Indigenous Lactobacillus Bacteria in Live Prey and as Water Additive to Larviculture of Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Talpur

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental trials were conducted to demarcate the effects of indigenous Lactobacillus probiotics as bioencapsulated in live prey (rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia franciscana and water additives together on the survival of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus larvae. Three LAB probiotics L. plantarum, L. salivarius and L. rhamnosus at final concentration 1x107 cfu/mL were bioencapsulated in live prey added daily and same allowance was added to culture water on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 as a single isolates to treatments A, B, C and multi isolates to D with no probiotic added to control tanks. Bacteria were successfully accumulated in both rotifers and Artemia within two hours of incubation. Total viable count of bacteria in Artemia observed lower at sampling days in inoculated tanks compared to those at time of incubation, contrary it increased in controls and no Vibrio was determined in Artemia in LAB mixture isolate inoculated samples on the day 13. Highest LAB bacteria 4.10×103 was determined in Artemia on day 11 in those inoculated with mixture of LAB isolates. At the end of the trials, larvae treated with a mixture of LAB probiotics did produce significantly highest survival 13.83±0.76% over other LAB treatments. As a single isolates L. plantarum did produce survival 13.50±1.32% compared with those treated with L. salivarius and L. rhamnosus and those without probiotics (control. There was no statistical significance (p>0.05 in the survival of larvae in any treatment. Results indicate that LAB probiotics could be used to enhance survival of P. pelagicus larvae.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF REFERENCE ARTEMIA III FOR MARINE TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASTM Practice for Using Brine Shrimp Nauplii as Food for Test Animals in Aquatic Toxicology Tests (E 1203) suggests use of Reference Artemis as a reference standard for evaluating other batches of brine shrimp as food for organisms used in toxicology. in 1988, the U.S. EPA was ab...

  17. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hisem, D.; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, P.; Tomšíčková, J.; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, K.; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2011), s. 76-83. ISSN 0041-0101 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/1501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Secondary metabolites * Brine shrimp bioassay * Health risk assessment Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.508, year: 2011

  18. Continuous Spontaneous Alternation and Turn Alternation in Artemia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Can; Yılmaz, Meltem; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Free-running spontaneous alternation refers to the animal’s tendency to prefer the least recently visited locations in successive spatial choices, which is attributed to the animals’ choice between stimuli based on prior experience.  Turn alternation, which is observed in directional choices preceded by a forced turn in one direction, also reflects the animals’ tendency to alternate between directional choices but this tendency has been assumed to rely on other cues (e.g., proprioceptive cues...

  19. Toxicity of heavy metals to brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Hirota, R.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_20_43.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_20_43.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  1. La espiritualidad franciscana en España en tiempos de las observancias (1380-1517

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquíades ANDRÉS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Creo que los franciscanos españoles aportan algo nuevo al modo de observar el Evangelio y la Regla de la orden en obediencia, castidad y sin nada propio. Al menos viven a su modo ese norte fundamental de la Regla Segunda y se sitúan de manera peculiar en relación con los rigoristas, fratricelos y «espirituales». A veces emplean los mismos términos verbales, pero en sentido no poco diferente. De ahí la importancia del período de las reformas u observancias. Época histórica bien definida de la orden en España, que se extiende desde las últimas décadas del siglo XIV hasta 1517.

  2. Development of new heparin-like compounds and other antithrombotic drugs and their interaction with vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader H.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticlotting and antithrombotic activities of heparin, heparan sulfate, low molecular weight heparins, heparin and heparin-like compounds from various sources used in clinical practice or under development are briefly reviewed. Heparin isolated from shrimp mimics the pharmacological activities of low molecular weight heparins. A heparan sulfate from Artemia franciscana and a dermatan sulfate from tuna fish show a potent heparin cofactor II activity. A heparan sulfate derived from bovine pancreas has a potent antithrombotic activity in an arterial and venous thrombosis model with a negligible activity upon the serine proteases of the coagulation cascade. It is suggested that the antithrombotic activity of heparin and other antithrombotic agents is due at least in part to their action on endothelial cells stimulating the synthesis of an antithrombotic heparan sulfate.

  3. A study of episodic events in the Baltic Sea - combined in situ and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sagan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A project was developed concerning the operational system of surveillanceand the recording of episodic events in the Baltic Sea.In situ information was to be combined with multi-sensory satelliteimagery to determine the extent of algal blooms, to track their evolutionand that of rapid environmental events like hydrological fronts. The mainelement of the system was an autonomous Ferry Box module on a ferry operatingbetween Gdynia and Karlskrona, automatically measuring temperature,salinity and chlorophyll a fluorescence. At pre-selected locations,discrete water samples were collected, which were subsequently analysedfor their phytoplankton content, and algal hepato- and neurotoxins;they were also used in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana}.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14299-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PGSC16... 39 0.21 EU195078_1( EU195078 |pid:none) Clytia hemisphaerica nematocyst ou... 39 0.21 (Q6L8H1) RecName: Full=Kerat...usculus 12 days embryo spinal... 33 0.018 ( P15265 ) RecName: Full=Sperm mitochondrial-associated cysteine-r... AB236149 |pid:none) Artemia franciscana Af-sog mRNA fo... 37 0.79 AF054584_1( AF054584 |pid:none) Sus scrof...eromyxobacter dehalogenans 2... 37 1.4 ( P60410 ) RecName: Full=Keratin-associat...34 8.7 AM743083_1( AM743083 |pid:none) Cyanagraea praedator Mt gene for m... 34 8

  5. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  6. Gut reaction by heartless shrimps: experimental evidence for the role of the gut in generating circulation before cardiac ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, John I

    2006-12-22

    Before the appearance of a functional heart in many invertebrate species, the assumption was that general body movements provide circulatory function. Consequently, I investigated the frequency of gut movements in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, immediately post-hatch to the point when a functional heart appeared. Prior to cardiac ontogeny, movements of internal musculature and gut provided pre-cardiac circulatory currents with the rate of gut movements increasing when swimming limbs were impeded. There was also some evidence that gut movements were responsive to low oxygen, indicating a possible regulatory function for the gut in early circulation. Overall, this suggests that general body movements are not always adequate to provide internal circulation in small, heartless individuals. PMID:17148293

  7. Quantitative oral dosing of water soluble and lipophilic contaminants in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irv; Reed, Stacey M.; Pratt, Amanda V.; Skillman, Ann D.

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative oral dosing in fish can be challenging, particularly with water soluble contaminants, which can leach into the aquarium water prior to ingestion. We applied a method of bioencapsulation using newly hatched brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii to study the toxicokinetics of five chlorinated and brominated halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), which are drinking water disinfection by-products. These results are compared to those obtained in a previous study using a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47), a highly lipophilic chemical. The HAAs and PBDE-47 were bioencapsulated using freshly hatched A. franciscana nauplii after incubation in concentrated solutions of the study chemicals for 18 h. Aliquots of the brine shrimp were quantitatively removed for chemical analysis and fed to individual fish that were able to consume 400–500 nauplii in less than 5min. At select times after feeding, fish were euthanized and the HAA or PBDE-47 content determined. The absorption of HAAs was quantitatively similar to previous studies in rodents: rapid absorptionwith peak body levels occurringwithin 1–2 h, then rapidly declining with elimination half-life of 0.3–3 h depending on HAA. PBDE-47 was more slowly absorbed with peak levels occurring by 18 h and very slowly eliminated with an elimination half-life of 281 h.

  8. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle G Beckman

    Full Text Available Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  9. El descubrimiento de América en la última hora del mundo: la hermenéutica franciscana

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Miguel Ángel Segundo

    2012-01-01

    La interpretación apocalíptica que realizaron los franciscanos en el siglo XVI con relación al descubrimiento de América es el tema de este artículo. Los primeros doce llegados al Nuevo Mundo son herederos de una larga tradición intelectual-escatológica que otorgó un sentido característico al tono de la evangelización americana. En los albores de la modernidad un pensamiento utópico permitió generar estrategias de apropiación del espacio, pero también fue la base para labrar una nueva Histori...

  10. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina Flavonoids and triterpenes from Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioactivity on Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Paula Madeira Moreira; Valmor Coutinho; Ana Beatriz Pimentel Montanher; Miguel Soriano Balparda Caro; Inês Maria Costa Brighente; Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti; Franco Delle Monache

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The str...

  11. 镰刀菌Fusarium solani菌株对卤虫Artemia salina的毒性%Toxicity of Fusarium solani Strains on Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shagufia Hameed; Viqar Sultana; Jehan Ara; Syed Ehteshamul-Haque; Mohammad Athar4

    2009-01-01

    寻找能杀伤肿瘤细胞而对正常细胞无毒的抗癌药物极具挑战性.具有细胞毒性的植物或者真菌可能含有抗肿瘤的化合物.卤虫无节幼体的致死性可作为筛选抗肿瘤化合物的试验.本研究运用从不同农作物种子分离的8株镰刀菌(Fusarium solani)培养滤液来测试卤虫的细胞毒性效果.结果表明,5株菌株(TS、S-29、B-17、C-10和W-5)对卤虫显示高毒性;3株菌株(SR、T-9和L-25)显示低毒性,且毒性随着培养滤液的稀释而减弱.5株菌株(TS、B-17、SR、T-9和L-25)按照1:10稀释能导致30%以上的死亡率.NaOH中和后的滤液毒性略微降低,表明培养滤液的pH值可能影响毒性.这些菌株冻干的滤液相对于未冻干的滤液毒性较低.只在3株温和毒性的菌株中得到正己烷可溶萃取物;氯仿可溶萃取物的鼍极微而不能作进一步处理.各菌株的毒性效果各小相同.从镰刀菌(F.solani)分离的化合物可开发为毒性化合物.%Discovery of anticancer drugs that must kill or disable tumor cells in the presence of normal cells without undue toxicity is an extraordinary challenge. Cytotoxicity of plant or fungal materials is considered as the presence of antitumor compounds. Brine shrimp lethality for larvae (nauplii) is used as prescreening test for the antitumor compounds. In this study, culture filtrates of eight strains of Fusarium solani isolated from seeds of various crops were tested for the toxic effect on brine shrimp. Five of the strains (TS, S-29, B-17, C-10, W-5) showed highest toxic effect and three of the strains (SR, T-9, L-25) showed low toxic activity on brine shrimp. Toxic activity reduced when culture filtrates were diluted. However, F. solani strains TS, B-17, SR, T-9 and L-25 caused more than 30% mortality at 1:10 dilution. Toxic activity was slightly reduced when the filtrates were neutralized with sodium hydroxide indicating possible role of pH of culture filtrate on toxicity. Lyophilized filtrates of these strains showed less activity as compared to un-lyophilized filtrates, n-Hexane soluble fraction was obtained only in three strains which showed mild toxicity whereas chloroform soluble fraction was obtained in negligible quantity and could not further be proceeded. Toxic effect of these strains showed variation from strain to strain. Compounds from F. solani could be exploited for the development of toxic compounds.

  12. Using an integrated approach to link biomarker responses and physiological stress to growth impairment of cadmium-exposed larval topsmelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we used an integrated approach to determine whether key biochemical, cellular, and physiological responses were related to growth impairment of cadmium (Cd)-exposed larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis). Food intake (Artemia franciscana nauplii), oxygen consumption rates, apoptotic DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay), and metallothionein (MT)-like protein levels, were separately measured in relation to growth of larval topsmelt aqueously exposed to sublethal doses of Cd for 14 days. Cadmium accumulation and concentrations of abundant metals were also evaluated in a subset of fish. Fish in the highest Cd treatments (50 and 100 ppb Cd) were smaller in final mean weight and length, and consumed fewer A. franciscana nauplii than control fish. Food intake was positively correlated with final weight of larval topsmelt in Cd and control treatments; food intake increased as final weight of the fish increased. Oxygen consumption rates were positively correlated with Cd concentration and mean oxygen consumption rates were inversely correlated with final mean weight of topsmelt; the smallest fish were found in the highest Cd treatment and were respiring at higher rates than control fish. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was concentration-dependent and was associated with diminished growth. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was elevated in the gill of fish exposed to 50 ppb Cd, and in the gut, gill, and liver of fish exposed to 100 ppb Cd. Metallothionein (MT)-like protein levels in fish from 100 ppb Cd treatments were significantly higher than those in other treatments. Oxygen consumption rates may have increased as a compensatory response to Cd exposure. However, it is likely that the energy produced was allocated to an increased metabolic demand due to apoptosis, MT synthesis, and changes in ion regulation. This diversion of energy expenditures could contribute to growth impairment of Cd-exposed fish

  13. Biological activity of neosergeolide and isobrucein B (and two semi-synthetic derivatives isolated from the Amazonian medicinal plant Picrolemma sprucei (Simaroubaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen CC Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, in vitro techniques were used to investigate a range of biological activities of known natural quassinoids isobrucein B (1 and neosergeolide (2, known semi-synthetic derivative 1,12-diacetylisobrucein B (3, and a new semi-synthetic derivative, 12-acetylneosergeolide (4. These compounds were evaluated for general toxicity toward the brine shrimp species Artemia franciscana, cytotoxicity toward human tumour cells, larvicidal activity toward the dengue fever mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, haemolytic activity in mouse erythrocytes and antimalarial activity against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited the greatest cytotoxicity against all the tumor cells tested (IC50 = 5-27 µg/L and against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum K1 strain (IC50 = 1.0-4.0 g/L and 3 was only cytotoxic toward the leukaemia HL-60 strain (IC50 = 11.8 µg/L. Quassinoids 1 and 2 (LC50 = 3.2-4.4 mg/L displayed greater lethality than derivative 4 (LC50 = 75.0 mg/L toward A. aegypti larvae, while derivative 3 was inactive. These results suggest a novel application for these natural quassinoids as larvicides. The toxicity toward A. franciscana could be correlated with the activity in several biological models, a finding that is in agreement with the literature. Importantly, none of the studied compounds exhibited in vitro haemolytic activity, suggesting specificity of the observed cytotoxic effects. This study reveals the biological potential of quassinoids 1 and 2 and to a lesser extent their semi-synthetic derivatives for their in vitro antimalarial and cytotoxic activities.

  14. Brand loyalty of cereal products / Aaron Lekatjo Mazibuko

    OpenAIRE

    Mazibuko, Aaron Lekatjo

    2010-01-01

    The South African breakfast market consists of several brand products for cereal products, and some of the products are produced locally while others are imported. Cereal products are classified under fast moving consumer goods (FMCG). The majority of the cereal products are easy to serve. The following brands are common in South Africa and have been listed according to their popularity with consumers: Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Kellog's Special K, Jungle Oats, Cheerios and Weet Bix. Kellog...

  15. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Francisco de Paula Madeira; Coutinho Valmor; Montanher Ana Beatriz Pimentel; Caro Miguel Soriano Balparda; Brighente Inês Maria Costa; Pizzolatti Moacir Geraldo; Monache Franco Delle

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The str...

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, nauplii and adults were exposed to different doses of radiation and maintained at different salinities and temperatures. The LD50 determination demonstrated that nauplii were thirty to forty times more sensitive than the adults and had a 25-day LD50 of 450 rads. Radiation and salinity reduced survival of adult female brine shrimp more than the males. The interaction of salinity, 5 and 50 ppt, temperature, 10, 20 and 300C, and radiation, 25 to 100 kilorads, decreased the survival of both male and female brine shrimp, with the males having the greater sensitivity. Brine shrimp nauplii irradiated with doses of 500 and 2,500 rads had accelerated growth and matured earlier than the controls. A test of the effect of crowding on growth showed that volume per individual was important, and a dose of 500 rads accelerated brine shrimp growth in all concentrations, with the greatest increase at 8 ml/nauplius

  17. TOXICITY TESTING OF RESTORATIVE DENTAL MATERIALS USING BRINE SHRIMP LARVAE (ARTEMIA SALINA)

    OpenAIRE

    Milhem, Manar M.; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S.; Homa Darmani

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GIC)s and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy), a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer), two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP), and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspe...

  18. Phytochemistry study from bark of stem of Duguetia Glabriuscula - Annonaceae, using toxicity assays for Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extract obtained from stem bark of Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae was evaluated by Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL). The bioactive compounds, oxobufoline and lanuginosine, two oxoaporphine alkaloids were isolated by activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the compounds asaraldehyde, (+)-allo-aromadendrane-10 β, 14-diol, and two aporphine alkaloids, polyalthine and oliveridine were also obtained. (author)

  19. Biological screening of araripe basin medicinal plants using Artemia salina Leach and pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa, José Galberto M.; Campos, Adriana R.; Brito, Samara A.; Carla Karine B Pereira; Souza, Erlânio O.; Fabíola Fernandes G Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many medicinal plant species from the Araripe Basin are widely known and used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Few ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies have been undertaken in this region, however, in spite of the great cultural and biological diversity found there. Materials and Methods : Extracts of 11 plant species collected from Cearα state, Brazil, were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potenti...

  20. Biological screening of araripe basin medicinal plants using Artemia salina Leach and pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galberto M da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many medicinal plant species from the Araripe Basin are widely known and used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Few ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies have been undertaken in this region, however, in spite of the great cultural and biological diversity found there. Materials and Methods : Extracts of 11 plant species collected from Cearα state, Brazil, were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor compounds. The larvicidal activity, based on the percentage of larval mortality, was evaluated after 24 h exposure to the treatments. Results: All species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compound and literature data. The extract from Vanillosmopsis arborea was the most active with an LC 50 of 3.9 μg/ml. Best results were shown by Lantana montevidensis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 8μg/ml] and Escherichia coli (MIC 32 μg/ml, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium against E. coli (MIC, 256 μg/ml and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 64 μg/ml and Croton zenhtneri against S. aureus (MIC 64 μg/ml. Conclusion: Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes was present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays.

  1. Toxicite de Detergents et d'un Dispersant sur Artemia salina Leach.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the toxic influence of 3 detergents (Tween 20 or Polysorbate 20, laurylsulfate of sodium, Secosyl or N-Lauroyl sarcosinate of sodium) and of a dispersent (Finasol OSR sub(2) or Dodecyl Sodium sulfate) on the hatching and the survival of the brine shrimp, (A. salina)). The determination of the DL sub(50) was effected after 24 h.

  2. Toxicity Testing of Restorative Dental Materials Using Brine Shrimp Larvae (Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar M. Milhem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GICs and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy, a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP, and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the composite groups by Tukey's pairwise multiple-comparison test (α =0.05 showed that the extract of Synergy was significantly less toxic than the extracts of all the other materials except that of Solitaire 2. The compomers showed 100% lethality, while the percentage of viable larvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the groups by Tukey's test (α = 0.05 showed that the toxic effect of the extracts of the compomers were significantly greater than that of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer. The differences in the toxic effects of Vitremer and Ketac-Fil were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the toxicity of composite materials varied according to their chemical composition. Compomers were the most lethal materials to brine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  3. 卤虫的营养%Nutrition in Brine Shrimp Artemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭雄

    2007-01-01

    卤虫(Aremia)是水产经济动物苗种生产中重要的活饵料之一,卤虫营养价值的高低直接影响到苗种生产的成败与效益。笔者拟就卤虫的营养价值研究作—综述,供学者参考。

  4. Artemia salina as a model organism in toxicity assessment of nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Rajabi, Somayeh; Ramazani, Ali; Hamidi, Mehrdad; Naji, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of expanding presence of nanomaterials, there has been an increase in the exposure of humans to nanoparticles that is why nanotoxicology studies are important. A number of studies on the effects of nanomatrials in in vitro and in vivo systems have been published. Currently cytotoxicity of different nanoparticles is assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on different cell lines to determine cell viability, a tedious and ex...

  5. Toxicological investigations of Aloe ferox Mill. extracts using Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosede, Wintola Olubunmi; Sunday, Arowosegbe; Jide, Afolayan Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Cytotoxicity of the extracts of Aloe ferox using brine shrimp was evaluated. Effects of the extracts on hatchability and lethality of brine shrimps were reported in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and LD(50) respectively. The hatching success was in the order: aqueous root extract (39.8%) >aqueous leaf (26.5%) >acetone leaf (13.7%) > ethanol leaf extracts (2.5%). Hatchability in incubations of ethanol and acetone extracts was found to be dose - dependent, with hatching success decreasing as the concentration of the extracts increased. The lethality of extracts was in the order: aqueous leaf extract (4.7%) >aqueous root extract (4.2%) >acetone leaf extract (3.5%) >ethanol root extract (2.6%) > ethanol leaf extract (1.8%) >acetone root extract (0.7%). Mean mortality of nauplii in the control was higher (6.7%) than that of all the extracts. Based on Meyer's index of toxicity, the acetone leaf extract with LD(50) >1.0mg/mL could be considered as non toxic, while the ethanol root extract (LD(50) toxic to the brine shrimp. Since the extracts of A. ferox have consistently exhibited significant pharmaceutical properties in-vitro, the non-toxic extracts could further be exploited for the development of plant-based pharmaceuticals. PMID:25730795

  6. Global arrest of translation during invertebrate quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, G E; Hand, S C

    1994-08-30

    Comparing the translational capacities of cell-free systems from aerobically developing embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana vs. quiescent embryos has revealed a global arrest of protein synthesis. Incorporation rates of [3H]leucine by lysates from 4-h anoxic embryos were 8% of those from aerobic (control) embryos, when assayed at the respective pH values measured for each treatment in vivo. Exposure of embryos to 4 h of aerobic acidosis (elevated CO2 in the presence of oxygen) suppressed protein synthesis to 3% of control values. These latter two experimental treatments promote developmental arrest of Artemia embryos and, concomitantly, cause acute declines in intracellular pH. When lysates from each treatment were assayed over a range of physiologically relevant pH values (pH 6.4-8.0), amino acid incorporation rates in lysates from quiescent embryos were consistently lower than values for the aerobic controls. Acute reversal of pH to alkaline values during the 6-min assays was not sufficient to return the incorporation rates of quiescent lysates to control values. Thus, a stable alteration in translational capacity of quiescent lysates is indicated. Addition of exogenous mRNA did not rescue the suppressed protein synthesis in quiescent lysates, which suggests that the acute blockage of amino acid incorporation is apparently not due to limitation in message. Thus, the results support a role for intracellular pH as an initial signaling event in translational control during quiescence yet, at the same time, indicate that a direct proton effect on the translational machinery is not the sole proximal agent for biosynthetic arrest in this primitive crustacean. PMID:8078909

  7. Assessing estuarine quality: A cost-effective in situ assay with amphipods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Acevedo, Pelayo; Pais-Costa, Antónia Juliana; Taggart, Mark A; Martins, Irene; Ribeiro, Rui; Marques, João Carlos

    2016-05-01

    In situ assays based on feeding depression can be powerful ecotoxicological tools that can link physiological organism-level responses to population and/or community-level effects. Amphipods are traditional target species for toxicity tests due to their high sensitivity to contaminants, availability in the field and ease of handling. However, cost-effective in situ assays based on feeding depression are not yet available for amphipods that inhabit estuarine ecosystems. The aim of this work was to assess a short-term in situ assay based on postexposure feeding rates on easily quantifiable food items with an estuarine amphipod. Experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Echinogammarus marinus as the target individual. When 60 Artemia franciscana nauplii (as prey) were provided per individual for a period of 30 min in dark conditions, feeding rates could be easily quantified. As an endpoint, postexposure feeding inhibition in E. marinus was more sensitive to cadmium contamination than mortality. Assay calibration under field conditions demonstrated the relevance of sediment particle size in explaining individual feeding rates in uncontaminated water bodies. An evaluation of the 48-h in situ bioassay based on postexposure feeding rates indicated that it is able to discriminate between unpolluted and polluted estuarine sites. Using the harmonized protocol described here, the in situ postexposure feeding assay with E. marinus was found to be a potentially useful, cost-effective tool for assessing estuarine sediment and water quality. PMID:26874320

  8. Remediation of mercury contaminated saltwater with functionalized silica coated magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohmood, Iram; Lopes, Cláudia B; Lopes, Isabel; Tavares, Daniela S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Duarte, Armando C; Trindade, Tito; Ahmad, Iqbal; Pereira, Eduarda

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of dithiocarbamate functionalized silica coated magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) for Hg decontamination of saltwater either contaminated with Hg alone or with As and Cd. For this, the residual levels of Hg in seawater were assessed and Hg-contaminated or Hg+As+Cd-contaminated seawater toxicity to aquatic biota, before and after the sorption process, was compared. The results showed that under highly competitive conditions (water salts, Cd and As), the removal of Hg from seawater, by using these magnetic NPs, for the lowest concentration (50μg/L) was superior to 98% and for the highest concentration (500μg/L) ranged between 61% to 67%. Despite the great affinity of the magnetic NPs for Hg, they were not effective at removing As and Cd from seawater. In relation to the ecotoxicity endpoints after remediation, the mixture with lower Hg concentration exhibited no toxicity to rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and bacteria Vibrio fischeri ; however, the mixture with higher concentration revealed toxicity. In addition, the toxicity of bacteria V. fischeri, rotifer B. plicatilis and algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum, whose responses where inhibited during its exposure to the non-remediate sample was considerably reduced after treatment with NPs. Furthermore, microalgae P. tricornutum appears to be most sensitive species while Artemia franciscana showed no toxic effects to the tested solutions. Both chemical and ecotoxicological approaches revealed a high efficiency for the remediation of Hg-contaminated saltwater. PMID:27039062

  9. Application of Plackett–Burman design for the high production of some valuable metabolites in marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M. El-Sheekh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have efficient nutritional influence to obtain high survival growth and quality of fish larvae and to promote the growth of brine shrimp. In this work the Plackett–Burman statistical design was applied to specify which nutrient factor(s optimize the nutritional contents [protein, carbohydrate, β-carotene, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity (DPPH] in the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata used in aquaculture to maximize marine hatchery production. N. oculata was cultured on F/2 medium (as control to reach its maximum growth. The obtained results showed that the maximum growth, chlorophyll-a,b and carotenoid contents were attained after 10 days. The contents of all studied parameters in N. oculata grown on the optimized medium after10 days increased significantly (P ⩽ 0.1 than those on control with low concentration of PO4 (2.5 g l−1 and with high concentration of NO3 (112.5 g l−1 except for cell numbers and DPPH. Significant increases in the protein, carbohydrate, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and DPPH in Artemia franciscana enriched with N. oculata cultured on the newly optimized medium were observed.

  10. Physiological strategies during animal diapause: lessons from brine shrimp and annual killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrabsky, Jason E; Hand, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    Diapause is a programmed state of developmental arrest that typically occurs as part of the natural developmental progression of organisms that inhabit seasonal environments. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus share strikingly similar life histories that include embryonic diapause as a means to synchronize the growth and reproduction phases of their life history to favorable environmental conditions. In both species, respiration rate is severely depressed during diapause and thus alterations in mitochondrial physiology are a key component of the suite of characters associated with cessation of development. Here, we use these two species to illustrate the basic principles of metabolic depression at the physiological and biochemical levels. It is clear that these two species use divergent molecular mechanisms to achieve the same physiological and ecological outcomes. This pattern of convergent physiological strategies supports the importance of biochemical and physiological adaptations to cope with extreme environmental stress and suggests that inferring mechanism from transcriptomics or proteomics or metabolomics alone, without rigorous follow-up at the biochemical and physiological levels, could lead to erroneous conclusions. PMID:26085666

  11. Antioxidant, cytotoxic and UVB-absorbing activity of Maytenus guyanensis Klotzch. (Celastraceae bark extracts Atividade antioxidante, citotóxica e absorção no UVB de extratos da casca de Maytenus guyanensis Klotzch. (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Almeida Telles Macari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus guyanensis Klotzch. is an Amazonian medicinal tree species known in Brazil by the common name chichuá and in Peru and Colombia by the name chuchuhuasi. It is used in traditional medicine as stimulant, tonic, and muscle relaxant, for the relief of arthritis, rheumatism, hemorrhoids, swollen kidney, skin eruptions, and skin cancer prevention, among others. Initially, different extraction solvents and methods were applied to dried, ground bark which made possible the preparation of extracts having both significant lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemia franciscana Leach as well as antioxidant activity in vitro based on tests involving reactions with 2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Analysis of fractions from serial extractions with solvents of increasing polarity supports the notion that antioxidant activity is associated with compounds of intermediate polarity and cytotoxicity is associated with compounds of low to intermediate polarity. Variation of extraction time and conditions revealed that hot, continuous ethanol extraction provided good yields of bark extract in several hours. Hot extraction also provided ethanol extracts having greater lethality to brine shrimp and antioxidant activity (compared to the flavonoid rutin in semi-quantitative methods based on DPPH than extracts obtained from maceration at room temperature. Freeze-dried ethanol extracts were prepared by: 1 maceration at room temperature and 2 hot extraction (eight hours on several hundred gram scales and the latter extract was shown to have partial screening effects on UVB light. In this work, cytotoxic, antioxidant and potential sun-screening activity are shown for the first time in M. guyanensis.Maytenus guyanensisKlotzch. é uma árvore medicinal proveniente da Amazônia conhecida comochichuá (xixuáe no Peru e Colombia porchuchuhuasi. É utilizada medicinalmente como estimulante, tônico e relaxante muscular, para o alívio de artrite, reumatismo, hemorr

  12. Phytochemistry study from bark of stem of Duguetia Glabriuscula - Annonaceae, using toxicity assays for Artemia salina; Estudo fitoquimico das cascas do caule de Duguetia Glabriuscula - Annonaceae, biomonitorado pelo ensaio de toxicidade frente a Artemia salina leach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Joao Maximo de; Ziminiani, Maria Graziela [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia Bioquimica]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br; Resende, Ubirazilda Maria [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Boaventura, Maria Amelia Diamantino [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2001-04-01

    The extract obtained from stem bark of Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae was evaluated by Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL). The bioactive compounds, oxobufoline and lanuginosine, two oxoaporphine alkaloids were isolated by activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the compounds asaraldehyde, (+)-allo-aromadendrane-10 {beta}, 14-diol, and two aporphine alkaloids, polyalthine and oliveridine were also obtained. (author)

  13. Biochemical and toxicological effects of organic (herbicide Primextra(®) Gold TZ) and inorganic (copper) compounds on zooplankton and phytoplankton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, Valentina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Marques, João C; De Troch, Marleen; Gonçalves, Ana M M

    2016-08-01

    In Europe, mainly in the Mediterranean region, an intensive usage of pesticides was recorded during the past 30 years. According to information from agricultural cooperatives of the Mondego valley (Figueira da Foz, Portugal), Primextra(®) Gold TZ is the most used herbicide in corn crop fields and one of the 20 best-selling herbicides in Portugal. Copper is mainly used in pesticide formulations. This study aims to determine the ecotoxicological and biochemical (namely fatty acid profiles) effects of the herbicide Primextra(®) Gold TZ and the metal copper on marine plankton. The organisms used in this study are three planktonic species: the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa and nauplii of the marine brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Fatty acids (FAs) are one of the most important molecules transferred across the plant-animal interface in aquatic food webs and can be used as good indicators of stress. The conducted lab incubations show that T. weissflogii is the most sensitive species to the herbicide followed by A. tonsa (EC50=0.0078mg/L and EC50=0.925mg/L, respectively), whereas the copepod was the most sensitive species to the metal followed by T. weissflogii (EC50=0.234mg/L and EC50=0.383mg/L, respectively). A. franciscana was the most tolerant organism both to the herbicide and to the metal (EC50=20.35mg/L and EC50=18.93mg/L, respectively). Changes in the FA profiles of primary producer and primary consumers were observed, with the increase of saturated FA and decrease of unsaturated FA contents, especially of highly unsaturated FAs that can be obtained mainly from food and therefore are referred to as 'essential FA'. The study suggests that discharges of Primextra(®) Gold TZ or other pesticides mainly composed by copper may be a threat to plankton populations causing changes in the FA contents and thus in their nutritive value, with severe repercussions for higher trophic levels and thus the entire food web. PMID

  14. Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aparna, A.; Arshad, E.; Jasmin, C.; Pai, S.S.; BrightSingh, I.S.; Mohandas, A.; Anas, A.

    propitious alternative to antibiotics in recent years (Wainwright, 1998; Lee et al., 2004; Konopka and Goslinski, 2007; Donnelly et al., 2008; Almeida et al., 2009; Garland et al., 2009; Wainwright, 2009; Nakonechny et al., 2010; Wainwright, 2010). a...., 2000b; Defoirdt et al., 2007; Anas et al., 2009). Despite in vitro successes with these strategies, their wide spread application is limited by their inconsistency in the field and more importantly their handicap to provide protection during...

  15. Inland hypersaline lakes and the brine shrimp Artemia as simple models for biodiversity analysis at the population level

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo M Gajardo; Sorgeloos, Patrick; John A Beardmore

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity can be measured at different hierarchical levels, from genetic diversity within species to diversity of ecosystems, though policy-makers tend to use species richness. The 2010 goal of reducing biodiversity loss, agreed by the subscribers to the Convention on Biological Diversity, requires simple and reliable protocols to evaluate biodiversity at any level in a given ecosystem. Stakeholders, particularly policy makers, need to understand how ecosystem components interact to produc...

  16. Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol Serta Fraksi n-Heksana dan Etilasetat Teripang Pearsonothuria graeffei (Semper) Terhadap Artemia salina Leach

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia, Siti

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumber are one of marine animals that widely spread in Indonesian marine but still hardly/rarely used. Sea cucumber contains secondary metabolites that used to cure various disease such as diabetes mellitus, antiinflamation, prevent arteriosklerosis, anticancer, etc. One of secondary metabolites compound that commonly found in sea cucumber is triterpen saponin. The aims of this research is to test the toxicity of simplex. Simplex characterization including macroscopic, microscopic, d...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF TWO MEDICINAL PLANTS USING BRINE SHRIMP ( ARTEMIA SALINA AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Sarker Apu*, S. H. Bhuyan, F. Khatun, M. Sultana Liza, M. Matin, Md. Faruq Hossain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Solanum sisymbriifolium (Solanaceae and Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae have long been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the plants and to make available the process of data analysis of cytotoxic studies to the researchers. A general toxicity of the extracts was assessed by a simple and low cost assay using brine shrimp lethality as an indicator of toxicity. Ethanol crude extract and fractions of the extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity compared to that of flowers and fruits against brine shrimp larvae with median lethal concentration, LC50 values ranging from 10.10 – 321.35 and 13.19 – 80.16 μg/ml, respectively. Methanol crude extract and fractions of the extract of leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia exhibited significant toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 17.19 – 98.19 μg/ml, while that of potassium permanganate, a positive control, was 11.27 μg/ml. Among the fractions of the crude extracts of both plants, non-polar fractions such as n-hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane were the most cytotoxic. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay directed isolation of the active principles.

  18. Karakterisasi Simplisia, Skrining Fitokimia Dan Uji Sitotoksisitas Ekstrak Daun Tumbuhan Sirsak (Annona muricata L.) Terhadap Larva Artemia salina Leach

    OpenAIRE

    Sinurat, Ira Veranita

    2011-01-01

    Soursop (Annona muricata L.) is included in the family of Annonaceae. Soursop leaves are rich in secondary metabolites are useful as a drug. Public use soursop leave to treat various diseases, even soursop leave boilde is said to be used as an alternative medicine for cancer.The purpose of the study was to obtain information about the charactheries of the soursop leave, group compound from the leaves of the soursop simplex, and citotoxicity activity of soursop leave extract with larvae Artemi...

  19. 卤虫等位酶的遗传控制%GENETIC CONTROL OF ALLOZYMES IN THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董树刚; 付成秋; 程继军; 高明君

    2000-01-01

    应用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术分析了孤雌生殖卤虫产生的罕见雄体、两性卤虫及其杂交后代(F1)的酯酶(EST)、超氧物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(PRX)、碱性磷酸酶( ALP)、四唑氧化酶(TO)和乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)的同工酶酶谱表型.对编码五种酶的19个位点、35个等位基因的表达进行了遗传分析.结果表明,在EST、PRX和TO酶谱中既有共显性等位基因,又有沉默等位基因的表达;卤虫PRX、ALP和SOD为单体酶,在EST和TO酶谱中还存在着二聚体同工酶;除LDH为单态外,其余五种同工酶为多态酶.

  20. Artemia hemoglobins. Increase in net synthesis of the beta-polypeptide (relative to the alpha-polypeptide) in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, J A; Nichols, R C; Condon, S J; Stubbs, J D; Bowen, S T

    1983-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that in the brine shrimp there are three dimeric hemoglobins with polypeptide composition alpha 2, alpha beta, beta 2. Concentrations of the alpha- and beta-polypeptides increase in hypoxia. We now report a two-dimensional electrophoretic method for assay of radiolabelled polypeptides in each hemoglobin. Net synthesis (synthesis minus degradation) of the beta-chain, relative to that of the alpha-chain, increases more than 3-fold (in male and female adults) within 3 days following a downshift in oxygen concentration from 0.2 to 0.1 mM in the culture medium. 3 days after downshift (2 days after in vivo incorporation of radiolabelled leucine), the beta-homodimer contained 10-20% of the radiolabel in the three hemoglobins although beta 2 was usually not detectable in the protein stain of an overloaded gel. The amount of radioactive leucine incorporated per unit amount of protein was more than 300-times greater in the beta 2 homodimer than in the beta-subunit of the heterodimer, suggesting that beta 2 does not dissociate rapidly during electrophoresis on the first dimension non-denaturing gel. This evidence for stable association of the two beta-monomers and the 5-8 heme-binding domains within each monomer (in vivo and during electrophoresis on non-denaturing gels) allows us to exclude one of two alternative interpretations of genetic data published previously. We present an independent line of evidence for the dimer model of the native hemoglobins (which states that each polypeptide has many heme-binding domains). PMID:6830806

  1. Indicadores de condición larvaria aplicados al camarón de río del norte Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, en condiciones de cultivo controlado Larval condition indicators applied to the northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, under condition of controlled cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el desarrollo larvario del camarón de río del norte de Chile, Cryphiops caementarius, desde el estado de zoea 1 hasta el primer juvenil, caracterizando y analizando criterios que verificaron la aplicación de indicadores de tipo morfológico y de comportamiento para la evaluación de la condición larvaria de la especie, en condiciones de cultivo. Las larvas, se mantuvieron en cultivo, en un tanque de 250 L con agua a 20 psu y temperatura de 25 ± 1°C, controlada con termostato y con un recambio del 100% diariamente. La alimentación consistió en microalgas (Nannochloris sp. e Isochrysis sp., rotíferos (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplios de Artemia franciscana y alimento formulado. Se utilizaron cinco indicadores de carácter morfológico y de comportamiento aplicados a las larvas de C. caementarius: llenado intestinal, estado de la glándula digestiva, desarrollo branquial, comportamiento natatorio y respuesta fototáctica. Estos indicadores, permitieron determinar el estado de condición y calidad de las larvas de C. caementarius, logrando un efectivo seguimiento y asociación de cada uno de ellos, con cada estado de desarrollo larvario, estandarizando características deseables en las larvas y evidenciando resultados verificables, que permitan establecer un adecuado plan de seguimiento del cultivo, optimizar los protocolos de manejo y de alimentación de las larvas. Además de cada indicador, fue posible desglosar una amplia gama de potenciales estudios a realizar, basados en las relaciones que la morfología y el comportamiento larvario mantienen con las capacidades fisiológicas de las larvas en desarrollo.The larval development of the Chilean northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius was studied, from the condition of zoea 1 up to the condition of juvenile stage, analyzing and characterizing diverse criteria that allowed checking the application of morphological and behavioral indicators for the evaluation of the larval

  2. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Analysis of High Antioxidant Australian Fruits with Antiproliferative Activity Against Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdaarta, Joseph; Maen, Anton; Rayan, Paran; Matthews, Ben; Cock, Ian Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Background: High antioxidant capacities have been linked to the treatment and prevention of several cancers. Recent reports have identified several native Australian fruits with high antioxidant capacities. Despite this, several of these species are yet to be tested for anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: Solvent extracts prepared from high antioxidant native Australian fruits were analyzed for antioxidant capacity by the di (phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium free radical scavenging assay. Antiproliferative activities against CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cells were determined by a multicellular tumor spheroid-based cell proliferation assay. Toxicity was determined by Artemia franciscana bioassay. Results: Methanolic extracts of all plant species displayed high antioxidant contents (equivalent to approximately 7–16 mg of vitamin C per gram of fruit extracted). Most aqueous extracts also contained relatively high antioxidant capacities. In contrast, the ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extracts of most species (except lemon aspen and bush tomato) had lower antioxidant contents (below 1.5 mg of vitamin C equivalents per gram of plant material extracted). The antioxidant contents correlated with the ability of the extracts to inhibit proliferation of CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The high antioxidant methanolic extracts of all species were potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. The methanolic lemon aspen extract was particularly effective, with IC50 values of 480 and 769 μg/mL against HeLa and CaCo2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the lower antioxidant ethyl acetate and hexane extracts (except the lemon aspen ethyl acetate extract) generally did not inhibit cancer cell proliferation or inhibited to only a minor degree. Indeed, most of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts induced potent cell proliferation. The native tamarind ethyl acetate extract displayed low-moderate toxicity in the A. franciscana bioassay (LC50 values below 1000

  3. Enhancing the efficacy of electrolytic chlorination for ballast water treatment by adding carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyung-Gon; Seo, Min-Ho; Lee, Heon-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2015-06-15

    We examined the synergistic effects of CO2 injection on electro-chlorination in disinfection of plankton and bacteria in simulated ballast water. Chlorination was performed at dosages of 4 and 6ppm with and without CO2 injection on electro-chlorination. Testing was performed in both seawater and brackish water quality as defined by IMO G8 guidelines. CO2 injection notably decreased from the control the number of Artemia franciscana, a brine shrimp, surviving during a 5-day post-treatment incubation (1.8 and 2.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO+CO2) compared with water electro-chlorinated only (1.2 and 1.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO). The phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica, was completely disinfected with no live cell found at >4ppm TRO with and without CO2 addition. The effects of CO2 addition on heterotrophic bacterial growth was not different from electro-chlorination only. Total residual oxidant concentration (TRO) more rapidly declined in electro-chlorination of both marine and brackish waters compared to chlorine+CO2 treated waters, with significantly higher amount of TRO being left in waters treated with the CO2 addition. Total concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) measured at day 0 in brackish water test were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher in 6ppm TRO+CO2-treated water than in 6ppm TRO treated water. The addition of CO2 to electro-chlorination may improve the efficiency of this sterilizing treatment of ballast water, yet the increased production of some disinfection byproducts needs further study. PMID:25841887

  4. Chlorine disinfection by-products in wastewater effluent: Bioassay-based assessment of toxicological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, K; Shaw, G; Leusch, F D L; Knight, N L

    2012-11-15

    The potential ecological impact of disinfection by-products (DBPs) present in chlorinated wastewater effluents is not well understood. In this study, the chlorinated effluent of traditional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and advanced water reclamation plants (AWRPs) supplying highly-treated recycled water were analyzed for nitrosamines and trihalomethanes (THMs), and a battery of bioassays conducted to assess effluent toxicity. An increase in general toxicity from DBPs was revealed for all wastewaters studied using an in vitro bioluminescence assay. Examples of androgenic activity and estrogenic activity arising from DBPs at specific sampling sites were also observed. The in vivo model (Artemia franciscana) was generally not adversely affected by exposure to DBPs from any of the chlorinated wastewaters studied. The observed toxicity could not be related to the concentrations of THMs and nitrosamines present, indicating that DBPs not monitored in this study were responsible for this. This work highlights the complexity of DBPs mixtures formed in chlorinated wastewaters, illustrating that toxicity of wastewater DBPs cannot be predicted by chemical monitoring of THMs and nitrosamines. The results suggest bioassays may be particularly useful monitoring tools in assessing toxicity arising from DBPs of these complex waters. The research concludes that DBPs formed in the chlorinated wastewaters studied can be toxic and may have a deleterious impact on aquatic organisms that are exposed to them, and therefore, that chlorination or chlorination/dechlorination may not be adequate treatment strategies for the protection of receiving waters. Chlorinated wastewater toxicity (from DBPs) is not well-understood in the Australian context, and this study serves to advise regulators on this issue. PMID:22981491

  5. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp. PMID:22673627

  6. Group 1 LEA proteins, an ancestral plant protein group, are also present in other eukaryotes, and in the archeae and bacteria domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F; Cuevas-Velazquez, C; Fares, M A; Reyes, J L; Covarrubias, A A

    2013-10-01

    Water is an essential element for living organisms, such that various responses have evolved to withstand water deficit in all living species. The study of these responses in plants has had particular relevance given the negative impact of water scarcity on agriculture. Among the molecules highly associated with plant responses to water limitation are the so-called late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. These proteins are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and accumulate during the late phase of embryogenesis and in vegetative tissues in response to water deficit. To know about the evolution of these proteins, we have studied the distribution of group 1 LEA proteins, a set that has also been found beyond the plant kingdom, in Bacillus subtilis and Artemia franciscana. Here, we report the presence of group 1 LEA proteins in green algae (Chlorophyita and Streptophyta), suggesting that these group of proteins emerged before plant land colonization. By sequence analysis of public genomic databases, we also show that 34 prokaryote genomes encode group 1 LEA-like proteins; two of them belong to Archaea domain and 32 to bacterial phyla. Most of these microbes live in soil-associated habitats suggesting horizontal transfer from plants to bacteria; however, our phylogenetic analysis points to convergent evolution. Furthermore, we present data showing that bacterial group 1 LEA proteins are able to prevent enzyme inactivation upon freeze-thaw treatments in vitro, suggesting that they have analogous functions to plant LEA proteins. Overall, data in this work indicate that LEA1 proteins' properties might be relevant to cope with water deficit in different organisms. PMID:23861025

  7. 鱼藤卤虫致死活性成分的分离和结构鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Brine Shrimp Lethal Activities from Derris trifoliata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋诚; 熊本强; 邱细敏; 刘胜姿; 张偲; 尹浩

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究鱼藤Derris trifoliata Lour.根和茎乙酸乙酯提取物的卤虫致死活性成分.方法:以卤虫2龄幼虫为试虫,采用活性跟踪指导,使用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20和半制备液相色谱分离纯化,根据理化性质和光谱学数据进行结构鉴定.结果:分离鉴定了11个化合物,其中12a-羟基鱼藤酮、灰叶素、鱼藤酮和鱼藤素的卤虫致死活性LD50分别为0.365、0.236、0.060和0.734 μg/mL.结论:活性测试表明,12a-羟基鱼藤酮、灰叶素、鱼藤酮和鱼藤素均具有显著的卤虫致死活性.%Objective:To study the brine shrimp lethal activities of the roots and stems from Denis trifoliata. Methods:The biological activity of the athyl acetate extract was tested by the 2nd-inslar of Artemia franciscana by the method of Silica gel column chromatog-raphy,Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography,Semipreparative HPLC,and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Results: Eleven compounds were isolated from the athyl acetate extract,and LD50s of 12a-hydroxyrotenone,tephrosin,rotenone and deguelin were 0. 365,0. 236,0.060 and 0.734 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results of bioassay show that 12a-hydroxyrotenone, tephrosin,rotenone and deguelin have strong brine shrimp lethal activity.

  8. Hydrogen and oxygen in brine shrimp chitin reflect environmental water and dietary isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Kristine E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. We report the results of a set of experiments in which the isotopic compositions of environmental water and diet were varied independently in order to assess the contribution of these variables to the H and O isotopic composition of Artemia franciscana chitin. Hydrogen isotope ratios of chitin were strongly linearly correlated with both food and water, with approximately 26% of the hydrogen signal reflecting food and approximately 38% reflecting water. Oxygen isotopes were also strongly correlated with the isotopic composition of water and food, but whereas 69% of oxygen in chitin exchanged with environmental water, only 10% was derived from food. We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. Comparison of culture experiments with a set of natural samples collected from the Great Salt Lake, UT in 2006 shows that, with some exceptions, oxygen isotope compositions of chitin track those of water, whereas hydrogen isotopes vary inversely with those of lake water. The different behavior of the two isotopic systems can be explained in terms of a dietary shift from allochthonous particulate matter with relatively higher δ 2H values in the early spring to autochthonous particulate matter with significantly lower δ 2H values in the late summer to autumn. These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes.

  9. Oxygen, pHi and arrest of biosynthesis in brine shrimp embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, S C

    1997-12-01

    Embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able to withstand bouts of environmental anoxia for several years by entering a quiescent state, during which time metabolism is greatly depressed. Within minutes of oxygen removal, intracellular pH (pHi) drops at least 1.0 unit. This acidification has been strongly implicated in the arrest of both catabolic and anabolic processes in the cytoplasm. A global arrest of cytoplasmic translation accompanies the transition into anoxia or into aerobic acidosis (artificial quiescence imposed by intracellular acidification with CO2 in the presence of oxygen). Similarly, protein synthesis in isolated mitochondria from these embryos is also reduced markedly in response to acidic pH (80% reduction) or anoxia (79% reduction). The constancy of mRNA levels during quiescence indicates that protein synthesis is likely to be controlled at the translational level. Mitochondrial matrix pH is 8.2 during protein synthesis assays performed at the extramitochondrial pH optimum of 7.5. When this proton gradient is abolished with the K+/H+ ionophore nigericin, the extramitochondrial pH optimum for protein synthesis displays an alkaline shift of approximately 0.7 pH unit. These data suggest the presence of proton-sensitive translational components within the mitochondrion. The oxygen dependency of mitochondrial protein synthesis is not explained simply by blockage of the electron transport chain or by the increased redox state. Whereas oxygen deprivation substantially depresses protein synthesis by 77% after 1 h, normoxic incubations with saturating concentrations of cyanide or antimycin A have only a modest effect (36% reduction, cyanide; 20%, antimycin A). This cyanide- and antimycin-insensitive, but hypoxia-sensitive, inhibitory signature for the arrest of protein synthesis suggests the presence of a molecular oxygen sensor within the mitochondrion. PMID:9429663

  10. The Effects of Planning on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy in Second Language Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod; Yuan, Fangyuan

    2004-01-01

    Building on previous studies of the effects of planning on second language (L2) learners' oral narratives and drawing on Kellog's (1996) model of writing, this article reports a study of the effects of three types of planning conditions (pretask planning, unpressured on-line planning, and no planning) on 42 Chinese learners' written narratives…

  11. Peregrinos e viajantes no Norte de Portugal : as esmolas distribuídas pela ordem terceira franciscana de Braga aos irmãos «passageiros» (1720-1816

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Mello Moraes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 18th century many people came to Braga as travellers or pilgrims. In this town they found several institutions, some of which helped the travellers materially and spiritually, such as the Third Order of Saint Francis. Based on this Order’s records, it was possible to draw a profile of those who sought out the secular order for help. At the same time, this information allowed us to analyze, from a quantitative and qualitative perspective, some relevant characteristics of travellers in northern Portugal during that period. Besides the specifics of those whom the brothers assisted, this paper also evaluates the management of this activity, that of the distribution of alms, by the secular Franciscans of Braga, revealing a welfare practice that is practically unknown in current historiography.

  12. FINGERLING CULTURE OF SUNSHINE BASS MORONE CHRYSOPS X M. SAXATILIS IN TANKS WITH ALGAE PASTE-FED ROTIFERS, ARTEMIA NAUPLII AND MICROENCAPSULATED FEED AT THREE CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine bass fingerling production occurs almost exclusively in ponds. To increase production and to maintain year-round production in temperate climates indoor tank culture is required. While tank production of fingerlings has been demonstrated, little is known about feeding requirements. Sunshi...

  13. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Agave cantula Using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Lethality Bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    M D Dhanaraju; B. Heera; K.V. Gowthami; M.VamsiKrishna; Ramachandran, S.

    2011-01-01

    The essence of the present study is to focus on the cytotoxicity of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the Indian medicinal plant Agave cantula belonging to the family Agavaceae. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was established for the present study and the cytotoxicity was reported in terms of lethality concentration (LC50). The shrimps were hatched and active shrimps were collected and used for the assay, 10 active shrimps were added to the 0.5 mL diluted test solution and the surv...

  14. Inland hypersaline lakes and the brine shrimp Artemia as simple models for biodiversity analysis at the population level

    OpenAIRE

    Gajardo, G.M.; Sorgeloos, P; Beardmore, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity can be measured at different hierarchical levels, from genetic diversity within species to diversity of ecosystems, though policy-makers tend to use species richness. The 2010 goal of reducing biodiversity loss, agreed by the subscribers to the Convention on Biological Diversity, requires simple and reliable protocols to evaluate biodiversity at any level in a given ecosystem. Stakeholders, particularly policy makers, need to understand how ecosystem components interact to produc...

  15. Phaeobacter inhibens as probiotic bacteria in non-axenic Artemia and algae cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul;

    2016-01-01

    The growing aquaculture industry is in need for non-antibiotic based disease control strategies to reduce risk of bacteria developing and spreading antibiotic resistance. We have previously, in axenic model systems of live larval feed, demonstrated that bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can...... inoculated Vibrio anguillarum that grew to 107 in control samples but to a level 1–2 log lower in samples with background microbiota. The addition of the Roseobacter-clade bacteria, Phaeobacter inhibens, caused a significant reduction in growth of the pathogen that reached levels 3–4 log lower than in the...... antagonize fish pathogens such as Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio harveyi and that they can reduce larval mortality in challenge trials. However, in the aquaculture production, a natural microbiota is present at all stages and may affect the efficacy of the probiotic bacteria. The purpose of the present study...

  16. Toxicity of Bioactive and Probiotic Marine Bacteria and Their Secondary Metabolites in Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as Eukaryotic Model Organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neu, Anna; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone;

    2014-01-01

    applied point of view as fish probiotics or as a source of pharmaceutical compounds. The application of either organisms or compounds requires that they do not cause any side effects, such as toxicity in eukaryotic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these bacteria or their...... holomycin nor andrimid, the respective antibiotic compounds in these organisms. In contrast, the tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing bacteria Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395 and Ruegeria mobilis F1926 and TDA itself had no adverse effect on the target organisms. These results reaffirm TDA......-producing Roseobacter bacteria as a promising group to be used as probiotics in aquaculture, whereas Actinobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae should be used with caution....

  17. Dominant Aerobic Bacterial Community of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax L.1758) Larvae During Weaning from Artemia to Dry Feed in Culture Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    AYAZ, Ayberk; KARATAŞ*, Süheyla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dominant aerobic bacterial community of sea bass larvae during their weaning period in 2 different marine hatcheries in Muğla-Bodrum region. Samplings were made in January, March, and May 2005. Larvae and water samples were diluted in certain ratios and were inoculated to Marine Agar, TCBS Agar, Pseudomonas Agar, King Bee Agar, MRS agar, Blood Agar and Plate Count Agar, in that order. Water temperature, pH, saturation, salinity, and features of the s...

  18. Gynandromorphs of the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica in Gahai Lake, Qingdao%孤雌生殖卤虫的雌雄嵌合体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤岐; 相建海; 卜文俊; 纪炳纯; 刘安西

    2005-01-01

    在实验室条件下,培养了一个采自青海尕海湖的孤雌生殖卤虫(Artemiaparthenogenetica of Gahai)的克隆.该克隆包括3578个雌体和103个罕见雄体,在这些罕见雄体中发现二例雌雄嵌合体.其外部形态均表现为雄性,即具有正常的执握肢和外交接器,但在其体左侧出现了正常形态特征的卵细胞,表明在这两个外表为雄性的卤虫中有卵巢存在,为雌雄嵌合体.

  19. Survival of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus in seawater and its bioencapsulation in the brine shrimp Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Ofelio; Alex Paltrinieri

    2014-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® (Synbiotec Srl, Camerino, Italy) has demonstrated a positive effect in growth and early development of some fish species as clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris, Cuvier 1830) and zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822). The probiotic effects in A. ocellaris were an increase in body weight, a metamorphosis and skeletal head development acceleration and a reduction in the response to general stress (Avella et al. 2010). Besides this, an acceler...

  20. 40 CFR 799.2475 - 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... newly-hatched brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) three times a day ad libitum, with excess food siphoned off daily. The minnow fry shall be fed live newly-hatched brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina)...

  1. Improved tolerance to salt and water stress in Drosophila melanogaster cells conferred by late embryogenesis abundant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunde, Matthew R; Samarajeewa, Dilini A; Anderson, John; Li, Shumin; Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Group 1 LEA proteins comprised of 181 (AfLEA1.1) and 197 (AfLEA1.3) amino acids were cloned from embryos of Artemia franciscana and expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells (Kc167). Confocal microscopy revealed a construct composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AfLEA1.3 accumulates in the mitochondria (AfLEA1.3-GFP), while AfLEA1.1-GFP was found in the cytoplasm. In the presence of mixed substrates, oxygen consumption was statistically identical for permeabilized Kc167 control and Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. Acute titrations of permeabilized cells with NaCl up to 500 mM led to successive drops in oxygen flux, which were significantly ameliorated by 18% in Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells compared to Kc167 controls. Mitochondria were isolated from both cell types and resuspended in a sucrose-based buffer solution. The purified mitochondria from Kc167 control cells showed significantly larger reductions in respiratory capacities after one freeze-thaw cycle (-80°C) compared to mitochondria isolated from Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. When cultured in the presence of a non-permeant osmolyte (50-200 mM sucrose) cells expressing AfLEA1.3 showed significantly improved viability (10-15%) during this hyperosmotic challenge as compared to Kc167 controls. Furthermore, Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells survived desiccation by convective air drying in presence of 200 mM extracellular trehalose to lower final moisture contents than did control Kc167 cells (0.36 g H2O/g DW vs.1.02 g H2O/g DW). Thus, AfLEA1.3 exerts a protective influence on mitochondrial function and increases viability of Kc167 cells during water stress. PMID:23376561

  2. An interlaboratory comparison of nanosilver characterisation and hazard identification: Harmonising techniques for high quality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Kahru, Anne; Potthoff, Annegret; Drobne, Damjana; Heinlaan, Margit; Böhme, Steffi; Geppert, Mark; Novak, Sara; Schirmer, Kristin; Rekulapally, Rohit; Singh, Shashi; Aruoja, Villem; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Juganson, Katre; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kühnel, Dana

    2016-02-01

    Within the FP7 EU project NanoValid a consortium of six partners jointly investigated the hazard of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) paying special attention to methodical aspects that are important for providing high-quality ecotoxicity data. Laboratories were supplied with the same original stock dispersion of AgNPs. All partners applied a harmonised procedure for storage and preparation of toxicity test suspensions. Altogether ten different toxicity assays with a range of environmentally relevant test species from different trophic levels were conducted in parallel to AgNP characterisation in the respective test media. The paper presents a comprehensive dataset of toxicity values and AgNP characteristics like hydrodynamic sizes of AgNP agglomerates and the share (%) of Ag(+)-species (the concentration of Ag(+)-species in relation to the total measured concentration of Ag). The studied AgNP preparation (20.4±6.8 nm primary size, mean total Ag concentration 41.14 mg/L, 46-68% of soluble Ag(+)-species in stock, 123.8±12.2 nm mean z-average value in dH2O) showed extreme toxicity to crustaceans Daphnia magna, algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and zebrafish Danio rerio embryos (EC50fischeri, protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila (EC50: 1-10 mg total Ag/L) and harmful to marine crustaceans Artemia franciscana (EC50: 10-100 mg total Ag/L). Along with AgNPs, also the toxicity of AgNO3 was analyzed. The toxicity data revealed the same hazard ranking for AgNPs and AgNO3 (i.e. the EC50 values were in the same order of magnitude) proving the importance of soluble Ag(+)-species analysis for predicting the hazard of AgNPs. The study clearly points to the need for harmonised procedures for the characterisation of NMs. Harmonised procedures should consider: (i) measuring the AgNP properties like hydrodynamic size and metal ions species in each toxicity test medium at a range of concentrations, and (ii) including soluble metal salt control both in toxicity testing as well as in Ag

  3. Predicted sub-populations in a marine shrimp proteome as revealed by combined EST and cDNA data from multiple Penaeus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotewong Rattanawadee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species of marine shrimp in the Family Penaeidae, viz. Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus chinensis, and Penaeus (Marsupenaeus japonicus, are animals of economic importance in the aquaculture industry. Yet information about their DNA and protein sequences is lacking. In order to predict their collective proteome, we combined over 270,000 available EST and cDNA sequences from the 4 shrimp species with all protein sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. EST data from 4 other crustaceans, the crab Carcinus maenas, the lobster Homarus americanus (Decapoda, the water flea Daphnia pulex, and the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were also used. Findings Similarity searches from EST collections of the 4 shrimp species matched 64% of the protein sequences of the fruit fly, but only 45% of nematode proteins, indicating that the shrimp proteome content is more similar to that of an insect than a nematode. Combined results with 4 additional non-shrimp crustaceans increased matching to 78% of fruit fly and 56% of nematode proteins, suggesting that present shrimp EST collections still lack sequences for many conserved crustacean proteins. Analysis of matching data revealed the presence of 4 EST groups from shrimp, namely sequences for proteins that are both fruit fly-like and nematode-like, fruit fly-like only, nematode-like only, and non-matching. Gene ontology profiles of proteins for the 3 matching EST groups were analyzed. For non-matching ESTs, a small fraction matched protein sequences from other species in the UniProt database, including other crustacean-specific proteins. Conclusions Shrimp ESTs indicated that the shrimp proteome is comprised of sub-populations of proteins similar to those common to both insect and nematode models, those present specifically in either model, or neither. Combining small EST collections from related species to compensate for their

  4. Extratos de Moringa oleifera e Vernonia sp. sobre Candida albicans e Microsporum canis isolados de cães e gatos e análise da toxicidade em Artemia sp. Moringa oleifera and Vernonia sp. extracts against Candida albicans and Microsporum canis isolates from dogs and cats and analysis of toxicity to Artemia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha; Franscisco Léo Nascimento de Aguiar; Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante; Rossana Aguiar Cordeiro; Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro Teixeira; Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco; Manoel de Araújo Neto Paiva; João Paulo Otaviano Zeferino; Jair Mafezoli; Célia Maria de Souza Sampaio; Francisco Geraldo Barbosa; José Júlio Costa Sidrim

    2011-01-01

    O aumento da incidência das infecções fúngicas, bem como o registro crescente de resistência e falha terapêutica, têm impulsionado a realização de estudos de prospecção de fitoquímicos com propriedades antifúngicas. Diante do exposto, o presente estudo investigou o potencial antifúngico de extratos de Baccharis ligustrina, B. schultzii, Croton jacobinensis, Licania rigida, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia sp. e V. brasiliana, e de óleos essenciais de Lippia alba (Quimiotipos 1, 2, 3 e 4) e Ocimum g...

  5. 卤虫(Artemia salina)孵化腺细胞分化时相的免疫细胞化学研究(简报)%IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE PHASE OF DIFFERENTIATION OF HATCHING GLAND CELLS IN BRINE SHRIMP, ARTEMIA SALINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌; 樊廷俊; 汪小锋; 丛日山; 于秋涛; 钟其旺

    2004-01-01

    动物孵化酶(hatching enzyme HE)是早期胚胎在特定发育阶段由孵化腺细胞产生和分泌的,在动物早期胚胎孵化中具有关键性作用[4]。孵化腺细胞(hatching gland cell,HGC)一般为单细胞腺体,是从胚胎发育到特定阶段(孵化前)出现、至胚胎孵出后的特定时期消失的一时性细胞(transient type of

  6. Substituição de alimento vivo por alimento inerte na larvicultura intensiva do tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus = Replacement of live food for inert food on larviculture of tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Cuzini Lombardi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a substituição de náuplios de Artemia salina por alimentos inertes durante a larvicultura do tambacu. Na primeira fase, com duração de 12 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com: náuplio de Artemia salina, cyclop-eeze e ovo de Artemia salina. Na segunda fase, com duração de dez dias, foram utilizadas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina provenientes da primeira fase e testados os mesmos três alimentos. A qualidade da água manteve-se em condições adequadas para alarvicultura nas duas fases. As larvas da primeira fase alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina obtiveram os melhores resultados em crescimento, sobrevivência e desempenho produtivo. Na segunda fase, o crescimento, a sobrevivência e o desempenho produtivo das larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina e ovo de Artemia salina foram semelhantes. Nas duas fases, o custo com alimento foi mais baixo nas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina. Os resultados obtidos mostram que nas duas fases de larvicultura testadas a oferta de náuplios de Artemia salina é a melhor estratégia alimentar por proporcionar boa sobrevivência, crescimento e bom desempenho produtivo, além de menor custo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the replacement of Artemia salina nauplii by inert food during larviculture of tambacu. On the first phase with duration of 12 days, the larvae were fed with one of the following foods: Artemia salina nauplii, cyclop-eeze or Artemia salina egg. On the second phase, with 10 days of duration, larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii were utilized in the first experiment and the same food treatments were tested. Water quality was adequate forlarvae rearing in both phases. The larvae from the first phase that fed with Artemia salina nauplii presented better growth, survival rate and yield. On the second phase, the growth, survival and yield of larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii and eggs were

  7. Substituição de alimento vivo por alimento inerte na larvicultura intensiva do tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.3835 Replacement of live food for inert food on larviculture of tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.3835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a substituição de náuplios de Artemia salina por alimentos inertes durante a larvicultura do tambacu. Na primeira fase, com duração de 12 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com: náuplio de Artemia salina, cyclop-eeze e ovo de Artemia salina. Na segunda fase, com duração de dez dias, foram utilizadas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina provenientes da primeira fase e testados os mesmos três alimentos. A qualidade da água manteve-se em condições adequadas para a larvicultura nas duas fases. As larvas da primeira fase alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina obtiveram os melhores resultados em crescimento, sobrevivência e desempenho produtivo. Na segunda fase, o crescimento, a sobrevivência e o desempenho produtivo das larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina e ovo de Artemia salina foram semelhantes. Nas duas fases, o custo com alimento foi mais baixo nas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina. Os resultados obtidos mostram que nas duas fases de larvicultura testadas a oferta de náuplios de Artemia salina é a melhor estratégia alimentar por proporcionar boa sobrevivência, crescimento e bom desempenho produtivo, além de menor custo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the replacement of Artemia salina nauplii by inert food during larviculture of tambacu. On the first phase with duration of 12 days, the larvae were fed with one of the following foods: Artemia salina nauplii, cyclop-eeze or Artemia salina egg. On the second phase, with 10 days of duration, larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii were utilized in the first experiment and the same food treatments were tested. Water quality was adequate for larvae rearing in both phases. The larvae from the first phase that fed with Artemia salina nauplii presented better growth, survival rate and yield. On the second phase, the growth, survival and yield of larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii and eggs

  8. Estudo fitoquímico de Unonopsis lindmanii - Annonaceae, biomonitorado pelo ensaio de toxicidade sobre a Artemia salina leach Activity - guided isolation of constituents of Unonopsis lindmanii - Annonaceae, based on the brine shrimp lethality bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    João Máximo de Siqueira; Mauro Dionei Bomm; Núbia Fernanda Gomes Pereira; Walmir Silva Garcez; Maria Amélia Diamantino Boaventura

    1998-01-01

    Extracts obtained from leaves, seeds and bark of Unonopsis lindmanii were evaluated by means of Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL). Through bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation, liriodenine, an oxoaporphine alkaloid, was isolated from the bark extracts as the bioactive compound. Two additional inactive known alkaloids, unonopsine and lysicamine were also isolated from the bark extracts.

  9. Desarrollo biológico e instalación del mírido depredador Nesidiocoris tenuis en el cultivo del tomate con quistes desencapsulados de Artemia sp. como alimento alternativo

    OpenAIRE

    ALONSO VALIENTE, MIQUEL

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) caused great damage in tomato crops during the first years after its introduction in 2006. After several years using insecticides, its integrated management was improved via the use of the predatory mirid Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae). N. tenuis is currently used in southeastern Spanish greenhouses. This predator is reared by several companies using the eggs of the mill moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) ...

  10. STUDY OF A DNA SEQUENCE FROM BRINE SHRIMP ARTEMIA CONTAINING A NOVEL DM DOMAIN%卤虫中编码DM结构域的DNA序列的克隆和初步研究(简报)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾辉; 宋文芹; 陈瑞阳

    2004-01-01

    性别决定的分子机制复杂多样,但是处于动物性别决定的基因调控网络底部的一些调控基因具有相当高的保守性。doublesex(dsx)基因和male abnomal-3(mab-3)基因分别是果蝇(Drosophila melanogaster)和线虫(Caenorhabditis elegans)性别决定调控途径末端的重要基因,对这两个基因序列的比较导致了DM结构域的发现,它是已知在性别发育过程中最为保守的DNA结合结构域。目前,已

  11. Isolation of TDA-producing Phaeobacter strains from sea bass larval rearing units and their probiotic effect against pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Artemia cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul;

    2016-01-01

    V. harveyi, which is the major bacterial pathogen in crustaceans and Mediterranean sea bass larvae cultures. Concomitantly, they significantly improved survival of V. harveyi-infected brine shrimp. 16S rRNA gene sequence homology identified the antagonists as Phaeobacter sp., and in silico DNA...

  12. 不同日龄卤虫对钻井液生物毒性效应比较研究%The Biological Toxicity of Various Day Old Brine Shrimp Artemia salineto Drilling Effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹翠玲; 张秋丰; 刘洋; 牛福新; 徐玉山

    2014-01-01

    The 96h biological toxicity of drilling effluent to two ,five ,ten ,twenty and thirty day old brine shrimp A rtemia saline was studied at water temperature from 23 ℃ to 25 ℃ .The results showed that the differences in mortality of the brine shrimp caused by different concentrations of drilling effluent were found to be increased with the test period elapse .There were significant differences in mortality between the second ,third ,fourth and fifth brime shrimp groups and the control group (P< 0 .05) ,except for between the first group and the control group in 96 h test .The 96 h LC50 was found to be 3464 mg/L in 2 day old A rtemia ,3488 mg/L in 5 day old A rtemia ,3452 mg/L in 10 day old A rtemia ,4811 mg/L in 20 day old A rtemia ,and 2592 mg/L in 30 day old A rtemia ,with the test time elapse ,the differences in mortality being decreased among all age A rtemia .%研究了23~25℃下2、5、10、20日和30日龄卤虫对钻井液的96 h毒性耐受力的差异。试验结果表明,随着试验时间的延长,不同质量浓度钻井液对卤虫死亡率的影响差异性逐渐增大,试验96 h时,除钻井液质量浓度为2000 mg/L组与对照组死亡率差异不显著外,4000、6000、8000、10000 mg/L质量浓度组均与对照组差异显著( P<0.05);2、5、10、20日和30日龄卤虫的96 h半致死质量浓度分别为3464、3488、3452、4811、2592 m g/L ,随着试验时间的延长,各日龄卤虫之间的死亡率差异逐渐降低。

  13. Cofeeding of phospholipids to turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. larvae as a tool to reduce live food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, P.; González Félix, M.; Van Ryckeghem, K.; Geurden, I.; Thysen, F.; Lebegue, E.; Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1999-01-01

    The possible benefits of feeding a formulated diet, together with Artemia , to first-feeding turbot larvae were investigated. Five dietary regimes were used: control ( Artemia only), cofeeding with a diet rich in phospholipid (PL) from bovine brain, cofeeding with a diet rich in free fatty acids (FFA) from the same source, cofeeding with a commercial diet (Lansy A2), and a formulated feed only (PL-rich diet). All treatments with artificial diets and the control treatment that received Artemia...

  14. Alimentary handling in the larviculture of mandi-pintado (“Pimelodus britskii”) Manejo alimentar na larvicultura do mandi-pintado ("Pimelodus britskii")

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo; Aldi Feiden; César Sary; Dacley Hertes Neu; Odair Diemer; Arcangelo Augusto Signor

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the growth rate and survival of mandi-pintado (Pimelodus britskii) larvae submitted to different feeding management. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replicates in a tank with 30 liters of water, each containing 30 larvae (0.032 ± 0.0048g and 8.22 ± 0.40mm). The treatments consisted of larvae fed with artemia; diet; artemia + diet; and artemia for two weeks + diet. Fish fed with artemia + diet showed grea...

  15. Substituição de alimento vivo por alimento inerte na larvicultura intensiva do tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus) - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.3835 Replacement of live food for inert food on larviculture of tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus) - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.3835

    OpenAIRE

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes; Danieli Cuzini Lombardi

    2009-01-01

    Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a substituição de náuplios de Artemia salina por alimentos inertes durante a larvicultura do tambacu. Na primeira fase, com duração de 12 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com: náuplio de Artemia salina, cyclop-eeze e ovo de Artemia salina. Na segunda fase, com duração de dez dias, foram utilizadas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina provenientes da primeira fase e testados os mesmos três alimentos. A qualidade da água manteve-se em condiçõ...

  16. Substituição de alimento vivo por alimento inerte na larvicultura intensiva do tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus) = Replacement of live food for inert food on larviculture of tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Danieli Cuzini Lombardi; Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a substituição de náuplios de Artemia salina por alimentos inertes durante a larvicultura do tambacu. Na primeira fase, com duração de 12 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com: náuplio de Artemia salina, cyclop-eeze e ovo de Artemia salina. Na segunda fase, com duração de dez dias, foram utilizadas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina provenientes da primeira fase e testados os mesmos três alimentos. A qualidade da água manteve-se em condiçõ...

  17. About potential of double layer and boundary value problems for Laplace equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral operator raisen by a kernel of the double layer's potential is investigated. The kernel is defined on S (S - two-digit variety of C2 class presented by a boundary of the finite domain in R3). The operator is considered on C(S). Following results are received: the operator's spectrum belongs to [-1,1]; it's eigenvalues and eigenfunctions may be found by Kellog's method; knowledge of the operator's spectrum is enough to construct it's resolvent. These properties permit to point out the determined interation processes, solving boundary value problems for Laplace equation. One of such processes - solving of Roben problem - is generalized on electrostatic problems. 6 refs

  18. Anthropogenic influences on the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and mercury in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, D.; Angeroth, C.; Kenney, T.; Waddell, B.; Darnall, N.; Silva, S.; Perschon, C.; Whitehead, J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake (GSL), little is known about the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the lake. In response to increasing public concern regarding anthropogenic inputs to the GSL ecosystem, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated coordinated studies to quantify and evaluate the significance of nutrient and Hg inputs into GSL. A 6??? decrease in ??15N observed in brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) samples collected from GSL during summer time periods is likely due to the consumption of cyanobacteria produced in freshwater bays entering the lake. Supporting data collected from the outflow of Farmington Bay indicates decreasing trends in ??15N in particulate organic matter (POM) during the mid-summer time period, reflective of increasing proportions of cyanobacteria in algae exported to GSL on a seasonal basis. The C:N molar ratio of POM in outflow from Farmington Bay decreases during the summer period, supportive of the increased activity of N fixation indicated by decreasing ??15N in brine shrimp and POM. Although N fixation is only taking place in the relatively freshwater inflows to GSL, data indicate that influx of fresh water influences large areas of the lake. Separation of GSL into two distinct hydrologic and geochemical systems from the construction of a railroad causeway in the late 1950s has created a persistent and widespread anoxic layer in the southern part of GSL. This anoxic layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), has high rates of SO42 - reduction, likely increasing the Hg methylation capacity. High concentrations of methyl mercury (CH3Hg) (median concentration = 24 ng/L) were observed in the DBL with a significant proportion (31-60%) of total Hg in the CH3Hg form. Hydroacoustic and sediment-trap evidence indicate that turbulence introduced by internal waves generated during sustained wind events can temporarily mix the

  19. Anthropogenic influences on the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and mercury in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake (GSL), little is known about the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the lake. In response to increasing public concern regarding anthropogenic inputs to the GSL ecosystem, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated coordinated studies to quantify and evaluate the significance of nutrient and Hg inputs into GSL. A 6 per mille decrease in δ15N observed in brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) samples collected from GSL during summer time periods is likely due to the consumption of cyanobacteria produced in freshwater bays entering the lake. Supporting data collected from the outflow of Farmington Bay indicates decreasing trends in δ15N in particulate organic matter (POM) during the mid-summer time period, reflective of increasing proportions of cyanobacteria in algae exported to GSL on a seasonal basis. The C:N molar ratio of POM in outflow from Farmington Bay decreases during the summer period, supportive of the increased activity of N fixation indicated by decreasing δ15N in brine shrimp and POM. Although N fixation is only taking place in the relatively freshwater inflows to GSL, data indicate that influx of fresh water influences large areas of the lake. Separation of GSL into two distinct hydrologic and geochemical systems from the construction of a railroad causeway in the late 1950s has created a persistent and widespread anoxic layer in the southern part of GSL. This anoxic layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), has high rates of SO42- reduction, likely increasing the Hg methylation capacity. High concentrations of methyl mercury (CH3Hg) (median concentration = 24 ng/L) were observed in the DBL with a significant proportion (31-60%) of total Hg in the CH3Hg form. Hydroacoustic and sediment-trap evidence indicate that turbulence introduced by internal waves generated during sustained wind events can temporarily

  20. Anthropogenic influences on the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and mercury in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naftz, David [US Geological Survey, Salt Lake City 84119, UT (United States)], E-mail: dlnaftz@usgs.gov; Angeroth, Cory; Kenney, Terry [US Geological Survey, Salt Lake City 84119, UT (United States); Waddell, Bruce; Darnall, Nathan [US Fish and Wildlife Service, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silva, Steven [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perschon, Clay [Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Whitehead, John [Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake (GSL), little is known about the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the lake. In response to increasing public concern regarding anthropogenic inputs to the GSL ecosystem, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated coordinated studies to quantify and evaluate the significance of nutrient and Hg inputs into GSL. A 6 per mille decrease in {delta}{sup 15}N observed in brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) samples collected from GSL during summer time periods is likely due to the consumption of cyanobacteria produced in freshwater bays entering the lake. Supporting data collected from the outflow of Farmington Bay indicates decreasing trends in {delta}{sup 15}N in particulate organic matter (POM) during the mid-summer time period, reflective of increasing proportions of cyanobacteria in algae exported to GSL on a seasonal basis. The C:N molar ratio of POM in outflow from Farmington Bay decreases during the summer period, supportive of the increased activity of N fixation indicated by decreasing {delta}{sup 15}N in brine shrimp and POM. Although N fixation is only taking place in the relatively freshwater inflows to GSL, data indicate that influx of fresh water influences large areas of the lake. Separation of GSL into two distinct hydrologic and geochemical systems from the construction of a railroad causeway in the late 1950s has created a persistent and widespread anoxic layer in the southern part of GSL. This anoxic layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), has high rates of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} reduction, likely increasing the Hg methylation capacity. High concentrations of methyl mercury (CH{sub 3}Hg) (median concentration = 24 ng/L) were observed in the DBL with a significant proportion (31-60%) of total Hg in the CH{sub 3}Hg form. Hydroacoustic and sediment-trap evidence indicate that turbulence introduced by internal waves

  1. Concentration and subcellular distribution of trace elements in liver of small cetaceans incidentally caught along the Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunito, Takashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Anan, Yasumi; Kubota, Reiji; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Rosas, Fernando C.W.; Fillmann, Gilberto; Readman, James W

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, T-Hg, Org-Hg, Tl and Pb) were determined in liver samples of estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis; n=20), Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei; n=23), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis; n=2), common dolphin (Delphinus capensis; n=1) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba; n=1) incidentally caught along the coast of Sao Paulo State and Parana State, Brazil, from 1997 to 1999. The hepatic concentrations of trace elements in the Brazilian cetaceans were comparable to the data available in literature on marine mammals from Northern Hemisphere. Concentrations of V, Se, Mo, Cd, T-Hg and Org-Hg increased with increasing age in liver of both estuarine and Franciscana dolphins. Very high concentrations of Cu (range, 262-1970 {mu}g/g dry wt.) and Zn (range, 242-369 {mu}g/g dry wt.) were observed in liver of sucklings of estuarine dolphin. Hepatic concentrations of V, Se, T-Hg, Org-Hg and Pb were significantly higher in estuarine dolphin, whereas Franciscana dolphin showed higher concentrations of Mn, Co, As and Rb. Ratio of Org-Hg to T-Hg in liver was significantly higher in Franciscana dolphin than estuarine dolphin, suggesting that demethylation ability of methyl Hg might be lower in liver of Franciscana than estuarine dolphins. High hepatic concentrations of Ag were found in some specimens of Franciscana dolphin (maximum, 20 {mu}g/g dry wt.), and 17% of Franciscana showed higher concentrations of Ag than Hg. These samples with high Ag concentration also exhibited elevated hepatic Se concentration, implying that Ag might be detoxified by Se in the liver. Higher correlation coefficient between (Hg + 0.5 Ag) and Se than between Hg and Se and the large distribution of Ag in non-soluble fraction in nuclear and mitochondrial fraction of the liver also suggests that Ag might be detoxified by Se via formation of Ag{sub 2}Se in the liver of Franciscana

  2. Concentration and subcellular distribution of trace elements in liver of small cetaceans incidentally caught along the Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, T-Hg, Org-Hg, Tl and Pb) were determined in liver samples of estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis; n=20), Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei; n=23), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis; n=2), common dolphin (Delphinus capensis; n=1) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba; n=1) incidentally caught along the coast of Sao Paulo State and Parana State, Brazil, from 1997 to 1999. The hepatic concentrations of trace elements in the Brazilian cetaceans were comparable to the data available in literature on marine mammals from Northern Hemisphere. Concentrations of V, Se, Mo, Cd, T-Hg and Org-Hg increased with increasing age in liver of both estuarine and Franciscana dolphins. Very high concentrations of Cu (range, 262-1970 μg/g dry wt.) and Zn (range, 242-369 μg/g dry wt.) were observed in liver of sucklings of estuarine dolphin. Hepatic concentrations of V, Se, T-Hg, Org-Hg and Pb were significantly higher in estuarine dolphin, whereas Franciscana dolphin showed higher concentrations of Mn, Co, As and Rb. Ratio of Org-Hg to T-Hg in liver was significantly higher in Franciscana dolphin than estuarine dolphin, suggesting that demethylation ability of methyl Hg might be lower in liver of Franciscana than estuarine dolphins. High hepatic concentrations of Ag were found in some specimens of Franciscana dolphin (maximum, 20 μg/g dry wt.), and 17% of Franciscana showed higher concentrations of Ag than Hg. These samples with high Ag concentration also exhibited elevated hepatic Se concentration, implying that Ag might be detoxified by Se in the liver. Higher correlation coefficient between (Hg + 0.5 Ag) and Se than between Hg and Se and the large distribution of Ag in non-soluble fraction in nuclear and mitochondrial fraction of the liver also suggests that Ag might be detoxified by Se via formation of Ag2Se in the liver of Franciscana dolphin

  3. Co medle jiného od chudého františkána k očekávání? Postila Trojí chléb nebeský františkána Damascena Marka

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Daniel

    Praha : Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Filozofická fakulta, 2012, s. 146-178. ISBN 978-80-7308-436-3. - (Europaeana Pragensia. Historia Franciscana. 4) Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech literature * spiritual literature * Damascen Marek Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  4. Filip Fabri O.F.M. Conv. (1564–1630) o společné přirozenosti ve Philosophia naturalis (1602) a kritická odpověď Bartoloměje Mastria O.F.M. Conv. (+1673)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heider, Daniel

    Praha : Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Filozofická fakulta, 2012, s. 114-129. ISBN 978-80-7308-436-3. - (Europaeana Pragensia. Historia Franciscana. 4) Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : universals * Scotus * common nature * formal unity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. 77 FR 54434 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... cinereoargenteus), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), raccoons (Procyon lotor), California quail (Callipepla californica... species (76 FR 55623) published in the Federal Register, or the Recovery Plan for Coastal Plants of the....regulations.gov ). Prudency Determination In our proposed listing rule for Arctostaphylos franciscana (76...

  6. The effect of DHA/EPA ratio in live feed on the fatty acid composition, survival, growth and pigmentation of turbot larvae Scophthalmus maximus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Curé, K.; Gajardo, G.; Coutteau, P.

    1996-01-01

    A set of experiments was designed to understand the effect of standardized enrichment diets on the fatty acid composition and culture performance of turbot larvae reared using the food chain rotifers -freshly hatched Artemia nauplii- enriched Artemia . Rotifers were fed on experimental diets of similar total n-3 HUFA content (34-39 mg/g DW) but different DHA/EPA ratio (0.7, 2.6 and 5.5). DHA/EPA ratio in Artemia was manipulated by 24-h enrichment with an emulsion with either a high or low DHA...

  7. Growth Indices of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Larvae Fed with Live Food and Artificial Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Shammi, Qaiser Jahan; Shaukath Ali MIR

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the individual and mixed effect of live and artificial food on the growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae. The triplicate treatments were divided into four sets. The first group was fed a commercial starter food; the second group was fed on live Artemia salina nauplii (for 3 days); the third group was fed on live Artemia salina nauplii (for 7 days); and the last group was fed on a combination of live Artemia nauplii ...

  8. A novel hybrid technology for remediation of molasses-based raw effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verma, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.; Naik, C.G.

    . Comparative mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated increasing degradation of the effluent components after each stage. Toxicity (LC sub(50) values) against Artemia larvae was reduced by two to five folds...

  9. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated. PMID:16229970

  10. Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, L C; Dhert, P.; Chew, W.Y.; Dermaux, V.; Nelis, H.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodium chloride. Ascorbyl acid-poly phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate were used as vitamin C sources for formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles, respectively. Results showed that guppies fed moist formulated diet...

  11. Live food mediated vitamin C transfer to Dicentrarchus labraxand Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Dhert, Ph.; Pector, R.; Mai Soni, A.F.; Nelis, H.; Ollevier, F.P.; De leenheer, A P; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    Live food enrichment techniques, using formulated diets and emulsions for improving the nutritional quality of Brachionus and Artemia , were studied as a tool for transferring ascorbic acid (AA) to fish larvae. Artemia nauplii enriched for 24h with an experimental emulsion containing 20% HUFA and 0%, 10% and 20% ascorbyl palmitate (AP) were administered to catfish larvae in a 20-day feeding trial. Survival was not affected by the dietary AA, but from day 7 onwards a significantly positive eff...

  12. Effect of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate on Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, larvae challenged with pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, L; Cai, J.; Sun, H; Wille, M.; Bossier, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) on Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, zoea larvae challenged with pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum. PHB was delivered to the crab larvae through rotifer and Artemia bioencapsulation. Zoea 3 larvae were challenged with V. anguillarum at a final concentration of 105 CFU mL-1. PHB-enriched rotifers and Artemia nauplii were added to the culture water 24 h prior to, upon and 24 h after challenge. The results confirmed...

  13. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts Composição química, toxicidade, atividade larvicida e antifúngica de extratos de semente de Persea americana (abacate)

    OpenAIRE

    João Jaime Giffoni Leite; Érika Helena Salles Brito; Rossana Aguiar Cordeiro; Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante; José Júlio Costa Sidrim; Luciana Medeiros Bertini; Selene Maia de Morais; Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2....

  14. Dicty_cDB: SHE753 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHE753 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11302-1 SHE753P (Link to Original ... nciscana mRNA for actin (actin 302 gene), clone RT-PCR -14. 66 4e-15 3 AJ269585 |AJ269585.1 Artemia franci ... scana mRNA for actin (actin 302 gene), clone RT-PCR -7. 66 4e-15 3 AJ269584 |AJ269584.1 Artemia francis ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHK116 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHK116 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11302-1 CHK116P (Link to Original ... nciscana mRNA for actin (actin 302 gene), clone RT-PCR -7. 66 3e-10 2 AJ269586 |AJ269586.1 Artemia francis ... cana mRNA for actin (actin 302 gene), clone RT-PCR -14. 66 3e-10 2 AJ269584 |AJ269584.1 Artemia franci ...

  16. Estudo fitoquímico das cascas do caule de Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae, biomonitorado pelo ensaio de toxicidade frente a Artemia salina leach Activity-guided isolation of the constituents from bark of stem of Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae, using Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL)

    OpenAIRE

    João Máximo de Siqueira; Maria Graziela Ziminiani; Ubirazilda Maria Resende; Maria Amélia Diamantino Boaventura

    2001-01-01

    The extract obtained from stem bark of Duguetia glabriuscula - Annonaceae was evaluated by Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BSL). The bioactive compounds, oxobufoline and lanuginosine, two oxoaporphine alkaloids were isolated by activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the compounds asaraldehyde, (+)-allo-aromadendrane-10beta, 14-diol, and two aporphine alkaloids, polyalthine and oliveridine were also obtained.

  17. Actualities and prospect of studies on the brine shrimp Artemia as biocapsule in prevention and treatment of diseases of aquatic animals%卤虫生物包囊在水产动物疾病防治中的研究现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立民; 李健; 王群; 刘淇

    2005-01-01

    在水产养殖中,"生物包囊"就是指以饵料生物作为载体包裹营养物质或药物,鱼虾通过摄食这种饵料生物达到营养强化、防治疾病等目的.本文以卤虫为代表,介绍了国内外利用生物包囊防治水产动物疾病方面的研究现状:包囊的优点、强化研究、药代学分析、防治效果等.并对研究中存在的问题和今后的研究方向进行了分析探讨.

  18. Resistência ao estresse e crescimento de larvas de peixes neotropicais alimentadas com diferentes dietas Stress resistance and growth of larvae of neotropical fish feed with different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da alimentação na resistência ao estresse e no crescimento de larvas das espécies de peixes neotropicais: Astronotus ocellatus (Oscar, Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu e Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (pintado. As larvas receberam diferentes tipos de alimentos (Artemia sp., larvas de Colossoma macropomum e dieta artificial Fry Feed Kyowa. Foram realizados testes de exposição ao ar e a taxa de sobrevivência, determinada 24 horas depois. A fim de avaliar o crescimento, medidas de peso foram realizadas em larvas dos diferentes tratamentos. Larvas de A. ocellatus alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia sp. apresentaram tendência de maior peso e resistência ao estresse, quando comparadas com o uso de dieta artificial. Larvas de P. mesopotamicus apresentaram melhores valores de peso e taxas de resistência ao estresse, quando alimentadas com Artemia sp. ou alimentação mista (Artemia sp. + dieta artificial. Em P. coruscans, o uso de larvas forrageiras resultou em indivíduos mais resistentes aos testes de exposição ao ar do que os que receberam apenas Artemia sp. Valores de peso, nos dois manejos alimentares, foram semelhantes entre si. O alimento vivo desempenha importante atuação no crescimento em peso e na melhora da resistência ao estresse das espécies estudadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding on stress resistance and growth in larvae of neotropical fish of the species: Astronotus ocellatus, Piaractus mesopotamicus, and Pseudoplatystoma coruscans. Larvae received different types of food (Artemia sp., Colossoma macropomum larvae and artificial microdiet Fry Feed Kyowa. Resistance tests to air exposure were applied, and larvae survival was determined after 24 hours. To evaluate the growth, weight measures were performed during the different treatments. A. ocellatus larvae fed on Artemia sp. nauplii tended to better resistant and weight than others that received

  19. Single-cell protein diet of a novel recombinant vitellogenin yeast enhances growth and survival of first-feeding tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E H; Lam, T J; Ding, J L

    2005-03-01

    Yeast single-cell protein (SCP) is a high-nutrient feed substitute. This study evaluates the dual applications of a novel recombinant Pichia pastoris SMD1168H (SMD) yeast, expressing a tilapia vitellogenin protein (rVtg), as an SCP diet for Artemia and the first-feeding fish larvae. Instar II Artemia fed rVtg, rVtg precultured in 5% fish oil (rVtg-FO), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), or native SMD had greater lipid contents (P Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae were fed solely yeast diets singly or in combination (d 3-22), or a staggered regimen of yeast (d 3-12) followed by unenriched or yeast-enriched Artemia (d 13-22). The larvae fed rVtg for 22 d increased in length and weight (P larvae prefed rVtg followed by a dietary switch to Artemia preenriched for 48 h with rVtg or rVtg-FO were greatest in length, had the highest weight gain, and lived the longest. Besides delivering rVtg protein, essential fatty acids and amino acids, rVtg may have probiotic effects in enhancing larval survival. This study suggests the feasibility of using the rVtg yeast as an Artemia booster and an SCP first feed for larvae. PMID:15735086

  20. Accumulation of pesticide residues by shrimp, fish and brine shrimp during pond culture at Ghorabari (District Thatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual level of persistent organo chlorines (OC) such as sigma-HCH (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, sigma-DDT (o,p'-DDD, op-DDE, p,p-DDE pp-DDD, pp'-DDT, o,p'-DDT), dieldrin and endrin were measured in a number of water samples from Ambro creek and their accumulation in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and P. penicillatus), fish (Otolithes ruber) and brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) reared in ponds for a period of four months. Samples were extracted with organic solvents, and quantified using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC/ECD). It has been found that results of animal tissue and water are not same however OCs, (mainly sigma DT and beta-HCH 4,4-DDT, Dieldrin + 2,4-DDT, and Methoxychlor were detected in all samples ). Heptachlor exo-epoxide were found in fish and Artemia sp. and absent in all shrimp samples. Heptachlor endo-epoxide was detected only in Artemia sp. and average residual concentration of OCs in Artemia sp. was 0.004-0.09 ppm. Methoxychlor was found in the highest quantity in all the samples whether it was fish, shrimp or Artemia. In fish average residual concentration of all (OCs) in individual sample was 0.03 - 0.180 ppm. (author)

  1. Weaning of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis postlarvae to an inert diet with a co-feeding regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the weaning success of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, postlarvae when cofed a compound diet, by means of the analysis of growth parameters (relative growth rate [RGR] and condition factor [K], survival, protein and lipid content. Total ammonia in the rearing water was also measured. The experiment lasted for 46 days (36 to 82 days posthatching. One group was fed only with enriched Artemia sp. metanauplii (Artemia treatment, whereas in another group, the Artemia sp. metanauplii were gradually replaced by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES diet over a period of 39 days (ICES treatment. Postlarvae were sampled on rearing days 0, 9, 23, 30, 39 and 46 for growth and biochemical analysis. Water was sampled on rearing day 30 during a 24-h cycle in both treatments. Postlarvae from the ICES treatment were weaned, though by the end of the experiment the Artemia treatment exhibited significantly higher values for growth, RGR, K and survival rates (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed concerning total lipid content. Protein content was significantly higher for the Artemia treatment after 46 days of rearing (P < 0.05. The total ammonia nitrogen concentration in the water increased after each meal and remained below a harmless level for postlarvae.

  2. Multimeric hemoglobin of the Australian brine shrimp Parartemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M; Matthews, C M; Trotman, C N

    2001-04-01

    The hemoglobin molecule of the commercially important brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been used extensively as a model for the study of molecular evolution. It consists of nine globin domains joined by short linker sequences, and these domains are believed to have originated through a series of duplications from an original globin gene. In addition, in Artemia, two different polymers of hemoglobin, called C and T, are found which differ by 11.7% at the amino acid level and are believed to have diverged about 60 MYA. This provides a set of data of 18 globin domain sequences that have evolved in the same organism. The pattern of amino acid substitution between these two polymers is unusual, with pairs of equivalent domains displaying differences of up to 2.7-fold in total amino acid substitution. Such differences would reflect a similar range of molecular-clock rates in what appear to be duplicate, structurally equivalent domains. In order to provide a reference outgroup, we sequenced the cDNA for a nine-domain hemoglobin (P) from another genus of brine shrimp, Parartemia zietziana, which differs morphologically and ecologically from Artemia and is endemic to Australia. Parartemia produces only one hundredth the amount of hemoglobin that Artemia produces and does not upregulate production in response to low oxygen partial pressure. Comparison of the globin domains at the amino acid and DNA levels suggests that the Artemia globin T gene has accumulated substitutions differently from the Parartemia P and Artemia C globin genes. We discuss the questions of accelerated evolution after duplication and possible functions for the Parartemia globin. PMID:11264409

  3. Biological screening of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae) Abordagem biológica de Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jamileh Salar Amoli; Parisa Sadighara; Abbas Barin; Azam Yazdani; Saeed Satari

    2009-01-01

    Bioassays are required for the determination of the total toxicity of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae) or "redroot pigweed". Therefore, the plant extract has been tested for bioactivity in Artemia salina and cytotoxicity against bovine kidney cells. The LD50 values for Artemia salina were measured at 1700 ppm. The bovine kidney cells were exposed to various concentrations of the plant extracts (100 ppm-0.1 ppm). After treating with 100 and 0.1 ppm for 24 h, the cells viability were r...

  4. Accumulation and retention of 241Am in marine plankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two samples of sea water spiked with 241Am were prepared, one containing a rich suspension of phytoplankton cells and the other not. Adult Artemia brine shrimp were placed in each sample and the accumulation, uptake and concentration factors were obtained. Results from the Artemia uptake show that 241Am is far more effectively accumulated from the water pathway than from the combined food and water pathway. The experiments indicate that 241Am is relatively non-assimilatable when digested and thus most, if not all, of the isotope is rapidly voided in fecal pellets

  5. http://revistas.unicordoba.edu.co/revistamvz/mvz-182/v18n2a12.pdf

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Valbuena V.; Beatriz Zapata-Berruecos; Angélica Otero-Paternina

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar el desempeño y sobrevivencia de larvas de capaz Pimelodus grosskopfii suministrando alimento vivo (Cladóceros, Copépodos y Artemia salina). Materiales y métodos. Larvas de capaz fueron ubicadas en recipientes plásticos con un volumen útil de 3 L, a una densidad de 10 larvas L-1, fueron alimentadas cuatro veces al día, durante 15 días con nauplios de Artemia recién eclosionadas, Cladóceros de los géneros Moina y Ceriodaphnia y Copépodos calanoides. Las larvas de capaz se pesa...

  6. Evaluación de la primera alimentación en larvas de capaz Pimelodus grosskopfii bajo condiciones de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Valbuena V, Rubén; Zapata-Berruecos, Beatriz; Otero-Paternina, Angélica

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Evaluar el desempeño y sobrevivencia de larvas de capaz Pimelodus grosskopfii suministrando alimento vivo (Cladóceros, Copépodos y Artemia salina). Materiales y métodos. Larvas de capaz fueron ubicadas en recipientes plásticos con un volumen útil de 3 L, a una densidad de 10 larvas L-1, fueron alimentadas cuatro veces al día, durante 15 días con nauplios de Artemia recién eclosionadas, Cladóceros de los géneros Moina y Ceriodaphnia y Copépodos calanoides. Las larvas de capaz ...

  7. Treatment of ships' ballast water by irradiation of pulsed, intense relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankton contained in ships' ballast water has been successfully treated by irradiation of pulsed, intense relativistic electron beam (PIREB). A treatment chamber is filled up with solution of 3-wt% salt in water containing a larva of artemia as the zooplankton, and is irradiated by the PIREB (2 MeV, 0.4 kA, 140 ns). We have found that electric conductivity and pH of the salt solution does not change significantly within 10 shots of the PIREB irradiation. We have obtained that the artemia of 24% is inactivated by firing 10 shots of the PIREB irradiation. (author)

  8. Ingestão de ração e comportamento de larvas de pacu em resposta a estímulos químicos e visuais Diet ingestion rate and pacu larvae behavior in response to chemical and visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borges Tesser

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar a influência dos estímulos visual e/ou químico de náuplios de Artemia e de dieta microencapsulada sobre a taxa de ingestão da dieta microencapusulada por larvas de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 7 x 4 (estímulos e idades com duas repetições. Verificou-se efeito da idade das larvas e dos estímulos, mas não houve efeito para a interação idade ´ estímulos. O estímulo químico da Artemia e ambos os estímulos da Artemia resultaram em maior taxa de ingestão de dieta inerte. Resultado intermediário foi obtido com o estímulo visual da dieta microencapsulada. O estímulo químico, em comparação ao estímulo visual da Artemia, resultou em maiores taxas de ingestão da dieta. Com o aumento da idade, houve incremento na taxa de ingestão. Os estímulos visual e químico dos náuplios e o estímulo visual da ração aumentaram a ingestão de dieta inerte por larvas de pacu. Náuplios de Artemia devem ser oferecidos antes do fornecimento da dieta inerte, pois podem auxiliar no processo de transição alimentar. Os resultados deste trabalho apontaram novas possibilidades de estudos com larvas de peixes neotropicais visando a substituição precoce do alimento vivo para o inerte.The effect of visual, chemical and the combination of both stimuli from Artemia nauplii and from microencapsulated diet on dry diet ingestion by pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae was evaluated in this research. The experiment was analyzed as a 7 x 4 factorial arrangement (seven stimuli and four ages with two replicates. It was observed effect of larvae age and stimuli, but no interaction (age ´ stimuli was observed. The chemical effect from Artemia and both effects from Artemia resulted in higher ingestion rates. An intermediary result was obtained with visual effect from microencapsulated diet. The chemical stimulus from Artemia resulted in higher ingestion rates than that

  9. The occurrence of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine area in southern Brazil Ocorrência de Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae em uma região estuarina no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Cremer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The toninha, or franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, is an endemic species of cetacean of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There is little information on the occurrence of this species in its natural environment due to the great difficulty in sighting it. Systematized and non-systematized observations of franciscanas were made from December 1996 through November 2001 at Babitonga Bay, on the northern coast of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. The observations were made from small motorboats. A total of 79 observations were made, totaling 561 individuals. Up to 59.5% of the groups consisted of over four individuals and the average group size was seven. Calves were present in 30.4% of the observations. The species was found throughout the year within the bay and preferential areas were identified. Calves were registered during all seasons. Data are presented on the behavior (feeding, traveling, aerial behavior and behavior relating to the boats and on inter-specific interactions with terns, cormorants [Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789] and brown boobies [Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783]. The species is sympatric with the estuarine dolphin Sotalia guianensis (P. J. Van Bénéden, 1864 in the bay, but there was no record of interaction between them. The area of the bay represents an important refuge for the franciscana species.A toninha, ou franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, é uma espécie endêmica de cetáceos que ocorre no Oceano Atlântico sul ocidental. Existem poucas informações sobre a ocorrência da espécie em seu ambiente natural em função da grande dificuldade em avistá-la. Observações sistematizadas e não-sistematizadas de franciscanas foram realizadas no período entre dezembro de 1996 e novembro de 2001 na Baía da Babitonga, no litoral norte do estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. As observações foram realizadas a partir de pequenas embarcações a

  10. CONDITIONAL PRODUCTION OF A FUNCTIONAL FISH GROWTH HORMONE IN THE TRANSGENIC LINE OF NANNOCHLOROPSIS OCULATA (EUSTIGMATOPHYCEAE)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Li, Si Shen; Huang, Rang; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2008-06-01

    Plasmid phr-YPGHc, containing the fish growth hormone (GH) cDNA driven by a heat shock protein 70A promoter and a RUBISCO SSU 2 promoter, was transferred into the protoplast of marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata (Droop) D. J. Hibberd by electroporation. Four transgenic clones were obtained in which the transferred phr-YPGHc was integrated into the genome and existed stably at least until the 50th generation. When we treated these transgenic microalgae by heat shock, the heterologous fish GH was produced in the amount of 0.42 to 0.27 μg · mL(-1) from the 50 mL of medium. We incubated artemia with the wildtype and transgenic N. oculata for 6 h and then fed these microalgae-treated artemia to red-tilapia larvae. After feeding, the growth of larvae that were fed artemia incubated with transgenic microalgae was greater (i.e., statistically significant: P larvae that were fed artemia incubated with nontransgenic microalgae: 316% versus 104% in weight gain, and 217% versus 146% in body length increase, respectively. Therefore, the N. oculata enables production of functional GH, and we propose that it might be an excellent bioreactor material. PMID:27041435

  11. Growth and development of vimba bream (Vimba vimba) larvae in relation to feeding duration with live and/or dry starter feed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamáčková, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Kozák, P.; Peňáz, Milan; Stanny, L. A.; Policar, T.; Baruš, Vlastimil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 287, 1-2 (2009), s. 158-162. ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : ASTA starter feed * Artemia salina * Total length * Weight * Level of ontogeny Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.925, year: 2009

  12. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  13. The effects of stocking density, prey concentration and feeding on Rhinelepis aspera (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 (Pisces: Loricariidae larviculture - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.8541

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate three stocking densities (20, 40 and 60 larvae L-1, and two daily prey concentrations (400 and 700 Artemia nauplii larvae-1 during the first seven days of active feeding (first phase. In the second phase was evaluate the effect of the different feeding regimes: fasting, dry diet (55% crude protein, Artemia sp. and mixed feeding (Artemia sp. plus dry diet, after 17 days of active feeding on Rhinelepis aspera larviculture. In the first phase, growth was affected only by prey concentration. In the second phase, the dry diet induced higher growth rates than fasting, but lower growth rates than the other treatments. The acceptance of the dry diet was evidenced by an increase in the growth rate from 4.6% day-1 in the first five days to 10.7% day-1 in the following five days of feeding. Survival was similar among dry diet, mixed feeding and Artemia nauplii treatments. R. aspera larvae can be reared during the first seven days of active feeding at a density of 60 larvae L-1, after which they can be fed with a commercial dry diet.

  14. Dietary LC-PUFA deficiency early in ontogeny induces behavioural changes in pike perch (Sander lucioperca) larvae and fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Höglund, Erik; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether dietary supply of DHA and phospholipids during early ontogeny affected the outcome of behavioural challenges in pike perch larvae and fry, and whether the history of lipid nutrition carried over in long-term effects on learning ability. Pike perch larvae were fed Artemia...

  15. Evaluation of the molluscicidal and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae activity of Croton floribundus extracts and kaurenoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina M. Medina; Juliana L. B. Peixoto; Silva, Adriano A.; Shirani K. Haraguchi; Dina L. M. Falavigna; Maria L. M. Zamuner; Maria H. Sarragiotto; Vidotti, Gentil J.

    2009-01-01

    Lethality of the extracts of Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant from south Brazil, and of the kaurenoic acid, an isolated compound, and two of its derivatives against adult Biomphalaria glabrata snails, Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and Artemia salina Leach. brine shrimp larvae are reported. Both extracts and the isolated compound showed significant molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities and reduced toxicity in brine shrimp assays.

  16. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTMA SALINA) LETHALITY OF SOME FERULAGO SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    F. HIRLAK, S. DOĞANCA, E. GÜRKAN, O.T. TÜZÜN,

    2015-01-01

    In this work the bio-activities of the extracts obtained from F. asparagifoliaBoiss., F. humilis Boiss., F. aucheri Boiss. (Umbelliferae) are investigatedusing the Brine shrimp method.Key words: Ferulago aucheri, F. humilis, F. asparagifolia, Brineshrimp (Artemia salina).

  17. http://revistas.unicordoba.edu.co/revistamvz/mvz-182/v18n2a12.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Valbuena V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el desempeño y sobrevivencia de larvas de capaz Pimelodus grosskopfii suministrando alimento vivo (Cladóceros, Copépodos y Artemia salina. Materiales y métodos. Larvas de capaz fueron ubicadas en recipientes plásticos con un volumen útil de 3 L, a una densidad de 10 larvas L-1, fueron alimentadas cuatro veces al día, durante 15 días con nauplios de Artemia recién eclosionadas, Cladóceros de los géneros Moina y Ceriodaphnia y Copépodos calanoides. Las larvas de capaz se pesaron y se midieron al inicio y al final del experimento para estimar ganancia en peso (GP, ganancia en longitud (GL, tasa de crecimiento específico (TCE, Factor de crecimiento relativo (FCR y sobrevivencia (S Resultados. El tratamiento que presentó los mejores resultados en GP, GL y S fue el de larvas alimentadas con nauplios de Artemia (3.8 ± 0.2 mg, 8 ± 0.7 mm y 48.3% respectivamente seguido de los tratamientos donde adicionó cladóceros y copépodos Conclusiones. Los nauplios de Artemia fue el tratamiento que presentó los mejores resultados en las variables productivas evaluadas en larvas de P. grosskopfii al inicio de su alimentación exógena.

  18. Cholesterol Effect on Survival and Development of Larval Mud Crab Scylla serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATSUYUKI HAMASAKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholesterol on the survival and development of larval mud crab Scylla serrata were examined by feeding larvae with Artemia enriched with different level of cholesterol. Artemia enriched with four stated levels of cholesterol i.e., 0, 5, 10, and 20 ul/l (Chol 0, 5, 10, and 20. All treatments were mixed with DHA70G at 25 ul/l. All the oil was adjusted to 100 ul/l by adding the oleic acid. Survival rate, intermolt period, and carapace width at the fisrt crab stage of mud crab larvae fed Chol 0, 5, and 10 were higher compared to that of Chol 20 (P < 0.05. We suggest that free sterol contained in Artemia at 1.37% was harmful to the growth performance of mud crab larvae. This study suggests that mud crab larvae required at least 0.61% cholesterol for maintaining good survival and development and therefore no need to enrich Artemia by cholesterol for the practical purpose.

  19. A cost-effectiveness analysis of live feeds in juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max;

    2016-01-01

    current usage is quite limited. One of the reasons has been lack of economic knowledge concerning the cost-effectiveness of copepod application compared to other commonly used feed items such as the brine shrimp Artemia. In this study, a cost-effectiveness analysis is made on two alternative live feed...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix 2 to Subpart A of... - Drilling Fluids Toxicity Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., mysids shall be fed daily with approximately 50 Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii per mysid. This will... Acute Toxicity of Eight Drilling Fluids to Mysid Shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), May 1984 EPA-600/3-84-067... Drilling Fluids and Mysid Shrimp Percent concentration Number exposed Number dead (96 hours) Number...

  1. A convenient synthesis of pseudoceratidine and three analogs for biological evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, C.; Christoffersen, M.W.; Gram, Lone;

    1997-01-01

    be adopted to the preparation of other derivatives. This was demonstrated by the synthesis of a 5,5'-didebromo derivative (2) and two analogs (3-4). The compounds 1-4 have been tested for antibacterial activity and the results compared to a previous study. Also activity against the marine brine...... shrimp Artemia salina is reported....

  2. Niche Limits of Symbiotic Gut Microbiota Constrain the Salinity Tolerance of Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nougué, Odrade; Gallet, Romain; Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Lenormand, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Symbiosis generally causes an expansion of the niche of each partner along the axis for which a service is mutually provided. However, for other axes, the niche can be restricted to the intersection of each partner's niche and can thus be constrained rather than expanded by mutualism. We explore this phenomenon using Artemia as a model system. This crustacean is able to survive at very high salinities but not at low salinities, although its hemolymph's salinity is close to freshwater. We hypothesized that this low-salinity paradox results from poor performance of its associated microbiota at low salinity. We showed that, in sterile conditions, Artemia had low survival at all salinities when algae were the only source of carbon. In contrast, survival was high at all salinities when fed with yeast. We also demonstrated that bacteria isolated from Artemia's gut reached higher densities at high salinities than at low salinities, including when grown on algae. Taken together, our results show that Artemia can survive at low salinities, but their gut microbiota, which are required for algae digestion, have reduced fitness. Widespread facultative symbiosis may thus be an important determinant of niche limits along axes not specific to the mutualistic interaction. PMID:26655356

  3. Chitin stimulates production of the antibiotic andrimid in a Vibrio corallilyticus strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    per cell was twofold higher. In cultures with Artemia as live chitin model system, S2052 reached up to 108 cells ml-1, produced andrimid and showed attachment to the exoskeleton and chitinous exuviae. The metabolic focus on andrimid production with chitin indicates that the antibiotic could serve an...

  4. Zooplankton community of Bhayandar and Thane salt pans around Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mustafa, S.; Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    were predominant at Thane. Decapods and mysids were common in the area. During the monsoon season mysids were dominant in the crystallizer and condenser of Thane. Artemia was observed only at Bhayandar. In general the salt pans sustain a fairly rich...

  5. Natural and anthropogenically-produced brominated compounds in endemic dolphins from Western South Atlantic: Another risk to a vulnerable species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver samples from 53 Franciscana dolphins along the Brazilian coast were analyzed for organobrominated compounds. Target substances included the following anthropogenic pollutants: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), as well as the naturally-generated methoxylated-PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). PBDE concentrations ranged from 6 to 1797 ng/g lw (mean 166 ± 298 ng/g lw) and were similar to those observed in cetaceans from Northern Hemisphere. PBBs were found in all sampling locations (< LOQ to 57 ng/g lw). DBDPE was detected in 42% of the dolphins from the most industrialized Brazilian state and the concentrations ranging from < LOQ to 352 ng/g lw. Franciscana dolphins from the tropical Brazilian shore presented the highest MeO-PBDE concentrations ever reported for coastal cetaceans (up to 14 μg/g lw). Eight MeO-PBDE congeners were detected and the present investigation constituted the first record of occurrence of six of them in marine mammal livers. - Highlights: ► PBDE, emerging BFR and MeO-PBDE levels in Franciscana dolphin from Brazil were reported. ► Six MeO-PBDEs were detected for the first time in marine mammals. ► PBDE contamination was similar than those from other industrialized areas around the world. ► MeO-PBDEs presented the higher concentrations found in coastal biota worldwide. - Concentrations and accumulation profiles of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and emerging brominated compounds in livers of dolphins from South Atlantic.

  6. Análise da degradação de dieta microencapsulada por larvas de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Holmberg, 1887 através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2088 Degradation analysis of microencapsulated diet in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 larvae intestine through scanning electron microscopy (SEM - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2088

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Portella

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o grau de degradabilidade de dietas microencapsuladas por larvas de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os seguintes tratamentos alimentares foram testados: AMD - larvas alimentadas por 6 dias, com náuplios de Artemia, com transição brusca para dieta microencapsulada; C6MD - alimentação inicial com Artemia por 6 dias, 6 dias de co-alimentação e o restante do tempo (8 dias somente com dieta microencapsulada; e C9MD - idêntico ao tratamento anterior, porém, com 9 dias de co-alimentação. O conteúdo presente no trato digestório das larvas foi coletado e processado para análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Os grânulos provenientes das larvas do tratamento de transição brusca (AMD possuíam poucas áreas de degradação, semelhantes às dietas secas. Já as dietas coletadas das larvas durante o período de co-alimentação possuíam uma maior área degradada. Os resultados sugerem uma influência dos náuplios de Artemia sobre a degradação das dietas microencapsuladas.This research analyzed the microencapsulated diet degradation in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus larvae intestine. The pacu larvae received the following feeding treatments: AMD- larvae fed initially Artemia nauplii for six days, followed by microencapsulated diet; C6MD- larvae fed initially Artemia for six days, followed by six days of co-feeding and the rest of the experiment (8 days with microencapsulated diet; C9MD- larvae fed initially Artemia for six days, followed by nine days of co-feeding and the rest of the experiment (5 days with microencapsulated diet. The pacu digestive tract contents were removed, processed and analyzed under scanning electronic microscopy. Diets from AMD larvae treatment showed few degradation areas, when compared to original dry diets. On the other hand, diets removed during co-feeding period showed the highest degradation areas. The

  7. Intensidade de ataque de tripes, de alternaria e da queima-das-pontas em cultivares de cebola Intensity of attacks of thrips, purple blotch and gray mold on onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano L.D. Leite

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a intensidade de ataque de Thrips tabaci Lind., a incidência de Alternaria porri (Ellis e Botrytis squamosa J.C. Walker em nove cultivares de cebola [Aurora, Primavera, CNPH 6400, Crioula Alto-Vale, Vale-Ouro (IPA 11, Franciscana (IPA-16, Piraouro, Conquista e Serrana], num experimento no delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. Foram feitas avaliações semanais, do transplantio até a colheita, em dez plantas/parcela do número de T. tabaci presente na bainha das folhas bem como da percentagem de área foliar danificada pelo mesmo a partir da primeira folha expandida e também da presença ou da ausência de lesões causadas por A. porri e B. squamosa. A cv. Franciscana mostrou-se mais resistente em relação às demais ao ataque de T. tabaci. Não houve diferença significativa de plantas afetadas por A. porri e B. squamosa. T. tabaci e A. porri foram ambos afetados positiva e negativamente pela temperatura e pela umidade relativa do ambiente, respectivamente.The intensity of attack of T. tabaci and incidence of Alternaria porri (Ellis Cif and Botrytis squamosa J.C. Walker in nine onion cultivars [Aurora, Primavera, CNPH 6400, Crioula Alto-Vale, Vale-Ouro (IPA 11, Franciscana (IPA-16, Piraouro, Conquista and Serrana] was evaluated, in an experiment in randomized blocks design, with five replications. Weekly evaluations were done from the transplanting until harvesting date, in ten plants/parcel of the number of T. tabaci on the leaves, the percentage of damaged foliar area from the first expanded leaf up and the presence or absence of injuries caused by A. porri and B. squamosa. The cv. Franciscana was more resistant to the attack of T. tabaci in comparison to the other onion cultivars. There was no significant difference between cvs for A. porri and Botrytis squamosa resistance. T. tabaci and A. porri were influenced positively and negatively by temperature and relative humidity, respectively.

  8. Indicadores biológicos y culturales de la conquista en la desembocadura del río Paraná (siglos XVII y XVIII)

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia, Alicia Haydée

    2002-01-01

    A través del estudio de los materiales arqueológicos y los documentos escritos correspondientes a las reducciones franciscanas que se asentaron en la margen derecha del Paraná Inferior (1611-1715), se ha obtenido información del impacto que la conquista hispánica habría generado en las poblaciones nativas. Entre los aspectos culturales se destacan las transformaciones producidas en la subsistencia, la tecnología, los asentamientos y el sistema de creencias. Desde la perspectiva biológica, se ...

  9. Imágenes de la Inmaculada Concepción en la Nueva España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Vargaslugo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La difusión del culto a la Inmaculada Concepción en Nueva España comenzó con las guerras de conquista de Hernán Cortés y se prolongó y acrecentó en los siglos siguientes. La autora centra su trabajo en tres representaciones inmaculistas: el estandarte de Hernán Cortés; una pintura mural franciscana del XVI en el convento de Huejotzingo; y uno de los últimos lienzos al óleo pintado a finales del XVIII por Antonio Vallejo.

  10. Diet affects spawning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, Michelle L; Rizzuto, Noel V; Brown, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Seven-month-old zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed four different diets to test the hypothesis that diet affects spawning success and resulting characteristics of eggs and offspring. The diets were: the recommended feeding regime for zebrafish (a mixture of Artemia, flake feed, and liver paste); Artemia; a flake feed; and a commercially available trout diet. The number of eggs laid and average egg diameter were significantly different as functions of male, female, and individual matings. Fish fed the flake diet produced significantly fewer eggs (mean, 116) than fish fed all other diets (means, 166-187). However, the percent hatch of eggs from fish fed the flake diet (62.5%) was significantly higher than from fish fed the trout diet (19.5%). The percentages of hatched eggs from fish fed the control diet (36.2%) or Artemia (35.6%) were not significantly different from each other or from fish fed the other two diets. Wet weight and diameter of eggs were not significantly affected by diet. Larval length was significantly higher from parents fed the flake diet (14.5 mm) compared to larvae from parents fed Artemia (13.7 mm). Length of larvae from fish fed the control or trout diets was intermediate and not significantly different from fish fed the flake diet or Artemia. Larval weight was not significantly affected by dietary treatment, but offspring from fish fed the flake diet were heavier than larvae from adults fed any of the other diets. Feeding adult zebrafish the flake diet alone resulted in more viable offspring and larger larvae and is a simpler feeding regime than the current recommendation. The authors recommend feeding adult zebrafish flake diets to satiation three times daily for maximum production of viable offspring. PMID:18041944

  11. Silver speciation in liver of marine mammals by synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Emiko; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Hokura, Akiko; Terada, Yasuko; Kunito, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takahito; Yamada, Tadasu K; Rosas, Fernando C W; Fillmann, Gilberto; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Nakai, Izumi

    2011-06-01

    The chemical form of Ag in the livers of five species of marine mammals was examined using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopies. The XAFS analysis suggested that Ag(2)Se was present in the livers of the Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei), Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), and Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), whereas Ag(2)S was present in the livers of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata). XRF spectroscopy results revealed that the distribution patterns of Ag and Se in a thin section of the liver of the Franciscana dolphin were the same; this also implied that Ag was associated with Se in the liver. Thus, the interaction of Ag with Se or S may offer significant protection against the toxicity of Ag in marine mammals. The formation of either Ag(2)Se or Ag(2)S might depend on the Hg levels in the liver. Ag(2)Se was observed in liver samples with relatively high Ag/Hg ratio, whereas liver samples with low Ag/Hg ratio contained Ag(2)S. PMID:21491037

  12. El arte de la conversión: modelos educativos del Colegio de San Andrés de Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lepage

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo analiza el papel que desempeñó el Colegio de San Andrés de Quito en la conversión de los indígenas durante el siglo XVI y el florecimiento de un centro importante de producción artística. El artículo propone que la designación actual del colegio, como una escuela de arte, puede ser una consecuencia tardía de la inestable relación entre arte y religión, tal como fue cultivada dentro de la institución franciscana. Se trató, por lo tanto, de una superposición del valor religioso sobre el artístico, mediante el cual se adoctrinaba a los estudiantes. El artículo enfatiza en la apropiación de destrezas artísticas por parte de los indígenas, quienes adquirieron dominio sobre estas artes, las mercadearon y provocaron una inesperada tensión en las concepciones franciscanas acerca de la religión y el uso del arte.

  13. Evaluación de la actividad enzimática y contenido de proteína en larvas de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei alimentadas con diferentes dietas (Evaluation of the enzymatic activity and protein content in larvae of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed with different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiordia-Pérez E

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available El alimento vivo para el cultivo de camarón requiere especial atención. Los alimentos comúnmente empleados en esta industria, se han seleccionado principalmente por la facilidad de su cultivo más que por sus propiedades nutricionales. El presente trabajo compara el uso de copépodos (Tisbe monozota vivos y muertos y una dieta microligada y microparticulada como alternativa alimenticia de nauplios de Artemia para larvas de camarón evaluando la actividad enzimática y contenido de proteínas de las misma. El estudio se realizó en estadios larvales de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura (28°C, salinidad (35‰ y fotoperiodo (12 h luz / 12h oscuridad. En ambos experimentos el mayor contenido proteico se obtuvo en larvas alimentadas con la dieta experimental y con Artemia viva. a diferencia de la actividad enzimática que fue mayor al utilizar copépodos tanto vivos como muertos. Los resultados demostraron que no hay diferencia significativa en contenido proteico y en actividad de tripsina al usar copépodos (vivos o muertos y nauplios de Artemia , y sugieren a la dieta experimental como buena fuente alternativa en los primeros estadios larvales de camarón blanco L. vannamei The live food for the shrimp culture requires special attention. The food commonly used in this industry, have been selected mainly for the feasibility of their culture rather than their nutritional properties. This present work include alive and dead copepods (Tisbe monozota and a microparticulate microbound diet as alternative live food to Artemia nauplii for shrimp larvae, evaluating their enzymatic activity and protein content. The study was made with larval stages of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under control culture conditions: temperature (28°C, salinity (35% and photoperiodo (12 h light/12h dark. In both experiments the higher protein content was obtained in larvae fed with the microdiet and Artemia nauplii

  14. The effects of dietary long-chain essential fatty acids on growth and stress tolerance in pikeperch larvae (Sander lucioperca L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional requirements of pikeperch larvae have been sparsely examined. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may affect growth and physiological stress response in marine fish larvae, but these mechanisms have...... than in the remaining treatments while tissue cortisol contents in these fish seemed lower. The findings of a lower stress response in larvae fed POO may be related to the lower tissue content in these larvae of essential fatty acids especially DHA but also EPA and ARA....... not received as much attention in freshwater fish. Pikeperch larvae were reared on Artemia from day 3 until 21 days posthatch. Artemia were enriched with six formulated emulsions, with inclusion of either fish oil, pure olive oil (POO) or olive oil supplemented with various combinations of ARA, EPA...

  15. QNS measurements of water in biological and model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trantham, E.C.; Rorschach, H.E.; Clegg, J.C.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Nicklow, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented on the quasi-elastic spectra of 0.95 THz neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel and cysts of the brine shrimp (Artemia) of hydration 1.2 gms H/sub 2/O per gm of dry solids. The lines are interpreted with a two-component model in which the hydration water scatters elastically and the free water is described by a jump-diffusion correlation function. The results for the line widths GAMMA(Q/sup 2/) are in good agreement with previous measurements for the water sample but show deviations from pure water at large Q for agarose and the Artemia cysts that suggest an increased value of the residence time in the jump-diffusion model.

  16. QNS measurements on water in biological and model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trantham, E.C.; Rorschach, H.E.; Clegg, J.C.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Nicklow, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented on the quasi-elastic spectra of 0.95 THz neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel and cysts of the brine shrimp (Artemia) of hydration 1.2 gms H/sub 2/O per gm of dry solids. The lines are interpreted with a two-component model in which the hydration water scatters elastically and the free water is described by a jump-diffusion correlation function. The results for the line widths GAMMA(Q/sup 2/) are in good agreement with previous measurements for the water sample but show deviations from pure water at large Q for agarose and the Artemia cysts that suggest an increased value of the residence time in the jump-diffusion model.

  17. Actividad antioxidante in vitro y toxicidad de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae Antioxidant activity in vitro and toxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Citrus spp. (Rutaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Ojito Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los cítricos constituyen un género de plantas rico en contenido de fenoles y flavonoides, metabolitos secundarios que debido a su efecto antioxidante y baja toxicidad, han recibido en los últimos años mucha atención como potenciales fármacos. Objetivos: determinar la actividad antioxidante in vitro y la toxicidad frente a Artemia salina L. de extractos hidroalcohólicos de hojas de Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L.; Citrus aurantium L.; Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm. Swingle; Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka Tanaka; Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae. Métodos: los extractos etanólicos y metanólicos se obtuvieron mediante extracción por ultrasonido y se caracterizaron fitoquímicamente; se determinó la concentración total de fenoles y flavonoides. La actividad antioxidante se halló mediante la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libre y el poder reductor. La toxicidad se evaluó mediante el bioensayo de letalidad sobre Artemia salina. Resultados: en los extractos etanólicos se encontró mayor presencia de compuestos químicos que en los extractos metanólicos. La mayor concentración de fenoles totales se obtuvo en el extracto metanólico de Citrus reticulata y de flavonoides totales en el extracto etanólico de Citrus aurantifolia y Citrus reticulata, en ambos solventes. Todos los extractos mostraron actividad antioxidante mediante las 2 pruebas ensayadas. Los extractos presentaron toxicidad moderada frente Artemia salina, siendo el extracto metanólico de Citrus latifolia el de menor toxicidad (LC50 = 464,24 µg/mL. Conclusiones: se evidenció la presencia de fenoles y clases de flavonoides, la actividad antioxidante de los extractos hidroalcohólicos de Citrus spp. y su moderada toxicidad frente a Artemia salina.Introduction: citrus fruits constitute an important source of flavonoids and phenols. The latter are secondary metabolites extensively studied in the last few years on account of their antioxidant

  18. QNS measurements of water in biological and model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented on the quasi-elastic spectra of 0.95 THz neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel and cysts of the brine shrimp (Artemia) of hydration 1.2 gms H2O per gm of dry solids. The lines are interpreted with a two-component model in which the hydration water scatters elastically and the free water is described by a jump-diffusion correlation function. The results for the line widths GAMMA(Q2) are in good agreement with previous measurements for the water sample but show deviations from pure water at large Q for agarose and the Artemia cysts that suggest an increased value of the residence time in the jump-diffusion model

  19. QNS measurements on water in biological and model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented on the quasi-elastic spectra of 0.95 THz neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel and cysts of the brine shrimp (Artemia) of hydration 1.2 gms H2O per gm of dry solids. The lines are interpreted with a two-component model in which the hydration water scatters elastically and the free water is described by a jump-diffusion correlation function. The results for the line widths GAMMA(Q2) are in good agreement with previous measurements for the water sample but show deviations from pure water at large Q for agarose and the Artemia cysts that suggest an increased value of the residence time in the jump-diffusion model

  20. Influence of dietary arachidonic acid combined with light intensity and tank colour on pigmentation of common sole (Solea solea L.) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    Supplementation of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) is known to cause hypopigmentation in common sole larvae (Solea solea L.). This study examined a possible link between dietary ARA supplementation - light intensity and tank colour on pigment defects in common sole larvae. Larval tissue ARA and...... prostaglandin PGE(2) content increased significantly when fed Artemia enriched by a fish oil emulsion supplemented with 24% dietary ARA during premetamorphosis (until 11 days post hatch, dph) as compared to larvae fed on Artemia enriched by a fish oil based emulsion. More than 90% of all larvae in groups...... treated with the ARA supplemented emulsion during premetamorphosis showed partly or complete dorsal hypopigmentation. There were no significant effects of light intensity or tank background colour in combination with ARA on malpigmentation. Larval hypopigmentation was below 10% in the groups not treated...

  1. Essential fatty acids influence metabolic rate and tolerance of hypoxia in Dover sole ( Solea solea ) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David; Lund, Ivar; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    ), and their metabolic rate and tolerance to hypoxia measured prior to and following metamorphosis and settlement. Four dietary Artemia preparations were compared: (1) un-enriched; (2) enriched with a commercial EFA mixture (Easy DHA SELCO Emulsion); (3) enriched with a marine fish oil combination (VEVODAR and Incromega...... DHA) to provide a high ratio of ARA to DHA, and (4) enriched with these fish oils to provide a low ratio of ARA to DHA. Sole fed un-enriched Artemia were significantly less tolerant to hypoxia than the other dietary groups. Larvae from this group had significantly higher routine metabolic rate (RMR......) in normoxia, and significantly higher O-2 partial pressure (PO2) thresholds in progressive hypoxia for their regulation of RMR (P-crit) and for the onset of agitation, respiratory distress and loss of equilibrium. Metamorphosis was associated with an overall decline in RMR and increase in P...

  2. Diseases and parasites in cultured yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanaye, S.V.; Pawar, H.B.; Murugan, A.; Sreepada, R.A.; Singh, T.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Asian countries, as well as in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and in USA, commercial seahorse aquaculture technology development were/are underway (Vincent, 1996) and at present around 24 countries are involved in this venture (Koldewey... was found to be the major cause of mortality during pelagic phase juvenile rearing. Seahorse juveniles while preying on live food organisms (copepods nauplii, copepodites and Artemia nauplii, etc.) engulf the atmospheric air if they miss the strike...

  3. Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Clisiane C.S. Santos; Silvan S. Araújo; André L. L. M. Santos; Elis C.V. Almeida; Antônio S. Dias; Nicole P. Damascena; Deisylaine M. Santos; Matheus I.S. Santos; Karlos A.L.R. Júnior; Carla K. B. Pereira; Amanda C.B. Lima; Andrea Y.K.V. Shan; Antônio E. G. Sant'Ana; Charles S. Estevam; Brancilene S. de Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performe...

  4. Preliminary study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal properties of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants Estudo preliminar das propriedades moluscicidas e larvicidas de alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes de plantas medicinais

    OpenAIRE

    Aristides M. Leite; Lima, Edeltrudes de O.; Evandro L. Souza; Margareth F. F. M. Diniz; Sônia Pereira Leite; Aline L. Xavier; Isac A. de Medeiros

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants. Molluscicide and larvicidal activity were determined by, respectively, the lethality bioassays using Artemia salina Leach. Artemiidae and Aedes aegypti L. Culicidae larvae. Essential oils from Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae, Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae, Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae and the phytochemicals α-pinene and eugenol presented citotoxicity toward...

  5. Possible applications of modern fish larviculture technology to ornamental fish production

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, P.; Lim, L C; Candreva, P.; Van Duffel, H; Sorgeloos, P.

    1997-01-01

    There has been rapid development in the marine foodfish larviculture technology in Europe since the early eighties, especially in the flat fish, turbot and halibut, and the bass and bream species. The most significant improvements in the eighties were the introduction of light control, artificial reproduction techniques, appropriate water treatment and the use of rotifers and Artemia nauplii of specific sizes and in the late eighties and early nineties the quality enhancement of live food org...

  6. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae - can we identify the underlying factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Rønnestad, Ivar; Mangor-Jensen, Anders; Galloway, Trina F; Kjørsvik, Elin; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group). In the second experiment (Exp-2), two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers) throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5) after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks. PMID:26038712

  7. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. larvae — can we identify the underlying factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ørjan Karlsen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1, groups of cod larvae were fed either (a natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group. In the second experiment (Exp-2, two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5 after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks.

  8. Feeding and Digestion in Larval Decapod Crustaceans

    OpenAIRE

    KUMLU, Metin

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest findings in larval feeding and digestion of decapod crustacean larvae. The live feeds and manufactured feeds are discussed in relation with the digestive capability of various decapod crustacean larvae. Although some larvae such as penaeid shrimps are successfully cultured on artifical diets, most of lar-val decapod crustaceans are still heavily dependent on live organisms as food (i. e. micro-algae, Arte-mia). Studies with free-living nematodes as an altern...

  9. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Three Bitter Plants Enhydra Fluctuans, Andrographis Peniculata and Clerodendrum Viscosum.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhul Amin, M.; Ripon Mondol; M. Rowshanul Habib; M. Tofazzal Hossain

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, three important medicinal plants (Enhydra fluctuans Lour, Clerodendrum viscosum Vent and Andrographis peniculata Wall) of Bangladesh were investigated to analyze their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against some pathogenic microorganisms and Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii). Methods: The coarse powder material of leaves of each plant was extracted separately with methanol and acetone to yield methanol extracts of leaves of Enhydra fluctuans (MLE), Cleroden...

  10. Ekstrak Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) Dalam Mengendalikan Pertumbuhan Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwarsiella tarda dan Jamur Saprolegnia sp. Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Lihardo

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to know antimicrobial potential of extract of sambiloto’s Leaf (Andrographis paniculata) against bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda and Saprolegnia sp. and to know the extract toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Sambiloto’s leaf was extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and n-Hexane. Antimicrobial activity test was done using diffusion discs method to know the compunds contained in the extract phytochemical test was conducted. The chemical compound...

  11. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN Rhizopora mucronata TERHADAP SEL MYELOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Hartiwi Diastuti; Warsinah; Purwati

    2008-01-01

    The mangrove plant have been long used the people for traditional medicine to cure various diseases, one of them to cancer therapy. Investigation the anticancer potent of R. mucronata has not been carried yet. This research was aimed to toxicity test of R. mucronta leaves extracts againts Artemia salina Leach, then cytotoxicity test of R. mucronata leave extracts againts Myeloma cancer cells. The extraction of R. mucronata leaves was peformed by maseration with ethanol. The ethanol extracts w...

  12. SOME BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY INVESTIGATIONS ON BALLOT A ACETAB ULOSA

    OpenAIRE

    M. U. DUMLU, G. E. BULUT, M. U. DUMLU, G. E. BULUT

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Ballota acetabitlosa bitkisinin topraküstü kısımlarının potansiyel sitotoksik ve antioksidan aktiviteleri sırasıyla Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina), DPPH (1,1- difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil), indirgeme metodlan kullanılarak araştırılmıştı]-. Bitkinin etanol ekstresi bahsedilen tüm yöntemlerde aktif bulunmuştur.

  13. Toxicity and Binding Profile of Lectins from the Genus Canavalia on Brine Shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda; Arthur Alves Melo; Mayron Alves de Vasconcelos; Romulo Farias Carneiro; Ito Liberato Barroso-Neto; Suzete Roberta Silva; Francisco Nascimento Pereira-Junior; Celso Shiniti Nagano; Kyria Santiago Nascimento; Edson Holanda Teixeira; Silvana Saker-Sampaio; Benildo Sousa Cavada; Alexandre Holanda Sampaio

    2013-01-01

    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to A...

  14. Progress in live food production and use in fish and shellfish hatcheries

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P.

    1998-01-01

    Different species of microalgae, the rotifer, Brachionus spp., and the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., are essential live food in the farming of several species of molluscs (e.g. oyster, clam, scallop), crustaceans (e.g. marine shrimp, freshwater prawn, crabs) and fish (e.g. bass, bream, grouper, turbot, flounder, halibut, ayu). A brief overview is given of the latest developments in their production and use in industrial hatcheries.

  15. Biological activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis from Persian Gulf.

    OpenAIRE

    Saeidnia, S.; A.R. Gohari; Shahverdi, A.R.; P Permeh; M. Nasiri; Mollazadeh, K.; F. Farahani

    2009-01-01

    Among marine organisms, algae are a large and diverse group of organisms from which a wide range of secondary metabolites have been isolated. A number of these compounds possess biological activity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, collected from Persian Gulf. Ethyl acetate extracts of both algae showed a potent cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina nauplii (LC50 = 3 and ...

  16. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MENTHA SPICATAL ESSENTIAL OIL FROM IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABBAS HADJIAKHOONDI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from spearmint {Mentha spicata L., Labiatae was extracted by hydrodistillation, and analysed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty eight components were identified representing 90.14% of total oil composition. The major constituents were carvone (22.40%, linalool (11.25% and limonene (10.80%. The essential oil showed good activity against larvae of Anophel stephensi and Artemia salina.

  17. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MENTHA SPICATAL ESSENTIAL OIL FROM IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    ABBAS HADJIAKHOONDI; NASRIN AGHEL; NASRIN ZAMANIZADEH-NADGAR; HASSAN VATANDOOST

    2000-01-01

    The essential oil from spearmint {Mentha spicata L., Labiatae) was extracted by hydrodistillation, and analysed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty eight components were identified representing 90.14% of total oil composition. The major constituents were carvone (22.40%), linalool (11.25%) and limonene (10.80%). The essential oil showed good activity against larvae of Anophel stephensi and Artemia salina.

  18. Biological and chemical study of paico (Chenopodium chilense, Chenopodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, R; Lemus, I; Rivera, P; Erazo, S

    1997-07-01

    The methanolic extract of the aerial portion of Chenopodium chilense Schrad., used in Chilean traditional medicine as a remedy for stomach-ache, has been found to exert the major spasmolytic activity in acetylcholine contracted rat ileum. This extract, with a complex flavonoid patterns on thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, is practically non-toxic both for rats and brine shrimp Artemia salina in acute toxicity test. PMID:9254110

  19. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    OpenAIRE

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Schots, P.; Onselen, van, E.; Karruppannan, E.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Osinga, R.

    2013-01-01

    Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis reveale...

  20. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Wijgerde; Pauke Schots; Eline Van Onselen; Max Janse; Eric Karruppannan; Johan A.J. Verreth; Ronald Osinga

    2012-01-01

    Summary Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis...

  1. Differential phase microscope and micro-tomography with a Foucault knife-edge scanning filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray differential phase microscope with a Foucault knife-edge scanning filter was set up at the bending magnet source BL3C, Photon Factory. A reconstructed phase profile from the differential phase image of an aluminium wire at 5.36 keV was fairly good agreement with the numerical simulation. Phase tomography of a biological specimen, such as an Artemia cyst, could be successfully demonstrated

  2. Differential phase microscope and micro-tomography with a Foucault knife-edge scanning filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Hashizume, J.; Goto, M.; Yamaguchi, M.; Tsujimura, T.; Aoki, S.

    2013-10-01

    An x-ray differential phase microscope with a Foucault knife-edge scanning filter was set up at the bending magnet source BL3C, Photon Factory. A reconstructed phase profile from the differential phase image of an aluminium wire at 5.36 keV was fairly good agreement with the numerical simulation. Phase tomography of a biological specimen, such as an Artemia cyst, could be successfully demonstrated.

  3. Production of mycotoxins by galactose oxidase producing Fusarium using different culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Angela Maria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The original isolate of the galactose oxidase producing fungus Dactylium dendroides, and other five galactose oxidase producing Fusarium isolates were cultivated in different media and conditions, in order to evaluate the production of 11 mycotoxins, which are characteristic of the genus Fusarium: moniliformin, fusaric acid, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-X, nivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, neosolaniol, zearalenol, zearalenone, acetyl T-2, and iso T-2. The toxicity of the culture extracts to Artemia salina larvae was tested.

  4. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H J; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the larvae of this species. In a second experiment, the gut contents of the fish larvae fed were calculated as they changed during development. In a third experiment, the gut evacuation rate of fish larvae ...

  5. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae – can we identify the underlying factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Ørjan Karlsen; Terje van der Meeren; Ivar Rønnestad; Anders Mangor-Jensen; Galloway, Trina F.; Elin Kjørsvik; Kristin Hamre

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemi...

  6. Evaluation of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) exotrophic larvae as live feed for marine decapod crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Repolho, Tiago Filipe Baptista da Rosa, 1974-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Marinha e Aquacultura), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 In the present study, we have evaluated 4‐arm exotrophic larvae of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) as live feed in marine decapod crustacean larviculture, in comparison to Artemia spp. naupliar stages, a commonly used live prey in marine hatcheries. We therefore investigated several key parameters to assess the potential of P. lividus plutei as l...

  7. Cytotoxicity screening of some South American Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murillo, B; Fajardo, V M; Suárez, M

    2001-08-01

    Alcoholic extracts of seven plants belonging to the Solanaceae family were phytochemically screened and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Test (BST) with Artemia salina larvae, Inhibition of Cell Division Test (ICDT) on sea urchin Loxechinus albus fertilized eggs and inhibition of crown gall tumors on Potato Disk Bioassay (PDB). From Salpichroa diffusa, bioassay-guided chromatographic separation afforded some active fractions from which epi-katonic acid was identified. PMID:11543969

  8. Effect of Unilateral Eyestalk Ablation on the Biochemical Composition of Commercially Important Juveniles of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (H. Milne Edwards)

    OpenAIRE

    Ananthan, G; P. Soundarpandian

    2008-01-01

    An investigation was made on the juveniles of a commercially important and cultivable species of second largest freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii for its responses to unilateral eyestalk ablation, different diets and some biochemical aspects. Protein content of the adult Artemia fed animals was higher than that of artificial feeds 1 and 2, oyster and earthworm fed eyestalk ablated prawns. In intact control animals, protein content was differ significantly when the animals were fed w...

  9. The early larval development of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) reared in the laboratory Desenvolvimento dos estágios iniciais da lagosta de recife tropical Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) cultivada em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando A. Abrunhosa; Max W. P. Santana; Marcus A.B. Pires

    2007-01-01

    The early stages of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken, 1865 were described and illustrated in detail from specimens reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat, at a depth of about 15 meters and transported to the laboratory. The larvae were reared in a recirculation water tank for approximately 15 days and then transferred to four 10 liters aquariums. The larvae were fed on Artemia sp. nauplii. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added da...

  10. Are Known Cyanotoxins Involved in the Toxicity of Picoplanktonic and Filamentous North Atlantic Marine Cyanobacteria?

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Frazão; Rosário Martins; Vitor Vasconcelos

    2010-01-01

    Eight marine cyanobacteria strains of the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Synechococcus were isolated from rocky beaches along the Atlantic Portuguese central coast and tested for ecotoxicity. Strains were identified by morphological characteristics and by the amplification and sequentiation of the 16S rDNA. Bioactivity of dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts was assessed by the Artemia salina bioassay. Peptide toxin production was screened by matrix as...

  11. In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Franssen, F F; Smeijsters, L J; Berger, I; Medinilla Aldana, B E

    1997-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic effects of four plants commonly used in Guatemalan folk medicine against malaria. Methanol extracts of Simarouba glauca D. C., Sansevieria guineensis Willd, Croton guatemalensis Lotsy, and Neurolaena lobata (L.)R.Br. significantly reduced parasitemias in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Dichloromethane fractions were screened for their cytotoxicities on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) larvae, and 50% inhibitory concentrations were de...

  12. Fecundity, growth, and survival of the angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Perciformes: Cichlidae) under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Armando A. Ortega-Salas; Isabel Cortés G.; Hugo Reyes-Bustamante

    2009-01-01

    The freshwater angelfishes (Pterophyllum) are South American cichlids that have become very popular among aquarists, yet scarce information on their culture and aquarium husbandry exists. We studied Pterophyllum scalare to analyze dietary effects on fecundity, growth, and survival of eggs and larvae during 135 days. Three diets were used: A) decapsulated cysts of Artemia, B) commercial dry fish food, and C) a mix diet of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The ...

  13. Toxicity in Peridinium aciculiferum - an adaptive strategy to outcompete other winter phytoplankton?

    OpenAIRE

    Rengefors, Karin; Legrand, C

    2001-01-01

    Freshwater dinoflagellates may form dense blooms during winter in ice-covered lakes. Unlike their marine counterparts, freshwater dinoflagellates are rarely considered to be potential toxin producers. Here we tested whether the winter species Peridinium aciculiferum produces a toxin(s) and investigated the potential adaptive function of that toxin, i.e., predator defense or inhibition of competitors (allelopathy). Using traditional toxicity bioassays (Artemia toxicity test and hemolytic activ...

  14. Brine Shrimp Ecology In The Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline lakes are noted for their simple communities which facilitate understanding ecological interactions (Williams et al. 1990; Wurtsbaugh 1992; Jellison and Melack 1988). Nevertheless, we still cannot easily predict how environmental changes will effect the population dynamics in these lakes, at least in part because even these simple ecosystems may be more complex than we .realize. Many hypersaline lakes are dominated by the brine shrimp Artemia spp. The production of brine shrimp is...

  15. Effects of proposed physical ballast tank treatments on aquatic invertebrate resting eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikow, David F; Reid, David F; Blatchley, Ernest R; Jacobs, Gregory; Landrum, Peter F

    2007-04-01

    Adaptations in aquatic invertebrate resting eggs that confer protection from natural catastrophic events also could confer protection from treatments applied to ballast water for biological invasion vector management. To evaluate the potential efficacy of physical ballast water treatment methods, the present study examined the acute toxicity of heat (flash and holding methods), ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm), and deoxygenation (acute and chronic) on resting eggs of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia mendotae and the marine brine shrimp Artemia sp. Both D. mendotae and Artemia sp. were similarly sensitive to flash exposures of heat (100% mortality at 70 degrees C), but D. mendotae were much more sensitive to prolonged exposures. Exposure to 4,000 mJ/cm2 of UV radiation resulted in mortality rates of 59% in Artemia sp. and 91% in D. mendotae. Deoxygenation to an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L was maximally toxic to both species. Deoxygenation suppressed hatching of D. mendotae resting eggs at oxygen concentrations of less than 5.5 mg/L and of Artemia sp. resting eggs at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L. Results suggest that UV radiation and deoxygenation are not viable treatment methods with respect to invertebrate resting eggs because of the impracticality of producing sufficient UV doses and the suppression of hatching at low oxygen concentrations. Results also suggest that the treatment temperatures required to kill resting eggs are much higher than those reported to be effective against other invertebrate life stages and species. The results, however, do not preclude the effectiveness of these treatments against other organisms or life stages. Nevertheless, if ballast tank treatment systems employing the tested methods are intended to include mitigation of viable resting eggs, then physical removal of large resting eggs and ephippia via filtration would be a necessary initial step. PMID:17447556

  16. Effects of dietary vitamin C on fish and crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary needs for ascorbic acid (AA) at startfeeding, the AA content in the various live diets currently applied in aquaculture (algae, rotifers, Artemia ) was studied. Application of boosting techniques using ascorbyl palmitate (AP) as the vitamin C source enabled the transfer of elevated levels of bioactive vitamin C (up to 2500µg AA.g DW-1) via the live food chain into larvae of fish (Clarias gariepinus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Scophthalmus maximus), shrimp (Pennaeus v...

  17. Optimization of dietary vitamin C in fish and crustacean larvae: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1997-01-01

    HPLC techniques were adapted and standardized for quantification of ascorbic acid (AA) and its derivates in both diets and target organisms. To assess the dietary needs for AA at start of exogenous feeding, the AA content in the various live diets currently used in aquaculture (algae, rotifers, Artemia ) was analyzed. Application of techniques for boosting vitamin C using ascorbyl palmitate as the source enabled the transfer of elevated levels (up to 2,500 µg AA/g DW) of bioactive vitamin C. ...

  18. Generation Time of Some Marine Harpacticoid Species in Laboratory Condition

    OpenAIRE

    B. Akbar John; Ibrahim, B.; K. Zaleha; B.Y. Kamaruzzaman

    2012-01-01

    Recent investigations on harpacticoid copepods have demonstrated their higher nutritional values compared to Artemia and rotifer. Nevertheless, studies on the potential use of tropical harpacticoid copepods as live feed in aquaculture are still limited. The present study was carried out to compare the generation time between selected harpacticoid species cultured in laboratory condition as an early step to choose a potential live feed for aquaculture practices. Some estuarine species of...

  19. Potential Activity And Toxicity Of Methanol Extract Stem Bark Banyuru (Pterospermum Celebicum Miq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marzuki, Agus

    2015-01-01

    Banyuru (Pterospermum celebicum, Miq.) is one of the specific plant, a stem bark that has the potential to be developed as a source of antibacterial drugs. Research of antibacterial activity and toxicity of methanol extract Banyuru aims to determine the antibacterial activity and the level of toxicity to Artemia Salina. The method used to test the antibacterial activity is the agar diffusion method and the method used to test the toxicity Brine Shrimp Lethaly Test (BSLT). Banyuru stem bark (...

  20. Effect of stocking density on growth and survival of spotted sand bass Paralabrax maculatofasciatus larvae in a closed recirculating system

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez González, Carlos; Ortiz Galindo, José Luis; Dumas, Silvie; Martínez Díaz, Sergio Francisco; Hernández Ceballos, Dora Esther; Grayeb del Alamo, Tanos; Moreno Lagorreta, Manuel; Peña Martínez, Renato; Civera Cerecedo, Roberto

    2001-01-01

    The effect on growth and survival of the initial stocking density (50, 100, 150, and 200 larvae/ L) in larval rearing of spotted sand bass was evaluated over 30 d in a closed recirculating system. Larvae were fed with rotifers, copepods, nauplii and adult Artemia, and spotted sand bass yolk-sac larvae. Water quality was monitored daily. The notochordal or standard length of sampled larvae was measured by image analysis. Specific growth rates at each density were compared by covariance analysi...

  1. Estimación de tasas de ingestión de Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora: Lobata) en condiciones de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Bertelo, M.I.; Giberto, D.A.; Schiariti, A.; Bianca, F.; J Suárez; Mianzan, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    The first results in the development of a standardized methodology to estimate Mnemiopsis leidyi intake rates and their impact on fish recruitment are presented. M. leidyi capability to consume lyophilized fish eggs and level of consumption of such type of preys, Artemia nauplii and rotifera were assessed. Although M. leidyi can consume lyophilized fish eggs, intake rates were extremely low, often null and in all cases lower than those estimated for the other types of preys offered. The incre...

  2. Effect of different diets and rearing tanks on the development and larval survival of Lysmata amboinensis (De Mann, 1888

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marques

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of rearing tanks and identification of rich nutritional diets for the larval development of ornamental decapods are two key factors in defining suitable protocols for larval rearing. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two rearing tanks (spheroconical and planktonkreisel and three different diets (diet 1: newly hatched Artemia nauplii on a density of 5 nauplii/ml, diet 2: newly hatched Artemia nauplii and harpacticoid copepods on a proportion of 3 artemia nauplii and 2 copepods/ml, Diet 3: Tetraselmis chuii for the first 24h, followed by Artemia nauplii at a density of 5 nauplii/ml on the survival rate and larval development time of Lysmata amboinensis. The results here obtained indicated that the survival rate at 10 days after hatching on kreisel tanks (48.9 ± 3.60% was significantly higher than spheroconical tanks (16.2 ± 2.80% (PTetraselmis chuii was used as a first food (76.7 ± 6.67%. The development time from Zoea I to Zoea IV of L. amboinensis was faster when subject to diet 1 (7.5 ± 0.01 days. In contrast, diet 3 was revealed a longer development period (8.2 ± 0.01 days. The use of copepods diet on the larval rearing of L. amboinensis larvae although not displaying the highest survival, revealed to be extremely promising, needing to adjust the size of the prey throughout the larval development of L. amboinensis.

  3. What the towers don't see at night: nocturnal sap flow in trees and shrubs at two AmeriFlux sites in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joshua B; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Misson, Laurent; Dawson, Todd E; Goldstein, Allen H

    2007-04-01

    At the leaf scale, it is a long-held assumption that stomata close at night in the absence of light, causing transpiration to decrease to zero. Energy balance models and evapotranspiration equations often rely on net radiation as an upper bound, and some models reduce evapotranspiration to zero at night when there is no solar radiation. Emerging research is showing, however, that transpiration can occur throughout the night in a variety of vegetation types and biomes. At the ecosystem scale, eddy covariance measurements have provided extensive data on latent heat flux for a multitude of ecosystem types globally. Nighttime eddy covariance measurements, however, are generally unreliable because of low turbulence. If significant nighttime water loss occurs, eddy flux towers may be missing key information on latent heat flux. We installed and measured rates of sap flow by the heat ratio method (Burgess et al. 2001) at two AmeriFlux (part of FLUXNET) sites in California. The heat ratio method allows measurement and quantification of low rates of sap flow, including negative rates (i.e., hydraulic lift). We measured sap flow in five Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. trees and three Arctostaphylos manzanita Parry and two Ceanothus cordulatus A. Kellog shrubs in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and in five Quercus douglasii Hook and Arn. trees at an oak savanna in the Central Valley of California. Nocturnal sap flow was observed in all species, and significant nighttime water loss was observed in both species of trees. Vapor pressure deficit and air temperature were both well correlated with nighttime transpiration; the influence of wind speed on nighttime transpiration was insignificant at both sites. We distinguished between storage-tissue refilling and water loss based on data from Year 2005, and calculated the percentage by which nighttime transpiration was underestimated by eddy covariance measurements at both sites. PMID:17242001

  4. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( PDHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  5. A comparison of metal accumulation by the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris directly from water or

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    Wanchamai Karntanut

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The cnidarian Hydra has been widely used to assess the acute toxicity of freshwater pollutants, but very little is known about pollutant accumulation by this animal. The purpose of this study was to measurethe accumulation of the three metals, i.e., copper, cadmium and zinc directly from water and also via its prey and to relate the recorded tissue concentrations to any change in biological activities. It was found thatcopper, cadmium and zinc all were accumulated in the tissues of Hydra exposed directly to the metals in water and also those exposed indirectly through feeding on contaminated prey. The bioconcentration factor(BCF recorded at 48 hours following direct uptake from water was greatest for copper (773, followed by cadmium (409 and zinc (125, although the greatest increase in body burden occurred with cadmium, Metal body burdens of Hydra fed on contaminated prey (Artemia increased in the same metal sequence as fordirect uptake from water and the increase was highest (250 times that of control Hydra for cadmium; however, biomagnification factors (BMFs were all < 1.0 indicating that there was little potential for increasingaccumulation via the food chain. There was significant inhibition of regeneration and bud production in polyps which had fed on cadmium-containing Artemia but not on copper or zinc- containing Artemia.

  6. Diet and weaning age affect the growth and condition of Dover sole (Solea solea L.

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    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diet type (frozen Artemia biomass and two inert diets: micro-bound [MB] and micro-extruded [ME] and two weaning ages (early weaning and late weaning, 50 and 64 days after hatching, respectively were studied in Solea solea larvae. The experiment lasted 56 and 42 days for early and late weaning, respectively. The mortality results showed the highest values for late weaning (39% in the Artemia treatment. No significant differences in mortality were observed between the inert diets. The final dry weight values were higher for late weaning than for early weaning. At both weaning ages, fish receiving the same treatments had similar tendencies for dry weight and standard length. Fish fed with MB presented significantly higher dry weight and standard length, followed by ME, while the lowest values at both weaning ages were recorded for the Artemia treatment. Similar amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acid fractions among the inert diets were reflected by the absence of significant differences in the susceptibility to oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances testing; however, significant differences were found in carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents of whole-body homogenates for both early and late weaning. At the end of the experiment no significant differences in biochemical contents were observed between the two inert diets. The results of this study suggest that weaning starting on day 50 (early weaning, using a good quality inert diet, leads to higher survival, growth and fish condition.

  7. Dormant stages of crustaceans as a mechanism of propagation in the extreme and unpredictable environment in the Crimean hypersaline lakes

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    Shadrin, Nickolai V.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Amat, Francisco; Eremin, Oleg Yu.

    2015-11-01

    A pool of dormant stages of planktonic organisms in saline lakes is a substantial component in the plankton communities; we need to take it into account to understand plankton dynamics. Hypersaline water bodies in Crimea, the largest peninsula in the Black Sea, constitute a very characteristic and peculiar habitat type in the region. We examined the presence of crustacean resting stages in sediments of dried up sites of the Crimean hypersaline lakes. Sediment samples were taken in 9 different lakes. Experiments performed on the hatching of these resting stages showed the presence of Moina salina (Cladocera), parthenogenetic Artemia and Artemia urmiana (Anostraca), Eucypris mareotica ( inflata) (Ostracoda), and Cletocamptus retrogressus (Harpacticoida). Comparing the experimental results obtained with clean dried brine shrimp cysts and those kept in sediment samples, it was noted that clean cysts hatched much faster than those from sediments did. Some components in bottom sediments slow down and desynchronize hatching from resting eggs in different groups of crustaceans. The sediments of different lakes inhibited the nauplii output from Artemia and ostracod resting eggs to different degrees. More data are needed before we can discuss the reasons of this inhibition. The nonsynchronous output of active stages from the bottom resting ones may be an adaptation that allows crustacean species to exist in extreme and unpredictably changing environments, avoiding the risk that all may emerge at once under unsuitable conditions.

  8. Providing a food reward reduces inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Zethof, Jan; Flik, Gert; van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-11-01

    As shown in male rats, prior history of subjects changes behavioural and stress-responses to challenges: a two-week history of exposure to rewards at fixed intervals led to slightly, but consistently, lower physiological stress-responses and anxiety-like behaviour. Here, we tested whether similar effects are present in zebrafish (Danio rerio). After two weeks of providing Artemia (brine shrimp; Artemia salina) as food reward or flake food (Tetramin) as control at fixed intervals, zebrafish were exposed to a fear-avoidance learning task using an inhibitory avoidance protocol. Half the number of fish received a 3V shock on day 1 and were tested and sacrificed on day 2; the other half received a second 3V shock on day 2 and were tested and sacrificed on day 3. The latter was done to assess whether effects are robust, as effects in rats have been shown to be modest. Zebrafish that were given Artemia showed less inhibitory avoidance after one shock, but not after two shocks, than zebrafish that were given flake-food. Reduced avoidance behaviour was associated with lower telencepahalic gene expression levels of cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) and higher gene expression levels of corticotropin releasing factor (crf). These results suggest that providing rewards at fixed intervals alters fear avoidance behaviour, albeit modestly, in zebrafish. We discuss the data in the context of similar underlying brain structures in mammals and fish. PMID:26342856

  9. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  10. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jonatas H F; Mattos, Paulo H; Silva, Kleber G; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  11. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas H F Prado

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574, South American fur seal, (n = 3,419, South American sea lion (n = 2,049, bottlenose dolphins (n = 293 and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219 were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to

  12. Efeito de doses de fósforo na produtividade e armazenamento pós-colheita de dois cultivares de cebola

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    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O fósforo é, reconhecidamente, o nutriente-chave para a obtenção de produtividades elevadas e tem sido o macronutriente que mais frequentemente limita a produção, em solos pobres nesse nutriente. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e armazenamento pós-colheita de bulbos de cultivares de cebola, em função de doses de fósforo, conduziu-se um experimento, de maio a dezembro de 2011, em Petrolina-PE. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial 5x2, compreendendo cinco doses de fósforo (0; 60; 120, 180 e 240 kg ha-1 e dois cultivares (Franciscana IPA-10 e Vale Ouro IPA-11, com quatro repetições. Os cultivares Franciscana IPA-10 (74,6 t ha-1 e Vale Ouro IPA-11 (76,1 t ha-1 não apresentaram diferenças significativas para produtividade comercial de bulbos. Maior produtividade foi obtida na dose de 132 kg ha-1 de P2O5, associada à dose mais econômica de 130 kg ha-1 de P2O5. Verificou-se com o aumento das doses uma redução gradativa da produção de bulbos considerados não comerciais (refugos, sendo a menor produção estimada de refugos a obtida com a dose de 124 kg ha-1 de P2O5. Bulbos comerciais com maiores massa fresca e diâmetro foram obtidos com o incremento das doses. Não se verificou perda de massa significativa aos 30 dias após cura, para doses ou cultivares. Aos 60 dias após cura, detectou-se efeito significativo com menor perda para o cultivar Franciscana IPA-10 (27,2% em comparação com o Vale Ouro IPA-11 (31,9%.

  13. Live prey enrichment and artificial microdiets for larviculture of Atlantic red porgy Pagrus pagrus

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    Wade O. Watanabe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment the effects of rotifer enrichment and feeding frequency on larval performance of red porgy Pagrus pagrus were studied. Larvae (2 days post-hatching = 2 dph were fed s-type rotifers (∼20 rotifers/mL enriched with one of the four different treatment media: Rotifer Diet (microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis chuii, DHA Protein Selco, Algamac 3000 (Schizochytrium sp. and Algamac + ARA (arachidonic acid. Larvae were fed daily at full ration or twice daily at half ration. Larval growth and survival (mean = 22.8% were satisfactory through 16 dph under all treatments; however, resistance to hyposaline challenge (Survival Activity Index = SAI was positively correlated (P < 0.01 with DHA concentration of rotifers, and SAI appeared highest in the Algamac + ARA treatment. In the second experiment the effects of Artemia enrichment on larval performance were compared from 18 dph through pre-metamorphosis (33 dph. Larvae were fed Artemia (0.5–3.0/mL enriched with two different media Algamac 3000 and DC DHA Selco, or unenriched Artemia (control. Both media improved DHA levels in Artemia and growth and survival (36.7–54.6% of larvae, while larvae fed unenriched Artemia showed poor growth and survival (5.2%. In the third experiment a University of North Carolina Wilmington microbound diet (MBD and two commercial microdiets (Gemma Micro and Otohime were evaluated. The MBD contained different protein sources (i.e., menhaden, squid and krill meal, soy protein concentrate and attractants. Beginning 16 dph, live feeds and microdiets were co-fed to three treatment groups of larvae: (1 Gemma, (2 MBD, and (3 Otohime. Larval performance on the UNCW-MBD was comparable to the commercial microdiets, with no significant differences in larval survival, DHA, or total n-3 PUFA content through 32 dph. Results delineate more effective rearing protocols for larviculture of Atlantic red porgy juveniles.

  14. FRATERNIDAD PARA LA VIDA DIGNA DE LOS PUEBLOS.(FRATERNITY FOR A WORTHY LIFE OF PEOPLES

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    Alfonso Insuasty Rodriguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto pretende relacionar algunas líneas y rutas de análisis como aportes al debate que viene resurgiendo en Latinoamérica en torno al tercer componente no desarrollado de la modernidad: La Fraternidad. Para ello se hará referencia al concepto desde una dimensión política, propia de la modernidad y a la propuesta de la filosofía franciscana.AbstractThis text aims to connect some lines and routes of analysis as contribution to the debate which is reappearing in Latin America around the third non-developed component of modernity: Fraternity. That is why it will be approached from a political dimension, which is proper to modernity and the proposal of Franciscan philosophy.

  15. Modern state of the pelagic ecosystem of the Large Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashkevich, E. G.; Nikishina, A. B.; Soloviev, K. A.; Zhitina, L. S.; Sergeeva, V. M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last five decades, zooplankton of the Aral Sea has been undergoing dramatic changes. Mineralization in the western Large Aral increased from 10 ppt in 1960 to 116 ppt and 211 ppt in the western and eastern basins, correspondingly, in 2008. Concurrently the crucial changes have been occurring in zooplankton community manifesting in the disappearance of most native species and significant decline of biodiversity of the pelagic community. During this period, the number of phytoplankton species dropped more than in order of magnitude. In June 2008, only 29 species were identified in the western basin of Aral Sea, Bacillariophyta - 17 species, Chlorophyta - 5 species, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, and Cyanophyta - 2 species of each division, and one species of Flagellatae. The average concentration of phytoplankton in terms of number was 2.3*106 cells l-1, in terms of biomass 231 µg C l-1. In the eastern basin, 14 species of Bacillariophyta were found; the dominant species were Amphora coffeaeformis, Fragilaria brevistriata, and Navicula spp. Chlorophyta was presented by only unidentified species. The total number of phytoplankton was 0.9*106 cells l-1, biomass was 93 µg C l-1. Composition of phytoplankton community changed depending on the site and depth. In the eastern basin, where mineralization reached 211 ppt, the community was dominated by diatoms and green algae while in the western basin, with mineralization of 119 ppt, all divisions of algae were presented. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton reflected the light and temperature preferences of the different groups. Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, and Cryptophyta peaked at the 20 m depth with the temperature of about of 2°C and low irradiation. Warm-water and light-requiring Cyanophyta inhabited mainly the upper 5-m layer. The number of zooplankton species decreased from 42 species in 1971 to 1 species, the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica, in 2008. Artemia, a typical resident of hypersaline

  16. Long-term survival of hydrated resting eggs from Brachionus plicatilis.

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    Melody S Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several organisms display dormancy and developmental arrest at embryonic stages. Long-term survival in the dormant form is usually associated with desiccation, orthodox plant seeds and Artemia cysts being well documented examples. Several aquatic invertebrates display dormancy during embryonic development and survive for tens or even hundreds of years in a hydrated form, raising the question of whether survival in the non-desiccated form of embryonic development depends on pathways similar to those occurring in desiccation tolerant forms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question, Illumina short read sequencing was used to generate transcription profiles from the resting and amictic eggs of an aquatic invertebrate, the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis. These two types of egg have very different life histories, with the dormant or diapausing resting eggs, the result of the sexual cycle and amictic eggs, the non-dormant products of the asexual cycle. Significant transcriptional differences were found between the two types of egg, with amictic eggs rich in genes involved in the morphological development into a juvenile rotifer. In contrast, representatives of classical "stress" proteins: a small heat shock protein, ferritin and Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins were identified in resting eggs. More importantly however, was the identification of transcripts for messenger ribonucleoprotein particles which stabilise RNA. These inhibit translation and provide a valuable source of useful RNAs which can be rapidly activated on the exit from dormancy. Apoptotic genes were also present. Although apoptosis is inconsistent with maintenance of prolonged dormancy, an altered apoptotic pathway has been proposed for Artemia, and this may be the case with the rotifer. CONCLUSIONS: These data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with dormancy in a non-desiccated form and indicate important

  17. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50's in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests

  18. Xymarginatin: a new acetogenin inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport from Xylopia emarginata Mart., Annonaceae Xymarginatin: uma nova acetogenina inibidora do transporte mitocondrial eletrônico de Xylopia emarginata Mart., Annonaceae

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    Trina Colman-Saizarbitoria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Annonaceous acetogenin, xymarginatin (1, was isolated from the twigs of Xyliopia emarginata Mart. (Annonaceae by bioactivity-directed fractionation using lethality to brine shrimp. The compound 1 represents a linear C-35 Annonaceous acetogenin, lacking either tetrahydrofuran (THF or epoxide rings, bearing a keto group at C-10, and possessing two cis-double bonds separated by two methylenes units. The structure of 1 was elucidated by ¹H and 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC, HMQC and HRMS. The ability to inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain of Xymarginatin (1 was tested in a rat liver mitochondrial oxygen uptake assay, with IC50 value of 1720 nM; Rotenone as a positive control gave IC50 34.8 nM. The toxicity of compound 1 against Artemia salina Leach gave LC50 of 127 μg/mL.Uma nova acetogenina de Anonaceae, xymarginatin (1, foi isolada dos caules de Xyliopia emarginata Mart. (Annonaceae por fracionamento biodirecionado usando o teste de letalidade em Artemia salina. A substância 1 representa uma acetogenina linear C-35, sema neis tetrahidrofureano ou epóxidos, mas com um grupo cetônico em C-10 e com uma dupla ligação cis separada por duas unidades metilênicas. A estrutura de 1 foi elucidada por ¹H e 13C-RNM, COSY, HMBC, HMQC e HRMS. A habilidade de inibir a cadeia respiratória mitocondrial de 1 foi testada em ensaios de produção de oxigênio mitocondrial em fígado de ratos, com IC50 de 1720 nM; rotenona, controle positivo, apresentou IC50 de 34,8 nM. A toxicidade da substância 1 contra Artemia salina Leach foi de LC50 127 μg/mL.

  19. Preliminary study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal properties of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants Estudo preliminar das propriedades moluscicidas e larvicidas de alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes de plantas medicinais

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    Aristides M. Leite

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants. Molluscicide and larvicidal activity were determined by, respectively, the lethality bioassays using Artemia salina Leach. Artemiidae and Aedes aegypti L. Culicidae larvae. Essential oils from Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae, Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae, Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae and the phytochemicals α-pinene and eugenol presented citotoxicity toward Artemia salina with CL50 values between 9.59 and 253.43 μL/mL. Essential oils from E. uniflora, M. piperita, O. vulgare and R. officinalis showed embryotoxicity on Aedes aegypti larvae with a viability inhibition between 40 and 100%. These results show the bioactivity of the assayed essential oils and phytochemicals and, partially, justify their insertion in further evaluation in order to establish a safe exploitation of their biological potentiality.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade moluscicida e larvicida de alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes de plantas medicinais. A atividade moluscicida e larvicida foi determinada empregando-se, respectivamente, o teste de letalidade contra náupilos de Artemia salina Leach. Artemiidae e contra larvas de Aedes aegypti L. Culicidae. Os óleos essenciais de Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae, Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae, Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae e os fitoconstituintes α-pineno e eugenol mostraram bioatividade citotóxica frente A. salina com valores de CL50 entre 9,59 e 253,43 μL/mL. Os óleos essenciais de E. uniflora, M. piperita, O. vulgare e R. officinalis apresentaram atividade de embriotoxicidade sobre as larvas de A. aegypti mostrando uma variação de inibição de viabilidade entre 40 e 100%. Estes resultados demonstram o potencial de bioatividade desses óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes e justificam, parcialmente, o desenvolvimento de estudos com esses produtos para uso popular.

  20. Pilot cultivation of the chlorophyte microalga Scenedesmus obliquus as a promising feedstock for biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenedesmus obliquus was discussed by phycologists as a promising microalga for biofuel production based on its biomass and fatty acid productivity. In the present study, S. obliquus was pilot cultivated for large scale production in a semicontinuous culture for 3 months using polyethylene transparent bags. Cultivation of S. obliquus resulted in a maximum biomass productivity of 0.14 g L−1 d−1 and maximum esterified fatty acid productivity of 17.37 mg L−1 d−1 at light intensity of 130 μmol m−2 s−1. Using of different flocculants for biomass harvest showed maximum flocculation efficiency of 82% using 250 mg L−1 of NaOH for 2 h. Drying of the harvested biomass showed significant increase of esterified fatty acid content by 5 and 7% with respect to control at 75 and 100 °C, respectively. In addition, fatty acid profile and iodine number of S. obliquus oil meet biodiesel standard specifications which make the fatty acid of S. obliquus eligible for further research to be used as a feedstock for biofuel production. Furthermore, the present investigation showed that after oil extraction, the residual algal biomass increased survival and fresh weight of Artemia (brine shrimp) which confirms that the residual algal biomass can be significantly used as food additives for animal feeding. - Highlights: • Scenedesmus obliquus was cultivated in plastic bags in a semicontinuous culture for high biomass production. • Different flocculants were used for harvesting of S. obliquus and the oil was chemically extracted. • The residual algal biomass was used for feeding of Artemia. • The annual productivity of EFA from S. obliquus would be nearly 5 times higher than Jatropha. • The residual algal biomass increased survival and fresh weight of Artemia