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Sample records for artefactual subcortical hyperperfusion

  1. Artefactual subcortical hyperperfusion in PET studies normalized to global mean: lessons from Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Cumming, Paul; Aanerud, Joel;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) report subcortical increases of cerebral blood flow (CBF) or cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc), after conventional normalization to the global mean. However, if the global mean CBF or CMRglc is decreased in the PD group, this normalization...... necessarily generates artificial relative increases in regions unaffected by the disease. This potential bias may explain the reported subcortical increases in PD. To test this hypothesis, we performed simulations with manipulation and subsequently analysis of sets of quantitative CBF maps by voxel...

  2. [Recurrent hyperperfusion after revascularization surgery for adult moyamoya disease: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomohide; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Akioka, Naoki; Kuwayama, Naoya; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2014-07-01

    Direct bypass surgery for moyamoya disease is quite useful for rapidly improving cerebral hemodynamics and resolving ischemic attacks but may induce hyperperfusion syndrome. In this report, we present a rare case of recurrent hyperperfusion after surgery for moyamoya disease. A 47-year-old woman developed left homonymous hemianopsia and was admitted to our hospital. Magnetic resonance(MR)imaging/angiography revealed definitive moyamoya disease presenting with acute cerebral infarction in the right temporoparietal lobe. She was treated with anti-hypertensive agents because she had severe hypertension. She successfully underwent right superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery double anastomosis and indirect bypass. A cerebral blood flow study just after surgery demonstrated marked hyperperfusion in the operated hemisphere. A repeat study 2 days later revealed that the hyperperfusion was dramatically improved. Subsequently, however, she developed a severe ipsilateral headache and focal seizure regardless of the blood pressure control. She complained of the headache for >2 weeks. Follow-up MRI showed a small subcortical hemorrhage in the right frontal lobe. Single-photon emission computed tomography revealed that the hyperperfusion relapsed 9 days after surgery and then gradually disappeared. This study shows that preoperative severe hypertension may induce uncontrollable hyperperfusion after direct bypass surgery for moyamoya disease.

  3. Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid stent angioplasty

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    Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Reith, W.; Krick, C.; Karp, K.; Zimmer, A.; Struffert, T.; Kuehn, A.L.; Papanagiotou, P. [University of the Saarland, Department for Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Homburg (Germany); Roth, C.; Haass, A. [University of the Saarland, Clinic for Neurology, Homburg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    This study assesses the incidence and causes of hyperperfusion syndrome occurring after carotid artery stenting (CAS). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical database of 417 consecutive patients who were treated with CAS in our department to identify patients who developed hyperperfusion syndrome and/or intracranial hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging was performed before and after CAS in 269 cases. A Spearman's rho nonparametric correlation was performed to determine whether there was a correlation between the occurrence/development of hyperperfusion syndrome and the patient's age, degree of stenosis on the stented and contralateral side, risk factors such as diabetes, smoking, hypertension, adiposity, gender and fluoroscopy time, and mean area of postprocedural lesions as well as preexisting lesions. Significance was established at p < 0.05. Of the 417 carotid arteries stented and where MRI was also completed, we found hyperperfusion syndrome in 2.4% (ten cases). Patients who had preexisting brain lesions (previous or acute stroke) were at a higher risk of developing hyperperfusion syndrome (p = 0.022; Spearman's rho test). We could not validate any correlation with the other patient characteristics. Extensive microvascular disease may be a predictor of hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid stent placement. We believe that further studies are warranted to predict more accurately which patients are at greater risk of developing this often fatal complication. (orig.)

  4. Institutional change and economic development : evidence from natural and artefactual field experiments in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melesse, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis title: Institutional Change and Economic Development: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in Ethiopia Mequanint Biset Melesse Abstract Institutions are the essential underpinning of economic development. A large volume of empirical literature has documented conclusive evid

  5. A Teething Problem: Artefactual X-Ray Appearances of Odontoid Fracture due to Superimposed Incisor

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    Matthew Crocker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of artefactual C2 fracture caused by a superimposed incisor tooth in a seven-year-old boy. CT refuted the diagnosis. Trauma clinicians should be aware of this entity to guide correct interpretation of trauma X-rays.

  6. Significance of postoperative crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy: SPECT study

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    Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Suga, Yasunori; Chida, Kohei; Saito, Hideo; Komoribayashi, Nobukazu; Otawara, Yasunari; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) results in cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome and cognitive impairment. The goal of the present study was to clarify the clinical significance of postoperative crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion (CCH) in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion after CEA by assessing brain perfusion with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Brain perfusion was quantitatively measured using SPECT and the [{sup 123}I]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine-autoradiography method before and immediately after CEA and on the third postoperative day in 80 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis ({>=}70%). Postoperative CCH was determined by differences between asymmetry of perfusion in bilateral cerebellar hemispheres before and after CEA. Neuropsychological testing was also performed preoperatively and at the first postoperative month. Eleven patients developed cerebral hyperperfusion (cerebral blood flow increase of {>=}100% compared with preoperative values) on SPECT imaging performed immediately after CEA. In seven of these patients, CCH was observed on the third postoperative day. All three patients with hyperperfusion syndrome exhibited cerebral hyperperfusion and CCH on the third postoperative day and developed postoperative cognitive impairment. Of the eight patients with asymptomatic hyperperfusion, four exhibited CCH despite resolution of cerebral hyperperfusion on the third postoperative day, and three of these patients experienced postoperative cognitive impairment. In contrast, four patients without postoperative CCH did not experience postoperative cognitive impairment. The presence of postoperative CCH with concomitant cerebral hyperperfusion reflects the development of hyperperfusion syndrome. Further, the presence of postoperative CCH in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion following CEA suggests development of postoperative cognitive impairment, even when asymptomatic. (orig.)

  7. Natural and artefactual aneuploidy in human lymphocytes in extreme old age.

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    Lezhava, T; Khmaladze, E; Lokhadze, T; Buadze, T

    2008-04-01

    At present it is generally believed that aging is accompanied by an increase in the numbers of cells with altered chromosome sets. However, the problem of aneuploidy in extreme old age (80 years and over) has hardly been subjected to systematic investigation. The purpose of this study was to examine quantitative chromosome changes and relationship between "artefactual" and "natural" aneuploidy in subjects from 80 to 114 years of age using karyotype analyses. Chromosomes were studied in 1136 karyotypes of relatively round metaphases from 40 lymphocyte cultures obtained from 40 apparently normal subjects aged from 80 to 114 ( including 26 men and 14 women). 964 karyotypes from 48 donors aged 20 to 48 served as control. Lymphocytes were cultivation by modification method (Lezhava, 2006). It is suggested that the probability of natural aneuploidy rises substantially among elderly women; while that of artefactual aneuploidy is increased among elderly men; the problem of natural aneuploidy in males remains unclear.

  8. Leadership and influence: Evidence from an artefactual field experiment on local public good provision

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of leadership on the level and evolution of pro-social behavior using an artefactual field experiment on local public good provision. Participants decide how much to contribute to an actual conservation project. They can then revise their donations after being randomly matched in pairs on the basis of their authority and having observed each other’s contributions. Authority is measured through a social ranking exercise identifying formal and moral leaders within ...

  9. Prediction of Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome with Velocity Blood Pressure Index

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    Zhi-Chao Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is an important complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA. An >100% increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAV after CEA is used to predict the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS development, but the accuracy is limited. The increase in blood pressure (BP after surgery is a risk factor of CHS, but no study uses it to predict CHS. This study was to create a more precise parameter for prediction of CHS by combined the increase of MCAV and BP after CEA. Methods: Systolic MCAV measured by transcranial Doppler and systematic BP were recorded preoperatively; 30 min postoperatively. The new parameter velocity BP index (VBI was calculated from the postoperative increase ratios of MCAV and BP. The prediction powers of VBI and the increase ratio of MCAV (velocity ratio [VR] were compared for predicting CHS occurrence. Results: Totally, 6/185 cases suffered CHS. The best-fit cut-off point of 2.0 for VBI was identified, which had 83.3% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, 62.5% positive predictive value and 99.4% negative predictive value for CHS development. This result is significantly better than VR (33.3%, 97.2%, 28.6% and 97.8%. The area under the curve (AUC of receiver operating characteristic: AUC VBI = 0.981, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949-0.995; AUC VR = 0.935, 95% CI 0.890-0.966, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The new parameter VBI can more accurately predict patients at risk of CHS after CEA. This observation needs to be validated by larger studies.

  10. The time of maximum post-ischemic hyperperfusion indicates infarct growth following transient experimental ischemia.

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    Susanne Wegener

    Full Text Available After recanalization, cerebral blood flow (CBF can increase above baseline in cerebral ischemia. However, the significance of post-ischemic hyperperfusion for tissue recovery remains unclear. To analyze the course of post-ischemic hyperperfusion and its impact on vascular function, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL and measured CBF quantitatively during and after a 60 minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in adult rats. We added a 5% CO2 - challenge to analyze vasoreactivity in the same animals. Results from MRI were compared to histological correlates of angiogenesis. We found that CBF in the ischemic area recovered within one day and reached values significantly above contralateral thereafter. The extent of hyperperfusion changed over time, which was related to final infarct size: early (day 1 maximal hyperperfusion was associated with smaller lesions, whereas a later (day 4 maximum indicated large lesions. Furthermore, after initial vasoparalysis within the ischemic area, vasoreactivity on day 14 was above baseline in a fraction of animals, along with a higher density of blood vessels in the ischemic border zone. These data provide further evidence that late post-ischemic hyperperfusion is a sequel of ischemic damage in regions that are likely to undergo infarction. However, it is transient and its resolution coincides with re-gaining of vascular structure and function.

  11. Ipsilateral Cerebral and Contralateral Cerebellar Hyperperfusion in Patients with Unilateral Cerebral Infarction; SPM Analysis

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    Hong, Sun Pyo; Yoon, Joon Kee; Choi, Bong Hoi; Joo, In Soo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Cortical reorganization has an important role in the recovery of stroke. We analyzed the compensatory cerebral and cerebellar perfusion change in patients with unilateral cerebral infarction using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Fifty seven {sup 99m}Tc-Ethylene Cystein Diethylester (ECD) cerebral perfusion SPECT images of 57 patients (male/female=38/19, mean age=56{+-}17 years) with unilateral cerebral infarction were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into subgroups according to the location (left, right) and the onset (acute, chronic) of infarction. Each subgroup was compared with normal controls (male/female=11/1, mean age =36{+-}10 years) in a voxel-by-voxel manner (two sample t-test, p<0.001) using SPM. All 4 subgroups showed hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex, but not in the contralateral cerebral cortex. Chronic left and right infarction groups revealed hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex, meanwhile, acute subgroups did not. Contralateral cerebellar hyperperfusion was also demonstrated in the chronic left infarction group. Using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT, we observed ipsilateral cerebral and contralateral cerebeller hyperperfusion in patients with cerebral infarction. However, whether these findings are related to the recovery of cerebral functions should be further evaluated.

  12. Local Vasogenic Edema without Cerebral Hyperperfusion after Direct Revascularization Surgery for Moyamoya Disease.

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    Sakata, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Miki; Mugikura, Shunji; Sato, Kenichi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-07-01

    Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis is generally used as the standard surgical treatment for moyamoya disease to prevent cerebral ischemic attacks. Although the main potential complications associated with this treatment are cerebral hyperperfusion and ischemia, the adverse impacts of revascularization surgery remain unclear. Of the 142 consecutive surgeries for moyamoya disease at our hospital from 2008, we herein presented 2 cases of adult-onset moyamoya disease that manifested local vasogenic edema at the site of anastomosis without cerebral hyperperfusion; 1 in a 31-year-old woman presented with transient ischemic attack and the other in a 22-year-old man manifested as minor completed stroke. Both patients underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis, resulting in the formation of a reversible high-signal-intensity lesion at the site of anastomosis on T2-weighted images along with an increase in apparent diffusion coefficient values, whereas diffusion-weighted images showed no changes. Neither hyperperfusion nor hypoperfusion, as assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl[123I]-p-iodoamphetamine, was observed postoperatively. In light of the increased risk of the further progression of vasogenic edema to intracerebral hemorrhage, these patients were treated with prophylactic blood pressure lowering and the intravenous infusion of a free radical scavenger. They did not have any further cerebrovascular events during the follow-up period. Regional vasogenic edema without cerebral hyperperfusion, possibly due to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, may be another novel entity that needs to be considered as a potential complication after extracranial-intracranial bypass for moyamoya disease. Strict postoperative management should be used to avoid hemorrhagic transformation.

  13. Transient hyperperfusion after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery on brain perfusion SPECT

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    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Oh, Chang Wan; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We designed this study to investigate the transient relative hyperperfusion and its clinical implication after STA (superficial temporal artery) to MCA (middle cerebral artery) bypass surgery in patients with ischemic cerebral stroke. In 25 patients, comprising of 11 moyamoya disease (MMD) and 14 atherosclerotic disease (ASD), STA-MCA anastomosis was performed to distal cortical branches of middle cerebral artery for revascularization. 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT was performed before, 3 days and then 10 days after bypass surgery. Each image was spatially normalized into the standard space and changes of brain perfusion in the entire internal carotid artery (ICA) territory were evaluated using standardized ROIs. In the overall analysis including all patients, the surgery effectively increased ICA territory perfusion on the 3rd and 10th day after bypass surgery in comparison with the preoperative one (p<0.01 and p=0.03). The 3rd day perfusion was significantly higher than the 10th day one (p<0.01), demonstrating transient relative hyperperfusion on the 3rd day compared with the 10th day. In MMD group, such transient increase of perfusion was most severe in the vicinity of the anastomosis site, and more definite than the ASD group. Three patients, 2 ASD and one MMD, showed temporary neurological deterioration (dysphasia or dysarthria) beginning within 3 days after surgery and resolving completely within 2 weeks after onset, without hemorrhage, infarction or other serious defects on CT scan. Their neurological changes correlated well with the focal perfusion changes confirmed by SPECT images on the 3rd and 10th postoperative day. Transient relative hyperperfusion was observed on postoperative 3rd day compared with the 10th day following STA-MCA bypass surgery. In some patients, such transient increase of focal perfusion seems to provoke temporary neurological deterioration.

  14. Imaging Evidence for Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome after Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Yi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS, a rare complication after cerebral revascularization, is a well-described phenomenon after carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting. However, the imaging evidence of CHS after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (iv tPA for acute ischemic stroke (AIS has not been reported. Case Report. Four patients were determined to have manifestations of CHS with clinical deterioration after treatment with iv tPA, including one patient who developed seizure, one patient who had a deviation of the eyes toward lesion with worsened mental status, and two patients who developed worsened hemiparesis. In all four patients, postthrombolysis head CT examinations were negative for hemorrhage; CT angiogram showed patent cervical and intracranial arterial vasculature; CT perfusion imaging revealed hyperperfusion with increased relative cerebral blood flow and relative cerebral blood volume and decreased mean transit time along with decreased time to peak in the clinically related artery territory. Vascular dilation was also noted in three of these four cases. Conclusions. CHS should be considered in patients with clinical deterioration after iv tPA and imaging negative for hemorrhage. Cerebral angiogram and perfusion studies can be useful in diagnosing CHS thereby helping with further management.

  15. Liver graft-to-recipient spleen size ratio as a novel predictor of portal hyperperfusion syndrome in living donor liver transplantation.

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    Cheng, Y F; Huang, T L; Chen, T Y; Concejero, A; Tsang, L L C; Wang, C C; Wang, S H; Sun, C K; Lin, C C; Liu, Y W; Yang, C H; Yong, C C; Ou, S Y; Yu, C Y; Chiu, K W; Jawan, B; Eng, H L; Chen, C L

    2006-12-01

    Portal hyperperfusion in a small-size liver graft is one cause of posttransplant graft dysfunction. We retrospectively analyzed the potential risk factors predicting the development of portal hyperperfusion in 43 adult living donor liver transplantation recipients. The following were evaluated: age, body weight, native liver disease, spleen size, graft size, graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR), total portal flow, recipient portal venous flow per 100 g graft weight (RPVF), graft-to-recipient spleen size ratio (GRSSR) and portosystemic shunting. Spleen size was directly proportional to the total portal flow (p = 0.001) and RPVF (p = 0.014). Graft hyperperfusion (RPVF flow > 250 mL/min/100 g graft) was seen in eight recipients. If the GRSSR was Spleen size is a major factor contributing to portal flow after transplant. The GRSSR is associated with posttransplant graft hyperperfusion at a ratio of < 0.6.

  16. Subcortical infarction resulting in acquired stuttering.

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    Ciabarra, A M; Elkind, M S; Roberts, J K; Marshall, R S

    2000-10-01

    Stuttering is an uncommon presentation of acute stroke. Reported cases have often been associated with left sided cortical lesions, aphasia, and difficulties with other non-linguistic tests of rhythmic motor control. Three patients with subcortical lesions resulting in stuttering are discussed. In one patient the ability to perform time estimations with a computerised repetitive time estimation task was characterised. One patient had a pontine infarct with clinical evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. A second patient had a left basal ganglionic infarct and a disruption of timing estimation. A third patient had a left subcortical infarct and a mild aphasia. These findings expand the reported distribution of infarction that can result in acquired stuttering. Subcortical mechanisms of speech control and timing may contribute to the pathophysiology of acquired stuttering.

  17. On the artefactual parasitic eubacteria clan in conditioned logdet phylogenies: heterotachy and ortholog identification artefacts as explanations

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    Bryant David

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic reconstruction methods based on gene content often place all the parasitic and endosymbiotic eubacteria (parasites for short together in a clan. Many other lines of evidence point to this parasites clan being an artefact. This artefact could be a consequence of the methods used to construct ortholog databases (due to some unknown bias, the methods used to estimate the phylogeny, or both. We test the idea that the parasites clan is an ortholog identification artefact by analyzing three different ortholog databases (COG, TRIBES, and OFAM, which were constructed using different methods, and are thus unlikely to share the same biases. In each case, we estimate a phylogeny using an improved version of the conditioned logdet distance method. If the parasites clan appears in trees from all three databases, it is unlikely to be an ortholog identification artefact. Accelerated loss of a subset of gene families in parasites (a form of heterotachy may contribute to the difficulty of estimating a phylogeny from gene content data. We test the idea that heterotachy is the underlying reason for the estimation of an artefactual parasites clan by applying two different mixture models (phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic, in combination with conditioned logdet. In these models, there are two categories of gene families, one of which has accelerated loss in parasites. Distances are estimated separately from each category by conditioned logdet. This should reduce the tendency for tree estimation methods to group the parasites together, if heterotachy is the underlying reason for estimation of the parasites clan. Results The parasites clan appears in conditioned logdet trees estimated from all three databases. This makes it less likely to be an artefact of database construction. The non-phylogenetic mixture model gives trees without a parasites clan. However, the phylogenetic mixture model still results in a tree with a parasites clan

  18. Prediction of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid artery stenting by CT perfusion imaging with acetazolamide challenge

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    Yoshie, Tomohide; Ueda, Toshihiro; Takada, Tatsuro; Nogoshi, Shinji; Fukano, Takayuki [St. Marianna University Toyoko Hospital, Department of Strokology, Stroke Center, Kawasaki (Japan); Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Neurology, Kawasaki (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) is an uncommon but serious complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CT perfusion imaging (CTP) with acetazolamide challenge to identify patients at risk for HPS after CAS. We retrospectively analyzed 113 patients who underwent CTP with rest and acetazolamide challenge before CAS. CTP maps were assessed for absolute and relative cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), and change of each parameter before and after acetazolamide challenge. Patients were divided into two groups according to the HPS after the CAS. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the most accurate CTP parameter for the prediction of HPS. Nine of 113 patients had HPS. There were significant differences for absolute and relative values of resting CBF (p = 0.001 and p = 0.026), resting MTT (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004), post-acetazolamide CBF (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001), post-acetazolamide MTT (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002), and %changes of CBF (p = 0.009) between the HPS and non-HPS groups. ROC curve analysis showed that the CTP parameters with the maximal area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for HPS was the absolute value of post-acetazolamide MTT (AUC 0.909) and the absolute value of resting MTT (AUC 0.896). Pretreatment CTP with acetazolamide challenge could identify patients at risk for HPS after CAS. Although the CTP parameter that most accurately identified patients at risk for HPS was the absolute value of post-acetazolamide MTT, resting MTT was sufficiently accurate. (orig.)

  19. The role of perfusion computed tomography in the prediction of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome.

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    Chien Hung Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS following carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no reliable parameters to predict HPS. The aim of this study was to clarify whether perfusion computed tomography (CT is a feasible and reliable tool in predicting HPS after CAS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of 54 patients (11 HPS patients and 43 non-HPS with unilateral severe stenosis of the carotid artery who underwent CAS. We compared the prevalence of vascular risk factors and perfusion CT parameters including regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, and time to peak (TTP within seven days prior to CAS. Demographic information, risk factors for atherosclerosis, and perfusion CT parameters were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. The rCBV index was calculated as [(ipsilateral rCBV - contralateral rCBV/contralateral rCBV], and indices of rCBF and TTP were similarly calculated. We found that eleven patients had HPS, including five with intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs of whom three died. After a comparison with non-HPS control subjects, independent predictors of HPS included the severity of ipsilateral carotid artery stenosis, 3-hour mean systolic blood pressure (3 h SBP after CAS, pre-stenting rCBV index >0.15 and TTP index >0.22. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of severe ipsilateral carotid stenosis, 3 h SBP after CAS, rCBV index and TTP index provides a potential screening tool for predicting HPS in patients with unilateral carotid stenosis receiving CAS. In addition, adequate management of post-stenting blood pressure is the most important treatable factor in preventing HPS in these high risk patients.

  20. Implications of Subcortical structures in Aphasia.

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    Saleh Alamri

    2015-04-01

    Taken together, the results indicate that aphasia is a common outcome after a lesion to subcortical structures. Findings show that 110 out of 394 aphasic patients with lesion in the basal ganglia exhibited comprehension deficits, while 31 participants out of 288 with thalamic aphasia. Likewise, 129 aphasics of affected basal ganglia out of 394 had impaired naming, whereas 12 participants had impaired naming out of 288 individuals with thalamic aphasia. See figure 1. Figure 1: The percentage of language impairment in two sets of aphasic patients (the thalamus and the basal ganglia. Despite contradictory results and even cases of double dissociation (for an example of absence of language deficits in the event of thalamic lesions see Cappa et al., 1986, our literature review confirms the major role of subcortical structures in language processing.

  1. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

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    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-03-07

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought.

  2. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

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    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107, healthy, young (age range  = 16-29 cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary.

  3. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

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    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).

  4. Liver graft hyperperfusion in the early postoperative period promotes hepatic regeneration 2 weeks after living donor liver transplantation

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    Byun, Sung Hye; Yang, Hae Soo; Kim, Jong Hae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic regeneration is essential to meet the metabolic demands of partial liver grafts following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Hepatic regeneration is promoted by portal hyperperfusion of partial grafts, which produces shear stress on the sinusoidal endothelium. Hepatic regeneration is difficult to assess within the first 2 weeks after LDLT as the size of liver graft could be overestimated in the presence of postsurgical graft edema. In this study, we evaluated the effects of graft hyperperfusion on the rate of hepatic regeneration 2 weeks after LDLT by measuring hepatic hemodynamic parameters. Thirty-six patients undergoing LDLT were enrolled in this study. Hepatic hemodynamic parameters including peak portal venous flow velocity (PVV) were measured using spectral Doppler ultrasonography on postoperative day 1. Subsequently, we calculated the ratio of each velocity to 100 g of the initial graft weight (GW) obtained immediately after graft retrieval on the day of LDLT. Ratios of GW to recipient weight (GRWR) and to standard liver volume (GW/SLV) were also obtained. The hepatic regeneration rate was defined as the ratio of the regenerated volume measured using computed tomographic volumetry at postoperative week 2 to the initial GW. Correlations of the hemodynamic parameters, GRWR, and GW/SLV with the hepatic regeneration rate were assessed using a linear regression analysis. The liver grafts regenerated to approximately 1.7 times their initial GW (1.7 ± 0.3 [mean ± standard deviation]). PVV/100 g of GW (r2 = 0.224, β1 [slope coefficient] = 2.105, P = 0.004) and velocities of the hepatic artery and vein per 100 g of GW positively correlated with the hepatic regeneration rate, whereas GRWR (r2 = 0.407, β1 = –81.149, P < 0.001) and GW/SLV (r2 = 0.541, β1 = –2.184, P < 0.001) negatively correlated with the hepatic regeneration rate. Graft hyperperfusion demonstrated by increased hepatic

  5. Hypermagnesemia does not prevent intracranial hypertension and aggravates cerebral hyperperfusion in a rat model of acute hyperammonemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Eefsen, Martin; Larsen, Fin Stolze;

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate prevents seizures in patients with eclampsia and brain edema after traumatic brain injury. Neuroprotection is achieved by controlling cerebral blood flow (CBF), intracranial pressure, neuronal glutamate release, and aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) expression....... These factors are also thought to be involved in the development of brain edema in acute liver failure. We wanted to study whether hypermagnesemia prevented development of intracranial hypertension and hyperperfusion in a rat model of portacaval anastomosis (PCA) and acute hyperammonemia. We also studied...... rats receiving ammonia infusion/vehicle and MgSO4) /saline. The effect of MgSO(4) on mean arterial pressure (MAP), intracranial pressure (ICP), CBF, cerebral glutamate and glutamine, and aquaporin-4 expression was studied. Finally, the effect of MgSO4 on MAP, ICP, and CBF was studied, using two...

  6. Gait and Equilibrium in Subcortical Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical vascular dementia is a clinical entity, widespread, even challenging to diagnose and correctly treat. Patients with this diagnosis are old, frail, often with concomitant pathologies, and therefore, with many drugs in therapy. We tried to diagnose and follow up for three years more than 600 patients. Study subjects were men and women, not bedridden, aged 68–94 years, outpatients, recruited from June, 1st 2007 to June, 1st 2010. We examined them clinically, neurologically, with specific consideration on drug therapies. Our aim has been to define gait and imbalance problem, if eventually coexistent with the pathology of white matter and/or with the worsening of the deterioration. Drug intake interference has been detected and considered.

  7. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers.

  8. Safety and efficacy of splenic artery embolization for portal hyperperfusion in liver transplant recipients: a 5-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Naftali; Quintini, Cristiano; Tom, Cynthia; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Qiang; Diago-Uso, Teresa; Fujiki, Masato; Winans, Charles; Kelly, Dympna; Aucejo, Federico; Hashimoto, Koji; Eghtesad, Bijan; Miller, Charles

    2015-04-01

    Severe portal hyperperfusion (PHP) after liver transplantation has been shown to cause intrahepatic arterial vasoconstriction secondary to increased adenosine washout (hepatic artery buffer response). Clinically, posttransplant PHP can cause severe cases of refractory ascites and hydrothorax. In the past, we reported our preliminary experience with the use of splenic artery embolization (SAE) as a way to reduce PHP. Here we present our 5-year experience with SAE in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Between January 2007 and December 2011, 681 patients underwent OLT at our institution, and 54 of these patients underwent SAE for increased hepatic arterial resistance and PHP (n=42) or refractory ascites/hepatic hydrothorax (n=12). Patients undergoing SAE were compared to a control group matched by year of embolization, calculated Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and liver weight. SAE resulted in improvements in hepatic artery resistive indices (0.92±0.14 and 0.76±0.10 before and after SAE, respectively; Pspleen/liver volume ratios were correlated with patients requiring SAE versus matched controls (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). Among the 54 patients undergoing SAE, there was 1 case of postsplenectomy syndrome. No abscesses, significant infections, or bleeding was noted. We thus conclude that SAE is a safe and effective technique able to improve HAF parameters in patients with elevated portal venous flow and its sequelae.

  9. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro,; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume de...

  10. Subcortical shape and volume abnormalities in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Benjamin S. C.; Valcour, Victor; Busovaca, Edgar; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Wang, Yalin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Over 50% of HIV+ individuals show significant impairment in psychomotor functioning, processing speed, working memory and attention [1, 2]. Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy may still have subcortical atrophy, but the profile of HIV-associated brain changes is poorly understood. With parametric surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ subjects (4 female; age=65.35 ± 2.21) and 31 uninfected elderly controls (2 female; age=64.68 ± 4.57) scanned with MRI as part of a San Francisco Bay Area study of elderly people with HIV. We also investigated whether morphometry was associated with nadir CD4+ (T-cell) counts, viral load and illness duration among HIV+ participants. FreeSurfer was used to segment the thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, brainstem, callosum and ventricles from brain MRI scans. To study subcortical shape, we analyzed: (1) the Jacobian determinant (JD) indexed over structures' surface coordinates and (2) radial distances (RD) of structure surfaces from a medial curve. A JD less than 1 reflects regional tissue atrophy and greater than 1 reflects expansion. The volumes of several subcortical regions were found to be associated with HIV status. No regional volumes showed detectable associations with CD4 counts, viral load or illness duration. The shapes of numerous subcortical regions were significantly linked to HIV status, detectability of viral RNA and illness duration. Our results show subcortical brain differences in HIV+ subjects in both shape and volumetric domains.

  11. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic; M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn; S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate h

  12. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigat

  13. Neuropsychological Profile of Children with Subcortical Band Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Smith, Megan; Leventer, Richard; Jacobs, Rani; De Luca, Cinzia; Anderson, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or "double cortex" is a malformation of cortical development resulting from impaired neuronal migration. So far, research has focused on the neurological, neuroimaging, and genetic correlates of SBH. More recently, clinical reports and small sample studies have documented neuropsychological dysfunction in…

  14. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical...

  15. Focal cortical thinning is caused by remote subcortical infarcts: spooky action at a distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric E; Arboix, Adrià

    2012-11-13

    In this issue of Neurology®, Duering et al.(1) present compelling proof-of-principle evidence that small subcortical infarcts have remote consequences on gray matter volume. Using MRI scans acquired before and after an incident subcortical infarct, they were able to show that the appearance of a new subcortical infarct was associated with cortical thinning in connected brain regions.

  16. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan;

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use...... genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk...... and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between...

  17. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S.C. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of HIV+ individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD and radial distances (RD defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV+ participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV+ participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV+ people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV+ participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  18. Parietal network underlying movement control: disturbances during subcortical electrostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almairac, Fabien; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-07-01

    Our understanding of brain movement control has changed over the last two decades. Recent findings in the monkey and in humans have led to a parallel and interconnected network. Nevertheless, little is known about these networks. Here, we present two cases of patients with a parietal low-grade glioma. They underwent surgery under local anesthesia with cortical and subcortical mapping. For patient 1, subcortical electrostimulation immediately posterior to thalamocortical fibers induced movement disorders, with an inhibition of leg and arm movements medially and, more laterally, an acceleration of arm movement. For patient 2, electrostimulation of white matter immediately posterior to thalamocortical fibers induced an inhibition of both arm movement. It means that the detected fibers in the parietal lobe may be involved in the motor control modulation. They are distributed veil-like immediately posterior to thalamocortical pathways and could correspond to a fronto-parietal movement control subnetwork. These two cases highlight the major role of the subcortical connectivity in movement regulation, involving parietal lobe, thus the necessity to be identified and preserved during brain surgery.

  19. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehatpour, Pejman; Long, Jun; Gui, Weihua; Qiao, Jianping; Javitt, Daniel C.; Wang, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    A failure of adaptive inference—misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action—is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci) in subcortical gray matter (GM) in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD), a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth) surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales) of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based) information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19) (age ranges: patients, 22.7–54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9–51.6 years old). We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07–2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15–2.23, p<0.001; Cohen’s effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0)), the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05–2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12–2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1)), as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40–2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473)) in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM

  20. Assessment of Hyperperfusion by Brain Perfusion SPECT in Transient Neurological Deterioration after Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Sang Mi; Eo, Jae Sun; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Won Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Transient neurological deterioration (TND) is one of the complications after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery, and it has been assumed to be caused by postoperative transient hyperperfusion. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between TND and preoperative and postoperative cerebral perfusion status on brain perfusion SPECT following superficial temporal artery.middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis surgery. A total of 60 STA-MCA anastomosis surgeries of 56 patients (mean age: 50{+-}16 yrs; M:F=29:27; atherosclerotic disease: 33, moyamoya disease: 27) which were done between September 2003 and July 2006 were enrolled. The resting cerebral perfusion and cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) after acetazolamide challenge were measured before and 10 days after surgery using 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT. Moreover, the cerebral perfusion was measured on the third postoperative day. With the use of the statistical parametric mapping and probabilistic brain atlas, the counts for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were calculated for each image, and statistical analyses were performed. In 6 of 60 cases (10%), TND occurred after surgery. In all patients, the preoperative cerebral perfusion of affected MCA territory was significantly lower than that of contralateral side (p=0.002). The cerebral perfusion on the third and tenth day after surgery was significantly higher than preoperative cerebral perfusion (p=0.001, p=0.02). In TND patients, basal cerebral perfusion and CVR on preoperative SPECT were significantly lower than those of non-TND patients (p=0.01, p=0.05). Further, the increases in cerebral perfusion on the third day after surgery were significant higher than those in other patients (p=0.008). In patients with TND, the cerebral perfusion ratio of affected side to contralateral side on third postoperative day was significantly higher than that of other patients (p=0.002). However, there was no significant difference of

  1. Distinct Genetic Influences on Cortical and Subcortical Brain Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wei; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Mather, Karen A.; Zhu, Wanlin; Jiang, Jiyang; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Wright, Margaret J.; Ames, David; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the heritability of brain grey matter structures in a subsample of older adult twins (93 MZ and 68 DZ twin pairs; mean age 70 years) from the Older Australian Twins Study. The heritability estimates of subcortical regions ranged from 0.41 (amygdala) to 0.73 (hippocampus), and of cortical regions, from 0.55 (parietal lobe) to 0.78 (frontal lobe). Corresponding structures in the two hemispheres were influenced by the same genetic factors and high genetic correlations were observed between the two hemispheric regions. There were three genetically correlated clusters, comprising (i) the cortical lobes (frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes); (ii) the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen and pallidum) with weak genetic correlations with cortical lobes, and (iii) the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens grouped together, which genetically correlated with both basal ganglia and cortical lobes, albeit relatively weakly. Our study demonstrates a complex but patterned and clustered genetic architecture of the human brain, with divergent genetic determinants of cortical and subcortical structures, in particular the basal ganglia.

  2. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  3. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; van Eijk, Kristel R; Walters, Raymond K; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Winkler, Anderson M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Makkinje, Remco R R; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A M; McKay, D Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S L; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Bastin, Mark E; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Carless, Melanie A; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy

    2015-04-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

  4. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  5. Subcortical regional morphology correlates with fluid and spatial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; MacDonald, Penny A; Martínez, Kenia; Román, Francisco J; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Ramos González, Ana; Karama, Sherif; Colom, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations between intelligence and brain morphology. However, researchers have focused primarily on the anatomical features of the cerebral cortex, whereas subcortical structures, such as the basal ganglia (BG), have often been neglected despite extensive functional evidence on their relation with higher-order cognition. Here we performed shape analyses to understand how individual differences in BG local morphology account for variability in cognitive performance. Structural MRI was acquired in 104 young adults (45 men, 59 women, mean age = 19.83, SD = 1.64), and the outer surface of striatal structures (caudate, nucleus accumbens, and putamen), globus pallidus, and thalamus was estimated for each subject and hemisphere. Further, nine cognitive tests were used to measure fluid (Gf), crystallized (Gc), and spatial intelligence (Gv). Latent scores for these factors were computed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and regressed vertex-wise against subcortical shape (local displacements of vertex position), controlling for age, sex, and adjusted for brain size. Significant results (FDR intelligence-related prefrontal areas.

  6. Intraoperative dexmedetomidine and postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome in patients who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis for moyamoya disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyungseok; Ryu, Ho-Geol; Son, Je Do; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Ha, Eun Jin; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Park, Hee-Pyoung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dexmedetomidine, a selective α2-agonist, reduces cerebral blood flow and has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in experimental animals. We examined whether intraoperative dexmedetomidine would reduce the incidence of postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis in patients with moyamoya disease. The electronic medical records of 117 moyamoya patients who underwent STA-MCA anastomosis were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 48 patients received intraoperative dexmedetomidine (Group D), while 69 patients did not (Group ND). The incidence (primary outcome), onset, and duration of postoperative CHS were noted. The incidence of postoperative CHS was 45.8% and 40.6% in groups D and ND, respectively (P = 0.708). The duration of postoperative CHS was shorter in group D than in group ND (median [Q1–Q3], 5 [3–7] vs 8 [5–10] days, P = 0.021). There was no significant difference in the onset of CHS between group D and group ND (0 [0–2] vs 1 [0–3] days, P = 0.226). In conclusion, intraoperative dexmedetomidine did not reduce the incidence of postoperative CHS, although it reduced the duration of CHS, in patients who had undergone direct revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease. PMID:28033272

  7. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence.

  8. Macrostructural alterations of subcortical grey matter in psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Cera

    Full Text Available Psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED has been defined as the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit sexual performance. It shows a high incidence and prevalence among men, with a significant impact on the quality of life. Few neuroimaging studies have investigated the cerebral basis of erectile dysfunctions observing the role played by prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal cortices during erotic stimulation. In spite of the well-known involvement of subcortical regions such as hypothalamus and caudate nucleus in male sexual response, and the key role of nucleus accumbens in pleasure and reward, poor attention was paid to their role in male sexual dysfunction. In this study, we determined the presence of grey matter (GM atrophy patterns in subcortical structures such as amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum, thalamus, and hypothalamus in patients with psychogenic ED and healthy men. After Rigiscan evaluation, urological, general medical, metabolic and hormonal, psychological and psychiatric assessment, 17 outpatients with psychogenic ED and 25 healthy controls were recruited for structural MRI session. Significant GM atrophy of nucleus accumbens was observed bilaterally in patients with respect to controls. Shape analysis showed that this atrophy was located in the left medial-anterior and posterior portion of accumbens. Left nucleus accumbens volumes in patients correlated with low erectile functioning as measured by IIEF-5 (International Index of Erectile Function. In addition, a GM atrophy of left hypothalamus was also observed. Our results suggest that atrophy of nucleus accumbens plays an important role in psychogenic erectile dysfunction. We believe that this change can influence the motivation-related component of sexual behavior. Our findings help to elucidate a neural basis of psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

  9. Modelling of cerebral hyper-perfusion after chronic forebrain ischemia in rats%大鼠慢性前脑缺血解除后脑过度灌注模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玮; 王天龙; 李俊发; 赵磊; 于培兰; 孔萃萃

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立大鼠慢性前脑缺血基础上的脑过度灌注模型.方法 选取雄性Wistar大鼠72只依随机数字表均分为两个模型建造组.缺血模型采用双侧颈总动脉结扎,随机数字表分为空白对照、假手术组、缺血2周组、缺血4周组,每组9只,结扎前后分别测定脑额叶血流、比较各组行为学评分、脑梗死面积.过度灌注模型是在缺血模型基础上,再灌注同时经尾静脉持续输注去氧肾上腺素4μg·kg-1·min-1,使再灌注后脑额叶血流超过基础值的200%.随机分为空白对照组、盐水组、过度灌注0.5 h组、过度灌注2 h组,每组9只,再灌注前后分别测定脑额叶血流,比较各组行为学评分、血脑屏障通透性、脑干湿重比值.结果 大鼠双侧颈动脉结扎后前脑血流减少可达67%±2%,脑过度灌注组与盐水输注组的脑血流变化值差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).缺血2周组的神经功能评分、脑梗死面积与正常对照组差异无统计学意义,缺血4周组的脑梗死面积与正常对照组差异有统计学意义.脑过度灌注2 h组的血脑屏障通透性改变有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 结扎大鼠双侧颈总动脉2周后脑过度灌注2 h可较好地建立大鼠脑过度灌注综合征模型.%Objective To establish the cerebral hyper-perfusion model after chronic forebrain ischemia in rats. Methods A total of 72 male rats were equally randomized into 2 modeling groups. The ligation of bilateral common carotid artery could induce chronic forebrain ischemia. And 36 rats were randomly grouped by ischemia duration: control group ( n = 9 ), sham group ( n = 9 ), 2-wcek ischemia group ( n = 9 ) and 4-wcek ischemia group ( n = 9 ). The blood flow in frontal lobe was measured at pre- and post-ligation. The neurological score and cerebral infarction area were also compared among the groups. The min-1 via tail vein to produce cerebrally hyperperfused blood flow rate over 200% of baseline

  10. Occipital seizures and subcortical T2 hypointensity in the setting of hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna L. Putta

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Hyperglycemia should be considered in the etiology of differential diagnosis of patients with visual abnormalities suspicious for seizures, especially when the MRI shows focal subcortical T2 hypointensity with or without leptomeningeal enhancement.

  11. Impact of subcortical white matter lesions on dopamine transporter SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Elisabeth; Kupsch, Andreas; Buchert, Ralph; Brenner, Winfried; Plotkin, Michail

    2013-07-01

    Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) can affect the nigrostriatal system and presumably cause vascular parkinsonism (VP). However, in patients with SAE, the differentiation of VP from idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPS) is challenging. The aim of the present study was to examine the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density in patients with parkinsonism and SAE. Fifteen consecutive patients with parkinsonian symptoms displayed SAE, as detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifteen retrospectively chosen, matched patients with diagnosis of IPS without any abnormalities in MRI served as a reference group. DAT SPECT was performed using the tracer ¹²³I-FP-CIT. Scans were acquired on a triple-head SPECT system (Multispect 3, Siemens) and analysed using the investigator-independent BRASS™ software (HERMES). In the SAE group, a DAT deficit was observed in 9/15 patients. In contrast, all patients from the IPS group showed a reduced DAT binding (p = 0.008). The specific binding ratios (BR) of putamen contralateral to the side of the more affected limb versus occipital lobe were in trend higher in patients with SAE versus patients in the IPS-group (p = 0.053). Indices for putaminal asymmetry (p = 0.036) and asymmetry caudate-to-putamen (p = 0.026) as well as the ratio caudate-to-putamen (p = 0.048) were significantly higher in IPS patients having no SAE. DAT deficit was less pronounced in patients with SAE and parkinsonism than in patients with IPS without any abnormalities in the MRI. A potential role of DAT SPECT in the differential diagnosis of VP and IPS requires more assessments within prospective studies.

  12. Pattern of cerebral hyperperfusion in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment using voxel-based analysis of 3D arterial spin-labeling imaging: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bei Ding,1 Hua-wei Ling,1 Yong Zhang,2 Juan Huang,1 Huan Zhang,1 Tao Wang,3 Fu Hua Yan11Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, 3Department of Gerontology, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaPurpose: A three-dimensional (3D continuous pulse arterial spin labeling (ASL technique was used to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and age- and sex-matched healthy controls.Materials and methods: Three groups were recruited for comparison, 24 AD patients, 17 MCI patients, and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Three-dimensional ASL scans covering the entire brain were acquired with a 3.0 T magnetic resonance scanner. Spatial processing was performed with statistical parametric mapping 8. A second-level one-way analysis of variance analysis (threshold at P<0.05 was performed on the preprocessed ASL data. An average whole-brain CBF for each subject was also included as group-level covariates for the perfusion data, to control for individual CBF variations.Results: Significantly increased CBF was detected in bilateral frontal lobes and right temporal subgyral regions in aMCI compared with controls. When comparing AD with aMCI, the major hyperperfusion regions were the right limbic lobe and basal ganglia regions, including the putamen, caudate, lentiform nucleus, and thalamus, and hypoperfusion was found in the left medial frontal lobe, parietal cortex, the right middle temporo-occipital lobe, and particularly, the left anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found decreased CBF in the bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortices and left limbic lobe in AD patients, relative to the control group. aMCI subjects showed decreased blood flow in the left occipital lobe, bilateral inferior temporal cortex, and right middle temporal cortex

  13. Gender versus brain size effects on subcortical gray matter volumes in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tianyu; Jiao, Yun; Wang, Xunheng; Lu, Zuhong

    2013-11-27

    Previous studies had reported that volume differences of gray matter (GM) in subcortical regions of the human brain were mainly caused by gender. Meanwhile, other studies had found that the distribution of GM in the human brain varied based on individual brain sizes. Main effects of volume differences of GM in subcortical regions remain unclear. Therefore, the goals of this study are twofold, namely, to determine the main effects of volume differences of GM in subcortical regions of the human brain and to investigate the independent or joint contribution of gender and brain size to subcortical volume differences. In this study, 40 male and 40 female subjects with comparable brain sizes were selected from a population of 198 individuals. The sample was divided into the following four groups: male and female groups with comparably large brain sizes and male and female groups with comparably small brain sizes. The main effects of gender and of brain size and interactions between both factors in subcortical GM volumes were examined by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) using a 2×2 design matrix. Volumes of GM in subcortical regions were extracted and measured by an automatic segmentation method. Furthermore, we used two datasets to test the reliability of our methods. In both datasets, we found significant brain size effects in the right amygdala and the bilateral caudate nucleus and significant gender effects in the bilateral putamen. No interactions between brain size and gender were found. In conclusion, both gender and brain size independently contributed to volume distribution in different subcortical areas of the human brain.

  14. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar MOMEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveApproximately 5–10% of preschool age children are considered developmentally disabled. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI plays a key role in the diagnostic evaluation in these children. Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance. We are going to present the first case in Iran from Ahvaz city, which was presented with status epilepticus associated with developmental delay and finally diagnosed as double cortex syndrome, because band heterotopia cases especially for continuous or generalized form is rare.A 4.5-year-old developmentally delayed girl was admitted for generalized tonic clonic seizure attack of 1 hr, upward gaze, locked mouth, and urinary incontinence (status epilepticus in the child neurology ward. She had a history of recurrent seizures that started as febrile seizures since she was 12 months of age and had frequent admissions for having recurrent seizure attacks. She was the only child of consanguineous parents with negative family history of any neurologic problems. She was a product of uneventful term pregnancy, vaginal delivery with a low Apgar score at birth who was admitted for six days in the neonatal ward for hypotonia and cyanosis. At 4.5 years of age, she had HC: 45cm (<3% Length: 102 cm (25–75%, and BW: 18kg (75%.She was able to sit, walk with support, speak a few words, and communicate with others. A physical exam was unremarkable. Lab data including CBC, blood biochemical, and urinalysis results were all within normal limits, but the electroencephalography (EEG revealed generalized poly spike-wave discharges. A brain MRI showed corpus callosal dysplasia, generalized band heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. She was discharged home with oral valproate and regular outpatient follow-ups.In the diagnostic evaluation of

  15. Subcortical volumes differentiate Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and remitted Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Livermore, Emily E; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Glover, Gary H; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-09-01

    Subcortical gray matter regions have been implicated in mood disorders, including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD). It is unclear, however, whether or how these regions differ among mood disorders and whether such abnormalities are state- or trait-like. In this study, we examined differences in subcortical gray matter volumes among euthymic BD, MDD, remitted MDD (RMD), and healthy (CTL) individuals. Using automated gray matter segmentation of T1-weighted MRI images, we estimated volumes of 16 major subcortical gray matter structures in 40 BD, 57 MDD, 35 RMD, and 61 CTL individuals. We used multivariate analysis of variance to examine group differences in these structures, and support vector machines (SVMs) to assess individual-by-individual classification. Analyses yielded significant group differences for caudate (p = 0.029) and ventral diencephalon (VD) volumes (p = 0.003). For the caudate, both the BD (p = 0.004) and the MDD (p = 0.037) participants had smaller volumes than did the CTL participants. For the VD, the MDD participants had larger volumes than did the BD and CTL participants (ps disorders are characterized by anomalies in subcortical gray matter volumes and that the caudate and VD contribute uniquely to differential affective pathology. Identifying abnormalities in subcortical gray matter may prove useful for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mood disorders.

  16. Cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Sørensen, O;

    1987-01-01

    , occurred in the low pressure ratio group, while the hemispheric asymmetry on average was unchanged in the high pressure ratio group. This relative hyperemia was most pronounced 2 to 4 days following reconstruction. The marked hyperemia, absolute as well as relative, in patients with a low ICA/CCA pressure...... ratio suggests a temporary impairment of autoregulation. Special care should be taken to avoid postoperative hypertension in such patients, who typically have preoperative hypoperfusion, to avoid the occurrence of cerebral edema or hemorrhage....

  17. Expanded functional coupling of subcortical nuclei with the motor resting-state network in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Siebner, Hartwig R; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) impairs signal transmission along cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections, affecting functional integration within the motor network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during motor tasks has revealed altered functional connectivity in MS...... subcortical nuclei but not at the cortical level. The anterior and middle parts of the putamen, adjacent globus pallidus, anterior and posterior thalamus and the subthalamic region showed stronger functional connectivity with the motor network in the MS group compared with controls. CONCLUSION: MS...... is characterised by more widespread motor connectivity in the basal ganglia while cortical motor resting-state connectivity is preserved. The expansion of subcortical motor resting-state connectivity in MS indicates less efficient funnelling of neural processing in the executive motor cortico-basal ganglia...

  18. Quantitative analysis of [{sup 18}F]FDDNP PET using subcortical white matter as reference region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Shao, Weber; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Liu, Jie; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wardak, Mirwais; Huang, Sung-Cheng [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Biomathematics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Small, Gary W. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, UCLA Center on Aging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mary S. Easton Center for Alzheimer' s Disease Research, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Subcortical white matter is known to be relatively unaffected by amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the use of subcortical white matter as a reference region to quantify [{sup 18}F]FDDNP binding in the human brain. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]FDDNP PET studies were performed on 7 control subjects and 12 AD patients. Population efflux rate constants (k{sup '}{sub 2}) from subcortical white matter (centrum semiovale) and cerebellar cortex were derived by a simplified reference tissue modeling approach incorporating physiological constraints. Regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) estimates were derived using Logan and simplified reference tissue approaches, with either subcortical white matter or cerebellum as reference input. Discriminant analysis with cross-validation was performed to classify control subjects and AD patients. The population estimates of k{sup '}{sub 2} in subcortical white matter did not differ significantly between control subjects and AD patients but the variability of individual estimates of k{sup '}{sub 2} determined in white matter was lower than that in cerebellum. Logan DVR showed dependence on the efflux rate constant in white matter. The DVR estimates in the frontal, parietal, posterior cingulate, and temporal cortices were significantly higher in the AD group (p<0.01). Incorporating all these regional DVR estimates as predictor variables in discriminant analysis yielded accurate classification of control subjects and AD patients with high sensitivity and specificity, and the results agreed well with those using the cerebellum as the reference region. Subcortical white matter can be used as a reference region for quantitative analysis of [{sup 18}F]FDDNP with the Logan method which allows more accurate and less biased binding estimates, but a population efflux rate constant has to be determined a priori. (orig.)

  19. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Paul Kirkpatrick; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-02-24

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings.

  20. Examining the subcortical infarcts in the era of acute multimodality CT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lacunar infarcts have been characterized as small subcortical infarcts, resulting from in situ microatheroma or lipohyalinosis in small vessels. Based on this hypothesis, such infarcts should not be associated with large areas of perfusion deficits extending beyond subcortical regions to involve cortical regions. By contrast, selected small subcortical infarcts, as defined by MR imaging in the subacute or chronic stage, may initially have large perfusion deficits or related large vessel occlusions. These infarcts with ‘lacunar’ phenotype may also be caused by disease in the parent vessel and may have very different stroke mechanisms from small vessel disease. Our aim was to describe differences in imaging characteristics between patients with small subcortical infarction with ‘lacunar phenotype’ from those with lacunar mechanism. Methods: Patients undergoing acute CT Perfusion/angiography (CTP/CTA within 6 hours of symptom onset and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for ischaemic stroke were included (2009-2013. A lacunar infarct was defined as a single subcortical infarct (SSI ≤20 mm on follow-up MRI. Presence of perfusion deficits, vessel occlusion and infarct dimensions were compared between lacunar infarcts and other topographical infarct types. Results: Overall, 182 patients (mean age 66.4±15.3 years, 66% male were included. SSI occurred in 31 (17% patients. Of these, 12 (39% patients had a perfusion deficit compared with those with any cortical infarction (120/142, 67%, and the smallest SSI with a perfusion deficit had a diameter of <5mm. The majority of patients with SSI (8/12, 66.7% had a relevant vessel occlusion. A quarter of SSIs had a large-artery stroke mechanism evident on acute CTP/CTA. Lacunar mechanism was present in 3/8 patients with corona radiata, 5/10 lentiform nucleus, 5/6 posterior limb of internal capsule PLIC, 3/5 thalamic infarcts and 1/2 miscellaneous locations. There was a trend toward

  1. Contribution of genes and unique environment to cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of subcortical volumes in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsman, Florian; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Kemner, Sanne M.; Schnack, Hugo G.; van der Schot, Astrid C.; Vonk, Ronald; Hillegers, Manon H. J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Nolen, Willem A.; Kahn, Rene S.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of genes and environment on the association between bipolar disorder (BD) and volumes of subcortical brain regions involved in emotion processing has rarely been studied. Furthermore, as far as we know, longitudinal twin studies of subcortical brain volume change in BD have not been ca

  2. Subcortical structures in humans can be facilitated by transcranial direct current stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, J.H.; Arrogi, A.; Munneke, M.A.M; Asseldonk, E.H. van; Nijhuis, L.B.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability. Interestingly, in recent animal studies facilitatory effects of tDCS have also been observed on subcortical structures. Here, we sought to provide evidence for the potential

  3. Subcortical structures in humans can be facilitated by transcranial direct current stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, Jorik; Arrogi, Anass; Munneke, Moniek; Asseldonk, van Edwin; Oude Nijhuis, Lars; Geurts, Alexander; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability via application of a weak direct current. Interestingly, it was demonstrated in cats that tDCS can facilitate subcortical structures as well (Bolzonii et al., J P

  4. Subcortical Structures in Humans Can Be Facilitated by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, J.H.; Arrogi, A.; Munneke, M.A.M.; Asseldonk, van E.H.F.; Oude Nijhuis, L.B.; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability. Interestingly, in recent animal studies facilitatory effects of tDCS have also been observed on subcortical structures. Here, we sought to provide evidence for the potential

  5. Aspects of Subcortical Ischaemic Vascular Disease : Early clinical manifestations and associations with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harten, van B.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD) is an important cause of cognitive impairment in elderly patients. Screening and diagnostic tests are needed to identify these patients. The HIV dementia scale (HDS) is a reliable and quantitative scale for identifying HIV dementia1. The cogniti

  6. CT findings and clinical analysis of subcortical hematomas in elderly patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Yasushi; Tanaka, Akira; Yoshinaga, Shinya; Kimura, Masato (Fukuoka Univ., Chikushino (Japan). Chikushi Hospital)

    1991-06-01

    Ten elderly patients (73-87 years, 78.4 years on the average) with subcortical hematomas were divided into two groups according to the shape of the hematoma on a CT scan: a lobulated group (6 patients) and a global group (4 patients). The lobulated group had a history of hypertension in one patient. The hematomas extended widely around the parietal lobe and were accompanied by perifocal edema, brain shifts and subarachnoid hemorrhages, deep consciousness disturbances, and poor prognosis of life and function. Amyloid depositions in the arteries around the hematomas were confirmed histologically in one patient. The global group had a history of hypertension in two patients. The hematomas were localized in the parietal, temporal, or occipital lobe without perifocal edema, brain shift and subarachnoid hemorrhages, and accompanied by mild consciousness disturbances. The life prognosis was good, but the functional prognosis was poor, with a subsequent development of dementia. A lobulated subcortical hematoma is thought to be due to amyloid angiopathy, while a global subcortical hematoma is thought to be due to hypertension. A surgical evacuation is seldom indicated for either type of subcortical hematoma in elderly patients. (author).

  7. Subcortical laminar heterotopia in two sisters and their mother : MRI, clinical findings and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, PHM; Snoeck, [No Value; Meiners, LC; des Portes, [No Value; Chelly, J; Pinard, JM; Ippel, PF; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    1999-01-01

    MR imaging, clinical data and underlying pathogenesis of subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH), also known as band heterotopia, in two sisters and their mother are presented. On MR imaging a different degree of SCLH was found in all three affected family-members. The inversion recovery sequence was

  8. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Flor, H.; Fouche, J.P.; Frouin, V.; Wolfers, T.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.

    2016-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymm

  9. Acute phencyclidine administration induces c-Fos-immunoreactivity in interneurons in cortical and subcortical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, Mona E.; Thomsen, Morten S; Kalló, Imre;

    2016-01-01

    ) field of hippocampus and mediodorsal thalamus (MD); (2) PV-IR cells in the ventrolateral orbitofrontal and retrosplenial cortices and CA1 field of hippocampus; and (3) CB-IR cells in the motor cortex. Overall, our data indicate that PCP activates a wide range of cortical and subcortical brain regions...

  10. Formulaic Language in Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: Complementary Effects of Subcortical and Cortical Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Choi, JiHee; Alken, Amy; Sidtis, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The production of formulaic expressions (conversational speech formulas, pause fillers, idioms, and other fixed expressions) is excessive in the left hemisphere and deficient in the right hemisphere and in subcortical stroke. Speakers with Alzheimer's disease (AD), having functional basal ganglia, reveal abnormally high proportions of…

  11. Extensive and interrelated subcortical white and gray matter alterations in preterm-born adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, C; Bäuml, J G; Daamen, M; Jaekel, J; Neitzel, J; Scheef, L; Busch, B; Baumann, N; Boecker, H; Zimmer, C; Bartmann, P; Wolke, D; Wohlschläger, A M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause for impaired neurocognitive development with an increased risk for persistent cognitive deficits in adulthood. In newborns, preterm birth is associated with interrelated white matter (WM) alterations and deep gray matter (GM) loss; however, little is known about the persistence and relevance of these subcortical brain changes. We tested the hypothesis that the pattern of correspondent subcortical WM and GM changes is present in preterm-born adults and has a brain-injury-like nature, i.e., it predicts lowered general cognitive performance. Eighty-five preterm-born and 69 matched term-born adults were assessed by diffusion- and T1-weighted MRI and cognitive testing. Main outcome measures were fractional anisotropy of water diffusion for WM property, GM volume for GM property, and full-scale IQ for cognitive performance. In preterm-born adults, reduced fractional anisotropy was widely distributed ranging from cerebellum to brainstem to hemispheres. GM volume was reduced in the thalamus, striatum, temporal cortices, and increased in the cingulate cortices. Fractional anisotropy reductions were specifically associated with GM loss in thalamus and striatum, with correlation patterns for both regions extensively overlapping in the WM of brainstem and hemispheres. For overlap regions, fractional anisotropy was positively related with both gestational age and full-scale IQ. Results provide evidence for extensive, interrelated, and adverse WM and GM subcortical changes in preterm-born adults. Data suggest persistent brain-injury-like changes of subcortical-cortical connectivity after preterm delivery.

  12. Disruptions in cortico-subcortical covariance networks associated with anxiety in new-onset childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Garcia-Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a prevalent psychiatric comorbidity in both adults and children with epilepsy for which the etiology remains controversial. Neurobiological contributions have been suggested, but only limited evidence suggests abnormal brain volumes particularly in children with epilepsy and anxiety. Since the brain develops in an organized fashion, covariance analyses between different brain regions can be investigated as a network and analyzed using graph theory methods. We examined 46 healthy children (HC and youth with recent onset idiopathic epilepsies with (n = 24 and without (n = 62 anxiety disorders. Graph theory (GT analyses based on the covariance between the volumes of 85 cortical/subcortical regions were investigated. Both groups with epilepsy demonstrated less inter-modular relationships in the synchronization of cortical/subcortical volumes compared to controls, with the epilepsy and anxiety group presenting the strongest modular organization. Frontal and occipital regions in non-anxious epilepsy, and areas throughout the brain in children with epilepsy and anxiety, showed the highest centrality compared to controls. Furthermore, most of the nodes correlating to amygdala volumes were subcortical structures, with the exception of the left insula and the right frontal pole, which presented high betweenness centrality (BC; therefore, their influence in the network is not necessarily local but potentially influencing other more distant regions. In conclusion, children with recent onset epilepsy and anxiety demonstrate large scale disruptions in cortical and subcortical brain regions. Network science may not only provide insight into the possible neurobiological correlates of important comorbidities of epilepsy, but also the ways that cortical and subcortical disruption occurs.

  13. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng; Zhang, Zhe; Chang, Feiyan; Wang, Yishi; Zhang, Zhenxia; Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  14. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xie

    Full Text Available Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  15. Asymmetries of Dark and Bright Negative Afterimages Are Paralleled by Subcortical ON and OFF Poststimulus Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Xu; Andolina, Ian M; Li, Xiaohong; Lu, Yiliang; Spillmann, Lothar; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-22

    Humans are more sensitive to luminance decrements than increments, as evidenced by lower thresholds and shorter latencies for dark stimuli. This asymmetry is consistent with results of neurophysiological recordings in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) of cat and monkey. Specifically, V1 population responses demonstrate that darks elicit higher levels of activation than brights, and the latency of OFF responses in dLGN and V1 is shorter than that of ON responses. The removal of a dark or bright disc often generates the perception of a negative afterimage, and here we ask whether there also exist asymmetries for negative afterimages elicited by dark and bright discs. If so, do the poststimulus responses of subcortical ON and OFF cells parallel such afterimage asymmetries? To test these hypotheses, we performed psychophysical experiments in humans and single-cell/S-potential recordings in cat dLGN. Psychophysically, we found that bright afterimages elicited by luminance decrements are stronger and last longer than dark afterimages elicited by luminance increments of equal sizes. Neurophysiologically, we found that ON cells responded to the removal of a dark disc with higher firing rates that were maintained for longer than OFF cells to the removal of a bright disc. The ON and OFF cell asymmetry was most pronounced at long stimulus durations in the dLGN. We conclude that subcortical response strength differences between ON and OFF channels parallel the asymmetries between bright and dark negative afterimages, further supporting a subcortical origin of bright and dark afterimage perception.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Afterimages are physiological aftereffects following stimulation of the eye, the study of which helps us to understand how our visual brain generates visual perception in the absence of physical stimuli. We report, for the first time to our knowledge, asymmetries between bright and dark negative afterimages elicited by

  16. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts in an adult: quantitative proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, K.; Hanefeld, F. [Dept. of Paediatrics and Neuropaediatrics, Children' s Hospital, Georg-August-Univ., Goettingen (Germany); Finsterbusch, J.; Frahm, J. [Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max-Planck-Inst. fuer biophysikalische Chemie, Goettingen (Germany); Terwey, B. [Inst. fuer Magnet-Resonanz-Diagnostik, Zentralkrankenhaus, Bremen (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    A 37-year-old macrocephalic woman was investigated for increasing gait disturbance due to longstanding spasticity and ataxia. MRI showed widespread bilateral increase in signal from cerebral white matter on T2-weighted images. Numerous subcortical cysts were visible in anterior-temporal and parietal regions. These clinical and neuroradiological features are those of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), a recently delineated white-matter disease with onset in childhood. Quantitative localised proton MR spectroscopy of white matter revealed marked reduction of N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and choline with normal values for myoinositol, consistent with axonal loss and astrocytic proliferation. Diffusion tensor imaging showed an increased apparent diffusion coefficient and reduced anisotropy in affected white matter pointing to reduced cell density with an increased extracellular space. These findings are in line with histological changes alterations known to occur in MLC. (orig.)

  17. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W; Nichols, Thomas E; Neale, Michael C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A; Turner, Jessica A; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thompson, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Medland, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural or functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders.

  18. Subcortical frontal lesions on MRI in patients with motor neurone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreadou, E.; Sgouropoulos, P.; Varelas, P.; Papageorgiou, C. [Eginition Hospital, Athens (Greece); Gouliamos, A. [Department of Radiology, CT/MRI Unit, Areteion Hospital, University of Athens (Greece)

    1998-05-01

    MRI was performed in 32 patients with motor neurone disease (26 men and 6 women, aged 40-77 years) and in a control group of 21 subjects. Of the patients studied, 19 had definite and 11 probable amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and two had progressive bulbar palsy. In 10 patients there were asymmetrical bilateral foci of increased signal intensity on proton-density and T{sub 2}-weighted images, confined to the white matter. Two patients had only cortical frontal atrophy and slightly increased ventricular size, whereas 20 had normal MRI. The focal lesions were not confined to corticospinal tracts, but were also observed in subcortical frontal areas. While the lesions along the corticospinal tracts correspond to pyramidal tract degeneration, the subcortical foci correlate with degeneration of the frontal bundles and indicate generalised involvement of the central nervous system. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  19. A Case of Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts in an Iranian Consanguineous Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Amoeian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by macrocephaly, and slowly progressive clinical course marked by ataxia, spasticity and mental decline. MLC is caused by mutations in the gene MLC1 which encodes a novel protein, MLC1. Conclusion:A 4-year-old girl with macrocephaly, spasticity, ataxia and abnormal cerebral white matter and subcortical cysts in brain MRI diagnosed with MLC. This is the first report of MLC in an Iranian family. Conclusion:MLC1 should be considered in children with macrocephaly and slowly progressive psychomotor decline. This disease can be prenatally diagnosed and genetic counseling offered for future pregnancies.

  20. "Venous congestion" as a cause of subcortical white matter T2 hypointensity on magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash Harsha Kamble

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical T2 hypointensity is an uncommon finding seen in very limited conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and meningitis. Some of the conditions such as moyamoya disease, severe ischemic-anoxic insults, early cortical ischemia, and infarcts are of "arterial origin." We describe two conditions in which "venous congestion" plays a major role in T2 hypointensity - cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST and dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF. The third case is a case of meningitis, showing T2 hypointensity as well, and can be explained by the "venous congestion" hypothesis. The same hypothesis can explain few of the other conditions causing subcortical T2 hypointensity.

  1. Gerstmann meets Geschwind: a crossing (or kissing) variant of a subcortical disconnection syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Andreas; Rusconi, Elena

    2011-12-01

    That disconnection causes clinical symptoms is a very influential concept in behavioral neurology. Criteria for subcortical disconnection usually are symptoms that are distinct from those following cortical lesions and damage to a single, long-range fiber tract. Yet, a recent study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and fiber tracking concluded that a focal lesion in left parietal white matter provides the only tenable explanation for pure Gerstmann's syndrome, an enigmatic tetrad of acalculia, agraphia, finger agnosia, and left-right disorientation. Such a lesion would affect not only a single fiber tract but crossing or "kissing" of different fiber tracts and hence disconnect separate cortical networks. As fiber crossing is prominent in the cerebral white matter, the authors propose an extension to the subcortical disconnection framework that opens the door to ascribing a more diversified clinical phenomenology to white matter damage and ensuing disconnection than has been the case so far.

  2. Frontal-Subcortical Protein Expression following Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Michelle Y.; Sylvia Lam; Urs Meyer; Joram Feldon; Qi Li; Ran Wei; Lawrence Luk; Siew Eng Chua; Pak Sham; Yu Wang; Grainne Mary McAlonan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal immune activation (MIA) during prenatal life is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Such conditions are associated with alterations in fronto-subcortical circuits, but their molecular basis is far from clear. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry, with targeted western blot analyses for confirmation, we investigated the impact of MIA on the pr...

  3. Right Frontoinsular Cortex and Subcortical Activity to Infant Cry Is Associated with Maternal Mental State Talk

    OpenAIRE

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Guo, Chaohui; Mary L. Phillips; Swain, James E.; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to examine neural correlates of a specific component of human caregiving: maternal mental state talk, reflecting a mother's proclivity to attribute mental states and intentionality to her infant. Using a potent, ecologically relevant stimulus of infant cry during fMRI, we tested hypotheses that postpartum neural response to the cry of “own” versus a standard “other” infant in the right frontoinsular cortex (RFIC) and subcortical limbic network would be associated with ...

  4. Subcortical substrates of TMS induced modulation of the cortico-cortical connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppa, Sergiu; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Otto, Birte

    2013-01-01

    of oscillatory interaction between corresponding central regions of both hemispheres in the alpha band. The contralateral thalamus, transcallosal fibres and the contralateral thalamocortical pathways may constitute critical brain structures mediating the TMS induced change in oscillatory coupling.......BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can modulate transiently the physiological brain oscillations, e.g. the alpha rhythm. It has been hypothesized that this effect is not limited to the stimulated region but involves subcortical and distant cortical areas. METHODS: We applied single...

  5. Hearing it again and again: on-line subcortical plasticity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Skoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human brainstem activity is sensitive to local sound statistics, as reflected in an enhanced response in repetitive compared to pseudo-random stimulus conditions [1]. Here we probed the short-term time course of this enhancement using a paradigm that assessed how the local sound statistics (i.e., repetition within a five-note melody interact with more global statistics (i.e., repetition of the melody. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that subcortical repetition enhancement builds over time, we recorded auditory brainstem responses in young adults to a five-note melody containing a repeated note, and monitored how the response changed over the course of 1.5 hrs. By comparing response amplitudes over time, we found a robust time-dependent enhancement to the locally repeating note that was superimposed on a weaker enhancement of the globally repeating pattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first demonstration of on-line subcortical plasticity in humans. This complements previous findings that experience-dependent subcortical plasticity can occur on a number of time scales, including life-long experiences with music and language, and short-term auditory training. Our results suggest that the incoming stimulus stream is constantly being monitored, even when the stimulus is physically invariant and attention is directed elsewhere, to augment the neural response to the most statistically salient features of the ongoing stimulus stream. These real-time transformations, which may subserve humans' strong disposition for grouping auditory objects, likely reflect a mix of local processes and corticofugal modulation arising from statistical regularities and the influences of expectation. Our results contribute to our understanding of the biological basis of statistical learning and initiate a new investigational approach relating to the time-course of subcortical plasticity. Although the reported time

  6. Disturbances in the positioning, proliferation, and apoptosis of neural progenitors contribute to subcortical band heterotopia formation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cortical malformations are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy and other developmental disorders. Our studies utilize the tish rat, a spontaneously occurring genetic model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) associated with epilepsy, to evaluate the developmental events underlying SBH formation in the neocortex. Our results demonstrate that Pax6+ and Tbr2+ progenitors are mislocalized in tish+/− and tish−/− neocortex throughout neurogenesis. In addition, mislocalized tish−/− proge...

  7. [The importance of the cortex and subcortical structures of the brain in the perception of acute and chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschetniak, V K; Kukushkin, M L; Gurko, N S

    2014-01-01

    This review presents the current data in the literature about the importance of the cortex and subcortical structures of the brain in the perception of acute and chronic pain. Discussed the importance of various areas of the brain in perception discriminative and affective components of pain. Discusses also gender differences in pain perception depending on the functional activity of brain cortex and antinociceptive subcortical structures. Analyzed the morphological changes of cortical and subcortical structures of the brain in chronic pain syndromes. It is proved that the decrease in the volume of gray and white matter of cerebral cortex and subcortical structures is a consequence and not the cause of chronic pain syndrome. Discusses the features activate and deactivate certain areas of the cortex of the brain in acute and chronic pain. Analyzed same features the activation of several brain structures in migraine and cluster headache.

  8. Relationship between psychiatric status and frontal–subcortical systems in HIV-infected individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLE, MICHAEL A.; CASTELLON, STEVEN A.; PERKINS, ADAM C.; URENO, OSCAR S.; ROBINET, MARTA B.; REINHARD, MATTHEW J.; BARCLAY, TERRY R.; HINKIN, CHARLES H.

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults frequently evidence both neurocognitive and psychiatric dysfunction. It was hypothesized that apathy and irritability, but not anxiety and depression, are related to HIV effects on frontal–subcortical systems. This hypothesis was evaluated by determining the degree to which these psychiatric features are associated with neurocognitive functioning that is dependent upon frontal–subcortical circuitry and, therefore, thought to be sensitive to the central nervous system effects of HIV. Rating scales assessing irritability, apathy, depression, and anxiety and a dual-task paradigm were administered to 189 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 53 HIV-seronegative participants. Deficits in dual-task performance and greater anxiety, depression, apathy, and irritability were observed in HIV+ participants. Simultaneous multivariate regression and communality analyses revealed that only apathy and irritability were associated with dual-task performance in HIV+ participants. Thus, these findings suggest that apathy and irritability, but not depression and anxiety, are likely associated with the effects of HIV on frontal–subcortical circuitry. PMID:17445305

  9. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  10. Heritability of the shape of subcortical brain structures in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchupkin, Gennady V.; Gutman, Boris A.; Vernooij, Meike W.; Jahanshad, Neda; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hofman, Albert; McMahon, Katie L.; van der Lee, Sven J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Adams, Hieab H. H.

    2016-01-01

    The volumes of subcortical brain structures are highly heritable, but genetic underpinnings of their shape remain relatively obscure. Here we determine the relative contribution of genetic factors to individual variation in the shape of seven bilateral subcortical structures: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus. In 3,686 unrelated individuals aged between 45 and 98 years, brain magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping was performed. The maximal heritability of shape varies from 32.7 to 53.3% across the subcortical structures. Genetic contributions to shape extend beyond influences on intracranial volume and the gross volume of the respective structure. The regional variance in heritability was related to the reliability of the measurements, but could not be accounted for by technical factors only. These findings could be replicated in an independent sample of 1,040 twins. Differences in genetic contributions within a single region reveal the value of refined brain maps to appreciate the genetic complexity of brain structures. PMID:27976715

  11. Neural Correlates of Indicators of Sound Change in Cantonese: Evidence from Cortical and Subcortical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggu, Akshay R.; Liu, Fang; Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Across time, languages undergo changes in phonetic, syntactic, and semantic dimensions. Social, cognitive, and cultural factors contribute to sound change, a phenomenon in which the phonetics of a language undergo changes over time. Individuals who misperceive and produce speech in a slightly divergent manner (called innovators) contribute to variability in the society, eventually leading to sound change. However, the cause of variability in these individuals is still unknown. In this study, we examined whether such misperceptions are represented in neural processes of the auditory system. We investigated behavioral, subcortical (via FFR), and cortical (via P300) manifestations of sound change processing in Cantonese, a Chinese language in which several lexical tones are merging. Across the merging categories, we observed a similar gradation of speech perception abilities in both behavior and the brain (subcortical and cortical processes). Further, we also found that behavioral evidence of tone merging correlated with subjects' encoding at the subcortical and cortical levels. These findings indicate that tone-merger categories, that are indicators of sound change in Cantonese, are represented neurophysiologically with high fidelity. Using our results, we speculate that innovators encode speech in a slightly deviant neurophysiological manner, and thus produce speech divergently that eventually spreads across the community and contributes to sound change. PMID:28066218

  12. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Temporo-spacial correlations between cortical and subcortical EEG spike-wave complexes of the Idiopathic Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, M; Velasco, F; Velasco, A L

    1997-01-01

    All-night EEG recordings of the interictal 2/s spike-wave complexes (SKW) from different cortical and subcortical regions were performed in 5 patients with atypical absences of the Idiopathic Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (ILGS), in whom multicontact depth electrodes were implanted in the centromedian thalamic region as a part of a neuroaugmentive procedure for seizure control. Since during slow wave sleep III cortical spike (S2) and subcortical negative spike (NSK) consisting of simple monophasic negative potentials appeared together with a ratio of almost 1:1 and with fixed temporal relations, it was possible to determine visually the differences in peak-to-peak intervals of S2 and NSK, as well as their amplitude distribution in different cortical and subcortical structures. It was found that the peak of subcortical NSK preceded by 35 ms that of cortical S2. In addition, subcortical NSK and cortical S2 potentials attained maximal amplitude at the mesencephalic-thalamic reticular and frontal cortical regions, respectively, from which amplitude of NSK and S2 decreased with distance to other subcortical and cortical regions. These data suggest that interictal 2/s SKW of the ILGS result from ascending reticular impulses impinging upon the frontal cortical neurons.

  14. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes.

  15. Species characterization and responses of subcortical insects to trap-logs and ethanol in a hardwood biomass plantation: Subcortical insects in hardwood plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.; Brissey, Courtney L. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.; Gandhi, Kamal J. K. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.

    2015-01-02

    1. We characterized subcortical insect assemblages in economically important eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeastern U.S.A. Furthermore, we compared insect responses between freshly-cut plant material by placing traps directly over cut hardwood logs (trap-logs), traps baited with ethanol lures and unbaited (control) traps. 2. We captured a total of 15 506 insects representing 127 species in four families in 2011 and 2013. Approximately 9% and 62% of total species and individuals, respectively, and 23% and 79% of total Scolytinae species and individuals, respectively, were non-native to North America. 3. We captured more Scolytinae using cottonwood trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although this was the case with sycamore and sweetgum only in 2013. More woodborers were captured using cottonwood and sweetgum trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although only with sycamore in 2013. 4. Ethanol was an effective lure for capturing non-native Scolytinae; however, not all non-native species were captured using ethanol lures. Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff) and Hypothenemus crudiae (Panzer) were captured with both trap-logs and control traps, whereas Coccotrypes distinctus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff were only captured on trap-logs. 5. Indicator species analysis revealed that certain scolytines [e.g. Cnestus mutilates (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)] showed significant associations with trap-logs or ethanol baits in poplar or sweetgum trap-logs. In general, the species composition of subcortical insects, especially woodboring insects, was distinct among the three tree species and between those associated with trap-logs and control traps.

  16. Apraxia for differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from subcortical vascular dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Serhat Ozkan,1 Demet Ozbabalik Adapinar,1 Nese Tuncer Elmaci,2 Didem Arslantas31Department of Neurology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, Turkey; 2Department of Neurology, Marmara University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Public Health, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, TurkeyAbstract: Although ideomotor limb apraxia is considered to be a typical sign of cortical pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, it has been also reported in subcortical neurodegenerative diseases and vascular lesions. We aimed to investigate the difference between AD, subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients by means of ideomotor limb apraxia frequency and severity. Ninety-six AD, 72 SVaD, and 84 MCI patients were assessed with the mini-mental status examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating (CDR and the apraxia screening test of TULIA (AST. Apraxia was significantly more frequent in the AD patients (32.3% than in both of the SVaD (16.7% and MCI (4.8% patients. The frequency of apraxia was also significantly higher in SVaD patients than in MCI patients. AD patients had significantly lower apraxia scores than both SVaD and MCI patients. In addition, a significant difference was found between SVaD and MCI patients in terms of apraxia scores. These results suggest that the widespread belief of the association between apraxia and cortical dementias is not exactly correct. The significant difference between both of the dementia groups and the MCI patients suggests that the absence of apraxia can be an indicator for MCI diagnosis.Keywords: apraxia, Alzheimer’s disease, subcortical vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment

  17. Subcortical Shape Changes, Hippocampal Atrophy and Cortical Thinning in Future Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälin, Andrea M.; Park, Min T. M.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Lerch, Jason P.; Michels, Lars; Schroeder, Clemens; Broicher, Sarah D.; Kollias, Spyros; Nitsch, Roger M.; Gietl, Anton F.; Unschuld, Paul G.; Hock, Christoph; Leh, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Efficacy of future treatments depends on biomarkers identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment at highest risk for transitioning to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we applied recently developed analysis techniques to investigate cross-sectional differences in subcortical shape and volume alterations in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 23, age range 59–82, 47.8% female), future converters at baseline (n = 10, age range 66–84, 90% female) and at time of conversion (age range 68–87) compared to group-wise age and gender matched healthy control subjects (n = 23, age range 61–81, 47.8% female; n = 10, age range 66–82, 80% female; n = 10, age range 68–82, 70% female). Additionally, we studied cortical thinning and global and local measures of hippocampal atrophy as known key imaging markers for Alzheimer's disease. Apart from bilateral striatal volume reductions, no morphometric alterations were found in cognitively stable patients. In contrast, we identified shape alterations in striatal and thalamic regions in future converters at baseline and at time of conversion. These shape alterations were paralleled by Alzheimer's disease like patterns of left hemispheric morphometric changes (cortical thinning in medial temporal regions, hippocampal total and subfield atrophy) in future converters at baseline with progression to similar right hemispheric alterations at time of conversion. Additionally, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that subcortical shape alterations may outperform hippocampal volume in identifying future converters at baseline. These results further confirm the key role of early cortical thinning and hippocampal atrophy in the early detection of Alzheimer's disease. But first and foremost, and by distinguishing future converters but not patients with stable cognitive abilities from cognitively normal subjects, our results support the value of early subcortical shape alterations and reduced

  18. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

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    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  19. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume) in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD) controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both) morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and complex

  20. Marchiafava-Bignami disease: magnetic resonance imaging findings in corpus callosum and subcortical white matter

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    Kawarabuki, Kentaro E-mail: bukky@h2.dion.ne.jp; Sakakibara, Takehiko; Hirai, Makoto; Yoshioka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yasumasa; Yamaki, Tarumi

    2003-11-01

    A case of Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is presented using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A patient with a long history of alcoholism developed a gait disturbance with involuntary movements at the lower extremities. MRI scans taken at the onset showed no particular abnormalities. He progressed to a coma 10 days later. MRI scans taken 20 days after the onset showed a focal lesion at the genu of the corpus callosum and he was diagnosed as having MBD. In addition, multiple lesions were observed in bilateral frontoparietal subcortical white matter. These lesions demonstrated similar intense MRI signals as the corpus callosum.

  1. Subcortical neural representation to Mandarin pitch contours in American and Chinese newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Lin, Chia-Der; Wang, Tang-Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Voice pitch carries important information for speech understanding. This study examines the neural representation of voice pitch at the subcortical level, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following responses from ten American and ten Chinese newborns. By utilizing a set of four distinctive Mandarin pitch contours that mimic the English vowel /yi/, the results indicate that the rising and dipping pitch contours produce significantly better tracking accuracy and larger response amplitudes than the falling pitch contour. This finding suggests a hierarchy of potential stimuli when testing neonates who are born in a tonal or non-tonal linguistic environment.

  2. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts in all three siblings of a non-Aggarwal Indian family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Kant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC is a rare neurodegenerative disease seen mainly in the Aggarwal community in India. It is characterized by early-onset macrocephaly with mild motor developmental delay, gradual onset ataxia, spasticity, seizures and usually late onset mild cognitive deterioration. Very few familial cases of MLC have been reported in the world literature, and to the best of our knowledge, there is no published study of all three siblings affected with MLC in a same family. Here, we are reporting three siblings belonging to a non-Aggarwal Hindu family, affected with MLC, who presented with early-onset macrocephaly and gradual onset ataxia.

  3. A Voxel-based Morphometric Analysis of Cerebral Gray Matter in Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Dementia Patients and Normal Aged Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Li, Hanjian Du, Jian Zheng, Jian Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study was designed to detect the abnormalities of the cerebral grey-matter density in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia patients by FSL-VBM method to promote the early diagnosis of it.METHODS: Nine subcortical ischemic vascular dementia patients and nine age-matched normal controls underwent MRI brain structure scanning that was performed on a SIEMENS AVANTO 1.5 Tesla scanner and standard T1-weighted high-resolution anatomic scans of MPRAGE sequence were obtained. The 3-demensional MPRAGE images were processed with FSL-VBM package and the cerebral gray matter density was compared between the subcortical ischemic vascular dementia patients and normal controls.RESULTS: Compared with the normal control group, the cerebral gray matter density of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia patients was found significantly decreasing, including brain regions of thalamus, parietal lobe, frontal lobe and temporal lobe (P<0.05.CONCLUSIONS: The cerebral gray matter density alterations have closed correlation with cognitive dysfunction in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia patient and can be detected by MRI. MRI has some potential value in the diagnosis of them.

  4. Reliability and statistical power analysis of cortical and subcortical FreeSurfer metrics in a large sample of healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Franziskus; Mérillat, Susan; Bezzola, Ladina; Hirsiger, Sarah; Philipp, Michel; Madhyastha, Tara; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    FreeSurfer is a tool to quantify cortical and subcortical brain anatomy automatically and noninvasively. Previous studies have reported reliability and statistical power analyses in relatively small samples or only selected one aspect of brain anatomy. Here, we investigated reliability and statistical power of cortical thickness, surface area, volume, and the volume of subcortical structures in a large sample (N=189) of healthy elderly subjects (64+ years). Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) of cortical and subcortical parameters is generally high (cortical: ICCs>0.87, subcortical: ICCs>0.95). Surface-based smoothing increases reliability of cortical thickness maps, while it decreases reliability of cortical surface area and volume. Nevertheless, statistical power of all measures benefits from smoothing. When aiming to detect a 10% difference between groups, the number of subjects required to test effects with sufficient power over the entire cortex varies between cortical measures (cortical thickness: N=39, surface area: N=21, volume: N=81; 10mm smoothing, power=0.8, α=0.05). For subcortical regions this number is between 16 and 76 subjects, depending on the region. We also demonstrate the advantage of within-subject designs over between-subject designs. Furthermore, we publicly provide a tool that allows researchers to perform a priori power analysis and sensitivity analysis to help evaluate previously published studies and to design future studies with sufficient statistical power.

  5. Modulation of Cortical-subcortical Networks in Parkinson’s Disease by Applied Field Effects

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    Christopher William Hess

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that endogenous field effects may play a role in neuronal oscillations and communication. Non-invasive transcranial electrical stimulation with low-intensity currents can also have direct effects on the underlying cortex as well as distant network effects. While Parkinson's disease (PD is amenable to invasive neuromodulation in the basal ganglia by deep brain stimulation, techniques of non-invasive neuromodulation like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS are being investigated as possible therapies. tDCS and tACS have the potential to influence the abnormal cortical-subcortical network activity that occurs in PD through sub-threshold changes in cortical excitability or through entrainment or disruption of ongoing rhythmic cortical activity. This may allow for the targeting of specific features of the disease involving abnormal oscillatory activity, as well as the enhancement of potential cortical compensation for basal ganglia dysfunction and modulation of cortical plasticity in neurorehabilitation. However, little is currently known about how cortical stimulation will affect subcortical structures, the size of any effect, and the factors of stimulation that will influence these effects.

  6. Global Developmental Delay in a Mexican Patient With Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy With Subcortical Cysts

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    Cesar Misael Cerecedo Zapata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC is a neurologic disorder characterized by macrocephaly within the first year of life and the delayed onset of motor function deterioration with ataxia and spasticity. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is diagnostic and shows diffusely abnormal, mildly swollen cerebral white matter and subcortical cysts. MLC exhibits an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Two genes have been associated with MLC. The first and most important gene is MLC1, The other gene involved is HEPACAM. Case Presentation: We studied a Mexican patient with a compatible diagnosis of MLC. The patient exhibited the c.353C > T, p.Thr118Met mutation, and both parents were carriers for the same mutation. To the best of our knowledge, no other cases of MLC have been reported in Mexican patient. This patient exhibited rapid deterioration of motor function. Conclusions: A diagnosis of MLC, which can be facilitated by imaging studies, should be considered in all patients who exhibit global developmental delay.

  7. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine inhibit social play behavior through prefrontal and subcortical limbic mechanisms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2015-01-07

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed to identify the neural substrates of the play-suppressant effects of these drugs. Methylphenidate is thought to exert its effects on cognition and emotion through limbic corticostriatal systems. Therefore, methylphenidate was infused into prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical regions as well as into several subcortical limbic areas implicated in social play. Infusion of methylphenidate into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, and habenula inhibited social play, but not social exploratory behavior or locomotor activity. Consistent with a noradrenergic mechanism of action of methylphenidate, infusion of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine into these same regions also reduced social play. Methylphenidate administration into the prelimbic, medial/ventral orbitofrontal, and ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, or nucleus accumbens shell was ineffective. Our data show that the inhibitory effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on social play are mediated through a distributed network of prefrontal and limbic subcortical regions implicated in cognitive control and emotional processes. These findings increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of this developmentally important social behavior, as well as the mechanism of action of two widely used treatments for ADHD.

  8. Association between genetic risk scoring for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with regional subcortical volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseras, X; Tansey, K E; Foley, S; Linden, D

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown coincident abnormal regional brain volume in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) compared with controls. Whether these abnormalities are genetically driven or explained by secondary effects of the disorder or environmental factors is unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between genetic risk scoring (GRS) for SCZ and BD with volume of brain areas previously shown to be different between these clinical groups and healthy controls. We obtained subcortical brain volume measures and GRS for SCZ and BD from a sample of 274 healthy volunteers (71.4% females, mean age 24.7 (s.d. 6.9)). Volume of the globus pallidus was associated with the shared GRS between SCZ and BD, and also with the independent GRS for each of these disorders. Volume of the amygdala was associated with the non-shared GRS between SCZ and BD, and with the independent GRS for BD. Our results for volume of the globus pallidus support the idea of SCZ and BD sharing a common underlying neurobiological abnormality associated with a common genetic risk for both these disorders. Results for volume of the amygdala, though, would suggest the existence of a distinct mechanism only associated with genetic risk for BD. Finally, the lack of association between genetic risk and volume of most subcortical structures suggests that the volumetric differences reported in patient–control comparisons may not be genetically driven, but a consequence of the disorder or co-occurring environmental factors. PMID:26645627

  9. Intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications: cortical erosions, subcortical migration and extensive intramedullary diffusion, a SIMS series

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    Malghem, Jacques; Omoumi, Patrick; Lecouvet, Frederic; Berg, Bruno vande [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de radiologie et d' imagerie medicale, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    Calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a common disorder, which sometimes causes acute pain as calcifications dissolve and migrate into adjacent soft tissue. Intraosseous calcium penetration has also been described. We illustrate the appearance of these lesions using a series of 35 cases compiled by members of the French Society of Musculoskeletal Imaging (Societe d'Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, SIMS). The first group in our series (7 cases) involved calcification-related cortical erosions of the humeral and femoral diaphyses, in particular at the pectoralis major and gluteus maximus insertions. A second group (28 cases) involved the presence of calcium material in subcortical areas. The most common site was the greater tubercle of the humerus, accompanying a calcifying tendinopathy of the supraspinatus. In addition, an extensive intramedullary diffusion of calcium deposits was observed in four of these cases, associated with cortical erosion in one case and subcortical lesions in three cases. Cortical erosions and intraosseous migration of calcifications associated with calcific tendinitis may be confused with neoplasm or infection. It is important to recognize atypical presentations of hydroxyapatite deposition to avoid unnecessary investigation or surgery. (orig.)

  10. Longitudinal development of cortical and subcortical gray matter from birth to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John H; Shi, Feng; Woolson, Sandra L; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Short, Sarah J; Lin, Weili; Zhu, Hongtu; Hamer, Robert M; Styner, Martin; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-11-01

    Very little is known about cortical development in the first years of life, a time of rapid cognitive development and risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. We studied regional cortical and subcortical gray matter volume growth in a group of 72 children who underwent magnetic resonance scanning after birth and at ages 1 and 2 years using a novel longitudinal registration/parcellation approach. Overall, cortical gray matter volumes increased substantially (106%) in the first year of life and less so in the second year (18%). We found marked regional differences in developmental rates, with primary motor and sensory cortices growing slower in the first year of life with association cortices growing more rapidly. In the second year of life, primary sensory regions continued to grow more slowly, while frontal and parietal regions developed relatively more quickly. The hippocampus grew less than other subcortical structures such as the amygdala and thalamus in the first year of life. It is likely that these patterns of regional gray matter growth reflect maturation and development of underlying function, as they are consistent with cognitive and functional development in the first years of life.

  11. Minimally Invasive Subcortical Parafascicular Transsulcal Access for Clot Evacuation (Mi SPACE for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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    Benjamin Ritsma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is common and causes significant mortality and morbidity. To date, optimal medical and surgical intervention remains uncertain. A lack of definitive benefit for operative management may be attributable to adverse surgical effect, collateral tissue injury. This is particularly relevant for ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS offers the potential advantage of reduced collateral damage. MIS utilizing a parafascicular approach has demonstrated such benefit for intracranial tumor resection. Methods. We present a case of dominant hemisphere spontaneous ICH evacuated via the minimally invasive subcortical parafascicular transsulcal access clot evacuation (Mi SPACE model. We use this report to introduce Mi SPACE and to examine the application of this novel MIS paradigm. Case Presentation. The featured patient presented with a left temporal ICH and severe global aphasia. The hematoma was evacuated via the Mi SPACE approach. Postoperative reassessments showed significant improvement. At two months, bedside language testing was normal. MRI tractography confirmed limited collateral injury. Conclusions. This case illustrates successful application of the Mi SPACE model to ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex and subcortical regions. MRI tractography illustrates collateral tissue preservation. Safety and feasibility studies are required to further assess this promising new therapeutic paradigm.

  12. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M; Paschall, Courtnie J; Banich, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  13. Sources of subcortical projections to the superior colliculus in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S B; Ginsburgh, C L; Henkel, C K; Stein, B E

    1979-03-15

    A comprehensive search for subcortical projections to the cat superior colliculus was conducted using the retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method. Over 40 different subcortical structures project to the superior colliculus. The more notable among these are grouped under the following categories. Visual structures: ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, pretectal area (nucleus of the optic tract, posterior pretectal nucleus, nuclei of the posterior commissure). Auditory structures: inferior colliculus (external and pericentral nuclei), dorsomedial periolivary nucleus, nuclei of the trapezoid body, ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Somatosensory structures: sensory trigeminal complex (all divisions, but mainly the gamma division of nucleus oralis), dorsal column nuclei (mostly cuneate nucleus), and the lateral cervical nucleus. Catecholamine nuclei: locus coeruleus, raphe dorsalis, and the parabrachial nuclei. Cerebellum: medial, interposed, and lateral nuclei, and the perihypoglossal nuclei. Reticular areas: zona incerta, substantia nigra, midbrain tegmentum, nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis, and the hypothalamus. Evidence is presented that only the parabigeminal nucleus, the nucleus of the optic tract, and the posterior pretectal nucleus project to the superficial collicular layers (striatum griseum superficiale and stratum opticum), while all other afferents terminate in the deeper layers of the colliculus. Also presented is information concerning the rostrocaudal distribution of some of these afferent connections. These findings stress the multiplicity and diversity of inputs to the deeper collicular layers, and more specifically, identify multiple sources of the physiologically well-known representations of the somatic and auditory modalities in the colliculus.

  14. Avoiding unseen obstacles: Subcortical vision is not sufficient to maintain normal obstacle avoidance behaviour during reaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alasdair I; Schenk, Thomas; Billino, Jutta; Macleod, Mary J; Hesse, Constanze

    2016-10-03

    Previous research found that a patient with cortical blindness (homonymous hemianopia) was able to successfully avoid an obstacle placed in his blind field, despite reporting no conscious awareness of it [Striemer, C. L., Chapman, C. S., & Goodale, M. A., 2009, PNAS, 106(37), 15996-16001]. This finding led to the suggestion that dorsal stream areas, that are assumed to mediate obstacle avoidance behaviour, may obtain their visual input primarily from subcortical pathways. Hence, it was suggested that normal obstacle avoidance behaviour can proceed without input from the primary visual cortex. Here we tried to replicate this finding in a group of patients (N = 6) that suffered from highly circumscribed lesions in the occipital lobe (including V1) that spared the subcortical structures that have been associated with action-blindsight. We also tested if obstacle avoidance behaviour differs depending on whether obstacles are placed only in the blind field or in both the blind and intact visual field of the patients simultaneously. As expected, all patients successfully avoided obstacles placed in their intact visual field. However, none of them showed reliable avoidance behaviour - as indicated by adjustments in the hand trajectory in response to obstacle position - for obstacles placed in their blind visual field. The effects were not dependent on whether one or two obstacles were present. These findings suggest that behaviour in complex visuomotor tasks relies on visual input from occipital areas.

  15. [Preoperative direct cortical and sub-cortical electric stimulation during cerebral surgery in functional areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, H; Capelle, L; Sichez, J P; Bitar, A; Faillot, T; Arthuis, F; Van Effenterre, R; Fohanno, D

    1999-09-01

    Indications of surgical treatment for lesions in functional cerebral areas depend on the ratio between the definitive neurological deficit and the beneficial effect of resection. Detection of eloquent cortex is difficult because of important individual variability. Peroperative direct cortical and subcortical electrical stimulations (DCS) provide the most precise and reliable method currently available allowing identification and preservation of neurons essential for motricity, sensitivity++ and language. We report our preliminary experience with DCS in surgery of intracerebral infiltrative tumors with a consecutive series of 15 patients operated from November 96 through September 97 in our institution. Presenting symptoms in the 15 patients (8 males, 7 females, mean age 43 years) were seizures in 11 cases (73%) and neurological deficit in 4 cases (27%). Clinical examination was normal in 11 patients and revealed hemiparesia in 4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-dimensional reconstruction showed a precentral tumor in 10 cases, central lesion in one patient, postcentral lesion in two cases, right insular tumor (non-dominant hemisphere) in one case. All patients underwent surgical resection using DCS with detection in 13 cases of motor cortex and subcortical pathways under genera anesthesia, in one case of somatosensory area under local anesthesia, and in one case of language areas also under local anesthesia. The tumor was recurrent in two patients had been operated earlier but without DCS. Resection, verified by postoperative MRI, was total in 12 cases (80%) and estimated at 80% in 3 patients. Histological examination revealed an infiltrative glioma in 12 cases (8 low grade astrocytomas, 3 low grade oligodendrogliomas, and one anaplastic oligodendroglioma), and metastases in 3 cases. Eight patients had no postoperative deficit, while the other 7 patients were impaired, with, in all cases except one, complete recovery in 15 days to 2 months. Direct

  16. Imaging characteristics of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Dragan; Aracki-Trenkic, Aleksandra; Vojinovic, Slobodan; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela; Tasic, Aleksandar; Vujnovic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Diagnosis and follow-up in patients with CADASIL are based mainly on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI shows white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). WMHs lesions tend to be symmetrical and bilateral, distributed in the periventricular and deep white matter. The anterior temporal lobe and external capsules are predilection sites for WMHs, with higher specificity and sensitivity of anterior temporal lobe involvement compared to an external capsule involvement. Lacunar infarcts are presented by an imaging signal that has intensity of cerebrospinal fluid in all MRI sequences. They are localized within the semioval center, thalamus, basal ganglia and pons. CMBs are depicted as focal areas of signal loss on T2 images which increases in size on the T2*-weighted gradient echo planar images (“blooming effect”). PMID:25725137

  17. STED nanoscopy reveals the ubiquity of subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity in living neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Göttfert, Fabian; El-Hady, Ahmed; Hell, Stefan W

    2015-03-03

    In the axons of cultured hippocampal neurons, actin forms various structures, including bundles, patches (involved in the preservation of neuronal polarity), and a recently reported periodic ring-like structure. Nevertheless, the overlaying organization of actin in neurons and in the axon initial segment (AIS) is still unclear, due mainly to a lack of adequate imaging methods. By harnessing live-cell stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy and the fluorescent probe SiR-Actin, we show that the periodic subcortical actin structure is in fact present in both axons and dendrites. The periodic cytoskeleton organization is also found in the peripheral nervous system, specifically at the nodes of Ranvier. The actin patches in the AIS co-localize with pre-synaptic markers. Cytosolic actin organization strongly depends on the developmental stage and subcellular localization. Altogether, the results of this study reveal unique neuronal cytoskeletal features.

  18. A hypothetical mechanism for DVD: unbalanced cortical input to subcortical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Tusscher, Marcel P M; van Rijn, Rene J

    2010-09-01

    Dissociated vertical divergence (DVD) is commonly encountered in the infantile strabismus syndrome. The movement is said to be dissociated since alignment differs between right and left eye fixation. It has been hypothesized that DVD is caused by a primitive reflex present in fish. Visual pathways in the fish brain indeed are dissociated with complete crossing at the optic chiasm and projection to the superior colliculus instead of a visual cortex. Neuroanatomical data and clinical characteristics of DVD, however, contradict this hypothesis. From these data a new hypothesis arises: corticotectal lateralization. The absence of binocular development in the cerebral cortex in infantile strabismus gives rise to dissociated activation of subcortical pathways through individual less tightly linked colliculi.

  19. 皮质下动脉硬化性脑病%Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小溪; 杨昆胜

    2014-01-01

    Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) is a commonly small vessel disease, it seriously affects cognitive function in the elderly. This paper reviewed the pathology changes, risk factors, imaging manifestation of SAE, and its influence on cognitive function, diagnosis and treatment.%皮质下动脉硬化性脑病(SAE)是一种较常见的小血管病变,其可对老年人的认知功能造成严重损害。本文就SAE的病理改变、危险因素、影像学改变及SAE对认知功能的影响、诊断、治疗作一综述。

  20. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

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    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  1. STED Nanoscopy Reveals the Ubiquity of Subcortical Cytoskeleton Periodicity in Living Neurons

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    Elisa D’Este

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the axons of cultured hippocampal neurons, actin forms various structures, including bundles, patches (involved in the preservation of neuronal polarity, and a recently reported periodic ring-like structure. Nevertheless, the overlaying organization of actin in neurons and in the axon initial segment (AIS is still unclear, due mainly to a lack of adequate imaging methods. By harnessing live-cell stimulated emission depletion (STED nanoscopy and the fluorescent probe SiR-Actin, we show that the periodic subcortical actin structure is in fact present in both axons and dendrites. The periodic cytoskeleton organization is also found in the peripheral nervous system, specifically at the nodes of Ranvier. The actin patches in the AIS co-localize with pre-synaptic markers. Cytosolic actin organization strongly depends on the developmental stage and subcellular localization. Altogether, the results of this study reveal unique neuronal cytoskeletal features.

  2. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy in a Chinese pedigree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erhe Xu; Huiqing Dong; Milan Zhang; Min Xu

    2012-01-01

    The present study enrolled a Chinese family that comprised 34 members and spanned three generations. Eight members were diagnosed with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, and disease diagnoses corresponded with autosomal incomplete dominance inheritance. The primary clinical manifestations included paralysis, dysarthria, and mild cognitive deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse leukoencephalopathy with involvement of bilateral anterior temporal lobes, in particular the pons. In addition, multiple cerebral infarction was identified in the proband. Sural nerve biopsy findings of the proband revealed granular osmophilic material deposits in the extracellular matrix, which were adjacent to smooth muscle cells of dermal arterioles. Screening exons 2-4 for NOTCH 3 mutations by direct sequencing did not reveal any abnormalities.

  3. Atlas image labeling of subcortical structures and vascular territories in brain CT images.

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    Du, Kaifang; Zhang, Li; Nguyen, Tony; Ordy, Vincent; Fichte, Heinz; Ditt, Hendrik; Chefd'hotel, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We propose a multi-atlas labeling method for subcortical structures and cerebral vascular territories in brain CT images. Each atlas image is registered to the query image by a non-rigid registration and the deformation is then applied to the labeling of the atlas image to obtain the labeling of the query image. Four label fusion strategies (single atlas, most similar atlas, major voting, and STAPLE) were compared. Image similarity values in non-rigid registration were calculated and used to select and rank atlases. Major voting fusion strategy gave the best accuracy, with DSC (Dice similarity coefficient) around 0.85 ± 0.03 for caudate, putamen, and thalamus. The experimental results also show that fusing more atlases does not necessarily yield higher accuracy and we should be able to improve accuracy and decrease computation cost at the same time by selecting a preferred set with the minimum number of atlases.

  4. Cortical and Subcortical Contributions to Short-Term Memory for Orienting Movements.

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    Kopec, Charles D; Erlich, Jeffrey C; Brunton, Bingni W; Deisseroth, Karl; Brody, Carlos D

    2015-10-21

    Neural activity in frontal cortical areas has been causally linked to short-term memory (STM), but whether this activity is necessary for forming, maintaining, or reading out STM remains unclear. In rats performing a memory-guided orienting task, the frontal orienting fields in cortex (FOF) are considered critical for STM maintenance, and during each trial display a monotonically increasing neural encoding for STM. Here, we transiently inactivated either the FOF or the superior colliculus and found that the resulting impairments in memory-guided orienting performance followed a monotonically decreasing time course, surprisingly opposite to the neural encoding. A dynamical attractor model in which STM relies equally on cortical and subcortical regions reconciled the encoding and inactivation data. We confirmed key predictions of the model, including a time-dependent relationship between trial difficulty and perturbability, and substantial, supralinear, impairment following simultaneous inactivation of the FOF and superior colliculus during memory maintenance.

  5. An unusual case of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy with occipital lobe involvement

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    Bhavesh Trikamji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is an autosomal dominant angiopathy caused by a mutation in the notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. Clinically, patients may be asymptomatic or can present with recurrent ischemic episodes and strokes leading to dementia, depression, pseudobulbar palsy, and hemi- or quadraplegia. Additional manifestations that have been described include migraine (mostly with aura, psychiatric disturbances, and epileptic seizures. Neuroimaging is essential to the diagnosis of CADASIL. On imaging CADASIL is characterized by symmetric involvement by confluent lesions located subcortically in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the insula, periventricularly, in the centrum semiovale, in the internal and external capsule, basal ganglia, and brain stem; with relative sparing of the fronto-orbital and the occipital subcortical regions. We describe a 49 year old male with CADASIL with absence of temporal lobe findings on MRI but predominant lesions within the periventricular white matter, occipital lobes with extension into the subcortical frontal lobes, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter. Although CADASIL characteristically presents with anterior temporal lobe involvement, these findings may be absent and our case addresses the atypical imaging findings in CADASIL.

  6. Sustained Cortical and Subcortical Measures of Auditory and Visual Plasticity following Short-Term Perceptual Learning.

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    Lau, Bonnie K; Ruggles, Dorea R; Katyal, Sucharit; Engel, Stephen A; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Short-term training can lead to improvements in behavioral discrimination of auditory and visual stimuli, as well as enhanced EEG responses to those stimuli. In the auditory domain, fluency with tonal languages and musical training has been associated with long-term cortical and subcortical plasticity, but less is known about the effects of shorter-term training. This study combined electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures to investigate short-term learning and neural plasticity in both auditory and visual domains. Forty adult participants were divided into four groups. Three groups trained on one of three tasks, involving discrimination of auditory fundamental frequency (F0), auditory amplitude modulation rate (AM), or visual orientation (VIS). The fourth (control) group received no training. Pre- and post-training tests, as well as retention tests 30 days after training, involved behavioral discrimination thresholds, steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) to the flicker frequencies of visual stimuli, and auditory envelope-following responses simultaneously evoked and measured in response to rapid stimulus F0 (EFR), thought to reflect subcortical generators, and slow amplitude modulation (ASSR), thought to reflect cortical generators. Enhancement of the ASSR was observed in both auditory-trained groups, not specific to the AM-trained group, whereas enhancement of the SSVEP was found only in the visually-trained group. No evidence was found for changes in the EFR. The results suggest that some aspects of neural plasticity can develop rapidly and may generalize across tasks but not across modalities. Behaviorally, the pattern of learning was complex, with significant cross-task and cross-modal learning effects.

  7. A Bayesian model of shape and appearance for subcortical brain segmentation.

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    Patenaude, Brian; Smith, Stephen M; Kennedy, David N; Jenkinson, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Automatic segmentation of subcortical structures in human brain MR images is an important but difficult task due to poor and variable intensity contrast. Clear, well-defined intensity features are absent in many places along typical structure boundaries and so extra information is required to achieve successful segmentation. A method is proposed here that uses manually labelled image data to provide anatomical training information. It utilises the principles of the Active Shape and Appearance Models but places them within a Bayesian framework, allowing probabilistic relationships between shape and intensity to be fully exploited. The model is trained for 15 different subcortical structures using 336 manually-labelled T1-weighted MR images. Using the Bayesian approach, conditional probabilities can be calculated easily and efficiently, avoiding technical problems of ill-conditioned covariance matrices, even with weak priors, and eliminating the need for fitting extra empirical scaling parameters, as is required in standard Active Appearance Models. Furthermore, differences in boundary vertex locations provide a direct, purely local measure of geometric change in structure between groups that, unlike voxel-based morphometry, is not dependent on tissue classification methods or arbitrary smoothing. In this paper the fully-automated segmentation method is presented and assessed both quantitatively, using Leave-One-Out testing on the 336 training images, and qualitatively, using an independent clinical dataset involving Alzheimer's disease. Median Dice overlaps between 0.7 and 0.9 are obtained with this method, which is comparable or better than other automated methods. An implementation of this method, called FIRST, is currently distributed with the freely-available FSL package.

  8. Cortical and subcortical processing of short duration speech stimuli in trained rock musicians: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prawin; Anil, Sam Publius; Grover, Vibhu; Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Sinha, Sachchidanand

    2017-02-01

    Most trained musicians are actively involved in rigorous practice from several years to achieve a high level of proficiency. Therefore, musicians are best group to research changes or modification in brain structures and functions across several information processing systems. This study aimed to investigate cortical and subcortical processing of short duration speech stimuli in trained rock musicians and non-musicians. Two groups of participant (experimental and control groups) in the age range of 18-25 years were selected for the study. Experimental group includes 15 rock musicians who had minimum professional training of 5 years of rock music, and each member had to be a regular performer of rock music for at least 15 h a week. Further age-matched 15 participants who were not having any formal training of any music served as non-musicians, in the control group. The speech-evoked ABR (S-ABR) and speech-evoked ALLR (S-LLR) with short duration speech 'synthetic /da/' was elicited in both groups. Different measures were analyzed for S-ABR and S-LLR. For S-ABR, MANOVA revealed significant main effect of groups on latencies of wave V, wave A, and amplitude of wave V/A slope. Similarly, Kruskal-Wallis test showed significantly higher F 0 amplitude in rock musicians compared with non-musicians. For S-LLR, MANOVA showed statistically significant differences observed for latencies of wave P2 and N2 and amplitude measures of P2-N2 amplitude. This study indicated better neural processing of short duration speech stimuli at subcortical as well as cortical level among rock musicians when compared with non-musicians.

  9. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, L; Veltman, D J; van Erp, T G M; Sämann, P G; Frodl, T; Jahanshad, N; Loehrer, E; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Niessen, W J; Vernooij, M W; Ikram, M A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Block, A; Hegenscheid, K; Völzke, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Lagopoulos, J; Hatton, S N; Hickie, I B; Goya-Maldonado, R; Krämer, B; Gruber, O; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Wright, M J; Hall, G B; MacQueen, G M; Frey, E M; Carballedo, A; van Velzen, L S; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schnell, K; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schoepf, D; Konrad, C; Zurowski, B; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Sussmann, J E; Godlewska, B R; Cowen, P J; Fischer, F H; Rose, M; Penninx, B W J H; Thompson, P M; Hibar, D P

    2016-06-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristics and brain morphology. To address this, we meta-analyzed three-dimensional brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 1728 MDD patients and 7199 controls from 15 research samples worldwide, to identify subcortical brain volumes that robustly discriminate MDD patients from healthy controls. Relative to controls, patients had significantly lower hippocampal volumes (Cohen's d=-0.14, % difference=-1.24). This effect was driven by patients with recurrent MDD (Cohen's d=-0.17, % difference=-1.44), and we detected no differences between first episode patients and controls. Age of onset ⩽21 was associated with a smaller hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.20, % difference=-1.85) and a trend toward smaller amygdala (Cohen's d=-0.11, % difference=-1.23) and larger lateral ventricles (Cohen's d=0.12, % difference=5.11). Symptom severity at study inclusion was not associated with any regional brain volumes. Sample characteristics such as mean age, proportion of antidepressant users and proportion of remitted patients, and methodological characteristics did not significantly moderate alterations in brain volumes in MDD. Samples with a higher proportion of antipsychotic medication users showed larger caudate volumes in MDD patients compared with controls. This currently largest worldwide effort to identify subcortical brain alterations showed robust smaller hippocampal volumes in MDD patients, moderated by age of onset and first episode versus recurrent episode status.

  10. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical morphometry

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    Joseph M. Orr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  11. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children

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    Strait Dana L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. Methods We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Results Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. Conclusions These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to

  12. Partly segregated cortico-subcortical pathways support phonologic and semantic verbal fluency: A lesion study.

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    Chouiter, Leila; Holmberg, Josefina; Manuel, Aurelie L; Colombo, Françoise; Clarke, Stephanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Spierer, Lucas

    2016-08-01

    Verbal fluency refers to the ability to generate as many words as possible in a limited time interval, without repetition and according to either a phonologic (each word begins with a given letter) or a semantic rule (each word belongs to a given semantic category). While current literature suggests the involvement of left fronto-temporal structures in fluency tasks, whether the same or distinct brain areas are necessary for each type of fluency remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis for an involvement of partly segregated cortico-subcortical structures between phonologic and semantic fluency by examining with a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping approach the effects of brain lesions on fluency scores corrected for age and education level in a group of 191 unselected brain-damaged patients with a first left or right hemispheric lesion. There was a positive correlation between the scores to the two types of fluency, suggesting that common mechanisms underlie the word generation independent of the production rule. The lesion-symptom mapping revealed that lesions to left basal ganglia impaired both types of fluency and that left superior temporal, supramarginal and rolandic operculum lesions selectively impaired phonologic fluency and left middle temporal lesions impaired semantic fluency. Our results corroborate current neurocognitive models of word retrieval and production, and refine the role of cortical-subcortical interaction in lexical search by highlighting the common executive role of basal ganglia in both types of verbal fluency and the preferential involvement of the ventral and dorsal language pathway in semantic and phonologic fluency, respectively.

  13. Multi-atlas segmentation of subcortical brain structures via the AutoSeg software pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahui; Vachet, Clement; Rumple, Ashley; Gouttard, Sylvain; Ouziel, Clémentine; Perrot, Emilie; Du, Guangwei; Huang, Xuemei; Gerig, Guido; Styner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Automated segmenting and labeling of individual brain anatomical regions, in MRI are challenging, due to the issue of individual structural variability. Although atlas-based segmentation has shown its potential for both tissue and structure segmentation, due to the inherent natural variability as well as disease-related changes in MR appearance, a single atlas image is often inappropriate to represent the full population of datasets processed in a given neuroimaging study. As an alternative for the case of single atlas segmentation, the use of multiple atlases alongside label fusion techniques has been introduced using a set of individual "atlases" that encompasses the expected variability in the studied population. In our study, we proposed a multi-atlas segmentation scheme with a novel graph-based atlas selection technique. We first paired and co-registered all atlases and the subject MR scans. A directed graph with edge weights based on intensity and shape similarity between all MR scans is then computed. The set of neighboring templates is selected via clustering of the graph. Finally, weighted majority voting is employed to create the final segmentation over the selected atlases. This multi-atlas segmentation scheme is used to extend a single-atlas-based segmentation toolkit entitled AutoSeg, which is an open-source, extensible C++ based software pipeline employing BatchMake for its pipeline scripting, developed at the Neuro Image Research and Analysis Laboratories of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. AutoSeg performs N4 intensity inhomogeneity correction, rigid registration to a common template space, automated brain tissue classification based skull-stripping, and the multi-atlas segmentation. The multi-atlas-based AutoSeg has been evaluated on subcortical structure segmentation with a testing dataset of 20 adult brain MRI scans and 15 atlas MRI scans. The AutoSeg achieved mean Dice coefficients of 81.73% for the subcortical structures.

  14. Cognitively Engaging Activity is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

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    Talia R. Seider

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9 received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS, a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backwards selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = .289, p = .014, frontal (β = .276, p = .019, parietal (β = .305, p = .009, temporal (β = .275, p = .020, and occipital (β = .256, p = .030 lobes, and thalamus (β = .310, p = .010, caudate (β = .233, p = .049, hippocampus (β = .286, p = .017, and amygdala (β = .336, p = .004. These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia.

  15. Cortical thinning in subcortical vascular dementia with negative 11C-PiB PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Hun; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Geon Ha; Shin, Ji Soo; Cho, Hanna; Noh, Young; Kim, Suk-Hui; Kim, Min Ji; Jeon, Seun; Yoon, Uicheul; Lee, Jong-Min; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jae-Hong; Na, Duk L

    2012-01-01

    To determine the existence of cortical thinning in subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) with a negative 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography scan and to compare the topography of cortical thinning between PiB-negative SVaD and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we enrolled 24 patients with PiB(-) SVaD, 81 clinically probable AD individuals, and 72 normal cognitive controls. Compared with controls, cortical thinning in PiB(-) SVaD was most profound in the perisylvian area, medial prefrontal area, and posterior cingulate gyri, while the precuneus and medial temporal lobes were relatively spared. When the cortical thickness of AD and PiB(-) SVaD were directly compared, PiB(-) SVaD demonstrated significant cortical thinning in the bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal gyri, and right medial frontal and orbitofrontal lobes, while AD showed significant cortical thinning in the right medial temporal region. SVaD without amyloid burden may lead to substantial cortical atrophy. Moreover, characteristic topography of cortical thinning in PiB(-) SVaD suggests different mechanisms of cortical thinning in PiB(-) SVaD and AD.

  16. NEUROPSI battery subtest profile in subcortical vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease

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    Maria Niures P.S. Matioli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of subtests of the NEUROPSI battery for differentiating subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD from Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Thirteen patients with mild SVaD, 15 patients with mild probable AD, and 30 healthy controls, matched for age, education and dementia severity (in the case of patients, were submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and NEUROPSI battery. The performance of AD and SVaD groups on NEUROPSI subtests was compared. The statistical analyses were performed using Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results were interpreted at the 5% significance level (p<0.05. Bonferroni's correction was applied to multiple comparisons (a=0.02. Results: SVaD and AD patients showed no statistical difference in MMSE scores (SVaD=20.8 and AD=21.0; p=1.0 or in NEUROPSI total score (SVaD=65.0 and AD=64.3; p=0.56, suggesting a similar severity of dementia. The AD group performed worse on memory recall (<0.01 and SVaD group was worse in verbal fluency subtests (p=0.02. Conclusion: NEUROPSI's memory and language subtests can be an auxiliary tool for differentiating SVaD from AD.

  17. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease.

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    Niels J H M Gerrits

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does, however, not differentiate between cortical thickness (CTh and surface area (SA, which might be independently affected in PD. We therefore re-analyzed our cohort using the surface-based method FreeSurfer, and investigated (i CTh, SA, and (subcortical GM volume differences between 93 PD patients and 45 matched controls, and (ii the relation between these structural measures and cognitive performance on six neuropsychological tasks within the PD group. We found cortical thinning in PD patients in the left pericalcarine gyrus, extending to cuneus, precuneus and lingual areas and left inferior parietal cortex, bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex, and right cuneus, and increased cortical surface area in the left pars triangularis. Within the PD group, we found negative correlations between (i CTh of occipital areas and performance on a verbal memory task, (ii SA and volume of the frontal cortex and visuospatial memory performance, and, (iii volume of the right thalamus and scores on two verbal fluency tasks. Our primary findings illustrate that i CTh and SA are differentially affected in PD, and ii VBM and FreeSurfer yield non-overlapping results in an identical dataset. We argue that this discrepancy is due to technical differences and the subtlety of the PD-related structural changes.

  18. Towards a parts-based approach to sub-cortical brain structure parsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneja, Digvijay; Xiong, Caiming; Corso, Jason J.

    2011-03-01

    The automatic localization and segmentation, or parsing, of neuroanatomical brain structures is a key step in many neuroscience tasks. However, the inherent variability in these brain structures and their appearance continues to challenge medical image processing methods. The state of the art primarily relies upon local voxelbased morphometry, Markov random field, and probabilistic atlas based approaches, which limits the ability to explicitly capture the parts-based structure inherent in the brain. We propose a method that defines a principled parts-based representation of the sub-cortical brain structures. Our method is based on the pictorial structures model and jointly models the appearance of each part as well as the layout of the parts as a whole. Inference is cast as a maximum a posteriori problem and solved in a steepest-descent manner. Experimental results on a 28-case data set demonstrate high accuracy of our method and substantiate our claim that there is significant promise in a parts-based approach to modeling medical imaging structures.

  19. Subcortical cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes elicited by cortical spreading depression in rat

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    Mraovitch, S.; Calando, Y.; Goadsby, P.J.; Seylaz, J. (Laboratoire de Recherches Cerebrovasculaire, Paris (France))

    1992-06-01

    Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBF{sub LDF}), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized with {alpha}-chloralose. CBF{sub LDF} was recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry, while lCBF and lCGU were measured by the quantitative autoradiographic ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine and ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose methods, respectively. SD elicited a wave of hyperemia after a latency of 2 to 3 min followed by an oligemic phase. Ninety minutes following the onset of SD cortical lCBF and lCGU were essentially the same as on the contralateral side and in sham-treated rats. However, alteration in the lCBF and lCGU in upper and lower brainstem persisted. The present results demonstrate that long-lasting cerebrovascular and metabolic alterations take place within the subcortical regions following SD. These regions provide an attractive site to integrate observations in man concerning spreading depression and the aura of migraine with the other features of the syndrome. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. It’s All in the Eyes: Subcortical and Cortical Activation during Grotesqueness Perception in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Nicole R.; Donnelly, Nick; Rogier, Ophélie; Russo, Britt; Hippolyte, Loyse; Hadwin, Julie; Lemonnier, Eric; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2013-01-01

    Atypical face processing plays a key role in social interaction difficulties encountered by individuals with autism. In the current fMRI study, the Thatcher illusion was used to investigate several aspects of face processing in 20 young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 20 matched neurotypical controls. “Thatcherized” stimuli were modified at either the eyes or the mouth and participants discriminated between pairs of faces while cued to attend to either of these features in upright and inverted orientation. Behavioral data confirmed sensitivity to the illusion and intact configural processing in ASD. Directing attention towards the eyes vs. the mouth in upright faces in ASD led to (1) improved discrimination accuracy; (2) increased activation in areas involved in social and emotional processing; (3) increased activation in subcortical face-processing areas. Our findings show that when explicitly cued to attend to the eyes, activation of cortical areas involved in face processing, including its social and emotional aspects, can be enhanced in autism. This suggests that impairments in face processing in autism may be caused by a deficit in social attention, and that giving specific cues to attend to the eye-region when performing behavioral therapies aimed at improving social skills may result in a better outcome. PMID:23342130

  1. Training conquers multitasking costs by dividing task representations in the frontoparietal-subcortical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, K G; Dux, Paul E

    2015-11-17

    Negotiating the information-rich sensory world often requires the concurrent management of multiple tasks. Despite this requirement, humans are thought to be poor at multitasking because of the processing limitations of frontoparietal and subcortical (FP-SC) brain regions. Although training is known to improve multitasking performance, it is unknown how the FP-SC system functionally changes to support improved multitasking. To address this question, we characterized the FP-SC changes that predict training outcomes using an individual differences approach. Participants (n = 100) performed single and multiple tasks in pre- and posttraining magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions interspersed by either a multitasking or an active-control training regimen. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) revealed that training induced multitasking improvements were predicted by divergence in the FP-SC blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response patterns to the trained tasks. Importantly, this finding was only observed for participants who completed training on the component (single) tasks and their combination (multitask) and not for the control group. Therefore, the FP-SC system supports multitasking behavior by segregating constituent task representations.

  2. It's all in the eyes: subcortical and cortical activation during grotesqueness perception in autism.

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    Nicole R Zürcher

    Full Text Available Atypical face processing plays a key role in social interaction difficulties encountered by individuals with autism. In the current fMRI study, the Thatcher illusion was used to investigate several aspects of face processing in 20 young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD and 20 matched neurotypical controls. "Thatcherized" stimuli were modified at either the eyes or the mouth and participants discriminated between pairs of faces while cued to attend to either of these features in upright and inverted orientation. Behavioral data confirmed sensitivity to the illusion and intact configural processing in ASD. Directing attention towards the eyes vs. the mouth in upright faces in ASD led to (1 improved discrimination accuracy; (2 increased activation in areas involved in social and emotional processing; (3 increased activation in subcortical face-processing areas. Our findings show that when explicitly cued to attend to the eyes, activation of cortical areas involved in face processing, including its social and emotional aspects, can be enhanced in autism. This suggests that impairments in face processing in autism may be caused by a deficit in social attention, and that giving specific cues to attend to the eye-region when performing behavioral therapies aimed at improving social skills may result in a better outcome.

  3. Anatomical characterization of subcortical descending projections to the inferior colliculus in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mili B; Sons, Stacy; Yudintsev, Georgiy; Lesicko, Alexandria M H; Yang, Luye; Taha, Gehad A; Pierce, Scott M; Llano, Daniel A

    2017-03-01

    Descending projections from the thalamus and related structures to the midbrain are evolutionarily highly conserved. However, the basic organization of this auditory thalamotectal pathway has not yet been characterized. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the anatomical and neurochemical features of this pathway. Analysis of the distributions of retrogradely labeled cells after focal injections of retrograde tracer into the inferior colliculus (IC) of the mouse revealed that most of the subcortical descending projections originated in the brachium of the IC and the paralaminar portions of the auditory thalamus. In addition, the vast majority of thalamotectal cells were found to be negative for the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, parvalbumin, or calretinin. Using two different strains of GAD-GFP mice, as well as immunostaining for GABA, we found that a subset of neurons in the brachium of the IC is GABAergic, suggesting that part of this descending pathway is inhibitory. Finally, dual retrograde injections into the IC and amygdala plus corpus striatum as well into the IC and auditory cortex did not reveal any double labeling. These data suggest that the thalamocollicular pathway comprises a unique population of thalamic neurons that do not contain typical calcium-binding proteins and do not project to other paralaminar thalamic forebrain targets, and that a previously undescribed descending GABAergic pathway emanates from the brachium of the IC. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:885-900, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume in patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE).

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    Gückel, Friedemann J; Brix, Gunnar; Hennerici, Michael; Lucht, Robert; Ueltzhöffer, Christine; Neff, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was a detailed analysis of the regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume in patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A group of 26 patients with SAE and a group of 16 age-matched healthy volunteers were examined. Using a well-established dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI method, the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood volume (rCBV) were quantified for each subject in 12 different regions in the brain parenchyma. As compared to healthy volunteers, patients with SAE showed significantly reduced rCBF and rCBV values in white matter regions and in the occipital cortex. Regions containing predominantly grey matter show almost normal rCBF and rCBV values. In conclusion, quantitative analysis of rCBF and rCBV values demonstrates clearly that SAE is a disease that is associated with a reduced microcirculation predominantly in white matter.

  5. Cortical and subcortical anatomy of chronic spatial neglect following vascular damage

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    Schnider Armin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL and superior temporal gyrus (STG or subcortical pathways as possible anatomical correlates of spatial neglect is currently intensely discussed. Some of the conflicting results might have arisen because patients were examined in the acute stage of disease. Methods We examined the anatomical basis of spatial neglect in a sample of patients examined in the post-acute stage following right-hemispheric vascular brain damage. Lesions of 28 patients with chronic spatial neglect were contrasted to lesions of 22 control patients without neglect using lesion subtraction techniques and voxel-wise comparisons. Results The comparisons identified the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ with underlying white matter, the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior STG, and the insula as brain regions damaged significantly more often in neglect compared to non-neglect patients. In a subgroup of neglect patients showing particularly large cancellation bias together with small errors on line bisection damage was prevalent deep in the frontal lobe while damage of patients with the reverse pattern was located in the white matter of the TPJ. Conclusion Considering our results and the findings of previous studies, spatial neglect appears to be associated with a network of regions involving the TPJ, inferior IPL, posterior STG, the insular cortex, and posterior-frontal projections. Frontal structures or projections may be of particular relevance for spatial exploration, while the IPL may be important for object-based attention as required for line bisection.

  6. Vestibular and Attractor Network Basis of the Head Direction Cell Signal in Subcortical Circuits

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    Benjamin J Clark

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate navigation depends on a network of neural systems that encode the moment-to-moment changes in an animal’s directional orientation and location in space. Within this navigation system are head direction (HD cells, which fire persistently when an animal’s head is pointed in a particular direction (Sharp et al., 2001a; Taube, 2007. HD cells are widely thought to underlie an animal’s sense of spatial orientation, and research over the last 25+ years has revealed that this robust spatial signal is widely distributed across subcortical and cortical limbic areas. Much of this work has been directed at understanding the functional organization of the HD cell circuitry, and precisely how this signal is generated from sensory and motor systems. The purpose of the present review is to summarize some of the recent studies arguing that the HD cell circuit is largely processed in a hierarchical fashion, following a pathway involving the dorsal tegmental nuclei → lateral mammillary nuclei → anterior thalamus → parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortical regions. We also review recent work identifying bursting cellular activity in the HD cell circuit after lesions of the vestibular system, and relate these observations to the long held view that attractor network mechanisms underlie HD signal generation. Finally, we summarize the work to date suggesting that this network architecture may reside within the tegmento-mammillary circuit.

  7. Bilateral subcortical heterotopia with partial callosal agenesis in a mouse mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, G D; Azoulay, N G; Griffin, E G; Newbury, A; Koganti, L; Fujisaki, N; Takahashi, E; Grant, P E; Truong, D T; Fitch, R H; Lu, L; Williams, R W

    2013-04-01

    Cognition and behavior depend on the precise placement and interconnection of complex ensembles of neurons in cerebral cortex. Mutations that disrupt migration of immature neurons from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate have provided major insight into mechanisms of brain development and disease. We have discovered a new and highly penetrant spontaneous mutation that leads to large nodular bilateral subcortical heterotopias with partial callosal agenesis. The mutant phenotype was first detected in a colony of fully inbred BXD29 mice already known to harbor a mutation in Tlr4. Neurons confined to the heterotopias are mainly born in midgestation to late gestation and would normally have migrated into layers 2-4 of overlying neocortex. Callosal cross-sectional area and fiber number are reduced up to 50% compared with coisogenic wildtype BXD29 substrain controls. Mutants have a pronounced and highly selective defect in rapid auditory processing. The segregation pattern of the mutant phenotype is most consistent with a two-locus autosomal recessive model, and selective genotyping definitively rules out the Tlr4 mutation as a cause. The discovery of a novel mutation with strong pleiotropic anatomical and behavioral effects provides an important new resource for dissecting molecular mechanisms and functional consequences of errors of neuronal migration.

  8. Self-Trained Supervised Segmentation of Subcortical Brain Structures Using Multispectral Magnetic Resonance Images

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    Michele Larobina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is investigate the feasibility of automatically training supervised methods, such as k-nearest neighbor (kNN and principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA, and to segment the four subcortical brain structures: caudate, thalamus, pallidum, and putamen. The adoption of supervised classification methods so far has been limited by the need to define a representative training dataset, operation that usually requires the intervention of an operator. In this work the selection of the training data was performed on the subject to be segmented in a fully automated manner by registering probabilistic atlases. Evaluation of automatically trained kNN and PCDA classifiers that combine voxel intensities and spatial coordinates was performed on 20 real datasets selected from two publicly available sources of multispectral magnetic resonance studies. The results demonstrate that atlas-guided training is an effective way to automatically define a representative and reliable training dataset, thus giving supervised methods the chance to successfully segment magnetic resonance brain images without the need for user interaction.

  9. Self-Trained Supervised Segmentation of Subcortical Brain Structures Using Multispectral Magnetic Resonance Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana; Cervo, Amedeo; Alfano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is investigate the feasibility of automatically training supervised methods, such as k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA), and to segment the four subcortical brain structures: caudate, thalamus, pallidum, and putamen. The adoption of supervised classification methods so far has been limited by the need to define a representative training dataset, operation that usually requires the intervention of an operator. In this work the selection of the training data was performed on the subject to be segmented in a fully automated manner by registering probabilistic atlases. Evaluation of automatically trained kNN and PCDA classifiers that combine voxel intensities and spatial coordinates was performed on 20 real datasets selected from two publicly available sources of multispectral magnetic resonance studies. The results demonstrate that atlas-guided training is an effective way to automatically define a representative and reliable training dataset, thus giving supervised methods the chance to successfully segment magnetic resonance brain images without the need for user interaction. PMID:26583131

  10. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson’s Disease

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    Jie Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF at rest in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10. Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  11. Disturbances in the positioning, proliferation and apoptosis of neural progenitors contribute to subcortical band heterotopia formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, M P; Covio, M; Lee, K S

    2011-03-10

    Cortical malformations are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy and other developmental disorders. Our studies utilize the tish rat, a spontaneously occurring genetic model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) associated with epilepsy, to evaluate the developmental events underlying SBH formation in the neocortex. Our results demonstrate that Pax6(+) and Tbr2(+) progenitors are mislocalized in tish(+/-) and tish(-/-)- neocortex throughout neurogenesis. In addition, mislocalized tish(-/-) progenitors possess a longer cell cycle than wild type or normally-positioned tish(-/-) progenitors, owing to a lengthened G(2)+M+G(1) time. This mislocalization is not associated with adherens junction breakdown or loss of radial glial polarity in the ventricular zone (VZ), as assessed by immunohistochemistry against phalloidin (to identify F-actin), aPKC-λ and Par3. However, vimentin immunohistochemistry indicates that the radial glial scaffold is disrupted in the region of the tish(-/-) heterotopia. Moreover, lineage tracing experiments using in utero electroporation in tish(-/-) neocortex demonstrate that mislocalized progenitors do not retain contact with the ventricular surface and that ventricular/subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors produce neurons that migrate into both the heterotopia and cortical plate (CP). Taken together, these findings define a series of developmental errors contributing to SBH formation that differs fundamentally from a primary error in neuronal migration.

  12. Top-Down-Mediated Facilitation in the Visual Cortex Is Gated by Subcortical Neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafundo, Diego E; Nicholas, Mark A; Zhang, Ruilin; Kuhlman, Sandra J

    2016-03-09

    Response properties in primary sensory cortices are highly dependent on behavioral state. For example, the nucleus basalis of the forebrain plays a critical role in enhancing response properties of excitatory neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) during active exploration and learning. Given the strong reciprocal connections between hierarchically arranged cortical regions, how are increases in sensory response gain constrained to prevent runaway excitation? To explore this, we used in vivo two-photon guided cell-attached recording in conjunction with spatially restricted optogenetic photo-inhibition of higher-order visual cortex in mice. We found that the principle feedback projection to V1 originating from the lateral medial area (LM) facilitated visual responses in layer 2/3 excitatory neurons by ∼20%. This facilitation was reduced by half during basal forebrain activation due to differential response properties between LM and V1. Our results demonstrate that basal-forebrain-mediated increases in response gain are localized to V1 and are not propagated to LM and establish that subcortical modulation of visual cortex is regionally distinct.

  13. Decreased centrality of subcortical regions during the transition to adolescence: a functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Crossley, Nicolas; Amaro Junior, Edson; Mcguire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of brain maturation processes are a key step to understand the cognitive and emotional changes of adolescence. Although structural imaging findings have delineated clear brain developmental trajectories for typically developing individuals, less is known about the functional changes of this sensitive development period. Developmental changes, such as abstract thought, complex reasoning, and emotional and inhibitory control, have been associated with more prominent cortical control. The aim of this study is to assess brain networks connectivity changes in a large sample of 7- to 15-year-old subjects, testing the hypothesis that cortical regions will present an increasing relevance in commanding the global network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected in a sample of 447 typically developing children from a Brazilian community sample who were submitted to a resting state acquisition protocol. The fMRI data were used to build a functional weighted graph from which eigenvector centrality (EVC) was extracted. For each brain region (a node of the graph), the age-dependent effect on EVC was statistically tested and the developmental trajectories were estimated using polynomial functions. Our findings show that angular gyrus become more central during this maturation period, while the caudate; cerebellar tonsils, pyramis, thalamus; fusiform, parahippocampal and inferior semilunar lobe become less central. In conclusion, we report a novel finding of an increasing centrality of the angular gyrus during the transition to adolescence, with a decreasing centrality of many subcortical and cerebellar regions.

  14. In vivo imaging reveals that pregabalin inhibits cortical spreading depression and propagation to subcortical brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stuart M.; Bohnet, Barry; LeDue, Jeffrey; Yung, Andrew C.; Garcia, Esperanza; Tyson, John R.; Alles, Sascha R. A.; Han, Huili; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Kozlowski, Piotr; MacVicar, Brian A.; Snutch, Terrance P.

    2017-01-01

    Migraine is characterized by severe headaches that can be preceded by an aura likely caused by cortical spreading depression (SD). The antiepileptic pregabalin (Lyrica) shows clinical promise for migraine therapy, although its efficacy and mechanism of action are unclear. As detected by diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in wild-type (WT) mice, the acute systemic administration of pregabalin increased the threshold for SD initiation in vivo. In familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutant mice expressing human mutations (R192Q and S218L) in the CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channel subunit, pregabalin slowed the speed of SD propagation in vivo. Acute systemic administration of pregabalin in vivo also selectively prevented the migration of SD into subcortical striatal and hippocampal regions in the R192Q strain that exhibits a milder phenotype and gain of CaV2.1 channel function. At the cellular level, pregabalin inhibited glutamatergic synaptic transmission differentially in WT, R192Q, and S218L mice. The study describes a DW-MRI analysis method for tracking the progression of SD and provides support and a mechanism of action for pregabalin as a possible effective therapy in the treatment of migraine. PMID:28223480

  15. Pubertal status associations with reward and threat sensitivities and subcortical brain volumes during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by complex developmental processes that impact behavior, biology, and social functioning. Two such adolescence-specific processes are puberty and increases in reward sensitivity. Relations between these processes are poorly understood. The present study focused on examining unique effects of puberty, age, and sex on reward and threat sensitivities and volumes of subcortical brain structures relevant for reward/threat processing in a healthy sample of 9-18year-olds. Unlike age, pubertal status had a significant unique positive relationship with reward sensitivity. In addition, there was a trend for adolescent females to exhibit higher threat sensitivity with more advanced pubertal development and higher reward and threat sensitivity with older age. Similarly, there were significant puberty by sex interaction effects on striatal volumes, i.e., left nucleus accumbens and right pallidum. The present pattern of results suggests that pubertal development, independent of chronological age, is uniquely associated with reward hypersensitivity and with structural differences in striatal regions implicated in reward processing.

  16. Screening for New Biomarkers for Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Annika Öhrfelt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Novel biomarkers are important for identifying as well as differentiating subcortical vascular dementia (SVD and Alzheimer’s disease (AD at an early stage in the disease process. Methods: In two independent cohorts, a multiplex immunoassay was utilized to analyze 90 proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from dementia patients and patients at risk of developing dementia (mild cognitive impairment. Results: The levels of several CSF proteins were increased in SVD and its incipient state, and in moderate-to-severe AD compared with the control group. In contrast, some CSF proteins were altered in AD, but not in SVD. The levels of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP were consistently increased in all groups with dementia but only in some of their incipient states. Conclusions: In summary, these results support the notion that SVD and AD are driven by different pathophysiological mechanisms reflected in the CSF protein profile and that H-FABP in CSF is a general marker of neurodegeneration.

  17. Periventricular nodular and subcortical neuronal heterotopia in adult epileptic patients Heterotopía neuronal nodular y subcortical en pacientes adultos con epilepsia

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    Damián E. Consalvo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental malformations are brain abnormalities that occur during embryogenesis. Neuronal migration disorders, including heterotopic lesions, constitute one type of such abnormalities. The aim of the study was to compare the epileptic clinical patterns of patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH (G1 with those affected by subcortical heterotopia (SCH (G2 looking for differences between both groups which, eventually, might suggest the type of the underlying malformation. The variables studied in both groups were: type of the heterotopia depicted on MRI studies, sex, age, age at seizure onset, annual seizure frequency, localization of the ictal symptomatogenic zone, characteristics of the EEG, other associated anomalies on the magnetic resonance images (MRI besides the heterotopia, and response to treatment. The only difference found between both groups was the type of heterotopia as shown by MRI studies. The other assessed variables did not significantly (p>0.05 differ between groups. No differences in the clinical features characterizing epilepsy could be found in patients with PNH or SCH, being the images the only tool able to differentiate them.Las malformaciones de la corteza cerebral son un grupo de entidades que se producen durante las etapas del desarrollo embrionario y cuya manifestación clínica puede ser la epilepsia. Estas malformaciones pueden ser diagnosticadas in vivo a través de las imágenes por resonancia magnética (IRM. Un subtipo particular de éstas lo constituyen los trastornos en la migración neuronal, dentro de los cuales se ubican las heterotopías (HT. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar enfermos portadores de HT periventriculares (G1 con aquellos portadores de HT subcorticales (G2. Se analizaron las variables sexo, edad y edad de inicio de la epilepsia (EI en años, antecedentes familiares (AF o prenatales (AP, frecuencia anual de crisis (FAC y características semiológicas de las crisis

  18. Altered Functional Connectivity in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment--A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

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    Weina Ding

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI have structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites. In this study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC analysis and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC techniques to investigate the alteration of rsFC in patients with sVCI. rsFC and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for 51 patients with subcortical cerebrovascular disease. All patients were subdivided based on cognitive status into 29 with sVCI and 22 controls; patient characteristics were matched. rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and VMHC were calculated separately, and rsFC of the PCC and VMHC between the two groups were compared. The regions showing abnormal rsFC of the PCC or VMHC in sVCI patients were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses. Our results are as follows: The patients with sVCI exhibited increases in rsFC in the left middle temporal lobe, right inferior temporal lobe and left superior frontal gyrus, and significant decreases in rsFC of the left thalamus with the PCC. sVCI patients showed a significant deficit in VMHC between the bilateral lingual gyrus, putamen, and precentral gyrus. Additionally, the z-memory score was significantly positively associated with connectivity between the left thalamus and the PCC (r = 0.41, p = 0.03, uncorrected in the sVCI group. Our findings suggest that the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites play an important role in the pathogenesis of sVCI. Furthermore, rsFC between the left thalamus and the PCC might indicate the severity of sVCI.

  19. Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium

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    van Erp, T. G. M.; Hibar, D.P.; Rasmussen, J M; Glahn, D. C.; Pearlson, G.D.; Andreassen, O.A.; Agartz, I; Westlye, L T; Haukvik, U K; Dale, A. M.; Melle, I.; Hartberg, C B; Gruber, O.; Kraemer, B; Zilles, D.

    2015-01-01

    IN_PRESS The profile of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia is still not fully understood, despite decades of research using brain scans. To validate a prospective meta-analysis approach to analyzing multicenter neuroimaging data, we analyzed brain MRI scans from 2028 schizophrenia patients and 2540 healthy controls, assessed with standardized methods at 15 centers worldwide. We identified subcortical brain volumes that differentiated patients from controls, and ranked them acc...

  20. Subcortical connections of normotopic and heterotopic neurons in sensory and motor cortices of the tish mutant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottler, F; Couture, D; Rao, A; Kahn, H; Lee, K S

    1998-05-25

    Orthograde and retrograde tracers were used to examine subcortical connections of neurons in the neurological mutant tish rat. This animal exhibits bilateral heterotopia similar to those observed in epileptic humans with subcortical band heterotopia. Terminal varicosities were labeled in the striatum, thalamus, brainstem, and spinal cord following injections of the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the heterotopic cortex. The general topography of corticothalamic projections was evaluated by injecting the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) into ventral thalamic nuclei. Retrograde labeling of small-to-medium sized neurons was observed in layer VI of topographically restricted portions of the normotopic cortex. Similar appearing cells were labeled in the neighboring portions of the underlying heterotopia; however, these neurons did not display characteristic lamination or radial orientation. Thalamocortical terminals labeled by injecting BDA into the ventroposterolateral nucleus (VPL) were observed primarily in layer IV of the medial aspect of the normotopic somatosensory cortex. In contrast, a radial column of terminals was present in the underlying heterotopia. Typical barrel labeling was found in the lateral aspect of the normotopic somatosensory cortex after injecting the ventroposteromedial nucleus (VPM), whereas more diffuse patches of labeling were observed in the underlying heterotopia. Heterotopic neurons in the tish cortex, thus, exhibit characteristic features of subcortical connectivity. Both normotopic and heterotopic neurons in the tish brain project to appropriate subcortical sites and establish bidirectional topographic connections with the thalamus. These results suggest that primary sensory-motor information is represented in a parallel manner in the normotopic and heterotopic cortices of the tish rat.

  1. Regulation of the fear network by mediators of stress: Norepinephrine alters the balance between Cortical and Subcortical afferent excitation of the Lateral Amygdala

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    Luke R Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning crucially involves the integration of information about and acoustic conditioned stimulus (CS and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA. The auditory CS reaches the LA subcortically via a direct connection from the auditory thalamus and also from the auditory association cortex itself. How neural modulators, especially those activated during stress, such as norepinephrine (NE, regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity in this network is poorly understood. Here we show that NE inhibits synaptic transmission in both the subcortical and cortical input pathway but that sensory processing is biased towards the subcortical pathway. In addition binding of NE to β-adrenergic receptors further dissociates sensory processing in the LA. These findings suggest a network mechanism that shifts sensory balance towards the faster but more primitive subcortical input.

  2. Focal neuronal loss, reversible subcortical focal T2 hypointensity in seizures with a nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavendra, S.; Ashalatha, R.; Thomas, Sanjeev V. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, C. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum (India)

    2007-04-15

    Neuroimaging in seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) is considered normal. We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in four patients with NKH and seizures. We prospectively evaluated clinical and radiological abnormalities in four patients with NKH during the period March 2004 to December 2005. All patients presented with seizures, either simple or complex partial seizures or epilepsia partialis continua. Two of them had transient hemianopia. MRI showed subcortical T2 hypointensity in the occipital white matter and in or around the central sulcus (two patients each), T2 hyperintensity of the overlying cortex (two patients), focal overlying cortical enhancement (three patients) and bilateral striatal hyperintensity (one patient). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) performed in three patients showed restricted diffusion. The ictal semiology and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings correlated with the MRI abnormalities. On clinical recovery, the subcortical T2 hypointensity and striatal hyperintensity reversed in all patients. The initial cortical change evolved to FLAIR hyperintensity suggestive of focal cortical gliosis. The radiological differential diagnosis considered initially included encephalitis, malignancy and hemorrhagic infarct rendering a diagnostic dilemma. We identified subcortical T2 hypointensity rather than hyperintensity as a characteristic feature of seizures associated with NKH. Only very few similar reports exist in literature. Reversible bilateral striatal T2 hyperintensity in NKH has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. (orig.)

  3. Glutamate concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts resting-state cortical-subcortical functional connectivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall W Duncan

    Full Text Available Communication between cortical and subcortical regions is integral to a wide range of psychological processes and has been implicated in a number of psychiatric conditions. Studies in animals have provided insight into the biochemical and connectivity processes underlying such communication. However, to date no experiments that link these factors in humans in vivo have been carried out. To investigate the role of glutamate in individual differences in communication between the cortex--specifically the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC--and subcortical regions in humans, a combination of resting-state fMRI, DTI and MRS was performed. The subcortical target regions were the nucleus accumbens (NAc, dorsomedial thalamus (DMT, and periaqueductal grey (PAG. It was found that functional connectivity between the mPFC and each of the NAc and DMT was positively correlated with mPFC glutamate concentrations, whilst functional connectivity between the mPFC and PAG was negatively correlated with glutamate concentration. The correlations involving mPFC glutamate and FC between the mPFC and each of the DMT and PAG were mirrored by correlations with structural connectivity, providing evidence that the glutamatergic relationship may, in part, be due to direct connectivity. These results are in agreement with existing results from animal studies and may have relevance for MDD and schizophrenia.

  4. Contralesional cortical structural reorganization contributes to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke: A longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

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    Jianxin Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although changes in brain gray matter after stroke have been identified in some neuroimaging studies, lesion heterogeneity and individual variability make the detection of potential neuronal reorganization difficult. This study attempted to investigate the potential structural cortical reorganization after sub-cortical stroke using a longitudinal voxel-based gray matter volume (GMV analysis. Eleven right-handed patients with first -onset, subcortical, ischemic infarctions involving the basal ganglia regions underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging in addition to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Motricity Index assessments in the acute (< 5 days and chronic stages (1 year later. The GMVs were calculated and compared between the two stages using nonparametric permutation paired t tests. Moreover, the Spearman correlations between the GMV changes and clinical recoveries were analyzed. Compared with the acute stage, significant decreases in GMV were observed in the ipsilesional precentral gyrus (PreCG, paracentral gyrus, and contralesional cerebellar lobule VII in the chronic stage. Additionally, significant increases in GMV were found in the contralesional orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and middle (MFG and inferior (IFG frontal gyri. Furthermore, severe GMV atrophy in the ipsilesional PreCG predicted poorer clinical recovery, and greater GMV increases in the contralesional OFG and MFG predicted better clinical recovery. Our findings suggest that structural reorganization of the contralesional ‘cognitive’ cortices might contribute to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke.

  5. Subcortical and cortical gray matter differences between Kraepelinian and non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia patients identified using voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Vicente; Hernández, Juan A; Sanz, Javier; Paniagua, Juan C; Hernández, Ana I; Martín, Carmen; Matías, Juan; Calama, Julia; Bote, Berta

    2010-10-30

    The long-term outcome of schizophrenia patients may differ depending on their brain structure. This would be reflected in significant structural differences between poor-outcome (i.e., Kraepelinian) and non-Kraepelinian patients. To assess this possibility, we have evaluated the degree of deviation in brain structure in Kraepelinian patients with respect to controls and non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia patients. We used voxel-brain morphometry (VBM) to assess the differences in gray matter volume across the brain in the Kraepelinian group with respect to the healthy controls and non-Kraepelinian patients. Twenty-six Kraepelinian and 18 non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia patients and 41 healthy controls were included. With respect to the healthy controls, the Kraepelinian patients showed a very significant decrease in gray matter in the frontal, occipital, and limbic cortices, and, at a subcortical level, bilaterally in the striatum and thalamus. In comparison with the non-Kraepelinian patients, the Kraepelinian individuals continued to show a similar subcortical decrease. Thus, Kraepelinian patients may be characterized by a distinct pattern of brain abnormalities, in particular, in subcortical regions.

  6. Parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using snowball sampling of resting-state correlations.

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    Wig, Gagan S; Laumann, Timothy O; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Nelson, Steven M; Glasser, Matthew F; Miezin, Francis M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2014-08-01

    We describe methods for parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using resting-state functional correlations (RSFCs). Inspired by approaches from social network analysis, we first describe the application of snowball sampling on RSFC data (RSFC-Snowballing) to identify the centers of cortical areas, subdivisions of subcortical nuclei, and the cerebellum. RSFC-Snowballing parcellation is then compared with parcellation derived from identifying locations where RSFC maps exhibit abrupt transitions (RSFC-Boundary Mapping). RSFC-Snowballing and RSFC-Boundary Mapping largely complement one another, but also provide unique parcellation information; together, the methods identify independent entities with distinct functional correlations across many cortical and subcortical locations in the brain. RSFC parcellation is relatively reliable within a subject scanned across multiple days, and while the locations of many area centers and boundaries appear to exhibit considerable overlap across subjects, there is also cross-subject variability-reinforcing the motivation to parcellate brains at the level of individuals. Finally, examination of a large meta-analysis of task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging data reveals that area centers defined by task-evoked activity exhibit correspondence with area centers defined by RSFC-Snowballing. This observation provides important evidence for the ability of RSFC to parcellate broad expanses of an individual's brain into functionally meaningful units.

  7. Hyperperfusion syndrome after stent implantation for stenosis of cerebral artery: report of 2 cases and literature review%脑动脉狭窄支架植入术后并发高灌注综合征2例报告并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿不都拉艾沙; 徐锋; 宋冬雷

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the cause,risk factors and prophylactic measures for syndrome of hyperperfu-sion after stent implantation for stenosis of seribral artery. Method:Clinical data of 2 cases of arterial stenosis with the complication of Hyperperfusion syndrome after stent implantation and the pertinent literatures were reviewed. Result; A patient with stenosis in right initial segment of internal carotid artery and Ml segment of right Middle cerebral artery that was implanted with a stent each suffered from intracranial hemorrhage 4 hours after operation. The patient eventually died despite of active rescue. In another patient with stenosis in the initial segment of internal carotid artery,initial and cervical segment of veterbral artery that was treated with a stent each,subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred 6 hours after stent implantation. Conclusion:Old age,severe stenosis,decreased reserve capacity of blood flow or reactivity of blood vessels,occlusion of contralateral carotid artery concurrent with chronic iso-lateral low perfusion,preoperative and postoperative hypertension are risk factors responsible for postoperative hyperperfusion syndrome. Strict control of blood pressure and monitoring with transcranial doppler are important in-preventing the occurrence of postoperative hyperperfusion syndrome.%目的:探讨症状性脑动脉狭窄支架置入术后并发高灌注综合征的原因,高危因素及预防措施.方法:对2例支架置入术后出现脑内血肿及蛛网膜下腔出血患者进行原因分析并复习文献.结果:1例右侧颈内动脉起始段及右侧大脑中动脉M1段狭窄患者,各置入1个支架,术后4h后出现颅内出血,经积极救治仍死亡;另1例患者于右侧颈内动脉、右侧椎动脉颈段及起始部置入3个支架,术后6h出现蛛网膜下腔出血,对症处理后痊愈出院.结论:高龄患者,重度狭窄且侧支循环欠佳,血流量的储备能力或血管的反应性低下,对侧颈动脉闭塞,具有

  8. Study of diffusion tensor imaging in subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment

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    Hui-ying GUO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to explore the microstructure changes of white matter in subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI and its correlation with cognitive function.  Methods Forty-nine patients with subcortical ischemic cerebrovascular diseases were collected. By using Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR, they were classified into 10 cases of vascular dementia (VaD group, 20 cases of vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCIND group and 19 cases of normal cognitive function (control group. Conventional MRI and DTI were performed in all cases. Based on the DTI data, voxel-based analysis was used to assess the whole brain region. Correlation analysis was applied to illustrate the relationship between DTI parameters and cognitive scale in VaD patients.  Results Compared with the control group, fractional anisotropy (FA values of patients in VaD group decreased in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, corpus callosum stem, bilateral parietal lobes, right temporal lobe and bilateral orbitofrontal lobes (P = 0.000, for all, and FA values of patients in VCIND group decreased in right inferior frontal gyrus, right hippocampus and bilateral precuneus (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with VCIND group, FA values of patients in VaD group decreased in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, corpus callosum, bilateral parietal lobes and right temporal lobe (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with the control group, mean diffusivity (MD values in VaD group increased in medial prefrontal cortex, corpus callosum, bilateral parietal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and anterior cingulate (P = 0.000, for all, while in VCIND group increased in bilateral precuneus and right hippocampus (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with VCIND group, MD values in VaD group increased in right medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, corpus callosum stem, bilateral parietal lobes and bilateral temporal lobes (P = 0

  9. A cortical-subcortical syntax pathway linking Broca's area and the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Marc; Rosso, Charlotte; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; Bloch, Isabelle; Brugières, Pierre; Duffau, Hugues; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Combinatorial syntax has been shown to be underpinned by cortical key regions such as Broca's area and temporal cortices, and by subcortical structures such as the striatum. The cortical regions are connected via several cortico-to-cortical tracts impacting syntactic processing (e.g., the arcuate) but it remains unclear whether and how the striatum can be integrated into this cortex-centered syntax network. Here, we used a systematic stepwise approach to investigate the existence and syntactic function of an additional deep Broca-striatum pathway. We first asked 15 healthy controls and 12 patients with frontal/striatal lesions to perform three syntax tests. The results obtained were subjected to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to provide an anatomo-functional approximation of the pathway. The significant VLSM clusters were then overlapped with the probability maps of four cortico-cortical language tracts generated for 12 healthy participants (arcuate, extreme capsule fiber system, uncinate, aslant), including a probabilistic Broca-striatum tract. Finally, we carried out quantitative analyses of the relationship between the lesion load along the tracts and syntactic processing, by calculating tract-lesion overlap for each patient and analyzing the correlation with syntactic data. Our findings revealed a Broca-striatum tract linking BA45 with the left caudate head and overlapping with VLSM voxel clusters relating to complex syntax. The lesion load values for this tract were correlated with complex syntax scores, whereas no such correlation was observed for the other tracts. These results extend current syntax-network models, by adding a deep "Broca-caudate pathway," and are consistent with functional accounts of frontostriatal circuits.

  10. Frontal-subcortical protein expression following prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation.

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    Michelle Y Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal immune activation (MIA during prenatal life is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Such conditions are associated with alterations in fronto-subcortical circuits, but their molecular basis is far from clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry, with targeted western blot analyses for confirmation, we investigated the impact of MIA on the prefrontal and striatal proteome from an established MIA mouse model generated in C57B6 mice, by administering the viral analogue PolyI:C or saline vehicle (control intravenously on gestation day (GD 9. In striatum, 11 proteins were up-regulated and 4 proteins were down-regulated in the PolyI:C mice, while 10 proteins were up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in prefrontal cortex (PFC. These were proteins involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway, oxidation and auto-immune targets, including dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 4A-II, creatine kinase (CK-B, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-B, WD repeat-containing protein and NADH dehydrogenase in the striatum; and guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein, 14-3-3 protein, alpha-enolase, olfactory maker protein and heat shock proteins (HSP 60, and 90-beta in the PFC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This data fits with emerging evidence for disruption of critical converging intracellular pathways involving MAPK pathways in neurodevelopmental conditions and it shows considerable overlap with protein pathways identified by genetic modeling and clinical post-mortem studies. This has implications for understanding causality and may offer potential biomarkers and novel treatment targets for neurodevelopmental conditions.

  11. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

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    Jennifer S Richards

    Full Text Available Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM, caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312 and without ADHD (N = 437 from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60. GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  12. Dorsal lesions of the prefrontal cortex: effects on alcohol consumption and subcortical monoaminergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckel, A W; Shoemaker, W J; Arky, L

    1996-06-03

    Male Wistar rats were subjected to either bilateral aspiration lesions of the dorsal regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) or sham lesions and placed on a 6-week, modified sucrose-fading procedure. At the time of sacrifice, the size of the lesion, both in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral dimensions, was measured. Following sacrifice, levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and their metabolites were measured in the midbrain (raphe) and nucleus accumbens (NA). Lesioned animals had reductions in 5-HT in the NA, and DA and NE in the raphe. The lesioned group drank more of a solution of 5% alcohol than controls early in the sucrose fading, and less during the later stages. In the lesioned group, the size of the left- and right-hemisphere lesions predicted 5-HIAA levels in the NA, and 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels in the raphe. A laterality effect was noted, such that the size of left-hemisphere lesions were positively associated with raphe 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels, and negatively associated with 5-HT levels in the NA, while right-hemisphere lesions showed the opposite relationships. In addition, the width of the left-hemisphere lesion predicted some measures of alcohol intake. These results suggest that, in the rat, the dorsal PFC is involved in the regulation of monoamines in subcortical regions known to be important in the regulation of reinforced behaviors, and that this regulation differs between hemispheres and shows a laterality effect. In addition, the dorsal PFC appears to have a subtle involvement in the regulation of alcohol intake.

  13. Cortico-striatal spike-timing dependent plasticity after activation of subcortical pathways

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    Jan M Schulz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cortico-striatal spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP is modulated by dopamine in vitro. The present study investigated STDP in vivo using alternative procedures for modulating dopaminergic inputs. Postsynaptic potentials (PSP were evoked in intracellularly recorded spiny neurons by electrical stimulation of the contralateral motor cortex. PSPs often consisted of up to three distinct components, likely representing distinct cortico-striatal pathways. After baseline recording, bicuculline (BIC was ejected into the superior colliculus (SC to disinhibit visual pathways to the dopamine cells and striatum. Repetitive cortical stimulation (~60; 0.2 Hz was then paired with postsynaptic spike discharge induced by an intracellular current pulse, with each pairing followed 250 ms later by a light flash to the contralateral eye (n=13. Changes in PSPs, measured as the maximal slope normalised to 5 min pre, ranged from potentiation (~120% to depression (~80%. The determining factor was the relative timing between PSP components and spike: PSP components coinciding or closely following the spike tended towards potentiation, whereas PSP components preceding the spike were depressed. Importantly, STDP was only seen in experiments with successful BIC-mediated disinhibition (n=10. Cortico-striatal high-frequency stimulation (50 pulses at 100 Hz followed 100 ms later by a light flash did not induce more robust synaptic plasticity (n=9. However, an elevated post-light spike rate correlated with depression across plasticity protocols (R2=0.55, p=0.009, n=11 active neurons. These results confirm that the direction of cortico-striatal plasticity is determined by the timing of pre- and postsynaptic activity and that synaptic modification is dependent on the activation of additional subcortical inputs.

  14. Development of the subcortical brain structures in the second trimester: assessment with 7.0-T MRI

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    Meng, Haiwei; Geng, Hequn; Lin, Xiangtao; Feng, Lei; Liu, Shuwei [Shandong University, Research Center for Sectional and Imaging Anatomy, School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Zhang, Zhonghe [Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan, Shandong (China); Teng, Gaojun; Fang, Fang; Zang, Fengchao [Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Zhong Da Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2012-10-15

    This study aims to obtain the signal intensity changes and quantitative measurements of the subcortical brain structures of 12-22 weeks gestational age (GA). Sixty-nine fetal specimens were selected and scanned by 7.0-T MR. The signal intensity changes of the subcortical brain structures were analyzed. The three-dimensional visualization models of the germinal matrix, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and dorsal thalamus were rebuilt with Amira 4.1, and the developmental trends between the measurements and GA were analyzed. The germinal matrix was delineated on 7.0-T MR images at 12 weeks GA, with high signals on T1-weighted images (WI). While at 16 weeks GA, the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and internal and external capsules could be distinguished. The caudate nucleus was high signal intensity on T1WI. The signal intensity of the putamen was high on T1WI during 15-17 weeks GA and was delineated as an area with uneven signal intensities. The signal intensity of the peripheral area of the putamen became higher after 18 weeks GA. The signal intensity of the globus pallidus was high on T1WI and low on T2WI after 20 weeks GA. At 18 weeks GA, the claustrum was delineated with low signals on T2WI. Measurements of the germinal matrix, caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, and dorsal thalamus linearly increased with the GA. Development of the subcortical brain structures during 12-22 weeks GA could be displayed with 7.0-T MRI. The measurement provides significant reference beneficial to the clinical evaluation of fetal brain development. (orig.)

  15. Simultaneously-evoked auditory potentials (SEAP): A new method for concurrent measurement of cortical and subcortical auditory-evoked activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugocki, Christopher; Bosnyak, Daniel; Trainor, Laurel J

    2017-03-01

    Recent electrophysiological work has evinced a capacity for plasticity in subcortical auditory nuclei in human listeners. Similar plastic effects have been measured in cortically-generated auditory potentials but it is unclear how the two interact. Here we present Simultaneously-Evoked Auditory Potentials (SEAP), a method designed to concurrently elicit electrophysiological brain potentials from inferior colliculus, thalamus, and primary and secondary auditory cortices. Twenty-six normal-hearing adult subjects (mean 19.26 years, 9 male) were exposed to 2400 monaural (right-ear) presentations of a specially-designed stimulus which consisted of a pure-tone carrier (500 or 600 Hz) that had been amplitude-modulated at the sum of 37 and 81 Hz (depth 100%). Presentation followed an oddball paradigm wherein the pure-tone carrier was set to 500 Hz for 85% of presentations and pseudo-randomly changed to 600 Hz for the remaining 15% of presentations. Single-channel electroencephalographic data were recorded from each subject using a vertical montage referenced to the right earlobe. We show that SEAP elicits a 500 Hz frequency-following response (FFR; generated in inferior colliculus), 80 (subcortical) and 40 (primary auditory cortex) Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a (when there is an occasional change in carrier frequency; secondary auditory cortex) in addition to the obligatory N1-P2 complex (secondary auditory cortex). Analyses showed that subcortical and cortical processes are linked as (i) the latency of the FFR predicts the phase delay of the 40 Hz steady-state response, (ii) the phase delays of the 40 and 80 Hz steady-state responses are correlated, and (iii) the fidelity of the FFR predicts the latency of the N1 component. The SEAP method offers a new approach for measuring the dynamic encoding of acoustic features at multiple levels of the auditory pathway. As such, SEAP is a promising tool with which to study how

  16. Neuropsychological performance in patients with subcortical stroke Perfil neuropsicológico em pacientes com lesões vasculares subcorticais

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    Silviane Pinheiro Campos de Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI is characterized by cognitive compromise predominantly of executive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: To assess cognitive functions in VCI, focusing on executive functions, to observe functional losses in relation to activities of daily living (ADLs and to detect early symptoms prior to the onset of dementia. METHODS: We evaluated healthy subjects matched for gender, education and age to patients with diagnosis of subcortical vascular disease who had a stroke classified into three groups: 1 vascular lesions and no impairment; 2 vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND; 3 vascular dementia (VaD. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The performance on neuropsychological tests differed among groups, worsening with increased impairment level. The probable VaD group demonstrated impaired performance in memory, processing speed and verbal production, while the VCIND group showed attention deficits. CONCLUSION: Impairment in executive functions and difficulties in ADLs allow us to differentiate levels of impairment in groups of subcortical vascular disease.O comprometimento cognitivo vascular (CCV é caracterizado por comprometimento cognitivo predominantemente sob a forma de disfunção executiva. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as funções cognitivas no CCV, enfocando as funções executivas, observar as perdas funcionais em relação às atividades cotidianas (AVDs e detectar os primeiros sintomas antes do início da demência. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados indivíduos controles saudáveis pareados por sexo, escolaridade e idade com pacientes com diagnóstico de doença vascular subcortical que sofreram derrame classificados em três grupos: 1 lesões vasculares sem déficit; 2 comprometimento cognitivo vascular sem demência (CCVSD; 3 demência vascular (DV. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: O desempenho em testes neuropsicológicos diferiu entre os grupos, sendo o desempenho tanto pior quanto maior o comprometimento. O grupo DV prov

  17. Cerebral, subcortical, and cerebellar activation evoked by selective stimulation of muscle and cutaneous afferents: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardman, Daniel L; Gandevia, Simon C; Colebatch, James G

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We compared the brain areas that showed significant flow changes induced by selective stimulation of muscle and cutaneous afferents using fMRI BOLD imaging. Afferents arising from the right hand were studied in eight volunteers with electrical stimulation of the digital nerve of the index finger and over the motor point of the FDI muscle. Both methods evoked areas of significant activation cortically, subcortically, and in the cerebellum. Selective muscle afferent stimulation caused significant activation in motor-related areas. It also caused significantly greater activation within the contralateral precentral gyrus, insula, and within the ipsilateral cerebellum as well as greater areas of reduced blood flow when compared to the cutaneous stimuli. We demonstrated separate precentral and postcentral foci of excitation with muscle afferent stimulation. We conclude, contrary to the findings with evoked potentials, that muscle afferents evoke more widespread cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar activation than do cutaneous afferents. This emphasizes the importance, for studies of movement, of matching the kinematic aspects in order to avoid the results being confounded by alterations in muscle afferent activation. The findings are consistent with clinical observations of the movement consequences of sensory loss and may also be the basis for the contribution of disturbed sensorimotor processing to disorders of movement.

  18. Subcortical volume analysis in traumatic brain injury: the importance of the fronto-striato-thalamic circuit in task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunissen, Inge; Coxon, James P; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Michiels, Karla; Sunaert, Stefan; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with neuronal loss, diffuse axonal injury and executive dysfunction. Whereas executive dysfunction has traditionally been associated with prefrontal lesions, ample evidence suggests that those functions requiring behavioral flexibility critically depend on the interaction between frontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. To test whether structural integrity of this fronto-striato-thalamic circuit can account for executive impairments in TBI we automatically segmented the thalamus, putamen and caudate of 25 patients and 21 healthy controls and obtained diffusion weighted images. We assessed components of executive function using the local-global task, which requires inhibition, updating and switching between actions. Shape analysis revealed localized atrophy of the limbic, executive and rostral-motor zones of the basal ganglia, whereas atrophy of the thalami was more global in TBI. This subcortical atrophy was related to white matter microstructural organization in TBI, suggesting that axonal injuries possibly contribute to subcortical volume loss. Global volume of the nuclei showed no clear relationship with task performance. However, the shape analysis revealed that participants with smaller volume of those subregions that have connections with the prefrontal cortex and rostral motor areas showed higher switch costs and mixing costs, and made more errors while switching. These results support the idea that flexible cognitive control over action depends on interactions within the fronto-striato-thalamic circuit.

  19. Functions of gamma-band synchronization in cognition: from single circuits to functional diversity across cortical and subcortical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Conrado A; Lansink, Carien S; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2014-06-01

    Gamma-band activity (30-90 Hz) and the synchronization of neural activity in the gamma-frequency range have been observed in different cortical and subcortical structures and have been associated with different cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown whether gamma-band synchronization subserves a single universal function or a diversity of functions across the full spectrum of cognitive processes. Here, we address this question reviewing the mechanisms of gamma-band oscillation generation and the functions associated with gamma-band activity across several cortical and subcortical structures. Additionally, we raise a plausible explanation of why gamma rhythms are found so ubiquitously across brain structures. Gamma band activity originates from the interplay between inhibition and excitation. We stress that gamma oscillations, associated with this interplay, originate from basic functional motifs that conferred advantages for low-level system processing and multiple cognitive functions throughout evolution. We illustrate the multifunctionality of gamma-band activity by considering its role in neural systems for perception, selective attention, memory, motivation and behavioral control. We conclude that gamma-band oscillations support multiple cognitive processes, rather than a single one, which, however, can be traced back to a limited set of circuit motifs which are found universally across species and brain structures.

  20. The 'resting-state hypothesis' of major depressive disorder-a translational subcortical-cortical framework for a system disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg; Wiebking, Christine; Feinberg, Todd; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has traditionally been characterized by various psychological symptoms, involvement of diverse functional systems (e.g., somatic, affect, cognition, reward, etc.), and with progress in neuroscience, an increasing number of brain regions. This has led to the general assumption that MDD is a stress-responsive brain 'system disorder' where either one or several alterations infiltrate a large number of functional systems in the brain that control the organism's somatic, affective, and cognitive life. However, while the effects or consequences of the abnormal changes in the functional systems of, for instance affect, cognition or reward have been investigated extensively, the underlying core mechanism(s) underlying MDD remain unknown. Hypotheses are proliferating rapidly, though. Based on recent findings, we will entertain an abnormality in the resting-state activity in MDD to be a core feature. Based on both animal and human data, we hypothesize that abnormal resting-state activity levels may impact stimulus-induced neural activity in medially situated core systems for self-representation as well as external stimulus (especially stress, specifically separation distress) interactions. Moreover, due to nested hierarchy between subcortical and cortical regions, we assume 'highjacking' of higher cortical affective and cognitive functions by lower subcortical primary-process emotional systems. This may account for the predominance of negative affect in somatic and cognitive functional system operations with the consecutive generation of the diverse symptoms in MDD. We will here focus on the neuroanatomical and biochemical basis of resting-state abnormalities in MDD including their linkage to the diverse psychopathological symptoms in depression. However, our 'resting-state hypothesis' may go well beyond that by being sufficiently precise to be linked to genetic, social, immunological, and endocrine dimensions and hypotheses as well as to

  1. Extensive Direct Subcortical Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia Connections in Human Brain as Revealed by Constrained Spherical Deconvolution Tractography

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    Demetrio eMilardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The connections between the cerebellum and basal ganglia were assumed to occur at the level of neocortex. However evidences from animal data have challenged this old perspective showing extensive subcortical pathways linking the cerebellum with the basal ganglia. Here we tested the hypothesis if these connections also exist between the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the human brain by using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography. Fifteen healthy subjects were analyzed by using constrained spherical deconvolution technique obtained with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We found extensive connections running between the subthalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex and, as novel result, we demonstrated a direct route linking the dentate nucleus to the internal globus pallidus as well as to the substantia nigra. These findings may open a new scenario on the interpretation of basal ganglia disorders.

  2. Subcortical elevation of metabolism in Parkinson's disease--a critical reappraisal in the context of global mean normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Cumming, Paul; Aanerud, Joel

    2009-01-01

    In a recent issue of NeuroImage, we presented evidence that biased global mean (GM) normalization of brain PET data can generate the appearance of subcortical foci with relative hypermetabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and other degenerative disorders. In a commentary to our......, longitudinal studies of PD previously reported relative hypermetabolism in very small anatomical structures such as the subthalamic nucleus. We now demonstrate how focal hypermetabolism attributed to small nuclei can similarly arise as a consequence of GM normalization. Finally, we give a comprehensive summary...... other brain disorders whenever GM normalization is utilized, and (3) the PDRP is not evident in animal models of PD. In the absence of quantitative evidence for the PDRP, our alternative interpretation of normalization bias seems the more parsimonious explanation for the reports of relative...

  3. Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Formation of a Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in the Neonatal Brain is not Exacerbated Under Conditions of Low Dietary Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for brain development. Modest TH insufficiency in pregnant rats induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) results in formation of a structural abnormality, a subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), in brains of offspring. PTU reduces TH by inhibiting the s...

  4. Altered modulation of prefrontal and subcortical brain activity in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Friberg, L;

    1991-01-01

    To measure prefrontal and subcortical activity during a cognitive task, we examined 19 newly diagnosed schizophrenics and patients with schizophreniform psychosis. Seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The patients were drug naive or had received neuroleptics for a few days only. Cerebral ...

  5. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia : EEG Global Power Independently Predicts Vascular Impairment and Brain Symmetry Index Reflects Severity of Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG p

  6. Volumetric and shape analyses of subcortical structures in United States service members with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, David F; Wade, Benjamin S C; Velez, Carmen S; Drennon, Ann Marie; Bolzenius, Jacob; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M; Lewis, Jeffrey D; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Bigler, Erin D; Shenton, Martha E; Ritter, John L; York, Gerald E

    2016-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a significant health concern. The majority who sustain mTBI recover, although ~20 % continue to experience symptoms that can interfere with quality of life. Accordingly, there is a critical need to improve diagnosis, prognostic accuracy, and monitoring (recovery trajectory over time) of mTBI. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been successfully utilized to examine TBI. One promising improvement over standard volumetric approaches is to analyze high-dimensional shape characteristics of brain structures. In this study, subcortical shape and volume in 76 Service Members with mTBI was compared to 59 Service Members with orthopedic injury (OI) and 17 with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) only. FreeSurfer was used to quantify structures from T1-weighted 3 T MRI data. Radial distance (RD) and Jacobian determinant (JD) were defined vertex-wise on parametric mesh-representations of subcortical structures. Linear regression was used to model associations between morphometry (volume and shape), TBI status, and time since injury (TSI) correcting for age, sex, intracranial volume, and level of education. Volumetric data was not significantly different between the groups. JD was significantly increased in the accumbens and caudate and significantly reduced in the thalamus of mTBI participants. Additional significant associations were noted between RD of the amygdala and TSI. Positive trend-level associations between TSI and the amygdala and accumbens were observed, while a negative association was observed for third ventricle. Our findings may aid in the initial diagnosis of mTBI, provide biological targets for functional examination, and elucidate regions that may continue remodeling after injury.

  7. Temporal Lobe and Frontal-Subcortical Dissociations in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease with Verbal Memory Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared J Tanner

    Full Text Available The current investigation examined verbal memory in idiopathic non-dementia Parkinson's disease and the significance of the left entorhinal cortex and left entorhinal-retrosplenial region connections (via temporal cingulum on memory impairment in Parkinson's disease.Forty non-demented Parkinson's disease patients and forty non-Parkinson's disease controls completed two verbal memory tests--a wordlist measure (Philadelphia repeatable Verbal Memory Test and a story measure (Logical Memory. All participants received T1-weighted and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (3T; Siemens sequences. Left entorhinal volume and left entorhinal-retrosplenial connectivity (temporal cingulum edge weight were the primary imaging variables of interest with frontal lobe thickness and subcortical structure volumes as dissociating variables.Individuals with Parkinson's disease showed worse verbal memory, smaller entorhinal volumes, but did not differ in entorhinal-retrosplenial connectivity. For Parkinson's disease entorhinal-retrosplenial edge weight had the strongest associations with verbal memory. A subset of Parkinson's disease patients (23% had deficits (z-scores < -1.5 across both memory measures. Relative to non-impaired Parkinson's peers, this memory-impaired group had smaller entorhinal volumes.Although entorhinal cortex volume was significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease patients relative to non-Parkinson's peers, only white matter connections associated with the entorhinal cortex were significantly associated with verbal memory performance in our sample. There was also no suggestion of contribution from frontal-subcortical gray or frontal white matter regions. These findings argue for additional investigation into medial temporal lobe gray and white matter connectivity for understanding memory in Parkinson's disease.

  8. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Bonanni, Paolo; Randazzo, Giovanna; Nappi, Sara; Tessarotto, Federica; De Martin, Lara; Frijia, Francesca; De Marchi, Daniele; De Masi, Francesco; Kuppers, Beate; Lombardo, Francesco; Caramella, Davide; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  9. Persistent developmental stuttering as a cortical-subcortical dysfunction: evidence from muscle activation Gagueira persistente do desenvolvimento como disfunção córtico-subcortical: evidências pela ativação muscular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One contemporary view of stuttering posits that speech disfluencies arise from anomalous speech motor control. PURPOSE: To verify the rest muscle tension and speech reaction time of fluent and stuttering adults. METHOD: 22 adults, divided in two groups: G1 - 11 fluent individuals; G2 - 11 stutterers. Electromyography recordings (inferior orbicularis oris were collected in two different situations: during rest and in a reaction time activity. RESULTS: The groups were significantly different considering rest muscle tension (G2 higher recordings and did not differ when considering speech reaction time and muscle activity during speech. There was a strong positive correlation between speech reaction time and speech muscle activity for G2 - the longer the speech reaction time, the higher the muscle activity during speech. CONCLUSION: In addition to perceptible episodes of speech disfluency, stutterers exhibit anomalies in speech motor output during fluent speech. Correlations with a possible cortical-subcortical disorder are discussed.INTRODUÇÃO: Atualmente considera-se que as disfluências da fala na gagueira sejam decorrentes de controle motor anormal. OBJETIVO: Verificar o repouso e tempo de reação para fala em adultos fluentes e gagos. MÉTODO: 22 adultos, divididos em dois grupos: G1 - 11 fluentes; G2 - 11 gagos. Os dados eletromiográficos (orbicular dos lábios inferior foram obtidos em duas situações: repouso e atividade de tempo de reação. RESULTADOS: Os grupos apresentaram diferenças significantes para a tensão muscular de repouso (G2 valores maiores e não se diferenciaram quanto ao tempo de reação e atividade muscular de fala. Houve correlação positiva entre o tempo de reação e a atividade muscular de fala para G2 - quanto maior o tempo de reação maior a atividade muscular de fala. CONCLUSÃO: Além dos episódios perceptíveis de disfluência, gagos apresentam alterações no output motor de fala durante a

  10. Subcortical oligodendrocyte- and astrocyte-associated gene expression in subjects with schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Kevin; Dracheva, Stella; Byne, William

    2009-07-01

    Deficits in the expression of oligodendrocyte and myelin genes have been described in numerous cortical regions in schizophrenia and affective disorders; however, relatively little attention has been paid to subcortical structures. Here we employed quantitative real time PCR to examine the mRNA expression of 17 genes that are expressed by oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs) and their derivatives, including astrocytes. Four subcortical regions were examined (the anteroventral (AV) and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei (MDN), internal capsule (IC) and putamen (Put)) in postmortem material from subjects (age 25-68 at time of death) with no known psychiatric history (NCs) as well as in subjects with schizophrenia (SZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BPD). In all regions examined, genes expressed after the terminal differentiation of oligodendrocytes tended to have lower levels of mRNA expression in subjects with SZ compared to NCs. These differences were statistically significant across regions for four genes (CNP, GALC, MAG and MOG) and approached significance for TF. No genes were under expressed in MDD. Only TF was under expressed in BPD and only in the IC. In contrast, two astrocyte-associated genes (GFAP and ALDH1L1) had higher mean expression levels across regions in all psychiatric groups relative to NCs. These differences reached statistical significance for SZ and MDD relative to NCs. There were no age by diagnosis interactions. The majority of age regressions had negative slopes for the expression of oligodendrocyte-associated genes. GFAP but not ALDH1L1 expression was significantly and positively correlated with age in the MDN, AV and Put. Across subject groups the expression of both astrocyte genes was highly correlated with cumulative neuroleptic exposure in all regions except the Put. Significant positive correlations were also observed in some regions between cumulative neuroleptic exposure and the expression of genes associated with

  11. Subcortical brain segmentation of two dimensional T1-weighted data sets with FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Amann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain atrophy has been identified as an important contributing factor to the development of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this respect, more and more interest is focussing on the role of deep grey matter (DGM areas. Novel data analysis pipelines are available for the automatic segmentation of DGM using three-dimensional (3D MRI data. However, in clinical trials, often no such high-resolution data are acquired and hence no conclusions regarding the impact of new treatments on DGM atrophy were possible so far. In this work, we used FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST to evaluate the possibility of segmenting DGM structures using standard two-dimensional (2D T1-weighted MRI. In a cohort of 70 MS patients, both 2D and 3D T1-weighted data were acquired. The thalamus, putamen, pallidum, nucleus accumbens, and caudate nucleus were bilaterally segmented using FIRST. Volumes were calculated for each structure and for the sum of basal ganglia (BG as well as for the total DGM. The accuracy and reliability of the 2D data segmentation were compared with the respective results of 3D segmentations using volume difference, volume overlap and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs. The mean differences for the individual substructures were between 1.3% (putamen and −25.2% (nucleus accumbens. The respective values for the BG were −2.7% and for DGM 1.3%. Mean volume overlap was between 89.1% (thalamus and 61.5% (nucleus accumbens; BG: 84.1%; DGM: 86.3%. Regarding ICC, all structures showed good agreement with the exception of the nucleus accumbens. The results of the segmentation were additionally validated through expert manual delineation of the caudate nucleus and putamen in a subset of the 3D data. In conclusion, we demonstrate that subcortical segmentation of 2D data are feasible using FIRST. The larger subcortical GM structures can be segmented with high consistency. This forms the basis for the application of

  12. Subcortical grey matter alterations in cocaine dependent individuals with substance-induced psychosis compared to non-psychotic cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Taylor S; Lang, Donna J; Honer, William G; Smith, Geoff N; Thornton, Allen E; Panenka, William J; Procyshyn, Ric M; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Su, Wayne; Vertinsky, A Talia; Leonova, Olga; Rauscher, Alexander; MacEwan, G William; Barr, Alasdair M

    2016-10-01

    After prolonged psychostimulant abuse, transient psychotic symptoms referred to as "substance-induced psychosis" (SIP) can develop - closely resembling symptoms observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The comparability in psychotic presentation between SIP and schizophrenias suggests that similar underlying neural deficits may contribute to the expression of psychosis across these disorders. To date, neuroanatomical characterization of grey matter structural alterations in SIP has been limited to methamphetamine associated psychosis, with no studies controlling for potential neurotoxic effects of the psychostimulant that precipitates psychosis. To investigate grey matter subcortical alterations in SIP, a voxel-based analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) was performed between a group of 74 cocaine dependent nonpsychotic individuals and a group of 29 individuals with cocaine-associated psychosis. The cocaine-associated psychosis group had significantly smaller volumes of the thalamus and left hippocampus, controlling for age, total brain volume, current methamphetamine dependence, and current marijuana dependence. No differences were present in bilateral caudate structures. The findings of reduced thalamic and hippocampal volumes agree with previous reports in the schizophrenia literature, suggesting alterations of these structures are not specific to schizophrenia, but may be common to multiple forms of psychosis.

  13. Manually segmented template library for 8-year-old pediatric brain MRI data with 16 subcortical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Wong, Darren; Popuri, Karteek; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Bjornson, Bruce; Grunau, Ruth E; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2014-10-01

    Manual segmentation of anatomy in brain MRI data taken to be the closest to the "gold standard" in quality is often used in automated registration-based segmentation paradigms for transfer of template labels onto the unlabeled MRI images. This study presents a library of template data with 16 subcortical structures in the central brain area which were manually labeled for MRI data from 22 children (8 male, [Formula: see text]). The lateral ventricle, thalamus, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum, third vevntricle, fourth ventricle, brainstem, and corpuscallosum were segmented by two expert raters. Cross-validation experiments with randomized template subset selection were conducted to test for their ability to accurately segment MRI data under an automated segmentation pipeline. A high value of the dice similarity coefficient ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and small Hausdorff distance ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) of the automated segmentation against the manual labels was obtained on this template library data. Additionally, comparison with segmentation obtained from adult templates showed significant improvement in accuracy with the use of an age-matched library in this cohort. A manually delineated pediatric template library such as the one described here could provide a useful benchmark for testing segmentation algorithms.

  14. Early constraint-induced movement therapy promotes functional recovery and neuronal plasticity in a subcortical hemorrhage model rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akimasa; Misumi, Sachiyo; Ueda, Yoshitomo; Shimizu, Yuko; Cha-Gyun, Jung; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Kazuto; Hida, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) promotes functional recovery of impaired forelimbs after hemiplegic strokes, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used a rat model of subcortical hemorrhage to compare the effects of delivering early or late CIMT after ICH. The rat model was made by injecting collagenase into the globus pallidus near the internal capsule, and then forcing rats to use the affected forelimb for 7 days starting either 1 day (early CIMT) or 17 days (late CIMT) after the lesion. Recovery of forelimb function in the skilled reaching test and the ladder stepping test was found after early-CIMT, while no significant recovery was shown after late CIMT or in the non-CIMT controls. Early CIMT was associated with greater numbers of ΔFosB-positive cells in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex layers II-III and V. Additionally, we found expression of the growth-related genes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth-related protein 43 (GAP-43), and abundant dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the sensorimotor area. Similar results were not detected in the contra-lesional cortex. In contrast to early CIMT, late CIMT failed to induce any changes in plasticity. We conclude that CIMT induces molecular and morphological plasticity in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex and facilitates better functional recovery when initiated immediately after hemorrhage.

  15. Heterogeneity in subcortical brain development: A structural magnetic resonance imaging study of brain maturation from 8 to 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostby, Ylva; Tamnes, Christian K; Fjell, Anders M; Westlye, Lars T; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2009-09-23

    Brain development during late childhood and adolescence is characterized by decreases in gray matter (GM) and increases in white matter (WM) and ventricular volume. The dynamic nature of development across different structures is, however, not well understood, and the present magnetic resonance imaging study took advantage of a whole-brain segmentation approach to describe the developmental trajectories of 16 neuroanatomical volumes in the same sample of children, adolescents, and young adults (n = 171; range, 8-30 years). The cerebral cortex, cerebral WM, caudate, putamen, pallidum, accumbens area, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, brainstem, cerebellar GM, cerebellar WM, lateral ventricles, inferior lateral ventricles, third ventricle, and fourth ventricle were studied. The cerebral cortex was further analyzed in terms of lobar thickness and surface area. The results revealed substantial heterogeneity in developmental trajectories. GM decreased nonlinearly in the cerebral cortex and linearly in the caudate, putamen, pallidum, accumbens, and cerebellar GM, whereas the amygdala and hippocampus showed slight, nonlinear increases in GM volume. WM increased nonlinearly in both the cerebrum and cerebellum, with an earlier maturation in cerebellar WM. In addition to similarities in developmental trajectories within subcortical regions, our results also point to differences between structures within the same regions: among the basal ganglia, the caudate showed a weaker relationship with age than the putamen and pallidum, and in the cerebellum, differences were found between GM and WM development. These results emphasize the importance of studying a wide range of structural variables in the same sample, for a broader understanding of brain developmental principles.

  16. Assessment of T2- and T1-weighted MRI brain lesion load in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, A.; Oster, M.; Cohen, S.; Daffertshofer, M.; Schwartz, A.; Hennerici, M.G. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik, Klinikum Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE) have shown little or no correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability, which could be due to the low specificity of T2-weighted MRI. Recent studies have indicated that T1-weighted MRI may be more specific than T2-weighted MRI for severe tissue destruction. We studied 37 patients with a diagnosis of SVE and 11 normal controls with standardised T1- and T2-weighted MRI. All patients underwent detailed clinical assessment including a neuropsychological test battery and computerised gait analysis. Both the T2- and T1-weighted total MRI lesion loads different between patients and controls different, particularly T1. The ratio of T2-/T1-weighted lesion load was lower in controls than in patients. There was no overall correlation of T1- or T2-weighted lesion load with clinical disability, but group comparison of patients with severe and mild clinical deficits showed different lesion loads. We suggest that T1- and T2-weighted MRI lesion loads demonstrate relevant structural abnormality in patients with SVE. (orig.) With 1 fig., 25 refs.

  17. The contribution of brain sub-cortical loops in the expression and acquisition of action understanding abilities☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Miall, R. Chris; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Research on action understanding in cognitive neuroscience has led to the identification of a wide “action understanding network” mainly encompassing parietal and premotor cortical areas. Within this cortical network mirror neurons are critically involved implementing a neural mechanism according to which, during action understanding, observed actions are reflected in the motor patterns for the same actions of the observer. We suggest that focusing only on cortical areas and processes could be too restrictive to explain important facets of action understanding regarding, for example, the influence of the observer's motor experience, the multiple levels at which an observed action can be understood, and the acquisition of action understanding ability. In this respect, we propose that aside from the cortical action understanding network, sub-cortical processes pivoting on cerebellar and basal ganglia cortical loops could crucially support both the expression and the acquisition of action understanding abilities. Within the paper we will discuss how this extended view can overcome some limitations of the “pure” cortical perspective, supporting new theoretical predictions on the brain mechanisms underlying action understanding that could be tested by future empirical investigations. PMID:23911926

  18. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.

  19. May Functional Imaging be Helpful for Behavioral Assessment in Children? Regions of Motor and Associative Cortico-Subcortical Circuits Can be Differentiated by Laterality and Rostrality

    OpenAIRE

    August, Julia M.; Aribert eRothenberger; Juergen eBaudewig; Veit eRoessner; Peter eDechent

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cortico-subcortical circuits are organized into the sensorimotor, associative, and limbic loop. These neuronal preconditions play an important role regarding the understanding and treatment of behavioral problems in children. Differencing evidence argues for a lateralized organization of the sensorimotor loop and a bilateral (i.e., non-lateralized) organization of the associative loop. However, a firm behavioral-neurobiological distinction of these circuits has been difficult, spe...

  20. Brief Screening of Vascular Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy Without Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a monogenic form of cerebral small vessel disease leading to early-onset stroke and dementia, with younger patients frequently showing subclinical deficits in cognition. At present, there are no targeted cognitive screening measures for this population. However, the Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) have shown utilit...

  1. Sedation agents differentially modulate cortical and subcortical blood oxygenation: evidence from ultra-high field MRI at 17.2 T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Uhrig

    Full Text Available Sedation agents affect brain hemodynamic and metabolism leading to specific modifications of the cerebral blood oxygenation level. We previously demonstrated that ultra-high field (UHF MRI detects changes in cortical blood oxygenation following the administration of sedation drugs commonly used in animal research. Here we applied the UHF-MRI method to study clinically relevant sedation drugs for their effects on cortical and subcortical (thalamus, striatum oxygenation levels.We acquired T2*-weighted images of Sprague-Dawley rat brains at 17.2T in vivo. During each MRI session, rats were first anesthetized with isoflurane, then with a second sedative agent (sevoflurane, propofol, midazolam, medetomidine or ketamine-xylazine after stopping isoflurane. We computed a T2*-oxygenation-ratio that aimed at estimating cerebral blood oxygenation level for each sedative agent in each region of interest: cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and striatum.The T2*-oxygenation-ratio was consistent across scan sessions. This ratio was higher with inhalational agents than with intravenous agents. Under sevoflurane and medetomidine, T2*-oxygenation-ratio was homogenous across the brain regions. Intravenous agents (except medetomidine induced a T2*-oxygenation-ratio imbalance between cortex and subcortical regions: T2*-oxygenation-ratio was higher in the cortex than the subcortical areas under ketamine-xylazine; T2*-oxygenation-ratio was higher in subcortical regions than in the cortex under propofol or midazolam.Preclinical UHF MRI is a powerful method to monitor the changes in cerebral blood oxygenation level induced by sedative agents across brain structures. This approach also allows for a classification of sedative agents based on their differential effects on cerebral blood oxygenation level.

  2. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to diagnose cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy in Chinese patients with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomei Tang; Biao Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Notch3 mutations are the molecular genetic foundation for cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Of all currently available detection methods, direct sequencing or restriction enzymes are frequently used, but the cost is relatively high, because the Notch3 gene is composed of many exons and mutational sites are widely distributed. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) exhibits high efficiency and specificity and has been applied to gene detection. To date, there has no report regarding DHPLC in gene detection of large-scale CADASIL families in China. OBJECTIVE: To explore the application and value of DHPLC in the diagnosis of CADASIL by a mutation screening for Notch3 gene in CADASIL probands and their family members. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A comparative observation was performed at the Genetic Diagnosis Laboratory of Institute of Geriatrics, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University and the Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease of the Ministry of Education between August 2003 and May 2004. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen CADASIL patients and their family members, comprising eight males and six females, aged 38-62 years, were included. Their key features included recurrent sub-cortical ischemic events and vascular dementia. In addition, 100 healthy physical examinees were selected as controls, including 52 males and 48 females, aged 56-72 years, who had no neurodegenerative disease or psychosis, and no history or high risk for cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: DNA was extracted from white blood cells. Ten hotspots of the Notch3 gene for sequence variation were first amplified by PCR, and the products were detected using DHPLC. Exons exhibiting a variant in the DHPLC profile underwent another PCR amplification, followed by DNA sequencing to identify the mutation type. In addition, patients with normal DHPLC peak profiles underwent PCR amplification for the remaining

  3. Achieved Blood Pressures in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) Study: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Pablo E.; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Talbert, Robert; del Brutto, Oscar; Castellanos, Mar; Graves, John W.; Matamala, Gonzalo; Pretell, Edwin Javier; Yee, Jerry; Rebello, Rosario; Zhang, Yu; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lowering blood pressure (BP) after stroke remains a challenge, even in the context of clinical trials. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) BP protocol, BP management during the study, and achieved BPs are described here. METHODS Patients with recent symptomatic lacunar stroke were randomized to 1 of 2 levels of systolic BP (SBP) targets: lower: <130mm Hg, or higher: 130–149mm Hg. SBP management over the course of the trial was examined by race/ethnicity and other baseline conditions. RESULTS Mean SBP decreased for both groups from baseline to the last follow-up, from 142.4 to 126.7mm Hg for the lower SBP target group and from 143.6 to 137.4mm Hg for the higher SBP target group. At baseline, participants in both groups used an average of 1.7±1.2 antihypertensive medications, which increased to a mean of 2.4±1.4 (lower group) and 1.8±1.4 (higher group) by the end-study visit. It took an average of 6 months for patients to reach their SBP target, sustained to the last follow-up. Black participants had the highest proportion of SBP ≥150mm Hg at both study entry (40%) and end-study visit (17%), as compared with whites (9%) and Hispanics (11%). CONCLUSIONS These results show that it is possible to safely lower BP even to a SBP goal <130mm Hg in a variety of patients and settings, including private and academic centers in multiple countries. This provides further support for protocol-driven care in lowering BP and consequently reducing the burden of stroke. PMID:24610884

  4. Contribution of the resting-state functional connectivity of the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex to motor recovery after subcortical stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Xu

    Full Text Available It remains uncertain if the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex (CL_PSMC contributes to motor recovery after stroke. Here we investigated longitudinal changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of the CL_PSMC and their association with motor recovery. Thirteen patients who had experienced subcortical stroke underwent a series of resting-state fMRI and clinical assessments over a period of 1 year at 5 time points, i.e., within the first week, at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after stroke onset. Thirteen age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited as controls. The CL_PSMC was defined as a region centered at the voxel that had greatest activation during hand motion task. The dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC within the whole brain were evaluated and correlated with the Motricity Index (MI scores. Compared with healthy controls, the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC with the bilateral PSMC were initially decreased, then gradually increased, and finally restored to the normal level 1 year later. Moreover, the dynamic change in the inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC in these patients was positively correlated with the MI scores. However, the intra-hemispheric rsFC of the CL_PSMC was not correlated with the MI scores. This study shows dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC after stroke and suggests that the increased inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC may facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. However, generalization of our findings is limited by the small sample size of our study and needs to be confirmed.

  5. Central serotonin(2B) receptor blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical dopamine outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Di Marco, Barbara; Caraci, Filippo; Drago, Filippo; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    The central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) is currently considered as an interesting pharmacological target for improved treatment of drug addiction. In the present study, we assessed the effect of two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and dopamine (DA) outflow in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsal striatum of freely moving rats. The peripheral administration of RS 127445 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.) or LY 266097 (0.63 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced basal DA outflow in the NAc shell, but had no effect on cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced DA outflow in this brain region. Also, RS 127445 failed to modify both basal and cocaine-induced DA outflow in the NAc core and the dorsal striatum. Conversely, both 5-HT2BR antagonists reduced cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, RS 127445 as well as the DA-R antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced significantly the late-onset hyperlocomotion induced by the DA-R agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5-HT2BR blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical DA outflow. This interaction takes place downstream to DA neurons and could involve an action at the level of dorsostriatal and/or NAc DA transmission, in keeping with the importance of these brain regions in the behavioural responses of cocaine. Overall, this study affords additional knowledge into the regulatory control exerted by the 5-HT2BR on ascending DA pathways, and provides additional support to the proposed role of 5-HT2BRs as a new pharmacological target in drug addiction.

  6. 皮层下动脉硬化性脑病的CT诊断%CT diagnosis of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹峰; 沈辉; 张波

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the values of CT in the diagnosis of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy ( SAE). Methods:CT findings of 32 cases with SAE diagnosed clinically were summarized and analyzed. Results:The CT features of SAE were low density areas in deep white matter,or involved the periventricular,centrum ovale,frontal,parie-tal and occipital with different degrees of brain atrophy and multiple cerebral infarction. Conclusion:CT can not reveal the arteriosclerosis of cerebral small perforating artery directly,but can display the demyelination and small infarct,explain pa-tientsˊclinical detriments,and differentiate other white matter lesions. According to the clinical manifestations,CT can pro-vided assistance and evidences for early diagnosis and therapy of SAE.%目的:探讨CT扫描对皮层下动脉硬化性脑病( SAE)的诊断价值。方法对经临床CT确诊的32例皮层下动脉硬化性脑病资料进行分析总结。结果 SAE的CT表现特征为脑深部白质内低密度区或累及脑室周围、半卵园中心、额、顶、枕叶等伴有不同程度脑萎缩和多发性脑梗塞。结论 CT不能直接显示脑小穿支动脉的硬化改变,但可以反映动脉硬化后的脱髓鞘及小梗塞灶,可解释患者临床损害,区别其他脑白质病变,结合临床表现可以对SAE进行早期诊断,为SAE早期治疗提供帮助。

  7. Nephroangiosclerosis in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy: is NOTCH3 mutation the common culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrot, Dominique; François, Arnaud; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Boulos, Nada; Hanoy, Melanie; Legallicier, Bruno; Triquenot-Bagan, Aude; Guyant-Marechal, Lucie; Laquerriere, Annie; Freguin-Bouilland, Caroline; Ronco, Pierre; Godin, Michel

    2008-08-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a systemic arterial disease characterized by impairment of vascular smooth muscle cell structure and function related to NOTCH3 mutations. Pathological findings include pathognomonic granular osmiophilic material (GOM) deposition with nonspecific hyalinization within the artery wall in a variety of tissues. The main clinical presentation is iterative strokes in young adults despite the lack of cardiovascular risk factors, leading to early dementia. Although arteriosclerosis and GOM have been found in kidneys from patients with CADASIL, kidney disease has been described only once up to now, in association with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient with a medical history of CADASIL and recent mild hypertension. His mother also showed neuropsychiatric symptoms and end-stage renal disease of unknown cause. The patient had a chronic kidney disease defined by means of estimated glomerular filtration rate using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation of 58 mL/min/1.73 m(2) associated with mild proteinuria and intermittent microscopic hematuria. Renal histological analysis showed severe arteriosclerosis and mild interstitial fibrosis. Glomeruli did not show mesangial immunoglobulin A deposition or focal segmental proliferation. Electron microscopic analysis showed typical GOM deposition in the vicinity of altered vascular smooth muscle cells in interlobular and juxtaglomerular arteries. The nephroangiosclerosis-like lesions were unusually severe in contrast to the recent mild hypertension. The presence of GOM strongly suggests that renal lesions were related to the NOTCH3 mutation. Here, we describe the first case of familial occurrence of kidney disease with decreased kidney function in the absence of coexisting nephropathy in patients with CADASIL. We discuss the role of NOTCH3 mutation in the pathogenesis

  8. Assessment of age-related morphometric changes of subcortical structures in healthy people using ultra-high field 7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the age-related morphometric changes of subcortical structures in healthy people.Material and Methods: Ultra-high field 7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging in humans was used to visualize the subcortical structures of healthy young, middle-aged, and elderly participants. Using the magnetization-prepared two rapid acquisition gradient echoes sequence, we assessed the visibility of the margins of the thalamus and white matter in the thalamus, as well as the anterior commissure (AC and posterior commissure (PC length, the maximal height of the thalamus, the half width of third ventricle, and the distance between the AC and the center of the mammillothalamic tract at the level of the AC-PC plane. All quantitative data were statistically evaluated.Results: The AC-PC length did not differ significantly among the three groups. The maximal height of the thalamus decreased with age (rs(53=-0.719, p<0.001. The half width of the third ventricle (rs(53=0.705, p<0.001 and the distance between the AC and the center of the mammillothalamic tract (MTT (rs(53=0.485, p<0.001 increased with age. The distance between the AC and the center of the MTT of the young and the elderly participants differed significantly (p=0.007.Conclusion: The AC-PC length is not a good candidate for proportional correction during atlas-to-patient registration. The maximal height of the thalamus and the half width of the third ventricle correlated strongly with age, and the MTT position in relation to the AC shifted posteriorly as age increased. These age-related morphometric changes of subcortical structures should be considered in targeting for functional neurosurgery.

  9. Frontal-subcortical volumetric deficits in single episode, medication-naive depressed patients and the effects of 8 weeks fluoxetine treatment: a VBM-DARTEL study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Convergent studies suggest that morphological abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits which involved with emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD. Antidepressant treatment which has been reported to reverse the functional abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits in MDD may have treating effects to related brain morphological abnormalities. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry method to investigate whole brain structural abnormalities in single episode, medication-naïve MDD patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of an 8 weeks pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine. METHODS: 28 single episode, medication-naïve MDD participants and 28 healthy controls (HC acquired the baseline high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI scan. 24 MDD participants acquired a follow-up sMRI scan after 8 weeks antidepressant treatment. Gray matter volumetric (GMV difference between groups was examined. RESULTS: Medication-naïve MDD had significantly decreased GMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left middle frontal gyrus as well as increased GMV in the left thalamus and right insula compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. Moreover, treated MDD had significantly increased GMV in the left middle frontal gyrus and right orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. No difference on GMV was detected between medication-naïve MDD group and treated MDD group. CONCLUSIONS: This study of single episode, medication-naïve MDD subjects demonstrated structural abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuitsin the early stage of MDD and the effects of 8 weeks successful antidepressant treatment, suggesting these abnormalities may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.

  10. 皮质下缺血性血管性疾病患者的步态障碍%Gait disorders in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘珉慧; 孙中武

    2010-01-01

    皮质下缺血性血管性疾病(subcortical ischemic vascular disease,SIVD)是一组由脑部小血管疾病导致的以皮质下多发性腔隙性脑梗死和脑白质病变为主要病理损害的缺血性脑血管病.SIVD是导致血管性认知障碍的最主要原因,SIVD还可出现步态障碍,如帕金森样步态、额叶步态、走路不稳或无明显诱因的频繁跌倒等.有研究表明,老年人步态异常可能是血管性痴呆的早期标志.文章对SIVD导致步态障碍的病理学机制、临床特点、临床意义、分析与评价、治疗等方面做了综述.%Subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) is a group of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases caused by small-vessel disease,and the major pathological damage is multiple subcortical lacunar infarction and white matter lesions.SIVD is the most major cause of resulting in vascular cognitive impairment.It can also have gait disorders,such as Parkinsonlike gait,frontal gait,ataxia,or frequent fall without obvious inducement,etc.Several studies have shown that the gait abnormalities in the elderly may be the early signs of vascular dementia.This article reviews SIVD caused pathomechanisms,clinical features,clinical significance,analysis and evaluation and treatment of gait disorders.

  11. Early-life lead exposure recapitulates the selective loss of parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons and subcortical dopamine system hyperactivity present in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, K H; Ruby, K N; Soares, B D; McGlothan, J L; Liu, X; Guilarte, T R

    2015-03-10

    Environmental factors have been associated with psychiatric disorders and recent epidemiological studies suggest an association between prenatal lead (Pb(2+)) exposure and schizophrenia (SZ). Pb(2+) is a potent antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and converging evidence indicates that NMDAR hypofunction has a key role in the pathophysiology of SZ. The glutamatergic hypothesis of SZ posits that NMDAR hypofunction results in the loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneurons (PVGI) in the brain. Loss of PVGI inhibitory control to pyramidal cells alters the excitatory drive to midbrain dopamine neurons increasing subcortical dopaminergic activity. We hypothesized that if Pb(2+) exposure in early life is an environmental risk factor for SZ, it should recapitulate the loss of PVGI and reproduce subcortical dopaminergic hyperactivity. We report that on postnatal day 50 (PN50), adolescence rats chronically exposed to Pb(2+) from gestation through adolescence exhibit loss of PVGI in SZ-relevant brain regions. PV and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 kDa (GAD67) protein were significantly decreased in Pb(2+) exposed rats with no apparent change in calretinin or calbindin protein levels suggesting a selective effect on the PV phenotype of GABAergic interneurons. We also show that Pb(2+) animals exhibit a heightened locomotor response to cocaine and express significantly higher levels of dopamine metabolites and D2-dopamine receptors relative to controls indicative of subcortical dopaminergic hyperactivity. Our results show that developmental Pb(2+) exposure reproduces specific neuropathology and functional dopamine system changes present in SZ. We propose that exposure to environmental toxins that produce NMDAR hypofunction during critical periods of brain development may contribute significantly to the etiology of mental disorders.

  12. Assessment of gait in subcortical vascular encephalopathy by computerized analysis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäzner, H; Oster, M; Daffertshofer, M; Hennerici, M

    2000-11-01

    In subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE) gait disturbance is a common and early clinical sign which might be used to monitor disease progression. In the absence of reliable scales and with regard to the equivocal results of highly complex gait imaging devices we assessed the natural course of SVE in a prospective study, using a new straight forward technique to quantify and compare sequential gait studies. We report the results of 300 computerized gait analyses in 119 patients with SVE and 63 age-matched controls. Thirty-nine SVE patients were re-evaluated to monitor the natural course of the disease and to study the correlation of gait disturbances with MRI changes and neuropsychological findings. The system consists of a set of shoes containing 16 load sensors and a measuring-unit reading each sensor at 20-ms intervals. By off-line analysis we graded each recording on a Gait Disorder Score (GDS) with six variables indicating gait steadiness: step frequency, length of gait lines (which represent the movement of the centre of gravity during heel to toe movement), length of single support lines, variability of single and of double support lines, and double support time. In cross-sectional analysis, patients with SVE showed cadence (steps/min) to be reduced at 87.3 +/- 19.5 (96.4 +/- 7.8 in controls, P gait lines was significantly less: 0.70 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.80 +/- 0.05 in controls, with length of single support gait lines reduced at 0.42 +/- 0.14 in SVE (0.58 +/- 0.06 in controls, P phases was increased (0.19 +/- 0.10 s vs. 0.13 +/- 0.02 s in controls, P gait disorder who were re-investigated after a mean interval of 26 months (5.4 +/- 4.5 vs. 8.4 +/- 5.5, P gait analysis system for the evaluation of gait disorders and it quantifies the deterioration of gait in SVE patients.

  13. Cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects are consistent with frontal cortico-subcortical and fronto-parietal neuropsychological models of brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Natalia; Łojek, Emilia; Kijanowska-Haładyna, Beata; Nestorowicz, Jakub; Harasim, Andrzej; Pluta, Agnieszka; Sobańska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Three neuropsychological theories have been developed according to a possible existence of a similar pattern of cognitive decline in elderly individuals and patients with brain damage. The respective neuropsychological theories attribute age-related deficits to: (a) dysfunction of the frontal lobes, (b) temporo-parietal dysfunction, or (c) decline of right-hemisphere functions. In the present study, we examined which of these theories best explains the cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects older than 80 years of age (old elderly). Thirty normal old elderly subjects, 14 patients with subcortical vascular dementia, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease, 15 with damage of the right hemisphere of the brain, and 20 young elderly controls participated. A test battery covering the main cognitive domains was administered to all participants. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed five groups of individuals with different cognitive patterns across the whole sample. Old elderly subjects were assigned to four groups according to: (a) preserved overall cognitive performance, (b) processing speed decline, (c) attention decline, or (d) executive impairment. The results of the study are most congruent with models emphasizing frontal-lobe cortical-subcortical and fronto-parietal changes in old age. The results also indicate considerable heterogeneity in the cognitive patterns of normal old elderly adults.

  14. 皮质下缺血性血管性痴呆的MRI研究进展%The MRI research progress in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓微

    2016-01-01

    皮质下缺血性血管性痴呆(SIVD)是因皮质下缺血引起的血管性认知功能损害最严重的形式.该病起病隐匿,且临床表现与阿尔茨海默病存在重叠,早期及鉴别诊断困难,而影像检查方法多样、可重复性及可操作性强,故具有无可替代的作用.就MR成像技术对SIVD的早期及鉴别诊断的研究进展予以综述.%Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) is the most severe form of vascular cognitive impairment which is caused by subcortical ischemia. Due to the insidious onset and overlap in clinical manifestations with Alzheimer's disease, early and differential diagnosis is difficult. With the advantages inmultiple techniques, high repeatability and good compliance, imaging plays an irreplaceable role in this filed. Currently, researchers worldwide have been carrying on a lot of studies with various MRI techniques on the early and differential diagnosis of SIVD. We reviewed the progress in this article.

  15. Joint assessment of white matter integrity, cortical and subcortical atrophy to distinguish AD from behavioral variant FTD: A two-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Möller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM atrophy in combination with white matter (WM integrity to distinguish behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD from Alzheimer's disease (AD and from controls using voxel-based morphometry, subcortical structure segmentation, and tract-based spatial statistics. To determine which combination of MR markers differentiated the three groups with the highest accuracy, we conducted discriminant function analyses. Adjusted for age, sex and center, both types of dementia had more GM atrophy, lower fractional anisotropy (FA and higher mean (MD, axial (L1 and radial diffusivity (L23 values than controls. BvFTD patients had more GM atrophy in orbitofrontal and inferior frontal areas than AD patients. In addition, caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens were smaller in bvFTD than in AD. FA values were lower; MD, L1 and L23 values were higher, especially in frontal areas of the brain for bvFTD compared to AD patients. The combination of cortical GM, hippocampal volume and WM integrity measurements, classified 97–100% of controls, 81–100% of AD and 67–75% of bvFTD patients correctly. Our results suggest that WM integrity measures add complementary information to measures of GM atrophy, thereby improving the classification between AD and bvFTD.

  16. Cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter brain microstructural changes in schizophrenia are localised and age independent: a case-control diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Chiapponi

    Full Text Available It is still unknown whether the structural brain impairments that characterize schizophrenia (SZ worsen during the lifetime. Here, we aimed to describe age-related microstructural brain changes in cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of patients affected by SZ. In this diffusion tensor imaging study, we included 69 patients diagnosed with SZ and 69 healthy control (HC subjects, age and gender matched. We carried out analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor and brain diffusion-related parameters as dependent variables, and controlled for the effect of education. White matter fractional anisotropy decreased in the entire age range spanned (18-65 years in both SZ and HC and was significantly lower in younger patients with SZ, with no interaction (age by diagnosis effect in fiber tracts including corpus callosum, corona radiata, thalamic radiations and external capsule. Also, grey matter mean diffusivity increased in the entire age range in both SZ and HC and was significantly higher in younger patients, with no age by diagnosis interaction in the left frontal operculum cortex, left insula and left planum polare and in the right temporal pole and right intracalcarine cortex. In individuals with SZ we found that localized brain cortical and white matter subcortical microstructural impairments appear early in life but do not worsen in the 18-65 year age range.

  17. Cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter brain microstructural changes in schizophrenia are localised and age independent: a case-control diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    It is still unknown whether the structural brain impairments that characterize schizophrenia (SZ) worsen during the lifetime. Here, we aimed to describe age-related microstructural brain changes in cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of patients affected by SZ. In this diffusion tensor imaging study, we included 69 patients diagnosed with SZ and 69 healthy control (HC) subjects, age and gender matched. We carried out analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor and brain diffusion-related parameters as dependent variables, and controlled for the effect of education. White matter fractional anisotropy decreased in the entire age range spanned (18-65 years) in both SZ and HC and was significantly lower in younger patients with SZ, with no interaction (age by diagnosis) effect in fiber tracts including corpus callosum, corona radiata, thalamic radiations and external capsule. Also, grey matter mean diffusivity increased in the entire age range in both SZ and HC and was significantly higher in younger patients, with no age by diagnosis interaction in the left frontal operculum cortex, left insula and left planum polare and in the right temporal pole and right intracalcarine cortex. In individuals with SZ we found that localized brain cortical and white matter subcortical microstructural impairments appear early in life but do not worsen in the 18-65 year age range.

  18. Association of 5' end neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene variation with subcortical medial frontal microstructure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterer, Georg; Konrad, Andreas; Vucurevic, Goran; Musso, Francesco; Stoeter, Peter; Dahmen, Norbert

    2008-04-01

    Animal data suggest that the gene neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is involved in neuronal myelination. A haplotype (deCODE) in the 5' end region of the gene was described to double the risk for schizophrenia in an Icelandic population (Stefansson, H., Sigurdsson, E., Steinthorsdottir, V., Bjornsdottir, S., Sigmundsson, T., Ghosh, S., Brynjolfsson, J., Gunnarsdottir, S., Ivarsson, O., Chou, T.T., Hjaltason, O., Birgisdottir, B., Jonsson, H., Gudnadottir, V.G., Gudmundsdottir, E., Bjornsson, A., Ingvarsson, B., Ingason, A., Sigfusson, S., Hardardottir, H., Harvey, R.P., Lai, D., Zhou, M., Brunner, D., Mutel, V., Gonzalo, A., Lemke, G., Sainz, J., Johannesson, G., Andresson, T., Gudbjartsson, D., Manolescu, A., Frigge, M.L., Gurney, M.E., Kong, A., Gulcher, J.R., Petursson, H., Stefansson, K. 2002. Neuregulin-1 and susceptibility to schizophrenia. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 71, 877-892). Of note, there is now increasing evidence of disturbed myelination in this illness--particularly in subcortical frontal lobe white matter (Konrad, A., Winterer, G. 2008. Disturbed structural connectivity in schizophrenia--primary factor in pathology or epiphenomenon? Schiz. Bull. [Electronic publication ahead of print]). Therefore, we investigated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) the impact of a tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) from the deCODE haplotype, i.e., SNP8NRG221533, on fractional anisotropy (FA), which reflects structural integrity of white matter. SNP8NRG221533 was selected because it gave the single best uncorrected association with schizophrenia in the original report by Stefansson et al. (Stefansson, H., Sigurdsson, E., Steinthorsdottir, V., Bjornsdottir, S., Sigmundsson, T., Ghosh, S., Brynjolfsson, J., Gunnarsdottir, S., Ivarsson, O., Chou, T.T., Hjaltason, O., Birgisdottir, B., Jonsson, H., Gudnadottir, V.G., Gudmundsdottir, E., Bjornsson, A., Ingvarsson, B., Ingason, A., Sigfusson, S., Hardardottir, H., Harvey, R.P., Lai, D., Zhou, M., Brunner, D., Mutel, V., Gonzalo, A

  19. Diffusion and ADC-map images detect ongoing demyelination on subcortical white matter in an adult metachromatic leukodystrophy patient with autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Akiko; Kumabe, Yuri; Kimura, En; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ueda, Akihiko; Hirano, Teruyuki; Uchino, Makoto

    2010-12-01

    Adult-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) often shows schizophrenia- or encephalopathy-like symptoms at an early stage, such as behavioural abnormalities, cognitive impairment, mood disorders and hallucinations. The authors report the case of an adult woman with MLD who had been given antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia. In the differential diagnosis, screening of auto-antibodies was important for ruling out other encephalopathies as she had a euthyroid Hashimoto thyroiditis. Diagnosis was based the results of MRI, nerve conduction velocity, sensory evoked potential, motor evoked potential, lysosomal enzyme activity and gene analysis studies. Brain MRI showed diffuse demyelination spreading from the deep white matter to subcortical area as high signals at the edges of these lesions in diffusion and apparent diffusion coefficient-map images with the U-fibres conserved. The authors diagnosed adult-onset MLD coexisting with euthyroid autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  20. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, genetic homogeneity, and mapping of the locus within a 2-cM interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducros, A.; Alamowitch, S.; Nagy, T. [INSERM U25, Paris (France)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a recently identified autosomal dominant cerebral arteriopathy characterized by the recurrence of subcortical infarcts leading to dementia. A genetic linkage analysis conducted in two large families recently allowed us to map the affected gene on chromosome 19 in a 12-cM interval bracketed by D19S221 and D19S215. In the present study, these first 2 families and 13 additional ones, including a total of 199 potentially informative meiosis, have been genotyped with eight polymorphic markers located between D19S221 and D19S215. All families were linked to chromosome 19. The highest combined lod score (Z{sub max} = 37.24 at {theta} = .01) was obtained with marker D19S841, a new CA{sub n} microsatellite marker that we isolated from chromosome 19 cosmids. The recombinant events observed within these families were used to refine the genetic mapping of CADASIL within a 2-cM interval that is now bracketed by D19S226 and D19S199 on 19p13.1. These data strongly suggest the genetic homogeneity of this recently identified condition and establish the value of its clinical and neuroimaging diagnostic criteria. Besides their importance for the ongoing positional cloning of the CADASIL gene, these data help to refine the genetic mapping of CADASIL relative to familial hemiplegic migraine and hereditary paroxysmal cerebellar ataxia, conditions that we both mapped within the same chromosome 19 region. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Structural and functional changes in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment: a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Yi

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate changes in structural gray matter (GM volume and functional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFO and functional connectivity density in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI. Structural MRI and resting-sate functional MRI data were collected from 26 svMCI patients and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Structurally, widespread GM atrophy was found in the svMCI patients that resided primarily in frontal (e.g., the superior and middle frontal gyri and medial prefrontal cortex and temporal (the superior and inferior temporal gyri brain regions as well as several subcortical brain sites (e.g., the thalamus and the caudate. Functionally, svMCI-related changes were predominantly found in the default mode network (DMN. Compared with the healthy controls, the svMCI patients exhibited decreased LFO amplitudes in the anterior part of the DMN (e.g., the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas increased LFO amplitudes in the posterior part of the DMN (e.g., the posterior cingulate/precuneus. As for functional connectivity density, the DMN regions (e.g., the posterior cingulate/precuneus, the medial prefrontal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus consistently exhibited decreased functional connectivity. Finally, the overall patterns of functional alterations in LFO amplitudes and functional connectivity density remained little changed after controlling for structural GM volume losses, which suggests that functional abnormalities can be only partly explained by morphological GM volume changes. Together, our results indicate that svMCI patients exhibit widespread abnormalities in both structural GM volume and functional intrinsic brain activity, which have important implications in understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of svMCI.

  2. Open and closed cortico-subcortical loops: A neuro-computational account of access to consciousness in the distractor-induced blindness paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Christian; Schroll, Henning; Winther, Gesche; Niedeggen, Michael; Hamker, Fred H

    2015-09-01

    How the brain decides which information to process 'consciously' has been debated over for decades without a simple explanation at hand. While most experiments manipulate the perceptual energy of presented stimuli, the distractor-induced blindness task is a prototypical paradigm to investigate gating of information into consciousness without or with only minor visual manipulation. In this paradigm, subjects are asked to report intervals of coherent dot motion in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream, whenever these are preceded by a particular color stimulus in a different RSVP stream. If distractors (i.e., intervals of coherent dot motion prior to the color stimulus) are shown, subjects' abilities to perceive and report intervals of target dot motion decrease, particularly with short delays between intervals of target color and target motion. We propose a biologically plausible neuro-computational model of how the brain controls access to consciousness to explain how distractor-induced blindness originates from information processing in the cortex and basal ganglia. The model suggests that conscious perception requires reverberation of activity in cortico-subcortical loops and that basal-ganglia pathways can either allow or inhibit this reverberation. In the distractor-induced blindness paradigm, inadequate distractor-induced response tendencies are suppressed by the inhibitory 'hyperdirect' pathway of the basal ganglia. If a target follows such a distractor closely, temporal aftereffects of distractor suppression prevent target identification. The model reproduces experimental data on how delays between target color and target motion affect the probability of target detection.

  3. Decreased subcortical and increased cortical degree centrality in a nonclinical college student sample with subclinical depressive symptoms: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal functional connectivity (FC at rest has been identified in clinical depressive disorder. However, very few studies have been conducted to understand the underlying neural substrates of subclinical depression. The newly proposed centrality analysis approach has been increasingly used to explore the large-scale brain network of mental diseases. This study aimed to identify the degree centrality (DC alteration of the brain network in subclinical depressive subjects. Thirty-seven candidates with subclinical depression and 34 well-matched healthy controls (HCs were recruited from the same sample of college students. All subjects underwent a resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI scan to assess the DC of the whole brain. Compared with controls, subclinical depressive subjects displayed decreased DC in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, left PHG/amygdala, and left caudate and elevated DC in the right posterior parietal lobule (PPL, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG. In addition, by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, we determined that the DC values in the regions with altered FC between the two groups can be used to differentiate subclinical depressive subjects from HCs. We suggest that decreased DC in subcortical and increased DC in cortical regions might be the neural substrates of subclinical depression.

  4. Decreased Subcortical and Increased Cortical Degree Centrality in a Nonclinical College Student Sample with Subclinical Depressive Symptoms: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cuihua; Wenhua, Liu; Liu, Yanli; Ruan, Xiuhang; Chen, Xin; Liu, Lingling; Yu, Shaode; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Wei, Xinhua; Jiang, Xinqing

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal functional connectivity (FC) at rest has been identified in clinical depressive disorder. However, very few studies have been conducted to understand the underlying neural substrates of subclinical depression. The newly proposed centrality analysis approach has been increasingly used to explore the large-scale brain network of mental diseases. This study aimed to identify the degree centrality (DC) alteration of the brain network in subclinical depressive subjects. Thirty-seven candidates with subclinical depression and 34 well-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited from the same sample of college students. All subjects underwent a resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scan to assess the DC of the whole brain. Compared with controls, subclinical depressive subjects displayed decreased DC in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), left PHG/amygdala, and left caudate and elevated DC in the right posterior parietal lobule (PPL), left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). In addition, by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we determined that the DC values in the regions with altered FC between the two groups can be used to differentiate subclinical depressive subjects from HCs. We suggest that decreased DC in subcortical and increased DC in cortical regions might be the neural substrates of subclinical depression. PMID:27994546

  5. The Extension of the German CERAD Neuropsychological Assessment Battery with Tests Assessing Subcortical, Executive and Frontal Functions Improves Accuracy in Dementia Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S. Schmid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia. Neuropsychological assessment of individuals with AD primarily focuses on tests of cortical functioning. However, in clinical practice, the underlying pathologies of dementia are unknown, and a focus on cortical functioning may neglect other domains of cognition, including subcortical and executive functioning. The current study aimed to improve the diagnostic discrimination ability of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease - Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB by adding three tests of executive functioning and mental speed (Trail Making Tests A and B, S-Words. Methods: Logistic regression analyses of 594 normal controls (NC, 326 patients with mild AD and 224 patients with other types of dementia (OD were carried out, and the area under the curve values were compared to those of CERAD-NAB alone. Results: All comparisons except AD-OD (65.5% showed excellent classification rates (NC-AD: 92.7%; NC-OD: 89.0%; NC-all patients: 91.0% and a superior diagnostic accuracy of the extended version. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these three tests provide a sensible addition to the CERAD-NAB and can improve neuropsychological diagnosis of dementia.

  6. Using Artefactual Field Experiments to Learn about the Incentives for Sustainable Forest Use in Developing Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, M.J.; Turley, T.; Kontoleon, A.; Bulte, E.H.; List, J.

    2011-01-01

    We implement a public goods game and a social intervention modeled after a public goods game in rural Sierra Leone near the Gola Forest Reserve. We also collect demographic, economic and forest conservation data on households in the area. We use this data to assess the mapping of social preferences

  7. The Simultaneity of Experience: Cultural Identity, Magical Realism and the Artefactual in Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyford, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how students, as multimodal storytellers, can weave powerful narratives blending modes, genres, artefacts and literary conventions to represent the real and imagined in their lives. Part of a larger ethnographic case study of student writing in a middle years class for immigrant students learning English as an additional…

  8. Religious Fragmentation, Social Identity and Conflict: Evidence from an Artefactual Field Experiment in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of religious identity and village-level religious fragmentation on behavior in Tullock contests. We report on a series of two-player Tullock contest experiments conducted on a sample of 516 Hindu and Muslim participants in rural West Bengal, India. Our treatments are the identity of the two players and the degree of religious fragmentation in the village where subjects reside. Our main finding is that the effect of social identity is small and inconsistent across the two religious groups in our study. While we find small but statistically significant results in line with our hypotheses in the Hindu sample, we find no statistically significant effects in the Muslim sample. This is in contrast to evidence from Chakravarty et al. (2016), who report significant differences in cooperation levels in prisoners’ dilemma and stag hunt games, both in terms of village composition and identity. We attribute this to the fact that social identity may have a more powerful effect on cooperation than on conflict. PMID:27768713

  9. May functional imaging be helpful for behavioral assessment in children? Regions of motor and associative cortico-subcortical circuits can be differentiated by laterality and rostrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. August

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cortico-subcortical circuits are organized into the sensorimotor, associative and limbic loop. These neuronal preconditions play an important role regarding the understanding and treatment of behavioral problems in children. Differencing evidence argues for a lateralized organization of the sensorimotor loop and a bilateral (i.e. non-lateralized organization of the associative loop. However, a firm behavioral-neurobiological distinction of these circuits has been difficult, specifically in children. Objectives: Thus, the aim was a comprehensive functional visualization and differentiation of the sensorimotor and the associative circuit during childhood. As a new approach, laterality and rostrality features were used to distinguish between the two circuits within one single motor task. Methods: 24 healthy boys performed self-paced index finger tapping with each hand separately during functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. Results: A contrast analysis for left against right hand movement revealed lateralized activation in typical sensorimotor regions such as primary sensorimotor cortex, caudal supplementary motor area (SMA, caudal putamen and thalamus. A conjunction analysis confirmed bilateral involvement of known associative regions including pre-SMA, rostral SMA and rostral putamen. Conclusion: A functional visualization of two distinct corticostriatal circuits is provided in childhood. Both, the sensorimotor and associative circuit may be discriminated by their laterality characteristics already in minors. Additionally, the results support the concept of a modified functional subdivision of the SMA in a rostral (associative and caudal (motor part. A further development of this approach might help to nurture behavioral assessment and neurofeedback training in child mental health.

  10. Ketamine Dysregulates the Amplitude and Connectivity of High-Frequency Oscillations in Cortical-Subcortical Networks in Humans: Evidence From Resting-State Magnetoencephalography-Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Heidegger, Tonio; Scheller, Bertram; Sauer, Andreas; Schaum, Michael; Birkner, Katharina; Singer, Wolf; Wibral, Michael; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Hypofunctioning of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) has been prominently implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (ScZ). The current study tested the effects of ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic and NMDA-R antagonist, on resting-state activity recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) in healthy volunteers. In a single-blind cross-over design, each participant (n = 12) received, on 2 different sessions, a subanesthetic dose of S-ketamine (0.006 mg/Kg) and saline injection. MEG-data were analyzed at sensor- and source-level in the beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (30-90 Hz) frequency ranges. In addition, connectivity analysis at source-level was performed using transfer entropy (TE). Ketamine increased gamma-power while beta-band activity was decreased. Specifically, elevated 30-90 Hz activity was pronounced in subcortical (thalamus and hippocampus) and cortical (frontal and temporal cortex) regions, whilst reductions in beta-band power were localized to the precuneus, cerebellum, anterior cingulate, temporal and visual cortex. TE analysis demonstrated increased information transfer in a thalamo-cortical network after ketamine administration. The findings are consistent with the pronounced dysregulation of high-frequency oscillations following the inhibition of NMDA-R in animal models of ScZ as well as with evidence from electroencephalogram-data in ScZ-patients and increased functional connectivity during early illness stages. Moreover, our data highlight the potential contribution of thalamo-cortical connectivity patterns towards ketamine-induced neuronal dysregulation, which may be relevant for the understanding of ScZ as a disorder of disinhibition of neural circuits.

  11. Differences of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging in the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

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    Park, Kyung Won; Kang, Do Young; Park, Min Jeong; Cheon, Sang Myung; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVaD, 46 AD and 12 control subjects participated in this study. We included the patients with SVaD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia rating scores. Three groups were evaluated by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for measuring rCBF. The SPECT data of patients with SVaD and AD were compared with those of normal control subjects and then compared with each other. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyri in patients with SVaD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). SVaD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus with cingulated gyrus, left insula and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVaD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the early stage of illness.

  12. Ketamine Dysregulates the Amplitude and Connectivity of High-Frequency Oscillations in Cortical–Subcortical Networks in Humans: Evidence From Resting-State Magnetoencephalography-Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Heidegger, Tonio; Scheller, Bertram; Sauer, Andreas; Schaum, Michael; Birkner, Katharina; Singer, Wolf; Wibral, Michael; Uhlhaas, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Hypofunctioning of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) has been prominently implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (ScZ). The current study tested the effects of ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic and NMDA-R antagonist, on resting-state activity recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) in healthy volunteers. In a single-blind cross-over design, each participant (n = 12) received, on 2 different sessions, a subanesthetic dose of S-ketamine (0.006mg/Kg) and saline injection. MEG-data were analyzed at sensor- and source-level in the beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (30–90 Hz) frequency ranges. In addition, connectivity analysis at source-level was performed using transfer entropy (TE). Ketamine increased gamma-power while beta-band activity was decreased. Specifically, elevated 30–90 Hz activity was pronounced in subcortical (thalamus and hippocampus) and cortical (frontal and temporal cortex) regions, whilst reductions in beta-band power were localized to the precuneus, cerebellum, anterior cingulate, temporal and visual cortex. TE analysis demonstrated increased information transfer in a thalamo-cortical network after ketamine administration. The findings are consistent with the pronounced dysregulation of high-frequency oscillations following the inhibition of NMDA-R in animal models of ScZ as well as with evidence from electroencephalogram-data in ScZ-patients and increased functional connectivity during early illness stages. Moreover, our data highlight the potential contribution of thalamo-cortical connectivity patterns towards ketamine-induced neuronal dysregulation, which may be relevant for the understanding of ScZ as a disorder of disinhibition of neural circuits. PMID:25987642

  13. Subcortical anarthria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, J; Morasso, C; Funes, J; Ollari, J; Videla, H; Diez, M

    2001-07-01

    A 56-year-old right-handed male with a history of hypertension and diabetes presented two episodes of stroke: The first affected territory was the left anterior coroidal artery (capsular and paracapsular infarcts at the level of the genu and posterior arm of the internal capsule) and the second was the right thalamus, due to a hematoma. Following the first stroke, the patient developed severe dysarthria and after the second stroke remained anarthric. The pathophysiology of the disorder is discussed, and the role of the left and right thalamus as far as speech is concerned is reviewed.

  14. Ten Novel Mutations in Chinese Patients with Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts and a Long-Term Follow-Up Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Cao

    Full Text Available Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC, OMIM 604004 is a rare neurological deterioration disease. We aimed to clarify clinical and genetic features of Chinese MLC patients.Clinical information and peripheral venous blood of 20 patients and their families were collected, Sanger-sequencing and Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification were performed to make genetic analysis. Splicing-site mutation was confirmed with RT-PCR. UPD was detected by haplotype analysis. Follow-up study was performed through telephone for 27 patients.Out of 20 patients, macrocephaly, classic MRI features, motor development delay and cognitive impairment were detected in 20(100%, 20(100%, 17(85% and 4(20% patients, respectively. 20(100% were clinically diagnosed with MLC. 19(95% were genetically diagnosed with 10 novel mutations in MLC1, MLC1 and GlialCAM mutations were identified in 15 and 4 patients, respectively. Deletion mutation from exon4 to exon9 and a homozygous point mutation due to maternal UPD of chromosome22 in MLC1 were found firstly. c.598-2A>C in MLC1 leads to the skip of exon8. c.772-1G>C in MLC1 accounting for 15.5%(9/58 alleles in Chinese patients might be a founder or a hot-spot mutation. Out of 27 patients in the follow-up study, head circumference was ranged from 56cm to 61cm in patients older than 5yeas old, with a median of 57cm. Motor development delay and cognitive impairment were detected in 22(81.5% and 5(18.5% patients, respectively. Motor and cognitive deterioration was found in 5 (18.5% and 2 patients (7.4%, respectively. Improvements and MRI recovery were first found in Chinese patients. Rate of seizures (45.5%, transient motor retrogress (45.5% and unconsciousness (13.6% after head trauma was much higher than that after fever (18.2%, 9.1%, 0%, respectively.It's a clinical and genetic analysis and a follow-up study for largest sample of Chinese MLC patients, identifying 10 novel mutations, expanding mutation

  15. Thyroid hormone-dependent formation of a subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) in the neonatal brain is not exacerbated under conditions of low dietary iron (FeD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, S R; Bastian, T W; Wang, Y; Kosian, P; Anderson, G W; Gilbert, M E

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for brain development and insufficiencies can lead to structural abnormalities in specific brain regions. Administration of the goitrogen propylthiouracil (PTU) reduces TH production by inhibiting thyroperoxidase (TPO), an enzyme that oxidizes iodide for the synthesis of TH. TPO activity is iron (Fe)-dependent and dietary iron deficiency (FeD) also reduces circulating levels of TH. We have previously shown that modest degrees of TH insufficiency induced in pregnant rat dams alters the expression of TH-responsive genes in the cortex and hippocampus of the neonate, and results in the formation of a subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) in the corpus callosum (Royland et al., 2008, Bastian et al., 2014, Gilbert et al., 2014). The present experiment investigated if FeD alone was sufficient to induce a SBH or if FeD would augment SBH formation at lower doses of PTU. One set of pregnant rats was administered 0, 1, 3, or 10ppm of PTU via drinking water starting on gestational day (GD) 6. FeD was induced in a 2nd set of dams beginning on GD2. A third set of dams received the FeD diet from GD2 paired with either 1ppm or 3ppm PTU beginning on GD6. All treatments continued until the time of sacrifice. On PN18, one female pup from each litter was sacrificed and the brain examined for SBH. We observed lower maternal, PN2 and PN18 pup serum T4 in response to PTU. FeD reduced serum T4 in pups on PN16, but did not affect serum T4 in dams or PN2 pups. Neither did FeD in combination with PTU alter T4 levels in dams on PN18 or pups on PN2 compared to PTU treatment alone. By PN16, however more severe T4 reductions were observed in pups when FeD was combined with PTU. SBH increased with increasing dosage of PTU, but counter to our hypothesis, no SBH was detected in the offspring of FeD dams. As such, T4 levels in dams and newborn pups rather than older neonates appear to be a better predictor SBH associated with TH insufficiency. These data indirectly

  16. The Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Subcortical Arteriosclerotic Encephalopathy%皮层下动脉硬化性脑病的临床及脑血管病理特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金嬉

    2007-01-01

    @@ 皮层下动脉硬化性脑病(subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy,SAE)又称Binswanger病(Binswanger disease,BD),是一种较为常见的小血管性痴呆.国外文献报道SAE(本文以下称BD)占老年人口的1%~5%[1],有资料显示BD约占我国老年人口的2%[2](402例老年人尸检中有9例确诊为BD).

  17. 皮质下型血管性认知障碍的核磁共振视觉半定量分析%The MRI semi-volumetric analysis of subcortical vascular cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐群; 曹雯炜; 周滟; 李焰生

    2013-01-01

    目的明确皮质下型血管性认知障碍( s-VCI)的影像标志物。方法92例皮质下缺血性血管病( SIVD)患者,经神经心理检查和临床访谈,分为无认知障碍(NCI)组29例、血管性轻度认知障碍(VaMCI)组39例和血管性痴呆(VaD)组24例。登记并比较不同认知组患者的人口学、血管危险因素和影像学资料。结果三组患者在皮质下白质腔隙性梗死( LI)数量、白质病变(WML)评分、内侧颞叶萎缩(MTA)(均P<0.01)和皮质萎缩(CA)(P<0.05)评分方面的差异有统计学意义。其中,VaMCI和VaD组的白质LI数目高于NCI组(分别P<0.01和P<0.05));VaD组的WML程度重于VaMCI组和NCI组(均P<0.01);VaD组的MTA评分高于NCI组( P<0.01);VaD组和VaMCI组的CA评分高于NCI组(均P<0.05)。两个认知障碍组的WML程度、MTA评分、CA评分、皮质下白质LI数目(均P<0.01)和所有LI总数高于NCI组( P<0.05)。 Logistic回归分析显示教育程度低、糖尿病、白质的LI、MTA和CA评分是s-VCI的独立危险因素。结论 s-VCI与低教育水平、糖尿病、皮质下白质损伤和皮质及内侧颞叶萎缩独立相关。%Objective To explore the neuroimaging markers of subcortical vascular cognitive impairment ( s-VCI) . Methods Based on the detailed neuropsychological tests and clinical interview , 92 subjects with subcortical ischemic vascular disease ( SIVD ) were recruited and classified into three groups according to their cognitive state, 29 patients with no cognitive impairment (NCI), 39 patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment ( VaMCI ) , and 24 patients with vascular dementia ( VaD ) . Their demographic , vascular risk factors and neuroimaging data were compared . Results The differences between the three groups in the number of subcortical white matter lacunar infarcts ( LI) as well as the scores of the white matter lesions ( WML) , medial

  18. Remote Cortical Reorganization following Sub-Cortical Infarction:A Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Study%皮层下梗死远隔皮层重塑VBM初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建新; 冀旗玲; 那旭; 李坤成

    2014-01-01

    目的 利用基于体素的形态学测量(VBM)方法,探讨皮层下梗死患者远隔部位的脑灰质结构重塑及其与运动预后的关系.方法 对11例皮层下梗死患者分别于发病5天内、3个月后行高分辨率MRI全脑容积扫描,并进行美国国立卫生院卒中量表(NIHSS)和运动力指数(MI)评估,应用VBM方法计算患者急性期、陈旧期全脑灰质体积的差异,并分析其与康复指标的相关性.结果 陈旧期时患侧中央前回、中扣带回及健侧小脑Ⅵ区、Crus1灰质体积明显减少,而健侧中央前回、眶额回、腹侧前额叶及患侧小脑Crus1灰质体积增加,且双侧中央前回、健侧小脑Ⅵ区、眶额回灰质体积与康复评分(NIHSS和MI)相关.结论 皮层下脑梗死后存在广泛的远隔皮层重塑,可能与患者预后相关,进一步的研究对揭示梗死后神经功能恢复机制具有重要意义.%Objective To investigate the reorganization in remote cerebral areas after sub-cortical infarction by using a longitudinal voxel-based gray matter volume (GMV) analysis.Methods Eleven patients with ischemic stroke that involved sub-cortical regions underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 5 days and three months after the onset of the infarction.The patients were evaluated using National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Motricity Index (MI).Using VBM method the GMV of the acute stage and chronic stage was calculated and the results were compared between the two stages.The correlation between GMV and rehabilitation indexes (NIHSS and MI) was analyzed.Results Compared with the acute stage,significant decrease in GMV was found in the ipsi-lateral precentral gyrus (PreCG),midcingulate cortex and contralesional cerebellar lobule Ⅵ (CBVI),cerebellar lobule Crus 1 in the chronic stage,while significant increase in GMV was seen in the contra-lateral precentral gyrus,orbitofrontal cortex (OFC),ventral prefrontal cortex,and ipsi

  19. Contribution to the evaluation of language disturbances in subcortical lesions: a piloty study Contribuição à avaliação dos distúrbios de linguagem em lesões subcorticais: estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Radanovic

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical structures are in a strategic functional position within the cognitive networks and their lesion can interfere with a great number of functions. In this study, we describe fourteen subjects with exclusively subcortical vascular lesions (eight in the basal ganglia and six in the thalamus and the interrelation between their language alterations and other cognitive abilities, as attention, memory and frontal executive functions. All patients were evaluated through the following batteries: Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, Token Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Trail Making, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and a frontal scripts task. All patients underwent MRI and twelve underwent SPECT. Results show that these patients present impairment in several cognitive domains, especially attention and executive functions. These alterations affect language abilities, and this fact must be considered in the rehabilitation efforts.As estruturas subcorticais ocupam posição funcional estratégica nas redes cognitivas e sua lesão pode interferir com um grande número de funções. Neste estudo, descrevemos 14 indivíduos com lesões vasculares exclusivamente subcorticais (oito em núcleos da base e seis no tálamo e a interrelação entre suas alterações de linguagem e de outras funções cognitivas, como atenção, memória e funções executivas. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados através dos seguintes testes: Teste de Boston para Diagnóstico da Afasia, Teste de Nomeação Boston, Teste Token, Teste Benton de Retenção Visual, Trail Making, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test e uma tarefa de scripts frontais. Todos os pacientes realizaram RM de crânio e doze realizaram SPECT. Os resultados mostram que estes pacientes apresentam prejuízo nas várias funções cognitivas, especialmente atenção e funções executivas. Estas alterações afetam as habilidades lingüísticas e devem ser levadas em consideração nos esfor

  20. Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull; Estudo comparativo do tono muscular na paralisia cerebral tetraparetica em criancas com lesoes predominantemente corticais ou subcorticais na tomografia computadorizada de cranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabe, Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia; Piovesana, Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Ambulatorio Multidisciplinar de Paralisia Cerebral e Neurologia Infantil

    2003-09-01

    The objective was to compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy (CP), correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children) and subcortical lesions (six children) were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL) and lower limbs (LLLL) based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. The result showed that there was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. It was concluded that in this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL. (author)

  1. A clinical study of single subcortical cerebral infarction of middle cerebral artery territory%大脑中动脉供血区皮层下单个脑梗死的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 于玲; 秦伟; 张小雨; 李悦; 徐霁华; 胡秀朝; 袁俊亮; 顾华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of single subcortical cerebral infarction of middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory and the possible pathogenesis.Methods A total of 344 cases diagnosed as single subcortical cerebral infarction of MCA territory were enrolled in the study and divided into the parent artery disease (PAD) group and the non-PAD group according to whether the MCA stenosis was presented or not.A total of 312 cases diagnosed as single subcortical cerebral infarction of MCA territory were divided into the BAD group and the SVD group according to the relationship between the lesion sites and MCA.Differences in the clinical and imaging feature were compared between different groups.Results A total of 32 patients were in the PAD group.Compared with the non-PAD group,patients in the PAD group were found with higher prevalence of asymptomatic cerebral arterial atherosclerosis [93.8% (30/32) vs 57.1% (178/312),P < 0.001],higher prevalence of branch atheromatous disease [75.0% (24/32) vs 58.7% (183/312),P =0.072].A total of 183 patients were in the BAD group.Compared with the BAD group,patients in the SVD group were older[(64.7 ± 11.2) years vs (61.7 ± 12.2) years,P =0.031],more with hypertension [65.9% (85/129) vs 53.0% (97/183),P =0.027] and smoking [41.9% (54/129) vs 57.9% (106/183),P =0.006] and more severe leukoaraiosis.Conclusions Single subcortical cerebral infarction of MCA territory has different etiology and pathogenesis.Evidence of systemic atherosclerosis should be carefully searched in patients with branch atheromatous disease.%目的 探讨大脑中动脉供血区皮层下单个脑梗死的临床特征及可能的发病机制.方法 回顾性分析344例大脑中动脉供血区皮层下单个脑梗死患者资料.根据大脑中动脉是否存在狭窄分为载体动脉疾病(PAD)组和载体动脉正常组(non-PAD组),分别为32例和312例.non-PAD组再根据头部MRI显示的病灶与大脑中动脉的关系

  2. The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, E; Bregains, J; Relova-Quinteiro, J L; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Jorge-Barreiro, F J; Ares-Pena, F J

    2009-05-01

    The action of the pulse-modulated GSM radiofrequency of mobile phones has been suggested as a physical phenomenon that might have biological effects on the mammalian central nervous system. In the present study, GSM-exposed picrotoxin-pretreated rats showed differences in clinical and EEG signs, and in c-Fos expression in the brain, with respect to picrotoxin-treated rats exposed to an equivalent dose of unmodulated radiation. Neither radiation treatment caused tissue heating, so thermal effects can be ruled out. The most marked effects of GSM radiation on c-Fos expression in picrotoxin-treated rats were observed in limbic structures, olfactory cortex areas and subcortical areas, the dentate gyrus, and the central lateral nucleus of the thalamic intralaminar nucleus group. Nonpicrotoxin-treated animals exposed to unmodulated radiation showed the highest levels of neuronal c-Fos expression in cortical areas. These results suggest a specific effect of the pulse modulation of GSM radiation on brain activity of a picrotoxin-induced seizure-proneness rat model and indicate that this mobile-phone-type radiation might induce regional changes in previous preexcitability conditions of neuronal activation.

  3. Ischemic preconditioning-induced hyperperfusion correlates with hepatoprotection after liver resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oleg; Heizmann; Georgios; Meimarakis; Andreas; Volk; Daniel; Matz; Daniel; Oertli; Rolf; J; Schauer

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To characterize the impact of the Pringle ma-neuver (PM) and ischemic preconditioning (IP) on total blood supply to the liver following hepatectomies. METHODS: Sixty one consecutive patients who un-derwent hepatic resection under in flow occlusion were randomized either to receive PM alone (n = 31) or IP (10 min of ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion) prior to PM (n = 30). Quantification of liver perfusion was measured by Doppler probes at the hepatic artery and portal vein at various time points...

  4. Volume changes of cortical and subcortical reward circuitry in the brain of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus%2型糖尿病患者脑部皮层及皮层下奖赏环路研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志晔; 李金锋; 刘梦雨; 马林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the volume changes of cortical and subcortical reward circuitry in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods High-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images were obtained from 16 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 16 normal controls, and 11 type 2 diabetic patients also received the same MRI scans after insulin therapy for 1 year. Volumetric analysis was performed and analysis of covariance and paired t test were applied. Results A decreased volume was found in the left insular lobe, left nucleus accumbens area, right hippocampus, putamen and amygdala in type 2 diabetic patients compared with normal controls (P0.05), and bilateral ventral diencephalon area showed an increased volume after the treatment (left, 3.26±0.68 ml;right, 3.20±0.78 ml) compared with the baseline (left, 2.96 ± 0.76 ml;right, 2.82 ± 0.90 ml) (P<0.05). Conclusion Type 2 diabetic patients have a decreased volume of the cortical and subcortical reward circuitry, and insulin therapy can reverse such changes and improve the damage of reward circuitry.%目的探索2型糖尿病患者皮层及皮层下奖赏环路体积变化,以及胰岛素治疗对奖赏环路的影响。方法对16名2型糖尿病患者及16名健康志愿者进行脑形态学分析,其中11名2型糖尿病患者进行基线(胰岛素治疗前)及随访水平(胰岛素治疗1年)的体积测量。统计学方法采用协方差分析及配对t检验。结果2型糖尿病患者左侧岛叶及伏隔核区、右侧海马、壳核及杏仁核体积显著小于对照组。接受胰岛素治疗1年后双侧皮层奖赏系统体积(左侧:33.65±3.66 ml;右侧:33.35±4.25 ml)显著高于基线水平(左侧:31.45±2.90 ml;右侧:31.12±2.97 ml);双侧基底节食物奖赏系统结构体积无显著差异;双侧腹侧间脑体积随访水平(左侧:3.26±0.68 ml;右侧:3.20±0.78 ml)较基线水平(左侧:2

  5. The value of diffusion tensor imaging in the differential diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Ting (Dept. of Neurology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)); Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Li, Wen-Bin (Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)), Email: liwenbin@sh163.net

    2012-04-15

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a form of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows examination of the microstructural integrity of white matter in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease, and DTI can provide indirect insights of the microstructural characteristics of brains in individuals with different forms of dementia. Purpose: To evaluate the value of DTI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: The study included 40 patients (20 AD patients and 20 SIVD patients) and 20 normal controls (NC). After routine MRI and DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured and compared in regions of interest (ROI). Results: Compared to NC and AD patients, SIVD patients had lower FA values and higher ADC values in the inferior-fronto-occipital fascicles (IFOF), genu of the corpus callosum (GCC), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Compared to controls and SIVD patients, AD patients had lower FA values in the anterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, IFOF, GCC, and CF; and higher ADC values in the temporal lobe and hippocampus. Conclusion: DTI can be used to estimate the white matter impairment in dementia patients. There were significant regional reductions of FA values and heightened ADC values in multiple regions in SIVD patients compared to AD patients. When compared with conventional MRI, DTI may provide a more objective method for the differential diagnosis of SIVD and AD disease patients who have only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted imaging

  6. 四种不同脑部位卒中后认知功能状况比较%A comparison study on cognitive function in patients with single subcortical lesion stroke of four different areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚文苹; 丁美萍; 郭起浩; 裘林秋; 黄思宇; 周新祥

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较4种皮质下单灶性卒中患者的认知损害的特点,了解丘脑和基底节的认知功能,为早期识别血管性认知功能损害(VCI)患者提供依据.方法 使用成套的神经心理测验评估63例皮质下单灶卒中患者和34名健康对照组,病例组患者分为左丘脑卒中组(14例)、左基底节卒中组(17例)、右丘脑卒中组(15例)和右基底节卒中组(17例)4个组进行比较,5个组别的年龄、性别、教育程度比较差异无统计学意义.结果 (1)在记忆、注意/执行功能、语言能力、空间功能等存在广泛的认知功能损害,病例组明显差于对照组(P<0.05).(2)与其他3个卒中组相比,左侧丘脑卒中组在言语功能(BNT:16.6分±2.6分)、听觉即刻回忆(12.8个±4.4个)、听觉长延迟记忆回忆(2.4个±2.3个)、听觉再认(19.1个±3.1个)、结构延迟记忆(9.1分±4.7分)、SDMT偶然记忆(0.9分±1.1分)方面都比较差,左丘脑的损害对认知功能影响最严重(P<0.05).(3)左基底节组患者在与右手操作相关的项目(TMT-A耗时数75 8±22 s、TMT-B耗时数204 s±81 s、CIY123.5分±4.6分、SDMT24个±9个)表现优于另外3个卒中组,而接近健康对照组(P<0.05).结论 卒中后认知功能可能存在一般的、非选择性的认知功能损害,同时,不同部位卒中所致认知损害各有特点,其中左丘脑卒中相对最为严重,而左基底节卒中后右手的功能训练有助于改善操作相关的心理测验的表现.%Objective Comparing the characteristics of cognitive impairment of patients with single subcortical lesion stroke of four different areas,we are to explore the cognitive function of the thalamus and basal ganglia and this is help for early identification of vascular cognitive impairment(VCI).Methods 63 patients with single subcortical lesion stroke(including 14 left thalamic stoke group,17 left basal ganglia stroke group,15 right thalamic stroke group,17 right basal ganglia stroke group

  7. Longitudinal investigation on the feature-binding working memory after subcortical infarction%皮层下脑梗死患者特征-整合工作记忆的动态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中华; 袁小敏; 曾进胜

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨单一病灶皮层下脑梗死患者在发病后不同时间点分别从事特征工作记忆和整合工作记忆时的认知行为特点.方法 28例单一病灶皮层下脑梗死患者,25名年龄、性别及文化程度相匹配的健康志愿者为对照在实验期间进行一次相同任务测试.在发病基线(W1)、发病3个月(M3)以及发病6个月(M6)分别从事颜色、空间和颜色-空间整合3种工作记忆延迟匹配样本任务,计算机记录其行为反应时间和正确率,并统计学分析.结果 W1与M3比较,3种记忆任务的正确率[(61.06±7.78)%,(64.92±5.47)%;(90.59±2.95)%,(92.88±2.98)%;(77.06±5.58)%,(82.35±7.44)%]均有提高,其反应时间[(914.02±110.53) ms,(868.31±118.91) ms;(859.89±139.94)ms,(833.37±120.99)ms;(1150.17 ±92.02) ms,(918.72±101.28)ms]缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);M6与M3比较,空间任务的正确率[(93.91±2.86)%;(92.88±2.98)%]进一步提高,反应时间[(813.24±119.54)ms;(833.37±120.99) ms]缩短,而颜色任务的正确率[(64.50±4.49)%;(64.92±5.47)%]和反应时间[(866.47±123.87)ms; (868.31±118.91)ms]差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),整合任务的正确率[(78.49±7.85)%;(82.35±7.44)%]却有显著性下降(P<0.05),几乎降至发病基线水平[(77.06±5.58)%];与对照组相比,除M6时空间记忆指标[(93.91±2.86)%;(813.24±119.54)ms]差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),其余均差异有统计学意义.结论 单一病灶皮层下脑梗死患者在发病后特征及整合记忆均有不同程度损害,半年时空间记忆基本恢复至正常,但整合记忆存在继发性损害,这可能与脑梗死后神经纤维继发性损害有关.%Objective To investigate the cognitive behavioral characteristic longitudinally of the patients after subcortical infarction engaged in feature and binding working memory tasks.Methods The behavioral performances were recorded from 28 patients after subcortical

  8. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutenkova, E.; Aitmagambetova, G.; Khodanovich, M.; Bowen, J.; Gangadharan, B.; Henson, L.; Mayadev, A.; Repovic, P.; Qian, P.; Yarnykh, V.

    2016-02-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus.

  9. Characteristics of attention executive function impairment in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease%皮质下缺血性血管病患者注意执行功能损害特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐群; 曹雯炜; 林岩; 潘元美; 李焰生

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨皮质下缺血性血管病(SIVD)患者注意-执行功能损害的特征.方法 收集SIVD患者95例,并按照认知功能分为无认知障碍组(NCI组)29例、血管性认知障碍非痴呆组(VCI- ND组)40例、血管性痴呆组(VaD组)26例.对所有患者进行全面神经心理测查并分析.结果 95例SIVD患者中,有VCI患者66例,占69.5%,其中VCI-ND患者40例,占VCI总数的60.6%.3组患者执行功能各项测验(DS-F除外)均以VaD组损害最严重,NCI组最轻,3组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).VCI-ND组和VaD组注意-执行标准分数在各项认知域评分中最低.结论 SIVD患者认知损害的突出领域是注意-执行功能,再认和即刻记忆相对保留是其记忆损害的特点.抑郁和其他精神行为异常多见于认知障碍患者.%Objective To study the characteristics of cognitive emotion impairment in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD). Methods Ninety-five S1VD patients were divided into non-cognitive impairment NCI )group(n = 29) .vascular cognitive impairment with no demen-tia(VCI-ND) group(n = 40) and vascular dementiaCVaD) group(n = 26) according to their cognitive status. All the patients underwent neuropsychological test. Results Of the 95 SIVD patients, 66(69. 5%) had NCI,40(60. 6%) had VCI-ND. The attention executive function score Z was the lowest among all scores of different cognitive domains. Conclusion The main domain of cognitive impairment in SIVD patients is the attention executive function impairment,which is characterized by recognition and immediate recall. Depression and other abnormal psychiatric behaviors are usually found in patients with cognitive impairment.

  10. Cerebrovascular reactivity by using arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging in subcortical ischemic vascular disease%皮质下缺血性血管病脑血管反应性磁共振研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒敏; 章军建; 高永哲; 张洪; 吴光耀

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过观察皮质下缺血性血管病(SIVD)患者不同脑区局部脑血管反应性(CVR)的变化及认知功能的损害,探讨 SIVD 局部 CVR 的改变在认知功能损害中的作用。方法:采用动脉自旋标记(ASL)磁共振灌注技术定量测定 SIVD 患者与对照组吸入5% CO2前后额叶、颞叶、顶叶、枕叶皮质和白质局部血流量(rCBF),CVR 采用前后2次各兴趣区 rCBF 的增加率表示。结果:(1) SIVD 组额叶皮质及白质、颞叶白质、枕叶白质的 CVR 比对照组显著降低(P <0.05)。(2) SIVD 组有认知功能损害患者和无认知功能损害患者相比额叶皮质、额叶白质 CVR 下降明显(P <0.01)。结论:SIVD 患者存在广泛的脑血管自动调节功能受损,并且额叶皮质、白质的 CVR 下降与认知功能损害有关。%Objective To assess regional cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and cognition impairment of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD). To show whether CVR affects cognitive impairment of SIVD patients. Methods Arterial spin-labeling (ASL) by MR image was applied in measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobes after 5% CO2 inhalation, and the CVR was demonstrated by increase rate of rCBF in all the subject areas. Results (1)The patients with SIVD had reduced CVR in cortex of frontal lobes, white matter of frontal lobes, temporal lobes and occipital lobes(P < 0.05). (2) CVR in the SIVD patients with cognitive impairment decreased in frontal cortex and white matter when compared with the patients without cognitive impairment(P < 0.01). Conclusion These results showed that CVR decreased significantly in cortical gray matter and white matter in elderly patients with SIVD. Also the reduction of CVR in the frontal cortex and white matter was associated with cognitive impairment.

  11. Awaking anaesthesia and intraoperative cortico-subcortical electrostimulation in surgery for secondary epilepsy induced by lesions in cerebral eloquent regions%全麻唤醒和术中电刺激在脑功能区病灶性癫痫手术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚一; 高鹏; 张小斌; 谭启富; 方赟; 王逢鹏; 江建东; 黄德志; 刘小伟; 沈七襄

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss the application of awaking anesthesia and intraoperative cortico-subcortical electrostimulation in the surgery for patients with secondary epilepsy induced by lesions in eloquent areas. Methods A total of 11 patients initiated with epileptic seizure were collected in our study. All patients were right-handed and 5 had neurological dysfunction, and the mean Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores were 87. Skull MRI and long-term video-EEG monitoring were performed for all patients, and 6 of them got functional MRI. The surgeries were performed under intravenous anesthesia: 4 got trachea intubation and the other 7 were performed pharyngeal esophageal intubation under awaking anesthesia. Electrocorticographic recordings were adopted to confirm the epileptogenic zone, and then cortical electrical stimulus was performed to locate the cortical functional area. Under subcortical electrostimulation monitoring, we resected the lesions by the methods of focal cortical resection or multiple subpial transaction (MST) according to the relation between epileptogenic zone and functional cortex; during the resection, subcortical electrostimulation was adopted to protect the tracts lay in the sub-cortex. Results Total resection was achieved in 10 patients, and subtotal excision in 1. The epileptogenic zone was performed cortical resection or pia mater-fiber transverse amputation.Two cases got transient hemiparalysis after operation. Followed up for 6-20 months, none of the patients had neurologic deficit, and the average KPS scores were 100. Epilepsies were well-controlled using only one antiepileptic drug. Conclusion Pharyngeal esophageal intubation under awaking anesthesia is safe and convenient. With the monitoring of intraoperative cortico-subcortical electrostimulation, we can resect the lesions up to the hilt and protect the eloquent areas effectively, and improve the life quality of patients.%目的 探讨全麻唤醒和术中电刺激在脑功能区

  12. Analysis of DCX gene mutation in a patient featuring X-linked subcortical laminar heterotopia and epilepsy%一例皮质下带状灰质异位伴癫痫患者的DCX基因突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文; 张美品; 侯仲军; 曾涛; 汤斌; 刘晓蓉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect potential mutation of Doublecortin (DCX) gene in a patient featuring X-linked subcortical laminar heterotopia (X-SCLH) and epilepsy.Methods Mutation of the DCX gene was screened by PCR and direct sequencing.Pathogenicity of the mutation was analyzed with a PolyPhen-2 software.Results A de novo missense mutation c.971T>C (p.Phe324Ser) was discovered.Conclusion A diagnostic method for X-linked subcortical laminar heterotopia has been established,which may facilitate diagnosis and genetic counseling of patients featuring X-SCLH.%目的 对1例皮质下带状灰质异位伴癫痫患者进行Doublecort in (DCX)基因突变检测.方法 提取患者外周血基因组DNA,用PCR扩增其DCX基因所有外显子并测序,用PolyPhen-2软件进行致病突变分析.结果 发现患者DCX基因第6外显子存在1个新生错义突变c.971T>C(p.Phe324Ser),该突变为杂合突变.PolyPhen-2分析其极可能为致病位点.结论 明确了1例皮质下带状灰质异位伴癫痫患者DCX基因的致病突变,这将有助于遗传咨询及产前诊断.

  13. 大脑中动脉粥样硬化斑块与单发性皮质下梗死的相关性%Correlation between middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic plaques and single subcortical infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可颜; 程敬亮; 张勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between middle cerebral artery (MCA) atherosclerotic plaques and single subcortical infarction (SSI) using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI).Methods The patients with SSI received HR-MRI examinations at the ipsilateral MCA horizontal segment stenosis from January 2012 to November 2014 were analyzed prospectively.They were divided into proximal SSI (pSSI) and distal SSI (dSSI).The longitudinal and transverse diameters and volume of different types of infarction pattern as well as the degree of luminal stenosis of MCA deep perforating parent artery,plaque distribution,plaque enhancement or not,white matter lesions,and general information of both groups were documented respectively.Results A total of 78 patients with SSI were enrolled,including 40 (51%) in the pSSI group and 38 (49%) in the dSSI group.The proportions of Fazekas scale grade 3 white matter lesions (63.5%vs.40.0%;x2 =4.183,P=0.041) and deep white matter lesions (50.0% vs.15.0%;x2 =10.961,P =0.001) in the dSSI group were significantly higher than those in the pSSI group.The proportions of MCA plaque in the opening (35.0% vs.13.2%;x2=3.930,P=0.047),plaque enhancement (87.5% vs.30.0%;x2 =25.447,P < 0.001) and posterosuperior wall plaques (42.5% vs.21.4%;x2 =9.491,P < 0.001) and the degree of luminal stenosis (60.38% ± 10.20% vs.45.00% ±6.44%;t =3.625,P =0.031) in the pSSI group were all significantly higher than those in the dSSI group.In addition,the longitudinal and transverse diameters and volume of the infarcts in the pSSI group were significantly larger than those in the dSSI group (all P < 0.001).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MCA enhanced plaques on the lesionipsilateral sides (odds ratio[OR] 11.764,95% confidence interval[CI] 2.081-66.511;P =0.005) and posterosuperior wall plaques (OR 6.131,95% CI 1.012-23.339;P =0.037) were independently associated with pSSI,while deep white

  14. 脑萎缩对皮质下缺血性血管病患者认知功能的影响%Effect of brain atrophy on the cognition in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童宣霞; 王龙; 周霞; 张超; 方良; 周雅婕; 孙中武

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of brain atrophy on the cognition in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD).Methods A total of 116 SIVD patients were enrolled from the Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University between September 2013 and December 2014.Lobar atrophy, leukoaraiosis (LA), lacunar infarcts (LI) and vascular risk factors were analyzed in the 116 SIVD patients who were divided into three groups according to the diagnostic criteria: non-cognitive impairment group (SIVD-NCI) , mild cognitive impairment group (SIVD-MCI) and dement group (SIVD-VaD).All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 3.0-T system.The cognitive functions were evaluated by mini-metal state examination (MMSE), the Cambridge cognitive examination-Chinese version (CAMCOG-C), etc.A widely used visual atrophy rating method (0 to 3) was adopted to rate the severity of frontal, parietal and temporal lobe atrophy.The degree of LA and the numbers of LI in 4 brain regions (frontal, parieto-occipital, temporal, and basal ganglia) were evaluated meanwhile.Results Firstly, both the SIVD-MCI and SIVD-VaD groups showed significantly higher total scores of atrophy, higher frontal lobe atrophy scores, higher LA scores and larger LI numbers than SIVD-NCI (H=6.138, P=0.013;H=45.845, P=0.000;H=36.818, P=0.000;H=37.46, P =0.000).There were no significant differences in temporal lobe atrophy scores between SIVD-NCI group and SIVD-MCI group.Parietal lobe atrophy scores also showed no differences among the three groups.Secondly, as well as total numbers of LI, total scores of atrophy and LA were negatively correlated with SIVD cognition,especially frontal lobe atrophy scores, parieto-occipital LA scores and basal ganglia LI numbers had a remarkable negative correlation with MMSE scores, CAMCOG-C scores and partial subitems in CAMCOG-C scores (P < 0.005).However temporal LI numbers was absence of correlation with MMSE scores

  15. Hemichorea-hemiballismus caused by postoperative hyperperfusion after clipping of a giant unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Oya

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case appears consistent with the theory that the connecting fibers responsible for the development of HC-HB are also located in the frontal lobe. The treatment of giant aneurysms involving the M1 portion can cause abrupt hemodynamic changes in both frontal cortex and the basal ganglia, which can potentially induce postoperative movement disorders.

  16. A voxel-based analysis of cerebral perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Kim, Hee Joung; Chang, Jin Woo; Kim, Chan Hyung; Lee, Hong Shick; Min, Sung Kil; Chung, Sang Sup [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Many neuroimaging studies, especially metabolic imaging with PET, showed a specific frontal-subcortical brain circuit connecting the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, elements of basal ganglia and thalamus is involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite consistent metabolic alteration on PET, blood flow studies with SPECT were inconsistent and various cortical and subcortical structures showed abnormal perfusion patterns. In this study, brain SPECT images of seven patients with OCD were evaluated with a sophisticated method of statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Seven patients with severe, primary OCD (6 males and 1 female) with mean age of 25.4 4.7 yrs (20-32 yrs) were studied. The SPECT data of the patients were compared with those of healthy subjects and patients with drug nave schizophrenia using SPM. The SPM parameters were p value of 0.001 with Z value of 3.09 (higher threshold ) or p value of 0.005 with Z value 2.58 (lower threshold). On a higher threshold (p<0.01),five of the seven patients showed hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex, however, hyperperfusion within OFC or caudate nucleus was seen in only one patient. On a lower threshold (p<0.005), hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was seen in all patients, and followed by thalamus (n=5), lentiform nucleus (n=4), caudate nucleus (n=3), and OFC (n=3). Perfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was also increased in OCD compared with drug nave schizophrenia. Anterior cingulate cortex appears to be an important anatomical structure in the pathogenesis of OCD symptoms. Brain SPECT using a sophisticated analysis method of SPM is useful for the diagnosis of OCD and differentiation from schizophrenia.

  17. The Clinical Effect Observation of Nimodipine and Donepezil for the Patients with Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Cognitive Impairment%尼莫地平与多奈哌齐治疗皮质下缺血性血管性认知功能障碍患者的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴修信; 李立新; 黄志勇; 廖品君

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较尼莫地平与多奈哌齐对皮质下缺血性血管性认知障碍(SIVCI)患者的临床疗效.方法 将90例SIVCI患者,随机分成3组,每组30例患者入选,2个实验组,分别为盐酸多奈哌齐组(给予多奈哌齐5 mg,每日1次,睡前口服)、尼莫地平组(尼莫地平30 mg,每日3次口服)及对照组.3组均使用基础药物治疗,基础药物为阿司匹林肠溶片100 mg每日1次 ;银杏叶提取物片,40 mg,每日3次.观察各组患者用药24周后各组间MoCA评分变化.结果 与对照组比较,尼莫地平组患者服药24周后,MoCA评分提高1.60(P <0.05),有显著差异 ;与对照组比较,多奈哌齐组患者服药24周后MoCA评分提高4.26(P <0.0001),有显著差异.与尼莫地平组比较,多奈哌齐组患者服药24周后,MoCA评分平均提高2.51(P <0.0001),有显著差异.结论 多奈哌齐与尼莫地平,均可用于治疗SIVCI,多奈哌齐疗效优于尼莫地平.%Objective To compare nimodipine and donepezil for their clinical effect on the patients with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI). Methods 90 cases with SIVCI, randomly e-venly divided into 3 groups,are treated with aspirin(100 mg qd,po)and ginkgo biloba extract tablets(40 mg tid po) ;2 experimental groups,hydrochloric donepezil group(5 mg/d donepezil,qn, po) and nimodipine group (30 mg Nimodipine tid po). To observe the variety of MoCA score among groups after 24 weeks treatment. Results To compare with the control group, the MoCA score of nimodipine and donepezil group increases 1.60 (P<0. 05) ,4. 26 (P <0.0001 ) , repectively, with significant differences. To compare with the nimodipine group,the MoCA score of donepezil group increases 2. 51 (P <0. 0001) with significant differences. Conclusion Both nimodipine and donepezil can be used to treat the patients with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment( SIVCI). And donepezil is more effective than nimodipine on cognitive impairment.

  18. 血纤维蛋白原水平对皮质下血管性痴呆患者脑白质疏松的影响的临床研究%Effect of plasma fibrinogen level on leukoaraiosis in patients with subcortical vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨映珊; 邱少雄; 黄江玲; 杨潮武

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of levels of fibrinogen,plasma homocysteine,and blood lipids on the degree of leukoaraiosis in patients with subcortical vascular dementia (SVD).Methods Blood levels of fibrinogen,homocysteine,high-density lipoprotein,low-density lipoprotein,apolipoprotein A,apolipoprotein B,triglyceride,and total cholesterol were measured in 37 hospitalized or clinic patients with SVD.Head was detected by magnetic resonance.According to Scheltens' s apporach,deep white matter hyperintense signals (DWMH) and periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) were determined semiquantitatively.All the collected biochemical indicators and risk factors were compared with the semiquantitative scores of DWMH and PVH.The clinical datas were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and single linear regression analysis.Results Pearson correlation analysis showed only plasma Fib level was positively related to the degree of PVH in SVD (P=0.034),and this relation didn' t exist between leukoaraiosis (DWMH and PVH) and other biochemical indicators (P>0.05).Single linear regression analysis revealed leukoaraiosis (DWMH and PVH) was not related with hypertension,smoking,stroke,diabetes,and hyperlipoidemia (P>0.05).Conclusions Plasma level of Fib is positively related with the degree of periventricular hyperintensity in subcortical vascular dementia.%目的 探讨血纤维蛋白原、同型半胱胺酸、血脂水平等因素对SVD的LA程度的影响.方法 对37例在我院住院和门诊就诊的SVD病例进行血纤维蛋白原(Fib)、同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、载脂蛋白A(Apoa)、载脂蛋白B(Apob)、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(CHOL)检测,头颅MRI检查,并收集相关的临床资料.参照Scheltens学者的方法,对皮质下白质高信号影(DWMH)和脑室周围白质高信号影(PVH)程度进行半定量.比较各测定的生化指标和合并的危险因素与DWMH和PVH的半定量分数的关系.应

  19. The Clinical Research of Attention Impairment in Patients with Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Cognitive Impairment%皮质下缺血性血管性认知损害患者注意功能障碍的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 郑健

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察皮质下缺血性血管性认知功能损害(SIVCI)患者注意亚型障碍的特征.方法:对30例非痴呆型SIVCI(SIVCIND)患者(SIVCIND组)、15例皮质下缺血性血管性痴呆(SIVD)患者(SIVD组)和15名健康志愿者(对照组)采用计算机上持续操作任务(CPT)、Stroop试验及双任务测试法测试持续注意、选择注意和分散注意功能.结果:与对照组比较,SIVD组CPT反应时延长,漏报率增加(P<0.05); SIVCIND组漏报率与对照组比较显著增加,差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01).SIVD患者冲突及中性条件下,反应时与错误率及干扰量均增加;SIVCIND患者Stroop试验冲突条件反应时延长(P<0.01)、双任务法耗时差无明显增加(P>0.05); SIVD患者耗时差增加(P<0.01).结论:SIVCIND早期主要以持续:注意及选择注意功能损害为主,晚期则持续注意、选择注意和分散注意功能普遍受累.%Aim: To observe the characteristics of different subtype of attention impairment in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment(SIVCI). Methods: The subjects included 30 patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia(SrVCIND), 15 patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and 15 control cases. Their function of sustained attention, selective attention and divided were tested by continuous performance task(CPT), Stroop test and dual task test. Results: ①Reaction time of CPT had significantly prolonged and omission rate of CPT had increased in SIVD group(.P0.05) in SIVCIND group compared with the control group. Reaction time, error rate and their interfered effect had obviously increased in SIVD group compared with the control group (P<0.01). ③ SIVD group did worse in dual task than the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: SIVCIND patients had predominance in sustained attention impairment completely and selective attention impairment partly. SIVD patients had general, obvious disorders in sustained

  20. 常染色体显性遗传性脑动脉病伴皮层下梗死和白质脑病的颅脑MRI表现%The cranial MRI appearance of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy in a family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金平; 孙冰莲; 余永强; 潘华; 汤永祥; 钱振; 高萍; 刘丰; 李惠芬

    2008-01-01

    目的 提高对常染色体显性遗传性脑动脉病伴皮层下梗死和白质脑病(CADASIL)的颅脑MRI表现的认识.方法 对一家系2代5例患者进行头颅常规MR和MR血管成像(MRA)检查.对经Notch3基因检查或皮肤组织活检超微病理检查确诊的3例和经MRI与临床诊断的1例CADASIL的MRI资料进行分析.结果 MR检查的5例中4例CADASIL均获得明确诊断,1例排除诊断.4例CADASIL均见两侧颞叶、额叶和顶叶大致对称性皮层下与侧脑室旁白质病灶,呈长T1、长T2信号,但枕叶累及甚少且皮层不受累;O'Sullivan征阳性4例,皮层下腔隙性损害(SLLs)征阳性2例;3例半卵圆中心可见多发圆形或卵圆形囊性梗死即"黑洞",4例均见多发圆点状血管周间隙即"胡椒罐盖"样征象;4例全部显示胼胝体单发或多发斑片状显著长T1、长T2信号,其中2例伴萎缩;内囊前肢与外囊均受累,呈"人"字征;基底节和脑干可见单发或多发陈旧性腔隙性梗死灶;1例伴右侧小脑小片状梗死灶;4例全部有轻度至中度的脑干、小脑和大脑萎缩;MRA颅内Ⅰ-Ⅲ级较大动脉均未见明显异常.结论 CADASIL的颅脑MRI表现具有一定的特征性,可为CADASIL的初诊和筛选提供重要依据.%Objective To recognize the cranial MRI appearance in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy(CADASIL). Methods Five patients with CADASIL from two generations in a family underwent routine MRI and MRA examinations.Three patients with CADASIL were confirmed by the Notch3 genetic testing and the vascular pathological Results and one was diagnosed on basis of MR and clinical manifestations. The imaging data from 4 patients with CADASIL were analyzed.Results Four cases achieved preliminary diagnosis of CADASIL and one was excluded by MRI.In 4 patients with CADASIL,bilateral symmetrical,confluent white matter lesions in the subcortical and Deriventricular regions were seen frequently

  1. Abnormal regional brain function in Parkinson's disease: truth or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chengke; Moeller, James R; Eidelberg, David

    2009-04-01

    Normalization of regional measurements by the global mean is commonly employed to minimize inter-subject variability in functional imaging studies. This practice is based on the assumption that global values do not substantially differ between patient and control groups. In this issue of NeuroImage, Borghammer and colleagues challenge the validity of this assumption. They focus on Parkinson's disease (PD) and use computer simulations to show that lower global values can produce spurious increases in subcortical brain regions. The authors speculate that the increased signal observed in these areas in PD is artefactual and unrelated to localized changes in brain function. In this commentary, we summarize what is currently known of the relationship between regional and global metabolic activity in PD and experimental parkinsonism. We found that early stage PD patients exhibit global values that are virtually identical to those of age-matched healthy subjects. SPM analysis revealed increased normalized metabolic activity in a discrete set of biologically relevant subcortical brain regions. Because of their higher variability, the corresponding absolute regional measures did not differ across the two groups. Longitudinal imaging studies in this population showed that the subcortical elevations in normalized metabolism appeared earlier and progressed faster than did focal cortical or global metabolic reductions. The observed increases in subcortical activity, but not the global changes, correlated with independent clinical measures of disease progression. Multivariate analysis with SSM/PCA further confirmed that the abnormal spatial covariance structure of early PD is dominated by these subcortical increases as opposed to network-related reductions in cortical metabolic activity or global changes. Thus, increased subcortical activity in PD cannot be regarded as a simple artefact of global normalization. Moreover, stability of the normalized measurements, particularly at

  2. Subcortical evoked activity and motor enhancement in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Khan, Sadaquate; Javed, Shazia; Gill, Steven S.; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of ‘paradoxical kinesis’ in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease. Recordings of a similar evoked potential in the related pedunculopontine nucleus – a key component of the reticular activating system – provide support for this neural signature in the subthalmic nucleus being a novel correlate of ascending arousal, propagated from the reticular activating system to exert an ‘energizing’ influence on motor circuitry. Future manipulation of this system linking arousal and motor performance may provide a novel approach for the non-dopaminergic enhancement of motor performance in patients with hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:26687971

  3. Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts-a New Child Leukoencephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuanBao-Qiang; MarjoSvanderKnaap

    2004-01-01

    Here we review a new variety of leukoencephalopathy with infantile megalencephaly and discrepant clinical course (MLC, MIM: 604004). These children had megalencephaly in the first year of life, with or without mild delay of motor function and/or seizures. After a few years, motor handicap was slowly progressive with unsteady gait, serious cerebeliar ataxia and mild plasticity. Eventually most of patients were confined to a wheelchair. Meanwhile mental development was relatively preserved, although the learning problems was increased from the midway of elementary school. Most of patients had tonic-clonic seizure and some might advance to status epilepticus. Antiepileptic drugs may effectively control seizure. The disorders of known metabolic defects were excluded. Neurophysiological examination showed that EEG had interictal epileptic discharges on the generalized slow wave background in most patients. The cerebral white matter had diffuse abnormality, with swelling of white matter, and cysts in the frontoparietal and anterior-temporal lobes on MRI examination. Some central white matter structures were spared, such as corpus caliosum. The severity of lesions on MRI is inconsistent with the clinical signs. Pathogenesis of this disease was unknown. The pathological findings found a spongiform leukoencephalopathy due to myelin splitting and intramyelinic vacuole formation but without myelin loss, This disease had probably an autosomal recessive inheritance, The geneKIAA027 on 22qtel was responsible for M LC.

  4. Glucose metabolism in small subcortical structures in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Hansen, Søren B; Eggers, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from experimental animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests a characteristic pattern of metabolic perturbation in discrete, very small basal ganglia structures. These structures are generally too small to allow valid investigation by conventional positron emission tomography (PET...

  5. Subcortical neuromorphometry in schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mamah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Few similarities in surface deformation patterns were seen across groups, which may reflect differing neuropathologies. Posterior thalamic contraction in SCZ and BP suggest common genetic or environmental antecedents. Surface deformities in SCZ basal ganglia may have been due to antipsychotic drug effects.

  6. Subcortical neural coding mechanisms for auditory temporal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, R D

    2001-08-01

    Biologically relevant sounds such as speech, animal vocalizations and music have distinguishing temporal features that are utilized for effective auditory perception. Common temporal features include sound envelope fluctuations, often modeled in the laboratory by amplitude modulation (AM), and starts and stops in ongoing sounds, which are frequently approximated by hearing researchers as gaps between two sounds or are investigated in forward masking experiments. The auditory system has evolved many neural processing mechanisms for encoding important temporal features of sound. Due to rapid progress made in the field of auditory neuroscience in the past three decades, it is not possible to review all progress in this field in a single article. The goal of the present report is to focus on single-unit mechanisms in the mammalian brainstem auditory system for encoding AM and gaps as illustrative examples of how the system encodes key temporal features of sound. This report, following a systems analysis approach, starts with findings in the auditory nerve and proceeds centrally through the cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex and inferior colliculus. Some general principles can be seen when reviewing this entire field. For example, as one ascends the central auditory system, a neural encoding shift occurs. An emphasis on synchronous responses for temporal coding exists in the auditory periphery, and more reliance on rate coding occurs as one moves centrally. In addition, for AM, modulation transfer functions become more bandpass as the sound level of the signal is raised, but become more lowpass in shape as background noise is added. In many cases, AM coding can actually increase in the presence of background noise. For gap processing or forward masking, coding for gaps changes from a decrease in spike firing rate for neurons of the peripheral auditory system that have sustained response patterns, to an increase in firing rate for more central neurons with transient responses. Lastly, for gaps and forward masking, as one ascends the auditory system, some suppression effects become quite long (echo suppression), and in some stimulus configurations enhancement to a second sound can take place.

  7. The Gene of Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts is Mapped on Chromosome 2 2q 13.3 with 2 5 0 kb Interval%巨颅伴皮层下海绵样囊肿性脑白质病的病变基因定位于染色体22q13.3上250kb区域内

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宝强; Peter AJ Leegwater; Andrea AM Konst; Jan C Pronk; Marjo S van der Knaap

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Vacuolating megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts(MLC) is a recently described syndrome with autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Its possible gene was located on chromosomal 22qtel with 3-cM. The purpose of this study was to narrow down the geneti-cal distance on chromosomal 22qtel with MLC. Methods: Thirty-nine MLC patients in 33 families were collected, and the linkage analysis and haplotype analysis of twelve informative families were done,using seven microsatellite markers and four SNP markers. Results: The maximum tow-point LOD score for marker 355c18 was 6.65 at recombination fraction 0. 02. The haplotype analysis narrowed down the critical region of MLC to 250 kb on chromosomal 22qtel. Conclusion: One of the causing genes of MLC was located on chromosomal 22qtel with 250 kb. Four candidate genes were considered.The heter ogeneity of one informative family indicated possible existence of a second locus for MLC.%目的:巨颅伴皮层下海绵样囊肿性脑白质病(MLC)是近来被证实的一种新的常染色体隐性遗传病,该病的可能病变基因被确定在染色体22qetl上的3-cM区域内,通过研究将病变基因的可能范围进一步缩小.方法:收集33个家庭中的39例MLC病人,对其中能提供丰富遗传信息的12例家庭成员,运用7个微卫星标识和4个单核苷酸多态性标识进行连锁分析和单倍体型分析.结果:在重组值为0.02下微卫星标识355c18的最大两点LOD值是6.65;采用单倍体型分析进一步将位于22qtel上的MLC病变基因的关键位置缩小在250kb内.结论:MLC病变基因位于22qtel上250kb内,有4个候选基因被考虑.另外,由于其中一个家庭成员存在遗传异质性,故考虑MLC可能存在第二个病变基因位点.

  8. 带状型灰质异位合并分离型脑裂畸形和透明隔部分缺如的临床和影像学特点(附1例报告)%Clinical and imaging features of subcortical band heterotopia complicated with open-lip schizencephaly and septum pellucidum partial deletion (report of 1 case)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中原; 任传成

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨带状型灰质异位(SBH)合并分离型脑裂畸形(OS)和透明隔部分缺如(SPPD)的临床和影像学特点.方法 回顾性分析1例SBH合并OS和SPPD患者的临床资料.结果 本例患者幼年起病,以右侧肢体发育短小、右侧肢体痉挛性高肌张力、右侧肢体运动功能障碍,以及青年期发病的癫痫发作、发作性意识障碍为主要症状.头颅CT平扫示左侧顶叶脑裂畸形伴灰质异位.头颅MRI平扫示左侧顶叶脑裂畸形,与左侧脑室相通,裂隙周边为连续迂曲状T1WI低信号、T2WI高信号影(与灰质信号一致),左侧脑室扩大,部分透明隔缺如.结论 SBH合并OS和SPPD患者常见表现为癫痫、精神智能发育迟滞和神经系统功能缺失等,其影像学特点为侧脑室旁与灰质之间的白质中出现边界清晰、规则的灰质,呈“双皮质”样;同时可见OS和SPPD.%Objective To explore the clinical and imaging features of subcortical band heterotopia ( SBH) complicated with open-lip schizencephaly ( OS) and septum pellucidum partial deletion ( SPPD). Methods The clinical data of one SBH patient complicated with OS and SPPD was analyzed retrospectively. Results The patient with juvenile onset, the right limb development in short, the spastic muscle tone of the right side, the motor dysfunction of the right side, and adolescent onset seizures, episodic disturbance of consciousness as the main symptoms. Cranial CT scan showed that left parietal schizencephaly with gray matter heterotopia. Cranial MRI scan showed that left parietal schizencephaly connected with the left ventricle; the schizencephaly was surrounded by a continuous tortuous-like low signal in T1WI and high signal in T2WI intensity (consistent with gray matter signal) ; the left ventricle expanded; part of the septum pellucidum dysplasia. Conclusions The manifestations of SBH patient complicated with OS and SPPD are epilepsy, mental retardation, growth retardation and nervous

  9. 脑电监测在癫痫患者间期皮层和皮层下高代谢灶判读中的应用%Video-electroencephalography Applied in Interpretation of Cortical and Subcortical Hypermetabolic Foci in Interictal 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in Patients with Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛娜; 崔瑞雪; 张颖; 李方

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of vedio-electroencehpalography ( VEEG) monitoring in inter-preting the cortical and subcortical hypermetabolic foci in interictal 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography ( PET) imaging in patients with epilepsy .Methods From January 2008 to March 2014 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital , 3 epileptic patients whose first 18 F-FDG PET scan showed unexplained hypermetabolic foci without seizure underwent repeated 18 F-FDG PET scan in the interictal status proved by VEEG monitoring after discharge suppression by intravenous diazepam .Then compared the first and second scan images.Results For case 1 who suffered from epilepsy originating from medial right temporal lobe , unexplain-able hypermetabolic foci in right frontal lobe , basal ganglia , thalamus, and left cerebellum were present in in-terictal 18 F-FDG PET scan.After suppressing cortical discharge under VEEG monitoring , the second 18 F-FDG PET scan showed that the cortical and subcortical hypermetabolism disappeared , indicating that the hypermetabol-ic foci in the first scan was due to the subclinical discharge in a potential extratemporal seizure origin site , and the existence of efferent network activity from that origin site to ipsilateral basal ganglia and thalamus and contra -lateral cerebellum .The original clinical decision of simple anterior temporal lobectomy was altered based on the findings.For case 2, hypermtabolism was present in a large part of right frontal lobe , which persisted after sup-pressing discharge under VEEG monitoring .While the hypermetabolic foci in ipsilateral basal ganglia and contra-lateral cerebellum became less obvious in the second 18F-FDG PET scan, proving that the original lesion (inflam-mation) with hypermetabolism existed in the cortex , and the hypermetabolic foci in basal ganglia and thalamus were due to secondary functional change .Case 3 suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy with origin undeterminable with

  10. The usefulness of subtraction ictal SPECT and ictal near-infrared spectroscopic topography in patients with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Munakata, Mitsutoshi; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Nakayama, Tojo; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Tsuburaya, Rie; Kitamura, Taro; Sato-Shirai, Ikuko; Abe, Yu; Matsumoto, Yoko; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Ishitobi, Mamiko; Togashi, Noriko; Iwasaki, Masaki; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Iinuma, Kazuie

    2013-11-01

    The recent findings on subtraction ictal SPECT and ictal near-infrared spectroscopic topography in patients with West syndrome were summarized and its availability for presurgical evaluation was discussed. The subtraction ictal SPECT study in patients with West syndrome demonstrated the cortical epileptic region and subcortical involvement, which may consist of epilepsy networks related to the spasms. Moreover, subtraction ictal SPECT may have predictive power for short-term seizure outcome. Patients with a symmetric hyperperfusion pattern are predicted to have a better seizure outcome, whereas patients with asymmetric hyperperfusion pattern may develop poor seizure control. Importantly, asymmetric MRI findings had no predictive power for seizure outcome. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopic topography applied to the patients with West syndrome detected an increase in regional cerebral blood volume in multiple areas which were activated either simultaneously or sequentially during spasms. Topographic changes in cerebral blood volume were closely correlated with spasm phenotype, suggesting that the cortex is involved in the generation of spasms. In conclusion, subtraction ictal SPECT may be considered as a useful tool for presurgical evaluation of patients with West syndrome and investigation of the pathophysiology of spasms. The ictal near-infrared spectroscopic topography should be more investigated to see if this is useful tool for presurgical evaluation.

  11. Progression of Brain Lesions in Relation to Hyperperfusion from Subacute to Chronic Stages after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : A Multiparametric MRI Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiebosch, Ivo A. C. W.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Bouts, Mark J. R. J.; Zwartbol, Rene; van der Toorn, Annette; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of delayed cerebral injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is largely unresolved. In particular, the progression and interplay of tissue and perfusion changes, which can significantly affect the outcome, remain unclear. Only a few studies have assessed pat

  12. Palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal manifestations in a patient with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang-Je; Han, Sang-Don; Song, Sook Keun; Lee, Byung In; Heo, Kyoung

    2009-06-01

    Palilalia is a relatively rare pathologic speech behavior and has been reported in various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. We encountered a case of palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal phenomena of left frontal lobe epilepsy. A 55-year-old, right-handed man was admitted because of frequent episodes of rapid reiteration of syllables. Video-electroencephalography monitoring revealed stereotypical episodes of palilalia accompanied by rhythmic head nodding and right-arm posturing with ictal discharges over the left frontocentral area. He also displayed echolalia or echopraxia-palipraxia, partially responding to an examiner's stimulus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed encephalomalacia on the left superior frontal gyrus and ictal single photon emission computed tomography showed hyperperfusion just above the lesion, corresponding to the left supplementary motor area (SMA), and subcortical nuclei. This result suggests that the neuroanatomic substrate involved in the generation of these behaviors as ictal phenomena might exist in the SMA of the left frontal lobe.

  13. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  14. Ictal singing due to right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy involving a bihemispheric network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Kang, Joong Koo; Park, Ga Young; Oh, Jung Su; Kim, Jae Seung

    2013-01-01

    Singing is a rare ictal symptom of focal epilepsy. Here, we report a case of a right-handed patient who demonstrated ictal singing due to right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) performed during ictal singing demonstrated areas of hyperperfusion in the bilateral frontal regions (more prominent in the left frontal lobe), bilateral subcortical regions, insular cortices, and bilateral cerebellum in addition to the right temporal area. An intracranial EEG revealed that an ictal singing episode commenced after an ictal rhythm from the right temporal area was propagated to the contralateral side of the left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the symptomatogenic zone for ictal singing includes neural networks from the frontal and temporal regions of both hemispheres rather than specific cortical areas even when the epileptogenic zone is located in the right mesial temporal area, as evidenced in this patient.

  15. Relationship between serum bilirubin, uric acid and cognition impairment in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease%皮质下缺血性血管病患者血清胆红素和尿酸水平与认知损害的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞; 王龙; 刘寒; 孙中武

    2014-01-01

    acid as well as their relationship with cognitive function in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD).Methods Serum direct bilirubin (DBIL),indirect bilirubin (IBIL),total bilirubin (TBIL),uric acid (UA) and vascular risk factors were analyzed in 238 individuals comprising 161 patients with SIVD and 77 controls with normal cognitive function.SIVD patients were divided into two subgroups:those with cognitive impairment (SVMCI) and those with dementia (SVaD).All of them were subject to the cognitive assessment including Mini-mental State Examination(MMSE),the Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Chinese Version (CAMCOGC) and Clinical Demential Rating (CDR).Leukoaraiosis was graded according to the severity by their MRI scan appearances.Results MMSE and CAMCOG scores were significant lower in SVMCI and SVaD groups (17.9 ± 5.01,59.87 ± 12.89 ; 24.84 ± 1.57,83.66 ± 4.79) when compared to those in the controls (28.19 ± 1.03,91.66-± 4.93 ; Z =197.63,P =0.000 ; Z =186.54,P =0.000).In comparison with the controls,serum levels of DBIL,IBIL,and TBIL in SVaD group were significant lower ((2.85 ± 1.09) μmol/L vs (3.24 ± 1.30) iμmol/L; (7.50 ±3.27) μmol/L vs (9.06 ±3.52) μmol/L; (10.37 ±4.10) μ mol/L vs (12.31 ±4.64) μmol/L; P =0.035,P =0.005,P =0.006).Also,serum IBIL level was significant lower in SVMCI group compared to the controls ((7.86 ± 3.28) μmol/L vs (9.06 ± 3.52) μmol/L,P =0.034).While serum level of UA was significantly higher in SVMCI ((341.47 ± 92.80) μmol/L) and SVaD ((356.34 ±80.89) μmol/L) groups as compared to those in controls((310.52 ±79.85) μmol/L;P =0.025 ;P =0.001).The UA level was negatively correlated with MMSE scores and CAMCOG-C scores (r =-0.180,P =0.005; r =-0.203,P =0.002),while the bilirubin level was positively correlated with language (r =0.130,P =0.045) and recent memory (r =0.160,P =0.014) scores in CAMCOG-C.The UA level remained associated with MMSE after controlling for age

  16. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Taieb, David; Cammilleri, Serge; Lussato, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 05 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-01-15

    Neuro-imaging studies with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in fibromyalgia (FM) patients have reported only limited subcortical hypoperfusion. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT is known to provide better evaluation of areas of high cerebral blood flow and regional metabolic rate. We evaluated a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic patients with FM using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT. The aim of this study was to investigate brain processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 49 years, range 25-63 years; American College of Rheumatology criteria) and ten healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Visual Analogue Scale score for pain was 82{+-}4 at the time of the SPECT study. Compared with control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis, with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. In the present study, performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in the sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective-attentional dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on the two components of pain, we hypothesise that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic strategy and provide objective follow-up of pain processing recovery under treatment. (orig.)

  17. Functional recovery from pure dyslexia with preservation of subcortical association fiber networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Hayashi, M.D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old right-handed woman with seizures underwent a two-stage surgical excision of a glioma that was located in the posterior basal region of her left temporal brain. After each surgery, she developed transient pure dyslexia with complete recovery in several months. Around the surgeries, the two major lexico-semantic network pathways, i.e., the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF could be visualized by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI tractography. Interestingly, routes of IFOF and ILF shifted after the 1st-stage surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this case suggests, for the first time, that pure dyslexia could be reversed even when the cortical functional region is perturbed, through possible structural change and preservation of the association fiber networks.

  18. Cortical and subcortical responses to high and low effective placebo treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuter, Stephan; Eippert, Falk; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Büchel, Christian

    2013-02-15

    The effectiveness of placebo treatments depends on the recipient's expectations, which are at least in part shaped by previous experiences. Thus, positive past experience together with an accordant verbal instruction should enhance outcome expectations and subsequently lead to higher placebo efficacy. This should be reflected in subjective valuation reports and in activation of placebo-related brain structures. We tested this hypothesis in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, where subjects experienced different levels of pain relief and conforming information about price levels for two placebo treatments during a manipulation phase, thereby establishing a weak and a strong placebo. As expected, both placebos led to a significant pain relief and the strong placebo induced better analgesic efficacy. Individual placebo value estimates reflected treatment efficacy, i.e. subjects were willing to pay more money for the strong placebo even though pain stimulation was completed at this time. On the neural level, placebo effects were associated with activation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, the anterior insula, and the ventral striatum and deactivations in the thalamus and secondary somatosensory cortex. However, only placebo-related responses in rostral anterior cingulate cortex were consistent across both the anticipation of painful stimuli and their actual administration. Most importantly, rostral anterior cingulate cortex responses were higher for the strong placebo, thus mirroring the behavioral effects. These results directly link placebo analgesia to anticipatory activity in the ventral striatum, a region involved in reward processing, and highlight the role of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, as its activity consistently scaled with increasing analgesic efficacy.

  19. A Subcortical Oscillatory Network Contributes to Recovery of Hand Dexterity after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yukio; Morichika, Yosuke; Isa, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that after partial spinal-cord lesion at the mid-cervical segment, the remaining pathways compensate for restoring finger dexterity; however, how they control hand/arm muscles has remained unclear. To elucidate the changes in dynamic properties of neural circuits connecting the motor cortex and hand/arm muscles, we…

  20. 11.74T fMRI of cortical and subcortical visual networks in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Christopher; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Siefert, Alyssa;

    Though a predominantly nocturnal animal, the rat has a functional visual system, albeit of low acuity, and has at least a basic form of color vision extending into the UV range. Our aim here was to develop methods to probe this system with both high field fMRI and electrophysiological techniques...... and reproducible delivery of visual stimuli in fMRI as well as neurophysiology environments. It has the advantage of allowing variation of the stimulus source (e.g. colour of LED) without the need for manipulating the subject in the bore....

  1. Coding of communication calls in the subcortical and cortical structures of the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suta, D; Popelár, J; Syka, J

    2008-01-01

    The processing of species-specific communication signals in the auditory system represents an important aspect of animal behavior and is crucial for its social interactions, reproduction, and survival. In this article the neuronal mechanisms underlying the processing of communication signals in the higher centers of the auditory system--inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate body (MGB) and auditory cortex (AC)--are reviewed, with particular attention to the guinea pig. The selectivity of neuronal responses for individual calls in these auditory centers in the guinea pig is usually low--most neurons respond to calls as well as to artificial sounds; the coding of complex sounds in the central auditory nuclei is apparently based on the representation of temporal and spectral features of acoustical stimuli in neural networks. Neuronal response patterns in the IC reliably match the sound envelope for calls characterized by one or more short impulses, but do not exactly fit the envelope for long calls. Also, the main spectral peaks are represented by neuronal firing rates in the IC. In comparison to the IC, response patterns in the MGB and AC demonstrate a less precise representation of the sound envelope, especially in the case of longer calls. The spectral representation is worse in the case of low-frequency calls, but not in the case of broad-band calls. The emotional content of the call may influence neuronal responses in the auditory pathway, which can be demonstrated by stimulation with time-reversed calls or by measurements performed under different levels of anesthesia. The investigation of the principles of the neural coding of species-specific vocalizations offers some keys for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying human speech perception.

  2. Adaptation, expertise, and giftedness: towards an understanding of cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar network contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Leonard F; Budding, Deborah Ely; Chidekel, Dana

    2010-12-01

    Current cortico-centric models of cognition lack a cohesive neuroanatomic framework that sufficiently considers overlapping levels of function, from "pathological" through "normal" to "gifted" or exceptional ability. While most cognitive theories presume an evolutionary context, few actively consider the process of adaptation, including concepts of neurodevelopment. Further, the frequent co-occurrence of "gifted" and "pathological" function is difficult to explain from a cortico-centric point of view. This comprehensive review paper proposes a framework that includes the brain's vertical organization and considers "giftedness" from an evolutionary and neurodevelopmental vantage point. We begin by discussing the current cortico-centric model of cognition and its relationship to intelligence. We then review an integrated, dual-tiered model of cognition that better explains the process of adaptation by simultaneously allowing for both stimulus-based processing and higher-order cognitive control. We consider the role of the basal ganglia within this model, particularly in relation to reward circuitry and instrumental learning. We review the important role of white matter tracts in relation to speed of adaptation and development of behavioral mastery. We examine the cerebellum's critical role in behavioral refinement and in cognitive and behavioral automation, particularly in relation to expertise and giftedness. We conclude this integrated model of brain function by considering the savant syndrome, which we believe is best understood within the context of a dual-tiered model of cognition that allows for automaticity in adaptation as well as higher-order executive control.

  3. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron McMurtray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system. Psychotic symptoms occurring due to stroke demonstrate varied clinical characteristics that depend on the location of the stroke within the brain. Treatment with antipsychotic medications may provide symptomatic relief.

  4. Behavioral and psychological symptoms and hippocampal atrophy in subcortical ischaemic vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Tiel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in patients with cognitive impairments, mediated by both neurodegenerative processes and cerebrovascular disease. Previous studies have reported that Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD might correlate with severity of cognitive decline. Thus far, the impact of the association between white-matter hyperintensities (WHM and hippocampal atrophy (HA on the incidence of these symptoms has been less studied. Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the clinical profile of a sample with large extensions of WMH, examining the association between different degrees of HA and cognitive, functional, and behavioral status. Methods: Fifty outpatients (mean age: 76.86±8.70 years; 58% female; mean schooling: 7.44±4.69 years with large extensions of WMH (modified-Fazekas scale=3 on MRI and different degrees of hippocampal atrophy (according to de Leon Score underwent cognitive, functional, and behavioral assessments. Results: Patients with mild-moderate to severe HA had worse performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cambridge Cognitive Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating and Pfeffer's Functional Activities Questionnaire, compared to the group with none or questionable HA. Appetite/Eating Behavior was the only cluster of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with presence of HA in Vascular Cognitive Impairment patients. Discussion: Although HA may exhibit distinct impact on cognitive performance and functional status, it appears to have little effect on behavioral symptoms in patients with high severity WMH.

  5. 11.74T fMRI of cortical and subcortical visual networks in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Christopher; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Siefert, Alyssa;

    Though a predominantly nocturnal animal, the rat has a functional visual system, albeit of low acuity, and has at least a basic form of color vision extending into the UV range. Our aim here was to develop methods to probe this system with both high field fMRI and electrophysiological techniques....... Experimental setups in an imaging spectrometer are not ideally suited for studying the visual pathway of the rodent due to stringent physical constraints imposed by the imaging bore size and strong magnetic field. Here we report a method, applicable to both data acquisition scenarios, for specific...... and reproducible delivery of visual stimuli in fMRI as well as neurophysiology environments. It has the advantage of allowing variation of the stimulus source (e.g. colour of LED) without the need for manipulating the subject in the bore....

  6. Increased Functional Connectivity Between Subcortical and Cortical Resting-State Networks in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerliani, Leonardo; Mennes, Maarten; Thomas, Rajat M; Di Martino, Adriana; Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit severe difficulties in social interaction, motor coordination, behavioral flexibility, and atypical sensory processing, with considerable interindividual variability. This heterogeneous set of symptoms recently led to investigating

  7. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies...... compared with controls in the mega-analysis. There was no difference in volume size in the pallidum (p=0·95) and thalamus (p=0·39) between people with ADHD and controls. Exploratory lifespan modelling suggested a delay of maturation and a delay of degeneration, as effect sizes were highest in most...... and adults for the pallidum (p=0·79) or thalamus (p=0·89). Case-control differences in adults were non-significant (all p>0·03). Psychostimulant medication use (all p>0·15) or symptom scores (all p>0·02) did not influence results, nor did the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders (all p>0...

  8. High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Cortical-Subcortical White Matter Tracts in TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology , 15...2007 ). Neurocognitive and neuroimaging correlates of pediatric traumatic brain injury: A diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study . Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology , 22... of Clinical Neuropsychology , 16 , 689 – 695 . Levin , H. ( 1992 ). Neurobehavioral recovery . Journal of Neu- rotrauma , 9 , S359 –

  9. Contribution of subcortical structures to cognition assessed with invasive electrophysiology in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Münte

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS electrodes via stereotactic neurosurgery has become a standard procedure for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. More recently, the range of neuropsychiatric conditions and the possible target structures suitable for DBS have greatly increased. The former include obsessive compulsive disease, depression, obesity, tremor, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome and cluster-headache. In this article we argue that several of the target structures for DBS (nucleus accumbens, posterior inferior hypothalamus, nucleus subthalamicus, nuclei in the thalamus, globus pallidus internus, nucleus pedunculopontinus are located at strategic positions with brain circuits related to motivational behaviors, learning, and motor regulation. Recording from DBS electrodes either during the operation or post-operatively from externalized leads while the patient is performing cognitive tasks tapping the functions of the respective circuits provides a new window on the brain mechanisms underlying these functions. This is exemplified by a study of a patient suffering from obsessive-compulsive disease from whom we recorded in a flanker task designed to tap action monitoring processes while he received a DBS electrode in the right nucleus accumbens. Clear error-related modulations were obtained from the target structure, demonstrating a role of the nucleus accumbens in action monitoring. Based on recent conceptualizations of several different functional loops and on neuroimaging results we suggest further lines of research using this new window on brain functions.

  10. The small-world organization of large-scale brain systems and relationships with subcortical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Leonard F; Barker, Lauren A; Joyce, Arthur W; Hrin, Skip

    2014-01-01

    Brain structure and function is characterized by large-scale brain systems. However, each system has its own "small-world" organization, with sub-regions, or "hubs," that have varying degrees of specialization for certain cognitive and behavioral processes. This article describes this small-world organization, and the concepts of functional specialization and functional integration are defined and explained through practical examples. We also describe the development of large-scale brain systems and this small-world organization as a sensitive, protracted process, vulnerable to a variety of influences that generate neurodevelopmental disorders.

  11. Modulation of cortical-subcortical networks in Parkinson’s disease by applied field effects

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher William Hess

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest that endogenous field effects may play a role in neuronal oscillations and communication. Non-invasive transcranial electrical stimulation with low-intensity currents can also have direct effects on the underlying cortex as well as distant network effects. While Parkinson’s disease (PD) is amenable to invasive neuromodulation in the basal ganglia by deep brain stimulation (DBS), techniques of non-invasive neuromodulation like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and ...

  12. Calbindin distribution in cortical and subcortical brain structures of normal and rabies-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Fernández, Orlando; Yepes, Gloria E; Gómez, Javier E; Pimienta, Hernán J

    2005-10-01

    Rabies has been an enigmatic disease of the nervous system because microscopic findings in the brain tissue are not paralleled by the severity of the clinical illness. The calcium binding protein calbindin (CB) is a neuronal marker of great interest in neuroanatomy and neuropathology. CB-ir neurons in the striatum and cerebral cortex are gabaergic cells. In the present work CB-immunoreactivity was evaluated in brains of normal and rabies-infected mice. Rabies infection caused loss of CB-immunostaining in the cortical supragranular layers as well as in the striatum. Loss of CB in the brains of mice infected with rabies virus can produce impairment in Ca++ homeostasis and in the gabaergic neurotransmission.

  13. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  14. High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Cortical-Subcortical White Matter Tracts in TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    injury. DTI data acquisition Studies were acquired on a 3.0- Tesla whole body scanner (Signa VHi, General Electric Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI) using...grouped using some mnemonic by the individual (e.g., car full of lettuce) or words that share phonemic qualities (e.g., sofa/soup). The observed...clustering score minus the expected subjective clustering score. An example is if the word pair car /lettuce (subjective observed score of 1) is recalled

  15. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine inhibit social play behavior through prefrontal and subcortical limbic mechanisms in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidat

  16. Longitudinal cognitive decline in subcortical ischemic vascular disease--the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Kalska, Hely; Ylikoski, Raija

    2009-01-01

    to the reference group. The subjects with SIVD presented significantly steeper decline of performance in the Stroop test (parts I and II), Trail Making A test, Verbal fluency test, and Mini-Mental State Examination. They also had a threefold risk of developing dementia during follow-up independently of age, sex...

  17. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder : findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; van Erp, T. G. M.; Saemann, P. G.; Frodl, T.; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, M. W.; Ikram, M. A.; Wittfeld, K.; Grabe, H. J.; Block, A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Voelzke, H.; Hoehn, D.; Czisch, M.; Lagopoulos, J.; Hatton, S. N.; Hickie, I. B.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Kraemer, B.; Gruber, O.; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Renteria, M. E.; Strike, L. T.; Mills, N. T.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; McMahon, K. L.; Medland, S. E.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Wright, M. J.; Hall, G.B.; MacQueen, G. M.; Frey, E. M.; Carballedo, A.; van Velzen, L. S.; van Tol, M. J.; van der Wee, N. J.; Veer, I. M.; Walter, H.; Schnell, K.; Schramm, E.; Normann, C.; Schoepf, D.; Konrad, C.; Zurowski, B.; Nickson, T.; McIntosh, A. M.; Papmeyer, M.; Whalley, H. C.; Sussmann, J. E.; Godlewska, B. R.; Cowen, P. J.; Fischer, F. H.; Rose, M.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Thompson, P. M.; Hibar, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristic

  18. Reduced frontal-subcortical white matter connectivity in association with suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, W; Han, C E; Fava, M; Mischoulon, D; Papakostas, G I; Heo, J-Y; Kim, K W; Kim, S T; Kim, D J H; Kim, D K; Seo, S W; Seong, J-K; Jeon, H J

    2016-06-07

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior have been associated with structural and functional changes in the brain. However, little is known regarding alterations of brain networks in MDD patients with suicidal ideation. We investigated whether or not MDD patients with suicidal ideation have different topological organizations of white matter networks compared with MDD patients without suicidal ideation. Participants consisted of 24 patients with MDD and suicidal ideation, 25 age- and gender-matched MDD patients without suicidal ideation and 31 healthy subjects. A network-based statistics (NBS) and a graph theoretical analysis were performed to assess differences in the inter-regional connectivity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to assess topological changes according to suicidal ideation in MDD patients. The Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Korean version of the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) were used to assess the severity of suicidal ideation and impulsivity, respectively. Reduced structural connectivity in a characterized subnetwork was found in patients with MDD and suicidal ideation by utilizing NBS analysis. The subnetwork included the regions of the frontosubcortical circuits and the regions involved in executive function in the left hemisphere (rostral middle frontal, pallidum, superior parietal, frontal pole, caudate, putamen and thalamus). The graph theoretical analysis demonstrated that network measures of the left rostral middle frontal had a significant positive correlation with severity of SSI (r=0.59, P=0.02) and BIS (r=0.59, P=0.01). The total edge strength that was significantly associated with suicidal ideation did not differ between MDD patients without suicidal ideation and healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that the reduced frontosubcortical circuit of structural connectivity, which includes regions associated with executive function and impulsivity, appears to have a role in the emergence of suicidal ideation in MDD patients.

  19. Effect of nitrogen narcosis on cortical and subcortical evoked responses in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartus, R T; Kinney, J S

    1975-03-01

    Four cats were chronically implanted with gross, monopolar electrodes in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), pretectum-superior colliculus (P-SC), primary visual cortex (VI), and secondary visual cortex (VII). Following recovery and preliminary testing, the animals were dived in a dry hyperbaric chamber to the sea water equivalent of 103 m (i.e. 340 ft.) where visual evoked responses were recorded. No decrements in the amplitude of the visual evoked response were found at the LGN, but significant decreases did occur at the other three sites. These data suggested: 1) that the effects of nitrogen narcosis on the visual system are primarily central, and not simply peripheral in nature; 2) that these effects are not limited to the visual cortical mantle; and 3) that the narcosis apparently influences structures involving different anatomical levels of the brain which presumably mediate various types of visual processes. The findings were discussed as they relate to current ideas concerning the underlying neurological causes and behavioral effects of nitrogen narcosis.

  20. Reversible brain atrophy and subcortical high signal on MRI in a patient with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevelengas, A. [Asklipios-Aristotelio Diagnostic Centre, Thessaloniki (Greece); Dept. of Radiology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Chourmouzi, D.; Boulogianni, G. [Asklipios-Aristotelio Diagnostic Centre, Thessaloniki (Greece); Pitsavas, G. [Paediatric Clinic, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Charitandi, A. [Dept. of Radiology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2001-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), usually seen in young girls, is characterised by severe emaciation induced by self-imposed starvation. Enlargement of the ventricular system and sulci has been reported, as has high signal on T2-weighted images. We present a case with atrophic changes and high signal on T2-weighted images, which resolved completely following weight gain. (orig.)

  1. A PET study on cortical and subcortical control of pelvic floor musculature in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Bertil F.M.; Sturms, Leontien M.; Holstege, Gert

    1997-01-01

    The pelvic floor musculature plays an important role in behaviors such as defecation, micturition, mating behavior, and vomiting. A recent positron emission tomography (PET) study revealed that structures belonging to the emotional motor system are involved in the control of the pelvic floor during

  2. Voluntary activation of ankle muscles is accompanied by subcortical facilitation of their antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Zuur, Abraham T.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    Flexion and extension movements are organized reciprocally, so that extensor motoneurones in the spinal cord are inhibited when flexor muscles are active and vice versa. During and just prior to dorsiflexion of the ankle, soleus motoneurones are thus inhibited as evidenced by a depression...... MEPs were also facilitated (although to a lesser extent) at a similar time in relation to the onset of dorsiflexion. TA MEPs were facilitated 50 ms prior to onset of dorsiflexion and neither depressed nor facilitated prior to plantar flexion. No difference was found between the facilitation...

  3. NEURAL CORRELATES FOR APATHY: FRONTAL - PREFRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTICAL - SUBCORTICAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional invovlement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in every day life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC and basal ganglia; emotional affective apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; cognitive apathy may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of autoactivation may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to grey matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies and a reduced speedness in action decsion, major resposnible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control.We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies, degenerative or vascular, acute or chronic.

  4. Measurement and genetics of human subcortical and hippocampal asymmetries in large datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe Estrada, T.; Zwiers, M.P.; Teumer, A.; Wittfeld, K.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Hoogman, M.; Hagoort, P.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hegenscheid, K.; Völzke, H.; Franke, B.; Grabe, H.J.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.

    2014-01-01

    Functional and anatomical asymmetries are prevalent features of the human brain, linked to gender, handedness, and cognition. However, little is known about the neurodevelopmental processes involved. In zebrafish, asymmetries arise in the diencephalon before extending within the central nervous syst

  5. High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Cortical-Subcortical White Matter Tracts in TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    of Trauma on Cerebral White Matter To assess the effects of trauma on DTI three analyses were applied. Gross measures of whole brain FA and thalamic...segmentation of the human thalamus. Cerebral Cortex 15, 31-39 (2005). 4 Magnotta, V., Gold, S., Andreasen , N., Ehrhardt, J. & Yuh, W. Visualization of sub...sensitive in acute severe trauma in predicting necrosis and outcome [42]. In summary, conventional structural MRI is an excellent tool for

  6. Normotopic and heterotopic cortical representations of mystacial vibrissae in rats with subcortical band heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottler, F; Fabiato, H; Leland, J M; Chang, L Y; Lotfi, P; Getachew, F; Lee, K S

    2001-01-01

    The tish rat is a neurological mutant exhibiting bilateral cortical heterotopia similar to those found in certain epileptic patients. Previous work has shown that thalamocortical fibers originating in the ventroposteromedial nucleus, which in normal animals segregate as 'barrel' representations for individual whiskers, terminate in both normotopic and heterotopic areas of the tish cortex (Schottler et al., 1998). Thalamocortical innervation terminates as barrels in layer IV and diffusely in layer VI of the normotopic area. Discrete patches of terminals are also observed in the underlying heterotopic area suggesting that representations of individual vibrissa may be present in the heterotopic somatosensory areas. The present study examines this issue by investigating the organization of the vibrissal somatosensory system in the tish cortex. Staining for cytochrome oxidase or Nissl substance reveals a normal complement of vibrissal barrels in the normotopic area of the tish cortex. Dense patches of cytochrome oxidase staining are also found in the underlying lateral portions of the heterotopic area (i.e. the same area that is innervated by the ventroposteromedial nucleus). Injections of retrograde tracers into vibrissal areas of either the normotopic or heterotopic area produce topographically organized labeling of neurons restricted to one or a small number of barreloids within the ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus. Physical stimulation of a single whisker (D3 or E3) elicits enhanced uptake of [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose in restricted zones of both the normotopic and heterotopic areas, demonstrating that single whisker stimulation can increase functional activity in both normotopic and heterotopic neurons. These findings indicate that the barrels are intact in the normotopic area and are most consistent with the hypothesis that at least some of the individual vibrissae are 'dually' represented in normotopic and heterotopic positions in the primary somatosensory areas of the tish cortex.

  7. Cortical and Subcortical Changes in Alzheimer's Disease: A Longitudinal and Quantitative MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li; Blamire, Andrew M; Watson, Rosie; He, Jiabao; Aribisala, Benjamin; O'Brien, John T

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative MRI provides important information about tissue properties in brain both in normal ageing and in degenerative disorders. Although it is well known that those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a specific pattern and faster rate of atrophy than controls, the precise spatial and temporal patterns of quantitative MRI in AD are unknown. We aimed to investigate neuroimaging correlates of AD using serial quantitative MRI. In our study, twenty-one subjects with AD and thirty-two similar-aged healthy controls underwent two serial MRI scans at baseline and 12 months. Tissue characteristics were captured using two quantitative MRI parameters: longitudinal relaxation time (qT1) and transverse relaxation time (qT2). The two groups (AD and controls) were statistically compared using a voxel based quantification (VBQ) method based on Matlab and SPM8. At baseline, subjects with AD showed a significant reduction of qT1 and qT2 compared to controls in bilateral temporal and parietal lobes, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. This pattern was also observed at follow-up. Longitudinally, in AD we found a significant increase rather than further reduction of qT1 and qT2 from the baseline in bilateral hippocampus, thalamus and right caudate nucleus. In addition, the longitudinal change of qT1 in left hippocampus was negatively correlated with cognitive decline in AD over the 1-year period, and the general disease severity significantly predicted the amount of increase of qT1 in bilateral hippocampus over 12 months. The longitudinal change of qT2 in left parahippocampus correlated with change in neuropsychiatric features over time. In summary, quantitative MRI parameters were reduced in AD cross-sectionally, but increased over time, showing distinct spatiotemporal patterns from the atrophy in AD. We also showed the clinical relevance of quantitative MRI parameters, indicating their potential promise as new imaging markers in AD.

  8. Regional Specificity of Sex Effects on Subcortical Volumes Across the Lifespan in Healthy Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Wenjing; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Li, Meng; Miao, Wen; Jiao, Yonghong; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; He, Huiguang; Walter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When conceptualizing age-specific onsets and sex-specific characteristics of neuropsychiatric diseases in a neurobiological context, it may be crucially important to consider differential trajectories of aging. Here, we investigated effects of age, sex, and their interactions on absolute and relativ

  9. MRI-defined subcortical ischemic vascular disease: baseline clinical and neuropsychological findings. The LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Kalska, Hely; Ylikoski, Raija

    2009-01-01

    and Disability (LADIS) study, aged 65-84 years, underwent comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological examinations, and brain MRI at the baseline assessment. The subjects meeting the SIVD imaging criteria (n = 89) were compared to the other subjects of the sample (n = 524). RESULTS: SIVD was associated...... of global cognitive function, psychomotor speed, attention and executive functions, verbal fluency, and working memory. CONCLUSION: In this population of nondisabled older adults with WML, SIVD was related to specific clinical and functional characteristics. Neuropsychological features included psychomotor...

  10. The Anterior Thalamus Provides A Subcortical Circuit Supporting Memory And Spatial Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane M O‘Mara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The anterior thalamic nuclei, a central component of Papez’ circuit, are generally assumed to be key constituents of the neural circuits responsible for certain categories of learning and memory. Supporting evidence for this contention is that damage to either of two brain regions, the medial temporal lobe and the medial diencephalon, is most consistently associated with anterograde amnesia. Within these respective regions, the hippocampal formation and the anterior thalamic nuclei (anteromedial, anteroventral, anterodorsal are the particular structures of interest. The extensive direct and indirect hippocampal-anterior thalamic interconnections and the presence of theta-modulated cells in both sites further support the hypothesis that these structures constitute a neuronal network crucial for memory and cognition. The major tool in understanding how the brain processes information is the analysis of neuronal output at each hierarchical level along the pathway of signal propagation coupled with neuroanatomical studies. Here, we discuss the electrophysiological properties of cells in the anterior thalamic nuclei with an emphasis on their role in spatial navigation. In addition, we describe neuroanatomical and functional relationships between the anterior thalamic nuclei and hippocampal formation.

  11. The anterior thalamus provides a subcortical circuit supporting memory and spatial navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Maciej M; Ronnqvist, Kim C; Tsanov, Marian; Vann, Seralynne D; Wright, Nicholas F; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Aggleton, John P; O'Mara, Shane M

    2013-08-30

    The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), a central component of Papez' circuit, are generally assumed to be key constituents of the neural circuits responsible for certain categories of learning and memory. Supporting evidence for this contention is that damage to either of two brain regions, the medial temporal lobe and the medial diencephalon, is most consistently associated with anterograde amnesia. Within these respective regions, the hippocampal formation and the ATN (anteromedial, anteroventral, and anterodorsal) are the particular structures of interest. The extensive direct and indirect hippocampal-anterior thalamic interconnections and the presence of theta-modulated cells in both sites further support the hypothesis that these structures constitute a neuronal network crucial for memory and cognition. The major tool in understanding how the brain processes information is the analysis of neuronal output at each hierarchical level along the pathway of signal propagation coupled with neuroanatomical studies. Here, we discuss the electrophysiological properties of cells in the ATN with an emphasis on their role in spatial navigation. In addition, we describe neuroanatomical and functional relationships between the ATN and hippocampal formation.

  12. Rapid Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Brain Regions after Early Bilateral Enucleation in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga O Kozanian

    Full Text Available Functional sensory and motor areas in the developing mammalian neocortex are formed through a complex interaction of cortically intrinsic mechanisms, such as gene expression, and cortically extrinsic mechanisms such as those mediated by thalamic input from the senses. Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms are believed to be involved in cortical patterning and the establishment of areal boundaries in early development; however, the nature of the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic processes is not well understood. In a previous study, we used a perinatal bilateral enucleation mouse model to test some aspects of this interaction by reweighting sensory input to the developing cortex. Visual deprivation at birth resulted in a shift of intraneocortical connections (INCs that aligned with ectopic ephrin A5 expression in the same location ten days later at postnatal day (P 10. A prevailing question remained: Does visual deprivation first induce a change in gene expression, followed by a shift in INCs, or vice versa? In the present study, we address this question by investigating the neuroanatomy and patterns of gene expression in post-natal day (P 1 and 4 mice following bilateral enucleation at birth. Our results demonstrate a rapid reduction in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN size and ephrin A5 gene expression 24-hours post-enucleation, with more profound effects apparent at P4. The reduced nuclear size and diminished gene expression mirrors subtle changes in ephrin A5 expression evident in P1 and P4 enucleated neocortex, 11 and 8 days prior to natural eye opening, respectively. Somatosensory and visual INCs were indistinguishable between P1 and P4 mice bilaterally enucleated at birth, indicating that perinatal bilateral enucleation initiates a rapid change in gene expression (within one day followed by an alteration of sensory INCs later on (second postnatal week. With these results, we gain a deeper understanding of how gene expression and sensory input together regulate cortical arealization and plasticity during early development.

  13. Losing the music: aging affects the perception and subcortical neural representation of musical harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-03-04

    When two musical notes with simple frequency ratios are played simultaneously, the resulting musical chord is pleasing and evokes a sense of resolution or "consonance". Complex frequency ratios, on the other hand, evoke feelings of tension or "dissonance". Consonance and dissonance form the basis of harmony, a central component of Western music. In earlier work, we provided evidence that consonance perception is based on neural temporal coding in the brainstem (Bones et al., 2014). Here, we show that for listeners with clinically normal hearing, aging is associated with a decline in both the perceptual distinction and the distinctiveness of the neural representations of different categories of two-note chords. Compared with younger listeners, older listeners rated consonant chords as less pleasant and dissonant chords as more pleasant. Older listeners also had less distinct neural representations of consonant and dissonant chords as measured using a Neural Consonance Index derived from the electrophysiological "frequency-following response." The results withstood a control for the effect of age on general affect, suggesting that different mechanisms are responsible for the perceived pleasantness of musical chords and affective voices and that, for listeners with clinically normal hearing, age-related differences in consonance perception are likely to be related to differences in neural temporal coding.

  14. Hiperperfusão no território orbital de gestantes portadoras de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Orbital territory hyperperfusion in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aires Rodrigues de Freitas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o comportamento da artéria oftálmica em grávidas portadoras de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (GL, sem doença renal em atividade, comparando com não-grávidas com lúpus (NGL, sem doença renal em atividade e grávidas normais (GN. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional que analisou as variáveis doplervelocimétricas da artéria oftálmica de 20 GN, 10 GL e 17 NGL. As variáveis analisadas foram os índices de pulsatilidade (IP, a velocidade diastólica final (VDF e a razão entre picos de velocidade (RPV. Foram calculadas as médias dos índices e respectivos desvios padrões. Para comparação das médias dos índices dos três grupos, utilizou-se o teste de variância (ANOVA e prova pós-análise de Tukey, com intervalo de confiança de 95% (pPURPOSE: to analyze the ophthalmic artery functioning in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (PL without active renal disease as compared to non-pregnant women with lupus (NPL without active renal disease, and to normal pregnant women (PN. METHODS: observational study that analyzed ophthalmic artery dopplervelocimetric variables of 20 PN, 10 PL and 17 NPL women. The variables analyzed were: pulsatility index (PI, final diastolic velocity (FDV and velocity peak ratio (VPR. Mean and standard deviation of these indexes were calculated. For group mean comparison, analysis of variance (ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test have been used, with confidence interval of 95% (p<0.05. RESULTS: the PN group showed the following means and standard deviations of ophthalmic artery parameters: PI=2,4±0,3; VPR=0,5±0,1 e FDV=5,1±2,1 cm/s. The PL and NPL groups showed the following values, respectively: PI=2,0±0,4 and 1,9±0,4; VPR=0,6±0,1 and 0,6±0,1; FDV=9,7±3,9 cm/s and 8,1±4,3 cm/s. There was not significant mean difference between the PL and NPL groups for PI, VPR or FDV. However, statistically significant mean differences were observed between PN and PL for PI, VPR and FDV, with higher values of FDV and VPR in the PL group. CONCLUSIONS: there was a reduction of ophthalmic artery vascular impedance with orbital hyperfusion in the two groups of women with lupus erythematosus as compared to normal pregnant women. These results may help to improve the understanding on pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, the present method may be applied in future studies as a complementary procedure for the differential diagnosis between pre-eclampsia and renal failure due to lupus.

  15. Functional connectivity in cortico-subcortical brain networks underlying reward processing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Oldehinkel

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study does not corroborate previous childhood evidence for functional connectivity alterations between key reward processing regions in adolescents and young adults with ADHD. Our findings could point to developmental normalization or indicate that reward-processing deficits result from functional connectivity alterations in general task-related networks.

  16. Multi-scale radiomic analysis of sub-cortical regions in MRI related to autism, gender and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    We propose using multi-scale image textures to investigate links between neuroanatomical regions and clinical variables in MRI. Texture features are derived at multiple scales of resolution based on the Laplacian-of-Gaussian (LoG) filter. Three quantifier functions (Average, Standard Deviation and Entropy) are used to summarize texture statistics within standard, automatically segmented neuroanatomical regions. Significance tests are performed to identify regional texture differences between ASD vs. TDC and male vs. female groups, as well as correlations with age (corrected p Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, 65 female and 474 male) subjects. Statistically significant texture differences between ASD vs. TDC groups are identified asymmetrically in the right hippocampus, left choroid-plexus and corpus callosum (CC), and symmetrically in the cerebellar white matter. Sex-related texture differences in TDC subjects are found in primarily in the left amygdala, left cerebellar white matter, and brain stem. Correlations between age and texture in TDC subjects are found in the thalamus-proper, caudate and pallidum, most exhibiting bilateral symmetry. PMID:28361913

  17. Selective optical control of synaptic transmission in the subcortical visual pathway by activation of viral vector-expressed halorhodopsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Kaneda

    Full Text Available The superficial layer of the superior colliculus (sSC receives visual inputs via two different pathways: from the retina and the primary visual cortex. However, the functional significance of each input for the operation of the sSC circuit remains to be identified. As a first step toward understanding the functional role of each of these inputs, we developed an optogenetic method to specifically suppress the synaptic transmission in the retino-tectal pathway. We introduced enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR, a yellow light-sensitive, membrane-targeting chloride pump, into mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs by intravitreously injecting an adeno-associated virus serotype-2 vector carrying the CMV-eNpHR-EYFP construct. Several weeks after the injection, whole-cell recordings made from sSC neurons in slice preparations revealed that yellow laser illumination of the eNpHR-expressing retino-tectal axons, putatively synapsing onto the recorded cells, effectively inhibited EPSCs evoked by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve layer. We also showed that sSC spike activities elicited by visual stimulation were significantly reduced by laser illumination of the sSC in anesthetized mice. These results indicate that photo-activation of eNpHR expressed in RGC axons enables selective blockade of retino-tectal synaptic transmission. The method established here can most likely be applied to a variety of brain regions for studying the function of individual inputs to these regions.

  18. 全身麻醉药在脊髓内的作用机制%Subcortical mechanisms of general anesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 张宏

    2008-01-01

    The spinal cord plays an important role in two general anesthetic end-points: analgesia and immobility in response to a noxious stimulus. The spinal components that may contribute to anesthetic actions include the central termination of sensory primary afferent neurons, interneurones and the cell bodies and initial axon segments of motor neurons, which are contained in dorsal horn and ventral horn respectively. Different general anesthetics have both presynaptic and postsynaptic effects to produce analgesia and immobility via multitude of cellular and subcellular sites identified as potential targets of anaesthetic action, such as diverse ligand-gated ion channels etc. This review will focus on anesthetic targets and molecular mechanisms mediated analgesia and immobility of general anesthetics in spinal cord.%脊髓是全身麻醉药抑制伤害性刺激体动反应和抗伤害效应的重要作用部位,含有不同配体门控离子受体等多个可能介导麻醉效应的靶点.不同药物在脊髓内经各自特异靶点通过多种分子机制发挥作用.现就全身麻醉药制动和镇痛效应在脊髓内的作用位点和分子机制作一综述.

  19. GABAergic and Cortical and Subcortical Glutamatergic Axon Terminals Contain CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Leire Reguero; Nagore Puente; Izaskun Elezgarai; Juan Mendizabal-Zubiaga; Miren Josune Canduela; Ianire Buceta; Almudena Ramos; Juan Suárez; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca; Giovanni Marsicano; Pedro Grandes

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB(1)R) are enriched in the hypothalamus, particularly in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) that participates in homeostatic and behavioral functions including food intake. Although CB(1)R activation modulates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the brain, CB(1)R contribution to the molecular architecture of the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic terminals in the VMH is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to invest...

  20. BrainCycles: Experimental Setup for the Combined Measurement of Cortical and Subcortical Activity in Parkinson's Disease Patients during Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratkowski, Maciej; Storzer, Lena; Butz, Markus; Schnitzler, Alfons; Saupe, Dietmar; Dalal, Sarang S.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that bicycling ability remains surprisingly preserved in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who suffer from freezing of gait. Cycling has been also proposed as a therapeutic means of treating PD symptoms, with some preliminary success. The neural mechanisms behind these phenomena are however not yet understood. One of the reasons is that the investigations of neuronal activity during pedaling have been up to now limited to PET and fMRI studies, which restrict the temporal resolution of analysis, and to scalp EEG focused on cortical activation. However, deeper brain structures like the basal ganglia are also associated with control of voluntary motor movements like cycling and are affected by PD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted for therapy in PD patients provide rare and unique access to directly record basal ganglia activity with a very high temporal resolution. In this paper we present an experimental setup allowing combined investigation of basal ganglia local field potentials (LFPs) and scalp EEG underlying bicycling in PD patients. The main part of the setup is a bike simulator consisting of a classic Dutch-style bicycle frame mounted on a commercially available ergometer. The pedal resistance is controllable in real-time by custom software and the pedal position is continuously tracked by custom Arduino-based electronics using optical and magnetic sensors. A portable bioamplifier records the pedal position signal, the angle of the knee, and the foot pressure together with EEG, EMG, and basal ganglia LFPs. A handlebar-mounted display provides additional information for patients riding the bike simulator, including the current and target pedaling rate. In order to demonstrate the utility of the setup, example data from pilot recordings are shown. The presented experimental setup provides means to directly record basal ganglia activity not only during cycling but also during other movement tasks in patients who have undergone DBS treatment. Thus, it can facilitate studies comparing bicycling and walking, to elucidate why PD patients often retain the ability to bicycle despite severe freezing of gait. Moreover it can help clarifying the mechanism through which cycling may have therapeutic benefits. PMID:28119591

  1. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime experiences shape people's attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile-vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act

  2. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2014-02-01

    Lifetime experiences shape people's attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile-vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-'hot' vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-'hot') associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli.

  3. Increased interictal cerebral glucose metabolism in a cortical-subcortical network in drug naive patients with cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, M; Lucignani, G; Del Sole, A; Grana, C; Bressi, S; Minicucci, F; Messa, C; Canevini, M P; Fazio, F

    1995-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) has been used to assess the pattern of cerebral metabolism in different types of epilepsies. However, PET with [18F]FDG has never been used to evaluate drug naive patients with cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy, in whom the mechanism of origin and diffusion of the epileptic discharge may differ from that underlying other epilepsies. In a group of patients with cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy, never treated with antiepileptic drugs, evidence has been found of significant interictal glucose hypermetabolism in a bilateral neural network including the temporal lobes, thalami, basal ganglia, and cingular cortices. The metabolism in these areas and frontal lateral cortex enables the correct classification of all patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and controls by discriminant function analysis. Other cortical areas--namely, frontal basal and lateral, temporal mesial, and cerebellar cortices--had bilateral increases of glucose metabolism ranging from 10 to 15% of normal controls, although lacking stringent statistical significance. This metabolic pattern could represent a pathophysiological state of hyperactivity predisposing to epileptic discharge generation or diffusion, or else a network of inhibitory circuits activated to prevent the diffusion of the epileptic discharge. PMID:7561924

  4. Local and global volume changes of subcortical brain structures from longitudinally varying neuroimaging data for dementia identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unay, Devrim

    2012-09-01

    Quantification of structural changes in the human brain is important to elicit resemblances and differences between pathological and normal aging. Identification of dementia, associated with loss of cognitive ability beyond normal aging, and especially converters--the subgroup of individuals at risk for developing dementia--has recently gained importance. For this purpose atrophy markers have been explored and their effectiveness has been evaluated both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. However, more research is needed to understand the dynamics of atrophy markers at different disease stages, which requires temporal analysis of local along with global changes. Unfortunately, most of the longitudinal neuroimaging data available in the clinical settings is acquired at largely varying time intervals. In the light of the above, this study presents a novel methodology to process longitudinal neuroimaging data acquired incompletely and at different time intervals, and explores complementary nature of local and global brain volume changes in identifying dementia. Results on the OASIS database demonstrate discriminative power of global atrophy in hippocampus (as early as two years after the first visit) for identifying demented cases, and local volume shrinkage of thalamus proper (as early as three years after the first visit) for differentiating converters.

  5. Patient assessment based on a theory of visual attention (TVA): subtle deficits after a right frontal-subcortical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas; Bundesen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who complained of reduced awareness in the left visual field, but showed no visual neglect or extinction in clinical testing. By MR scanning, the brain damage was localized to the right basal ganglia, also involving structures in right frontal cortex. Using psychophysical testing and mathematical modeling based on Bundesen's theory of visual attention [TVA; Psychol. Rev. 97 (1990) 523], the patient's subjective experience of attentional disturbance was confirmed, and the deficit was specified into several components. At very short exposure durations, two effects were shown. The detection threshold was elevated, particularly in the left visual field, and stimuli in this side were given less attentional weight. In addition, the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) was markedly reduced in both visual fields. The robustness of the test results was evaluated by bootstrap analysis. The study demonstrates the sensitivity and specificity gained by combining psychophysical testing with TVA modeling in the analysis of visual attention disorders. Extending the results of a pioneer study of parietal neglect patients by Duncan et al. [J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen. 128 (1999) 450], this study demonstrates the strength of the method in a single case, with a lesion outside parietal cortex, and only minor clinical symptoms.

  6. Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, T. G M; Hibar, D. P.; Rasmussen, J. M.; Glahn, D. C.; Pearlson, G. D.; Andreassen, O. A.; Agartz, I.; Westlye, L. T.; Haukvik, U. K.; Dale, A. M.; Melle, I.; Hartberg, C. B.; Gruber, O.; Kraemer, B.; Zilles, D.; Donohoe, G.; Kelly, S.; McDonald, C.; Morris, D. W.; Cannon, D. M.; Corvin, A.; Machielsen, M. W J; Koenders, L.; de Haan, L.; Veltman, D. J.; Satterthwaite, T. D.; Wolf, D. H.; Gur, R. C.; Gur, R. E.; Potkin, S. G.; Mathalon, D. H.; Mueller, B. A.; Preda, A.; Macciardi, F.; Ehrlich, S.; Walton, E.; Hass, J.; Calhoun, V. D.; Bockholt, H. J.; Sponheim, S. R.; Shoemaker, J. M.; van Haren, N. E M; Pol, H. E H; Ophoff, R. A.; Kahn, R. S.; Roiz-Santiañez, R.; Crespo-Facorro, B.; Wang, L.; Alpert, K. I.; Jönsson, E. G.; Dimitrova, R.; Bois, C.; Whalley, H. C.; McIntosh, A. M.; Lawrie, S. M.; Hashimoto, R.; Thompson, P. M.; Turner, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    The profile of brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia is still not fully understood, despite decades of research using brain scans. To validate a prospective meta-analysis approach to analyzing multicenter neuroimaging data, we analyzed brain MRI scans from 2028 schizophrenia patients and 2

  7. Distinguishing specific sexual and general emotional effects in fMRI-subcortical and cortical arousal during erotic picture viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Martin; Bermpohl, Felix; Mouras, Harold; Schiltz, Kolja; Tempelmann, Claus; Rotte, Michael; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Northoff, Georg

    2008-05-01

    Sexual activity involves excitement with high arousal and pleasure as typical features of emotions. Brain activations specifically related to erotic feelings and those related to general emotional processing are therefore hard to disentangle. Using fMRI in 21 healthy subjects (11 males and 10 females), we investigated regions that show activations specifically related to the viewing of sexually intense pictures while controlling for general emotional arousal (GEA) or pleasure. Activations in the ventral striatum and hypothalamus were found to be modulated by the stimulus' specific sexual intensity (SSI) while activations in the anterior cingulate cortex were associated with an interaction between sexual intensity and emotional valence. In contrast, activation in other regions like the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the mediodorsal thalamus and the amygdala was associated only with a general emotional component during sexual arousal. No differences were found in these effects when comparing females and males. Our findings demonstrate for the first time neural differentiation between emotional and sexual components in the neural network underlying sexual arousal.

  8. Tinnitus-related dissociation between cortical and subcortical neural activity in humans with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyen, Kris; de Kleine, Emile; van Dijk, Pim; Langers, Dave R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is a phantom sound percept that is strongly associated with peripheral hearing loss. However, only a fraction of hearing-impaired subjects develops tinnitus. This may be based on differences in the function of the brain between those subjects that develop tinnitus and those that do not. In

  9. White Matter Damage in the Cholinergic System Contributes to Cognitive Impairment in Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Zude; Teipel, Stefan J.; Yang, Jianwei; Xing, Yi; Tang, Yi; Jia, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but the extent of involvement and underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, targeting the early stage of VCI, we determined regional atrophy within the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic pathways in 25 patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) compared to 24 healthy elderly subjects. By applying stereotaxic cytoarchitectonic maps of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM), no significant atrophy was identified in VCIND. Using probabilistic tractography analysis, our study tracked the two major white matter tracks which map to cholinergic pathways. We identified significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in VCIND. Mediation analysis demonstrated that FA in the tracked pathways could fully account for the executive dysfunction, and partly mediate the memory and global cognition impairment. Our study suggests that the fibers mapped to the cholinergic pathways, but not the NbM, are significantly impaired in VCIND. MRI-based in vivo tracking of cholinergic pathways together with NbM measurement may become a valuable in vivo marker for evaluating the cholinergic system in cognitive disorders. PMID:28289381

  10. The Impact of Subcortical Band Heterotopia and Associated Complications on the Neuropsychological Functioning of a 13-Year-Old Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Beata S.; Hill, James M.; Ming, Sue X.

    2007-01-01

    Motor impairment in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high functioning autism (HFA) has been reported previously. This study presents results of a quantitative assessment of neuromotor skills in 14-22 year old HFA/AS. Sixteen HFA/AS and 16 IQ-matched controls were assessed by the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA). The HFA/AS group showed…

  11. Subcortical white matter pathology as a mediating factor for age-related decreased performance in dichotic listening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gootjes, Liselotte; Scheltens, Philip; Van Strien, Jan W.; Bouma, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Cortical 'disconnection', involving disruption of white matter tracts in the brain, has been hypothesized as a mechanism of age-related cognitive decline. Diffuse hyperintensities in the white matter (so called white matter hyperintensities, WMH) on T2-weighted MRI scans are regarded to represent is

  12. 皮层下动脉硬化性脑病影像学及临床研究%Clinical and imaging study of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润希; 谢滨萱; 聂鑫

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨皮层下动脉硬化性脑病(SAE)的影像学及临床表现与诊断.方法 对64例SAE患者的临床及影像学表现进行回顾性分析.结果 SAE在CT与MRI表现为脑室周围白质疏松,临床上以慢性进行性智能减退为主要表现,中晚期呈皮层下痴呆,多伴有高血压、视网膜动脉硬化、糖尿病和局灶性神经系统体征.结论 对SAE的临床诊断应将影像学与临床表现相结合,对不典型病例应跟踪观察.

  13. The Clinical and TCD Expression Analysis of Subcortical Ateriosclerotic%皮质下动脉硬化性脑病的临床和TCD表现分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王允琴

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨皮质下动脉硬化性脑痛(sAE)的临床和TcD表现,提高诊断水平.方法:回顾分析50例SAE患者的临床和TCD资料.结果:SAE早期表现为头晕、头痛、肢体麻木、记忆力下降等非特异性症状,当病变发展到一定程度,临床可表现为渐进性智能障碍,还常伴有卒中样表现,TCD显示血管内膜增厚、痉挛、狭窄或供血不足等表现.结论:结合临床资料和TCD对SAE能早期发现,对本病的早期诊断有重要意义.

  14. The Network Modification (NeMo) Tool: Elucidating the Effect of White Matter Integrity Changes on Cortical and Subcortical Structural Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kuceyeski, Amy; Maruta, Jun; Relkin, Norman; Raj, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Accurate prediction of brain dysfunction caused by disease or injury requires the quantification of resultant neural connectivity changes compared with the normal state. There are many methods with which to assess anatomical changes in structural or diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, but most overlook the topology of white matter (WM) connections that make up the healthy brain network. Here, a new neuroimaging software pipeline called the Network Modification (NeMo) Tool is presented that ...

  15. Consensus statement for diagnosis of subcortical small vessel disease%皮质下小血管病诊断的共识声明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary A Rosenberg; Anders Wallin; Joanna M Wardlaw; Hugh S Markus; Joan Montaner; Leslie Wolfson; Costantino Iadecola; Berislav V Zlokovic; Anne Joutel

    2016-01-01

    血管性认知损害是用于描述一组涉及大血管和小血管的散发性和遗传性异质性疾病的诊断术语.皮质下小血管病可导致腔隙性梗死和进行性白质损害.被称为宾斯旺格病(Binswanger's disease,BD)的进行性白质损害患者构成了从单纯血管性疾病到合并神经变性病变的疾病谱.BD患者是一个相对同质性的亚组,存在缺氧缺血、腔隙性梗死和炎症,它们协同作用破坏血脑屏障和髓鞘.通过临床、脑脊液、神经心理学和影像学检查获得的多模式疾病标记物能促进该亚组患者的鉴别.本共识声明确定了一系列基于基础病理学改变的潜在生物学标记物,这将有助于诊断以及将来协作性治疗试验的患者选择.

  16. MRI-derived measurements of human subcortical, ventricular and intracranial brain volumes: Reliability effects of scan sessions, acquisition sequences, data analyses, scanner upgrade, scanner vendors and field strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicich, Jorge; Czanner, Silvester; Han, Xiao; Salat, David; van der Kouwe, Andre; Quinn, Brian; Pacheco, Jenni; Albert, Marilyn; Killiany, Ronald; Blacker, Deborah; Maguire, Paul; Rosas, Diana; Makris, Nikos; Gollub, Randy; Dale, Anders; Dickerson, Bradford C; Fischl, Bruce

    2009-05-15

    Automated MRI-derived measurements of in-vivo human brain volumes provide novel insights into normal and abnormal neuroanatomy, but little is known about measurement reliability. Here we assess the impact of image acquisition variables (scan session, MRI sequence, scanner upgrade, vendor and field strengths), FreeSurfer segmentation pre-processing variables (image averaging, B1 field inhomogeneity correction) and segmentation analysis variables (probabilistic atlas) on resultant image segmentation volumes from older (n=15, mean age 69.5) and younger (both n=5, mean ages 34 and 36.5) healthy subjects. The variability between hippocampal, thalamic, caudate, putamen, lateral ventricular and total intracranial volume measures across sessions on the same scanner on different days is less than 4.3% for the older group and less than 2.3% for the younger group. Within-scanner measurements are remarkably reliable across scan sessions, being minimally affected by averaging of multiple acquisitions, B1 correction, acquisition sequence (MPRAGE vs. multi-echo-FLASH), major scanner upgrades (Sonata-Avanto, Trio-TrioTIM), and segmentation atlas (MPRAGE or multi-echo-FLASH). Volume measurements across platforms (Siemens Sonata vs. GE Signa) and field strengths (1.5 T vs. 3 T) result in a volume difference bias but with a comparable variance as that measured within-scanner, implying that multi-site studies may not necessarily require a much larger sample to detect a specific effect. These results suggest that volumes derived from automated segmentation of T1-weighted structural images are reliable measures within the same scanner platform, even after upgrades; however, combining data across platform and across field-strength introduces a bias that should be considered in the design of multi-site studies, such as clinical drug trials. The results derived from the young groups (scanner upgrade effects and B1 inhomogeneity correction effects) should be considered as preliminary and in need for further validation with a larger dataset.

  17. The utility of a forehead-to-inion derivation in recording the subcortical far-field potential (P14) during median nerve somatosensory-evoked potential testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Stephen J; Legatt, Alan D

    2012-04-01

    American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) guidelines recommend recording P14 between an ipsilateral centroparietal electrode (CPi) and a noncephalic reference, typically the contralateral Erb's point (EPc) (American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Guideline 9D: guidelines on short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;23(2):168-179). We investigated the utility of a forehead (Fpz)-to-inion derivation for recording P14. We analyzed 74 median nerve somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) studies (148 nerves) with bilaterally normal peripheral and central conductions. The presence of an identifiable P14 and its amplitude and latency were assessed in both the CPi-EPc and Fpz-inion derivations. In 7 of the 148 recordings, P14 was not identifiable in either derivation. The P14 was only identifiable in CPi-EPc in 9 recordings, and only identifiable in Fpz-inion in 4 recordings. In the remaining 128 recordings, the mean P14 latency was 13.2 ± 1.1 ms in both derivations. The mean P14 amplitude using CPi-EPc was 2.0 ± 0.6 µV, significantly larger than that using Fpz-inion, 1.2 ± 0.6 µV (P derivation and the Fpz-inion derivation both record the same P14 component, and latency norms based on either derivation are interchangeable. Although the CPi-EPc derivation typically yields a larger and more identifiable P14, occasionally Fpz-inion yields a larger P14, and rarely P14 is only identifiable using Fpz-inion. Thus, recording of the Fpz-inion derivation may be a useful adjunct during median nerve SEP testing.

  18. BMI not WHR modulates BOLD fMRI responses in a sub-cortical reward network when participants judge the attractiveness of human female bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian E Holliday

    Full Text Available In perceptual terms, the human body is a complex 3d shape which has to be interpreted by the observer to judge its attractiveness. Both body mass and shape have been suggested as strong predictors of female attractiveness. Normally body mass and shape co-vary, and it is difficult to differentiate their separate effects. A recent study suggested that altering body mass does not modulate activity in the reward mechanisms of the brain, but shape does. However, using computer generated female body-shaped greyscale images, based on a Principal Component Analysis of female bodies, we were able to construct images which covary with real female body mass (indexed with BMI and not with body shape (indexed with WHR, and vice versa. Twelve observers (6 male and 6 female rated these images for attractiveness during an fMRI study. The attractiveness ratings were correlated with changes in BMI and not WHR. Our primary fMRI results demonstrated that in addition to activation in higher visual areas (such as the extrastriate body area, changing BMI also modulated activity in the caudate nucleus, and other parts of the brain reward system. This shows that BMI, not WHR, modulates reward mechanisms in the brain and we infer that this may have important implications for judgements of ideal body size in eating disordered individuals.

  19. Chronic myocardial infarction detection and characterization during coronary artery calcium scoring acquisitions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rodríguez-Granillo, Gastón A

    2012-01-05

    Hypoenhanced regions on multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography correlate with myocardial hyperperfusion. In addition to a limited capillary density, chronic myocardial infarction (MI) commonly contains a considerable amount of adipose tissue.

  20. Airway vascular reactivity and vascularisation in human chronic airway disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Simon R; Boustany, Sarah; Burgess, Janette K; Hirst, Stuart J; Sharma, Hari S; Simcock, David E; Suravaram, Padmini R; Weckmann, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Altered bronchial vascular reactivity and remodelling including angiogenesis are documented features of asthma and other chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Expansion of the bronchial vasculature under these conditions involves both functional (vasodilation, hyperperfusion, increased microvascular

  1. Poly(T) variation in heteroderid nematode mitochondrial genomes is predominantly an artefact of amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepsamen, Angelique H; Gibson, Tracey; Rowe, Janet; Chitwood, David J; Subbotin, Sergei A; Dowton, Mark

    2011-02-01

    We assessed the rate of in vitro polymerase errors at polythymidine [poly(T)] tracts in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of a heteroderid nematode (Heterodera cajani). The mtDNA of these nematodes contain unusually high numbers of poly(T) tracts, and have previously been suggested to contain biological poly(T) length variation. However, using a cloned molecule, we observed that poly(T) variation was generated in vitro at regions containing more than six consecutive Ts. This artefactual error rate was estimated at 7.3 × 10(-5) indels/poly(T) tract >6 Ts/cycle. This rate was then compared to the rate of poly(T) variation detected after the amplification of a biological sample, in order to estimate the 'biological + artefactual' rate of poly(T) variation. There was no significant difference between the artefactual and the artefactual + biological rates, suggesting that the majority of poly(T) variation in the biological sample was artefactual. We then examined the generation of poly(T) variation in a range of templates with tracts up to 16 Ts long, utilizing a range of Heteroderidae species. We observed that T deletions occurred five times more frequently than insertions, and a trend towards increasing error rates with increasing poly(T) tract length. These findings have significant implications for studies involving genomes with many homopolymer tracts.

  2. Pediatric cerebral stroke: susceptibility-weighted imaging may predict post-ischemic malignant edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Poretti, Andrea; Orman, Gunes; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2013-10-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is an advanced MRI technique providing information on the blood oxygenation level. Deoxyhemoglobin is increased in hypoperfused tissue characterized by SWI-hypointensity, while high oxyhemoglobin concentration within hyperperfused tissue results in a SWI iso- or hyperintensity compared to healthy brain tissue. We describe a child with a stroke, where SWI in addition to excluding hemorrhage and delineating the thrombus proved invaluable in determining regions of hyperperfusion or luxury perfusion, which contributed further to the prognosis including an increased risk of developing post-ischemic malignant edema.

  3. Parameters in three-dimensional osteospheroids of telomerized human mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells grown on osteoconductive scaffolds that predict in vivo bone-forming potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Jorge S; Hansen, Pernille Lund; Larsen, Kenneth H;

    2010-01-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in monolayer culture is artefactual, lacking an organized bone-like matrix. We present a highly reproducible microwell protocol generating three-dimensional ex vivo multicellular aggregates of telomerized hMSC (hMSC-telomerase re...

  4. Decomposition and classification of electroencephalography data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Laura

    _MARC was also used to inspect effects of artefacts on motor imagery based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) in two studies, where removing artefactual ICs had little performance impact. Finally, we investigated multi-linear classification on single trials of EEG data, proposing a rigorous optimisation approach...

  5. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P;

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  6. Original Copies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  7. A BOLD-fMRI study in motor recovery after subcortical stroke%皮层下脑卒中患者两种康复治疗的功能磁共振研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴险峰; 穆丹梅; 田旭玉; 李艳; 张暹东

    2010-01-01

    目的:通过功能磁共振探讨两种康复治疗皮层下脑卒中患者的疗效及潜在机制.方法:患者随机分为强制性运动疗法(constraint-induced movement therapy,CIMT)与神经发育疗法(neurodevelopmental treatment,NDT)两个治疗组.在康复治疗前、后行血氧水平依赖功能磁共振成像(blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging,BOLD-fMRI),并进行临床评分.结果:在康复治疗前、后,健手运动的激活模式近于正常人.患手运动时,运动区广泛激活;治疗后双侧大脑半球激活的体素数显著减少,并向正常激活模式集中.治疗前、后的临床评分显示CIMT组康复效果优于NDT组.结论:康复治疗能促进脑功能重组;CIMT对皮层下脑卒中后3~9个月患者的康复效果优于NDT.

  8. Blockade of dopamine D(3) receptors in frontal cortex, but not in sub-cortical structures, enhances social recognition in rats: similar actions of D(1) receptor agonists, but not of D(2) antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Florence; Millan, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    Though D(3) receptor antagonists can enhance cognitive function, their sites of action remain unexplored. This issue was addressed employing a model of social recognition in rats, and the actions of D(3) antagonists were compared to D(1) agonists that likewise possess pro-cognitive properties. Infusion of the highly selective D(3) antagonists, S33084 and SB277,011 (0.04-2.5 microg/side), into the frontal cortex (FCX) dose-dependently reversed the deficit in recognition induced by a delay. By contrast, the preferential D(2) antagonist, L741,626 (0.63-5.0) had no effect. The action of S33084 was regionally specific inasmuch as its injection into the nucleus accumbens or striatum was ineffective. A similar increase of recognition was obtained upon injection of the D(1) agonist, SKF81297 (0.04-0.63), into the FCX though it was also active (0.63) in the nucleus accumbens. These data suggest that D(3) receptors modulating social recognition are localized in FCX, and underpin their pertinence as targets for antipsychotic agents.

  9. CLINICLE STUDY OF ACUPUNCTURE ON THE THERAPUTIC EFFECT FOR SUBCORTICAL ARTERIOSCLEROTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY(SAE)%针刺治疗皮质下动脉硬化性脑病的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周君; 王国义; 孙申田

    2002-01-01

    目的:观察针刺治疗皮质下动脉硬化性脑病(SAE)的疗效.方法:将57例SAE病人随机分为针刺组和对照组(静点胞二磷胆碱),观察比较治疗前后的差异及组间差异.结果:针刺组治疗前后差异显著(P0.05).结论:针刺能改善SAE病人的智能,对老年期痴呆是有效而可靠的治疗手段之一.

  10. The application of low field MRI FLAIR sequence in the diagnosis of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy%低场磁共振FLAIR序列在皮层下动脉硬化性脑病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吉明; 王超; 韩明; 邵宝富

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨低场强磁共振成像(MRI)液体衰减反转恢复(FLAIR)序列在皮层下动脉硬化性脑病(SAE)影像诊断中的应用价值.方法 对65例SAE进行常规快速自旋回波(FSE)序列T2WI和FLAIR序列扫描,分析SAE在FSE及FLAIR序列中的影像表现,比较2种成像序列对SAE病变的显示效果,应用x2检验比较常规FSE序列T2WI及FLAIR序列图像中SAE病灶显示满意度和分级诊断的变化.结果 SAE MRI表现为侧脑室前后角、体部周围、放射冠、半卵圆中心边缘模糊片状稍长T1、长T2异常信号,FLAIR序列病灶表现为高信号.FLAIR序列成像比FSE序列T2WI对SAE病灶显示满意(P<0.05),但对病变的分级诊断无明显差异(p>0.05).结论 低场强条件下采用FLAIR序列诊断SAE,其效果比常规FSE序列优越,FLAIR序列可以作为一个常规序列以减少漏诊.

  11. Features of Carotid Artery in Patients with Subcortical Atherosclerotic Encephalopathy%皮质下动脉硬化性脑病病人颈动脉超声的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雁; 刘华; 杨焰; 文春华

    2006-01-01

    目的研究皮质下动脉硬化性脑病(SAE)病人的颈动脉粥样硬化特点及血流动力学变化.方法应用彩色多普勒超声仪,检测42例SAE病人双侧颈总动脉(CCA)、颈内动脉(ICA)、颈外动脉(ECA)粥样硬化斑块发生情况,观察收缩期峰值血流速度(SPV)、舒张末期血流速度(EDV)和阻力指数(RI)变化,并与40例年龄匹配、伴随疾病相似、无明显缺血性心脑疾病症状、体征的病人进行比较.结果①SAE组颈动脉内膜-中层厚度(IMT)明显增加,与对照组比较有统计学意义(P<0.05);②SAE组斑块检出率97.62%,对照组斑块检出率82.50%,两组比较有统计学意义(P<0.05);③粥样硬化斑块积分SAE组明显高于对照组(P<0.01);两组间管径狭窄皆以轻度狭窄(<50%)为主,但SAE组中度、重度狭窄(>50%)明显高于对照组(P<0.05);④SAE组SPV、EDV较对照组明显减慢(P<0.05).结论 SAE病人颈动脉粥样硬化多较显著,血流动力学改变以流速减慢为主.SAE的发病与颈动脉粥样硬化有关.

  12. Compositional predictional model of gasoline cuts using detailed hydrocarbon chromatographic analysis of the full range of gasoline; Modelo composicional de subcortes da nafta craqueada a partir dos resultados do PIANIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, William Richard; Santos, Luciana Rego Monteiro dos; Silva, Leandro Correia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de FCC]. E-mails: gilbertw, lumonteiro, leandrocs@petrobras.com.br

    2007-04-15

    A procedure has been developed to determine the composition of sub-fractions of a gasoline sample, based on the simulated distillation and detailed hydrocarbon analysis (PIANO) of the whole sample. The procedure was implemented in an Excel spreadsheet and will calculate other properties of the sub-fractions in addition to the composition, such as density and octane numbers. The calculations are based on a gasoline composition model which assumes that the concentration of each PIANO pseudo-component (e.g. C8 aromatics) in a TBP fraction will vary with boiling temperature according to a normal distribution curve. The composition model was developed from a data base obtained from the detailed characterization of narrow fractions (cut points varying by 5 deg C) of a cracked naphtha from a PETROBRAS refinery. The model was later used to determine the composition of liquid product fractions of pilot unit tests performed for the design of a new Petrochemical FCC unit. Even without external validation, the model is expected to work well for other kinds of naphtha range streams in a refinery. Differences in composition of different samples are taken into account by the pseudo-component mass balance performed by the spreadsheet. The validity of the gasoline composition model in further attested by the coincidence between the average boiling temperature of the pseudo-component concentration distribution curves and the boiling temperatures of the corresponding pure compounds. (author)

  13. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and single photon emission computerized tomography--cerebral blood flow in a case of pure sensory stroke and mild dementia owing to subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger's disease)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiara, S; Lassen, N A; Andersen, A R;

    1987-01-01

    hypertensive, 72-year-old patient with PSS, CT scanning and conventional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) scanning using a 7-mm-thick slice on a 1.5 Tesla instrument all failed to visualize the thalamic infarct. Using the high-resolution mode with 2-mm slice thickness it was, however, clearly seen...

  14. 一种新的儿童脑白质病-巨颅伴皮层下海绵样囊肿性脑白质病%Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts-a New Child Leukoencephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宝强; Marjo S.van der Knaap

    2004-01-01

    巨颅伴皮层下海绵样囊肿性脑白质病是近年来被认识的一种新的儿童脑白质病.这种脑白质病患者出生时头围增大,神经发育基本正常或接近正常.随后逐渐出现缓慢进展性运动功能恶化如走路不稳、共济失调、肢体痉挛和瘫痪,而同时智能损伤相对较轻.大多数患者可有惊厥发作但对抗惊厥治疗反应良好.除脑电图上可有痫样放电外其他神经电生理检查基本正常.在影像学上所有患儿的脑白质均受累,早期患者MRI上表现出脑组织水肿,特别是额叶以及颞叶和顶叶的前部十分明显,后期脑皮层下出现囊肿样变化.病理学显示这些囊肿样结构主要是由单一五层膜结构所构成的髓鞘板层覆盖的空泡.目前已知的、常见的遗传代谢物筛查在该病患者中无阳性发现.该病是一种常染色体隐性遗传病,位于22qtel上的KIAA0027基因被认为是该脑白质病的致病基因.%Here we review a new variety of leukoencephalopathy with infantile megalencephaly and discrepant clinical course (MLC, MIM: 604004). These children bad megalencephaly in the first year of life, with or without mild delay of motor function and/or seizures. After a few years, motor handicap was slowly progressive with unsteady gait,serious cerebellar ataxia and mild plasticity. Eventually most of patients were confined to a wheelchair. Meanwhile mental development was relatively preserved, although the learning problems was increased from the midway of elementary school. Most of patients had tonic-clonic seizure and some might advance to status epilepticus. Antiepileptic drugs may effectively control seizure. The disorders of known metabolic defects were excluded. Neurophysiological examination showed that EEG had interictal epileptic discharges on the generalized slow wave background in most patients. The cerebral white matter had diffuse abnormality, with swelling of white matter, and cysts in the frontoparietal and anterior-temporal lobes on MRI examnation. Some central white matter structures were spared, such as corpus callosum. The severity of lesions on MRI is inconsistent with the clinical signs. Pathogenesis of this disease was unknown. The pathological findings found a spongiform leukoencephalopathy due to myelin splitting and intramyelinic vacuole formation but without myelin loss. This disease had probably an autosomal recessive inheritance. The gene KIAA027 on 22qtel was responsible for MLC.

  15. Portal vene-embolisering før leverkirurgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Mahdi, Bassam; Nielsen, Henning Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    Portal vein embolization is performed with the intention to occlude the portal veins to liver segments with malignancies and direct the portal flow to the healthy part (usually the left lobe) of the liver. Thus, hyperperfusion through the non-embolized part of the liver will create hyperplasia...

  16. Repair of abnormal perfusion foci in idiopathic epilepsy patients under long-term antiepileptic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Wang; Siyu Zhao; Yaqing Liu

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizure control and the disappearance of epileptiform discharge are not indicative of the absence of abnormal perfusion foci.Perfusion abnormalities are a major cause of epileptic discharge, and the existence of abnormal perfusion foci implies possible relapse.Very little is known about perfusion abnormality repair in epilepsy.The present study selected 43 cases of idiopathic epilepsy under antiepileptic drug control for an average of 24 months.Comparisons between interictal single-photon emission CT (SPECT)images and long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) pre- and post-treatment showed that cases of normal SPECT increased by 48% (12/25) following treatment, with a total number of 15 reduced foci (36%, 15/41).Perfusion foci, i.e., region of interest, were altered following treatment.These changes included:normal to abnormal in 3 cases (7%, 3/43; 2 hyperperfusion and 1 hypoperfusion); abnormal to normal in 14 cases (32%, 14/43; 10 pre-treatment hypoperfusion and 4 hyperperfusion); abnormal to abnormal in 7 cases (16%, 7/43; hyperperfusion to hypoperfusion in 5 cases, hypoperfusion to hyperperfusion in 2 cases).Long-term EEG revealed in an increase in the number of normal cases by 20 (40%, 20/39), and there were 25 fewer cases with epileptiform discharges (66%, 25/38).These findings demonstrate that long-term control of anti-epileptic drugs partially repaired cerebral perfusion abnormalities and reduced epileptiform discharges in idiopathic epilepsy.

  17. Gclust Server: 58216 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 58216 HSA_21237732 Cluster Sequences - 377 NP_631941.1 megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical...leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 gene product ; no annotation Number of Sequences 2 Homologs 2 C

  18. Posterior reversibile encephalopathic syndrom: case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Branko B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome was introduced into clinical practice in 1996 in order to describe unique syndrome, clinically expressed during hypertensive and uremic encephalopathy, eclampsia and during immunosuppressive therapy [1 ]. First clinical investigations showed that leucoencephalopathy is major characteristic of the syndrome, but further investigations showed no significant destruction in white cerebral tissue [2, 3,4]. In majority of cases changes are localize in posterior irrigation area of the brain and in the most severe cases anterior region is also involved. Taking into consideration all above mentioned facts, the suggested term was Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES for the syndrome clinically expressed by neurological manifestations derived from cortical and subcortical changes localized in posterior regions of cerebral hemispheres cerebral trunk and cerebellum [5]. CASE REPORT Patient, aged 53 years, was re-hospitalized in Cardiovascular Institute "Dedinje" two months after succesfull aorto-coronary bypass performed in June 2001 due to the chest bone infection. During the treatment of the infection (according to the antibiogram in September 2001, patient in evening hours developed headache and blurred vision. The recorded blood pressure was 210/120 mmHg so antihypertensive treatment was applied (Nifedipin and Furosemid. After this therapy there was no improvement and intensive headache with fatigue and loss of vision developed. Neurological examination revealed cortical blindness and left hemiparesis. Manitol (20%, 60 ccm every 3 hours and iv. Nytroglicerin (high blood pressure. Brain CT revealed oedema of parieto-occipital regions of both hemispheres, more emphasized on the right. (Figure 1 a, b, c. There was no sign of focal ischemia even in deeper sections (Figure 1d, e, f. Following three days enormous high blood pressure values were registered. On the fourth day the

  19. Non-Monetary Feedback Induces more Cooperation: Students and Workers in a Voluntary Contribution Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Galeotti, Fabio; Raimondello ORSINI

    2016-01-01

    We conduct an artefactual field experiment to study and compare the behavior of workers and students in a linear voluntary contribution mechanism in which subjects can assign immaterial sanctions or rewards to the other group members. We find that both students and workers sanction group members who contribute less than the group average, and reward those who contribute more. In both subject samples, the use of non-monetary sanctions and rewards induces more cooperation. The magnitude of the ...

  20. Cleaning sky survey databases using Hough Transform and Renewal String approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Storkey, AJ; Hambly, NC; Williams, CKI; Mann, RG

    2003-01-01

    Large astronomical data bases obtained from sky surveys such as the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey (SSS) invariably suffer from spurious records coming from the artefactual effects of the telescope, satellites and junk objects in orbit around the Earth and physical defects on the photographic plate or CCD. Though relatively small in number, these spurious records present a significant problem in many situations, where they can become a large proportion of the records potentially of interest to a give...

  1. Renewal Strings for Cleaning Astronomical Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Storkey, Amos J.; Hambly, Nigel C.; Williams, Christopher K. I.; Mann, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Large astronomical databases obtained from sky surveys such as the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS) invariably suffer from a small number of spurious records coming from artefactual effects of the telescope, satellites and junk objects in orbit around earth and physical defects on the photographic plate or CCD. Though relatively small in number these spurious records present a significant problem in many situations where they can become a large proportion of the records potentially of interest t...

  2. The use of indigenous knowledge in development: problems and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of indigenous knowledge has been seen by many as an alternative way of promoting development in poor rural communities in many parts of the world. By reviewing much of the recent work on indigenous knowledge, the paper suggests that a number of problems and tensions has resulted in indigenous knowledge not being as useful as hoped for or supposed. These include problems emanating from a focus on the (arte)factual; binary tensions between western science and indigenous knowledge system...

  3. Health as a property of engineered living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2013-10-01

    This article considers naturalistic analyses of the concepts of health and disease in light of the possibility of constructing novel living systems. The article begins by introducing the vision of synthetic biology as the application of engineering principles to the construction of biological systems, the main analyses of the concepts of health and disease, and the standard theories of function in artefacts and organisms. The article then suggests that reflection on the possibility of artefactual organisms amounts to a challenge to the functional theories of health and disease proposed by Wakefield and Boorse. More specifically, Wakefield and Boorse's theories are reconstructed as responses to a dilemma concerning how to allow for the ascription of health and disease to artefactual organisms without at the same time opening up the possibility of diseased nonliving artefacts such as cars and computers. It is argued that neither response will enable us to ascribe health and disease to artefactual organisms, because both theories, in order to rule out the possibility of ascribing health and disease to nonliving artefacts, make such ascriptions conditional on having a natural-selection history or being part of a species which has been designed by evolution.

  4. Critical importance of appropriate fixation conditions for faithful imaging of receptor microclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess A. Stanly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Receptor clustering is known to trigger signalling events that contribute to critical changes in cellular functions. Faithful imaging of such clusters by means of fluorescence microscopy relies on the application of adequate cell fixation methods prior to immunolabelling in order to avoid artefactual redistribution by the antibodies themselves. Previous work has highlighted the inadequacy of fixation with paraformaldehyde (PFA alone for efficient immobilisation of membrane-associated molecules, and the advantages of fixation with PFA in combination with glutaraldehyde (GA. Using fluorescence microscopy, we here highlight how inadequate fixation can lead to the formation of artefactual clustering of receptors in lymphatic endothelial cells, focussing on the transmembrane hyaluronan receptors LYVE-1 and CD44, and the homotypic adhesion molecule CD31, each of which displays their native diffuse surface distribution pattern only when visualised with the right fixation techniques, i.e. PFA/GA in combination. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP confirms that the artefactual receptor clusters are indeed introduced by residual mobility. In contrast, we observed full immobilisation of membrane proteins in cells that were fixed and then subsequently permeabilised, irrespective of whether the fixative was PFA or PFA/GA in combination. Our study underlines the importance of choosing appropriate sample preparation protocols for preserving authentic receptor organisation in advanced fluorescence microscopy.

  5. Basal hyperaemia is the primary abnormality of perfusion in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Bang, Lia Evi;

    2015-01-01

    hyperperfusion. Our aim was to examine abnormalities of perfusion in TTC, and we hypothesized that basal hyperperfusion is the primary perfusion abnormality in the acute state. METHOD AND RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with TTC due to (i) acute onset of symptoms, (ii) typical apical ballooning......, (iii) absence of significant coronary disease, and (iv) complete remission on 4-month follow-up. The patients underwent coronary angiography (CAG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), and (13)NH3/(82)Rb positron emission tomography (PET) in the acute state and-except CAG......-on follow-up. Patients initially had severe heart failure, mid/apical oedema but no infarction, and a rise in cardiac biomarkers. On initial perfusion PET imaging, eight patients appeared to have normal, whereas 17 patients had impaired LV perfusion. In the latter, flow in the basal region was increased...

  6. SPECT abnormalities with unilateral arm dystonia in a young mentally retarded apprentice cook: contralateral thalamo-cortical dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Fukutake, Toshio; Arai, Kimihito; Kikkawa, Yuriko; Hattori, Takamichi

    2003-06-01

    We report a young, mentally retarded apprentice cook with a 2-month history of right upper extremity dystonia, for whom diazepam therapy was efficacious. We evaluated brain perfusion by single photon emission tomography (SPECT) before and after diazepam treatment. The abnormal hyperperfusion in the left thalamus and hypoperfusion in the left frontal cortex were normalized on the second SPECT under the successful diazepam treatment. These findings were indicative of functional changes in the left thalamus and left frontal cortex.

  7. Ictal SPECT in Sturge-Weber syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    O. Bilgin; Vollmar, C.; Peraud, A.; la Fougere, C.; Beleza, P; Noachtar, S.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a patient with right-sided Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), in whom earlier functional hemispherectomy failed. Subtraction of ictal and interictal single-photon-emission-computed-tomography (SPECT) superimposed on individual MRI showed a right fronto-orbital hyperperfusion, with a left-sided EEG seizure pattern. Ictal SPECT supported our assumption that right frontal originated seizure pattern propagated to left hemisphere via the remaining right frontal bridge. Right orbito-frontal ...

  8. Small-for-size syndrome in adult-to-adult living-related liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salvatore; Gruttadauria; Duilio; Pagano; Angelo; Luca; Bruno; Gridelli

    2010-01-01

    Small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) in adult-to-adult living-related donor liver transplantation (LRLT) remains the greatest limiting factor for the expansion of segmental liver transplantation from either cadaveric or living donors. Portal hyperperfusion, venous pathology, and the arterial buffer response signif icantly contribute to clinical and histopathological manifestations of SFSS. Here, we review the technical aspects of surgical and radiological procedures developed to treat SFSS in LRLT, along with the...

  9. Laser Doppler flowmeter study on regional cerebral blood flow in early stage after standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass surgery for moyamoya disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GESANG Dun-zhu; ZHANG Dong; ZHAO Ji-zong; WANG Shuo; ZHAO Yuan-li; WANG Rong; SUN Jian-jun; MENG Ze

    2009-01-01

    Background Standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery is an effective treatment for moyamoya disease, but recent evidence suggests that postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion can occur. In this study, the trendline of changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after surgery were continually monitored near the site of anastomosis in order to investigate both the efficacy of the procedure for improving rCBF and the possible riskof hyperperfusion.Methods Standard STA-MCA bypass surgery was performed on 13 patients, rCBF was measured continually using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) until the 5th day after the operation with the LDF probe implanted adjacent to the area of the anastomosis. The trendline of rCBF changes postoperatively was recorded for the analysis performed using SPSS 13.0.Results The baseline LDF value of cortical rCBF was (84.68±14.39) perfusion unit (PU), which was linear relative to absolute perfusion volume before anastomosis and (88.90±11.26) PU immediately after anastomosis (P >0.05). The value changed significantly from before to after anastomosis (P 0.05).Conclusions STA-MCA anastomosis improves the cerebral blood supply significantly in the early stage after surgery,however, the risk of symptomatic hyperperfusion may exist, which may possibly occur on the 1st day and 5th day after surgery. A LDF is useful for postoperative monitoring for both the efficacy of bypass and possible risk of neurologic deterioration or bleeding from hyperperfusion.

  10. Focal hemodynamic patterns of status epilepticus detected by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aellen, Jerome; Kottke, Raimund; Springer, Elisabeth; Weisstanner, Christian; El-Koussy, Marwan; Schroth, Gerhard; Wiest, Roland; Gralla, Jan; Verma, Rajeev K. [University of Bern, University Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Bern and Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Abela, Eugenio; Schindler, Kaspar [University of Bern, Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Buerki, Sarah E. [Inselspital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, University Children' s Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate pathological findings in the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of patients experiencing convulsive (CSE) or non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with focal hyperperfusion in the acute setting. Twelve patients (six with NCSE confirmed by electroencephalogram (EEG) and six patients with CSE with seizure event clinically diagnosed) underwent MRI in this acute setting (mean time between onset of symptoms and MRI was 3 h 8 min), including SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MRI sequences were retrospectively evaluated and compared with EEG findings (10/12 patients), and clinical symptoms. Twelve out of 12 (100 %) patients showed a focal parenchymal area with pseudo-narrowed cortical veins on SWI, associated with focal hyperperfused areas (increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time (MTT) shortening), and cortical DWI restriction in 6/12 patients (50 %). Additionally, these areas were associated with ictal or postical EEG patterns in 8/10 patients (80 %). Most frequent acute clinical findings were aphasia and/or hemiparesis in eight patients, and all of them showed pseudo-narrowed veins in those parenchymal areas responsible for these symptoms. In this study series with CSE and NCSE patients, SWI showed focally pseudo-narrowed cortical veins in hyperperfused and ictal parenchymal areas. Therefore, SWI might have the potential to identify an ictal region in CSE/NCSE. (orig.)

  11. The Performance of Ictal Brain SPECT Localizing for Epileptogenic Zone in Neocortical Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Sik; Lee, Dong Soo; Hyun, In Young; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Sang Kun; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    The epileptogenic zones should be localized precisely before surgical resection of these zones in intractable epilepsy. The localization is more difficult in patients with neocortical epilepsy than in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. This study aimed at evaluation of the usefulness of ictal brain perfusion SPECT for the localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy. We compared the performance of ictal SPECT with MRI referring to ictal scalp electroencephalography (sEEG). Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT were done in twenty-one patients. Ictal EEG were also obtained during video monitoring. MRI were reviewed. According to the ictal sEEG and semiology, 8 patients were frontal lobe epilepsy, 7 patients were lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, 2 patients were parietal lobe epilepsy, and 4 patients were occipital lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in 14 patients(67%) in the zones which were suspected to be epileptogenic according to ictal EEG and semiology. MRI found morphologic abnormalities in 9 patients(43%). Among the 12 patients, in whom no epileptogenic zones were revealed by MR1, ictal SPECT found zones of hyperperfusion concordant with ictal sEEG in 9 patients(75%). However, no zones of hyperperfusion were found in 4 among 9 patients who were found to have cerebromalacia, abnormal calcification and migration anomaly in MRI. We thought that ictal SPECT was useful for localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy and especially in patients with negative findings in MRI.

  12. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  13. Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass for cerebral atherosclerotic disease: factors determining the bypass patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Fumihiro; Murai, Yasuo; Tateyama, Kojiro; Tamaki, Tomonori; Mizunari, Takayuki; Matsukawa, Hideoshi; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2016-10-01

    Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery for atherosclerotic disease and associated risk factors for loss of patency have rarely been discussed. We retrospectively analyzed long-term patency following STA-MCA bypass and evaluated various demographic and clinical factors to identify the ones predictive of postsurgical loss of patency using records of 84 revascularization procedures (58 patients, 45 males; mean age at surgery 63.6 years, range 31-78 years). Bypass patency was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance angiography or three-dimensional computed tomography. The mean follow-up period was 24.7 months (range 6-63 months). Decreased bypass patency was observed in 4 of 58 patients (6.9 %) who collectively underwent 6 bypasses (7.1 %) of 84. All cases of decreased bypass patency were first detected within 6 months of surgery. Bypass patency was not correlated with age, sex, number of anastomoses, postoperative cerebral infarction, or control of postoperative diabetes mellitus. We found a significant association of bypass patency with hyperperfusion (p = 0.01) and postoperative smoking (p = 0.0036). Furthermore, we found a significant association of hyperperfusion with STA diameter (p bypass patency in cerebral atherosclerotic disease patients. Careful monitoring of patency to prevent hyperperfusion and cessation of smoking are recommended, particularly within 6 months of the surgery.

  14. Altered cortical and subcortical local coherence in migraine with and without aura: evidence from resting-state fMRI%有先兆与无先兆偏头痛患者静息态功能磁共振局部一致性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜; 王志红; 张阳; 张璐; 耿左军; 任璐; 程金明

    2015-01-01

    目的 采用静息态功能磁共振(rfMRI)方法通过对比无先兆偏头痛(MwoA)患者、有先兆偏头痛(MA)患者及健康人的大脑自发脑活动的局部一致性(ReHo)差异从而进一步阐明偏头痛的脑功能机制.方法 收集2014年3至10月就诊于河北医科大学第二医院神经内科门诊的发作间期的23例MwoA(MwoA组)和12例MA患者(MA组)以及25名性别、年龄、受教育程度相匹配的健康被试对照组,对其进行临床资料的采集及rfMRI检查.应用ReHo方法分析每个被试大脑的相邻体素的血氧水平依赖(BOLD)信号在同一时间序列中波动的一致性,比较三组受试者大脑ReHo值的差异.结果 MwoA组右侧丘脑、右侧壳核、右侧前额叶皮质、右侧海马的ReHo值显著高于健康对照组(P<0.05).MA组右侧丘脑、右侧壳核、右侧小脑、脑干的ReHo值显著低于健康对照组,而右侧枕叶的ReHo值显著高于健康对照组(P<0.05).与MA组相比,MwoA组右侧小脑、脑干的ReHo值显著增高(P<0.05).结论 静息态下这些功能异常的脑区可能与MA及MwoA患者的疼痛调节功能受损相关.MA与MwoA脑区结果的异同可能反映出两者病理机制的异同.%Objective To compare the interictal spontaneous brain activity between migraine without aura(MwoA) patients, Migraine with visual aura(MA) patients and healthy control subjects in order to provide further insights into the complex migraine pathophysiology.Methods Twenty-three eligible MwoA patients, twelve MA patients who were treated in the neurology clinics in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from March to October 2014 and twenty-five gender-, age-and education-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study.After demographic and clinical characteristics were acquired, a 3.0-T MRI system was used to obtain rfMRI.ReHo method was applied to analyze the synchronization of the BOLD signal in the same time series among neighboring voxels of the brain.Results Compared with healthy controls, MwoA patients showed significant decreases in ReHo values in the right thalamus, right putamen, right prefrontal lobe and right hippocampus (P < 0.05);while MA patients showed significant decreases in ReHo values in the right thalamus, right putamen, right cerebellum and brainstem, whereas a significant increase in ReHo values in the right occipital lobe (P<0.05).Furthermore, compared with MA patients, increased ReHo values in the right cerebellum and brainstem were shown in the MwoA group (P < 0.05).Conclusions The results suggest that the resting-state abnormalities of these regions may be associated with functional impairments in pain processing in migraine.Specifically, the results of brain regions may reflect both the similarities and differences of pathophysiological mechanisms relative to the major subtypes of migraine.

  15. To study the characteristic of leptomeningeal arteries in cerebral autosomal dominant arteri-opathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy%伴皮质下梗死和白质脑病的常染色体显性遗传性脑动脉病患者软脑膜脑动脉管壁特点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张廉; 丁海霞; 蔡颖源; 董海蓉

    2014-01-01

    Objective Observe the CADASIL patients with soft meningeal artery wall structure and the change of blood vessel elasticity index. Method③rontal and temporal cortex of six genetically proven CADASIL brains,six con-trols without symptoms of cerebrovascular disease, were examined using penta-chrome staining. We determined inti-mal, medial, and adventitial thickness, inner diameter, and sclerotic index ( SI) for all leptomeningeal arteries within tissue examined. Result The intima of CADASIL arteries was significantly thickened compared to controls( P<0. 0001). Medial thickness was lower in CADASIL compared to controls(P<0. 01). The adventitia was not signifi-cantly increased in CADASIL compared to age-matched controls. Arterial diameters were not smaller in CADASIL compared to controls. SI was significantly increased in CADASIL compared to other groups(P<0. 00001). Conclusion Principle changes of leptomeningeal arteries in CADASIL include intimal thickening and medial thinning, but not luminal narrowing.%目的:观察伴有皮质下梗死和白质脑病的常染色体显性遗传性脑动脉病( CADASIL)患者软脑膜动脉管壁结构及血管弹性指数的变化。方法对6例有基因突变的CADASIL患者组成的观察组的额叶、颞叶皮层脑组织切片与对照组的脑组织切片进行penta-chrome染色,对所有切片内的软脑膜血管的内膜、中膜、外膜厚度、血管腔内径和外径进行测量,计算血管弹性指数( SI)。结果 CADASIL患者的软脑膜血管的内膜与对照组相比显著增厚(P<0.0001),中膜厚度与对照组相比明显变薄(P<0.01),外膜与对照组相比差别无显著性,CADASIL的血管腔内径与对照组相比并无狭窄,血管弹性指数SI与对照组相比显著增高(P<0.00001)。结论 CADASIL的软脑膜动脉的主要病理性改变是内膜显著增厚和中膜变薄,但血管内径无明显改变。

  16. 单纯脑白质疏松症与皮质下动脉硬化性脑病患者记忆障碍的对比研究%Contrastive study on memory disorders in patients with pure leukoaraiosis and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪志; 孙海荣; 王蕾

    2005-01-01

    目的比较单纯脑白质疏松症(LA)与皮质下动脉硬化性脑病(SAE)患者记忆障碍的特征.方法采用临床记忆量表对单纯LA、SAE患者各30例进行记忆功能检测及简易精神状态量表(MMSE)检测,并与30名健康老年人比较.结果单纯LA组患者各项记忆量表成绩及记忆商(MQ)均明显低于健康对照组(均P70的患者痴呆发生率明显低于MQ≤69的患者(P<0.01).结论 (1)单纯LA组患者有明显记忆障碍,但程度明显轻于SAE患者;(2)单纯LA组患者无痴呆发生,SAE组痴呆发生率高,且与记忆损害程度成正比.

  17. A study on levels of serum P-selectin and homocysteine and their effects on patients with subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy%皮质下动脉硬化性脑病患者P-选择素、同型半胱氨酸水平及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 夏章勇; 王延新; 李慧兰; 崔可密

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨皮质下动脉硬化性脑病(SAE)患者血浆P-选择素、同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)水平及其临床意义.方法 选择54例SAE患者和57例健康老年人,采用酶联免疫法测定2组空腹血浆P-选择素、Hcy水平,并进行比较.结果 和对照组比较,SAE组P-选择素、Hcy水平明显升高,差异有显著意义(P<0.01或P<0.001).P-选择素和Hcy呈显著正相关(r=0.302,P<0.05).结论 SAE患者血浆P-选择素、Hcy水平明显升高 ,二者对SAE的早期诊断和预测有重要价值,可能通过介导血栓的形成等机制共同参与SAE的发生、发展.

  18. CT and clinical diagnosis of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy in senile population: A report of 33 cases%老年人皮层下动脉硬化性脑病的CT与临床诊断(附33例分析)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑞新; 丁永红

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨老年人SAE临床与CT表现的关系.方法选取本院33例经CT检查有较典型SAE影像学表现的病人对比分析.结果本组33例中20例是以脑卒中样和高血压眩晕起病,13例以智能减退起病.CT表现分为轻、中、重Ⅲ型,具有典 型SAE神经症状的病例均见于Ⅱ、Ⅲ型中.慢性高血压与SAE有着密切的相关性.结论在脑白质病变的病人中易发生SAE,CT对指导早期防治SAE有重要价值.

  19. P-选择素、血管内皮生长因子在皮质下动脉硬化性脑病中的表达及意义%Expression and significance of P-selectin and vascular endothelial growth factor in subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏章勇; 高宏伟; 郭栋; 袁晓玲; 陈希红; 宫殿荣; 郭春杰; 崔可密

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨皮质下动脉硬化性脑病(SAE)患者血P-选择素、血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)水平及其与血糖、血脂和C反应蛋白(CRP)的相关性.方法 测定54例SAE患者(SAE组)、57名健康老年人(健康对照组)血浆P-选择素、血清VEGF、血糖、血脂、CRP水平,并进行比较和相关分析.结果 SAE组P-选择素[(17.61±5.63)ng/ml]、VEGF[(126.33±47.51)pg/ml]水平明显高于健康对照组[(14.72±3.89)ng/ml,(102.59±40.16)pg/ml](均P<0.01);P-选择素水平随痴呆程度加重而升高,痴呆中、重度组VEGF水平[(152.46±53.75)pg/ml、(150.52±55.94)pg/ml]明显高于轻度组[(126.79±44.83)pg/ml](P<0.01,P<0.05);中、重度组间差异无统计学意义.SAE组P-选择素与血糖、三酰甘油(TG)、CRP呈正相关(r=0.282、0.293、0.287,均P<0.05);VEGF与总胆固醇(TC)、CRP呈正相关(r= 0.291、0.336,均P<0.05);P-选择素与VEGF呈正相关(r=0.295,P<0.05).结论 P-选择素、VEGF参与了SAE的血栓形成和组织修复过程;检测P-选择素、VEGF水平,指导抗血小板药物的应用,对预防SAE可能有重要意义.

  20. 不同病变程度下皮质下动脉硬化性脑病患者ADL评分与社会功能评分研究%ADL Score and Social Function Score in Patients with Subcortical Atherosclerotic Encephalopathy with Different Lesion Degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培材

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析不同病变程度皮质下动脉硬化性脑病(SAE)患者 ADL评分及社会功能评分情况.方法 以我院2013年1月~2015年1月就诊的100例SAE患者为研究对象,根据不同病变程度将其分为轻型、中型及重型,分别通过ADL(日常生活活动量表)评分、SDSS(社会功能缺陷筛选量表)评分、SDS(抑郁自评量表)及SAS(焦虑自评量表)评分评定并比较不同病变程度患者日常生活活动能力、社会功能及心理情况.结果 轻型SAE患者ADL评分(52.8±5.4)分,中型患者ADL评分(40.5±3.5)分,重型患者ADL评分(28.9±4.1)分,ADL评分与病情严重程度呈负相关(P<0.05);轻型患者SDSS评分(2.1±0.4)分,中型患者SDSS评分(4.6±0.5)分,重型患者SDSS评分(6.8±1.2)分,SDSS评分与病情严重程度呈正相关(P<0.05);另外SDS评分与疾病严重程度呈正相关(P<0.05),而不同分型SAE患者SAS评分均在50分以下.结论 SAE患者病情越严重,日常生活能力越低下,社会功能缺陷越严重,抑郁症状亦越明显.

  1. Functional MRI for correlation between primary motor cortex structure and function in subcortical cerebral stroke patients%皮质下脑梗死患者初级运动皮质结构损伤和运动功能恢复的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 汪洋; 孟亮亮; 秦文; 刘宁宁; 薛蓉; 于春水; 张敬

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨脑梗死后结构损伤和功能代偿脑区的相关性,为阐述脑梗死后运动功能恢复的机制提供理论基础.方法 选择运动功能恢复较好的慢性期单侧基底节区脑梗死患者28例(脑梗死组),健康体检者25例(对照组),功能MRI采用组块设计,进行患手虚握运动以及高分辨率结构像采集,采用统计参数图比较2组脑灰质体积和执行运动任务时脑激活的不同.结果 与对照组比较,脑梗死组患侧半球M1区(感兴趣区1)及丘脑灰质体积减少.患手运动时,脑梗死组患侧半球M1区(感兴趣区2)及颞上回激活增强.感兴趣区1和感兴趣区2重叠,重叠区占灰质体积减少脑区(感兴趣区1)的21.9%.结论 M1结构损伤区及其周围正常脑区均参与运动功能的恢复,而与感觉功能有密切关系的M1区背侧的持续性激活增强可能对运动功能的恢复起更主要的作用.%Objective To provide the theoretical evidence for the motor function recovery by stud ying the correlation between injured motor cortex structure and functional compensatory brain ar ea after cerebral stroke. Methods Twenty-eight patients with chronic cerebral stroke at the basal ganglia area whose motor function was well recovered served as cerebral stroke group and 25 healthy subjects served as control group in this study. A functional MRI block was designed. High resolution images were collected. Differences in brain activation and gray matter volume of the two groups were compared according to the statistical parametric figures. Results The affected hemisphere Ml area(interested area 1) and thalamul gray matter volume were smaller in cerebral stroke group than in control group. The activation level of affected hemisphere Ml area(interested area 2) and superior temporal gyrus was higher in cerebral stroke group when the affected hand was in motion. The interested areas 1 and 2 were overlaped. The reduced gray matter volume in interested area 1 accounted for 21. 9% of the overlapped area. Conclusion Injuried Ml structure and its surrounding normal brain regions are involved in motor function recovery. Persistent acti vation of the dorsal Ml which is closely related with sensory function may play a greater role in motor function recovery.

  2. Enthalpy–entropy compensation: a phantom phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Athel Cornish-Bowden

    2002-03-01

    Enthalpy–entropy compensation is the name given to the correlation sometimes observed between the estimates of the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction obtained from temperature-dependence data. Although the mainly artefactual nature of this correlation has been known for many years, the subject enjoys periodical revivals, in part because of the frequent excellence of the correlation. As with other cases of impossibly good correlation between two biological variables, the explanation is that what purports to be two variables are very largely the same variable looked at in two different ways.

  3. The Spillover Effects of Affirmative Action on Competitiveness and Unethical Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Villeval, Marie Claire

    We conduct an artefactual field experiment to examine various spillover effects of Affirmative Action policies in the context of castes in India. We test a) if individuals who compete in the presence of Affirmative Action policies remain competitive in the same proportion after the policy has been...... frequently a tournament payment scheme. However, we find no spillover effect on confidence and competitiveness once Affirmative Action is withdrawn: any lower caste’s gain in competitiveness due to the policy is then entirely wiped out. Furthermore, the strong existing bias of the dominant caste against...

  4. Ultra-high 7T MRI of structural age-related changes of the subthalamic nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.C.; Bazin, P.-L.; Schäfer, A.; Neumann, J.; Turner, R.; Forstmann, B.U.

    2013-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STh) is a small subcortical structure which is involved in regulating motor as well as cognitive functions. Due to its small size and close proximity to other small subcortical structures, it has been a challenge to localize and visualize it using magnetic resonance imaging

  5. Shape alterations of basal ganglia and thalamus in xenomelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hänggi

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides strong evidence for shape differences in striatal, pallidal, and thalamic subregions housing subcortical body part representations. It adds to previously described neural correlates of a condition one can barely empathize with and invites future connectivity analyses in cortico-subcortical networks.

  6. The Differential Effects of Thalamus and Basal Ganglia on Facial Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Crystal C. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Yip, James T. H.; King, Kristin E.; Li, Leonard S. W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined if subcortical stroke was associated with impaired facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, the lateralization of the impairment and the differential profiles of facial emotion recognition deficits with localized thalamic or basal ganglia damage were also studied. Thirty-eight patients with subcortical strokes and 19 matched…

  7. A brainstem anosognosia of hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Abe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A woman had anosognosia for hemiplegia as a manifestation of brainstem infarction. She had no mental or neuropsychological disturbances, and had involvement of the brainstem in the frontal/parietal-subcortical circuits to the right cerebral hemisphere. Brainstem lesions that disrupt frontal/parietal-subcortical areas may affect anosognosia for hemiplegia.

  8. Decisive diagnosis of infected mandibular osteoradionecrosis with a Tc-99m-labelled anti-granulocyte Fab'-fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampen, W.U.; Brenner, W.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Terheyden, H. [Kiel Univ. (DE). Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Germany); Bohuslavizki, K.H. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-07-01

    The accepted golden standard for detection of inflammatory bone disease is conventional three-phase bone scanning. Hyperperfusion, a high blood-pool activity and elevated bone metabolism are typical signs for an acute osteomyelitis. However, in case of subacute, chronic inflammation, neither elevated blood flow nor high blood-pool activity may be seen. This may cause difficulties in differentiating such cases from neoplastic or postoperative changes. This case report verifies the possible advantage of immunoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-labelled antigranulocyte Fab'-fragments (LeukoScan {sup trademark}) in a patient with infected mandibular osteoradionecrosis, who had equivocal clinical symptomes and questionable radiographic results. LeukoScan {sup trademark} is shown to be more sensitive in case of subacute bone inflammation compared with three-phase bone scanning. However, acquisition of delayed images after 24 hours including SPECT is inevitable in case of negative scans during the first hours of investigation. (orig.) [German] Die konventionelle Drei-Phasen-Skelettszintigraphie ist der Goldstandard in der Diagnostik entzuendlicher Knochenprozesse. Hyperperfusion, hohe Blutpool-Aktivitaet und ein erhoehter Knochenstoffwechsel sind typisch fuer eine akute Osteomyelitis. Bei chronisch-subakut verlaufenden Osteomyelitiden koennen Hyperperfusion und Blutpool-Aktivitaet jedoch fehlen, was zu Schwierigkeiten bei der differentialdiagnostischen Abgrenzung von neoplastischen oder postoperativen Veraenderungen fuehrt. Die vorgestellte Kasuistik belegt den potentiellen Vorteil der Entzuendungs-Szintigraphie mit Tc-99m-markierten Antigranulozyten-Antikoerperfragmenten (LeukoScan {sup trademark}) bei einem Patienten mit infizierter Osteoradionekrose der Mandibula bei untypischer klinischer Symptomatik und unklarer Bildgebung. LeukoScan {sup trademark} erwies sich als sensitiver bei der Diagnose der subakuten ossaeren Entzuendung im Vergleich zur Drei

  9. Visual text hallucinations of thoughts in an alexic woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Bun; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Yamamoto, Hideki; Mimura, Masaru

    2014-04-15

    In this report we describe a patient with a clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies, who had hallucinations of reading her thoughts in the air although she was alexic and unable to read. She also had severe visuoperceptual deficits and closing-in phenomenon. SPECT imaging demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left parieto-occipital cortices together with hyperperfusion of the left orbitofronto-temporal areas. Her visual text hallucinations may represent another type of textual hallucinations related to syntacto-semantic network hyperactivation, which is implicated in auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  10. Ictal and interictal 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT of a MELAS case presented with epilepsy-like visual hallucination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cheng-Yu; Hsiao, Heng-Long; Chen, Shang-Chi; Hung, Guang-Uei; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2012-09-01

    A 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with the syndrome of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). She was referred for Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT because of visual hallucinations, which were suspected to be related to epileptic seizures. Ictal SPECT images showed remarkable hyperperfusion in the left occipital cortex, which returned to near-normal status on the interictal SPECT images after treatment with anticonvulsants. It is very rare to see such an ictal SPECT image of epileptic or epilepsy-like disorders, especially in the setting of MELAS syndrome with visual hallucination.

  11. Focal status epilepticus: follow-up by perfusion- and diffusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Koussy, M.; Loevblad, K.O.; Kiefer, C.; Schroth, G. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Bern, Inselspital (Switzerland); Mathis, J.; Stepper, F. [Department of Neurology, University of Bern, Inselspital (Switzerland)

    2002-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI demonstrated bright right temporoparietal cortex, right hippocampus, and left cerebellum in a 63-year-old female suffering a focal convulsive status epilepticus. Hyperperfusion was noted in the right temporoparietal region. Two days later, a tendency to normalization of most of the diffusion and perfusion changes was noted, apart from the right hippocampus which became brighter on diffusion- and T2-weighted images. On the tenth day the apparent diffusion coefficient was slightly elevated, getting brighter on T2-weighted images with suspected mild post-contrast enhancement. We postulate that the discharging right hippocampus suffered cytotoxic edema, which later progressed to cell damage. (orig.)

  12. 20.1.Neuroanatomy,neurophysiology newropathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930379 Changes in Gerbil brain tissue follow-ing cerebral ischemia and postischemic reperfu-sion as well as investigation into the effects ofthe Chinese drugs.SHAO Guofu (邵国富),et al.Dept Neurol,2nd Affii Hosp Suzhou Med Coll,Suzhou,215004.Chin J Neurol & Psychiat 1992;25(6):347—350.With the animal model of cerebral ischemiaand reperfusion,we conducted experiments onsuch model to study the effects of Ligustrazine(LZ) and Salvia Miltirrhizae(SM).The resultsobtained were stated as follows:①the ischemicbrain showed hyperperfusion (congestion period)after 10min reperfusion following 50min of is-

  13. Ventilatory strategy during liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Grocott, Hilary P; Niemann, Mads;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) may be reduced by hyperventilation in the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation surgery (LTx). Conversely, the brain may be subjected to hyperperfusion during reperfusion of the grafted liver. We...... liver, ScO2 increased by 5.5% (3.8-7.3%), EtCO2 by 0.7 kPa (0.5-0.8 kPa), and VE by 0.6 L/min (0.3-0.9 L/min; all P

  14. Serial imaging in MELAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, A. [Department of Pediatrics, Asahikawa Medical College, 4-5-3-11 Nishikagura, Asahikawa 078 (Japan); Oki, J. [Department of Pediatrics, Asahikawa Medical College, 4-5-3-11 Nishikagura, Asahikawa 078 (Japan); Takahashi, S. [Department of Pediatrics, Asahikawa Medical College, 4-5-3-11 Nishikagura, Asahikawa 078 (Japan); Itoh, J. [Department of Pediatrics, Asahikawa Medical College, 4-5-3-11 Nishikagura, Asahikawa 078 (Japan); Kusunoki, Y. [Department of Pediatrics, Asahikawa Medical College, 4-5-3-11 Nishikagura, Asahikawa 078 (Japan); Cho, K. [Department of Pediatrics, Asahikawa Medical College, 4-5-3-11 Nishikagura, Asahikawa 078 (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    We report two patients with fatal mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with {sup 123}I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine was more sensitive to the lesions than CT or MRI. SPECT showed focal hyperperfusion before or during the stroke and diffuse hypoperfusion of the brain, sparing the basal ganglia in the terminal stages. These findings support the theory that metabolic disturbance in the brain causes the ``stroke`` in MELAS. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Ictal SPECT in paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen García M; Intruvini; Vazquez; Beserra; Rabinowicz

    2000-04-01

    Purpose: Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) should be included in the list of differential diagnosis in patients with refractory epilepsy. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie this disorder remain controversial, it is now accepted that the basal ganglia are the anatomical substrate responsible for it.Material and methods: We report a 16-year-old mentally retarded male with PNKD admitted for video-EEG monitoring and ictal SPECT, which showed hyperperfusion on the right caudate and thalamus.Conclusion: This case supports more evidence for the involvement of the caudate nucleus and thalamus in the mechanisms responsible for the production of PNKD.

  16. Determination of benzene in different food matrices by distillation and isotope dilution HS-GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel [Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Canfyn, Michael [Food, Medicines and Consumer Safety, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Rue Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); De Meulenaer, Bruno [Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Schaetzen, Thibault de; Van Overmeire, Ilse; De Beer, Jacques [Food, Medicines and Consumer Safety, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Rue Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van Loco, Joris, E-mail: Joris.VanLoco@iph.fgov.BE [Food, Medicines and Consumer Safety, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Rue Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-05

    Benzene is classified by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans. Several sources may contribute for the occurrence of benzene in foods, such as, environmental contamination and the reaction of benzoate salts with ascorbic acid (naturally present or added as food additives). Matrix effect on benzene recovery (e.g. in fatty foods) and artefactual benzene formation from benzoate during analysis in the presence of ascorbate are some of the challenges presented when determining benzene in a wide range of foodstuffs. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to determine the most important variables in benzene recovery from headspace GC/MS. Based on the results of the DOE, a versatile method for the extraction of benzene from all kind of food commodities was developed. The method which consisted of distillation and isotope dilution HS-GC/MS was in-house validated. Artefactual benzene was prevented by addition of a borate buffer solution (pH 11) under distillation conditions. The method presented in this study allows the use of a matrix-independent calibration with detection limits below the legal limit established by the European Council for benzene in drinking water (1 {mu}g L{sup -1}).

  17. Determination of benzene in different food matrices by distillation and isotope dilution HS-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Raquel Medeiros; Canfyn, Michael; De Meulenaer, Bruno; de Schaetzen, Thibault; Van Overmeire, Ilse; De Beer, Jacques; Van Loco, Joris

    2010-07-01

    Benzene is classified by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans. Several sources may contribute for the occurrence of benzene in foods, such as, environmental contamination and the reaction of benzoate salts with ascorbic acid (naturally present or added as food additives). Matrix effect on benzene recovery (e.g. in fatty foods) and artefactual benzene formation from benzoate during analysis in the presence of ascorbate are some of the challenges presented when determining benzene in a wide range of foodstuffs. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to determine the most important variables in benzene recovery from headspace GC/MS. Based on the results of the DOE, a versatile method for the extraction of benzene from all kind of food commodities was developed. The method which consisted of distillation and isotope dilution HS-GC/MS was in-house validated. Artefactual benzene was prevented by addition of a borate buffer solution (pH 11) under distillation conditions. The method presented in this study allows the use of a matrix-independent calibration with detection limits below the legal limit established by the European Council for benzene in drinking water (1 microg L(-1)).

  18. Skin movement artefact assessment and compensation in the estimation of knee-joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, L; Cappozzo, A; Cappello, A; Della Croce, U

    1998-11-01

    In three dimensional (3-D) human movement analysis using close-range photogrammetry, surface marker clusters deform and rigidly move relative to the underlying bone. This introduces an important artefact (skin movement artefact) which propagates to bone position and orientation and joint kinematics estimates. This occurs to the extent that those joint attitude components that undergo small variations result in totally unreliable values. This paper presents an experimental and analytical procedure, to be included in a subject-specific movement analysis protocol, which allows for the assessment of skin movement artefacts and, based on this knowledge, for their compensation. The effectiveness of this procedure was verified with reference to knee-joint kinematics and to the artefacts caused by the hip movements on markers located on the thigh surface. Quantitative validation was achieved through experimental paradigms whereby prior reliable information on the target joint kinematics was available. When position and orientation of bones were determined during the execution of a motor task, using a least-squares optimal estimator, but the rigid artefactual marker cluster movement was not dealt with, then knee joint translations and rotations were affected by root mean square errors (r.m.s.) up to 14 mm and 6 degrees, respectively. When the rigid artefactual movement was also compensated for, then r.m.s errors were reduced to less than 4 mm and 3 degrees, respectively. In addition, errors originally strongly correlated with hip rotations, after compensation, lost this correlation.

  19. Automated measurement of local white matter lesion volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan;

    2012-01-01

    . The method was also compared to two commonly used techniques to assess the periventricular and subcortical lesion load. The main finding was that high blood pressure was primarily associated with lesion load in the vascular watershed area that forms the border between the periventricular and subcortical...... regions. It explains the associations found for both the periventricular and subcortical load computed for the same data, and that were reported in the literature. But the proposed method can localize the region of association with greater precision than techniques that distinguish between periventricular...

  20. First experiences with contrast-enhanced first-pass MR perfusion imaging in patients with primary, benign cardiac masses and tumour-like lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohrs, Oliver K. [Darmstadt Radiology, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging at Alice-Hospital, Darmstadt (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Voigtlaender, Thomas [Cardiovascular Center Bethanien (CCB), Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Petersen, Steffen E. [John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, OCMR, Oxford (United Kingdom); Zander, Matthias [Darmstadt Center of Cardiology, Darmstadt (Germany); Schulze, Thomas [Siemens Medical Solutions, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pottmeyer, Anselm [Darmstadt Radiology, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging at Alice-Hospital, Darmstadt (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced first-pass perfusion MRI in patients with suspected cardiac masses and tumour-like lesions. Twenty patients underwent contrast-enhanced first-pass saturation-recovery steady-state-free-precession perfusion MRI in addition to clinical MRI. Eleven diagnostic parameters were analysed blinded in consensus by three observers: localisation (paracardiac/mural/intracavitary), malignancy (benign/malignant) and first-pass enhancement pattern (homogeneous/heterogeneous as well as non-perfused/hypoperfused/iso-perfused/ hyperperfused). The results were compared to combined references comprising histology, cytology, medical and surgical reports, echocardiography, chest X-ray, coronary angiography and regular MRI. Also, we analysed if additional first-pass perfusion confirmed, changed or reduced the number of differential diagnoses compared to clinical MRI. All cardiac masses or tumour-like lesions were correctly localised and scored as benign lesions. For homogeneous perfused lesions the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value was 94/100/100/67%, 100/94/67/100% for heterogeneous perfused lesions, 92/100/100/88% for non-perfused, 100/94/75/100 for hypoperfused, 100/100/100/100% for hyperperfused and for isoperfused lesions. In 17/2/1 cases perfusion MRI confirmed, reduced or increased the number of potential differentials. First-pass perfusion MRI provides valuable information in patients with benign cardiac masses or tumour-like lesions. Further experience is needed to underline these preliminary observations. (orig.)

  1. Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound to Study Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Renal Microvascular Perfusion in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the relationship between uric acid and renal microvascular perfusion in diabetic kidney disease (DKD using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS method. Materials and Methods. 79 DKD patients and 26 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Renal function and urine protein markers were tested. DKD patients were subdivided into two groups including a normal serum uric acid (SUA group and a high SUA group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS was performed, and low acoustic power contrast-specific imaging was used for quantitative analysis. Results. Normal controls (NCs had the highest levels of AUC, AUC1, and AUC2. Compared to the normal SUA DKD group, high SUA DKD patients had significantly higher IMAX, AUC, and AUC1 (P<0.05. DKD patients with low urinary uric acid (UUA excretion had significantly higher AUC2 compared to DKD patients with normal UUA (P<0.05. Conclusion. Hyperuricemia in DKD patients was associated with a renal ultrasound image suggestive of microvascular hyperperfusion. The CEUS parameter AUC1 holds promise as an indicator for renal microvascular hyperperfusion, while AUC2 might be a useful indicator of declining glomerular filtration rate in DKD patients with decreased excretion of uric acid.

  2. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo, E-mail: juarezbarbara@hotmail.co [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Radiology; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Neurology

    2010-04-15

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  3. Evaluation of changes of intracranial blood flow after carotid artery stenting using digital subtraction angiography flow assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajime; Wada; Masato; Saito; Kyousuke; Kamada

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the changes of intracranial blood flow after carotid artery stenting(CAS), using the flow assessment application "Flow-Insight", which was developed in our department.METHODS: Twenty patients treated by CAS participated in this study. We analyzed the change in concentration of the contrast media at the anterior-posterior and profile view image with the flow assessment application "Flow-Insight". And we compared the results with N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine-single-photon emission computed tomography(IMP SPECT) performed before and after the treatment. RESULTS: From this study, 200% of the parameter "blood flow" change in the post/pre-treatment is suggested as the critical line of the hyperperfusion syndrome arise. Although the observed blood flow increase in the digital subtraction angiography system did not strongly correlate with the rate of increase of SPECT, the "Flow-Insight" reflected the rate of change of the vessels well. However, for patients with reduced reserve blood flow before CAS, a highly elevated site was in agreement with the site analysis results. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the cerebral angiography flow assessment application was able to more finely reveal hyperperfusion regions in the brain after CAS compared to SPECT.

  4. Cerebral monitoring during carotid endarterectomy using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies and electroencephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang Yu; Cheng Ran; Dong Lixin; Yu Guoqiang [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, KY (United States); Ryan, Stephen J [Department of Neurology, University of Kentucky, KY (United States); Saha, Sibu P, E-mail: guoqiang.yu@uky.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Kentucky, KY (United States)

    2011-05-21

    Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) provides essential information for detecting cerebral hypoperfusion induced by temporary internal carotid artery (ICA) clamping and post-CEA hyperperfusion syndrome. This study tests the feasibility and sensitivity of a novel dual-wavelength near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy technique in detecting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygenation in patients undergoing CEA. Two fiber-optic probes were taped on both sides of the forehead for cerebral hemodynamic measurements, and the instantaneous decreases in CBF and electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha-band power during ICA clamping were compared to test the measurement sensitivities of the two techniques. The ICA clamps resulted in significant CBF decreases (-24.7 {+-} 7.3%) accompanied with cerebral deoxygenation at the surgical sides (n = 12). The post-CEA CBF were significantly higher (+43.2 {+-} 16.9%) than the pre-CEA CBF. The CBF responses to ICA clamping were significantly faster, larger and more sensitive than EEG responses. Simultaneous monitoring of CBF, cerebral oxygenation and EEG power provides a comprehensive evaluation of cerebral physiological status, thus showing potential for the adoption of acute interventions (e.g., shunting, medications) during CEA to reduce the risks of severe cerebral ischemia and cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome.

  5. Diffusion and Perfusion Characteristics of MELAS (Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episode) in Thirteen Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Eo, Hong; Yoo, So Young [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Myung Kwan; Rha, Jung Ho; Shu, Chang Hae [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We analyzed the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of acute MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode) lesions in a large series to investigate the controversial changes of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) that were reported in prior studies. We analyzed 44 newly appearing lesions during 28 stroke-like episodes in 13 patients with MELAS. We performed a visual assessment of the MR images including the ADC and perfusion maps, comparison of the ADC between the normal and abnormal areas, comparison of % ADC between the 44 MELAS lesions and the 30 acute ischemic infarcts. In addition, the patterns of evolution on follow-up MR images were analyzed. Decreased, increased, and normal ADCs were noted in 16 (36%), 16 (36%), and 12 (27%) lesions, respectively. The mean % ADC was 102 {+-} 40.9% in the MELAS and 64 {+-} 17.8% in the acute vascular infarcts (p < 0.001), while perfusion imaging demonstrated hyper-perfusion in six acute MELAS lesions. On follow-up images, resolution, progression, and tissue loss were noted in 10, 4, and 17 lesions, respectively. The cytotoxic edema gradually evolves following an acute stroke-like episode in patients with MELAS, and this may overlap with hyper-perfusion and vasogenic edema. The edematous swelling may be reversible or it may evolve to encephalomalacia, suggesting irreversible damage

  6. Differential diagnosis of regional cerebral hyperfixation of TC-99m HMPAO on SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirazi, P.; Konopka, L.; Crayton, J.W. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Accurate diagnostic evaluation of patients with neurologic and neuropsychiatric disease is important because early treatment may halt disease progression and prevent impairment or disability. Cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO has been ascribed to luxury perfusion following ischemic infarction. The present study sought to identify other conditions that also display radiotracer hyperfixation in order to develop a differential diagnosis of this finding on SPECT imaging. Two hundred fifty (n=250) successive cerebral SPECT images were reviewed for evidence of HMPAO hyperfixation. Hyperfixation was defined as enhanced focal perfusion surrounded by a zone of diminished or normal cerebral perfusion. All patients were scanned after intravenous injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m HMPAO. Volume-rendered and oblique images were obtained with a Trionix triple-head SPECT system using ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Thirteen (13/250; 5%) of the patients exhibited regions of HMPAO hyperfixation. CT or MRI abnormalities were detected in 6/13 cases. Clinical diagnoses in these patients included intractable psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and narcotic dependence, major depression, acute closed-head trauma, hypothyroidism, as well as subacute ischemic infarction. A wide variety of conditions may be associated with cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO. These conditions include neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses, and extend the consideration of hyperfixation beyond ischemic infarction. Consequently, a differential diagnosis of HMPAO hyperfixation may be broader than originally considered, and this may suggest a fundamental role for local cerebral hyperperfusion. Elucidation of the fundamental mechanism(s) for cerebral hyperperfusion requires further investigation.

  7. MRI findings in aphasic status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Manuel; Munuera, Josep; Sueiras, Maria; Rovira, Rosa; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Rovira, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Ictal-MRI studies including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and MR-angiography (MRA) in patients with aphasic status epilepticus (ASE) are lacking. In this report, we aim to describe the consequences of the ASE on DWIs and its impact on cerebral circulation. We retrospectively studied eight patients with ASE confirmed by ictal-EEG, who underwent ictal-MRI shortly after well-documented onset (mean time delay 3 h). ASE consisted in fluctuating aphasia, mostly associated with other subtle contralateral neurological signs such as hemiparesia, hemianopia, or slight clonic jerks. In MRI, six patients showed cortical temporoparietal hyperintensity in DWI and four of them had also ipsilateral pulvinar lesions. Five patients showed close spatial hyperperfusion areas matching the DWI lesions and an enhanced blow flow in the middle cerebral artery. Parenchymal lesions and hemodynamic abnormalities were not associated with seizure duration or severity in any case. The resolution of DWI lesions at follow-up MRI depended on the length of the MRIs interval. In patients with ASE, lesions on DWI in the temporo-parietal cortex and pulvinar nucleus combined with local hyperperfusion can be observed, even when they appear distant from the epileptic focus or the language areas.

  8. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Scheinost

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  9. Cerebellar infarct patterns: The SMART-Medea study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens J.L. De Cocker, MD

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Small cerebellar infarcts proved to be much more common than larger infarcts, and preferentially involved the cortex. Small cortical infarcts predominantly involved the posterior lobes, showed sparing of subcortical white matter and occurred in characteristic topographic patterns.

  10. Long survival in leigh syndrome: new cases and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aulbert, W.; Weigt-Usinger, K.; Thiels, C.; Kohler, C.; Vorgerd, M.; Schreiner, A.; Hoffjan, S.; Rothoeft, T.; Wortmann, S.B.; Heyer, C.M.; Podskarbi, T.; Lucke, T.

    2014-01-01

    Leigh syndrome (MIM 25600), also known as infantile subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy, is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic bilateral symmetric lesions in basal ganglia and subcortical brain regions. It is commonly associated with systemic cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency

  11. Short fused? associations between white matter connections, sex steroids, and aggression across adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, Jiska S.; De Reus, Marcel A.; Van Den Heuvel, Martijn P.; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in adults show that aggression involves reduced brain communication between subcortical and cortical areas dedicated to motivation and control, respectively. Prior research indicates that sex steroid hormone production during adolescence negatively influences the rapi

  12. Short fused? associations between white matter connections, sex steroids, and aggression across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2015-03-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in adults show that aggression involves reduced brain communication between subcortical and cortical areas dedicated to motivation and control, respectively. Prior research indicates that sex steroid hormone production during adolescence negatively influences the rapid development of white matter connectivity between subcortical and cortical areas during adolescence and may potentiate aggression. Here, we tested this hypothesis in 258 participants between 8 and 25 years of age by using Diffusion Weighted Imaging to examine the microstructure of white matter connections within the fronto-temporal-subcortical network. Trait aggression was measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire and testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in saliva. Results indicated that higher levels of testosterone were associated with less white matter integrity within the fronto-temporal-subcortical network (i.e., higher mean diffusivity [MD] longitudinal [LD], and radial diffusivity [RD]). Furthermore, lower fractional anisotropy and higher MD, LD, and RD values within this network increased expressive forms of aggression and reduced inhibited forms of aggression (hostility). Our study indicates higher levels of testosterone relating to lower quality of structural cortical-subcortical connectivity, arguably resulting in a shift from inhibited towards expressive forms of aggression. Our data adds evidence to the idea that aggressive tendencies are subcortically driven, but individuals with relatively high testosterone might have lower structural connectivity within cortical control areas, resulting in a stronger tendency to act on these aggressive tendencies.

  13. The volumetric and shape changes of the putamen and thalamus in first episode, untreated major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Liang, Hongmin; Han, Dan; Mo, Yin; Li, Zongfang; Cheng, Yuqi; Xu, Xiufeng; Shen, Zonglin; Tan, Chunyan; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Yun; Sun, Xuejin

    2016-01-01

    Previous MRI studies confirmed abnormalities in the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic (LCSPT) network or limbic-cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (LCSTC) circuits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but few studies have investigated the subcortical structural abnormalities. Therefore, we sought to determine whether focal subcortical grey matter (GM) changes might be present in MDD at an early stage. We recruited 30 first episode, untreated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 26 healthy control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate cortical grey matter changes, and automated volumetric and shape analyses were used to assess volume and shape changes of the subcortical GM structures, respectively. In addition, probabilistic tractography methods were used to demonstrate the relationship between the subcortical and the cortical GM. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients had significant volume reductions in the bilateral putamen and left thalamus (FWE-corrected, p putamen, and on the dorsal and ventral aspects of left thalamus in MDD patients (FWE-corrected, p putamen and left thalamus have connections with the frontal and temporal lobes, which were found to be related to major depression. Our results suggested that structural abnormalities in the putamen and thalamus might be present in the early stages of MDD, which support the role of subcortical structure in the pathophysiology of MDD. Meanwhile, the present study showed that these subcortical structural abnormalities might be the potential trait markers of MDD.

  14. Fast Detector/First Responder: Interactions between the Superior Colliculus-Pulvinar Pathway and Stimuli Relevant to Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sandra C.; Maior, Rafael S.; Isbell, Lynne A.; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    Primates are distinguished from other mammals by their heavy reliance on the visual sense, which occurred as a result of natural selection continually favoring those individuals whose visual systems were more responsive to challenges in the natural world. Here we describe two independent but also interrelated visual systems, one cortical and the other subcortical, both of which have been modified and expanded in primates for different functions. Available evidence suggests that while the cortical visual system mainly functions to give primates the ability to assess and adjust to fluid social and ecological environments, the subcortical visual system appears to function as a rapid detector and first responder when time is of the essence, i.e., when survival requires very quick action. We focus here on the subcortical visual system with a review of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that demonstrates its sensitivity to particular, often emotionally charged, ecological and social stimuli, i.e., snakes and fearful and aggressive facial expressions in conspecifics. We also review the literature on subcortical involvement during another, less emotional, situation that requires rapid detection and response—visually guided reaching and grasping during locomotion—to further emphasize our argument that the subcortical visual system evolved as a rapid detector/first responder, a function that remains in place today. Finally, we argue that investigating deficits in this subcortical system may provide greater understanding of Parkinson's disease and Autism Spectrum disorders (ASD). PMID:28261046

  15. Gray matter heterotopias: MR and clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Myung; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Chung, Chun Phil [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-15

    To evaluate types of gray matter heterotopias, associated brain anomalies, and its correlation with the patterns of seizure. We evaluated retrospectively 19 patients (male:female=10:9, mean age 21 years) with gray matter heterotopias on brain MRI. Using 1.0T superconducting MR unit, spin echo T1-, proton -density and T2-weighted images in axial, coronal and sagittal planes were obtained. Types of gray matter heterotopias were single subependymal in four patients, multiple subependymal in one, focal subcortical in eight, diffuse subcortical in two, mixed multiple subependymal and focal subcortical in four. Associated anomalies were seen in 11 patients: other neuronal migration anomalies in eight patients, corpus callosum agenesis in two, and combined holoprosencephaly and Dandy-Walker malformation in one. Fifteen patients had seizure. The patterns of seizure were not correlated with the types of heterotopias. In addition to subependymal, focal subcortical, and diffuse subcortical types, gray matter heterotopias included mixed variant of multiple subependymal and subcortical type. Schizencephaly was the most common form of accompanying anomalies, and patterns of seizure were not correlated with types of gray matter heterotopias, even though main clinical manifestation was seizure.

  16. Unusual MRI findings in grey matter heteropia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Leclerc, X.; Pruvo, J.P. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU, Lille (France); Houlette, C. [Service de Radiologie, CHRU, Rouen (France); Godefroy, O. [Service de Neurologie B, CHRU, Lille (France)

    1998-02-01

    We report unusual MRI patterns in patients with grey matter heterotopia. Standard T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo and inversion-recovery sequences were used in 22 patients presenting with seizures or developmental delay. The images were reviewed for signal change surrounding white matter and for atypical size, morphology or topography. We found 10 cases of subependymal heterotopias 11 of focal subcortical heterotopia and of diffuse subcortical heterotopia. On clinical or MRI grounds, 8 cases were considered unusual: 2 of the subependymal type, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with white matter abnormalities, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with no clinicoradiological correlation 1 of extensive hemispheric subcortical heterotopia and 1 of diffuse subcortical heterotopia confined to the frontal lobe. The classical classification of heterotopia enables easy radiological diagnosis even in cases with unusual patterns. In some cases, heterogeneity and high signal in surrounding white matter can be found. Cortical dysplasia is the most frequent associated malformation. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  17. Retrocausality in Quantum Phenomena and Chemical Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Matsuno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between retrocausality and the time-reversal symmetry of the dynamical law of quantum mechanics underscores the significance of the measurement dynamics with the use of indivisible and discrete quantum particles to be mediated. One example of empirical evidence demonstrating the significance of retrocausality going along with time-reversal symmetry is seen in the operation of a reaction cycle to be expected in chemical evolution. A reaction cycle can hold itself when the causative operation of the cycle remains robust, even when facing frequent retrocausal interventions of a quantum-mechanical origin. Quantum mechanics in and of itself has potential in raising a reaction cycle in the prebiotic phase of chemical evolution, even without any help of artefactual scaffoldings of an external origin.

  18. Cleaning sky survey databases using Hough Transform and Renewal String approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Storkey, A J; Williams, C K; Mann, R G

    2004-01-01

    Large astronomical databases obtained from sky surveys such as the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey (SSS) invariably suffer from spurious records coming from artefactual effects of the telescope, satellites and junk objects in orbit around earth and physical defects on the photographic plate or CCD. Though relatively small in number these spurious records present a significant problem in many situations where they can become a large proportion of the records potentially of interest to a given astronomer. Accurate and robust techniques are needed for locating and flagging such spurious objects, and we are undertaking a programme investigating the use of machine learning techniques in this context. In this paper we focus on the four most common causes of unwanted records in the SSS: satellite or aeroplane tracks, scratches, fibres and other linear phenomena introduced to the plate, circular halos around bright stars due to internal reflections within the telescope and diffraction spikes near to bright stars. Appropriate ...

  19. Effects of dilution rates, animal species and instruments on the spectrophotometric determination of sperm counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, M; Rouleau, M

    1981-06-01

    Using semen from bull, boar and stallion as well as different spectrophotometers, we established the calibration curves relating the optical density of a sperm sample to the sperm count obtained on the hemacytometer. The results show that, for a given spectrophotometer, the calibration curve is not characteristic of the animal species we studied. The differences in size of the spermatozoa are probably too small to account for the anticipated specificity of the calibration curve. Furthermore, the fact that different dilution rates must be used, because of the vastly different concentrations of spermatozoa which is characteristic of those species, has no effect on the calibration curves since the dilution rate is shown to be artefactual. On the other hand, for a given semen, the calibration curve varies depending upon the spectrophotometry used. However, if two instruments have the same characteristic in terms of spectral bandwidth, the calibration curves are not statistically different.

  20. EDTA Dependent Pseudothrombocytopenia In A Patient With Scrub Typhus - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya P Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of EDTA induced pseudothrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP in a patient with scrub typhus who was referred as a case of PUO with marked thrombocytopenia and treated with platelet transfusion. Blood smear examination revealed numerous platelet aggregates. CBC analysis using citrate and lithium-heparin as anticoagulants as well as a peculiar WBC histogram aided in prompt diagnosis of the condition. The prevalence of EDTA-PTCP in general hospital population is approximately 0.1%. It is usually not associated with hemorrhagic manifestations. Hence cases of thrombocytopenia should be carefully evaluated to rule out this form of artefactual thrombocytopenia. Timely diagnosis of this innocuous but misleading in vitro phenomenon can save the patient from unnecessary transfusions and invasive procedures.

  1. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Amygdala Volumes and Risk for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289

  2. Shared genetic factors influence amygdala volumes and risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald H H; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk.

  3. Asymmetrical Blood Flow in the Temporal Lobe in the Charles Bonnet Syndrome: Serial Neuroimaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Adachi

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical features and results of neuroimagings of an 86 year old woman with the Charles Bonnet syndrome are reported. She had become completely blind bilaterally due to cataracts and glaucoma. Shortly after an operation for cataracts, she developed visual hallucinations which lasted for 22 years. She had no deterioration of intelligence. Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed moderate generalized atrophy, particularly of the temporal lobes. A serial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT study during visual hallucinations demonstrated hyperperfusion in the left temporal region and the basal ganglia and hypoperfusion in the right temporal region. These findings suggest that asymmetrical blood flow, particularly in the temporal regions, may be correlated with visual hallucination in the Charles Bonnet syndrome.

  4. Chest computed tomography scores are predictive of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis awaiting lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Hop, Wim C. J.; de Bruijne, Marleen;

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Up to a third of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients awaiting lung transplantation (LTX) die while waiting. Inclusion of computed tomography (CT) scores may improve survival prediction models such as the lung allocation score (LAS). Objectives: This study investigated the association between....../inflammation" (INF), air trapping/hypoperfusion (AT), normal/hyperperfusion (NOR) and bulla/cysts (BUL). The volume of each component was computed using semi-automated software. Survival analysis included Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox-regression models. Measurements and main results: 366 (186 males) out of 411....... These results indicated that INF and LAS had significant, independent predictive value for survival. Conclusions: CT score INF correlates with survival, and adds to the predictive value of LAS....

  5. Dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion measurement of the brain using T-1-weighted MRI at 3T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H.B.W.; Hansen, A.E.; Berg, H.K.;

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for the measurement of brain perfusion based on dynamic contrast-enhanced T-1-weighted MR imaging. Materials and Methods: Dynamic imaging of the first pass of a bolus of a paramagnetic contrast agent was performed using a 3T whole-body magnet and a T-1-weighted fast...... field echo sequence. The input function was obtained from the internal carotid artery. An initial T-1 measurement was performed in order to convert the MR signal to concentration of the contrast agent. Pixelwise and region of interest (ROI)based calculation of cerebral perfusion (CBF) was performed...... inside the infarct core was, 9 mL/100g/min in one of the stroke patients. The other stroke patient had postischemic hyperperfusion and CBF was 140 mL/100g/min. Conclusion: Absolute values of brain perfusion can be obtained using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These values correspond,to expected values...

  6. Urgent endarterectomy using pretreatment with free radical scavenger, edaravone, and early clamping of the parent arteries for cervical carotid artery stenosis with crescendo transient ischemic attacks caused by mobile thrombus and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Inoue, Takashi; Saito, Hideo; Komoribayashi, Nobukazu; Suga, Yasunori; Ogawa, Akira

    2007-03-01

    A 68-year-old man with left cervical internal carotid artery stenosis suffered crescendo transient ischemic attacks caused by mobile thrombus detected by carotid echography and secondary impairment of cerebral hemodynamic reserve demonstrated by positron emission tomography. Urgent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) was performed following pretreatment with edaravone and early clamping of the carotid arteries without intraluminal shunting. The postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography revealed no new cerebral ischemic lesions and no findings of cerebral hyperperfusion, respectively. The risks associated with CEA are higher for patients with evolving stroke or crescendo transient ischemic attacks than that for patients with stable disease. This case demonstrates that urgent endarterectomy for cervical carotid artery stenosis with crescendo transient ischemic attacks caused by mobile thrombi and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia can be successfully performed following pretreatment with edaravone and early clamping of the carotid arteries.

  7. MSCT and MRI Findings of Transient Hepatic Perfusion Disorders in Patients with Hepatic Abscess%肝脓肿邻近肝实质一过性灌注异常的CT和MRI表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文东; 李惠民

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨肝脓肿伴发的一过性肝灌注异常(THPD)的影像表现及其主要机制.方法:回顾性分析CT上明确显示THPD的19例肝脓肿患者的CT和MRI资料,男9例,女10例,年龄35~82岁,平均62.8±13.8岁.全部完成16层CT与MRI的平扫和增强.结果:CT增强显示16例高灌注THPD,3例低灌注THPD,MRI增强T1WI显示14例高灌注THPD,4例低灌注THPD,1例未见灌注异常.常规T2WI显示灌注异常区高信号16例(84.2%).CT和MRI灌注表现一致15例(78.9%),不一致4例,其低或等灌注的检查均先于高灌注的检查.结论:脓肿伴发的一过性肝灌注异常的CT和MRI表现一致,较早期可以表现为低灌注,后期均为高灌注.MR T2WI可以很好显示THPD,有助于诊断.%Purpose: To evaluate the CT and MRI findings of transient hepatic perfusion disorders (THPD) in patients with hepatic abscess and explore their main mechanism. Methods: Nineteen hepatic abscess patients (9 male, 10 female, age ranging from 35 to 82, mean 62.8± 13.8 years) with THPD diagnosed on CT images were enrolled in our study. All patients were undergone non-contrasted and contrasted scanning with a 16-slice CT scanner and 1.5T MRI scanner. Results: Hyper-perfusion THPD in 16 patients and hypo-perfusion THPD in 3 patients were shown on CT scans. Hyper-perfusion THPD in 14 patients and hypo-perfusion THPD in 4 patients were shown on MRI scans. The THPD region was hyper-intensity in 16 patients(84.2%). Fifteen THPD shown on MRI were consistent with that on CT (78.9%). The other 4 THPD lesions were first shown with hypo- or iso-perfusion and lastly shown with hyper-perfusion. Conclusion: The THPD in patients with hepatic abscess have the same perfusion findings on CT and MRI. There may be hypo-perfusion during early phase and hyper-perfusion during late phase of hepatic abscess. T2-weighed imaging could reveal the THPD correctly and may be helpful for the diagnosis.

  8. Migraine aura lasting 1-24 h in children: a sequence of EEG slow-wave abnormalities vs. vascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parain, D; Hitzel, A; Guegan-Massardier, E; Lebas, A; Blondeau, C; Fédina, I; Feray, D; Véra, P; Mihout, B

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the abnormalities associated with migraine aura lasting 1-24 h in children as shown by EEG, trancranial Doppler (TCD) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this retrospective study, 11 patients each underwent EEG, TCD and brain SPECT on the day of admission and the day thereafter. On the day of admission, the migrainous hemisphere of all patients showed that the mean velocities were decreased in the middle cerebral artery by TCD, slow-wave abnormalities were recorded after several hours of aura by EEG and the SPECT showed hypoperfusion. On the day after, in the same hemisphere, slow waves were recorded only in the occipital area by EEG, and SPECT showed slight hyperperfusion. In these patients, there was a clear sequence of EEG, TCD and SPECT abnormalities.

  9. Focal epilepsies: HM-PAO SPECT compared with CT, MR, and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, M; Christe, W; Henkes, H; Delavier, U; Eichstädt, H; Schörner, W; Langer, R; Felix, R

    1990-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated quantitatively by 99mTc hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime and single photon emission CT (SPECT) during the interictal phase in 52 patients with focal epilepsy. The results were compared with those obtained by electroencephalography (EEG), CT, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twenty-four of the 52 patients had one area of local hypoperfusion whereas 7 patients showed an area of local hyperperfusion. In 20 of the 52 patients, both reduced and elevated rCBF values were found. One patient had a normal perfusion pattern. The SPECT findings correlated well with the foci shown by EEG, both with regard to the sides affected and the locations of the regions of altered perfusion. The MR images showed focal lesions in only approximately one-half of the patients examined, and CT in even fewer.

  10. Simple partial status epilepticus localized by single-photon emission computed tomography subtraction in chronic cerebral paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Kim, Jee Hyun; Tae, Woo Suk; Han, Sun Jung; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Byun, Hong Sik; Hong, Seung Bong

    2004-10-01

    A patient with chronic cerebral paragonimiasis began to have new motor seizures of the right face manifested by clonic contractions that occurred several hundred times a day, consistent with simple partial status epilepticus. Ictal electroencephalogram discharges started from the left frontal region and then spread to the left hemisphere with left frontal maximum. But clinical seizures were limited to the right face. The frequent partial seizures were controlled by the intravenous infusion of phenytoin. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple conglomerated round nodules with encephalomalacia in the left temporal and occipital lobes. Applying the technique of ictal-interictal single-photo emission computed tomography subtraction, the authors were able to localize the focal ictal-hyperperfusion on left precentral cortex adjacent to the lesions that correspond to the anatomical distribution of left face motor area.

  11. The relaxing effect of perivascular tissue on porcine retinal arterioles in vitro is mimicked by N-methyl-D-aspartate and is blocked by prostaglandin synthesis inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Kim; Aalkjaer, Christian; Lambert, John D C;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Retinal hyperperfusion resulting from disturbances in the regulation of arteriolar tone is involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of retinal diseases. The mechanisms underlying this regulation of tone involve cellular components in both the vascular wall and the perivascular tissue....... However, previous in vitro studies of the influence of perivascular retinal tissue on retinal tone regulation have been hampered by the release of an endogenous relaxing factor that renders the arteriole insensitive to vasoconstrictors. The purpose of the present study was to test whether N......-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors, and a cyclooxygenase (COX) product influence this effect of perivascular retinal tissue in vitro. METHODS: Porcine retinal arterioles were mounted in a wire myograph for isometric force measurements. The contractile effect of the prostaglandin...

  12. Acute hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation is associated with increased extracellular brain adenosine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Dale, Nicholas; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) can lead to brain edema, cerebral hyperperfusion and intracranial hypertension. These complications are thought to be mediated by hyperammonemia and inflammation leading to altered brain metabolism. As increased levels of adenosine degradation products have been found...... in brain tissue of patients with ALF we investigated whether hyperammonemia could induce adenosine release in brain tissue. Since adenosine is a potent vasodilator and modulator of cerebral metabolism we furthermore studied the effect of adenosine receptor ligands on intracranial pressure (ICP......) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We measured the adenosine concentration with biosensors in rat brain slices exposed to ammonia and in a rat model with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation. Exposure to ammonia in concentrations from 0.15-10 mM led to increases in the cortical adenosine concentration up to 18...

  13. The glomerulo-tubular junction: a target in renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindop, G B M; Gibson, I W; Downie, T T; Vass, D; Cohen, E P

    2002-05-01

    Both global and segmental glomerulopathies may damage specific areas of the renal glomerulus. Diseases associated with glomerular hyperperfusion cause lesions at the vascular pole, while diseases associated with proteinuria often damage the tubular pole. Atubular glomeruli are now known to be plentiful in a variety of common renal diseases. These glomeruli are disconnected from their tubule at the tubular pole and therefore cannot participate in the production of urine. It is widely believed that the disconnection is a result of external compression by periglomerular fibrosis. However, the variable anatomy and cell populations within both the glomerulus and the beginning of the proximal tubule at the glomerulo-tubular junction may also have important roles to play in the response to damage at this sensitive site of the nephron.

  14. Hot water epilepsy: Phenotype and single photon emission computed tomography observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the anatomical correlates of reflex hot water epilepsy (HWE using multimodality investigations viz. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, electroencephalography (EEG, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Five men (mean age: 27.0 ΁ 5.8 years with HWE were subjected to MRI of brain, video-EEG studies, and SPECT scan. These were correlated with phenotypic presentations. Seizures could be precipitated in three patients with pouring of hot water over the head and semiology of seizures was suggestive of temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in: left medial temporal - one, left lateral temporal - one, and right parietal - one. Interictal SPECT was normal in all five patients and did not help in localization. MRI and interictal EEG was normal in all the patients. The clinical and SPECT studies suggested temporal lobe as the seizure onset zone in some of the patients with HWE.

  15. Acute cortical blindness due to posterior reversible encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Lam, Jenny; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2008-10-01

    An acutely hypertensive 55 year-old male experienced seizures and cortical blindness post-operatively. CT scans demonstrated hypointensities in the occipital lobes bilaterally. MRI revealed symmetrical bilateral hyperintense signals in the same region, involving both grey and white matter. Thromboembolic screening investigations including vertebral artery doppler studies were normal and echocardiography demonstrated borderline left ventricular hypertrophy. A diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was reached and there was complete resolution of blindness with antihypertensive therapy. This case supports the vasogenic theory of PRES which suggests that sustained high grade fluctuations in blood pressure lead to a reduction in cerebral vascular autoregulatory function. The resultant failure of compensatory vasoconstriction to prevent hyperperfusion causes fluid to extravasate into the occipital lobes, which in the present case resulted in cortical blindness.

  16. Diamox-enhanced brain SPECT in cerebrovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Acute event in cerebrovascular disease is the second most common cause of death in Korea following cancer, and it can also cause serious neurologic deficits. Understanding of perfusion status is important for clinical applications in management of patients with cerebrovascular diseases, and then the attacks of ischemic neurologic symptoms and the risk of acute events can be reduced. Therefore, the normal vascular anatomy of brain, various clinical applications of acetazolamide-enhanced brain perfusion SPECT, including meaning and role of assessment of vascular reserve in carotid stenosis before procedure, in pediatric Moyamoya disease before and after operation, in prediction of development of hyperperfusion syndrome before procedure, and in prediction of vasospasm and of prognosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage were reviewed in this paper.

  17. More consistently altered connectivity patterns for cerebellum and medial temporal lobes than for amygdala and striatum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning ePeters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory ‘subcortical-cerebellar’ systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs, amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs (i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum. Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices (i.e. connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW, only NWs (NWs-NWs, and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56% and 74%, respectively. Considering separate

  18. Crossed Aphasia and Visuo-Spatial Neglect Following a Right Thalamic Stroke: A Case Study and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve De Witte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD following pure subcortical lesions is rare. This study describes a right-handed patient with an ischemic lesion in the right thalamus. In the post-acute phase of the stroke, a unique combination of ‘crossed thalamic aphasia’ was found with left visuo-spatial neglect and constructional apraxia. On the basis of the criteria used in Mariën et al. [67], this case-report is the first reliable representative of vascular CAD following an isolated lesion in the right thalamus. Furthermore, this paper presents a detailed analysis of linguistic and cognitive impairments of ‘possible’ and 'reliable' subcortical CAD-cases published since 1975. Out of 25 patients with a pure subcortical lesion, nine cases were considered as ‘possibly reliable or reliable’. A review of these cases reveals that: (1 demographic data are consistent with the general findings for the entire group of vascular CAD, (2 the neurolinguistic findings do not support the data in the general CAD-population with regard to (a the high prevalence of transcortical aphasia and (b the tendency towards a copresence of an oral versus written language dissociation and a ‘mirror-image’ lesion-aphasia profile, (3 subcortical CAD is not a transient phenomenon, (4 the lesion-aphasia correlations are not congruent with the high incidence of anomalous cases in the general CAD-population, (5 neuropsychological impairments may accompany subcortical CAD.

  19. Selective neurofilament (SMI-32, FNP-7 and N200) expression in subpopulations of layer V pyramidal neurons in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Courtney C J; Garin, Nathalie; Taylor, Jeremy S H; Gähwiler, Beat H; Hornung, Jean-Pierre; Molnár, Zoltán

    2004-11-01

    There are two main types of layer V pyramidal neurons in rat cortex. Type I neurons have tufted apical dendrites extending into layer I, produce bursts of action potentials and project to subcortical targets (spinal cord, superior colliculus and pontine nuclei). Type II neurons have apical dendrites, which arborize in layers II-IV, do not produce bursts of action potentials and project to ipsilateral and contralateral cortex. The specific expression of different genes and proteins in these two distinct layer V neurons is unknown. To distinguish between distinct subpopulations, fluorescent microspheres were injected into subcortical targets (labeling type I neurons) or primary somatosensory cortex (labeling type II neurons) of adult rats. After transport, cortical sections were processed for immunohistochemistry using various antibodies. This study demonstrated that antigens recognized by SMI-32, N200 and FNP-7 antibodies were only expressed in subcortical (type I)--but not in contralateral (type II)--projecting neurons. NR1, NR2a/b, PLCbeta1, BDNF, NGF and TrkB antigens were highly expressed in all neuronal subpopulations examined. Organotypic culture experiments demonstrated that the development of neurofilament expression and laminar specificity does not depend on the presence of the subcortical targets. This study suggests specific markers for the subcortical projecting layer V neuron subpopulations.

  20. Chinese writing function in patients with left versus right putaminal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, M S; Chen, S T; Chu, Y C

    2001-06-01

    This study was designed to explore the Chinese writing function of patients with subcortical stroke. Two cohorts of patient subjects with either the left or the right subcortical strokes, mainly putaminal hemorrhagic strokes, and one group of normal controls participated in the study. All participants received a writing test battery including the three aspects of writing function, that is, Spontaneous Writing, Writing to Dictation, and Writing from Copy, as well as a battery of non-writing linguistic tests. Comparing with normal controls revealed that writing function change occurred in both patient groups. The deficits in the patients with the left subcortical stroke essentially included Spontaneous Writing, and Writing to Dictation. These impairments were most likely secondary to aphasic disorders. The writing problem, mainly Writing from Copy, was noted in the patients with the right subcortical stroke. This deficit, however, was independent of the core linguistic impairment. On the basis of the results, we suggest that the lesion involving white matter in the left hemisphere probably interrupts left perisylvian cortical language organization in a manner that produces problems with spontaneous writing and writing to dictation, which are language-related, associated with lesion in the dominant hemisphere. This further suggests that left or right subcortical lesions in the putamen and surrounding white matter are associated with differential effects (language vs. non-language based effects) which are similar to such differences observed with left vs. right cortical lesions.

  1. [Complex partial status epilepticus with recurrent episodes of complex visual hallucinations: study by using 123I-IMP-SPECT, brain MRI and EEG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Masahide; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    We report a 72-year-old woman with complex partial status epilepticus who showed recurrent episodes of complex visual hallucinations (CVH). Brain diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed gyriform cortical hyperintensity in the right parietal, occipital and temporal lobes, and brain magnetic resonance angiograhy revealed a hyperintensity in the right dilated middle cerebral artery during ictal period. Ictal N-isopropyl-p-(iodine-123)-iodoamphetamine single photon emission computed tomography (123I-IMP-SPECT) with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) 14 days after the onset of the first CVH revealed hyperperfusion in the right latero-inferior occipito-temporal region with relation to motion. CVH spontaneously subsided 17 days after the onset of the first CVH. CVH recurred one year after the first CVH. Ictal 123I-IMP-SPECT with 3D-SSP revealed marked hyperperfusion in the right lateral parietal region probably with relation to face and figure hallucinations. Ictal scalp EEGs revealed rhythmic polyspikes at 12 Hz with high amplitude (100-200 μV) in bilateral posterior occipital and temporal region with the right side dominance for 20 seconds and more in several occasions. Interictal 123I-IMP-SPECT with 3D-SSP 28 days after recurrence of CVH revealed marked hypoperfusion in the right lateral parietal region, and recovery of hypoperfusion in the right latero-inferior occipito-temporal region. These findings suggest that ictal CVH might be induced by the spread of epileptic discharges from the right parieto-occipito-temporal region with the old brain contusion (epileptogenic region) to the right latero-inferior occipito-temporal region and the right lateral parietal region (symptomatogenic regions).

  2. Quantitative cerebral perfusion assessment using microscope-integrated analysis of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence angiography versus positron emission tomography in superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intraoperative qualitative indocyanine green (ICG angiography has been used in cerebrovascular surgery. Hyperperfusion may lead to neurological complications after superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA anastomosis. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate intraoperative cerebral perfusion using microscope-integrated dynamic ICG fluorescence analysis, and to assess whether this value predicts hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS after STA-MCA anastomosis. Methods: Ten patients undergoing STA-MCA anastomosis due to unilateral major cerebral artery occlusive disease were included. Ten patients with normal cerebral perfusion served as controls. The ICG transit curve from six regions of interest (ROIs on the cortex, corresponding to ROIs on positron emission tomography (PET study, was recorded. Maximum intensity (I MAX , cerebral blood flow index (CBFi, rise time (RT, and time to peak (TTP were evaluated. Results: RT/TTP, but not I MAX or CBFi, could differentiate between control and study subjects. RT/TTP correlated (|r| = 0.534-0.807; P < 0.01 with mean transit time (MTT/MTT ratio in the ipsilateral to contralateral hemisphere by PET study. Bland-Altman analysis showed a wide limit of agreement between RT and MTT and between TTP and MTT. The ratio of RT before and after bypass procedures was significantly lower in patients with postoperative HPS than in patients without postoperative HPS (0.60 ± 0.032 and 0.80 ± 0.056, respectively; P = 0.017. The ratio of TTP was also significantly lower in patients with postoperative HPS than in patients without postoperative HPS (0.64 ± 0.081 and 0.85 ± 0.095, respectively; P = 0.017. Conclusions: Time-dependent intraoperative parameters from the ICG transit curve provide quantitative information regarding cerebral circulation time with quality and utility comparable to information obtained by PET. These parameters may help predict the occurrence of postoperative

  3. Follow-up findings in regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF)-SPECT in a case of idiopathic childhood hemidystonia. Functional neuroimaging and pathophysiological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, A.; Aderbauer, J.; Segerer, H. [St. Hedwig Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatrics; Marienhagen, J.; Bock, E.; Eilles, C. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-05-01

    A 9 1/2-year-old girl suffered from intermitting tremor and jitteriness of her left hand and oral muscles every 4 to 6 weeks with long lasting episodes. Clinically myoclonias and dystonic positioning of the left arm, hand and facial muscles were seen. No evidence of trauma, infection or inborn errors of metabolism was found. Successful therapy with carbamazepine was initiated while L-DOPA failed. An ictal 99m-Tc-HMPAO-SPECT showed severe asymmetry with focal hyperperfusion of the contralateral right thalamus and basal ganglia as well as of the bifrontal cortex, whereas no anatomical lesions were found by MRI. In contrast, an interictally performed 99m-Tc-HMPAO SPECT showed hypoperfusion or the right thalamus and normalisation of the frontal perfusion under medical treatment. These 99m-Tc-HMPAO-SPECT findings may provide new insights into the localisation and pathophysiological pathways of idiopathic childhood dystonia. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein 9 1/2jaehriges Maedchen litt an rezidivierenden, langdauernden Schueben von Tremor und Zittern der linken Hand und der perioralen Muskulatur links. Klinisch fanden sich eine dystone Haltung des linken Armes und unerschoepfliche Myoklonien des Armes, der Hand und der Gesichtsmuskulatur links. Trauma, Infektion oder ein Stoffwechseldefekt als Ursache lagen nicht vor. Ein Therapieversuch mit L-DOPA war erfolglos. Unter Gabe von Carbamazepin wurde Beschwerdefreiheit bleibend erreicht. Ein iktuales 99m-Tc-HMPAO-SPECT zeigte eine fokale Hyperperfusion des rechtsseitigen Thalamus und der Basalganglien, sowie des bifrontalen Kortex. Ein interiktuales 99m-Tc-HMPAOSPECT ergab dann eine deutliche Hypoperfusion des rechtseitigen Thalamus bei normalisierter Perfusion des bifrontalen Kortex. Eine kranielle Magnetresonanztomographie (MRI) ergab einen unauffaelligen Befund. Der Vergleich der iktualen und interiktualen Perfusionsverhaeltnisse weist auf neue pathophysiologische Zusammenhaenge bei idiopathischer kindlicher Dystonie hin. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of SPM in perfusion brain SPECT studies. A numerical simulation study using bootstrap resampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, Deborah; Aguiar, Pablo; Pavía, Javier; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Cot, Albert; Falcón, Carles; Benabarre, Antoni; Lomeña, Francisco; Vieta, Eduard; Ros, Domènec

    2008-07-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) has become the technique of choice to statistically evaluate positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain studies. Nevertheless, only a few methodological studies have been carried out to assess the performance of SPM in SPECT. The aim of this paper was to study the performance of SPM in detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in hypo- and hyperperfused areas in brain SPECT studies. The paper seeks to determine the relationship between the group size and the rCBF changes, and the influence of the correction for degradations. The assessment was carried out using simulated brain SPECT studies. Projections were obtained with Monte Carlo techniques, and a fan-beam collimator was considered in the simulation process. Reconstruction was performed by using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with and without compensation for attenuation, scattering, and spatial variant collimator response. Significance probability maps were obtained with SPM2 by using a one-tailed two-sample t-test. A bootstrap resampling approach was used to determine the sample size for SPM to detect the between-group differences. Our findings show that the correction for degradations results in a diminution of the sample size, which is more significant for small regions and low-activation factors. Differences in sample size were found between hypo- and hyperperfusion. These differences were larger for small regions and low-activation factors, and when no corrections were included in the reconstruction algorithm.

  5. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of intracerebral tuberculomas and its role in differentiating tuberculomas from metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankhe, Shilpa; Baheti, Akshay [Dept. of Radiology, Seth GS Medical Coll. and KEM Hospital, Thane (India)], e-mail: akshaybaheti@gmail.com; Ihare, Ashish; Mathur, Shobhit; Dabhade, Poonam; Sarode, Ashish [Dept. of Radiology, Seth GS Medical Coll. and KEM Hospital, Thane (India)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Intracerebral tuberculomas usually manifest as ring-enhancing of nodular lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imaging findings are also observed in other lesions like metastases and toxoplasmosis. Purpose: To study the MRI perfusion characteristics of tuberculomas and its potential role in their definitive diagnosis. Material and Methods: Thirty-four tuberculomas were evaluated by conventional and perfusion MRI. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values of the center, peripheral wall, and perilesional neuroparenchymal tissue were calculated using rCBV maps. Ten ring-enhancing metastases were similarly evaluated and rCBV values of their peripheral walls were calculated. Results: Thirty-one of the 34 tuberculomas were ring-enhancing or conglomerate lesions and revealed hypoperfused centers with hyperperfused peripheral walls, with the mean rCBV {+-} SD being 0.42 {+-} 0.25 and 2.04 {+-} 0.61, respectively. Three nodular enhancing lesions showed predominantly homogenous hyperperfusion, with the mean rCBV measuring 2.96 {+-} 0.39 (mean {+-} SD). The perilesional neuroparenchyma was hypoperfused in both cases. The metastases revealed mean rCBV ratio of the peripheral wall to be 5.43 {+-} 2.1 (mean {+-} SD). Analysis of the values by ROC curve method revealed a cut-off value of {>=}3.745 for differentiating ring-enhancing metastases from ring-enhancing tuberculomas. Conclusion: Perfusion MR is a useful tool for the assessment of tuberculomas and can help differentiate them from neoplasms like metastases. It also has a potential role in monitoring therapy and for early detection of drug resistance.

  6. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of brain SPECT perfusion in Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Eric; Taïeb, David; Cammilleri, Serge; Lussato, David; de Laforte, Catherine; Niboyet, Jean; Mundler, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT at rest, without noxious stiumuli, in a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic FM patients. We performed a voxel-based analysis in comparison to a control group, matched for age and gender. Under such conditions, we made the assumption that significant cerebral perfusion abnormalities could be demonstrated, evidencing altered cerebral processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. The secondary objective was to study the reversibility and the prognostic value of such possible perfusion abnormalities under specific treatment. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 48 yr; range 25-63 yr; ACR criteria) and 10 healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 ( ppain care unit. A second SPECT was performed a month later after specific treatment by Ketamine. Compared to control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. We also found that a medial frontal and anterior cingulate hypoperfusions were highly predictive (PPV=83%; NPV=91%) of non-response on Ketamine, and that only responders showed significant modification of brain perfusion, after treatment. In the present study performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on both components of pain, we hypothesize that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic strategy and provide objective follow-up of pain-processing recovery under treatment.

  7. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of brain SPECT perfusion in Fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: eric.guedj@ap-hm.fr; Taieb, David [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Cammilleri, Serge [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Lussato, David [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Niboyet, Jean [Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Clinique La Phoceanne, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT at rest, without noxious stiumuli, in a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic FM patients. We performed a voxel-based analysis in comparison to a control group, matched for age and gender. Under such conditions, we made the assumption that significant cerebral perfusion abnormalities could be demonstrated, evidencing altered cerebral processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. The secondary objective was to study the reversibility and the prognostic value of such possible perfusion abnormalities under specific treatment. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 48 yr; range 25-63 yr; ACR criteria) and 10 healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). All brain SPECT were performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. A second SPECT was performed a month later after specific treatment by Ketamine. Compared to control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. We also found that a medial frontal and anterior cingulate hypoperfusions were highly predictive (PPV=83%; NPV=91%) of non-response on Ketamine, and that only responders showed significant modification of brain perfusion, after treatment. In the present study performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on both components of pain, we hypothesize that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic

  8. Cerebral malformation induced by prenatal X-irradiation: an autoradiographic and Golgi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, I.; Xumetra, A.; Santamaria, J. (Neuropatologia, Depto. Anatomia Patologica, C.S. ' Principes de Espana' , Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain))

    1984-01-01

    Brain malformations are produced after X-irradiation at different post-conceptional ages in the rat. Malformed cortical patterns result from abnormal organisation and capricious orientation of the neurons, while a radical migratory pattern of neuroblasts outwards to the cerebral cortex is preserved in animals irradiated on the fourteenth, sixteenth or eighteenth days of gestation. Migratory disturbances are restricted to the large subcortical ectopic masses found in rats irradiated on the fourteenth gestational day and to pyramidal ectopic nodules in the hippocampus in rats irradiated on the sixteenth gestational day. Subcortical ectopic masses develop from ectopic germinal rosettes and are formed by several types of cortical neuron distributed in a stereotyped pattern. The presence of large numbers of intrinsic, afferent and efferent connections are indicative of integrative functions of the subcortical masses.

  9. Neural correlates of recovery from Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, Tom; Van Cauter, Sofie; Kho, Kuan H; Vijverman, Anne-Catherine; Peeters, Ronald R; Sunaert, Stefan; van Loon, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral reorganization during recovery after stroke has been investigated using functional imaging in patients with subcortical motor stroke. The functional correlates of recovery from anarthria, however, are yet unknown. A 48-year-old male patient recovering from complete anarthria after unilateral right-sided subcortical hemorrhagic stroke is described. The main outcome measures included clinical and neuroimaging data at three different time points (at the onset of symptoms, after 6 weeks and after 6 months). At 6 weeks, increased activations in the right and left frontal operculum were found and were followed by a trend towards normalization of the activation pattern at 6 months. These results suggest a role of anterior opercular regions in recovery from anarthria after subcortical stroke. Moreover, complete recovery is possible after such lesions.

  10. Experience-induced malleability in neural encoding of pitch, timbre, and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Skoe, Erika; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Speech and music are highly complex signals that have many shared acoustic features. Pitch, Timbre, and Timing can be used as overarching perceptual categories for describing these shared properties. The acoustic cues contributing to these percepts also have distinct subcortical representations which can be selectively enhanced or degraded in different populations. Musically trained subjects are found to have enhanced subcortical representations of pitch, timbre, and timing. The effects of musical experience on subcortical auditory processing are pervasive and extend beyond music to the domains of language and emotion. The sensory malleability of the neural encoding of pitch, timbre, and timing can be affected by lifelong experience and short-term training. This conceptual framework and supporting data can be applied to consider sensory learning of speech and music through a hearing aid or cochlear implant.

  11. Postnatal development of aminopeptidase (arylamidase) activity in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gandarias, J M; Ramírez, M; Zulaica, J; Iribar, C; Casis, L

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the activities of Leu- and Arg-arylamidase in rat frontal and parietal cortices and the subcortical area (including thalamus, hypothalamus, and striatum) were examined in the 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 24th weeks of life. Average levels found in the subcortical region were greater than those in the cortical areas. The most marked changes in enzymatic activity in the course of brain development were found in the subcortical structure. Leu-arylamidase activity increased from the 2nd week up to the 8th week, returning to the 2nd week level at the 12th and 24th weeks. The maximum levels of Arg-arylamidase activity were found at the 4th and 8th weeks. These data suggest that proteolytic activity is involved in the postnatal development of rat brain.

  12. Perilesional reorganization of motor function in stroke patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Ho Jang

    2010-01-01

    Perilesional reorganization is an important recovery mechanism for stroke patients because it yields good motor outcomes. However, perilesional reorganization remains poorly understood. The scientific basis for stroke rehabilitation can be established when detailed mechanisms of recovery are clarified. In addition, studies at the subcortical level remain in the early stages. Therefore, the present study suggested that additional investigations should focus on perilesional reorganization at the subcortical level, identifying the critical period for this mechanism and determining treatment strategies and modalities to facilitate development. The present study reviews literature focused on perilesional reorganization in stroke patients with regard to demonstration, clinical characteristics,and rehabilitative aspects, as well as previous studies of perilesional reorganization at cortical and subcortical levels.

  13. Cerebral pathways for calculation: double dissociation between rote verbal and quantitative knowledge of arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene, S; Cohen, L

    1997-06-01

    We describe two acalculic patients, one with a left subcortical lesion and the other with a right inferior parietal lesion and Gerstmann's syndrome. Both suffered from "pure anarithmetia": they could read arabic numerals and write them to dictation, but experienced a pronounced calculation deficit. On closer analysis, however, distinct deficits were found. The subcortical case suffered from a selective deficit of rote verbal knowledge, including but not limited to arithmetic tables, while her semantic knowledge of numerical quantities was intact. Conversely the inferior parietal case suffered from a category-specific impairment of quantitative numerical knowledge, particularly salient in subtraction and number bissection tasks, with preserved knowledge of rote arithmetic facts. This double dissociation suggests that numerical knowledge is processed in different formats within distinct cerebral pathways. We suggest that a left subcortical network contributes to the storage and retrieval of rote verbal arithmetic facts, while a bilateral inferior parietal network is dedicated to the mental manipulation of numerical quantities.

  14. The volumetric and shape changes of the putamen and thalamus in first episode, untreated major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous MRI studies confirmed abnormalities in the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic (LCSPT network or limbic-cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (LCSTC circuits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, but few studies have investigated the subcortical structural abnormalities. Therefore, we sought to determine whether focal subcortical grey matter (GM changes might be present in MDD at an early stage. We recruited 30 first episode, untreated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and 26 healthy control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate cortical grey matter changes, and automated volumetric and shape analyses were used to assess volume and shape changes of the subcortical GM structures, respectively. In addition, probabilistic tractography methods were used to demonstrate the relationship between the subcortical and the cortical GM. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients had significant volume reductions in the bilateral putamen and left thalamus (FWE-corrected, p < 0.05. Meanwhile, the vertex-based shape analysis showed regionally contracted areas on the dorsolateral and ventromedial aspects of the bilateral putamen, and on the dorsal and ventral aspects of left thalamus in MDD patients (FWE-corrected, p < 0.05. Additionally, a negative correlation was found between local atrophy in the dorsal aspects of the left thalamus and clinical variables representing severity. Furthermore, probabilistic tractography demonstrated that the area of shape deformation of the bilateral putamen and left thalamus have connections with the frontal and temporal lobes, which were found to be related to major depression. Our results suggested that structural abnormalities in the putamen and thalamus might be present in the early stages of MDD, which support the role of subcortical structure in the pathophysiology of MDD. Meanwhile, the present study showed that these subcortical structural abnormalities might be

  15. Multiphasic modification of intrinsic functional connectivity of the rat brain during increasing levels of propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiping; Pillay, Siveshigan; Li, Rupeng; Vizuete, Jeannette A; Pechman, Kimberly R; Schmainda, Kathleen M; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2013-12-01

    The dose-dependent effects of anesthetics on brain functional connectivity are incompletely understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is widely used to assess the functional connectivity in humans and animals. Propofol is an anesthetic agent with desirable characteristics for functional neuroimaging in animals but its dose-dependent effects on rsfMRI functional connectivity have not been determined. Here we tested the hypothesis that brain functional connectivity undergoes specific changes in distinct neural networks at anesthetic depths associated with loss of consciousness. We acquired spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals simultaneously with electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from rats under steady-state, intravenously administered propofol at increasing doses from light sedation to deep anesthesia (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg/h IV). Power spectra and burst suppression ratio were calculated from the EEG to verify anesthetic depth. Functional connectivity was determined from the whole brain correlation of BOLD data in regions of interest followed by a segmentation of the correlation maps into anatomically defined regional connectivity. We found that propofol produced multiphasic, dose dependent changes in functional connectivity of various cortical and subcortical networks. Cluster analysis predicted segregation of connectivity into two cortical and two subcortical clusters. In one cortical cluster (somatosensory and parietal), the early reduction in connectivity was followed by transient reversal; in the other cluster (sensory, motor and cingulate/retrosplenial), this rebound was absent. The connectivity of the subcortical cluster (brainstem, hippocampal and caudate) was strongly reduced, whereas that of another (hypothalamus, medial thalamus and n. basalis) did not. Subcortical connectivity increased again in deep anesthesia associated with EEG burst suppression. Regional correlation analysis confirmed the

  16. Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet brain in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Gratton, Enrico; Hueber, Dennis; Rosenfeld, Warren; Maulik, Dev; Stubblefield, Phillip; Stankovic, Mikjan

    1999-04-01

    We have performed non-invasive, real-time optical mapping of the piglet brain during a subcortical injection of autologous blood. The time resolution of the optical maps is 192 ms, thus allowing us to generate a real-time video of the growing subcortical hematoma. The increased absorption at the site of blood injection is accompanied by a decreased absorption at the contralateral brain side. This contralateral decrease in the optical absorption and the corresponding time traces of the cerebral hemoglobin parameters are consistent with a reduced cerebral blood flow caused by the increased intracranial pressure.

  17. On the etiology of incident brain lacunes: longitudinal observations from the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouw, A.A.; Flier, W.M. van der; Pantoni, L.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated regional differences in MRI characteristics and risk factor profiles of incident lacunes over a 3-year period. METHODS: Baseline and 3-year follow-up MRI were collected within the LADIS study (n=358). Incident lacunes were characterized with respect to brain...... region, their appearance within pre-existent white matter hyperintensities (WMH), surrounding WMH size, and risk factors. RESULTS: 106 incident lacunes were observed in 62 patients (58 subcortical white matter [WM], 35 basal ganglia, and 13 infratentorial). Incident subcortical WM lacunes occurred more...

  18. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with cyclosporine A neurotoxicity in a bone-marrow transplant recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teksam, M.; Casey, S.O.; Michel, E.; Truwit, C.L. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-03-01

    We report subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with cyclosporine A (CSA) neurotoxicity after bone-marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia. CT showed occipital subarachnoid hemorrhage. MRI confirmed this, and demonstrated cortical and subcortical edema in the posterior temporal, occipital, and posterior frontal lobes bilaterally, which was typical of CSA neurotoxicity. Recognition of CSA neurotoxicity as the cause of the subarachnoid hemorrhage obviated angiographic investigation. After cessation of cyclosporine therapy, the cortical and subcortical edema resolved on follow-up MRI with some residual blood products in the subarachnoid space. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in a patient with musical hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoyama, Masaru; Ukai, Satoshi; Kitabata, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Okumura, Masatoshi; Kose, Asami; Tsuji, Tomikimi; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2010-02-01

    A 52-year-old woman with musical hallucinations was examined using brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-ECD. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after carbamazepine treatment were assessed using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template. Following treatment, rCBF was decreased in the subcortical structures and increased in the global cortical regions. From our findings, we propose that rCBF values in subcortical structures represent abnormalities similar to those reported in previous reports or other psychiatric disorders, while those in cortical regions suggest background brain dysfunctions that result in generation of musical hallucinations.

  20. Pick 'n' mix: neuropatholgical detection of peri-tumour taupathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, Roisin

    2013-11-01

    Radiotherapy is used to treat recurrent oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade 2 tumours. Potential morbitities include steroid-responsive radiation necrosis and radiation leucoencephalopathy, characterised pathologically by reactive astrogliosis, focal necrosis, demyelination, axonal loss, and clinically by progressive subcortical deficits (ataxia, amnesia, incontinence, cognitive decline), with relative sparing of cortical function. Although subcortical features may overlap with neurodegenerative conditions (eg frontotemporal dementia), focal cortical atrophy of FTD causes loss of language function in addition to memory, and specific histopathological features characterise FTD subtypes (eg Pick disease). Association between mitotic disease and tauopathy has not been reported widely, but co-existence is possible. Diagnostic accuracy may guide management.

  1. Cerebral hypometabolism in progressive supranuclear palsy studied with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, N.L.; Gilman, S.; Berent, S.; Morin, E.M.; Brown, M.B.; Koeppe, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is characterized by supranuclear palsy of gaze, axial dystonia, bradykinesia, rigidity, and a progressive dementia. Pathological changes in this disorder are generally restricted to subcortical structures, yet the type and range of cognitive deficits suggest the involvement of many cerebral regions. We examined the extent of functional impairment to cerebral cortical and subcortical structures as measured by the level of glucose metabolic activity at rest. Fourteen patients with PSP were compared to 21 normal volunteers of similar age using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism was reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, pons, and cerebral cortex, but not in the cerebellum in the patients with PSP as compared to the normal subjects. Analysis of individual brain regions revealed significant declines in cerebral glucose utilization in most regions throughout the cerebral cortex, particularly those in the superior half of the frontal lobe. Declines in the most affected regions of cerebral cortex were greater than those in any single subcortical structure. Although using conventional neuropathological techniques the cerebral cortex appears to be unaffected in PSP, significant and pervasive functional impairments in both cortical and subcortical structures are present. These observations help to account for the constellation of cognitive symptoms in individual patients with PSP and the difficulty encountered in identifying a characteristic psychometric profile for this group of patients.

  2. Developmental Changes in Brain Network Hub Connectivity in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Simon T E; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat; Allen, Nicholas B; Whittle, Sarah; Fulcher, Ben D; Zalesky, Andrew; Fornito, Alex

    2015-06-17

    The human brain undergoes substantial development throughout adolescence and into early adulthood. This maturational process is thought to include the refinement of connectivity between putative connectivity hub regions of the brain, which collectively form a dense core that enhances the functional integration of anatomically distributed, and functionally specialized, neural systems. Here, we used longitudinal diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to characterize changes in connectivity between 80 cortical and subcortical anatomical regions over a 2 year period in 31 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Connectome-wide analysis indicated that only a small subset of connections showed evidence of statistically significant developmental change over the study period, with 8% and 6% of connections demonstrating decreased and increased structural connectivity, respectively. Nonetheless, these connections linked 93% and 90% of the 80 regions, respectively, pointing to a selective, yet anatomically distributed pattern of developmental changes that involves most of the brain. Hub regions showed a distinct tendency to be highly connected to each other, indicating robust "rich-club" organization. Moreover, connectivity between hubs was disproportionately influenced by development, such that connectivity between subcortical hubs decreased over time, whereas frontal-subcortical and frontal-parietal hub-hub connectivity increased over time. These findings suggest that late adolescence is characterized by selective, yet significant remodeling of hub-hub connectivity, with the topological organization of hubs shifting emphasis from subcortical hubs in favor of an increasingly prominent role for frontal hub regions.

  3. Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

  4. Spatio-temporal pattern of vestibular information processing after brief caloric stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelli, Vincenzo [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Esposito, Fabrizio [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands)], E-mail: fabrizio.esposito@unina.it; Aragri, Adriana [Department of Neurological Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Furia, Teresa; Riccardi, Pasquale [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Tosetti, Michela; Biagi, Laura [I.R.C.S.S. ' Stella Maris' , Pisa (Italy); Marciano, Elio [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Di Salle, Francesco [Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); I.R.C.S.S. ' Stella Maris' , Pisa (Italy); Department of Neurosciences, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Processing of vestibular information at the cortical and subcortical level is essential for head and body orientation in space and self-motion perception, but little is known about the neural dynamics of the brain regions of the vestibular system involved in this task. Neuroimaging studies using both galvanic and caloric stimulation have shown that several distinct cortical and subcortical structures can be activated during vestibular information processing. The insular cortex has been often targeted and presented as the central hub of the vestibular cortical system. Since very short pulses of cold water ear irrigation can generate a strong and prolonged vestibular response and a nystagmus, we explored the effects of this type of caloric stimulation for assessing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) dynamics of neural vestibular processing in a whole-brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. We evaluated the spatial layout and the temporal dynamics of the activated cortical and subcortical regions in time-locking with the instant of injection and were able to extract a robust pattern of neural activity involving the contra-lateral insular cortex, the thalamus, the brainstem and the cerebellum. No significant correlation with the temporal envelope of the nystagmus was found. The temporal analysis of the activation profiles highlighted a significantly longer duration of the evoked BOLD activity in the brainstem compared to the insular cortex suggesting a functional de-coupling between cortical and subcortical activity during the vestibular response.

  5. Simple autonomic seizures and ictal enuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Varga, Edina T; Akeson, Per

    2011-01-01

    Human micturition is physiologically controlled via a complex and finely tuned network of cortical and subcortical regions, hitherto not fully understood. We report the case of a 42-year-old man with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and post-traumatic epilepsy. Ictal enuresis was the only...

  6. Experiment list: SRX1430142 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 24593150,98.2,8.0,406 GSM1939121: NAI-00H-ACC-NON-H3K4ME1-1; Mus musculus; C...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  7. Experiment list: SRX1430143 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 26377327,98.6,9.2,388 GSM1939122: NAI-00H-ACC-NON-H3K4ME1-2; Mus musculus; C...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  8. Experiment list: SRX1430141 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 32269265,92.1,8.4,330 GSM1939120: NAI-00H-ACC-NEU-H3K4ME1-2; Mus musculus; C...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  9. Experiment list: SRX1430140 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 28821627,98.6,6.7,243 GSM1939119: NAI-00H-ACC-NEU-H3K4ME1-1; Mus musculus; C...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  10. Experiment list: SRX1430127 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 40508774,99.4,35.2,22431 GSM1939106: NAI-00H-ACC-NON-H3K4ME3-2; Mus musculus...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  11. Experiment list: SRX1430174 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 32966558,99.1,15.5,15923 GSM1939153: NAI-00H-ACC-NON-H3K27AC-1; Mus musculus...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  12. Experiment list: SRX1430124 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 38689836,99.4,25.5,21886 GSM1939103: NAI-00H-ACC-NEU-H3K4ME3-1; Mus musculus...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  13. Experiment list: SRX1430126 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 37933697,99.1,39.1,19704 GSM1939105: NAI-00H-ACC-NON-H3K4ME3-1; Mus musculus...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  14. Experiment list: SRX1430125 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 38335174,99.5,26.0,23131 GSM1939104: NAI-00H-ACC-NEU-H3K4ME3-2; Mus musculus...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  15. Experiment list: SRX1430173 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 27738544,97.4,12.2,22886 GSM1939152: NAI-00H-ACC-NEU-H3K27AC-2; Mus musculus...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  16. Experiment list: SRX1430175 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or control and decision making. 26982567,99.4,12.5,17792 GSM1939154: NAI-00H-ACC-NON-H3K27AC-2; Mus musculus...R of the cingulate gyrus, possessing multiple intracortical and subcortical connections, and involved in mot

  17. Examination of Alzheimer’s-related positive, negative and reactive pathology in the brainstem of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metaxas, Athanasios; Vaitheeswaran, Ramanan; Ilkjær, Laura

    Aim: While the positive, negative and reactive lesions of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been extensively characterised in brain areas associated with cognition, such as the cortex and the hippocampus, the status of subcortical structures in AD remains less well characterised. In the present study...

  18. Treatment of seizures in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus W.; Polman, Susanne K. L.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Background Epileptic seizures occur in only a minority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but can have serious consequences. The available literature suggests an association of seizures in MS with cortical and subcortical demyelinating lesions, which suggest that seizures in MS are probably m

  19. Stuttering Due To Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Alparslan Sahin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired stuttering is a disorder of the fluency of speech. The mechanism underlying stuttering is unknown. It may occur after bilateral and unilateral cortical or subcortical brain damage. We report two cases who had stuttering resulting from left parietal infarction.

  20. Imaging evidence for anatomical disturbances and neuroplastic compensation in persons with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Peterson, Bradley S

    2009-01-01

    , and methods of image analysis, the preponderance of evidence suggests that disturbances in the development of the motor portions of cortical-subcortical circuits likely predispose to the development TS and that neuroplastic changes in control systems of the brain help to modulate the severity of symptom...

  1. Right and Left Medial Orbitofrontal Volumes Show an Opposite Relationship to Agreeableness in FTD

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine P. Rankin; Rosen, Howard J.; Kramer, Joel H.; Schauer, Guido F.; Weiner, Michael W.; Schuff, Norbert; Miller, Bruce L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent investigations of the neuroanatomy of complex social behaviors suggest that the underlying brain circuits involve multiple cortical and subcortical structures. The neuroanatomic origins of agreeableness have not yet been clearly elucidated. However, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients can evidence dramatic alterations in agreeableness arising from frontal and temporal lobe damage. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that agreeableness would be negatively correlated with left...

  2. Intracerebral implantation of carbachol in the rat: Its effect on water intake and body temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.Th.

    1972-01-01

    Intracerebral carbachol produces a fall in body temperature as well as drinking in the rat when implanted in various subcortical structures, related to the emotion-motivation limbic circuit. These effects are due to a central cholinergic stimulation since they can be prevented by the systemic admini

  3. Diazepam effect during early neonatal development correlates with neuronal Cl−

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Although benzodiazepines and other GABAA receptors allosteric modulators are used to treat neonatal seizures, their efficacy may derive from actions on subcortical structures. Side effects of benzodiazepines in nonseizing human neonates include myoclonus, seizures, and abnormal movements. Excitatory actions of GABA may underlie both side effects and reduced anticonvulsant activity of benzodiazepines. Neocortical organotypic slice cultures were used to study: (1) spontaneou...

  4. Does Adolescent Risk Taking Imply Weak Executive Function? A Prospective Study of Relations between Working Memory Performance, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12…

  5. Atypical Pulvinar-Cortical Pathways During Sustained Attention Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Sroubek, Ariane; Kelly, Mary S.; Lesser, Iris; Sussman, Elyse; He, Yong; Branch, Craig; Foxe, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The neurobiological basis of inattentiveness, a core feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is not yet well understood. Structural abnormalities in thalamus, especially the pulvinar nuclei, have recently been reported in ADHD. Pulvinar nuclei maintain reciprocal connections with cortical/subcortical areas, and play…

  6. Neural modeling of prefrontal executive function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Brain executive function is based in a distributed system whereby prefrontal cortex is interconnected with other cortical. and subcortical loci. Executive function is divided roughly into three interacting parts: affective guidance of responses; linkage among working memory representations; and forming complex behavioral schemata. Neural network models of each of these parts are reviewed and fit into a preliminary theoretical framework.

  7. Neurochemistry of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, P J; Unnerstall, J R

    1988-01-01

    New neurotransmitter system abnormalities are being described in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease at a rapid rate. Both classic and neuropeptide systems are affected in cortical and subcortical regions. Comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders will require understanding the multisystem nature and shared features of these disorders.

  8. A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analysis of asymptomatic Parkinson's disease-related G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, A.; Artzi, M.; Mirelman, A.; Jacob, Y.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Nuenen, B.F.L. van; Gurevich, T.; Orr-Urtreger, A.; Marder, K.; Bressman, S.; Bloem, B.R.; Hendler, T.; Giladi, N.; Bashat, D. Ben

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease have reduced gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy in both cortical and sub-cortical structures, yet changes in the pre-motor phase of the disease are unknown. METHODS: A comprehensive imaging study using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tens

  9. Dissociable changes in functional network topology underlie early category learning and development of automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Fabian A; Bassett, Danielle S; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-11-01

    Recent work has shown that multimodal association areas-including frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex-are focal points of functional network reconfiguration during human learning and performance of cognitive tasks. On the other hand, neurocomputational theories of category learning suggest that the basal ganglia and related subcortical structures are focal points of functional network reconfiguration during early learning of some categorization tasks but become less so with the development of automatic categorization performance. Using a combination of network science and multilevel regression, we explore how changes in the connectivity of small brain regions can predict behavioral changes during training in a visual categorization task. We find that initial category learning, as indexed by changes in accuracy, is predicted by increasingly efficient integrative processing in subcortical areas, with higher functional specialization, more efficient integration across modules, but a lower cost in terms of redundancy of information processing. The development of automaticity, as indexed by changes in the speed of correct responses, was predicted by lower clustering (particularly in subcortical areas), higher strength (highest in cortical areas), and higher betweenness centrality. By combining neurocomputational theories and network scientific methods, these results synthesize the dissociative roles of multimodal association areas and subcortical structures in the development of automaticity during category learning.

  10. No change in total length of white matter fibers in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, A.M.; Marner, L.; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    White matter changes have been reported as part of Alzheimer dementia. To investigate this, the total subcortical myelinated nerve fiber length was estimated in postmortem brains from eight females (age 79-88 years) with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) and compared with brains from 10 female...

  11. Anatomical pathways involved in generating and sensing rhythmic whisker movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.J. Bosman (Laurens); A.R. Houweling (Arthur); C.B. Owens (Cullen); N. Tanke (Nouk); O.T. Shevchouk (Olesya); N. Rahmati (Negah); W.H.T. Teunissen (Wouter); C. Ju (Chiheng); W. Gong (Wei); S.K.E. Koekkoek (Bas); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe rodent whisker system is widely used as a model system for investigating sensorimotor integration, neural mechanisms of complex cognitive tasks, neural development, and robotics. The whisker pathways to the barrel cortex have received considerable attention. However, many subcortical

  12. 皮质下动脉硬化性脑病60例CT与临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿哲; 刘绍玲; 余明

    2001-01-01

    @@ 皮质下动脉硬化性脑病(Subcortical Arteriosclerotic Encephalopathy,SAE),又称Binswangers病.近年来发病率有逐渐升高的趋势.现将我院1990年8月至1999年1月住院治疗的60例SAE报告如下:

  13. Effects of postnatal anoxia on striatal dopamine metabolism and prepulse inhibition in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Sager, Thomas N;

    2004-01-01

    . Anoxia was experimentally induced by placing 9-day-old rat pups for 6 min in a chamber saturated with 100% nitrogen (N(2)). Exposure to anoxia on postnatal day (PND) 9 resulted in significantly reduced subcortical dopamine metabolism and turnover, as measured by striatal 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid...

  14. Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

  15. Line tension at lipid phase boundaries regulates formation of membrane vesicles in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind-Kezunovic, D.; Nielsen, C.H.; Wojewodzka, U.;

    2008-01-01

    fluorescein-labeled cholera toxin B subunit which labels ganglioside GM(1) enriched plasma membrane rafts. Cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhanced DiI vesiculation, GM(1)/DiI domain separation and was accompanied by a detachment of the subcortical cytoskeleton from the plasma membrane...

  16. Line tension at lipid phase boundaries regulates formation of membrane vesicles in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind-Kezunovic, Dina; Helix Nielsen, Claus; Wojewodzka, Urszula;

    2008-01-01

    -labeled cholera toxin B subunit which labels ganglioside GM(1) enriched plasma membrane rafts. Cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhanced DiI vesiculation, GM(1)/DiI domain separation and was accompanied by a detachment of the subcortical cytoskeleton from the plasma membrane. Based...

  17. Brain regions involved in voluntary movements as revealed by radioisotopic mapping of CBF or CMR-glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Ingvar, D H

    1990-01-01

    Mapping of cortical and subcortical grey matter active during voluntary movements by means of measurements of local increases of CBF or CMR-Glucose is reviewed. Most of the studies concern observations in man during hand movements using the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection