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Sample records for arsinde neutron imaging

  1. Non-Destructive Spent Fuel Characterization with Semiconducting Gallium Arsinde Neutron Imaging Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Gersch, Holly K.; Sanders, Jeffrey D.; Lee, John C.; Hammig, Mark D.; Hartman, Michael R.; Yong Hong Yang; Klann, Raymond T.; Elzen, Brian Van Der; Lindsay, John T.; Simpson, Philip A.

    2002-01-01

    High resistivity bulk grown GaAs has been used to produce thermal neutron imaging devices for use in neutron radiography and characterizing burnup in spent fuel. The basic scheme utilizes a portable Sb/Be source for monoenergetic (24 keV) neutron radiation source coupled to an Fe filter with a radiation hard B-coated pixellated GaAs detector array as the primary neutron detector. The coated neutron detectors have been tested for efficiency and radiation hardness in order to determine their fitness for the harsh environments imposed by spent fuel. Theoretical and experimental results are presented, showing detector radiation hardness, expected detection efficiency and the spatial resolution from such a scheme. A variety of advanced neutron detector designs have been explored, with experimental results achieving 13% thermal neutron detection efficiency while projecting the possibility of over 30% thermal neutron detection efficiency

  2. Neutron image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verat, M.; Rougeot, H.; Driard, B.

    1983-01-01

    The most frequently used techniques in neutron radiography employ a neutron converter consisting of either a scintillator or a thin metal sheet. The radiation created by the neutrons exposes a photographic film that is in contact with the converter: in the direct method, the film is exposed during the time that the object is irradiated with neutrons; in the transfer method, the film is exposed after the irradiation of the object with neutrons. In industrial non-destructive testing, when many identical objects have to be checked, these techniques have several disadvantages. Non-destructive testing systems without these disadvantages can be constructed around neutron-image intensifier tubes. A description and the operating characteristics of neutron-image intensifier tubes are given. (Auth.)

  3. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankow, Nares; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aims of this research are to study properties of neutron imaging plate, to obtain a suitable condition for neutron radiography and to use the neutron imaging plate for testing of materials nondestructively. The experiments were carried out by using a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 at a power of 1.2 MW. A BAS-ND 2040 FUJI neutron imaging plate and a MX125 Kodak X-ray film/Gadolinium neutron converter screen combination were tested for comparison. It was found that the photostimulated light (PSL) read out of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time. It was also found that radiography with neutron using the imaging plate was approximately 40 times faster than the conventional neutron radiography using x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination. The sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma-rays was investigated by using gamma-rays from an 192 Ir and a 60 Co radiographic sources. The imaging plate was found to be 5-6 times less sensitive to gamma-rays than a FUJI BAS-MS 2040 gamma-ray imaging plate. Finally, some specimens were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the imaging plate and the x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination in comparison to x-rays. Parts containing light elements could be clearly observed by the two neutron radiographic techniques. It could be concluded that the image quality from the neutron imaging plate was comparable to the conventional x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination but the exposure time could be approximately reduced by a factor of 40

  5. Imaging with cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, E.H.; Kaestner, A.; Josic, L.; Hartmann, S.; Mannes, D.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrons for imaging purposes are provided mainly from thermal beam lines at suitable facilities around the world. The access to cold neutrons is presently limited to very few places only. However, many challenging options for imaging with cold neutrons have been found out, given by the interaction behavior of the observed materials with neutrons in the cold energy range (3-10 A). For absorbing materials, the interaction probability increases proportionally with the wavelength with the consequence of more contrast but less transmission with cold neutrons. Many materials are predominantly scattering neutrons, in particular most of crystalline structural materials. In these cases, cold neutrons play an important role by covering the energy range of the most important Bragg edges given by the lattice planes of the crystallites. This particular behavior can be used for at least two important aspects-choosing the right energy of the initial beam enables to have a material more or less transparent, and a direct macroscopic visualization of the crystalline structure and its change in a manufacturing process. Since 2006, PSI operates its second beam line for neutron imaging, where cold neutrons are provided from a liquid deuterium cold source (operated at 25 K). It has been designed to cover the most current aspects in neutron imaging research with the help of high flexibility. This has been done with changeable inlet apertures, a turbine based velocity selector, two beam positions and variable detector systems, satisfying the demands of the individual investigation. The most important detection system was found to be a micro-tomography system that enables studies in the presently best spatial resolution. In this case, the high contrast from the sample interaction process and the high detection probability for the cold neutrons combines in an ideal combination for the best possible performance. Recently, it was found out that the energy selective studies might become a

  6. Imaging with Polarized Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kardjilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their zero charge, neutrons are able to pass through thick layers of matter (typically several centimeters while being sensitive to magnetic fields due to their intrinsic magnetic moment. Therefore, in addition to the conventional attenuation contrast image, the magnetic field inside and around a sample can be visualized by detecting changes of polarization in a transmitted beam. The method is based on the spatially resolved measurement of the cumulative precession angles of a collimated, polarized, monochromatic neutron beam that traverses a magnetic field or sample.

  7. Energy dependent neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Hitterman, R.L.; Rhodes, E.

    1990-01-01

    A waste package consisting of a container and high-level nuclear waste is being developed for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being studied as a potential site for the underground high-level nuclear waste repository. A major consideration for choosing Yucca Mountain is the presence of zeolite in tertiary ash-flow tuffs. The presence of zeolites could provide geological barriers to radionuclide migration. The suitability of the tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain for the repository is being investigated since the properties of the environment around a waste site must be well characterized to reliably predict performance. The results of experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to assess the possibility of imaging water in Nevada Test Site welded tuff samples showed that nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is not viable. This leaves neutron tomography and high-frequency electromagnetic geotomography as possibilities for the practical imaging of distribution and flow of fluids in rock, including tuff specimens. Water tracers are needed in electromagnetic tomography techniques since the contrast for detecting water in cracks of tuff is lower than in granite because of the higher porosity in tuff. The results of preliminary testing with geotomography by LLNL indicates relatively low spatial resolution. More sensitive techniques for detecting water is needed. This paper describes preliminary experiments to apply pulsed neutrons to image water in a sample of tuff. 3 refs., 3 figs

  8. Neutron Imaging Developments at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ron; Hunter, James; Schirato, Richard; Vogel, Sven; Swift, Alicia; Ickes, Tim; Ward, Bill; Losko, Adrian; Tremsin, Anton

    2015-10-01

    Neutron imaging is complementary to x-ray imaging because of its sensitivity to light elements and greater penetration of high-Z materials. Energy-resolved neutron imaging can provide contrast enhancements for elements and isotopes due to the variations with energy in scattering cross sections due to nuclear resonances. These cross section differences exist due to compound nuclear resonances that are characteristic of each element and isotope, as well as broader resonances at higher energies. In addition, multi-probe imaging, such as combined photon and neutron imaging, is a powerful tool for discerning properties and features in materials that cannot be observed with a single probe. Recently, we have demonstrated neutron imaging, both radiography and computed tomography, using the moderated (Lujan Center) and high-energy (WNR facility) neutron sources at LANSCE. Flat panel x-ray detectors with suitable scintillator-converter screens provide good sensitivity for both low and high neutron energies. Micro-Channel-Plate detectors and iCCD scintillator camera systems that provide the fast time gating needed for energy-resolved imaging have been demonstrated as well. Examples of recent work will be shown including fluid flow in plants and imaging through dense thick objects. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, and performed by Los Alamos National Security LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  9. Neutron Dark-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, David

    2017-09-01

    Neutron imaging is typically used to image and reconstruct objects that are difficult to image using X-Ray imaging techniques. X-Ray absorption is primarily determined by the electron density of the material. This makes it difficult to image objects within materials that have high densities such as metal. However, the neutron scattering cross section primarily depends on the strong nuclear force, which varies somewhat randomly across the periodic table. In this project, an imaging technique known as dark field imaging using a far-field interferometer has been used to study a sample of granite. With this technique, interferometric phase images are generated. The dispersion of the microstructure of the sample dephases the beam, reducing the visibility. Collecting tomographic projections at different autocorrelation lengths (from 100 nanometers to 1.74 micrometers) essentially creates a 3D small angle scattering pattern, enabling mapping of how the microstructure is distributed throughout the sample.

  10. Problems and prospects of neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hisao

    2008-01-01

    Technical problems and future prospects of neutron imaging and neutron radiography are reviewed and discussed for further development. For technical problems, neutron sources together with cold neutron, ultra-cold neutron, epithermal and fast-neutron beams, energy converters, and the intensity of neutron beam, dynamic range associated with imaging procedure, etc, are reviewed. As standardization, such indicators as beam purity, sensitivity, image quality, and beam quality are discussed and limitation of neutron radiography is also presented. As neutron imaging has developed as a nondestructive testing technique in industrial applications, further problems and prospects of quality control and qualification to perform neutron radiography, standardization and international cooperation of neutron imaging are discussed. (S. Ohno)

  11. Electronic imaging applied to neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, D.A.; Bracher, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially - available image intensifier was used with a scan conversion memory and a mobile 252 Cf based neutron radiography system to obtain neutron radiographs on a television monitor in 0.5 minutes to 10.0 minutes

  12. Neutron imaging integrated circuit and method for detecting neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Vivek V.; More, Mitali J.

    2017-12-05

    The present disclosure provides a neutron imaging detector and a method for detecting neutrons. In one example, a method includes providing a neutron imaging detector including plurality of memory cells and a conversion layer on the memory cells, setting one or more of the memory cells to a first charge state, positioning the neutron imaging detector in a neutron environment for a predetermined time period, and reading a state change at one of the memory cells, and measuring a charge state change at one of the plurality of memory cells from the first charge state to a second charge state less than the first charge state, where the charge state change indicates detection of neutrons at said one of the memory cells.

  13. A polarizing neutron periscope for neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Michael; Boeni, Peter; Calzada, Elbio; Muehlbauer, Martin; Neubauer, Andreas; Schillinger, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    Optical neutron polarizers like guides or benders destroy the collimation of a neutron beam due to multiple reflections or scattering. This makes them unsuitable for their use in polarized neutron radiography, because the beam collimation is essential to obtain high spatial resolution. We have developed a neutron polarizer based on the principle of an optical periscope with a zigzag double reflection on two parallel high-m supermirror polarizers. If the supermirrors are perfectly parallel and flat, the beam collimation is left unchanged by such a device. A first proof of concept version of this type of polarizer was built and tested. We expect to achieve a beam polarization of up to 99% with an improved version yet to be built.

  14. The neutron imaging diagnostic at NIF (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F E; Bower, D; Buckles, R; Clark, D D; Danly, C R; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Fatherley, V E; Fittinghoff, D N; Gallegos, R; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Loomis, E N; Lutz, S; Malone, R M; Martinson, D D; Mares, D; Morley, D J; Morgan, G L; Oertel, J A; Tregillis, I L; Volegov, P L; Weiss, P B; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C

    2012-10-01

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  15. The neutron imaging diagnostic at NIF (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, F. E.; Clark, D. D.; Danly, C. R.; Drury, O. B.; Fatherley, V. E.; Gallegos, R.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Loomis, E. N.; Martinson, D. D.; Mares, D.; Morley, D. J.; Morgan, G. L.; Oertel, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilson, D. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Bower, D.; Dzenitis, J. M. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  16. Application of imaging plate neutron detector to neutron radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Fujine, S; Kamata, M; Etoh, M

    1999-01-01

    As an imaging plate neutron detector (IP-ND) has been available for thermal neutron radiography (TNR) which has high resolution, high sensitivity and wide range, some basic characteristics of the IP-ND system were measured at the E-2 facility of the KUR. After basic performances of the IP were studied, images with high quality were obtained at a neutron fluence of 2 to 7x10 sup 8 n cm sup - sup 2. It was found that the IP-ND system with Gd sub 2 O sub 3 as a neutron converter material has a higher sensitivity to gamma-ray than that of a conventional film method. As a successful example, clear radiographs of the flat view for the fuel side plates with boron burnable poison were obtained. An application of the IP-ND system to neutron radiography (NR) is presented in this paper.

  17. Neutron imaging and applications a reference for the imaging community

    CERN Document Server

    McGreevy, Robert L; Bilheux, Hassina Z

    2009-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the basics of neutron beam production in addition to the wide scope of techniques that enhance imaging application capabilities. This title features a section that describes imaging single grains in polycrystalline materials, neutron imaging of geological materials and other materials science and engineering areas.

  18. New neutron imaging using pulsed sources. Characteristics of a pulsed neutron source and principle of pulsed neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Neutron beam is one of important tools to obtain the transmission image of an object. Until now, steady state neutron sources such as reactors are mainly used for this imaging purpose. Recently, it has been demonstrated that pulsed neutron imaging based on accelerator neutron sources can provide a real-space distribution of physical information of materials such as crystallographic structure, element, temperature, hydrogen bound state, magnetic field and so on, by analyzing wavelength dependent transmission spectrum, which information cannot be observed or difficult to obtain with a traditional imaging method using steady state neutrons. Here, characteristics of the pulsed neutron source and principle of the pulsed neutron imaging are explained as a basic concept of the new method. (author)

  19. Fast neutron radiography using photoluminescent imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Kristof, E.; Balasko, M.; Stade, J.

    1999-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) and resonance neutron radiography (RNR) are complementary to the conventional radiography with high energy gamma-rays or brems-strahlung radiation used for the inspection of thick metal objects. In both non-destructive methods, the contrast sensitivity and the penetration power can be improved by using higher energy neutrons. At present direct techniques based either n Solid State Nuclear Track detectors (SSNTDs) or scintillating screens and transfer techniques using activation threshold detectors and radiographic films are applied for the detection of fast neutron images. Rather low detection sensitivity of film and SSNTD based fast neutron imaging methods and also rather poor inherent image contrast of SSNTD pose a problem for FNR in the fast neutron energy region 1-15 MeV interesting for NDT. For more efficient detection of fast neutron images the use of novel highly sensitive photoluminescent imaging plates (IP) in combination with threshold at the KFKI research reactor. The conventional IP produced by FUJI Photo Film Co. for the detection of beta and X-ray radiation were used. The threshold activation detectors were the reactions 115 In(n, n') 115m In, 64 Zn(n,p) 64 Cu, 56 Fe(n, p) 56 Mn, 24 Mg(n, p) 24 Na and 27 Al(n, α) 24 Na. These threshold reactions cover the fast neutron energy region between 0,7 MeV and 12 MeV. Pure, commercially available metals 0,1 mm to 0,25 mm thick made of In, Zn, Fe, Mg and Al were used as converter screens. The very high sensitivity of IP, the linearity of their response over 5 decades of exposure dose and the high dynamic digitalisation latitude enabled fast neutron radiography of image quality comparable to the quality of thermal NR. In our experimental conditions (φ n ∼ 10 8 n/cm 2 s, R Cd ∼ 2) the neutron exposure and IP exposure periods were still practical and comparable to the half life of the corresponding reaction products (half an hour to several hours). Even with the 27 Al(n.α) 24

  20. Optics for Advanced Neutron Imaging and Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncton, David E.; Khaykovich, Boris

    2016-01-01

    During the report period, we continued the work as outlined in the original proposal. We have analyzed potential optical designs of Wolter mirrors for the neutron-imaging instrument VENUS, which is under construction at SNS. In parallel, we have conducted the initial polarized imaging experiment at Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, one of very few of currently available polarized-imaging facilities worldwide.

  1. The National Ignition Facility Neutron Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Mark D.; Batha, Steven H.; Bradley, Paul A.; Day, Robert D.; Clark, David D.; Fatherley, Valerie E.; Finch, Joshua P.; Gallegos, Robert A.; Garcia, Felix P.; Grim, Gary P.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Montoya, Andrew J.; Morgan, George L.; Oertel, John A.; Ortiz, Thomas A.; Payton, Jeremy R.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Schmidt, Derek W.; Valdez, Adelaida C.; Wilde, Carl H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is scheduled to begin deuterium-tritium (DT) shots possibly in the next several years. One of the important diagnostics in understanding capsule behavior and to guide changes in Hohlraum illumination, capsule design, and geometry will be neutron imaging of both the primary 14 MeV neutrons and the lower-energy downscattered neutrons in the 6-13 MeV range. The neutron imaging system (NIS) described here, which we are currently building for use on NIF, uses a precisely aligned set of apertures near the target to form the neutron images on a segmented scintillator. The images are recorded on a gated, intensified charge coupled device. Although the aperture set may be as close as 20 cm to the target, the imaging camera system will be located at a distance of 28 m from the target. At 28 m the camera system is outside the NIF building. Because of the distance and shielding, the imager will be able to obtain images with little background noise. The imager will be capable of imaging downscattered neutrons from failed capsules with yields Y n >10 14 neutrons. The shielding will also permit the NIS to function at neutron yields >10 18 , which is in contrast to most other diagnostics that may not work at high neutron yields. The following describes the current NIF NIS design and compares the predicted performance with the NIF specifications that must be satisfied to generate images that can be interpreted to understand results of a particular shot. The current design, including the aperture, scintillator, camera system, and reconstruction methods, is briefly described. System modeling of the existing Omega NIS and comparison with the Omega data that guided the NIF design based on our Omega results is described. We will show NIS model calculations of the expected NIF images based on component evaluations at Omega. We will also compare the calculated NIF input images with those unfolded from the NIS images generated from our NIS numerical

  2. Combined neutron imaging techniques for cultural heritage purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materna, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the different new neutron techniques developed by the Ancient Charm collaboration to image objects of cultural heritage importance: Prompt-gamma-ray activation imaging (PGAI) coupled to cold/thermal neutron transmission tomography, Neutron Resonance Capture Imaging (NRCI) and Neutron Resonance Tomography.

  3. LISe pixel detector for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wiggins, Brenden [Technology Development, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Milburn, Rob [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burger, Arnold [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, TN (United States); Bilheux, Hassina [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Santodonato, Louis [Instrument and Source Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chvala, Ondrej [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stowe, Ashley [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Technology Development, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Lukosi, Eric, E-mail: elukosi@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Semiconducting lithium indium diselenide, {sup 6}LiInSe{sub 2} or LISe, has promising characteristics for neutron detection applications. The 95% isotopic enrichment of {sup 6}Li results in a highly efficient thermal neutron-sensitive material. In this study, we report on a proof-of-principle investigation of a semiconducting LISe pixel detector to demonstrate its potential as an efficient neutron imager. The LISe pixel detector had a 4×4 of pixels with a 550 µm pitch on a 5×5×0.56 mm{sup 3} LISe substrate. An experimentally verified spatial resolution of 300 µm was observed utilizing a super-sampling technique.

  4. Temperature imaging using epithermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, P.H.; Taylor, A.D.

    1987-08-01

    The paper concerns the temperature measurement of suitable targets, both remotely and non-invasively, using epithermal neutrons. The text was presented at the Neutron Resonance Radiography Workshop, Los Alamos, U.S.A., 1987. The technique is demonstrated for tantalum foils at different temperatures, using a pulsed beam of epithermal neutrons, at both Los Alamos and ISIS (United Kingdom). Results on the measured time-of-flight spectra and the tantalum resonances are presented. Beam properties and fluxes at ISIS are discussed. Features of the proposed detectors suitable for the temperature technique are outlined, along with the data analysis, the moving targets, the cyclic temperature variations and transients, and the usefulness of the technique. (U.K.)

  5. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  6. Fiber optic neutron imaging system: calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.M.; Gow, C.E.; Thayer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two neutron imaging experiments using fiber optics have been performed at the Nevada Test Site. In each experiment, an array of scintillator fluor tubes is exposed to neutrons. Light is coupled out through radiation resistant PCS fibers (8-m long) into high-bandwidth, graded index fibers. For image reconstruction to be accurate, common timing differences and transmission variations between fiber optic channels are needed. The calibration system featured a scanning pulsed dye laser, a specially designed fiber optic star coupler, a tektronix 7912AD transient digitizer, and a DEC PDP 11/34 computing system

  7. Digital image processing in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, S.

    2000-11-01

    Neutron radiography is a method for the visualization of the macroscopic inner-structure and material distributions of various samples. The basic experimental arrangement consists of a neutron source, a collimator functioning as beam formatting assembly and of a plane position sensitive integrating detector. The object is placed between the collimator exit and the detector, which records a two dimensional image. This image contains information about the composition and structure of the sample-interior, as a result of the interaction of neutrons by penetrating matter. Due to rapid developments of detector and computer technology as well as deployments in the field of digital image processing, new technologies are nowadays available which have the potential to improve the performance of neutron radiographic investigations enormously. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a state-of-the art digital imaging device, suitable for the two neutron radiography stations located at the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten and furthermore, to identify and develop two and three dimensional digital image processing methods suitable for neutron radiographic and tomographic applications, and to implement and optimize them within data processing strategies. The first step was the development of a new imaging device fulfilling the requirements of a high reproducibility, easy handling, high spatial resolution, a large dynamic range, high efficiency and a good linearity. The detector output should be inherently digitized. The key components of the detector system selected on the basis of these requirements consist of a neutron sensitive scintillator screen, a CCD-camera and a mirror to reflect the light emitted by the scintillator to the CCD-camera. This detector design enables to place the camera out of the direct neutron beam. The whole assembly is placed in a light shielded aluminum box. The camera is controlled by a

  8. Digital image processing in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, S.

    2000-11-01

    Neutron radiography is a method for the visualization of the macroscopic inner-structure and material distributions of various materials. The basic experimental arrangement consists of a neutron source, a collimator functioning as beam formatting assembly and of a plane position sensitive integrating detector. The object is placed between the collimator exit and the detector, which records a two dimensional image. This image contains information about the composition and structure of the sample-interior, as a result of the interaction of neutrons by penetrating matter. Due to rapid developments of detector and computer technology as well as deployments in the field of digital image processing, new technologies are nowadays available which have the potential to improve the performance of neutron radiographic investigations enormously. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a state-of-the art digital imaging device, suitable for the two neutron radiography stations located at the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten and furthermore, to identify and develop two and three dimensional digital image processing methods suitable for neutron radiographic and tomographic applications, and to implement and optimize them within data processing strategies. The first step was the development of a new imaging device fulfilling the requirements of a high reproducibility, easy handling, high spatial resolution, a large dynamic range, high efficiency and a good linearity. The detector output should be inherently digitized. The key components of the detector system selected on the basis of these requirements consist of a neutron sensitive scintillator screen, a CCD-camera and a mirror to reflect the light emitted by the scintillator to the CCD-camera. This detector design enables to place the camera out of the direct neutron beam. The whole assembly is placed in a light shielded aluminum box. The camera is controlled by a

  9. Neutron beam imaging with GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albani, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Rebai, M.; Gorini, G.; Croci, G.; Muraro, A.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Cavenago, M.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron GEM-based detectors represent a new frontier of devices in neutron physics applications where a very high neutron flux must be measured such as future fusion experiments (e.g. ITER Neutral beam Injector) and spallation sources (e.g. the European Spallation source). This kind of detectors can be properly adapted to be used both as beam monitors but also as neutron diffraction detectors that could represent a valid alternative for the 3 He detectors replacement. Fast neutron GEM detectors (nGEM) feature a cathode composed by one layer of polyethylene and one of aluminium (neutron scattering on hydrogen generates protons that are detected in the gas) while thermal neutron GEM detectors (bGEM) are equipped with a borated aluminium cathode (charged particles are generated through the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction). GEM detectors can be realized in large area (1 m 2 ) and their readout can be pixelated. Three different prototypes of nGEM and one prototype of bGEM detectors of different areas and equipped with different types of readout have been built and tested. All the detectors have been used to measure the fast and thermal neutron 2D beam image at the ISIS-VESUVIO beamline. The different kinds of readout patterns (different areas of the pixels) have been compared in similar conditions. All the detectors measured a width of the beam profile consitent with the expected one. The imaging property of each detector was then tested by inserting samples of different material and shape in the beam. All the samples were correctly reconstructed and the definition of the reconstruction depends on the type of readout anode. The fast neutron beam profile reconstruction was then compared to the one obtained by diamond detectors positioned on the same beamline while the thermal neutron one was compared to the imaged obtained by cadmium-coupled x-rays films. Also efficiency and the gamma background rejection have been determined. These prototypes represent the first step towards

  10. The pin pixel detector--neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a neutron gas pixel detector intended for application in neutron diffraction studies is reported. Using standard electrical connector pins as point anodes, the detector is based on a commercial 100 pin connector block. A prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mmx25.4 mm has been fabricated, giving a pixel size of 2.54 mm which matches well to the spatial resolution typically required in a neutron diffractometer. A 2-Dimensional resistive divide readout system has been adapted to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics. The timing properties of the device match well to the requirements of the ISIS-pulsed neutron source.

  11. Computed image analysis of neutron radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.; Anghel, E.; Preda, M.; Pavelescu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Similar with X-radiography, using neutron like penetrating particle, there is in practice a nondestructive technique named neutron radiology. When the registration of information is done on a film with the help of a conversion foil (with high cross section for neutrons) that emits secondary radiation (β,γ) that creates a latent image, the technique is named neutron radiography. A radiographic industrial film that contains the image of the internal structure of an object, obtained by neutron radiography, must be subsequently analyzed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about the structural integrity of that object. There is possible to do a computed analysis of a film using a facility with next main components: an illuminator for film, a CCD video camera and a computer (PC) with suitable software. The qualitative analysis intends to put in evidence possibly anomalies of the structure due to manufacturing processes or induced by working processes (for example, the irradiation activity in the case of the nuclear fuel). The quantitative determination is based on measurements of some image parameters: dimensions, optical densities. The illuminator has been built specially to perform this application but can be used for simple visual observation. The illuminated area is 9x40 cm. The frame of the system is a comparer of Abbe Carl Zeiss Jena type, which has been adapted to achieve this application. The video camera assures the capture of image that is stored and processed by computer. A special program SIMAG-NG has been developed at INR Pitesti that beside of the program SMTV II of the special acquisition module SM 5010 can analyze the images of a film. The major application of the system was the quantitative analysis of a film that contains the images of some nuclear fuel pins beside a dimensional standard. The system was used to measure the length of the pellets of the TRIGA nuclear fuel. (authors)

  12. Study of scattering in bi-dimensional neutron radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, K.A.M. de; Crispim, V.R.; Silva, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of neutron scattering frequently causes distortions in neutron radiographic images and, thus, reduces the quality. In this project, a type of filter, comprised of cadmium (a neutron absorber), was used in the form of a grid to correct this effect. This device generated image data in the discrete shadow bands of the absorber, components relative to neutron scattering on the test object and surroundings. Scattering image data processing, together with the original neutron radiographic image, resulted in a corrected image with improved edge delineation and, thus, greater definition in the neutron radiographic image of the test object. The objective of this study is to propose a theoretical/experimental methodology that is capable of eliminating the components relative to neutron scattering in neutron radiographic images, coming from the material that composes the test object and the materials that compose the surrounding area. (author)

  13. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Finney, Charles E.A.; Daw, C. Stuart; Foster, Dave; Rutland, Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique

  14. Formation of tomographic images with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A.; Tenreiro, C; Valencia, J; Steinman, G.; Henriquez, C

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of having a non-destructive method of analysis for archaeological and paleontological samples is of interest. A special group of fossil samples has come to our attention, which because of their value should be preserved and, therefore, the availability of an indirect, non-destructive, non contaminating analytical technique is important. The strong absorption of usual kinds of radiation by a fossilized sample restricts the application of conventional methods of analysis. A type of radiation that is not completely attenuated by thick samples, in sizes that are typical in paleontology, is necessary. Neutrons may be considered as an ideal non-invasive probe with the possibility of developing a technique for the formation and analysis of images. A technique has been developed for the spatial reconstruction of the contents of a fossilized sample (tomography) with neutrons, without touching or altering the sample in any way. The neutron beam was extracted from the RECH-1 reactor belonging to the CCHEN, La Reina. The tomographic images of the contents of a fossilized egg are presented for the first time and represent views or cuts of the content as well as a set that permits the three dimensional reconstruction of the inside of the object and its subsequent animation in graphic format. This project developed a technique for taking neutron radiographs of this kind of sample including the numerical algorithms and the treatment and formation of the images (CW)

  15. Fast-neutron, coded-aperture imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Richard S.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses a large-scale, coded-aperture imager for fast neutrons, building off a proof-of concept instrument developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The Space Science Division at the NRL has a heritage of developing large-scale, mobile systems, using coded-aperture imaging, for long-range γ-ray detection and localization. The fast-neutron, coded-aperture imaging instrument, designed for a mobile unit (20 ft. ISO container), consists of a 32-element array of 15 cm×15 cm×15 cm liquid scintillation detectors (EJ-309) mounted behind a 12×12 pseudorandom coded aperture. The elements of the aperture are composed of 15 cm×15 cm×10 cm blocks of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The arrangement of the aperture elements produces a shadow pattern on the detector array behind the mask. By measuring of the number of neutron counts per masked and unmasked detector, and with knowledge of the mask pattern, a source image can be deconvolved to obtain a 2-d location. The number of neutrons per detector was obtained by processing the fast signal from each PMT in flash digitizing electronics. Digital pulse shape discrimination (PSD) was performed to filter out the fast-neutron signal from the γ background. The prototype instrument was tested at an indoor facility at the NRL with a 1.8-μCi and 13-μCi 252Cf neutron/γ source at three standoff distances of 9, 15 and 26 m (maximum allowed in the facility) over a 15-min integration time. The imaging and detection capabilities of the instrument were tested by moving the source in half- and one-pixel increments across the image plane. We show a representative sample of the results obtained at one-pixel increments for a standoff distance of 9 m. The 1.8-μCi source was not detected at the 26-m standoff. In order to increase the sensitivity of the instrument, we reduced the fastneutron background by shielding the top, sides and back of the detector array with 10-cm-thick HDPE. This shielding configuration led

  16. A study of television imaging system for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Koji

    1992-01-01

    The neutron radiography with fast neutron beam is a very useful imaging technique for thicker objects, especially those composed of hydrogen-rich materials which are sometimes difficult to image by thermal neutron radiography. The fast neutron radiography has not been studied so much as the thermal neutron radiography. The fast neutron radiography has been studied at the fast neutron source reactor 'Yayoi' of the University of Tokyo built in Tokai-mura. The average neutron energy of the Yayoi is about 1 MeV, and the peak neutron flux at the core center is 0.8 x 10 12 at the maximum operating power of 2 kW. In the experiment on fast neutron radiography, a CR39 nuclear track detector has been used successfully. But in the Yayoi radiography procedure, about 24 hours were required for obtaining an imaging result. To get a prompt imaging result and a real-time imaging result, it is necessary to develop a fast neutron television system, and in this paper, a new fast neutron TV system is proposed. The main difference is the converter material sensitive to fast neutrons. The study on the fast neutron TV system was carried out by using the Baby Cyclotron of Japan Steel Works, and the good images were realized. (K.I.)

  17. Neutron Ghost Imaging Technology Research on CARR Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ghost imaging is also known as quantum imaging. Different from the classical imaging, the neutron ghost imaging is based on the quantum mechanics properties of light field and its intrinsic parallel characteristic, and developed by new optical

  18. Fast-neutron, coded-aperture imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolf, Richard S.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    This work discusses a large-scale, coded-aperture imager for fast neutrons, building off a proof-of concept instrument developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The Space Science Division at the NRL has a heritage of developing large-scale, mobile systems, using coded-aperture imaging, for long-range γ-ray detection and localization. The fast-neutron, coded-aperture imaging instrument, designed for a mobile unit (20 ft. ISO container), consists of a 32-element array of 15 cm×15 cm×15 cm liquid scintillation detectors (EJ-309) mounted behind a 12×12 pseudorandom coded aperture. The elements of the aperture are composed of 15 cm×15 cm×10 cm blocks of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The arrangement of the aperture elements produces a shadow pattern on the detector array behind the mask. By measuring of the number of neutron counts per masked and unmasked detector, and with knowledge of the mask pattern, a source image can be deconvolved to obtain a 2-d location. The number of neutrons per detector was obtained by processing the fast signal from each PMT in flash digitizing electronics. Digital pulse shape discrimination (PSD) was performed to filter out the fast-neutron signal from the γ background. The prototype instrument was tested at an indoor facility at the NRL with a 1.8-μCi and 13-μCi 252Cf neutron/γ source at three standoff distances of 9, 15 and 26 m (maximum allowed in the facility) over a 15-min integration time. The imaging and detection capabilities of the instrument were tested by moving the source in half- and one-pixel increments across the image plane. We show a representative sample of the results obtained at one-pixel increments for a standoff distance of 9 m. The 1.8-μCi source was not detected at the 26-m standoff. In order to increase the sensitivity of the instrument, we reduced the fastneutron background by shielding the top, sides and back of the detector array with 10-cm-thick HDPE. This shielding configuration led

  19. Fast-neutron, coded-aperture imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, Richard S., E-mail: richard.woolf@nrl.navy.mil; Phlips, Bernard F., E-mail: bernard.phlips@nrl.navy.mil; Hutcheson, Anthony L., E-mail: anthony.hutcheson@nrl.navy.mil; Wulf, Eric A., E-mail: eric.wulf@nrl.navy.mil

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses a large-scale, coded-aperture imager for fast neutrons, building off a proof-of concept instrument developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The Space Science Division at the NRL has a heritage of developing large-scale, mobile systems, using coded-aperture imaging, for long-range γ-ray detection and localization. The fast-neutron, coded-aperture imaging instrument, designed for a mobile unit (20 ft. ISO container), consists of a 32-element array of 15 cm×15 cm×15 cm liquid scintillation detectors (EJ-309) mounted behind a 12×12 pseudorandom coded aperture. The elements of the aperture are composed of 15 cm×15 cm×10 cm blocks of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The arrangement of the aperture elements produces a shadow pattern on the detector array behind the mask. By measuring of the number of neutron counts per masked and unmasked detector, and with knowledge of the mask pattern, a source image can be deconvolved to obtain a 2-d location. The number of neutrons per detector was obtained by processing the fast signal from each PMT in flash digitizing electronics. Digital pulse shape discrimination (PSD) was performed to filter out the fast-neutron signal from the γ background. The prototype instrument was tested at an indoor facility at the NRL with a 1.8-μCi and 13-μCi 252Cf neutron/γ source at three standoff distances of 9, 15 and 26 m (maximum allowed in the facility) over a 15-min integration time. The imaging and detection capabilities of the instrument were tested by moving the source in half- and one-pixel increments across the image plane. We show a representative sample of the results obtained at one-pixel increments for a standoff distance of 9 m. The 1.8-μCi source was not detected at the 26-m standoff. In order to increase the sensitivity of the instrument, we reduced the fastneutron background by shielding the top, sides and back of the detector array with 10-cm-thick HDPE. This shielding configuration led

  20. Scintillator Based Coded-Aperture Imaging for Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Sean-C.; Gamage, Kelum-A-A.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we are going to assess the variations of neutron images using a series of Monte Carlo simulations. We are going to study neutron images of the same neutron source with different source locations, using a scintillator based coded-aperture system. The Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted making use of the EJ-426 neutron scintillator detector. This type of detector has a low sensitivity to gamma rays and is therefore of particular use in a system with a source that emits a mixed radiation field. From the use of different source locations, several neutron images have been produced, compared both qualitatively and quantitatively for each case. This allows conclusions to be drawn on how suited the scintillator based coded-aperture neutron imaging system is to detecting various neutron source locations. This type of neutron imaging system can be easily used to identify and locate nuclear materials precisely. (authors)

  1. Fluence-compensated down-scattered neutron imaging using the neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, D. T., E-mail: casey21@llnl.gov; Munro, D. H.; Grim, G. P.; Landen, O. L.; Spears, B. K.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Field, J. E.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Volegov, P. L.; Merrill, F. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Neutron Imaging System at the National Ignition Facility is used to observe the primary ∼14 MeV neutrons from the hotspot and down-scattered neutrons (6-12 MeV) from the assembled shell. Due to the strong spatial dependence of the primary neutron fluence through the dense shell, the down-scattered image is convolved with the primary-neutron fluence much like a backlighter profile. Using a characteristic scattering angle assumption, we estimate the primary neutron fluence and compensate the down-scattered image, which reveals information about asymmetry that is otherwise difficult to extract without invoking complicated models.

  2. Status of the Neutron Imaging and Diffraction Instrument IMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelmann, Winfried; Burca, Genoveva; Kelleher, Joe F.; Kabra, Saurabh; Zhang, Shu-Yan; Rhodes, Nigel J.; Schooneveld, Erik M.; Sykora, Jeff; Pooley, Daniel E.; Nightingale, Jim B.; Aliotta, Francesco; Ponterio, Rosa C.; Salvato, Gabriele; Tresoldi, Dario; Vasi, Cirino; McPhate, Jason B.; Tremsin, Anton S.

    A cold neutron imaging and diffraction instrument, IMAT, is currently being constructed at the ISIS second target station. IMAT will capitalize on time-of-flight transmission and diffraction techniques available at a pulsed neutron source. Analytical techniques will include neutron radiography, neutron tomography, energy-selective neutron imaging, and spatially resolved diffraction scans for residual strain and texture determination. Commissioning of the instrument will start in 2015, with time-resolving imaging detectors and two diffraction detector prototype modules. IMAT will be operated as a user facility for material science applications and will be open for developments of time-of-flight imaging methods.

  3. Neutron Imaging at LANSCE—From Cold to Ultrafast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Nelson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, neutron radiography and tomography have been applied at different beam lines at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE, covering a very wide neutron energy range. The field of energy-resolved neutron imaging with epi-thermal neutrons, utilizing neutron absorption resonances for contrast as well as quantitative density measurements, was pioneered at the Target 1 (Lujan center, Flight Path 5 beam line and continues to be refined. Applications include: imaging of metallic and ceramic nuclear fuels, fission gas measurements, tomography of fossils and studies of dopants in scintillators. The technique provides the ability to characterize materials opaque to thermal neutrons and to utilize neutron resonance analysis codes to quantify isotopes to within 0.1 atom %. The latter also allows measuring fuel enrichment levels or the pressure of fission gas remotely. More recently, the cold neutron spectrum at the ASTERIX beam line, also located at Target 1, was used to demonstrate phase contrast imaging with pulsed neutrons. This extends the capabilities for imaging of thin and transparent materials at LANSCE. In contrast, high-energy neutron imaging at LANSCE, using unmoderated fast spallation neutrons from Target 4 [Weapons Neutron Research (WNR facility] has been developed for applications in imaging of dense, thick objects. Using fast (ns, time-of-flight imaging, enables testing and developing imaging at specific, selected MeV neutron energies. The 4FP-60R beam line has been reconfigured with increased shielding and new, larger collimation dedicated to fast neutron imaging. The exploration of ways in which pulsed neutron beams and the time-of-flight method can provide additional benefits is continuing. We will describe the facilities and instruments, present application examples and recent results of all these efforts at LANSCE.

  4. Neutron Imaging at Compact Accelerator-Driven Neutron Sources in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Kiyanagi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutron imaging has been recognized to be very useful to investigate inside of materials and products that cannot be seen by X-ray. New imaging methods using the pulsed structure of neutron sources based on accelerators has been developed also at compact accelerator-driven neutron sources and opened new application fields in neutron imaging. The world’s first dedicated imaging instrument at pulsed neutron sources was constructed at J-PARC in Japan owing to the development of such new methods. Then, usefulness of the compact accelerator-driven neutron sources in neutron science was recognized and such facilities were newly constructed in Japan. Now, existing and new sources have been used for neutron imaging. Traditional imaging and newly developed pulsed neutron imaging such as Bragg edge transmission have been applied to various fields by using compact and large neutron facilities. Here, compact accelerator-driven neutron sources used for imaging in Japan are introduced and some of their activities are presented.

  5. Neutron radiography of thick hydrogenous materials with use of an imaging plate neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.; Matsumoto, G.; Karasawa, Y.; Niimura, N.; Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1996-01-01

    The value of the neutron mass attenuation coefficient of hydrogen being very high, it is extremely difficult to image normal size, living animals with neutron radiography. However, the authors suggest the possibility of applying neutron radiography for biomedical specimens. The organs in the breast, bones and cartilages in the extremities, and the tail of mice and rats were clearly imaged by neutron radiography with Gd foils as neutron converters and X-ray films. However, no contours of the organs in the mouse abdomen were visible with neutron radiography with an exposure time of 200 s. By adding Gd or Li compounds as neutron converters to imaging X-ray plates, imaging plates have been developed for neutron detectors. A trial using these imaging plates for neutron radiography of water-filled containers and the abdomen of mice was completed. The roundness of a 100 ml-beaker was imaged with a neutron exposure of 180 s. Obscure contours of the liver and kidneys of the mouse were imaged with a neutron exposure of 100 s. (orig.)

  6. A prototype detector using the neutron image intensifier and multi-anode type photomultiplier tube for pulsed neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hirotaku; Sato, Hirotaka; Hara, Kaoru Y.; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a neutron two-dimensional (2-D) detector for pulsed neutron imaging as a prototype detector, which was composed of a neutron image intensifier and a multi-anode type photomultiplier tube. A neutron transmission spectrum of α-Fe plate was measured by the prototype detector, and compared with the one measured by a typical neutron 2-D detector. The spectrum was in reasonable agreement with the one measured by the typical detector in the neutron wavelength region above 0.15 nm. In addition, a neutron transmission image of a cadmium indicator was obtained by the prototype detector. The usefulness of the prototype detector for pulsed neutron imaging was demonstrated. (author)

  7. One-dimensional neutron imager for the Sandia Z facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittinghoff, David N; Bower, Dan E; Hollaway, James R; Jacoby, Barry A; Weiss, Paul B; Buckles, Robert A; Sammons, Timothy J; McPherson, Leroy A; Ruiz, Carlos L; Chandler, Gordon A; Torres, José A; Leeper, Ramon J; Cooper, Gary W; Nelson, Alan J

    2008-10-01

    A multiinstitution collaboration is developing a neutron imaging system for the Sandia Z facility. The initial system design is for slit aperture imaging system capable of obtaining a one-dimensional image of a 2.45 MeV source producing 5x10(12) neutrons with a resolution of 320 microm along the axial dimension of the plasma, but the design being developed can be modified for two-dimensional imaging and imaging of DT neutrons with other resolutions. This system will allow us to understand the spatial production of neutrons in the plasmas produced at the Z facility.

  8. Results from neutron imaging of ICF experiments at NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F. E.; Danly, C. R.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    In 2011 a neutron imaging diagnostic was commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system has been used to collect neutron images to measure the size and shape of the burning DT plasma and the surrounding fuel assembly. The imaging technique uses a pinhole neutron aperture placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two-dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic collects two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically one image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons, and the other image measures the distribution of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core. Images have been collected for the majority of the experiments performed as part of the ignition campaign. Results from this data have been used to estimate a burn-averaged fuel assembly as well as providing performance metrics to gauge progress towards ignition. This data set and our interpretation are presented.

  9. The neutron imaging system fielded at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fittinghoff D.N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have fielded a neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility to collect images of fusion neutrons produced in the implosion of inertial confinement fusion experiments and scattered neutrons from (n, n′ reactions of the source neutrons in the surrounding dense material. A description of the neutron imaging system is presented, including the pinhole array aperture, the line-of-sight collimation, the scintillator-based detection system and the alignment systems and methods. Discussion of the alignment and resolution of the system is presented. We also discuss future improvements to the system hardware.

  10. Characterization of a neutron imaging setup at the INES facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisi, E. A.; Visca, L.; Albertin, F.; Brancaccio, R.; Corsi, J.; Dughera, G.; Ferrarese, W.; Giovagnoli, A.; Grassi, N.; Grazzi, F.; Lo Giudice, A.; Mila, G.; Nervo, M.; Pastrone, N.; Prino, F.; Ramello, L.; Re, A.; Romero, A.; Sacchi, R.; Salvemini, F.; Scherillo, A.; Staiano, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) located at the ISIS pulsed neutron source (Didcot, United Kingdom) provides a thermal neutron beam mainly used for diffraction analysis. A neutron transmission imaging system was also developed for beam monitoring and for aligning the sample under investigation. Although the time-of-flight neutron diffraction is a consolidated technique, the neutron imaging setup is not yet completely characterized and optimized. In this paper the performance for neutron radiography and tomography at INES of two scintillator screens read out by two different commercial CCD cameras is compared in terms of linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution. In addition, the results of neutron radiographies and a tomography of metal alloy test structures are presented to better characterize the INES imaging capabilities of metal artifacts in the cultural heritage field.

  11. Stereoscopic radiographic images with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvani, M.I.; Almeida, G.L.; Rogers, J.D.; Lopes, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial structure of an object can be perceived by the stereoscopic vision provided by eyes or by the parallax produced by movement of the object with regard to the observer. For an opaque object, a technique to render it transparent should be used, in order to make visible the spatial distribution of its inner structure, for any of the two approaches used. In this work, a beam of thermal neutrons at the main port of the Argonauta research reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has been used as radiation to render the inspected objects partially transparent. A neutron sensitive Imaging Plate has been employed as a detector and after exposure it has been developed by a reader using a 0.5 μm laser beam, which defines the finest achievable spatial resolution of the acquired digital image. This image, a radiographic attenuation map of the object, does not represent any specific cross-section but a convoluted projection for each specific attitude of the object with regard to the detector. After taking two of these projections at different object attitudes, they are properly processed and the final image is viewed by a red and green eyeglass. For monochromatic images this processing involves transformation of black and white radiographies into red and white and green and white ones, which are afterwards merged to yield a single image. All the processes are carried out with the software ImageJ. Divergence of the neutron beam unfortunately spoils both spatial and contrast resolutions, which become poorer as object-detector distance increases. Therefore, in order to evaluate the range of spatial resolution corresponding to the 3D image being observed, a curve expressing spatial resolution against object-detector gap has been deduced from the Modulation Transfer Functions experimentally. Typical exposure times, under a reactor power of 170 W, were 6 min for both quantitative and qualitative measurements. In spite of its intrinsic constraints

  12. Stereoscopic radiographic images with thermal neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, M. I.; Almeida, G. L.; Rogers, J. D.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    Spatial structure of an object can be perceived by the stereoscopic vision provided by eyes or by the parallax produced by movement of the object with regard to the observer. For an opaque object, a technique to render it transparent should be used, in order to make visible the spatial distribution of its inner structure, for any of the two approaches used. In this work, a beam of thermal neutrons at the main port of the Argonauta research reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has been used as radiation to render the inspected objects partially transparent. A neutron sensitive Imaging Plate has been employed as a detector and after exposure it has been developed by a reader using a 0.5 μm laser beam, which defines the finest achievable spatial resolution of the acquired digital image. This image, a radiographic attenuation map of the object, does not represent any specific cross-section but a convoluted projection for each specific attitude of the object with regard to the detector. After taking two of these projections at different object attitudes, they are properly processed and the final image is viewed by a red and green eyeglass. For monochromatic images this processing involves transformation of black and white radiographies into red and white and green and white ones, which are afterwards merged to yield a single image. All the processes are carried out with the software ImageJ. Divergence of the neutron beam unfortunately spoils both spatial and contrast resolutions, which become poorer as object-detector distance increases. Therefore, in order to evaluate the range of spatial resolution corresponding to the 3D image being observed, a curve expressing spatial resolution against object-detector gap has been deduced from the Modulation Transfer Functions experimentally. Typical exposure times, under a reactor power of 170 W, were 6 min for both quantitative and qualitative measurements. In spite of its intrinsic constraints

  13. Results from the Coded Aperture Neutron Imaging System (CANIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, Erik; Steele, John T.; Brennan, James S.; Hilton, Nathan R.; Marleau, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Because of their penetrating power, energetic neutrons and gamma rays (∼1 MeV) offer the best possibility of detecting highly shielded or distant special nuclear material (SNM). Of these, fast neutrons offer the greatest advantage due to their very low and well understood natural background. We are investigating a new approach to fast-neutron imaging- a coded aperture neutron imaging system (CANIS). Coded aperture neutron imaging should offer a highly efficient solution for improved detection speed, range, and sensitivity. We have demonstrated fast neutron and gamma ray imaging with several different configurations of coded masks patterns and detectors including an 'active' mask that is composed of neutron detectors. Here we describe our prototype detector and present some initial results from laboratory tests and demonstrations.

  14. Results from the coded aperture neutron imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, Erik; Steele, John T.; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Because of their penetrating power, energetic neutrons and gamma rays (∼1 MeV) offer the best possibility of detecting highly shielded or distant special nuclear material (SNM). Of these, fast neutrons offer the greatest advantage due to their very low and well understood natural background. We are investigating a new approach to fast-neutron imaging - a coded aperture neutron imaging system (CANIS). Coded aperture neutron imaging should offer a highly efficient solution for improved detection speed, range, and sensitivity. We have demonstrated fast neutron and gamma ray imaging with several different configurations of coded masks patterns and detectors including an 'active' mask that is composed of neutron detectors. Here we describe our prototype detector and present some initial results from laboratory tests and demonstrations.

  15. Real time neutron reflectometry using neutron optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Gregory S.; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2001-01-01

    We will describe recent improvements to the SPEAR reflectometer at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos. One of the changes consists of wider convergent, incident-beam, collimation to take advantage of optical imaging for specular scattering. In addition, the instrument now views a partially coupled liquid hydrogen moderator as opposed to the decoupled moderator that was previous in-place. While the wavelength distribution is poorer, it matches the time (wavelength) resolution of the reflectometer more closely with the angular resolution. Since the integrated intensity of the partially coupled moderator is higher than the decoupled moderator, we show a similar gain in incident beam flux on the sample without loss of the ability to separate fringes. The increases in intensity from the moderator gain and the improved collimation combine to allow us to measure reflectivities with good statistics down to 10 -4 in a matter of minutes and reflectivities of 10 -6 in an hour. Examples of measurements showing the gain in data accumulation rates are presented. (author)

  16. Applications of image plates in neutron radiography and neutron diffraction at BARC, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron radiography techniques based on Gd, Dy and In metallic foils and X-ray film have been used at this centre since early seventies for various NDT and R and D work in nuclear, defence and aerospace industries. In recent years use of photostimulated luminescence based phosphor imaging plate has been introduced in our work. This has enabled to achieve higher sensitivities and dynamic ranges of recording radiographs with acceptable spatial resolution. It also provides digital image information which is more convenient for quantitative evaluations. Neutron image plates have been used in variety of radiography techniques such as conventional neutron radiography (NR), neutron induced beta radiography (NIBR), hydrogen sensitive epithermal neutron radiography (HYSEN) and for neutron powder diffractometry using Apsara, CIRUS and Dhruva reactors as neutron sources. Recently the image plates have also been used for characterization of thermalized neutron beam from a plasma focus neutron source and recording neutron radiographs. Prior to the utilization image plates have been characterised for their performance. Details of the measurements and applications will be presented. (author)

  17. Television imaging system for fast neutron radiography using baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Koji; Miya, Kenzo; Katoh, Norihiko.

    1993-01-01

    A television imaging system for fast neutron radiography (FNR-TV) developed using the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI was applied to the baby-cyclotron based fast neutron source to get images of thick objects quickly. In the system the same technique as a current television imaging system of thermal neutron radiography was applied, while the luminescent converter was used to detect fast neutrons. Using the CR39 track etch method it took about 7 h to get an image, while the FNR-TV only 20 s enough for taking the same object. However the FNR-TV imaging result of the simulation model of a large explosive device for the space launch vehicle of H-2 type was not so good as the image taken with the CR39 track etch method. The reason was that the luminescence intensity of the FNR-TV converter was a quarter of that in the YAYOI. (author)

  18. Future prospects of imaging at spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.

    2009-01-01

    The advent of state-of-the-art spallation neutron sources is a major step forward in efficient neutron production for most neutron scattering techniques. Although they provide lower time-averaged neutron flux than high flux reactor sources, advantage for different instrumental techniques can be derived from the pulsed time structure of the available flux, which can be translated into energy, respectively, wavelength resolution. Conventional neutron imaging on the other hand relies on an intense continuous beam flux and hence falls short in profiting from the new development. Nevertheless, some recently developed novel imaging techniques require and some can benefit from energy resolution. The impact of the emerging spallation sources on different imaging techniques has been investigated, ways to benefit will be identified (where possible) and prospects of future imaging instruments and possible options and layouts at a spallation neutron source will be discussed and outlined.

  19. Neutron beams. Tracks analysis, imaging and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepy, G.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal neutron beams can supply informations about the arrangement of atoms and molecules and about their movement inside the matter. This article treats of the preparation of thermal neutron beams and of the applications that use their penetration and matter activation properties: 1 - thermal neutrons production; 2 - basic properties of thermal neutrons: neutrons scattering, absorbing materials, activating materials, transparent materials, preparation of a neutron beam; 3 - tracks measurement by activation: activation method, measurement of marine pollution by heavy elements, historical evolution of glass composition; 4 - neutron radiography: neutronography, neutronoscopy: viscosity measurement; 5 - cancer treatment. (J.S.)

  20. Numerical simulation for neutron pinhole imaging in ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Faxin; Yang Jianlun; Wen Shuhuai

    2005-01-01

    Pinhole imaging of the neutron production in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion experiments can provide important information about performance of various capsule designs. In order to get good results in experiments, it is needed to judge performance of various pinhole designs qualitatively or quantitatively before experiment. Calculation of imaging can be simply separated into pinhole imaging and image spectral analysis. In this paper, pinhole imaging is discussed, codes for neutron pinhole imaging and image showing is programed. The codes can be used to provide theoretical foundation for pinhole designing and simulating data for image analysing. (authors)

  1. Elements and process for recording direct image neutron radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poignant, R.V. Jr.; Przybylowicz, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    An element is provided for recording a direct image neutron radiograph, thus eliminating the need for a transfer step (i.e., the use of a transfer screen). The element is capable of holding an electrostatic charge and comprises a first layer for absorbing neutrons and generating a current by dissipation of said electrostatic charge in proportion to the number of neutrons absorbed, and a second layer for conducting the current generated by the absorbed neutrons, said neutron absorbing layer comprising an insulative layer comprising neutron absorbing agents in a concentration of at least 10 17 atoms per cm 3 . An element for enhancing the effect of the neutron beam by utilizing the secondary emanations of neutron absorbing materials is also disclosed along with a process for using the device. (U.S.)

  2. Development of a new electronic neutron imaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Brenizer, J S; Gibbs, K M; Mengers, P; Stebbings, C T; Polansky, D; Rogerson, D J

    1999-01-01

    An electronic neutron imaging camera system was developed for use with thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons in applications that include nondestructive inspection of explosives, corrosion, turbine blades, electronics, low Z components, etc. The neutron images are expected to provide information to supplement that available from X-ray tests. The primary camera image area was a 30x30 cm field-of-view with a spatial resolution approaching 1.6 line pairs/mm (lp/mm). The camera had a remotely changeable second lens to limit the field-of-view to 7.6x7.6 cm for high spatial resolution (at least 4 lp/mm) thermal neutron imaging, but neutron and light scatter will limit resolution for fast neutrons to about 0.5 lp/mm. Remote focus capability enhanced camera set-up for optimum operation. The 75 dB dynamic range camera system included sup 6 Li-based screens for imaging of thermal and epithermal neutrons and ZnS(Ag)-based screens for fast neutron imaging. The fast optics was input to a Super S-25 Gen II image intensifi...

  3. DUNBID, the Delft University neutron backscattering imaging detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, V.R.; Eijk, C.W.E. van; Ali, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In the search for low-metallic land mines, the neutron backscattering technique may be applied if the soil is sufficiently dry. An advantage of this method is the speed of detection: the scanning speed may be made comparable to that of a metal detector. A two-dimensional position sensitive detector is tested to obtain an image of the back scattered thermal neutron radiation. Results of experiments using a radionuclide neutron source are presented. The on-mine to no-mine signal ratio can be improved by the application of a window on the neutron time-of-flight. Results using a pulsed neutron generator are also presented

  4. Performance of a thermal neutron radiographic system using imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvani, Maria Ines; Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Furieri, Rosanne; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    A performance evaluation of a neutron radiographic system equipped with a thermal neutron sensitive imaging plate has been undertaken. It includes the assessment of spatial resolution, linearity, dynamic range and the response to exposure time, as well as a comparison of these parameters with the equivalent ones for neutron radiography employing conventional films and a gadolinium foil as converter. The evaluation and comparison between the radiographic systems have been performed at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - CNEN, using the Argonauta Reactor as source of thermal neutrons and a commercially available imaging plate reader. (author)

  5. Modeling the National Ignition Facility neutron imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D C; Grim, G P; Tregillis, I L; Wilke, M D; Patel, M V; Sepke, S M; Morgan, G L; Hatarik, R; Loomis, E N; Wilde, C H; Oertel, J A; Fatherley, V E; Clark, D D; Fittinghoff, D N; Bower, D E; Schmitt, M J; Marinak, M M; Munro, D H; Merrill, F E; Moran, M J; Wang, T-S F; Danly, C R; Hilko, R A; Batha, S H; Frank, M; Buckles, R

    2010-10-01

    Numerical modeling of the neutron imaging system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), forward from calculated target neutron emission to a camera image, will guide both the reduction of data and the future development of the system. Located 28 m from target chamber center, the system can produce two images at different neutron energies by gating on neutron arrival time. The brighter image, using neutrons near 14 MeV, reflects the size and symmetry of the implosion "hot spot." A second image in scattered neutrons, 10-12 MeV, reflects the size and symmetry of colder, denser fuel, but with only ∼1%-7% of the neutrons. A misalignment of the pinhole assembly up to ±175 μm is covered by a set of 37 subapertures with different pointings. The model includes the variability of the pinhole point spread function across the field of view. Omega experiments provided absolute calibration, scintillator spatial broadening, and the level of residual light in the down-scattered image from the primary neutrons. Application of the model to light decay measurements of EJ399, BC422, BCF99-55, Xylene, DPAC-30, and Liquid A suggests that DPAC-30 and Liquid A would be preferred over the BCF99-55 scintillator chosen for the first NIF system, if they could be fabricated into detectors with sufficient resolution.

  6. Neutron imaging for inertial confinement fusion and molecular optic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, O.

    2010-01-01

    Scientific domains that require imaging of micrometric/nano-metric objects are dramatically increasing (Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, Biotechnology, Earth Sciences...). Difficulties encountered in imaging smaller and smaller objects make this research area more and more challenging and in constant evolution. The two scientific domains, through which this study has been led, are the neutron imaging in the context of the inertial confinement fusion and the fluorescence molecular imaging. Work presented in this thesis has two main objectives. The first one is to describe the instrumentation characteristics that require such imagery and, relatively to the scientific domains considered, identify parameters likely to optimize the imaging system accuracy. The second one is to present the developed data analysis and reconstruction methods able to provide spatial resolution adapted to the size of the observed object. Similarities of numerical algorithms used in these two scientific domains, which goals are quiet different, show how micrometric/nano-metric object imaging is a research area at the border of a large number of scientific disciplines. (author)

  7. Thermal neutron imaging in an active interrogation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, P.E.; Forman, L.; Norman, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a thermal-neutron coded-aperture imager that reveals the locations of hydrogenous materials from which thermal neutrons are being emitted. This imaging detector can be combined with an accelerator to form an active interrogation system in which fast neutrons are produced in a heavy metal target by means of excitation by high energy photons. The photo-induced neutrons can be either prompt or delayed, depending on whether neutronemitting fission products are generated. Provided that there are hydrogenous materials close to the target, some of the photo-induced neutrons slow down and emerge from the surface at thermal energies. These neutrons can be used to create images that show the location and shape of the thermalizing materials. Analysis of the temporal response of the neutron flux provides information about delayed neutrons from induced fission if there are fissionable materials in the target. The combination of imaging and time-of-flight discrimination helps to improve the signal-to-background ratio. It is also possible to interrogate the target with neutrons, for example using a D-T generator. In this case, an image can be obtained from hydrogenous material in a target without the presence of heavy metal. In addition, if fissionable material is present in the target, probing with fast neutrons can stimulate delayed neutrons from fission, and the imager can detect and locate the object of interest, using appropriate time gating. Operation of this sensitive detection equipment in the vicinity of an accelerator presents a number of challenges, because the accelerator emits electromagnetic interference as well as stray ionizing radiation, which can mask the signals of interest.

  8. Zone plate imaging of 14-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Lane, S.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    At Livermore we are interested in imaging the thermonuclear burn region of fusion targets irradiated at our Nova laser facility. We expect compressed core diameters to be 10's of microns, and would like images with better than 10-μm resolution. Alpha particle images provided the first direct information about the thermonuclear burn geometry in thin walled exploding pusher targets. In future high density target experiments, only highly penetrating radiations like the 14-MeV neutrons will escape the target core to provide information about the burn region. To make the measurement with a neutron ''pinhole'' camera requires a 10μm pinhole through about 10 cm of material and 10 14 to 10 15 source neutrons. Penumbral imaging offers some improvement over a pinhole. Zone plate coded imaging (ZPCI) techniques are particularly well suited for imaging small objects like the compressed core of a laser fusion target. We have been using ZPCI techniques to image nonpenetrating radiations like x rays and alpha particles for about 10 years. The techniques are well developed. Imaging penetrating radiations like 14-MeV neutrons using ZPCI techniques has several possible advantages. The large solid angle subtended by the Zone plate might substantially reduce the required target neutron yield needed to produce a useful image, and a neutron zone plate system with 10-μm resolution might be easier to fabricate and characterize than a pinhole system. This paper explores the use of ZPCI techniques with penetrating radiation

  9. Development of a new electronic neutron imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenizer, J.S. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Thornton Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2442 (United States); Berger, H. [Industrial Quality, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Gibbs, K.M. [Industrial Quality, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Mengers, P. [Paultek Systems, Inc., Nevada City, CA (United States); Stebbings, C.T. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Thornton Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2442 (United States); Polansky, D. [Industrial Quality, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Rogerson, D.J. [Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States)

    1999-11-03

    An electronic neutron imaging camera system was developed for use with thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons in applications that include nondestructive inspection of explosives, corrosion, turbine blades, electronics, low Z components, etc. The neutron images are expected to provide information to supplement that available from X-ray tests. The primary camera image area was a 30x30 cm field-of-view with a spatial resolution approaching 1.6 line pairs/mm (lp/mm). The camera had a remotely changeable second lens to limit the field-of-view to 7.6x7.6 cm for high spatial resolution (at least 4 lp/mm) thermal neutron imaging, but neutron and light scatter will limit resolution for fast neutrons to about 0.5 lp/mm. Remote focus capability enhanced camera set-up for optimum operation. The 75 dB dynamic range camera system included {sup 6}Li-based screens for imaging of thermal and epithermal neutrons and ZnS(Ag)-based screens for fast neutron imaging. The fast optics was input to a Super S-25 Gen II image intensifier, fiber optically coupled to a 1134 (h)x486 (v) frame transfer CCD camera. The camera system was designed to be compatible with a Navy-sponsored accelerator neutron source. The planned neutron source is an RF quadrupole accelerator that will provide a fast neutron flux of 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}-s (at a source distance of 1 m) at an energy of about 2.2 MeV and a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 6} n/cm{sup 2}-s at a source L/D ratio of 30. The electronic camera produced good quality real-time images at these neutron levels. On-chip integration could be used to improve image quality for low flux situations. The camera and accelerator combination provided a useful non-reactor neutron inspection system.

  10. Development of Neutron Imaging System for Neutron Tomography at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglee, S.; Khaweerat, S.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.; Liamsuwan, T.; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron imaging is a powerful non-destructive technique to investigate the internal structure and provides the information which is different from the conventional X-ray/Gamma radiography. By reconstruction of the obtained 2-dimentional (2D) images from the taken different angle around the specimen, the tomographic image can be obtained and it can provide the information in more detail. The neutron imaging system at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 of Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization) has been developed to conduct the neutron tomography since 2014. The primary goal of this work is to serve the investigation of archeological samples, however, this technique can also be applied to various fields, such as investigation of industrial specimen and others. This research paper presents the performance study of a compact neutron camera manufactured by Neutron Optics such as speed and sensitivity. Furthermore, the 3-dimentional (3D) neutron image was successfully reconstructed at the developed neutron imaging system of TRR-1/M1.

  11. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  12. Comparing neutron and X-ray images from NIF implosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson D.C.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Directly laser driven and X-radiation driven DT filled capsules differ in the relationship between neutron and X-ray images. Shot N110217, a directly driven DT-filled glass micro-balloon provided the first neutron images at the National Ignition Facility. As seen in implosions on the Omega laser, the neutron image can be enclosed inside time integrated X-ray images. HYDRA simulations show the X-ray image is dominated by emission from the hot glass shell while the neutron image arises from the DT fuel it encloses. In the absence of mix or jetting, X-ray images of a cryogenically layered THD fuel capsule should be dominated by emission from the hydrogen rather than the cooler plastic shell that is separated from the hot core by cold DT fuel. This cool, dense DT, invisible in X-ray emission, shows itself by scattering hot core neutrons. Germanium X-ray emission spectra and Ross pair filtered X-ray energy resolved images suggest that germanium doped plastic emits in the torus shaped hot spot, probably reducing the neutron yield.

  13. Collimator design for neutron imaging of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommargren, G.E.; Lerche, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Several pinhole collimator geometries for use in neutron imaging experiments have been modeled and compared. Point spread functions are shown for a cylinder, hyperbola, intersecting cones, and a five-zone approximation to the intersecting cones. Of the geometries studied, the intersecting cones appear the most promising with respect to neutron efficiency, field of view, and isoplanatism

  14. Characterization of a neutron imaging setup at the INES facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durisi, E.A., E-mail: elisabettaalessandra.durisi@unito.it [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Visca, L. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Albertin, F.; Brancaccio, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Corsi, J. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dughera, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ferrarese, W. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giovagnoli, A.; Grassi, N. [Fondazione Centro per la Conservazione ed il Restauro dei Beni Culturali “La Venaria Reale”, Piazza della Repubblica, 10078 Venaria Reale, Torino (Italy); Grazzi, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Lo Giudice, A.; Mila, G. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); and others

    2013-10-21

    The Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) located at the ISIS pulsed neutron source (Didcot, United Kingdom) provides a thermal neutron beam mainly used for diffraction analysis. A neutron transmission imaging system was also developed for beam monitoring and for aligning the sample under investigation. Although the time-of-flight neutron diffraction is a consolidated technique, the neutron imaging setup is not yet completely characterized and optimized. In this paper the performance for neutron radiography and tomography at INES of two scintillator screens read out by two different commercial CCD cameras is compared in terms of linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution. In addition, the results of neutron radiographies and a tomography of metal alloy test structures are presented to better characterize the INES imaging capabilities of metal artifacts in the cultural heritage field. -- Highlights: A full characterization of the present INES imaging set-up was carried out. Two CCD cameras and two scintillators (ZnS/{sup 6}LiF) of different thicknesses were tested. Linearity, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution were determined. Radiographies of steep wedges were performed using the highest dynamic range setup. Tomography of a bronze cube was performed using the best spatial resolution setup.

  15. Characterization of a neutron imaging setup at the INES facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durisi, E.A.; Visca, L.; Albertin, F.; Brancaccio, R.; Corsi, J.; Dughera, G.; Ferrarese, W.; Giovagnoli, A.; Grassi, N.; Grazzi, F.; Lo Giudice, A.; Mila, G.

    2013-01-01

    The Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) located at the ISIS pulsed neutron source (Didcot, United Kingdom) provides a thermal neutron beam mainly used for diffraction analysis. A neutron transmission imaging system was also developed for beam monitoring and for aligning the sample under investigation. Although the time-of-flight neutron diffraction is a consolidated technique, the neutron imaging setup is not yet completely characterized and optimized. In this paper the performance for neutron radiography and tomography at INES of two scintillator screens read out by two different commercial CCD cameras is compared in terms of linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution. In addition, the results of neutron radiographies and a tomography of metal alloy test structures are presented to better characterize the INES imaging capabilities of metal artifacts in the cultural heritage field. -- Highlights: A full characterization of the present INES imaging set-up was carried out. Two CCD cameras and two scintillators (ZnS/ 6 LiF) of different thicknesses were tested. Linearity, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution were determined. Radiographies of steep wedges were performed using the highest dynamic range setup. Tomography of a bronze cube was performed using the best spatial resolution setup

  16. A novel dual mode neutron-gamma imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Robert Lee; Gerling, Mark; Brennan, James S.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Mrowka, Stanley; Marleau, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Neutron Scatter Camera (NSC) can image fission sources and determine their energy spectra at distances of tens of meters and through significant thicknesses of intervening materials in relatively short times (1). We recently completed a 32 element scatter camera and will present recent advances made with this instrument. A novel capability for the scatter camera is dual mode imaging. In normal neutron imaging mode we identify and image neutron events using pulse shape discrimination (PSD) and time of flight in liquid scintillator. Similarly gamma rays are identified from Compton scatter in the front and rear planes for our segmented detector. Rather than reject these events, we show it is possible to construct a gamma-ray image by running the analysis in a 'Compton mode'. Instead of calculating the scattering angle by the kinematics of elastic scatters as is appropriate for neutron events, it can be found by the kinematics of Compton scatters. Our scatter camera has not been optimized as a Compton gamma-ray imager but is found to work reasonably. We studied imaging performance using a Cs137 source. We find that we are able to image the gamma source with reasonable fidelity. We are able to determine gamma energy after some reasonable assumptions. We will detail the various algorithms we have developed for gamma image reconstruction. We will outline areas for improvement, include additional results and compare neutron and gamma mode imaging.

  17. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-11-12

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  18. Implementation of neutron phase contrast imaging at FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    At ANTARES, the beam line for neutron imaging at the Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) in Garching, the option to do phase contrast imaging besides conventional absorption based neutron imaging was implemented and successfully used for the non-destructive testing of various types of objects. The used propagation-based technique is based on the interference of neutron waves in the detector plane that were differently strong diffracted by the sample. A comparison with other phase-sensitive neutron imaging techniques highlights assets and drawbacks of the different methods. In preliminary measurements at ANTARES and the spallation source SINQ at PSI in Villigen, the influence of the beam geometry, the neutron spectrum and the detector on the quality of the phase contrast measurements were investigated systematically. It was demonstrated that gamma radiation and epithermal neutrons in the beam contribute severely to background noise in measurements, which motivated the installation of a remotely controlled filter wheel for a quick and precise positioning of different crystal filters in the beam. By the installation of a similar aperture wheel, a quick change between eight different beam geometries was made possible. Besides pinhole and slit apertures, coded apertures based on non redundant arrays were investigated. The possibilities, which arise by the exploitation of the real part of the refractive index in neutron imaging, were demonstrated in experiments with especially designed test samples and in measurements with ordinary, industrial components. (orig.)

  19. Neutron penumbral imaging of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Ress, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a new technique, penumbral coded-aperture imaging, the first neutron images of laser-driven, inertial-confinement fusion targets were obtained. With these images the deuterium-tritium burn region within a compressed target can be measured directly. 4 references, 11 figures

  20. Transportable, Low-Dose Active Fast-Neutron Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalczo, John T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wright, Michael C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McConchie, Seth M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Archer, Daniel E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Palles, Blake A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This document contains a description of the method of transportable, low-dose active fast-neutron imaging as developed by ORNL. The discussion begins with the technique and instrumentation and continues with the image reconstruction and analysis. The analysis discussion includes an example of how a gap smaller than the neutron production spot size and detector size can be detected and characterized depending upon the measurement time.

  1. Neutron diffractometer for bio-crystallography (BIX) with an imaging plate neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    We have constructed a dedicated diffractometer for neutron crystallography in biology (BIX) on the JRR-3M reactor at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute). The diffraction intensity from a protein crystal is weaker than that from most inorganic materials. In order to overcome the intensity problem, an elastically bent silicon monochromator and a large area detector system were specially designed. A preliminary result of diffraction experiment using BIX has been reported. An imaging plate neutron detector has been developed and a feasibility experiment was carried out on BIX. Results are reported. An imaging plate neutron detector has been developed and a feasibility test was carried out using BIX.

  2. Moisture imaging of a camphor tree by neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Karakama, Isamu; Sakura, Tsuguo; Matsubayashi, Masashi

    1998-01-01

    Moisture distribution of a camphor tree was presented. A 23 year old camphor tree was downed at university forest and a wood disk, about 1 cm in width, was lumbered out from the breast height of the tree. The wood disk as well as a newly developing branch of the tree were irradiated with thermal neutrons at an atomic reactor installed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The total flux of thermal neutron was 3.0 x 10 9 n/cm 2 . Water specific images of the disk and a branch were presented with high resolution, which was estimated to be about 16 μm. In the case of wood disk, moisture decreasing manner while drying was also shown through neutron image. Neutron images showed that the moisture decreasing rate in sapwood was similar to that of heartwood. (author)

  3. DIANE stationary neutron radiography system image quality and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluzeau, S.; Huet, J.; Tourneur, P. le

    1994-01-01

    The SODERN neutron radiography laboratory has operated since February 1993 using a sealed tube generator (GENIE 46). An experimental programme of characterization (dosimetry, spectroscopy) has confirmed the expected performances concerning: neutron flux intensity, neutron energy range, residual gamma flux. Results are given in a specific report [2]. This paper is devoted to the image performance reporting. ASTM and specific indicators have been used to test the image quality with various converters and films. The corresponding modulation transfer functions are to be determined from image processing. Some industrial applications have demonstrated the capabilities of the system: corrosion detection in aircraft parts, ammunitions filling testing, detection of polymer lacks in sandwich steel sheets, detection of moisture in a probe for geophysics, residual ceramic cores imaging in turbine blades. Various computerized electronic imaging systems will be tested to improve the industrial capabilities. (orig.)

  4. The analysis and correction of neutron scattering effects in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raine, D.A.; Brenizer, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    A method of correcting for the scattering effects present in neutron radiographic and computed tomographic imaging has been developed. Prior work has shown that beam, object, and imaging system geometry factors, such as the L/D ratio and angular divergence, are the primary sources contributing to the degradation of neutron images. With objects smaller than 20--40 mm in width, a parallel beam approximation can be made where the effects from geometry are negligible. Factors which remain important in the image formation process are the pixel size of the imaging system, neutron scattering, the size of the object, the conversion material, and the beam energy spectrum. The Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code, version 4A (MCNP4A), was used to separate and evaluate the effect that each of these parameters has on neutron image data. The simulations were used to develop a correction algorithm which is easy to implement and requires no a priori knowledge of the object. The correction algorithm is based on the determination of the object scatter function (OSF) using available data outside the object to estimate the shape and magnitude of the OSF based on a Gaussian functional form. For objects smaller than 1 mm (0.04 in.) in width, the correction function can be well approximated by a constant function. Errors in the determination and correction of the MCNP simulated neutron scattering component were under 5% and larger errors were only noted in objects which were at the extreme high end of the range of object sizes simulated. The Monte Carlo data also indicated that scattering does not play a significant role in the blurring of neutron radiographic and tomographic images. The effect of neutron scattering on computed tomography is shown to be minimal at best, with the most serious effect resulting when the basic backprojection method is used

  5. MINER - A Mobile Imager of Neutrons for Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, John E. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brennan, James S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerling, Mark D [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kiff, Scott D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mascarenhas, Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van De Vreugde, James L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a mobile fast neutron imaging platform to enhance the capabilities of emergency responders in the localization and characterization of special nuclear material. This mobile imager of neutrons for emergency responders (MINER) is based on the Neutron Scatter Camera, a large segmented imaging system that was optimized for large-area search applications. Due to the reduced size and power requirements of a man-portable system, MINER has been engineered to fit a much smaller form factor, and to be operated from either a battery or AC power. We chose a design that enabled omnidirectional (4π) imaging, with only a ~twofold decrease in sensitivity compared to the much larger neutron scatter cameras. The system was designed to optimize its performance for neutron imaging and spectroscopy, but it does also function as a Compton camera for gamma imaging. This document outlines the project activities, broadly characterized as system development, laboratory measurements, and deployments, and presents sample results in these areas. Additional information can be found in the documents that reside in WebPMIS.

  6. Neutron tomography at IPEN-CNEN/SP: images and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliesi, Reynaldo; Pereira, Marco Antonio Stanojev; Andrade, Marcos Leandro Garcia, E-mail: pugliesi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The neutron tomography is a non destructive testing technique used to inspect the internal structure of a sample by means of tridimensional digital images. Because of the neutron-matter interaction characteristics this technique can be used to inspect hydrogen-rich substances like ceramics, oil, grease, water, rubber, blood and others, even wrapped by thick metal layers. In this way, the information provided by neutrons are complementary to the ones provided by X-rays. The Brazilian Institute for Nuclear Technology IPEN-CNEN/SP has an equipment for neutron tomography which since Nov/2011 is operational and installed at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor. This equipment is able to provide high quality tomographs and some important results obtained for Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM) cell, for an archaeological sample and for pottery, will be presented. Furthermore, details of its construction and its versatility, in the sense that by means of small adjustments is possible to obtain images by other neutron imaging techniques, will be also presented. Is very important enhance that the high quality of the obtained images is due to the excellence of the IEA-R1 reactor which is able to furnish neutron beams with adequate intensity for such purpose. (author)

  7. Neutron CSI: Integrated platform for non-destructive composition and stress imaging with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materna, T.; Pirling, T.

    2011-01-01

    We propose to build an interdisciplinary platform for non-destructive analysis and imaging with neutrons. The project regroups an instrument already available at ILL (Laue-Langevin Institute), SALSA, with a new one for Neutron Tomography coupled to Prompt-Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNA) as well as partial usage of another proposed instrument, FIPPS. The focus of the proposition is the versatility of high spatial resolution and energy-selective neutron tomography to provide a rapid and precise 3D morphological map of an object as well as indirect information on its 3D elemental and structural composition through the scan of Bragg-edges in transmission. Coupled to PGNA imaging and the strain analysis power of SALSA, the aim of the platform is to answer key questions occurring in geological, metallurgical, engineering and medical fields, material research and cultural heritage. (authors)

  8. Neutron imaging system based on a video camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.

    2004-01-01

    The non-destructive testing with cold, thermal, epithermal or fast neutrons is nowadays more and more useful because the world-wide level of industrial development requires considerably higher standards of quality of manufactured products and reliability of technological processes especially where any deviation from standards could result in large-scale catastrophic consequences or human loses. Thanks to their properties, easily obtained and very good discrimination of the materials that penetrate, the thermal neutrons are the most used probe. The methods involved for this technique have advanced from neutron radiography based on converter screens and radiological films to neutron radioscopy based on video cameras, that is, from static images to dynamic images. Many neutron radioscopy systems have been used in the past with various levels of success. The quality of an image depends on the quality of the neutron beam and the type of the neutron imaging system. For real time investigations there are involved tube type cameras, CCD cameras and recently CID cameras that capture the image from an appropriate scintillator through the agency of a mirror. The analog signal of the camera is then converted into digital signal by the signal processing technology included into the camera. The image acquisition card or frame grabber from a PC converts the digital signal into an image. The image is formatted and processed by image analysis software. The scanning position of the object is controlled by the computer that commands the electrical motors that move horizontally, vertically and rotate the table of the object. Based on this system, a lot of static image acquisitions, real time non-destructive investigations of dynamic processes and finally, tomographic investigations of the small objects are done in a short time. A system based on a CID camera is presented. Fundamental differences between CCD and CID cameras lie in their pixel readout structure and technique. CIDs

  9. Imaging of Rabbit VX-2 Hepatic Cancer by Cold and Thermal Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Takeda, Tohoru; Lwin, Thet Thet; Wu, Jin; Yoneyama, Akio; Matsumura, Akira; Hori, Tomiei; Itai, Yuji

    2003-11-01

    Neutron radiography is based on differences in neutron mass attenuation coefficients among the elements and is a non-destructive imaging method. To investigate biomedical applications of neutron radiography, imaging of rabbit VX-2 liver cancer was performed using thermal and cold neutron radiography with a neutron imaging plate. Hepatic vessels and VX-2 tumor were clearly observed by neutron radiography, especially by cold neutron imaging. The image contrast of this modality was better than that of absorption-contrast X-ray radiography.

  10. Neutron Imaging with Timepix Coupled Lithium Indium Diselenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan Herrera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The material lithium indium diselenide, a single crystal neutron sensitive semiconductor, has demonstrated its capabilities as a high resolution imaging device. The sensor was prepared with a 55 μ m pitch array of gold contacts, designed to couple with the Timepix imaging ASIC. The resulting device was tested at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, demonstrating a response to cold neutrons when enriched in 95% 6 Li. The imaging system performed a series of experiments resulting in a <200 μ m resolution limit with the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI Siemens star mask and a feature resolution of 34 μ m with a knife-edge test. Furthermore, the system was able to resolve the University of Tennessee logo inscribed into a 3D printed 1 cm 3 plastic block. This technology marks the application of high resolution neutron imaging using a direct readout semiconductor.

  11. Neutron Imaging Control Report: FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, D. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    During the 2016 fiscal year, work began on the supervision and control systems for the neutron source currently under construction in the B194 accelerator caves. This source relies on a deuteron beam colliding with a high-speed stream of deuterium gas to create neutrons, which poses significant technical challenges. To help overcome those challenges, an integrated, operator-focused control architecture is required to collect and assimilate disparate data from a variety of measurement points, as well as provide the means to remotely control the system hardware.

  12. Random mask optimization for fast neutron coded aperture imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brubaker, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In coded aperture imaging, one of the most important factors determining the quality of reconstructed images is the choice of mask/aperture pattern. In many applications, uniformly redundant arrays (URAs) are widely accepted as the optimal mask pattern. Under ideal conditions, thin and highly opaque masks, URA patterns are mathematically constructed to provide artifact-free reconstruction however, the number of URAs for a chosen number of mask elements is limited and when highly penetrating particles such as fast neutrons and high-energy gamma-rays are being imaged, the optimum is seldom achieved. In this case more robust mask patterns that provide better reconstructed image quality may exist. Through the use of heuristic optimization methods and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction, we show that for both point and extended neutron sources a random mask pattern can be optimized to provide better image quality than that of a URA.

  13. Neutron beam applications - A development of real-time imaging processing for neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whoi Yul; Lee, Sang Yup; Choi, Min Seok; Hwang, Sun Kyu; Han, Il Ho; Jang, Jae Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This research is sponsored and supported by KAERI as a part of {sup A}pplication of Neutron Radiography Beam.{sup M}ain theme of the research is to develop a non-destructive inspection system for the task of studying the real-time behaviour of dynamic motion using neutron beam with the aid of a special purpose real-time image processing system that allows to capture an image of internal structure of a specimen. Currently, most off-the-shelf image processing programs designed for visible light or X-ray are not adequate for the applications that require neutron beam generated by the experimental nuclear reactor. In addition, study of dynamic motion of a specimen is severely constrained by such image processing systems. In this research, a special image processing system suited for such application is developed which not only supplements the commercial image processing system but allows to use neutron beam directly in the system for the study. 18 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  14. Feasibility study on using imaging plates to estimate thermal neutron fluence in neutron-gamma mixed fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibuchi, T.; Tanabe, Y.; Sakae, T.; Terunuma, T.; Isobe, T.; Kawamura, H.; Yasuoka, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Harano, H.; Nishiyama, J.; Masuda, A.; Nohtomi, A.

    2011-01-01

    In current radiotherapy, neutrons are produced in a photonuclear reaction when incident photon energy is higher than the threshold. In the present study, a method of discriminating the neutron component was investigated using an imaging plate (IP) in the neutron-gamma-ray mixed field. Two types of IP were used: a conventional IP for beta- and gamma rays, and an IP doped with Gd for detecting neutrons. IPs were irradiated in the mixed field, and the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) intensity of the thermal neutron component was discriminated using an expression proposed herein. The PSL intensity of the thermal neutron component was proportional to thermal neutron fluence. When additional irradiation of photons was added to constant neutron irradiation, the PSL intensity of the thermal neutron component was not affected. The uncertainty of PSL intensities was approximately 11.4 %. This method provides a simple and effective means of discriminating the neutron component in a mixed field. (authors)

  15. Improve the efficiency of PEMFC using neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Joo; Shim, Chulmuu

    2010-01-01

    The water management is one of the most critical issues for PEMFC commercialization. In order to make a proper scheme for water management, the information of water distribution and behavior is very important. But the visualization is difficult due to metallic coverage. Recently, neutron imaging has joined the canon of diagnostic methods for fuel cell research and is applied worldwide with qualitative and quantitative results. In this investigation, we prepared 3-parallel serpentine single PEMFC. The active area is 250 mm 2 and channel size is 1 Χ 1 mm, respectively. Distribution and transport of water in an operating PEMFC were observed as functions of flow directions and differential pressures between anode and cathodes. This investigation was performed at BST-2, Nest. The collimation ratio is 600 and neutron fluence of BST-2 is 7.2 Χ 10 6 n/s, respectively. Neutron image was captured by A-Si detector with 1 sec expsosure time. The PEMFC has different performances for each differential pressure and flow directions. When the neutron images are compared with operating conditions, the distribution and behavior of water are different. Total water fraction is increased and then decreases as the current density increases. This situation is similar trend for the flow directions. It is shown that neutron imaging technique is powerful tool to visualize the PEMFC and the water distribution and behavior of an operating PEMFC helps improve the efficiency of PEMFC

  16. New feature of the neutron color image intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittoh, Koichi; Konagai, Chikara; Noji, Takashi; Miyabe, Keisuke

    2009-06-01

    We developed prototype neutron color image intensifiers with high-sensitivity, wide dynamic range and long-life characteristics. In the prototype intensifier (Gd-Type 1), a terbium-activated Gd 2O 2S is used as the input-screen phosphor. In the upgraded model (Gd-Type 2), Gd 2O 3 and CsI:Na are vacuum deposited to form the phosphor layer, which improved the sensitivity and the spatial uniformity. A europium-activated Y 2O 2S multi-color scintillator, emitting red, green and blue photons with different intensities, is utilized as the output screen of the intensifier. By combining this image intensifier with a suitably tuned high-sensitive color CCD camera, higher sensitivity and wider dynamic range could be simultaneously attained than that of the conventional P20-phosphor-type image intensifier. The results of experiments at the JRR-3M neutron radiography irradiation port (flux: 1.5×10 8 n/cm 2/s) showed that these neutron color image intensifiers can clearly image dynamic phenomena with a 30 frame/s video picture. It is expected that the color image intensifier will be used as a new two-dimensional neutron sensor in new application fields.

  17. New feature of the neutron color image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nittoh, Koichi; Konagai, Chikara; Noji, Takashi; Miyabe, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    We developed prototype neutron color image intensifiers with high-sensitivity, wide dynamic range and long-life characteristics. In the prototype intensifier (Gd-Type 1), a terbium-activated Gd 2 O 2 S is used as the input-screen phosphor. In the upgraded model (Gd-Type 2), Gd 2 O 3 and CsI:Na are vacuum deposited to form the phosphor layer, which improved the sensitivity and the spatial uniformity. A europium-activated Y 2 O 2 S multi-color scintillator, emitting red, green and blue photons with different intensities, is utilized as the output screen of the intensifier. By combining this image intensifier with a suitably tuned high-sensitive color CCD camera, higher sensitivity and wider dynamic range could be simultaneously attained than that of the conventional P20-phosphor-type image intensifier. The results of experiments at the JRR-3M neutron radiography irradiation port (flux: 1.5x10 8 n/cm 2 /s) showed that these neutron color image intensifiers can clearly image dynamic phenomena with a 30 frame/s video picture. It is expected that the color image intensifier will be used as a new two-dimensional neutron sensor in new application fields.

  18. Development of a neutron imager based on superconducting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki, E-mail: miyajima@nict.go.jp [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shishido, Hiroaki [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Fujimaki, Akira [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan); Hidaka, Mutsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan); Harada, Masahide; Oikawa, Kenichi; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A neutron detector based on superconducting meander line is demonstrated. • Fast response time of a few tens ns is obtained. • Spatial resolution is 1 μm and can be improved to sub-μm scale. • The proposed neutron detector can operate under the γ-ray fields. - Abstract: We succeeded in demonstrating a neutron detector based on a Nb superconducting meander line with a {sup 10}B conversion layer for a neutron imager based on superconductor devices. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meander line, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response time. The thickness of Nb meander lines is 40 nm and the line width is narrower than 3 mu m. The area of 8 mm × 8 mm is covered by CB-KIDs, which are assembled at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm. The Nb CB-KIDs with a {sup 10}B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons. We have investigated γ/n discrimination of a Nb-based CB-KID with {sup 10}B conversion layer using a Cd plate, which indicates that a CB-KID can operate as a neutron detector under the strong γ-ray fields.

  19. Development of a neutron imager based on superconducting detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shishido, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Akira; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Harada, Masahide; Oikawa, Kenichi; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi; Ishida, Takekazu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A neutron detector based on superconducting meander line is demonstrated. • Fast response time of a few tens ns is obtained. • Spatial resolution is 1 μm and can be improved to sub-μm scale. • The proposed neutron detector can operate under the γ-ray fields. - Abstract: We succeeded in demonstrating a neutron detector based on a Nb superconducting meander line with a "1"0B conversion layer for a neutron imager based on superconductor devices. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meander line, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response time. The thickness of Nb meander lines is 40 nm and the line width is narrower than 3 mu m. The area of 8 mm × 8 mm is covered by CB-KIDs, which are assembled at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm. The Nb CB-KIDs with a "1"0B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons. We have investigated γ/n discrimination of a Nb-based CB-KID with "1"0B conversion layer using a Cd plate, which indicates that a CB-KID can operate as a neutron detector under the strong γ-ray fields.

  20. Methods and applications in high flux neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballhausen, H.

    2007-01-01

    This treatise develops new methods for high flux neutron radiography and high flux neutron tomography and describes some of their applications in actual experiments. Instead of single images, time series can be acquired with short exposure times due to the available high intensity. To best use the increased amount of information, new estimators are proposed, which extract accurate results from the recorded ensembles, even if the individual piece of data is very noisy and in addition severely affected by systematic errors such as an influence of gamma background radiation. The spatial resolution of neutron radiographies, usually limited by beam divergence and inherent resolution of the scintillator, can be significantly increased by scanning the sample with a pinhole-micro-collimator. This technique circumvents any limitations in present detector design and, due to the available high intensity, could be successfully tested. Imaging with scattered neutrons as opposed to conventional total attenuation based imaging determines separately the absorption and scattering cross sections within the sample. For the first time even coherent angle dependent scattering could be visualized space-resolved. New applications of high flux neutron imaging are presented, such as materials engineering experiments on innovative metal joints, time-resolved tomography on multilayer stacks of fuel cells under operation, and others. A new implementation of an algorithm for the algebraic reconstruction of tomography data executes even in case of missing information, such as limited angle tomography, and returns quantitative reconstructions. The setup of the world-leading high flux radiography and tomography facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin is presented. A comprehensive appendix covers the physical and technical foundations of neutron imaging. (orig.)

  1. Evolution of Neutron Imaging at TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor: A Promising Digital Real-Time Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Yazid; Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin; Rafhayudi Jamro; Azraf Azman

    2016-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a powerful tool for non-destructive testing of materials and finds numerous applications in industry and in material research as well. The basic principle is similar to that of X-ray radiography. A beam of neutrons falls on the sample and after passing through the sample, leaves the sample image on a photographic plate or on a detector. The neutrons interact with the nuclei of the atoms that compose the sample and the absorption and scattering properties of the contained elements make it possible to produce images of components containing light elements, like hydrogen beneath a matrix of metallic elements, (lead or bismuth), which cannot be easily done with conventional X ray radiography. Exploiting this property, neutron radiography has been used in applications requiring the identification of (light) materials inside solid samples. This article gives an overview of utilization of the CCD camera system in neutron imaging system for real time radiography/ tomography investigations. (author)

  2. Alignment effects on a neutron imaging system using coded apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thfoin, Isabelle; Landoas, Olivier; Caillaud, Tony; Vincent, Maxime; Bourgade, Jean-Luc; Rosse, Bertrand; Disdier, Laurent; Sangster, Thomas C.; Glebov, Vladimir Yu.; Pien, Greg; Armstrong, William

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution neutron imaging system is being developed and tested on the OMEGA laser facility for inertial confinement fusion experiments. This diagnostic uses a coded imaging technique with a penumbral or an annular aperture. The sensitiveness of these techniques to misalignment was pointed out with both experiments and simulations. Results obtained during OMEGA shots are in good agreement with calculations performed with the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. Both techniques are sensitive to the relative position of the source in the field of view. The penumbral imaging technique then demonstrates to be less sensitive to misalignment compared to the ring. These results show the necessity to develop a neutron imaging diagnostic for megajoule class lasers taking into account our alignment capabilities on such facilities.

  3. A new compact, high sensitivity neutron imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF,F-91297 Arpajon (France); Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We have developed a new small neutron imaging system (SNIS) diagnostic for the OMEGA laser facility. The SNIS uses a penumbral coded aperture and has been designed to record images from low yield (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons) implosions such as those using deuterium as the fuel. This camera was tested at OMEGA in 2009 on a rugby hohlraum energetics experiment where it recorded an image at a yield of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}. The resolution of this image was 54 {mu}m and the camera was located only 4 meters from target chamber centre. We recently improved the instrument by adding a cooled CCD camera. The sensitivity of the new camera has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. The calibration showed that the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by using raw binning detection.

  4. A new compact, high sensitivity neutron imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Rossé, B.; Thfoin, I.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a new small neutron imaging system (SNIS) diagnostic for the OMEGA laser facility. The SNIS uses a penumbral coded aperture and has been designed to record images from low yield (10 9 –10 10 neutrons) implosions such as those using deuterium as the fuel. This camera was tested at OMEGA in 2009 on a rugby hohlraum energetics experiment where it recorded an image at a yield of 1.4 × 10 10 . The resolution of this image was 54 μm and the camera was located only 4 meters from target chamber centre. We recently improved the instrument by adding a cooled CCD camera. The sensitivity of the new camera has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a 60 Co γ-ray source. The calibration showed that the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by using raw binning detection.

  5. Dehydration process of fish analyzed by neutron beam imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanoi, K.; Hamada, Y.; Seyama, S.; Saito, T.; Iikura, H.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Since regulation of water content of the dried fish is an important factor for the quality of the fish, water-losing process during drying (squid and Japanese horse mackerel) was analyzed through neutron beam imaging. The neutron image showed that around the shoulder of mackerel, there was a part where water content was liable to maintain high during drying. To analyze water-losing process more in detail, spatial image was produced. From the images, it was clearly indicated that the decrease of water content was regulated around the shoulder part. It was suggested that to prevent deterioration around the shoulder part of the dried fish is an important factor to keep quality of the dried fish in the storage.

  6. Neutron radiography activity in the european program cost 524: Neutron imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirco, P.; Bach, P.; Lehmann, E.; Balasko, M.

    2001-01-01

    COST is a framework for scientific and technical cooperation, allowing the coordination of national research on a European level, including 32 member countries. Participation of institutes from non-COST countries is possible. From an initial 7 Actions in 1971, COST has grown to 200 Actions at the beginning of 2000. COST Action 524 is under materials domain, the title of which being 'Neutron Imaging Techniques for the Detection of Defects in Materials', under the Chairmanship of Dr. P. Chirco (I.N.F.N.). The following countries are represented in the Management Committee of Action 524: Italy, France, Austria, Germany, United Kingdom, Hungary, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, Slovenia, and Russia. The six working groups of this Action are working respectively on standardization of neutron radiography techniques, on aerospace application, on civil engineering applications, on comparison and integration of neutron imaging techniques with other NDT, on neutron tomography, and on non radiographic techniques such as neutron scattering techniques. A specific effort is devoted to standardization issues, with respect to other non European standards. Results of work performed in the COST frame are published or will be published in the review INSIGHT, edited by the British Institute of Non Destructive Testing

  7. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Application part 3. Application of neutron imaging in aircraft, space rocket, car and gunpowder industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    Neutron imaging is applied to nondestructive test. Four neutron imaging facilities are used in Japan. The application examples of industries are listed in the table: space rocket, aircraft, car, liquid metal, and works of art. Neutron imaging of transportation equipments are illustrated as an application to industry. X-ray radiography testing (XRT) image and neutron radiography testing (NRT) image of turbine blade of aircraft engine, honeycomb structure of aircraft, helicopter rotor blade, trigger tube, separation nut of space rocket, carburetor of car, BMW engine, fireworks and ammunitions are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  8. Image reconstruction technique using projection data from neutron tomography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Abd el Bar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutron tomography is a very powerful technique for nondestructive evaluation of heavy industrial components as well as for soft hydrogenous materials enclosed in heavy metals which are usually difficult to image using X-rays. Due to the properties of the image acquisition system, the projection images are distorted by several artifacts, and these reduce the quality of the reconstruction. In order to eliminate these harmful effects the projection images should be corrected before reconstruction. This paper gives a description of a filter back projection (FBP technique, which is used for reconstruction of projected data obtained from transmission measurements by neutron tomography system We demonstrated the use of spatial Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT and the 2D Inverse DFT in the formulation of the method, and outlined the theory of reconstruction of a 2D neutron image from a sequence of 1D projections taken at different angles between 0 and π in MATLAB environment. Projections are generated by applying the Radon transform to the original image at different angles.

  9. Characterization of Crystallographic Structures Using Bragg-Edge Neutron Imaging at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, wavelength-dependent neutron radiography, also known as Bragg-edge imaging, has been employed as a non-destructive bulk characterization method due to its sensitivity to coherent elastic neutron scattering that is associated with crystalline structures. Several analysis approaches have been developed to quantitatively determine crystalline orientation, lattice strain, and phase distribution. In this study, we report a systematic investigation of the crystal structures of metallic materials (such as selected textureless powder samples and additively manufactured (AM Inconel 718 samples, using Bragg-edge imaging at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS. Firstly, we have implemented a phenomenological Gaussian-based fitting in a Python-based computer called iBeatles. Secondly, we have developed a model-based approach to analyze Bragg-edge transmission spectra, which allows quantitative determination of the crystallographic attributes. Moreover, neutron diffraction measurements were carried out to validate the Bragg-edge analytical methods. These results demonstrate that the microstructural complexity (in this case, texture plays a key role in determining the crystallographic parameters (lattice constant or interplanar spacing, which implies that the Bragg-edge image analysis methods must be carefully selected based on the material structures.

  10. An Evaluation of Grazing-Incidence Optics for Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    The refractive index for most materials is slightly less than unity, which opens an opportunity to develop the grazing incidence neutron imaging optics. The ideal material for the optics would be natural nickel and its isotopes. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has active development program on the nickel replicated optics for use in x-ray astronomy. Brief status report on the program is presented. The results of the neutron focusing optic test carried by the MSFC team at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are also presented. Possible applications of the optics are briefly discussed.

  11. Study of archaeological objects by neutron imaging, xrd and xrf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.; Dinu, A. D.; Stanciulescu, M. G.; Mandescu, D.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological objects were borrowed from Arges County History Museum (ACHM) and investigated at the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR). Metallic objects made in iron, copper alloys and silver discovered in southern part of Romania, mostly Dacian and Roman origin, were investigated. For imaging was used the neutron and gamma imaging facility from tangential channel of the TRIGA ACPR to put in evidence the internal structure of the objects. For elemental and chemical composition, concentration levels in objects were performed investigations by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These investigations offer valuable information in archaeological research about composition, structure of the bulk, presence of alteration, inclusions, typology of the location of material extraction, manufacturing techniques etc. This work is an example of application of neutron imaging and other radiation-based analytical methods for cultural heritage research that had the aim to involve some of the non-destructive investigation methods available at INR. (authors)

  12. Fertilizer application and root development analyzed by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the development of the soybean root system under different application of fertilizer applying neutron imaging technique. When neutron beam was irradiated, the root image as well as fertilizer imbedded in a thin aluminum container was clearly projected, since water amount in roots are higher than that in soil. Through image analysis, the development of root system was studied under different application of the fertilizer. The development of a main root with lateral roots was observed without applying fertilizer. When the fertilizer was homogeneously supplied to the soil, the morphological development of the root showed the similar pattern to that grown without fertilizer, in different to the amount of the fertilizer. In the case of local application of the fertilizer, lateral position or downward to the main root, the inhibition of the root growth was observed, suggesting that the localization of the fertilizer is responsible for reduction of the soybean yield. (author)

  13. Preliminary examination of the applicability of imaging plates to fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Masahito; Hibiki, Takashi; Mishima, Kaichiro; Yoshii, Koji; Okamoto, Koji

    2001-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography is an attractive non-destructive inspection technique because of the excellent penetration characteristics of fast neutrons in matter. However, the difficulty of detecting fast neutrons reduces this attractive feature. As an experiment to overcome the difficulty, imaging plates were applied to fast neutron radiography. A simple combination of two sheets of imaging plates and a sheet of polyethylene as a proton emitter was examined with the (fast neutron, thermal neutron and gamma ray) FTG discriminator proposed by Yoneda et al. . The experimental results showed that the method could be applicable to fast neutron radiography with effective discrimination of γ-rays

  14. Characterization of two Japanese ancient swords through neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazzi, Francesco; Zoppi, Marco; Salvemini, Filomena; Kaestner, Anders; Lehmann, Eberhard; Civita, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Japanese blades are culturally interesting objects both from the stylistic point of view and because of their fantastic performances. In this work, we present new results, using a non-invasive approach, concerning these peculiar artefacts. Two integer Japanese swords, pertaining to Kyoto (987-1596) and Shinto (1596-1781) periods have been analysed through neutron-imaging techniques. The experiments have been performed at the ICON beam line, operating at the spallation neutron source SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. The reconstruction of projection data into neutron tomographic slices or volumes, allowed us to identify some very peculiar characteristics, related to the forging methods and to the different thermal treatments applied to produce the cutting edge and its unique feature. (author)

  15. Imaging of fast-neutron sources using solid-state track-recorder pinhole radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Kaiser, B.J.; Preston, C.C.

    1983-08-01

    Pinhole imaging methods are being developed and tested for potential future use in imaging the intense neutron source of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Previously reported, extensive calibration measurements of the proton, neutron, and alpha particle response characteristics of CR-39 polymer solid state track recorders (SSTRs) are being used to interpret the results of imaging experiments using both charged particle and neutron pinhole collimators. High resolution, neutron pinhole images of a 252 Cf source have been obtained in the form of neutron induced proton recoil tracks in CR-39 polymer SSTR. These imaging experiments are described as well as their potential future applications to FMIT

  16. Characterization of the new neutron imaging and materials science facility IMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniti, Triestino; Watanabe, Kenichi; Burca, Genoveva; Pooley, Daniel E.; Kockelmann, Winfried

    2018-04-01

    IMAT is a new cold neutron imaging and diffraction instrument located at the second target station of the pulsed neutron spallation source ISIS, UK. A broad range of materials science and materials testing areas will be covered by IMAT. We present the characterization of the imaging part, including the energy-selective and energy-dispersive imaging options, and provide the basic parameters of the radiography and tomography instrument. In particular, detailed studies on mono and bi-dimensional neutron beam flux profiles, neutron flux as a function of the neutron wavelength, spatial and energy dependent neutron beam uniformities, guide artifacts, divergence and spatial resolution, and neutron pulse widths are provided. An accurate characterization of the neutron beam at the sample position, located 56 m from the source, is required to optimize collection of radiographic and tomographic data sets and for performing energy-dispersive neutron imaging via time-of-flight methods in particular.

  17. Control of the neutron detector count rate by optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Johnson, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    The signal processing electronics used for the NE451 detectors on the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator are presently showing saturation effects at high counting rates equivalent to neutron yields of ∼10 16 n/s. While nonlinearity due to pulse pileup can be corrected for in most present TFTR experiments, additional steps are required for neutron source strengths above ∼3x10 16 n/s. These pulse pileup effects could be reduced by inserting sleeves in the collimator shielding to reduce the neutron flux in the vicinity of the detectors or by reducing the volume of detector exposed to the flux. We describe a novel method of avoiding saturation by optically controlling the number neutron events processed by the detector electronics. Because of the optical opacity of the ZnS-plastic detectors such as NE451, photons from a proton-recoil scintillation arise from a spatially localized area of the detector. By imaging a selected portion of the detector onto a photomultiplier, we reduce the effective volume of the detector in a controllable, reversible way. A prototype system, consisting of a focusing lens, a field lens, and a variable aperture, has been constructed. Results of laboratory feasibility tests are presented

  18. Probing the potential of neutron imaging for biomedical and biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkin, Kenneth L.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Ankner, John Francis

    2009-01-01

    Neutron imaging of biological specimens began soon after the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick in 1932. The first samples included tumors in tissues, internal organs in rats, and bones. These studies mainly employed thermal neutrons and were often compared with X-ray images of the same or equivalent samples. Although neutron scattering is widely used in biological studies, neutron imaging has yet to be exploited to its full capability in this area. This chapter summarizes past and current research efforts to apply neutron radiography to the study of biological specimens, in the expectation that clinical and medical research, as well as forensic science, may benefit from it.

  19. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John T.; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is inducedtypically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gapsbubblespropagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  20. Neutron spin precession in samples of polarised nuclei and neutron spin phase imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piegsa, Florian Michael

    2009-01-01

    The doublet neutron-deuteron (nd) scattering length b 2,d , which is at present only known with an accuracy of 5%, is particularly well suited to fix three-body forces in novel effective field theories at low energies. The understanding of such few-nucleon systems is essential, e.g. for predictions of element abundances in the big-bang and stellar fusion. b 2,d can be obtained via a linear combination of the spin-independent nd scattering length b c,d and the spin-dependent one, b i,d . The aim of this thesis was to perform a high-accuracy measurement of the latter to improve the relative accuracy of b 2,d below 1%. The experiment was performed at the fundamental neutron physics beam line FUNSPIN at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. It utilises the effect that the spin of a neutron passing through a target with polarised nuclei performs a pseudomagnetic precession proportional to the spin-dependent scattering length of the nuclei. An ideal method to measure this precession angle very accurately is Ramsey's atomic beam technique, adapted to neutrons. The most crucial part of the experimental setup is the so-called frozen spin target, which consists of a specially designed dilution refrigerator and contains a sample with dynamically polarised nuclear spins. The polarisation of the sample is determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It turned out that the relaxation of the nuclear spins during the necessary ''cross-calibration'' of the two employed NMR systems is ultimately limiting the achievable accuracy of b i,d . During the extensive use of the Ramsey resonance method in the neutron-deuteron experiment, an idea emerged that the applied technique could be exploited in a completely different context, namely polarised neutron radiography. Hence, the second part of the thesis covers the development of a novel neutron radiography technique, based on the spin-dependent interaction of the neutron with ferromagnetic samples and magnetic fields

  1. Neutron spin precession in samples of polarised nuclei and neutron spin phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piegsa, Florian Michael

    2009-07-09

    neutron with ferromagnetic samples and magnetic fields. For the first time, quantitative imaging of such samples could be performed using a dedicated compact Ramsey apparatus. First results of this spin-off project as well as the principle idea of the imaging technique are presented. (orig.)

  2. Performance assessment of imaging plates for the JHR transfer Neutron Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E.; Guimbal, P. AB(; )

    2018-01-01

    The underwater Neutron Imaging System to be installed in the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR-NIS) is based on a transfer method using a neutron activated beta-emitter like Dysprosium. The information stored in the converter is to be offline transferred on a specific imaging system, still to be defined. Solutions are currently under investigation for the JHR-NIS in order to anticipate the disappearance of radiographic films commonly used in these applications. We report here the performance assessment of Computed Radiography imagers (Imaging Plates) performed at LLB/Orphée (CEA Saclay). Several imaging plate types are studied, in one hand in the configuration involving an intimate contact with an activated dysprosium foil converter: Fuji BAS-TR, Fuji UR-1 and Carestream Flex XL Blue imaging plates, and in the other hand by using a prototypal imaging plate doped with dysprosium and thus not needing any contact with a separate converter foil. The results for these imaging plates are compared with those obtained with gadolinium doped imaging plate used in direct neutron imaging (Fuji BAS-ND). The detection performances of the different imagers are compared regarding resolution and noise. The many advantages of using imaging plates over radiographic films (high sensitivity, linear response, high dynamic range) could palliate its lower intrinsic resolution.

  3. A Time of Flight Fast Neutron Imaging System Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Bonnie; Glenn, Andrew; Sheets, Steven; Wurtz, Ron; Nakae, Les; Hausladen, Paul; McConchie, Seth; Blackston, Matthew; Fabris, Lorenzo; Newby, Jason

    2017-09-01

    LLNL and ORNL are designing an active/passive fast neutron imaging system that is flexible to non-ideal detector positioning. It is often not possible to move an inspection object in fieldable imager applications such as safeguards, arms control treaty verification, and emergency response. Particularly, we are interested in scenarios which inspectors do not have access to all sides of an inspection object, due to interfering objects or walls. This paper will present the results of a simulation-based design parameter study, that will determine the optimum system design parameters for a fieldable system to perform time-of-flight based imaging analysis. The imaging analysis is based on the use of an associated particle imaging deuterium-tritium (API DT) neutron generator to get the time-of-flight of radiation induced within an inspection object. This design study will investigate the optimum design parameters for such a system (e.g. detector size, ideal placement, etc.), as well as the upper and lower feasible design parameters that the system can expect to provide results within a reasonable amount of time (e.g. minimum/maximum detector efficiency, detector standoff, etc.). Ideally the final prototype from this project will be capable of using full-access techniques, such as transmission imaging, when the measurement circumstances allow, but with the additional capability of producing results at reduced accessibility.

  4. Neutron imaging options at the BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgano, M.; Peetermans, S.; Lehmann, E.H.; Panzner, T.; Filges, U.

    2014-01-01

    The BOA beamline at the Swiss spallation neutron source SINQ at Paul Scherrer Institut is a flexible instrument used mainly for testing novel techniques and devices for neutron scattering and optics, but, due to the large and relatively homogeneous field of view, it can be successfully used for experiments in the field of neutron imaging. The beamline allows also for the exploitation of advanced imaging concepts such as polarized neutron imaging and diffractive neutron imaging. In this paper we present the characterization of the BOA beamline in the light of its neutron imaging capabilities. We show also the different techniques that can be employed there as user-friendly plugins for non-standard neutron imaging experiments

  5. UF6 Cylinder Imaging by Fast Neutron Transmission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.; Hausladen, P.; Blackston, M.; Croft, S.

    2015-01-01

    The common use Non-Destructive Assay techniques for the determination of 235 U enrichment and mass of UF6 cylinders used in the production of nuclear reactor fuel require prior knowledge of the physical distribution of the UF6 within the cylinder. The measurement performance for these techniques is typically evaluated based on assumed bounding case distributions of the material. However, little direct data such as radiographic or tomographic images, regarding the distribution of the UF6 within the cylinder is available against which to judge these assumptions. We have developed and tested a prototype active neutron tomographic imaging system employing an Associated Particle Imaging (API) neutron generator and an array of pixelated neutron scintillation counters. This system has been successfully used to obtain the 3-dimensional map of the distribution of UF6 within a type 12B storage cylinder. Results from these measurements are presented and the potential performance and utility of this technique with larger 30B and 48Y cylinders is discussed. (author)

  6. Comparison of polystyrene scintillator fiber array and monolithic polystyrene for neutron imaging and radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R., E-mail: raspberry@lanl.gov; Cutler, T. E.; Danly, C. R.; Espy, M. A.; Goglio, J. H.; Hunter, J. F.; Madden, A. C.; Mayo, D. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Nelson, R. O.; Swift, A. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Zocco, T. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The neutron imaging diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility has been operating since 2011 generating neutron images of deuterium-tritium (DT) implosions at peak compression. The current design features a scintillating fiber array, which allows for high imaging resolution to discern small-scale structure within the implosion. In recent years, it has become clear that additional neutron imaging systems need to be constructed in order to provide 3D reconstructions of the DT source and these additional views need to be on a shorter line of sight. As a result, there has been increased effort to identify new image collection techniques that improve upon imaging resolution for these next generation neutron imaging systems, such as monolithic deuterated scintillators. This work details measurements performed at the Weapons Neutron Research Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory that compares the radiographic abilities of the fiber scintillator with a monolithic scintillator, which may be featured in a future short line of sight neutron imaging systems.

  7. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Application part 9. Application of neutron imaging to biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    For radiography, the use of neutrons as a complement to X-rays is especially suitable for biological research such as plant, wood, and medical application due to the enhanced sensitivity to light elements such as hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen. The present paper introduces applications of neutron CT to the humidity (water) distribution and its variation in the flowering plant as cut carnation, observation of water movement in refrigerated chrysanthemum leaves using very cold neutron and in cut leaves using deuterium oxide and ordinary water, measurement of water movement in sprouting cone and soy bean and growing ginseng in the soil, and other applications as to archaeological wood immersed in a restoration solution and to medical purposes. (S. Ohno)

  8. Neutron radiography imaging with 2-dimensional photon counting method and its problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Niwa, T.; Kataoka, T.

    1988-01-01

    A ultra sensitive neutron imaging system has been deviced with a 2-dimensional photon counting camara (ARGUS 100). The imaging system is composed by a 2-dimensional single photon counting tube and a low background vidicon followed with an image processing unit and frame memories. By using the imaging system, electronic neutron radiography (NTV) has been possible under the neutron flux less than 3 x 10 4 n/cm 2 ·s. (author)

  9. Stereographic images acquired with gamma rays and thermal neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Ines Silvani; Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Furieri, Rosanne C.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The inner structure of an object, which should not be submitted to an invasive assay, can only be perceived by using a suitable technique in order to render it transparent. A widely employed technique for this purpose involves the using of a radiation capable to pass through the object, collecting the transmitted radiation by a proper device, which furnishes a radiographic attenuation map of the object. This map, however, does not display the spatial distribution of the inner components of the object, but a convoluted view for each specific attitude of the object with regard to the set beam-detector. A 3D tomographic approach would show that distribution but it would demand a large number of projections requiring special equipment and software, not always available or affordable. In some circumstances however, a 3D tomography can be replaced by a stereographic view of the object under inspection, as done in this work, where instead of tens of radiographic projections, only two of them taken at suitable object attitudes are employed. Once acquired, these projections are properly processed and observed through a red and green eyeglass. For monochromatic images, this methodology requires the transformation of the black and white radiographs into red and white and green and white ones, which are afterwards merged to yield a single image. All the process is carried out with the software Image J . In this work, the Argonauta reactor at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro has been used as a source of thermal neutrons to acquire the neutron radiographic images, as well as to produce 198 Au sources employed in the acquisition of gamma-ray radiographic ones. X-ray or neutron-sensitive imaging plates have been used as detector, which after exposure were developed by a reader using a 0.5μm-diameter laser beam. (author)

  10. Noise characteristics of neutron images obtained by cooled CCD device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Ryoichi; Sasaki, Ryoya; Okuda, Shuichi; Okamoto, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Tsujimoto, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The noise characteristics of a cooled CCD device induced by neutron and gamma ray irradiation have been investigated. In the cooled CCD images, characteristic white spot noises (CCD noise) frequently appeared, which have a shape like a pixel in most cases and their brightness is extremely high compared with that of the image pattern. They could be divided into the two groups, fixed pattern noise (FPN) and random noise. The former always appeared in the same position in the image and the latter appeared at any position. In the background image, nearly all of the CCD noises were found to be the FPN, while many of them were the random noise during the irradiation. The random CCD noises increased with irradiation and decreased soon after the irradiation. In the case of large irradiation, a part of the CCD noise remained as the FPN. These facts suggest that the CCD noise is a phenomenon strongly relating to radiation damage of the CCD device.

  11. Characterization of European sword blades through neutron imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, F.; Grazzi, F.; Peetermans, S.; Gener, M.; Lehmann, E. H.; Zoppi, M.

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we have studied two European rapier blades, dating back to the period ranging from the Late Renaissance to the Early Modern Age (about 17th to 18th century). In order to determine variation in quality and differences in technology, a study was undertaken with the purpose to observe variations in the blade microstructure (and consequently in the construction processes). The samples, which in the present case were expendable, have been investigated, preliminarily, through standard metallography and then by means of white beam and energy-selective neutron imaging. The comparison of the results, using the two techniques, turned out to be satisfactory, with a substantial quantitative agreement of the results obtained with the two techniques, and show the complementarity of the two methods. Metallography has been considered up to now the method of choice for metal material characterization. The correspondence between the two methods, as well as the non-invasive character of the neutron-based techniques and its possibility to obtain 3D reconstruction, candidate neutron imaging as an important and quantitatively reliable technique for metal characterization.

  12. Sparse image representation for jet neutron and gamma tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunescu, T. [EURATOM-MEdC Association, Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Kiptily, V. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy); Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V. [EURATOM-MEdC Association, Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A new tomographic method for the reconstruction of the 2-D neutron and gamma emissivity on JET. •The method is based on the sparse representation of the reconstructed image in an over-complete dictionary. •Several techniques, based on a priori information are used to regularize this highly limited data set tomographic problem. •The proposed method provides good reconstructions in terms of shapes and resolution. -- Abstract: The JET gamma/neutron profile monitor plasma coverage of the emissive region enables tomographic reconstruction. However, due to the availability of only two projection angles and to the coarse sampling, tomography is a highly limited data set problem. A new reconstruction method, based on the sparse representation of the reconstructed image in an over-complete dictionary, has been developed and applied to JET neutron/gamma tomography. The method has been tested on JET experimental data and significant results are presented. The proposed method provides good reconstructions in terms of shapes and resolution.

  13. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, G., E-mail: giulia.festa@roma2.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy); Tardino, G. [BauArt Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Pontecorvo, L. [Conservatorio di Cosenza – Cosenza Conservatory (Italy); Mannes, D.C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Senesi, R. [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy); Gorini, G. [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Andreani, C. [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-IPCF, Messina (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the ‘Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento’ in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments’ restoration process.

  14. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, G.; Tardino, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Mannes, D.C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Andreani, C.

    2014-01-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the ‘Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento’ in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments’ restoration process

  15. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Tardino, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Mannes, D. C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Andreani, C.

    2014-10-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the 'Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento' in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments' restoration process.

  16. Neutron and Gamma Imaging for National Security Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornback, Donald

    2017-09-01

    The Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22) possesses, in part, the mission to develop technologies in support of nuclear security efforts in coordination with other U.S. government entities, such as the Department of Defense and the Department of Homeland Security. DNN R&D has long supported research in nuclear detection at national labs, universities, and through the small business innovation research (SBIR) program. Research topics supported include advanced detector materials and electronics, detection algorithm development, and advanced gamma/neutron detection systems. Neutron and gamma imaging, defined as the directional detection of radiation as opposed to radiography, provides advanced detection capabilities for the NNSA mission in areas of emergency response, international safeguards, and nuclear arms control treaty monitoring and verification. A technical and programmatic overview of efforts in this field of research will be summarized.

  17. Preliminary experiment of fast neutron imaging with direct-film method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Yuyang; Tang Guoyou; Guo Zhiyu; Zhang Guohui

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary experiment is conducted with direct-film method under the condition that fast neutron is generated by the reaction of 9 Be(d, n) on the Beijing University 4.5 MV Van de Graaff, whose energy is lower than 7 MeV. Basic characteristics of direct-film neutron radiography system are investigated with the help of samples in different materials, different thickness and holes of different diameter. The fast neutron converter, which is vital for fast neutron imaging, is produced with the materials made in China. The result indicates that fast neutron converter can meet the requirement of fast neutron imaging; further research of fast neutron imaging can be conducted on the accelerator and neutron-generator in China. (authors)

  18. Lithium indium diselenide: A new scintillator for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukosi, Eric, E-mail: elukosi@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel; Lee, Kyung-Min [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wiggins, Brenden [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trtik, Pavel [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Penumadu, Dayakar; Young, Stephen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Santodonato, Louis; Bilheux, Hassina [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burger, Arnold; Matei, Liviu [Fisk University, Nashville, TN (United States); Stowe, Ashley C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-11

    Lithium indium diselenide, {sup 6}LiInSe{sub 2} or LISe, is a newly developed neutron detection material that shows both semiconducting and scintillating properties. This paper reports on the performance of scintillating LISe crystals for its potential use as a converter screen for cold neutron imaging. The spatial resolution of LISe, determined using a 10% threshold of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), was found to not scale linearly with thickness. Crystals having a thickness of 450 µm or larger resulted in an average spatial resolution of 67 µm, and the thinner crystals exhibited an increase in spatial resolution down to the Nyquist frequency of the CCD. The highest measured spatial resolution of 198 µm thick LISe (27 µm) outperforms a commercial 50 µm thick ZnS(Cu):{sup 6}LiF scintillation screen by more than a factor of three. For the LISe dimensions considered in this study, it was found that the light yield of LISe did not scale with its thickness. However, absorption measurements indicate that the {sup 6}Li concentration is uniform and the neutron absorption efficiency of LISe as a function of thickness follows general nuclear theory. This suggests that the differences in apparent brightness observed for the LISe samples investigated may be due to a combination of secondary charged particle escape, scintillation light transport in the bulk and across the LISe-air interface, and variations in the activation of the scintillation mechanism. Finally, it was found that the presence of {sup 115}In and its long-lived {sup 116}In activation product did not result in ghosting (memory of past neutron exposure), demonstrating potential of LISe for imaging transient systems.

  19. A Review of Significant Advances in Neutron Imaging from Conception to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenizer, J. S.

    This review summarizes the history of neutron imaging with a focus on the significant events and technical advancements in neutron imaging methods, from the first radiograph to more recent imaging methods. A timeline is presented to illustrate the key accomplishments that advanced the neutron imaging technique. Only three years after the discovery of the neutron by English physicist James Chadwick in 1932, neutron imaging began with the work of Hartmut Kallmann and Ernst Kuhn in Berlin, Germany, from 1935-1944. Kallmann and Kuhn were awarded a joint US Patent issued in January 1940. Little progress was made until the mid-1950's when Thewlis utilized a neutron beam from the BEPO reactor at Harwell, marking the beginning of the application of neutron imaging to practical applications. As the film method was improved, imaging moved from a qualitative to a quantitative technique, with applications in industry and in nuclear fuels. Standards were developed to aid in the quantification of the neutron images and the facility's capabilities. The introduction of dynamic neutron imaging (initially called real-time neutron radiography and neutron television) in the late 1970's opened the door to new opportunities and new challenges. As the electronic imaging matured, the introduction of the CCD imaging devices and solid-state light intensifiers helped address some of these challenges. Development of improved imaging devices for the medical community has had a major impact on neutron imaging. Additionally, amorphous silicon sensors provided improvements in temporal resolution, while providing a reasonably large imaging area. The development of new neutron imaging sensors and the development of new neutron imaging techniques in the past decade has advanced the technique's ability to provide insight and understanding of problems that other non-destructive techniques could not provide. This rapid increase in capability and application would not have been possible without the

  20. High-resolution investigations of edge effects in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Kuehne, G.; Frei, G.; Manke, I.

    2009-01-01

    Edge enhancement is the main effect measured by the so-called inline or propagation-based neutron phase contrast imaging method. The effect has originally been explained by diffraction, and high spatial coherence has been claimed to be a necessary precondition. However, edge enhancement has also been found in conventional imaging with high resolution. In such cases the effects can produce artefacts and hinder quantification. In this letter the edge effects at cylindrical shaped samples and long straight edges have been studied in detail. The enhancement can be explained by refraction and total reflection. Using high-resolution imaging, where spatial resolutions better than 50 μm could be achieved, refraction and total reflection peaks - similar to diffraction patterns - could be separated and distinguished.

  1. Block-Based Compressed Sensing for Neutron Radiation Image Using WDFB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal compression method for neutron radiation image should have high compression ratio while keeping more details of the original image. Compressed sensing (CS, which can break through the restrictions of sampling theorem, is likely to offer an efficient compression scheme for the neutron radiation image. Combining wavelet transform with directional filter banks, a novel nonredundant multiscale geometry analysis transform named Wavelet Directional Filter Banks (WDFB is constructed and applied to represent neutron radiation image sparsely. Then, the block-based CS technique is introduced and a high performance CS scheme for neutron radiation image is proposed. By performing two-step iterative shrinkage algorithm the problem of L1 norm minimization is solved to reconstruct neutron radiation image from random measurements. The experiment results demonstrate that the scheme not only improves the quality of reconstructed image obviously but also retains more details of original image.

  2. Image enhancement using MCNP5 code and MATLAB in neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Montaser; Mohamed, Nader; Mongy, T

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a method that can be used to enhance the neutron radiography (NR) image for objects with high scattering materials like hydrogen, carbon and other light materials. This method used Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, to simulate the NR process and get the flux distribution for each pixel of the image and determines the scattered neutron distribution that caused image blur, and then uses MATLAB to subtract this scattered neutron distribution from the initial image to improve its quality. This work was performed before the commissioning of digital NR system in Jan. 2013. The MATLAB enhancement method is quite a good technique in the case of static based film neutron radiography, while in neutron imaging (NI) technique, image enhancement and quantitative measurement were efficient by using ImageJ software. The enhanced image quality and quantitative measurements were presented in this work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a novel neutron detector for imaging and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darambara, D.G.; Beach, A.C.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    A hardware system employing dynamic Random Access Memory (dRAM) has been designed to make possible the detection of neutrons. One recognised difficulty with dynamic memory devices is the alpha-particle problem. That is alpha-particle 'contamination' present within the dRAM encapsulating material may interact sufficiently as to corrupt stored data. These corruptions, 'known as soft errors', may be induced in dRAMs by the interaction of charged particles with the chip itself as a basis for system function. A preliminary feasibility study has been carried out to use dynamic RAMs as alpha-particle detectors. The initial system tests provide information upon detection efficiency, soft error reading rate, energy dependence of the soft error rate and the soft error reading rate, energy dependence of the soft error rate and the soft error operating bias relationship. These findings highlight the usefulness of such a device in neutron dosimetry, imaging and analysis, by using a neutron converter with a high cross section for the (n, α) capture reaction. (author) 20 refs.; 8 figs

  4. Image enhancement using MCNP5 code and MATLAB in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharwat, Montaser; Mohamed, Nader; Mongy, T.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a method that can be used to enhance the neutron radiography (NR) image for objects with high scattering materials like hydrogen, carbon and other light materials. This method used Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, to simulate the NR process and get the flux distribution for each pixel of the image and determines the scattered neutron distribution that caused image blur, and then uses MATLAB to subtract this scattered neutron distribution from the initial image to improve its quality. This work was performed before the commissioning of digital NR system in Jan. 2013. The MATLAB enhancement method is quite a good technique in the case of static based film neutron radiography, while in neutron imaging (NI) technique, image enhancement and quantitative measurement were efficient by using ImageJ software. The enhanced image quality and quantitative measurements were presented in this work. - Highlights: • This work is applicable for static based film neutron radiography and digital neutron imaging. • MATLAB is a useful tool for imaging enhancement in radiographic film. • Advanced imaging processing is available in the ETRR-2 for imaging processing and data extraction. • The digital imaging system is suitable for complex shapes and sizes, while MATLAB technique is suitable for simple shapes and sizes. • Quantitative measurements are available

  5. Assessment of Radiographic Image Quality by Visual Examination of Neutron Radiographs of the Calibration Fuel Pin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Up till now no reliable radiographic image quality standards exist for neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel. Under the Euratoro Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) Test Program neutron radiographs were produced at different neutron radiography facilities within the European Community...... of a calibration fuel pin. The radiographs were made by the direct, transfer and tracketch methods using different film recording materials. These neutron radiographs of the calibration fuel pin were used for the assessement of radiographic image quality. This was done by visual examination of the radiographs...

  6. Monte Carlo modeling of neutron imaging at the SINQ spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebenhaft, J.R.; Lehmann, E.H.; Pitcher, E.J.; McKinney, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    Modeling of the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ) has been used to demonstrate the neutron radiography capability of the newly released MPI-version of the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. A detailed MCNPX model was developed of SINQ and its associated neutron transmission radiography (NEUTRA) facility. Preliminary validation of the model was performed by comparing the calculated and measured neutron fluxes in the NEUTRA beam line, and a simulated radiography image was generated for a sample consisting of steel tubes containing different materials. This paper describes the SINQ facility, provides details of the MCNPX model, and presents preliminary results of the neutron imaging. (authors)

  7. A new position-sensitive transmission detector for epithermal neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schooneveld, E M; Kockelmann, W; Rhodes, N; Tardocchi, M; Gorini, G; Perelli Cippo, E; Nakamura, T; Postma, H; Schillebeeckx, P

    2009-01-01

    A new neutron resonant transmission (NRT) detector for epithermal neutron imaging has been designed and built for the ANCIENT CHARM project, which is developing a set of complementary neutron imaging methods for analysis of cultural heritage objects. One of the techniques being exploited is NRT with the aim of performing bulk elemental analysis. The 16-pixel prototype NRT detector consists of independent crystals of 2 x 2 mm pixel size, which allow for 2D position-sensitive transmission measurements with epithermal neutrons. First results obtained at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source are presented. (fast track communication)

  8. Scintillating-fiber imaging detector for 14-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, D.; Lerche, R.A.; Ellis, R.J.; Heaton, G.W.; Nelson, M.B.; Mant, G.; Lehr, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have created a detector to image the neutrons emitted by imploded inertial-confinement fusion targets. The 14-MeV neutrons, which are produced by deuterium-tritium fusion events in the target, pass through an aperture to create an image on the detector. The neutron radiation is converted to blue light (430 nm) with a 20-cm-square array of plastic scintillating fibers. Each fiber is 10-cm long with a 1-mm-square cross section; approximately 35-thousand fibers make up the array. The resulting blue-light image is reduced and amplified by a sequence of fiber-optic tapers and image intensifiers, then acquired by a CCD camera. The fiber-optic readout system was tested optically for overall throughput the resolution. The authors plan to characterize the scintillator array reusing an ion-beam neutron source as well as DT-fusion neutrons emitted by inertial confinement targets. Characterization experiments will measure the light-production efficiency, spatial resolution, and neutron scattering within the detector. Several neutron images of laser-fusion targets have been obtained with the detector. Several neutron images of laser-fusion targets have been obtained with the detector. They describe the detector and their characterization methods, present characterization results, and give examples of the neutron images

  9. A SrBPO5: Eu2+ phosphor for neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasai, K.; Katagiri, M.; Toh, K.; Nakamura, T.

    2001-01-01

    A SrBPO 5 : Eu 2+ phosphor material has been investigated for neutron imaging. This phosphor showed photostimulated luminescence (PSL) by illumination of 635 nm laser light after X-ray irradiation. The spectral characteristics of the phosphor were similar to those of BaFBr: Eu 2+ , which is a commonly used phosphor of imaging plates. In addition, we found that this phosphor also showed PSL for neutron irradiation. It comes from the fact that it contains atomic boron in base matrix. Therefore, this phosphor can be used for neutron imaging without adding neutron sensitive materials such as Gd in commercially available neutron imaging plates. The PSL intensity and the neutron detection will be increased by using enriched boron instead of natural boron. (author)

  10. Malaysia: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin

    2012-01-01

    Inspection of cultural heritage artifact by neutron imaging becoming interesting and important research area since its able to sees internal structure non-destructively. Therefore advanced neutron imaging capability to conduct this kind of inspection is needed. Associated with this needs, TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI reactor has neutron imaging facility, NUR-2 which capable for radiography and tomography usage. Details parameters of current set up is given. Neutron radiography capability at this facility has been relied on direct method technique by the usage of SR-45 KODAK film technology. Current set-up has been used by university student through-out the country to conduct their research in various levels of educations

  11. New neutron imaging techniques to close the gap to scattering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Peetermans, S.; Trtik, P.; Betz, B.; Grünzweig, C.

    2017-01-01

    Neutron scattering and neutron imaging are activities at the strong neutron sources which have been developed rather independently. However, there are similarities and overlaps in the research topics to which both methods can contribute and thus useful synergies can be found. In particular, the spatial resolution of neutron imaging has improved recently, which - together with the enhancement of the efficiency in data acquisition- can be exploited to narrow the energy band and to implement more sophisticated methods like neutron grating interferometry. This paper provides a report about the current options in neutron imaging and describes how the gap to neutron scattering data can be closed in the future, e.g. by diffractive imaging, the use of polarized neutrons and the dark-field imagining of relevant materials. This overview is focused onto the interaction between neutron imaging and neutron scattering with the aim of synergy. It reflects mainly the authors’ experiences at their PSI facilities without ignoring the activities at the different other labs world-wide. (paper)

  12. New neutron imaging techniques to close the gap to scattering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Peetermans, S.; Trtik, P.; Betz, B.; Grünzweig, C.

    2017-01-01

    Neutron scattering and neutron imaging are activities at the strong neutron sources which have been developed rather independently. However, there are similarities and overlaps in the research topics to which both methods can contribute and thus useful synergies can be found. In particular, the spatial resolution of neutron imaging has improved recently, which - together with the enhancement of the efficiency in data acquisition- can be exploited to narrow the energy band and to implement more sophisticated methods like neutron grating interferometry. This paper provides a report about the current options in neutron imaging and describes how the gap to neutron scattering data can be closed in the future, e.g. by diffractive imaging, the use of polarized neutrons and the dark-field imagining of relevant materials. This overview is focused onto the interaction between neutron imaging and neutron scattering with the aim of synergy. It reflects mainly the authors’ experiences at their PSI facilities without ignoring the activities at the different other labs world-wide.

  13. Preliminary energy-filtering neutron imaging with time-of-flight method on PKUNIFTY: A compact accelerator based neutron imaging facility at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hu; Zou, Yubin, E-mail: zouyubin@pku.edu.cn; Wen, Weiwei; Lu, Yuanrong; Guo, Zhiyu

    2016-07-01

    Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility (PKUNIFTY) works on an accelerator–based neutron source with a repetition period of 10 ms and pulse duration of 0.4 ms, which has a rather low Cd ratio. To improve the effective Cd ratio and thus improve the detection capability of the facility, energy-filtering neutron imaging was realized with the intensified CCD camera and time-of-flight (TOF) method. Time structure of the pulsed neutron source was firstly simulated with Geant4, and the simulation result was evaluated with experiment. Both simulation and experiment results indicated that fast neutrons and epithermal neutrons were concentrated in the first 0.8 ms of each pulse period; meanwhile in the period of 0.8–2.0 ms only thermal neutrons existed. Based on this result, neutron images with and without energy filtering were acquired respectively, and it showed that detection capability of PKUNIFTY was improved with setting the exposure interval as 0.8–2.0 ms, especially for materials with strong moderating capability.

  14. Digital image processing for real-time neutron radiography and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Shigenori

    1989-01-01

    The present paper describes several digital image processing approaches for the real-time neutron radiography (neutron television-NTV), such as image integration, adaptive smoothing and image enhancement, which have beneficial effects on image improvements, and also describes how to use these techniques for applications. Details invisible in direct images of NTV are able to be revealed by digital image processing, such as reversed image, gray level correction, gray scale transformation, contoured image, subtraction technique, pseudo color display and so on. For real-time application a contouring operation and an averaging approach can also be utilized effectively. (author)

  15. Applications and characteristics of imaging plates as detector in neutron radiography at SINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbe, H; Gunia, W; Körner, S

    1999-01-01

    Imaging plate technique is a commonly accepted method in many fields as in medicine, biology and physics for detection of the distribution of beta- and gamma-radiation or X-rays on large areas. Recently a new type of imaging plate sensitive to neutrons has been developed. The storage layer is doped with gadolinium, which, after absorption of neutrons, produces radiation detectable by the same sensitive crystals used in conventional imaging plates. At the spallation neutron source, SINQ, at the Paul Scherrer Institut (CH) some of the characteristics of the neutron radiography station in combination with the imaging plate technique were investigated. The intensity distribution of the source was measured to check the accuracy for quantification of the image data. Also, the reproducibility of results obtained by this detection system was stated. For a test object, the high selectivity for different neutron absorption is demonstrated at details with low contrast. The obtainable spatial resolution was determined re...

  16. Visualization and measurement by image processing of thermal hydraulic phenomena by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    1996-01-01

    Neutron Radiography was applied to visualization of thermal hydraulic phenomena and measurement was carried out by image processing the visualized images. Since attenuation of thermal neutron rays is high in ordinary liquids like water and organic fluid while it is low in most of metals, liquid flow behaviors can be visualized through a metallic wall by neutron radiography. Measurement of void fraction and flow vector field which is important to study thermal hydraulic phenomena can be carried out by image processing the images obtained by the visualization. Various two-phase and liquid metal flows were visualized by a JRR-3M thermal neutron radiography system in the present study. Multi-dimensional void fraction distributions in two-phase flows and flow vector fields in liquid metals, which are difficult to measure by the other methods, were successfully measured by image processing. It was shown that neutron radiography was efficiently applicable to study thermal hydraulic phenomena. (author)

  17. Detector for imaging and dosimetry of laser-driven epithermal neutrons by alpha conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Wilson, L. A.; Ansell, S.; Armstrong, C.; Butler, N. M. H.; Clarke, R. J.; Higginson, A.; Notley, M.; Raspino, D.; Rusby, D. R.; Borghesi, M.; Rhodes, N. J.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.; Brenner, C. M.; Kar, S.

    2016-10-01

    An epithermal neutron imager based on detecting alpha particles created via boron neutron capture mechanism is discussed. The diagnostic mainly consists of a mm thick Boron Nitride (BN) sheet (as an alpha converter) in contact with a non-borated cellulose nitride film (LR115 type-II) detector. While the BN absorbs the neutrons in the thermal and epithermal ranges, the fast neutrons register insignificantly on the detector due to their low neutron capture and recoil cross-sections. The use of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), unlike image plates, micro-channel plates and scintillators, provide safeguard from the x-rays, gamma-rays and electrons. The diagnostic was tested on a proof-of-principle basis, in front of a laser driven source of moderated neutrons, which suggests the potential of using this diagnostic (BN+SSNTD) for dosimetry and imaging applications.

  18. Development of neutron imaging beamline for NDT applications at Dhruva reactor, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayank; Roy, Tushar; Kashyap, Yogesh; Shukla, Shefali; Singh, Prashant; Ravi, Baribaddala; Patel, Tarun; Gadkari, S. C.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal neutron imaging techniques such as radiography or tomography are very useful tool for various scientific investigations and industrial applications. Neutron radiography is complementary to X-ray radiography, as neutrons interact with nucleus as compared to X-ray interaction with orbital electrons. We present here design and development of a neutron imaging beamline at 100 MW Dhruva research reactor for neutron imaging applications such as radiography, tomography and phase contrast imaging. Combinations of sapphire and bismuth single crystals have been used as thermal neutron filter/gamma absorber at the input of a specially designed collimator to maximize thermal neutron to gamma ratio. The maximum beam size of neutrons has been restricted to ∼120 mm diameter at the sample position. A cadmium ratio of ∼250 with L / D ratio of 160 and thermal neutron flux of ∼ 4 × 107 n/cm2 s at the sample position has been measured. In this paper, different aspects of the beamline design such as collimator, shielding, sample manipulator, digital imaging system are described. Nondestructive radiography/tomography experiments on hydrogen concentration in Zr-alloy, aluminium foam, ceramic metal seals etc. are also presented.

  19. Microstructured boron foil scintillating G-GEM detector for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi, E-mail: fujiwara-t@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Center for Advanced Photonics, Neutron Beam Technology Team, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Bautista, Unico [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Philippine Nuclear Research Institute-Department of Science and Technology (PNRI-DOST), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Mitsuya, Yuki [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, Norifumi L. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Japan); Otake, Yoshie; Taketani, Atsushi [Center for Advanced Photonics, Neutron Beam Technology Team, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Uesaka, Mitsuru [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Toyokawa, Hiroyuki [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a new simple neutron imaging gaseous detector was successfully developed by combining a micro-structured {sup 10}B foil, a glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), and a mirror–lens–charge-coupled device (CCD)–camera system. The neutron imaging system consists of a chamber filled with Ar/CF{sub 4} scintillating gas mixture. Inside this system, the G-GEM is mounted for gas multiplication. The neutron detection in this system is based on the reaction between {sup 10}B and neutrons. A micro-structured {sup 10}B is developed to overcome the issue of low detection efficiency. Secondary electrons excite Ar/CF{sub 4} gas molecules, and high-yield visible photons are emitted from those excited gas molecules during the gas electron multiplication process in the G-GEM holes. These photons are easily detected by a mirror–lens–CCD–camera system. A neutron radiograph is then simply formed. We obtain the neutron images of different materials with a compact accelerator-driven neutron source. We confirm that the new scintillating G-GEM-based neutron imager works properly with low gamma ray sensitivity and exhibits a good performance as a new simple digital neutron imaging device.

  20. Overview of the Conceptual Design of the Future VENUS Neutron Imaging Beam Line at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilheux, Hassina; Herwig, Ken; Keener, Scott; Davis, Larry

    VENUS (Versatile Neutron Imaging Beam line at the Spallation Neutron Source) will be a world-class neutron-imaging instrument that will uniquely utilize the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) time-of-flight (TOF) capabilities to measure and characterize objects across several length scales (mm to μm). When completed, VENUS will provide academia, industry and government laboratories with the opportunity to advance scientific research in areas such as energy, materials, additive manufacturing, geosciences, transportation, engineering, plant physiology, biology, etc. It is anticipated that a good portion of the VENUS user community will have a strong engineering/industrial research focus. Installed at Beam line 10 (BL10), VENUS will be a 25-m neutron imaging facility with the capability to fully illuminate (i.e., umbra illumination) a 20 cm x 20 cm detector area. The design allows for a 28 cm x 28 cm field of view when using the penumbra to 80% of the full illumination flux. A sample position at 20 m will be implemented for magnification measurements. The optical components are comprised of a series of selected apertures, T0 and bandwidth choppers, beam scrapers, a fast shutter to limit sample activation, and flight tubes filled with Helium. Techniques such as energy selective, Bragg edge and epithermal imaging will be available at VENUS.

  1. Passive and Active Fast-Neutron Imaging in Support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Safeguards Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackston, Matthew A.; Hausladen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Results from safeguards-related passive and active coded-aperture fast-neutron imaging measurements of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) material configurations performed at Idaho National Laboratory s Zero Power Physics Reactor facility are presented. The imaging measurements indicate that it is feasible to use fast neutron imaging in a variety of safeguards-related tasks, such as monitoring storage, evaluating holdup deposits in situ, or identifying individual leached hulls still containing fuel. The present work also presents the first demonstration of imaging of differential die away fast neutrons.

  2. Progress toward the development and testing of source reconstruction methods for NIF neutron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, E N; Grim, G P; Wilde, C; Wilson, D C; Morgan, G; Wilke, M; Tregillis, I; Merrill, F; Clark, D; Finch, J; Fittinghoff, D; Bower, D

    2010-10-01

    Development of analysis techniques for neutron imaging at the National Ignition Facility is an important and difficult task for the detailed understanding of high-neutron yield inertial confinement fusion implosions. Once developed, these methods must provide accurate images of the hot and cold fuels so that information about the implosion, such as symmetry and areal density, can be extracted. One method under development involves the numerical inversion of the pinhole image using knowledge of neutron transport through the pinhole aperture from Monte Carlo simulations. In this article we present results of source reconstructions based on simulated images that test the methods effectiveness with regard to pinhole misalignment.

  3. Geant4 Analysis of a Thermal Neutron Real-Time Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Arka; Hawari, Ayman I.

    2017-07-01

    Thermal neutron imaging is a technique for nondestructive testing providing complementary information to X-ray imaging for a wide range of applications in science and engineering. Advancement of electronic imaging systems makes it possible to obtain neutron radiographs in real time. This method requires a scintillator to convert neutrons to optical photons and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to detect those photons. Alongside, a well collimated beam which reduces geometrical blurriness, the use of a thin scintillator can improve the spatial resolution significantly. A representative scintillator that has been applied widely for thermal neutron imaging is 6LiF:ZnS (Ag). In this paper, a multiphysics simulation approach for designing thermal neutron imaging system is investigated. The Geant4 code is used to investigate the performance of a thermal neutron imaging system starting with a neutron source and including the production of charged particles and optical photons in the scintillator and their transport for image formation in the detector. The simulation geometry includes the neutron beam collimator and sapphire filter. The 6LiF:ZnS (Ag) scintillator is modeled along with a pixelated detector for image recording. The spatial resolution of the system was obtained as the thickness of the scintillator screen was varied between 50 and 400 μm. The results of the simulation were compared to experimental results, including measurements performed using the PULSTAR nuclear reactor imaging beam, showing good agreement. Using the established model, further examination showed that the resolution contribution of the scintillator screen is correlated with its thickness and the range of the neutron absorption reaction products (i.e., the alpha and triton particles). Consequently, thinner screens exhibit improved spatial resolution. However, this will compromise detection efficiency due to the reduced probability of neutron absorption.

  4. ICF ignition capsule neutron, gamma ray, and high energy x-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. A.; Wilson, D. C.; Swenson, F. J.; Morgan, G. L.

    2003-03-01

    Post-processed total neutron, RIF neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray images from 2D LASNEX calculations of burning ignition capsules are presented. The capsules have yields ranging from tens of kilojoules (failures) to over 16 MJ (ignition), and their implosion symmetry ranges from prolate (flattest at the hohlraum equator) to oblate (flattest towards the laser entrance hole). The simulated total neutron images emphasize regions of high DT density and temperature; the reaction-in-flight neutrons emphasize regions of high DT density; the gamma rays emphasize regions of high shell density; and the high energy x rays (>10 keV) emphasize regions of high temperature.

  5. Neutron μstiX. Micrometer structure investigation with real space and reciprocal space crossover using neutron imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlbauer, Martin Johann

    2013-07-19

    This work is concerned with the investigation of inhomogeneities in materials with length scales of the order of micrometers by means of neutrons. In real space this is done by neutron imaging methods measuring the transmitted signal while for Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) the signal of the scattered neutrons is assigned to a spatial frequency distribution in reciprocal space. The part about neutron imaging is focused on time-resolved neutron radiography on an injection nozzle similar to the ones used for modern diesel truck engines. The associated experiments have been carried out at the neutron imaging facility ANTARES at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen in Garching near Munich. Especially the demands on the detector system were high. Therefore different detection methods and detector configurations have been tested. On the one hand the detector should allow for a time resolution high enough to record the injection process lasting about 900 μs. On the other hand it needed to offer a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve the test oil inside the spray hole of a maximum diameter of less than 200 μm. An advanced aim of this work is the visualization of cavitation phenomena which may occur during the injection process inside of the spray hole. In order to operate the injector at conditions as close to reality as possible a high pressure pump supplying the injector with test oil at a pressure of 1600 bar was needed in addition to the specially developed control electronics, the recuperation tank and the exhaust gas equipment for the escaping atomized spray. A second part of the work describes USANS experiments based on the idea of Dr. Roland Gaehler and carried out at the instrument D11 at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. For this purpose a specific multi-beam geometry was applied, where a multi-slit aperture replaced the standard source aperture and the sample aperture was

  6. Neutron μstiX. Micrometer structure investigation with real space and reciprocal space crossover using neutron imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, Martin Johann

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the investigation of inhomogeneities in materials with length scales of the order of micrometers by means of neutrons. In real space this is done by neutron imaging methods measuring the transmitted signal while for Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) the signal of the scattered neutrons is assigned to a spatial frequency distribution in reciprocal space. The part about neutron imaging is focused on time-resolved neutron radiography on an injection nozzle similar to the ones used for modern diesel truck engines. The associated experiments have been carried out at the neutron imaging facility ANTARES at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen in Garching near Munich. Especially the demands on the detector system were high. Therefore different detection methods and detector configurations have been tested. On the one hand the detector should allow for a time resolution high enough to record the injection process lasting about 900 μs. On the other hand it needed to offer a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve the test oil inside the spray hole of a maximum diameter of less than 200 μm. An advanced aim of this work is the visualization of cavitation phenomena which may occur during the injection process inside of the spray hole. In order to operate the injector at conditions as close to reality as possible a high pressure pump supplying the injector with test oil at a pressure of 1600 bar was needed in addition to the specially developed control electronics, the recuperation tank and the exhaust gas equipment for the escaping atomized spray. A second part of the work describes USANS experiments based on the idea of Dr. Roland Gaehler and carried out at the instrument D11 at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. For this purpose a specific multi-beam geometry was applied, where a multi-slit aperture replaced the standard source aperture and the sample aperture was

  7. A portable neutron spectroscope (NSPECT) for detection, imaging and identification of nuclear material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James M.; Bancroft, Christopher; Bloser, Peter; Bravar, Ulisse; Fourguette, Dominique; Frost, Colin; Larocque, Liane; McConnell, Mark L.; Legere, Jason; Pavlich, Jane; Ritter, Greg; Wassick, Greg; Wood, Joshua; Woolf, Richard

    2010-08-01

    We have developed, fabricated and tested a prototype imaging neutron spectrometer designed for real-time neutron source location and identification. Real-time detection and identification is important for locating materials. These materials, specifically uranium and transuranics, emit neutrons via spontaneous or induced fission. Unlike other forms of radiation (e.g. gamma rays), penetrating neutron emission is very uncommon. The instrument detects these neutrons, constructs images of the emission pattern, and reports the neutron spectrum. The device will be useful for security and proliferation deterrence, as well as for nuclear waste characterization and monitoring. The instrument is optimized for imaging and spectroscopy in the 1-20 MeV range. The detection principle is based upon multiple elastic neutron-proton scatters in organic scintillator. Two detector panel layers are utilized. By measuring the recoil proton and scattered neutron locations and energies, the direction and energy spectrum of the incident neutrons can be determined and discrete and extended sources identified. Event reconstruction yields an image of the source and its location. The hardware is low power, low mass, and rugged. Its modular design allows the user to combine multiple units for increased sensitivity. We will report the results of laboratory testing of the instrument, including exposure to a calibrated Cf-252 source. Instrument parameters include energy and angular resolution, gamma rejection, minimum source identification distances and times, and projected effective area for a fully populated instrument.

  8. Conversion from film to image plates for transfer method neutron radiography of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to characterize and qualify a computed radiography (CR) system for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL has multiple programs that are actively developing, testing, and evaluating new nuclear fuels. Irradiated fuel experiments are subjected to a number of sequential post-irradiation examination techniques that provide insight into the overall behavior and performance of the fuel. One of the first and most important of these exams is neutron radiography, which provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Results from neutron radiography are often the driver for subsequent examinations of the PIE program. Features of interest that can be evaluated using neutron radiography include irradiation-induced swelling, isotopic and fuel-fragment redistribution, plate deformations, and fuel fracturing. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique with film for imaging fuel. INL is pursuing multiple efforts to advance its neutron imaging capabilities for evaluating irradiated fuel and other applications, including conversion from film to CR image plates. Neutron CR is the current state-of-the-art for neutron imaging of highly-radioactive objects. Initial neutron radiographs of various types of nuclear fuel indicate that radiographs can be obtained of comparable image quality currently obtained using film. This paper provides neutron radiographs of representative irradiated fuel pins along with neutron radiographs of standards that informed the qualification of the neutron CR system for routine use. Additionally, this paper includes evaluations of some of the CR scanner parameters and their effects on image quality.

  9. Argentina: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina there exists a community of researchers of national institutions involved in CH studies and also periodic congresses about the topic since 2007. A new group on neutron imaging is beginning at Bariloche Atomic Center (CNEA). The plan of this group is: - Characterize the facility: flux, doses, collimation, etc;. - Establish contact with CH researchers for offering neutron imaging; - Demonstrate capabilities of the technique with 2D imaging; - In the future, a 3D tomography improvement will be developed

  10. Neutron imaging of Zr-1%Nb fuel cladding material containing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svab, E.; Meszaros, Gy.; Somogyvari, Z.; Balasko, M.; Koeroesi, F.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution and hydride phases were analyzed in reactor fuel cladding pressure tube Zr-1%Nb material up to 13,300 ppm. From neutron diffraction measurements, formation of cubic δ-ZrH 2 and a small amount of tetragonal γ-ZrH was established. Texture effects were analyzed by imaging plate technique. From neutron radiography images a linear model was set up that adequately described the relationship between gray levels and nominal H-concentrations. The H-distribution was unveiled by 3D intensity histograms and fractal analysis of multilevel-segmented neutron radiography images

  11. A tilted fiber-optic plate coupled CCD detector for high resolution neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongyul; Cho, Gyuseong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongyul; Hwy, Limchang; Kim, Taejoo; Lee, Kyehong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seungwook [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    One of these efforts is that a tilted scintillator geometry and lens coupled CCD detector for neutron imaging system were used to improve spatial resolution in one dimension. The increased spatial resolution in one dimension was applied to fuel cell study. However, a lens coupled CCD detector has lower sensitivity than a fiber-optic plate coupled CCD detector due to light loss. In this research, a tilted detector using fiber-optic plate coupled CCD detector was developed to improve resolution and sensitivity. In addition, a tilted detector can prevent an image sensor from direct radiation damage. Neutron imaging has been used for fuel cell study, lithium ion battery study, and many scientific applications. High quality neutron imaging is demanded for more detailed studies of applications, and spatial resolution should be considered to get high quality neutron imaging. Therefore, there were many efforts to improve spatial resolution.

  12. Timing and position response of a block detector for fast neutron time-of-flight imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubach, M.A., E-mail: mlaubach@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Hayward, J.P., E-mail: jhayward@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhang, X., E-mail: xzhang39@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Cates, J.W., E-mail: jcates7@vols.utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Our research effort seeks to improve the spatial and timing performance of a block detector made of a pixilated plastic scintillator (EJ-200), first demonstrated as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Advanced Portable Neutron Imaging System. Improvement of the position and time response is necessary to achieve better resolution and contrast in the images of shielded special nuclear material. Time-of-flight is used to differentiate between gamma and different sources of neutrons (e.g., transmission and fission neutrons). Factors limiting the timing and position performance of the neutron detector have been revealed through simulations and measurements. Simulations have suggested that the degradation in the ability to resolve pixels in the neutron detector is due to those interactions occurring near the light guide. The energy deposition within the neutron detector is shown to affect position performance and imaging efficiency. This examination details how energy cuts improve the position performance and degrade the imaging efficiency. Measurements have shown the neutron detector to have a timing resolution of σ=238 ps. The majority of this timing uncertainty is from the depth-of-interaction (DOI) of the neutron which is confirmed by simulations and analytical calculations.

  13. Gamma–neutron imaging system utilizing pulse shape discrimination with CLYC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, Chad M.; Soundara-Pandian, Lakshmi; Johnson, Erik B.; Vogel, Sam; Vinci, Bob; Squillante, Michael; Glodo, Jarek; Christian, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, RMD has investigated the use of CLYC (Cs 2 LiYCl 6 :Ce), a new and emerging scintillation material, in a gamma–neutron coded aperture imaging system based on RMD's commercial RadCam TM instrument. CLYC offers efficient thermal neutron detection, fast neutron detection capabilities, excellent pulse shape discrimination (PSD), and gamma-ray energy resolution as good as 4% at 662 keV. PSD improves the isolation of higher energy gammas from thermal neutron interactions (>3 MeV electron equivalent peak), compared to conventional pulse height techniques. The scintillation emission time in CLYC provides the basis for PSD; where neutron interactions result in a slower emission rise and decay components while gamma interactions result in a faster emission components. By creating a population plot based on the ratio of the decay tail compared to the total integral amplitude (PSD ratio), discrimination of gammas, thermal neutrons, and fast neutrons is possible. Previously, we characterized the CLYC-based RadCam system for imaging gammas and neutrons using a layered W-Cd coded aperture mask and employing only pulse height discrimination. In this paper, we present the latest results which investigate gamma-neutron imaging capabilities using PSD. An FPGA system is used to acquire the CLYC–PSPMT last dynode signals, determine a PSD ratio for each event, and compare it to a calibrated PSD cutoff. Each event is assigned either a gamma (low) or neutron (high) flag signal which is then correlated with the imaging information for each event. - Highlights: • The latest results are presented for our CLYC RadCam-2 system which investigate gamma–neutron imaging using pulse shape discrimination. • CLYC RadCam-2 system successfully discriminates gammas, thermal neutrons, and fast neutrons by employing a fully integrated, FPGA-based PSD system. • Imaging of our 252 Cf source was possible using both pulse height and pulse shape discrimination with CLYC. • Imaging

  14. A Detector for 2-D Neutron Imaging for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, Charles L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Wintenberg, Alan Lee; Clonts, Lloyd G.; Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; McKnight, Timothy E.; Frank, Steven Shane; Cooper, Ronald G.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Veith, Gabriel M.

    2006-01-01

    We have designed, built, and tested a 2-D pixellated thermal neutron detector. The detector is modeled after the MicroMegas-type structure previously published for collider-type experiments. The detector consists of a 4X4 square array of 1 cm 2 pixels each of which is connected to an individual preamplifier-shaper-data acquisition system. The neutron converter is a 10B film on an aluminum substrate. We describe the construction of the detector and the test results utilizing 252Cf sources in Lucite to thermalize the neutrons. Drift electrode (Aluminum) Converter (10B) 3 mm Conversion gap neutron (-900 V)

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of grating-based neutron phase contrast imaging at CPHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ran; Chen Zhiqiang; Huang Zhifeng; Xiao Yongshun; Wang Xuewu; Wie Jie; Loong, C.-K.

    2011-01-01

    Since the launching of the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) project of Tsinghua University in 2009, works have begun on the design and engineering of an imaging/radiography instrument for the neutron source provided by CPHS. The instrument will perform basic tasks such as transmission imaging and computerized tomography. Additionally, we include in the design the utilization of coded-aperture and grating-based phase contrast methodology, as well as the options of prompt gamma-ray analysis and neutron-energy selective imaging. Previously, we had implemented the hardware and data-analysis software for grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging. Here, we investigate Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations of neutron refraction phenomena and then model the grating-based neutron phase contrast imaging system according to the classic-optics-based method. The simulated experimental results of the retrieving phase shift gradient information by five-step phase-stepping approach indicate the feasibility of grating-based neutron phase contrast imaging as an option for the cold neutron imaging instrument at the CPHS.

  16. Active neutron and gamma-ray imaging of highly enriched uranium for treaty verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Michael C; Polack, J Kyle; Ruch, Marc L; Marcath, Matthew J; Clarke, Shaun D; Pozzi, Sara A

    2017-08-11

    The detection and characterization of highly enriched uranium (HEU) presents a large challenge in the non-proliferation field. HEU has a low neutron emission rate and most gamma rays are low energy and easily shielded. To address this challenge, an instrument known as the dual-particle imager (DPI) was used with a portable deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator to detect neutrons and gamma rays from induced fission in HEU. We evaluated system response using a 13.7-kg HEU sphere in several configurations with no moderation, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) moderation, and tungsten moderation. A hollow tungsten sphere was interrogated to evaluate the response to a possible hoax item. First, localization capabilities were demonstrated by reconstructing neutron and gamma-ray images. Once localized, additional properties such as fast neutron energy spectra and time-dependent neutron count rates were attributed to the items. For the interrogated configurations containing HEU, the reconstructed neutron spectra resembled Watt spectra, which gave confidence that the interrogated items were undergoing induced fission. The time-dependent neutron count rate was also compared for each configuration and shown to be dependent on the neutron multiplication of the item. This result showed that the DPI is a viable tool for localizing and confirming fissile mass and multiplication.

  17. Bulk magnetic domain structures visualized by neutron dark-field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenzweig, C.; David, C.; Bunk, O.; Dierolf, M.; Frei, G.; Kuehne, G.; Schaefer, R.; Pofahl, S.; Roennow, H. M. R.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on how a neutron grating interferometer can yield projection images of the internal domain structure in bulk ferromagnetic samples. The image contrast relies on the ultrasmall angle scattering of unpolarized neutrons at domain wall structures in the specimen. The results show the basic domains of (110)-oriented sheets in an FeSi test sample. The obtained domain structures could be correlated with surface sensitive magneto-optical Kerr effect micrographs

  18. Bulk magnetic domain structures visualized by neutron dark-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünzweig, C.; David, C.; Bunk, O.; Dierolf, M.; Frei, G.; Kühne, G.; Schäfer, R.; Pofahl, S.; Rønnow, H. M. R.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2008-09-01

    We report on how a neutron grating interferometer can yield projection images of the internal domain structure in bulk ferromagnetic samples. The image contrast relies on the ultrasmall angle scattering of unpolarized neutrons at domain wall structures in the specimen. The results show the basic domains of (110)-oriented sheets in an FeSi test sample. The obtained domain structures could be correlated with surface sensitive magneto-optical Kerr effect micrographs.

  19. Russia: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlenko, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The development of neutron imaging techniques as a tool for non-destructive analysis of the internal structure, defects and processes in industrial products, functional materials, objects of cultural heritage attracts considerable attention at the present time. The dedicated instruments are available at the many neutron sources. The IBR-2M high flux pulsed reactor is one of the most powerful pulsed neutron sources in the world with the average power 2 MW, power per neutron pulse 1850 MW and neutron flux in pulse of 5·10 15 n/cm 2 /s. During the period December 2006 – December 2010 the reactor was on modernization for replacement of the reactor vessel and fuel elements. During 2011, the successful physical and power start-up of IBR-2M were performed. Now reactor is operational and can be used for research and development activities using neutron scattering techniques in next 25 years prospective. However, no instruments dedicated for neutron imaging is installed at IBR-2M so far. Moreover, in Russian Federation there is no dedicated neutron imaging facility for cultural heritage research at the moment

  20. Characterization of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR Neutron Radiography System Imaging Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Krista

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL is an epithermal pool-type research reactor licensed up to a thermal power of 2.4 MW. The ACRR facility has a neutron radiography facility that is used for imaging a wide range of items including reactor fuel and neutron generators. The ACRR neutron radiography system has four apertures (65:1, 125:1, 250:1, and 500:1 available to experimenters. The neutron flux and spectrum as well as the gamma dose rate were characterized at the imaging plane for the ACRR's neutron radiography system for the 65:1, 125:1 and 250:1 apertures.

  1. A new method by steering kernel-based Richardson–Lucy algorithm for neutron imaging restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Shuang; Wang, Qiao; Sun, Jia-ning; Huang, Ji-peng

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by industrial applications, neutron radiography has become a powerful tool for non-destructive investigation techniques. However, resulted from a combined effect of neutron flux, collimated beam, limited spatial resolution of detector and scattering, etc., the images made with neutrons are degraded severely by blur and noise. For dealing with it, by integrating steering kernel regression into Richardson–Lucy approach, we present a novel restoration method in this paper, which is capable of suppressing noise while restoring details of the blurred imaging result efficiently. Experimental results show that compared with the other methods, the proposed method can improve the restoration quality both visually and quantitatively

  2. Super-resolution processing for pulsed neutron imaging system using a high-speed camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Ken; Kai, Tetsuya; Shinohara, Takenao; Segawa, Mariko; Mochiki, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Super-resolution and center-of-gravity processing improve the resolution of neutron-transmitted images. These processing methods calculate the center-of-gravity pixel or sub-pixel of the neutron point converted into light by a scintillator. The conventional neutron-transmitted image is acquired using a high-speed camera by integrating many frames when a transmitted image with one frame is not provided. It succeeds in acquiring the transmitted image and calculating a spectrum by integrating frames of the same energy. However, because a high frame rate is required for neutron resonance absorption imaging, the number of pixels of the transmitted image decreases, and the resolution decreases to the limit of the camera performance. Therefore, we attempt to improve the resolution by integrating the frames after applying super-resolution or center-of-gravity processing. The processed results indicate that center-of-gravity processing can be effective in pulsed-neutron imaging with a high-speed camera. In addition, the results show that super-resolution processing is effective indirectly. A project to develop a real-time image data processing system has begun, and this system will be used at J-PARC in JAEA. (author)

  3. Cf-252 based neutron radiography using real-time image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochiki, Koh-ichi; Koiso, Manabu; Yamaji, Akihiro; Iwata, Hideki; Kihara, Yoshitaka; Sano, Shigeru; Murata, Yutaka

    2001-01-01

    For compact Cf-252 based neutron radiography, a real-time image processing system by particle counting technique has been developed. The electronic imaging system consists of a supersensitive imaging camera, a real-time corrector, a real-time binary converter, a real-time calculator for centroid, a display monitor and a computer. Three types of accumulated NR image; ordinary, binary and centroid images, can be observed during a measurement. Accumulated NR images were taken by the centroid mode, the binary mode and ordinary mode using of Cf-252 neutron source and those images were compared. The centroid mode presented the sharpest image and its statistical characteristics followed the Poisson distribution, while the ordinary mode showed the smoothest image as the averaging effect by particle bright spots with distributed brightness was most dominant. (author)

  4. Trends in X-, gamma and neutron radiographic imaging at IGCAR Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Raghu, N.; Menaka, M.; Anandraj, R.

    2015-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, right from raw material stage through fabrication and in service inspection upto the retirement of the component, NDE is an indispensable tool. While X- and gamma radiography is quite common, neutron radiography is a very efficient and complementary tool which can enhance investigations in the field of non-destructive testing as well as in many fundamental research applications. The main advantage of neutrons compared to X-rays is its ability to penetrate heavy elements and also image light elements (i.e. with low atomic numbers) such as hydrogen, water, carbon etc. This is because, neutrons interact with the nucleus rather than with the outer electron in the shell. This also makes it possible to distinguish between different isotopes of the same element by neutron radiography. The KAMINI reactor at IGCAR is a versatile and unique facility wherein extensive work has been undertaken on neutron radiography and activation analysis. Apart from conventional neutron radiography using transfer technique, real time neutron imaging of fuel pins and other objects have also been carried out. Using Beam purity indicator and sensitivity indicator, the neutron beam from KAMINI has also been characterized. This paper focuses on the developments and applications of digital imaging NDE using X-, gamma and neutrons at IGCAR. Both 2-dimensional imaging and -D tomography has been undertaken. Case studies undertaken for strategic and core industries including societal applications such as in cultural heritage is also highlighted. Advanced image processing and analysis has also been applied for enhancing the sensitivity and better defect quantification

  5. Displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zujun; Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo; Xiao, Zhigang; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Sheng, Jiangkun

    2014-01-01

    The experiments of displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor are presented. The CMOS APS image sensors are manufactured in the standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The flux of neutron beams was about 1.33 × 10 8 n/cm 2 s. The three samples were exposed by 1 MeV neutron equivalent-fluence of 1 × 10 11 , 5 × 10 11 , and 1 × 10 12 n/cm 2 , respectively. The mean dark signal (K D ), dark signal spike, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), noise (V N ), saturation output signal voltage (V S ), and dynamic range (DR) versus neutron fluence are investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors are analyzed. The mean dark signal increase due to neutron displacement damage appears to be proportional to displacement damage dose. The dark images from CMOS APS image sensors irradiated by neutrons are presented to investigate the generation of dark signal spike

  6. Neutron imaging development for megajoule scale inertial confinement fusion experiments{sup 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grim, G P; Bradley, P A; Day, R D; Clark, D D; Fatherley, V E; Finch, J P; Garcia, F P; Jaramillo, S A; Montoya, A J; Morgan, G L; Oertel, J A; Ortiz, T A; Payton, J R; Pazuchanics, P; Schmidt, D W; Valdez, A C; Wilde, C H; Wilke, M D; Wilson, D C [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: gpgrim@lanl.gov

    2008-05-15

    Neutron imaging of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets is useful for understanding the implosion conditions of deuterium and tritium filled targets at Mega-Joule/Tera-Watt scale laser facilities. The primary task for imaging ICF targets at the National Ignition Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA, is to determine the asymmetry of the imploded target. The image data, along with other nuclear information, are to be used to provide insight into target drive conditions. The diagnostic goal at the National Ignition Facility is to provide neutron images with 10 {mu}m resolution and peak signal-to-background values greater than 20 for neutron yields of {approx} 10{sup 15}. To achieve this requires signal multiplexing apertures with good resolution. In this paper we present results from imaging system development efforts aimed at achieving these requirements using neutron pinholes. The data were collected using directly driven ICF targets at the Omega Laser, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY., and include images collected from a 3 x 3 array of 15.5 {mu}m pinholes. Combined images have peak signal-to-background values greater than 30 at neutron yields of {approx} 10{sup 13}.

  7. A novel approach to correct the coded aperture misalignment for fast neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, F. N.; Hu, H. S., E-mail: huasi-hu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, D. M.; Jia, J. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, T. K. [Laser Fusion Research Center, CAEP, Mianyang, 621900 Sichuan (China); Jia, Q. G. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Aperture alignment is crucial for the diagnosis of neutron imaging because it has significant impact on the coding imaging and the understanding of the neutron source. In our previous studies on the neutron imaging system with coded aperture for large field of view, “residual watermark,” certain extra information that overlies reconstructed image and has nothing to do with the source is discovered if the peak normalization is employed in genetic algorithms (GA) to reconstruct the source image. Some studies on basic properties of residual watermark indicate that the residual watermark can characterize coded aperture and can thus be used to determine the location of coded aperture relative to the system axis. In this paper, we have further analyzed the essential conditions for the existence of residual watermark and the requirements of the reconstruction algorithm for the emergence of residual watermark. A gamma coded imaging experiment has been performed to verify the existence of residual watermark. Based on the residual watermark, a correction method for the aperture misalignment has been studied. A multiple linear regression model of the position of coded aperture axis, the position of residual watermark center, and the gray barycenter of neutron source with twenty training samples has been set up. Using the regression model and verification samples, we have found the position of the coded aperture axis relative to the system axis with an accuracy of approximately 20 μm. Conclusively, a novel approach has been established to correct the coded aperture misalignment for fast neutron coded imaging.

  8. Deriving Quantitative Crystallographic Information from the Wavelength-Resolved Neutron Transmission Analysis Performed in Imaging Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current status of Bragg-edge/dip neutron transmission analysis/imaging methods is presented. The method can visualize real-space distributions of bulk crystallographic information in a crystalline material over a large area (~10 cm with high spatial resolution (~100 μm. Furthermore, by using suitable spectrum analysis methods for wavelength-dependent neutron transmission data, quantitative visualization of the crystallographic information can be achieved. For example, crystallographic texture imaging, crystallite size imaging and crystalline phase imaging with texture/extinction corrections are carried out by the Rietveld-type (wide wavelength bandwidth profile fitting analysis code, RITS (Rietveld Imaging of Transmission Spectra. By using the single Bragg-edge analysis mode of RITS, evaluations of crystal lattice plane spacing (d-spacing relating to macro-strain and d-spacing distribution’s FWHM (full width at half maximum relating to micro-strain can be achieved. Macro-strain tomography is performed by a new conceptual CT (computed tomography image reconstruction algorithm, the tensor CT method. Crystalline grains and their orientations are visualized by a fast determination method of grain orientation for Bragg-dip neutron transmission spectrum. In this paper, these imaging examples with the spectrum analysis methods and the reliabilities evaluated by optical/electron microscope and X-ray/neutron diffraction, are presented. In addition, the status at compact accelerator driven pulsed neutron sources is also presented.

  9. Demonstration of Focusing Wolter Mirrors for Neutron Phase and Magnetic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Hussey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Image-forming focusing mirrors were employed to demonstrate their applicability to two different modalities of neutron imaging, phase imaging with a far-field interferometer, and magnetic-field imaging through the manipulation of the neutron beam polarization. For the magnetic imaging, the rotation of the neutron polarization in the magnetic field was measured by placing a solenoid at the focus of the mirrors. The beam was polarized upstream of the solenoid, while the spin analyzer was situated between the solenoid and the mirrors. Such a polarized neutron microscope provides a path toward considerably improved spatial resolution in neutron imaging of magnetic materials. For the phase imaging, we show that the focusing mirrors preserve the beam coherence and the path-length differences that give rise to the far-field moiré pattern. We demonstrated that the visibility of the moiré pattern is modified by small angle scattering from a highly porous foam. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of using Wolter optics to significantly improve the spatial resolution of the far-field interferometer.

  10. Thailand: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaweerat, Sasiphan

    2012-01-01

    Undoubtedly, neutron imaging is one of the best investigation techniques for cultural heritage researches. Cultural heritage is what we obtain from the past and pass on to future generation. It contains unique and irreplaceable record that is important to fulfill our understanding about the past. Recently, many cultural heritages remain untouched and historical records are ambiguous because scientific method of proof is difficult to make without destruction. Fortunately, the neutron imaging technique allows property of neutron that can penetrate through object providing non-invasive characterization. The intensity of transmitting neutron varies upon neutron flux at exposing position and elemental composition in particular objects. Consequently, the object’s provenance, manufacturing technology, authentication, and hidden structure can be determined. To achieve a high quality image and further service for cultural heritage research, good facility and practice are of significant concerns.This CRP provides great opportunity to develop neutron facility and to standardize methodology in Thailand. After official meeting between Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) and Office of National Museum (ONM), Fine Arts Department on 24th January 2011, we are agreed to collaborate in CRP- F11018. With supporting from IAEA, the neutron imaging technology will be sustainable developed and the strengthen collaboration between TINT and ONM will be established. TINT scientists will work in an appropriate channel to meet the state-of-the-art end user’s requirements. Since the hidden historical records will be revealed, we strongly believe that the adapted neutron imaging technique will help answer questions regarding ancient Thais

  11. Switzerland: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies - Paul Scherrer Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannes, David

    2012-01-01

    Historical bronze objects play an important rule in cultural heritage research as this material was used for a broad variety of different purposes (tools, weapons, jewellery, cult objects,…) since more than 5000 years in most parts of the world (Africa, Asia, Europe). Furthermore this group of copper alloys shows high durability and has low susceptibility for corrosion, which explains the large number of objects, which have stand the test of time and wait to be studied. For the study of cultural heritage objects non-destructive testing methods are in many cases required and generally preferred. Neutron imaging provides a unique opportunity to thoroughly characterize bronze objects and to provide information on the inner structure also from larger objects while other conventional methods such as X-ray methods are restricted to surface regions of such metal objects. In the scope of this CRP we propose an interdisciplinary platform for non-destructive investigations of historical bronze objects using neutrons. The platform will provide a forum and link users from the cultural heritage area with partners from the neutron imaging community. As outcome we anticipate a document listing the possibilities and limitations of neutron imaging (such as neutron-radiography, -tomography, energy selective imaging,…) and other neutron based techniques (e.g. diffraction, PGAA,...) to investigate certain questions and problems from the cultural heritage area regarding bronze objects. The document should also contain possible methodical approaches (i.e. how to perform certain investigations) and list partners from the neutron imaging community, which could help in the planning and realization of investigations. The platform will intensify the collaboration and strengthen the connections between the involved research institutes from both areas neutron physics and cultural heritage and result in a long-lasting synergetic effect

  12. Thermal neutron imaging through XRQA2 GAFCHROMIC films coupled with a cadmium radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, D. [INFN – LNF, Via E. Fermi n.40, Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); INAIL – DIT, Via di Fontana Candida n.1, 00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [INFN – LNF, Via E. Fermi n.40, Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); Bortot, D. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); INFN – Milano, Via Celoria16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Palomba, M. [ENEA Casaccia, Via Anguillarese, 301, S. Maria di Galeria, 00123 Roma (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); INFN – Milano, Via Celoria16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Introini, M.V.; Lorenzoli, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Gentile, A. [INFN – LNF, Via E. Fermi n.40, Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); Strigari, L. [Laboratory of Medical Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via E. Chianesi 53, 00144 Roma (Italy); Pressello, C. [Department of Medical Physics, Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini, Circonvallazione Gianicolense 87, 00152 Roma (Italy); Soriani, A. [Laboratory of Medical Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via E. Chianesi 53, 00144 Roma (Italy); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [INFN – LNF, Via E. Fermi n.40, Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-21

    A simple and inexpensive method to perform passive thermal neutron imaging on large areas was developed on the basis of XRQA2 GAFCHROMIC films, commonly employed for quality assurance in radiology. To enhance their thermal neutron response, the sensitive face of film was coupled with a 1 mm thick cadmium radiator, forming a sandwich. By exchanging the order of Cd filter and sensitive film with respect to the incident neutron beam direction, two different configurations (beam-Cd-film and beam-film-Cd) were identified. These configurations were tested at thermal neutrons fluence values in the range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}, using the ex-core radial thermal neutron column of the ENEA Casaccia – TRIGA reactor. The results are presented in this work.

  13. Bulgaria: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djingova, Rumyana

    2012-01-01

    Neutron tomography has recently found new applications in many different fields like for example in Biology, Medicine, Geology, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. One of the reasons is the fast development in digital image recording and processing, which enables the computation of tomographic reconstructions from high-resolution images at a reasonable timescale. The development of new detectors with better signal-to-noise characteristics and faster read-out electronics has allowed the overcoming of some of the spatial and time resolution limitations of conventional neutron radiography and tomography. Nevertheless the quantification of neutron tomographic data is a challenging task in many cases. The diverse experimental conditions at different facilities (beam spectrum, collimation, background, etc.) hinder the distinct relation between attenuation coefficient and single material. In this case complementary methods should be used for determination of the chemical composition in multicomponent samples which can be related later to the obtained matrix of attenuation coefficients from the neutron tomographic measurement

  14. A concept to collect neutron and x-ray images on the same line of sight at NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, F. E., E-mail: fmerrill@lanl.gov; Danly, C. R.; Grim, G. P.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Neutron and x-ray images are collected at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the size and shape of inertial confinement fusion implosions. The x-ray images provide a measure of the size and shape of the hot region of the deuterium-tritium fuel while the neutron images provide a measure of the size and shape of the burning plasma. Although these two types of images are collected simultaneously, they are not collected along the same line of sight (LOS). One 14 MeV neutron image is collected on the NIF equator, and two x-ray images are collected along the polar axis and nearly perpendicular to the neutron imaging line of sight on the equator. Both measurements use pinhole apertures to form the images, but existing x-ray imaging provides time-resolved measurements while the neutron images are time-integrated. Detailed comparisons of the x-ray and neutron images can provide information on the fuel assembly, but these studies have been limited because the implosions are not azimuthally symmetric and the images are collected along different LOS. We have developed a conceptual design of a time-integrated x-ray imaging system that could be added to the existing neutron imaging LOS. This new system would allow these detailed studies, providing important information on the fuel assembly of future implosions. Here we present this conceptual design and the expected performance characteristics.

  15. A concept to collect neutron and x-ray images on the same line of sight at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F E; Danly, C R; Izumi, N; Jedlovec, D; Fittinghoff, D N; Grim, G P; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Volegov, P L; Wilde, C H

    2014-11-01

    Neutron and x-ray images are collected at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the size and shape of inertial confinement fusion implosions. The x-ray images provide a measure of the size and shape of the hot region of the deuterium-tritium fuel while the neutron images provide a measure of the size and shape of the burning plasma. Although these two types of images are collected simultaneously, they are not collected along the same line of sight (LOS). One 14 MeV neutron image is collected on the NIF equator, and two x-ray images are collected along the polar axis and nearly perpendicular to the neutron imaging line of sight on the equator. Both measurements use pinhole apertures to form the images, but existing x-ray imaging provides time-resolved measurements while the neutron images are time-integrated. Detailed comparisons of the x-ray and neutron images can provide information on the fuel assembly, but these studies have been limited because the implosions are not azimuthally symmetric and the images are collected along different LOS. We have developed a conceptual design of a time-integrated x-ray imaging system that could be added to the existing neutron imaging LOS. This new system would allow these detailed studies, providing important information on the fuel assembly of future implosions. Here we present this conceptual design and the expected performance characteristics.

  16. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISHER, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS. Bubble detectors, which can detect neutrons with a spatial 5 to 30 (micro), are the most promising approach to imaging NIF target plasmas with the desired 5 (micro) spatial resolution in the target plane. Gel bubble detectors are being tested to record neutron images of ICF implosions in OMEGA experiments. By improving the noise reduction techniques used in analyzing the data taken in June 2000, we have been able to image the neutron emission from 6 · 10 13 yield DT target plasmas with a target plane spatial resolution of ∼ 140 (micro). As expected, the spatial resolution was limited by counting statistics as a result of the low neutron detection efficiency of the easy-to-use gel bubble detectors. The results have been submitted for publication and will be the subject of an invited talk at the October 2001 Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society. To improve the counting statistics, data was taken in May 2001 using a stack of four gel detectors and integrated over a series of up to seven high-yield DT shots. Analysis of the 2001 data is still in its early stages. Gel detectors were chosen for these initial tests since the bubbles can be photographed several hours after the neutron exposure. They consist of ∼ 5000 drops (∼ 100 (micro) in diameter) of bubble detector liquid/cm 3 suspended in an inactive support gel that occupies ∼ 99% of the detector volume. Using a liquid bubble chamber detector and a light scattering system to record the bubble locations a few microseconds after the neutron exposure when the bubbles are ∼ 10 (micro) in diameter, should result in ∼ 1000 times higher neutron detection efficiency and a target plane resolution on OMEGA of ∼ 10 to 50 (micro)

  17. South Africa: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Beer, Frikkie

    2012-01-01

    South Africa has a rich cultural history with ample opportunities for Neutron Imaging to be applied in Archaeological and Palaeontological studies as depicted in the references. Through this collaboration the NI and CH communities are united to introduce neutron induced Autoradiography of paintings as new analytical technique to South Africa. The outcome is foreseen to be a database on NI techniques and applications in CH as well as and exhibition at a museum to showcase the scientific collaborations

  18. Brazil: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliesi, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    The neutron imaging is a set of non - destructive testing techniques commonly employed to inspect the internal structure of objects. Because of the neutron - matter interaction characteristics, these techniques are largely employed to inspect hydrogenous substances (water, organic fibers, adhesives, etc) even wrapped by thick metal layers. The Brazilian culture is surrounded by a rich cultural heritage, mainly left by Indians and slaves. Many of the old objects and tools they have used, were manufactured by using clay, wood, organic fibers as well as bones. These materials and the ones used for their restoration are manufactured of several types of hydrogenous substances and hence the use of neutron imaging techniques are very adequate to study such objects. The neutron imaging activities at IPEN - CNEN/SP began in 1988 and the primary objective of the working group was to design and to construct an operational facility for neutron imaging, to be installed in the beam-hole - 08 of the 5MW IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor. From 1992 to 1997, the group has developed several 2D imaging techniques

  19. Advanced neutron imaging methods with a potential to benefit from pulsed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Penumadu, D.; Manke, I.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade neutron imaging has seen significant improvements in instrumentation, detection and spatial resolution. Additionally, a variety of new applications and methods have been explored. As a consequence of an outstanding development nowadays various techniques of neutron imaging go far beyond a two- and three-dimensional mapping of the attenuation coefficients for a broad range of samples. Neutron imaging has become sensitive to neutron scattering in the small angle scattering range as well as with respect to Bragg scattering. Corresponding methods potentially provide spatially resolved and volumetric data revealing microstructural inhomogeneities, texture variations, crystalline phase distributions and even strains in bulk samples. Other techniques allow for the detection of refractive index distribution through phase sensitive measurements and the utilization of polarized neutrons enables radiographic and tomographic investigations of magnetic fields and properties as well as electrical currents within massive samples. All these advanced methods utilize or depend on wavelength dependent signals, and are hence suited to profit significantly from pulsed neutron sources as will be discussed.

  20. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Applications part 5. Application of neutron imaging to fluid engineering-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Asano, Hitoshi; Umekawa, Hisashi; Matsubayashi, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of the neutron beam attenuation vary with elements constituting the object and it attenuates with hydrogen and a specific element greatly and penetrates most metal well. Normal liquid such as water, oil, the organic liquid includes a lot of hydrogen, and a neutron beam attenuates, but attenuation characteristics of the metal well used industrially such as iron, copper, aluminum are smaller than normal liquid. Because most machines are made of metal, and liquid behavior of the machine inside can be seen through neutron radiography, it is possible to be used as the X-rays of the machine. As an application of neutron radiography to the fluid engineering, fluid behavior in the metal pipe and container, especially two phase flow mingled with each phase of gas/liquid/solid, has been visible and measurable which is difficult to be performed by other methods, and in late years the industry use of neutron radiography attracts attention particularly. This serial course describes overviews of two-phase flow visualization and measurement and freezing/cooling machinery as the first example of recent application to the machinery. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Neutron Imaging of Lithium Concentration in Battery Pouch Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    water distribution and removal phenomena in an operating pemfc via neutron radiography,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 155, no. 3, pp. B294–B302, 2008...12] J. B. Siegel, D. A. McKay, A. G. Stefanopoulou, D. S. Hussey, and D. L. Jacobson, “Measurement of liquid water accumulation in a pemfc with dead

  2. Time-of-flight neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging of microstructures in bent steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuhua, E-mail: yuhua.su@j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Oikawa, Kenichi; Harjo, Stefanus; Shinohara, Takenao; Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Hiroi, Kosuke [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Zhang, Shuoyuan; Parker, Joseph Don [Neutron R& D Division, CROSS-Tokai, 162-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Sato, Hirotaka [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Shiota, Yoshinori; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Tomota, Yo [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Neutron Bragg-edge transmission imaging makes it possible to quantitatively visualize the two-dimensional distribution of microstructure within a sample. In order to examine its application to engineering products, time-of-flight Bragg-edge transmission imaging experiments using a pulsed neutron source were performed for plastically bent plates composed of a ferritic steel and a duplex stainless steel. The non-homogeneous microstructure distributions, such as texture, crystalline size, phase volume fraction and residual elastic strain, were evaluated for the cross sections of the bent plates. The obtained results were compared with those by neutron diffraction and electron back scatter diffraction, showing that the Bragg-edge transmission imaging is powerful for engineering use.

  3. First downscattered neutron images from Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guler Nevzat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF are designed to understand and test the basic principles of self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT filled cryogenic plastic (CH capsules. The experimental campaign is ongoing to tune the implosions and characterize the burning plasma conditions. Nuclear diagnostics play an important role in measuring the characteristics of these burning plasmas, providing feedback to improve the implosion dynamics. The Neutron Imaging (NI diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by collecting images at two different energy bands for primary (13–15 MeV and downscattered (10–12 MeV neutrons. From these distributions, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. The first downscattered neutron images from imploding ICF capsules are shown in this paper.

  4. First downscattered neutron images from Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Nevzat; Aragonez, Robert J.; Archuleta, Thomas N.; Batha, Steven H.; Clark, David D.; Clark, Deborah J.; Danly, Chris R.; Day, Robert D.; Fatherley, Valerie E.; Finch, Joshua P.; Gallegos, Robert A.; Garcia, Felix P.; Grim, Gary; Hsu, Albert H.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Loomis, Eric N.; Mares, Danielle; Martinson, Drew D.; Merrill, Frank E.; Morgan, George L.; Munson, Carter; Murphy, Thomas J.; Oertel, John A.; Polk, Paul J.; Schmidt, Derek W.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Valdez, Adelaida C.; Volegov, Petr L.; Wang, Tai-Sen F.; Wilde, Carl H.; Wilke, Mark D.; Wilson, Douglas C.; Atkinson, Dennis P.; Bower, Dan E.; Drury, Owen B.; Dzenitis, John M.; Felker, Brian; Fittinghoff, David N.; Frank, Matthias; Liddick, Sean N.; Moran, Michael J.; Roberson, George P.; Weiss, Paul; Buckles, Robert A.; Cradick, Jerry R.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lutz, Steve S.; Malone, Robert M.; Traille, Albert

    2013-11-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are designed to understand and test the basic principles of self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled cryogenic plastic (CH) capsules. The experimental campaign is ongoing to tune the implosions and characterize the burning plasma conditions. Nuclear diagnostics play an important role in measuring the characteristics of these burning plasmas, providing feedback to improve the implosion dynamics. The Neutron Imaging (NI) diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by collecting images at two different energy bands for primary (13-15 MeV) and downscattered (10-12 MeV) neutrons. From these distributions, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. The first downscattered neutron images from imploding ICF capsules are shown in this paper.

  5. Research of the system response of neutron double scatter imaging for MLEM reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M., E-mail: wyj2013@163.com [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation-Simulation and Effect, Xi’an 710024 (China); Peng, B.D.; Sheng, L.; Li, K.N.; Zhang, X.P.; Li, Y.; Li, B.K.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, P.W.; Zhang, X.D.; Li, C.H. [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation-Simulation and Effect, Xi’an 710024 (China)

    2015-03-01

    A Maximum Likelihood image reconstruction technique has been applied to neutron scatter imaging. The response function of the imaging system can be obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, which is very time-consuming if the number of image pixels and particles is large. In this work, to improve time efficiency, an analytical approach based on the probability of neutron interaction and transport in the detector is developed to calculate the system response function. The response function was applied to calculate the relative efficiency of the neutron scatter imaging system as a function of the incident neutron energy. The calculated results agreed with simulations by the MCNP5 software. Then the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) reconstruction method with the system response function was used to reconstruct data simulated by Monte Carlo method. The results showed that there was good consistency between the reconstruction position and true position. Compared with back-projection reconstruction, the improvement in image quality was obvious, and the locations could be discerned easily for multiple radiation point sources.

  6. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Applications part 8. Application of neutron imaging to inspection of art objects and ancient artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Masahito; Masuzawa, Fumitake

    2007-01-01

    Neutron radiography is an imaging technique which provides images similar to X-ray radiography and is often used to study ancient artifacts and art objects because the measurements are non-destructive. While metallic elements contained in ancient artifacts, namely gold, silver, mercury, copper, tin, lead, or iron, have X-ray mass attenuation coefficient much higher than light elements composing organic substances, for neutron attenuation the coefficient values are entirely opposite. The method is particularly useful for examination of the internal structure and composition of cultural object made of organic materials inside the metallic vessel. Here some of the research results using JAEA-JRR3M facility are presented: sutras in a cylindrical copper tube, the interior structure of Buddha statues, bone materials in metallic bottles, bronze mirrors, ancient jars and textiles. (S. Ohno)

  7. Germany: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies - Technische Universitaet Muenchen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillinger, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES facility for neutron imaging is currently completely refurbished and will restart operation in summer 2012. ANTARES will again provide the combination of highest flux and highest resolution worldwide in neutron imaging. Additional methods include energy-dependent measurements (Bragg edges) for the identification of different elements and phases as well as (soon) phase gratings for linear phase contrast. With the collaboration partners The University of Queens (Canada), The Archäologisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege in Esslingen, Germany, and Archäologische Staatssammlung of Bavaria, Germany, research at ANTARES will focus on the examination of organic materials in combination with metal artefacts

  8. Dual-Particle Imaging System with Neutron Spectroscopy for Safeguard Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, Michael C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, Thomas M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    A dual-particle imager (DPI) has been designed that is capable of detecting gamma-ray and neutron signatures from shielded SNM. The system combines liquid organic and NaI(Tl) scintillators to form a combined Compton and neutron scatter camera. Effective image reconstruction of detected particles is a crucial component for maximizing the performance of the system; however, a key deficiency exists in the widely used iterative list-mode maximum-likelihood estimation-maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction technique. For MLEM a stopping condition is required to achieve a good quality solution but these conditions fail to achieve maximum image quality. Stochastic origin ensembles (SOE) imaging is a good candidate to address this problem as it uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to reach a stochastic steady-state solution. The application of SOE to the DPI is presented in this work.

  9. Development of instrumentation for imaging scattered cold neutrons. Phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, J.

    1988-01-01

    The project involves the development of a cold neutron imaging array consisting of a neutron to charged particle convertor and an array of Si detector pixels. Each detector pixel has its own preamplifier/signal conditioning chain and its own data storage registers. The parallel processing capability will be contained on WSI-ASIC sub-array wafers with 196 channels per wafer. Such sub-arrays can be assembled into large focal plane arrays. The high speed of the silicon detectors and signal conditioning chains makes 100,000 cps per pixel a realistic goal. Calculations and experimental measurements of neutron detection efficiency as a function of neutron wavelength are very encouraging. Preliminary design studies of the preamplifier/signal conditioning chain appear to present no insurmountable technical problems

  10. Neutron imaging of water penetration into cracked steel reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Wittmann, F.H.; Zhao, T.; Lehmann, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Service life and durability of reinforced concrete structures have become a crucial issue because of the economical and ecological implications. Service life of reinforced concrete structures is often limited by penetration of water and chemical compounds dissolved in water into the porous cement-based material. By now it is well-known that cracks in reinforced concrete are preferential paths for ingress of aggressive substances. Neutron radiography was successfully applied to study the process of water penetration into cracked steel reinforced concrete. In addition, the effectiveness of integral water repellent concrete to prevent ingress of water and salt solutions was investigated. Results are described in detail in this contribution. It will be shown that neutron radiography is a powerful method to visualize the process of water penetration into cracked and uncracked cement-based materials. On the basis of the obtained experimental data, it is possible to quantify the time-dependent water distributions in concrete with high accuracy and spatial resolution. It is of particular interest that penetration of water and salt solutions into damaged interfaces between concrete and steel can be visualized by means of neutron radiography. Deteriorating processes in cracked reinforced concrete structures can be studied in a completely new way. This advanced technology will help and find adequate ways to improve durability and service life of reinforced concrete structures. This will mean at the same time an essential contribution to improved sustainability.

  11. An information-theoretical approach to image resolution applied to neutron imaging detectors based upon individual discriminator signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Ferraton, Matthieu; Guerard, Bruno; Khaplanov, Anton; Piscitelli, Francesco; Platz, Martin; Rigal, Jean-Marie; Van Esch, Patrick; Daulle, Thibault

    2013-06-01

    1D or 2D neutron imaging detectors with individual wire or strip readout using discriminators have the advantage of being able to treat several neutron impacts partially overlapping in time, hence reducing global dead time. A single neutron impact usually gives rise to several discriminator signals. In this paper, we introduce an information-theoretical definition of image resolution. Two point-like spots of neutron impacts with a given distance between them act as a source of information (each neutron hit belongs to one spot or the other), and the detector plus signal treatment is regarded as an imperfect communication channel that transmits this information. The maximal mutual information obtained from this channel as a function of the distance between the spots allows to define a calibration-independent measure of resolution. We then apply this measure to quantify the power of resolution of different algorithms treating these individual discriminator signals which can be implemented in firmware. The method is then applied to different detectors existing at the ILL. Center-of-gravity methods usually improve the resolution over best-wire algorithms which are the standard way of treating these signals. (authors)

  12. An information-theoretical approach to image resolution applied to neutron imaging detectors based upon individual discriminator signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Ferraton, Matthieu; Guerard, Bruno; Khaplanov, Anton; Piscitelli, Francesco; Platz, Martin; Rigal, Jean-Marie; Van Esch, Patrick [Institut Laue Langevin, Neutron Detector Service, Grenoble (France); Daulle, Thibault [PHELMA Grenoble - INP Grenoble (France)

    2013-06-15

    1D or 2D neutron imaging detectors with individual wire or strip readout using discriminators have the advantage of being able to treat several neutron impacts partially overlapping in time, hence reducing global dead time. A single neutron impact usually gives rise to several discriminator signals. In this paper, we introduce an information-theoretical definition of image resolution. Two point-like spots of neutron impacts with a given distance between them act as a source of information (each neutron hit belongs to one spot or the other), and the detector plus signal treatment is regarded as an imperfect communication channel that transmits this information. The maximal mutual information obtained from this channel as a function of the distance between the spots allows to define a calibration-independent measure of resolution. We then apply this measure to quantify the power of resolution of different algorithms treating these individual discriminator signals which can be implemented in firmware. The method is then applied to different detectors existing at the ILL. Center-of-gravity methods usually improve the resolution over best-wire algorithms which are the standard way of treating these signals. (authors)

  13. Time-of-Flight Neutron Imaging on IMAT@ISIS: A New User Facility for Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Kockelmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cold neutron imaging and diffraction instrument IMAT at the second target station of the pulsed neutron source ISIS is currently being commissioned and prepared for user operation. IMAT will enable white-beam neutron radiography and tomography. One of the benefits of operating on a pulsed source is to determine the neutron energy via a time of flight measurement, thus enabling energy-selective and energy-dispersive neutron imaging, for maximizing image contrasts between given materials and for mapping structure and microstructure properties. We survey the hardware and software components for data collection and image analysis on IMAT, and provide a step-by-step procedure for operating the instrument for energy-dispersive imaging using a two-phase metal test object as an example.

  14. Large area imaging of hydrogenous materials using fast neutrons from a DD fusion generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, J.T., E-mail: ted@adelphitech.com [Adelphi Technology Inc., 2003 East Bayshore Road, Redwood City, California 94063 (United States); Williams, D.L.; Gary, C.K.; Piestrup, M.A.; Faber, D.R.; Fuller, M.J.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Apodaca, M. [Adelphi Technology Inc., 2003 East Bayshore Road, Redwood City, California 94063 (United States); Pantell, R.H.; Feinstein, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2012-05-21

    A small-laboratory fast-neutron generator and a large area detector were used to image hydrogen-bearing materials. The overall image resolution of 2.5 mm was determined by a knife-edge measurement. Contact images of objects were obtained in 5-50 min exposures by placing them close to a plastic scintillator at distances of 1.5 to 3.2 m from the neutron source. The generator produces 10{sup 9} n/s from the DD fusion reaction at a small target. The combination of the DD-fusion generator and electronic camera permits both small laboratory and field-portable imaging of hydrogen-rich materials embedded in high density materials.

  15. Notes on LCW Activation Calculation for Neutron Imaging Operations in the North Cave of Building 194

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-20

    This note estimates the amount of activation that could be produced in the Facilities-provided Low Conductivity Water (LCW) that is proposed to be used for cooling of electromagnets and beam stops in the Neutron Imaging (NI) accelerator project in the North Cave of Building 194.

  16. Interaction of Water with Cement Based Repository Materials - Application of Neutron Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglinn, P.J.; Brew, D.R.M.; Beer, F.C. De; Radebe, M.J.; Nshimirimana, R.

    2013-01-01

    Cementitious materials are conventionally used in conditioning intermediate and low level radioactive waste. In this study, a candidate cement-based wasteform and a series of barrier materials have been investigated using neutron imaging to: 1) characterise the wasteform for disposal in a repository for radioactive materials, and 2) characterise the compositon of the barrier materials in assessing their potential to transmit water. Imaging showed both the pore size distribution and the extent of the cracking that had occurred in the wasteform samples. The rate of the water penetration measured both by conventional sorptivity measurements and neutron imaging was greater than in pastes made from Ordinary Portland Cement. The ability of the cracks to distribute the water through the sample in a very short time was also evident. Macro-pore volume distributions of barrier samples, also acquired using neutron tomography, are shown to relate to water/cement ratio, composition and sorptivity data. The study highlights the significant potential of neutron imaging in the investigation of cementitious materials. The technique has the advantage of visualising and measuring, non-destructively, material distribution within macroscopic samples and is particularly useful in defining movement of water through the cementitious materials. (author)

  17. The use of neutron activation to detect a photographic image under a painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.; Bird, R.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron activation followed by autoradiography has been used in a number of studies of oil paintings to reveal brush technique, overpainting, pigment types and other information. The facilities of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment have been used to investigate whether there is a photographic image underlying a painting by the Swedish born artist Carl Magnus Oscar Fristrom (1856-1919)

  18. Imaging and focussing of neutrons by a zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, P.D.; Klein, A.G.; Opat, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    The use of refractive lenses for long wavelength neutrons, though possible, is severely limited by the fact that the refractive index differs only very slightly from unity. However, only a relatively thin layer of material is needed to produce an optical path difference of half a wavelength. This fact led the authors in 1978 to propose focussing by diffraction from a phase grating of variable spacing which is, in fact, a type of zone plate. They have been shown to work satisfactorily over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwaves, through visible light, and more recently soft X-rays. Their use in focussing matter waves has not heretofore been demonstrated

  19. Neutron imaging of a commercial Li-ion battery during discharge: Application of monochromatic imaging and polychromatic dynamic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Leslie G.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Ham, Kyungmin; Dobbins, Tabbetha A.; Liu, Ping; Vajo, John J.

    2011-01-01

    A commercial lithium-ion polymer battery of prismatic construction was imaged in 2D by monochromatic neutron radiography at wavelengths around a LiC 6 spectral feature. Over the range of 3-4 A, the neutron attenuation spectra for charged and discharged batteries are distinctly different. In a real-time experiment, a battery was observed during discharge at wavelengths spanning the LiC 6 spectral feature and its disappearance monitored. No evidence of 'staging' was detected in this preliminary experiment. A similar battery was imaged in 3D with a new tomographic data acquisition scheme based on the Greek golden ratio; the scheme allows convenient post-processing to establish 'time windows' for 3D image reconstruction. The 3D images at 5% state of charge intervals are compromised by beam hardening, but still show some asymmetric battery volume change with discharge. Finally comments on the future of neutron imaging for battery experiments, whether at continuous sources at nuclear reactors or at pulsed spallation sources, are discussed.

  20. Development and investigation of a neutron radiography imaging system with a low-pressure multistep chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, Yu.S.; Chernenko, S.P.; Ivanov, A.B.; Netusil, T.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Smykov, L.P.; Zanevsky, Yu.V.; Cisar, M.; Horacek, J.; Knourek, J.; Moucka, L.; Nezmar, L.; Pellar, L.; Pochman, J.; Schneider, Z.; Sidak, Z.; Vrba, I.; Bizek, V.; Zavadil, Z.; Beran, P.; Cerny, K.

    1988-01-01

    An imaging system of thermal neutrons for an investigation of digital neutron radiography has been developed and tested. Some characteristics obtained on a neutron radiography beam of an experimental reactor are reported. The coordinates of each event are determined in this system. After processing in a LSI 11/23 computer, a radiograph, accumulated in a histogramming memory of 64 K 16-bit words, is presented on a colour display. A 230x180 mm 2 low-pressure multistep chamber is used as a detector. Neutron conversion takes place in a 6 μm boron layer enriched to 86% in 10 B. The detection efficiency of thermal neutrons is no less than 3%. The count rate of the system reaches up to 2x10 5 events per second. A radiograph can be obtained within 10 minutes. The sensitivity of this system to gamma-background is low. One event/s is detected for a background of 1 R/h. The spatial resolution is found to be 0.7 mm (FWHM) using a cadmium knife edge. The integral nonlinearity is less than 0.4%. The possibility of using a hydrogeneous converter in this system for neutron radiography is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Time gating for energy selection and scatter rejection: High-energy pulsed neutron imaging at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Alicia; Schirato, Richard; McKigney, Edward; Hunter, James; Temple, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a linear accelerator in Los Alamos, New Mexico that accelerates a proton beam to 800 MeV, which then produces spallation neutron beams. Flight path FP15R uses a tungsten target to generate neutrons of energy ranging from several hundred keV to ~600 MeV. The beam structure has micropulses of sub-ns width and period of 1.784 ns, and macropulses of 625 μs width and frequency of either 50 Hz or 100 Hz. This corresponds to 347 micropulses per macropulse, or 1.74 x 104 micropulses per second when operating at 50 Hz. Using a very fast, cooled ICCD camera (Princeton Instruments PI-Max 4), gated images of various objects were obtained on FP15R in January 2015. Objects imaged included blocks of lead and borated polyethylene; a tungsten sphere; and a tungsten, polyethylene, and steel cylinder. Images were obtained in 36 min or less, with some in as little as 6 min. This is novel because the gate widths (some as narrow as 10 ns) were selected to reject scatter and other signal not of interest (e.g. the gamma flash that precedes the neutron pulse), which has not been demonstrated at energies above 14 MeV. This proof-of-principle experiment shows that time gating is possible above 14MeV and is useful for selecting neutron energy and reducing scatter, thus forming clearer images. Future work (simulation and experimental) is being undertaken to improve camera shielding and system design and to precisely determine optical properties of the imaging system.

  2. Use and imaging performance of CMOS flat panel imager with LiF/ZnS(Ag) and Gadox scintillation screens for neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, B. K.; kim, J. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Sim, C.; Cho, G.; Lee, D. H.; Seo, C.-W.; Jeon, S.; Huh, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In digital neutron radiography system, a thermal neutron imaging detector based on neutron-sensitive scintillating screens with CMOS(complementary metal oxide semiconductor) flat panel imager is introduced for non-destructive testing (NDT) application. Recently, large area CMOS APS (active-pixel sensor) in conjunction with scintillation films has been widely used in many digital X-ray imaging applications. Instead of typical imaging detectors such as image plates, cooled-CCD cameras and amorphous silicon flat panel detectors in combination with scintillation screens, we tried to apply a scintillator-based CMOS APS to neutron imaging detection systems for high resolution neutron radiography. In this work, two major Gd2O2S:Tb and 6LiF/ZnS:Ag scintillation screens with various thickness were fabricated by a screen printing method. These neutron converter screens consist of a dispersion of Gd2O2S:Tb and 6LiF/ZnS:Ag scintillating particles in acrylic binder. These scintillating screens coupled-CMOS flat panel imager with 25x50mm2 active area and 48μm pixel pitch was used for neutron radiography. Thermal neutron flux with 6x106n/cm2/s was utilized at the NRF facility of HANARO in KAERI. The neutron imaging characterization of the used detector was investigated in terms of relative light output, linearity and spatial resolution in detail. The experimental results of scintillating screen-based CMOS flat panel detectors demonstrate possibility of high sensitive and high spatial resolution imaging in neutron radiography system.

  3. A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE WATER DISTRIBUTION IN A SOIL SAMPLE USING NEUTRON IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šácha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical method by Kang et al. recently proposed for correcting two-dimensional neutron radiography for water quantification in soil. The method was tested on data from neutron imaging of the water infiltration in a soil sample. The raw data were affected by neutron scattering and by beam hardening artefacts. Two strategies for identifying the correction parameters are proposed in this paper. The method has been further developed for the case of three-dimensional neutron tomography. In a related experiment, neutron imaging is used to record ponded-infiltration experiments in two artificial soil samples. Radiograms, i.e., two-dimensional projections of the sample, were acquired during infiltration. A calculation was made of the amount of water and its distribution within the radiograms, in the form of two-dimensional water thickness maps. Tomograms were reconstructed from the corrected and uncorrected water thickness maps to obtain the 3D spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Without the correction, the beam hardening and the scattering effects overestimated the water content values close to the perimeter of the sample, and at the same time underestimated the values close to the centre of the sample. The total water content of the entire sample was the same in both cases. The empirical correction method presented in this study is a relatively accurate, rapid and simple way to obtain the quantitatively determined water content from two-dimensional and three-dimensional neutron images. However, an independent method for measuring the total water volume in the sample is needed in order to identify the correction parameters.

  4. ASIC Development for Three-Dimensional Silicon Imaging Array for Cold Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.L.; Jagadish, U.; Bryan, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    An Integrated Circuit (IC) readout chip with four channels arranged so as to receive input charge from the corners of the chip was designed for use with 5- to 7-mm pixel detectors. This Application Specific IC (ASIC) can be used for cold neutron imaging, for study of structural order in materials using cold neutron scattering or for particle physics experiments. The ASIC is fabricated in a 0.5-(micro)m n-well AMI process. The design of the ASIC and the test measurements made is reported. Noise measurements are also reported

  5. Image processing and resolution restoration of fast-neutron hodoscope data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, E.A.; DeVolpi, A.

    1982-01-01

    The fast-neutron hodoscope is a cineradiographic device that monitors fuel motion within thick opaque test capsules during radiation transients at the Transient Reactor Test Facility reactor which simulate accident conditions in power reactors. By means of a collimator and detector array, emissive neutron radiographic digital data is collected in time-resolved and static (scan) modes. Data is digitally reconstructed into raidographic images and used directly for quantitative analysis. Spatial resolution is adequate in most cases, but is marginal for a few experiments. Collimator repositioning, scan increment size-reduction, and deconvolution algorithms are being applied to improve resolution of existing collimators

  6. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, C.R.H.; Lefmann, K.; Abrahamsen, A.B.; Ronnow, H.M.; Saxild, F.; Jensen, T.B.S.; Udby, L.; Andersen, N.H.; Christensen, N.B.; Jakobsen, H.S.; Larsen, T.; Haefliger, P.S.; Streule, S.; Niedermayer, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator to perform real inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We present the results from inelastic powder, single crystal dispersion and single crystal constant energy mapping experiments. The advantages and complications of performing these experiments are discussed along with a comparison between the imaging mode and the traditional monochromatic focussing mode

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, C.R.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: christian.bahl@risoe.dk; Lefmann, K. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: kim.lefmann@risoe.dk; Abrahamsen, A.B. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ronnow, H.M. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Saxild, F. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jensen, T.B.S. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Udby, L. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, N.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Christensen, N.B. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Jakobsen, H.S. [Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, T. [Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Haefliger, P.S. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Streule, S.; Niedermayer, Ch. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator to perform real inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We present the results from inelastic powder, single crystal dispersion and single crystal constant energy mapping experiments. The advantages and complications of performing these experiments are discussed along with a comparison between the imaging mode and the traditional monochromatic focussing mode.

  8. How to observe water movement in plants using neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Uzuki

    2011-01-01

    Water in plants is one of the most important factors for life. Water availability, water distribution and water flow also regulate various plant physiological phenomena. However, non-destructive methods for the in-situ study of water transport are quite limited. Neutron Radiography (NR) seem to be appropriate methods to study water distribution in intact plants. Also the combination of NR with the low-contrast tracer D 2 O allows the direct visualization of water flow and the calculation of water flow rates in plants with a high resolution at the tissue level. This article gives general introduction into those two methods and report about most recent results of our experiments in this field. (author)

  9. Self characterization of a coded aperture array for neutron source imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volegov, P. L., E-mail: volegov@lanl.gov; Danly, C. R.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F. E.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Fittinghoff, D. N. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the stagnation stage of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Since the neutron source is small (∼100 μm) and neutrons are deeply penetrating (>3 cm) in all materials, the apertures used to achieve the desired 10-μm resolution are 20-cm long, triangular tapers machined in gold foils. These gold foils are stacked to form an array of 20 apertures for pinhole imaging and three apertures for penumbral imaging. These apertures must be precisely aligned to accurately place the field of view of each aperture at the design location, or the location of the field of view for each aperture must be measured. In this paper we present a new technique that has been developed for the measurement and characterization of the precise location of each aperture in the array. We present the detailed algorithms used for this characterization and the results of reconstructed sources from inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments at NIF.

  10. Spatial resolution limit study of a CCD camera and scintillator based neutron imaging system according to MTF determination and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharfi, F.; Denden, O.; Bourenane, A.; Bitam, T.; Ali, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial resolution limit is a very important parameter of an imaging system that should be taken into consideration before examination of any object. The objectives of this work are the determination of a neutron imaging system's response in terms of spatial resolution. The proposed procedure is based on establishment of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The imaging system being studied is based on a high sensitivity CCD neutron camera (2×10 −5 lx at f1.4). The neutron beam used is from the horizontal beam port (H.6) of the Algerian Es-Salam research reactor. Our contribution is on the MTF determination by proposing an accurate edge identification method and a line spread function undersampling problem-resolving procedure. These methods and procedure are integrated into a MatLab code. The methods, procedures and approaches proposed in this work are available for any other neutron imaging system and allow for judging the ability of a neutron imaging system to produce spatial (internal details) properties of any object under examination. - Highlights: ► Determination of spatial response of a neutron imaging system. ► Ability of a neutron imaging system to reproduce spatial properties of any object. ► Spatial resolution limits measurement using MTF with the slanted edge method. ► Accurate edge identification and line spread function sampling improvement. ► Development of a MatLab code to compute automatically the MTF.

  11. Evaluations of the new LiF-scintillator and optional brightness enhancement films for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iikura, H., E-mail: Iikura.hiroshi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsutsui, N. [Chichibu Fuji Co., Ltd., Ogano, Chichibu, Saitama 368-0193 (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Katagiri, M.; Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Kubo, J. [Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0126 (Japan); Matsubayashi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-09-21

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed the neutron scintillator jointly with Chichibu Fuji Co., Ltd. In this study, we evaluated the new ZnS(Ag):Al/{sup 6}Li scintillator developed for neutron imaging. It was confirmed that the brightness increased by about double while maintaining equal performance for the spatial resolution as compared with a conventional scintillator. High frame-rate imaging using a high-speed video camera system and this new scintillator made it possible to image beyond 10 000 frames per second while still having enough brightness. This technique allowed us to obtain a high-frame-rate visualization of oil flow in a running car engine. Furthermore, we devised a technique to increase the light intensity of reception for a camera by adding brightness enhancement films on the output surface of the scintillator. It was confirmed that the spatial resolution degraded more than double, but the brightness increased by about three times.

  12. Summary of the first neutron image data collected at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grim Gary P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A summary of data and results from the first neutron images produced by the National Ignition Facility (NIF, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA are presented. An overview of the neutron imaging technique is presented, as well as a synopsis of data and measurements made to date. Data from directly driven, DT filled microballoons, as well as indirectly driven, cryogenically layered ignition experiments are presented. The data show that the primary cores from directly driven implosions are approximately twice as large, 64 ± 3 μm, as indirectly driven cores, 25 ± 4 and 29 ± 4 μm and more asymmetric, P2/P0 = 47% vs. − 14% and 7%. Further, comparison with the size and shape of X-ray image data on the same implosions show good agreement, indicating X-ray emission is dominated by the hot regions of the implosion.

  13. SU-F-J-196: A Prototype System for Portal Imaging for Intensity Modulated Neutron Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St James, S; Argento, D; DeWitt, D; Miyaoka, R; Stewart, R [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Moffitt, G [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Fast neutron therapy is offered at the University of Washington Medical Center for treatment of selected cancers. The hardware and control systems of the UW Clinical Neutron Therapy System are undergoing upgrades to enable delivery of IMNT. To clinically implement IMNT, dose verification tools need to be developed. We propose a portal imaging system that relies on the creation of positron emitting isotopes ({sup 11}C and {sup 15}O) through (n, 2n) reactions with a PMMA plate placed below the patient. After field delivery, the plate is retrieved from the vault and imaged using a reader that detects the annihilation photons. The pattern of activity produced in the plate provides information to reconstruct the neutron fluence map that can be compared to fluence maps from Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations to verify treatment delivery. We have previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of the portal imaging system (GATE simulations) and the beam line (MCNP simulations). In this work, initial measurements using a prototype system are presented. Methods: Custom electronics were developed for BGO detectors read out with photomultiplier tubes (previous generation PET detectors from a CTI ECAT 953 scanner). Two detectors were placed in coincidence, with a detector separation of 2 cm. Custom software was developed to create the crystal look up tables and perform a limited angle planar reconstruction with a stochastic normalization. To test the initial capabilities of the system, PMMA squares were irradiated with neutrons at a depth of 1.5 cm and read out using the prototype system. Doses ranging from 10–200 cGy were delivered. Results: Using the prototype system, dose differences in the therapeutic range could be determined. Conclusion: The prototype portal imaging system is capable of detecting neutron doses as low as 10–50 cGy and shows great promise as a patient QA tool for IMNT.

  14. Japan: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    The pulsed neutron imaging using the time-of-flight method can give structural information on materials by using the characteristic features of the wavelength dependent neutron transmission. The crystal structure (lattice spacing), crystallite size, and preferred orientation in metal materials are investigated by analyzing the Bragg edge shapes and the elements by the resonance absorption peaks. Such information is important for characterizing the steels and other metal products, and only our group has the data analysis code for deducing such information. It is useful to apply the pulsed neutron imaging to the cultural heritages since the method helps to understand smithing and smelting processes of the specimens. The transmission method gives position dependent information and the diffraction gives complemental and more detailed data for the crystal structures and the textures. Therefore, the combined use of these methods is very useful for studying rigorously the crystal structure of cultural heritage samples. We have already collaborated with the Italian group for this direction, since the group has been performing the diffraction study. Therefore, we promote the research collaboratively for comprehensive and rigorous understanding of the crystallographic characteristics of the cultural heritages and archaeological specimens. The main object of this study is to obtain comprehensive crystallographic information of the cultural heritages and archaeological specimens. The main object of this study is to obtain comprehensive crystallographic information of the cultural heritages and the smithing and the smelting. To obtain such outcomes we are planning to perform mainly the pulsed neutron imaging using NOBORU at J-PARC, HUNS at Hokkaido University and INES at ISIS. We are the only group that can obtain the crystallographic images by using the pulsed neutron experiments coupled with the data analysis code we developed. In parallel we improve the Bragg edge analysis

  15. Sealed operation of a rf driven ion source for a compact neutron generator to be used for associated particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Hurley, J P; Ji, Q; Kwan, J W; Leung, K N

    2010-02-01

    We present the recent development of a prototype compact neutron generator to be used in conjunction with the method of associated particle imaging for the purpose of active neutron interrogation. In this paper, the performance and device specifications of these compact generators that employ rf driven ion sources will be discussed. Initial measurements of the generator performance include a beam spot size of 1 mm in diameter and a neutron yield of 2x10(5) n/s with air cooling.

  16. Neutron Imaging in Cultural Heritage Research at the FRM II Reactor of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Schillinger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron Imaging is ideally suited for applications in cultural heritage even at small reactors with moderate image resolution. However, recently, high resolution imaging is being increasingly used for advanced studies, especially in paleontology. The special contrast for hydrogen and between neighboring elements in the periodic system allows for new applications that are not accessible for X-rays, like organic material in enclosed containers made of ceramics or metals, fossilized bones in chalk rock or in ferrous “red” beds, and even for animal and hominid teeth. Fission neutrons permit the examination of large samples that otherwise show large attenuation for thermal neutrons.

  17. Neutron imaging: A non-destructive tool for materials testing. Report of a coordinated research project 2003-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The enhancement of utilization of research reactors is one of the major objectives of the IAEA's project on Effective Utilization of Research Reactors. In particular, the improvement of existing installations for neutron imaging and the effective utilization of such facilities are intended. From the experience of Type A facilities, it is obvious that some investment is required to come from simple neutron imaging methods (film, track-etch foils) to the more enhanced ones. Related to the installation and operation of the whole reactor system, the volume of the investment for an imaging device is minor. Also compared to the installations for neutron scattering research, neutron imaging systems are relatively cheap, but very efficient in the use of the neutrons. Therefore, one of the aims of the CRP was to look for adapted solutions for the individual reactor installation and beam line. Specific Research Objectives: To optimize the neutron beams for imaging purpose using modern simulation techniques; To enhance the beam intensity using modern layout principles, neutron optics, like focusing and beam guides and filters; To develop a standardized, low cost, neutron image grabber and analyzer for efficient data collection that can be used with low intensity sources; To improve signal processing techniques used in neutron imaging applications. Expected Research Outputs: Neutron radiography is used at research reactor centres in many Member States, but the facilities are not optimized for attractive potential applications. This fact has been brought out at various discussion meetings. The CRP is aimed at improving the design of beam lines in terms of neutron collimation and intensity; Improvements in resolution are normally achieved at a cost in intensity. For an instrument exhibiting good resolution, one needs to employ a fast counting system. It is proposed to work along these lines to develop an optimised detection system. Many facilities, at present, have small CCD

  18. Germany: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies - Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardjilov, Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    Neutron imaging is a non-destructive investigation method with a fast growing application field in materials research and fundamental science. The method is used broadly in the cultural heritage research as complementary technique to x-ray imaging. The ability of neutron beam to transmit thick layers of metal and the sensitivity to light elements makes the technique unique for detection of organic substances in metal and stone matrices. The high penetration power of neutrons allows for investigation of samples with real dimensions of about 100 cm3. The neutron imaging in cultural heritage helps to provide information about manufacturing processes and material properties which is very important for further restoration and conservation of the objects. The development of new methods like energy selective imaging and grating interferometry and the application of autoradiography increase the potential of the method for characterization of cultural heritage samples. The neutron tomography instrument CONRAD has been in operation since 2005 at the Hahn-Meitner research reactor at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). Over the last 5 years, significant development work has been performed to expand the radiographic and tomographic capabilities of the beamline. New techniques have been implemented, including imaging with polarized neutrons, Bragg-edge mapping, high-resolution neutron imaging and grating interferometry. These methods together with the autoradiography have been provided to the user community as tools to help address scientific problems particularly in the field of cultural heritage and palaeontology. Descriptions and parameters of the facilities are given

  19. Australia: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbe, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    With the ability to analyze and visualize local resolved texture by neutron imaging a great tool is created for better understanding of the history of the material (cultural heritage sample). It is important knowledge for any kind of manufactured material like jewelry, weapons, sculpture … as the texture shows the manufacturing history. In addition archeological samples embedded in rocks and stones will show the history of the environment in terms of deformation, sedimentation and metamorphosis conditions. All the texture information is available nondestructive and in combination with the real space 3D model. In order to establish texture imaging by neutron radiation, the method has to be developed and tested from simple basic textured material (single crystal and single phase) in small steps to more advanced systems like rolled or recrystallizes metal samples and finally geological samples with multiphase systems and large variation in grain size. A set of wavelength dependent neutron radiography images under certain orientations is needed to calculate the ODF and understand the texture. To determine the sufficient number of single images for ODF calculation several test materials with different known textures are required. This has to be developed in an iterative process from single crystal orientation to polycrystalline multiphase and multitexture material as especially geological samples represent the most complex textures. As an important outcome a user-friendly software package should be available which should be tested at different facilities with different type of samples. Consistent results from these facilities are strongly required to encourage the cultural heritage community in accepting the method. The typical end user has only basic knowledge of texture and neutron imaging and has to rely on the correctness of the measurement and analyses

  20. Neutron imaging with the short-pulse laser driven neutron source at the Trident laser facility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guler, N.; Volegov, P.; Favalli, A.; Merrill, F.E.; Falk, Kateřina; Jung, D.; Tybo, J.L.; Wilde, C.H.; Croft, S.; Danly, C.; Deppert, O.; Devlin, M.; Fernandez, J.; Gautier, D.C.; Geissel, M.; Haight, R.; Hamilton, C.E.; Hegelich, B.M.; Henzlova, D.; Johnson, R. P.; Schaumann, G.; Schoenberg, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Shimada, T.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Taddeucci, T.; Wender, S.A.; Wurden, G.A.; Roth, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 15 (2016), s. 1-12, č. článku 154901. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : inertial confinement fusion * ion-beams * plasma interactions * reconstruction * acceleration * dynamics * targets * images Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  1. In situ diagnostics of the crystal-growth process through neutron imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Makowska, Malgorzata Grazyna; Perrodin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Neutrons are known to be unique probes in situations where other types of radiation fail to penetrate samples and their surrounding structures. In this paper it is demonstrated how thermal and cold neutron radiography can provide time-resolved imaging of materials while they are being processed (e......, as limited by the resolution of the present experiments). It is also demonstrated that the dopant concentration can be quantified even for very low concentration levels (∼ 0.1%) in 10 mm thick samples. The interface between the solid and liquid phases can also be imaged, provided there is a sufficient change.......g. while growing single crystals). The processing equipment, in this case furnaces, and the scintillator materials are opaque to conventional X-ray interrogation techniques. The distribution of the europium activator within a BaBrCl:Eu scintillator (0.1 and 0.5% nominal doping concentrations per mole...

  2. Neutron stress measurement using image plate and the cos α method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Hirose, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    A new type of the neutron stress measurement method, in which the stress is determined by the cos α method, was studied. A neutron image plate was used in this study for detecting the diffraction image. Steel specimens of 5 mm thickness were used for the tensile stress test. The stresses obtain from the experiment showed one-to-one ratio with respect to the applied stresses, though the misfit stress of about 400 MPa was also observed in the result. A simple correction technique for calibrating raw data was proposed to obtain the true stress. A simulation study was carried out to check the experimental result on the peak positions in the diffraction ring and the stress calculation by the cos α method. (author)

  3. The monochromatic imaging mode of a RITA-type neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, C.R.H.; Andersen, P.; Klausen, S.N.; Lefmann, K.

    2004-01-01

    The imaging monochromatic mode of a neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed RITA analyser system is so far unexplored. We present analytical calculations that define the mode. It is shown that the mode can be realised for PG (0 0 2) analyser crystals, from incident energies of about 3.2 meV and up, allowing the important cases of 3.7, 5.0 and 13.7 meV. Due to beam divergence, the neutron rays from neighbouring analyser blades are found to overlap slightly. Hence, the optimal use of the monochromatic imaging mode would be found by employing an adjustable radial collimator to limit the spread of the ray from each analyser blade

  4. The monochromatic imaging mode of a RITA-type neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, C.R.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: christian.bahl@risoe.dk; Andersen, P. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Klausen, S.N. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lefmann, K. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-12-01

    The imaging monochromatic mode of a neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed RITA analyser system is so far unexplored. We present analytical calculations that define the mode. It is shown that the mode can be realised for PG (0 0 2) analyser crystals, from incident energies of about 3.2 meV and up, allowing the important cases of 3.7, 5.0 and 13.7 meV. Due to beam divergence, the neutron rays from neighbouring analyser blades are found to overlap slightly. Hence, the optimal use of the monochromatic imaging mode would be found by employing an adjustable radial collimator to limit the spread of the ray from each analyser blade.

  5. On-line video image processing system for real-time neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujine, S; Yoneda, K; Kanda, K [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1983-09-15

    The neutron radiography system installed at the E-2 experimental hole of the KUR (Kyoto University Reactor) has been used for some NDT applications in the nuclear field. The on-line video image processing system of this facility is introduced in this paper. A 0.5 mm resolution in images was obtained by using a super high quality TV camera developed for X-radiography viewing a NE-426 neutron-sensitive scintillator. The image of the NE-426 on a CRT can be observed directly and visually, thus many test samples can be sequentially observed when necessary for industrial purposes. The video image signals from the TV camera are digitized, with a 33 ms delay, through a video A/D converter (ADC) and can be stored in the image buffer (32 KB DRAM) of a microcomputer (Z-80) system. The digitized pictures are taken with 16 levels of gray scale and resolved to 240 x 256 picture elements (pixels) on a monochrome CRT, with the capability also to display 16 distinct colors on a RGB video display. The direct image of this system could be satisfactory for penetrating the side plates to test MTR type reactor fuels and for the investigation of moving objects.

  6. High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

    2009-01-01

    Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

  7. The measurement of the presampled MTF of a high spatial resolution neutron imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Raymond Lei; Biegalski, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    A high spatial resolution neutron imaging device was developed at the Mark II TRIGA reactor at University of Texas at Austin. As the modulation transfer function (MTF) is recognized as a well-established parameter for evaluation of imaging system resolution, the aliasing associated with digital sampling adds complexity to its measurement. Aliasing is especially problematic when using a high spatial resolution micro-channel plate (MCP) neutron detector that has a pixel grid size similar to that of a CCD array. To compensate for the aliasing an angulated edge method was used to evaluate the neutron imaging facility, overcoming aliasing by obtaining an oversampled edge spread function (ESF). Baseline correction was applied to the ESF to remove the noticeable trends and the LSF was multiplied by Hann window to obtain a smoothed version of presampled MTF. The computing procedure is confirmed by visual inspection of a testing phantom; in addition, it is confirmed by comparison to the MTF measurement of a scintillation screen with a known MTF curve

  8. Stability Measurements for Alignment of the NIF Neutron Imaging System Pinhole Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittinghoff, D.N.; Bower, D.E.; Drury, O.B.; Dzenitis, J.M.; Frank, M.; Buckles, R.A.; Munson, C.; Wilde, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The alignment system for the National Ignition Facility's neutron imaging system has been commissioned and measurements of the relative stability of the 90-315 DIM, the front and the back of the neutron imaging pinhole array and an exploding pusher target have been made using the 90-135 and the 90-258 opposite port alignment systems. Additionally, a laser beam shot from the neutron-imaging Annex and reflected from a mirror at the back of the pinhole array was used to monitor the pointing of the pinhole. Over a twelve hour period, the relative stability of these parts was found to be within ∼ ±18 (micro)m rms even when using manual methods for tracking the position of the objects. For highly visible features, use of basic particle tracking techniques found that the front of the pinhole array was stable relative to the 90-135 opposite port alignment camera to within ±3.4 (micro)m rms. Reregistration, however, of the opposite port alignment systems themselves using the target alignment sensor was found to change the expected position of target chamber center by up to 194 (micro)m.

  9. Non-destructive investigations of Swiss museums objects with neutron and x-ray imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, E.H.; Deschler, E.; Pernet, L.; Vontobel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Many objects of archaeological relevance found in Switzerland are from the Celtic and Roman era. Because of their uniqueness in most cases it is demanded to perform any investigation with such samples non-destructively. Depending on the structure and size of the objects a transmission experiment performed either with X-ray or neutron can alight inner structures, composition, defects or the principles of the manufacturing procedures. Furthermore, the treatment by conservators and restaurateurs becomes visible in many cases. This report describes some examples of such investigations. In the case of neutron investigations, beside the transmission imaging as a radiograph the three-dimensional structure was observed with a tomography technique. For X-ray radiography, the images were obtained in the same digital format because the similar experimental method (imaging plates) was applied. It becomes evident in the described examples that the combination and complementary use of both methods (neutrons and X-ray) brings insights in different aspects of the samples properties and treatment. This approach to study museums objects stored and exhibit in Switzerland can be extrapolated to other countries where these techniques are also simultaneously available in order to investigate other objects of relevance. The European network COST-G8 entitled 'Non-destructive analysis and testing of museum objects' can help to support initiatives in this direction. (author)

  10. How to organize a neutron imaging user lab? 13 years of experience at PSI, CH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, E.H., E-mail: eberhard.lehmann@psi.ch [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Kuehne, G.; Kaestner, A. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-09-21

    PSI has a relatively long tradition in neutron imaging since the first trials were done at its formerly existing research reactor SAPHIR with film methods. This reactor source was replaced after its shutdown in 1994 by the spallation neutron source SINQ in 1996, driven by the 590 MeV cyclotron for protons with presently up to 2.3 mA beam current. One of the first experimental devices at SINQ was the thermal neutron imaging facility NEUTRA, which was designed from scratch and has been the first device of its kind at a spallation source. Until now, NEUTRA has been successfully in use for many investigations in a wide range of studies covering fuel cell research, environmental behavior of plants, nuclear fuel inspection and the research on cultural heritage objects. It has been the host of PhD projects for students from all over Europe for years. In a previous meeting it has been offered as a European reference facility. Some of its features were really adapted to the layout of new installations. In 2004, it was possible to initiate the project of a second beam line at SINQ for imaging with cold neutrons. Previous studies have shown the potential of this option in order to broaden the user profile and to extend the scientific basis for neutron imaging. It was inaugurated with a workshop at PSI in 2005. The user service was started at the facility ICON in 2006. Beside the setup, installation and optimization of the facilities, the organization of the user program plays an important role. The two neutron imaging beam lines are equal installations at SINQ among the 14 scientific devices. Therefore, the user approach is organized via 'calls for proposals', which are sent out each half year via the 'Digital User Office (DUO)' (see (http://duo.web.psi.ch)). The evaluation of the proposals is done by the 'Advisory Committee for Neutron Imaging (ACNI)' consisting of 6 external and PSI internal members. Further requests are given by industrial

  11. How to organize a neutron imaging user lab? 13 years of experience at PSI, CH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E. H.; Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Kuehne, G.; Kaestner, A.

    2011-09-01

    PSI has a relatively long tradition in neutron imaging since the first trials were done at its formerly existing research reactor SAPHIR with film methods. This reactor source was replaced after its shutdown in 1994 by the spallation neutron source SINQ in 1996, driven by the 590 MeV cyclotron for protons with presently up to 2.3 mA beam current. One of the first experimental devices at SINQ was the thermal neutron imaging facility NEUTRA, which was designed from scratch and has been the first device of its kind at a spallation source. Until now, NEUTRA has been successfully in use for many investigations in a wide range of studies covering fuel cell research, environmental behavior of plants, nuclear fuel inspection and the research on cultural heritage objects. It has been the host of PhD projects for students from all over Europe for years. In a previous meeting it has been offered as a European reference facility. Some of its features were really adapted to the layout of new installations. In 2004, it was possible to initiate the project of a second beam line at SINQ for imaging with cold neutrons. Previous studies have shown the potential of this option in order to broaden the user profile and to extend the scientific basis for neutron imaging. It was inaugurated with a workshop at PSI in 2005. The user service was started at the facility ICON in 2006. Beside the setup, installation and optimization of the facilities, the organization of the user program plays an important role. The two neutron imaging beam lines are equal installations at SINQ among the 14 scientific devices. Therefore, the user approach is organized via "calls for proposals", which are sent out each half year via the "Digital User Office (DUO)" (see http://duo.web.psi.ch). The evaluation of the proposals is done by the "Advisory Committee for Neutron Imaging (ACNI)" consisting of 6 external and PSI internal members. Further requests are given by industrial collaborations. This beam time

  12. How to organize a neutron imaging user lab? 13 years of experience at PSI, CH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, E.H.; Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Kuehne, G.; Kaestner, A.

    2011-01-01

    PSI has a relatively long tradition in neutron imaging since the first trials were done at its formerly existing research reactor SAPHIR with film methods. This reactor source was replaced after its shutdown in 1994 by the spallation neutron source SINQ in 1996, driven by the 590 MeV cyclotron for protons with presently up to 2.3 mA beam current. One of the first experimental devices at SINQ was the thermal neutron imaging facility NEUTRA, which was designed from scratch and has been the first device of its kind at a spallation source. Until now, NEUTRA has been successfully in use for many investigations in a wide range of studies covering fuel cell research, environmental behavior of plants, nuclear fuel inspection and the research on cultural heritage objects. It has been the host of PhD projects for students from all over Europe for years. In a previous meeting it has been offered as a European reference facility. Some of its features were really adapted to the layout of new installations. In 2004, it was possible to initiate the project of a second beam line at SINQ for imaging with cold neutrons. Previous studies have shown the potential of this option in order to broaden the user profile and to extend the scientific basis for neutron imaging. It was inaugurated with a workshop at PSI in 2005. The user service was started at the facility ICON in 2006. Beside the setup, installation and optimization of the facilities, the organization of the user program plays an important role. The two neutron imaging beam lines are equal installations at SINQ among the 14 scientific devices. Therefore, the user approach is organized via 'calls for proposals', which are sent out each half year via the 'Digital User Office (DUO)' (see (http://duo.web.psi.ch)). The evaluation of the proposals is done by the 'Advisory Committee for Neutron Imaging (ACNI)' consisting of 6 external and PSI internal members. Further requests are given by industrial collaborations. This beam time

  13. Italy: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Materials characterization, through non-invasive techniques, represents an important strategic tool in the non-destructive quantitative analysis of artefacts of archaeological and historical interest. In fact, thanks to the high penetration power of thermal neutrons in dense matter, bulk analysis of massive findings, characteristic of archaeological activity, can be nowadays carried out in an almost straightforward way, especially on metal samples. By means of neutron diffraction, it is possible to obtain, without any need of sampling, the average bulk phase composition of the specimen and to reveal the hidden presence of mineralisation phases, which, in turn, gives a deep information on its preservation status. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the peak shape, can shed light on smelting and smithing methods, as well as on the amount of mechanical work that was originally carried out on the sample. Neutron imaging techniques, have developed to such an extent that, today, it is possible to reconstruct tomographic images down to ≅30 μm space resolution. In addition, thanks to the developing techniques of energy selective neutron imaging and tomography the scenario opens over a wealth of futuristic applications, thanks to the enhanced contrast inherent in this technique. At present, these energy selective techniques are only limited by the performances of the device needed to select the energy (and wavelength) of the incident neutron beam: i.e. a rotating disk velocity selector and double monochromator. The possibility of enhancing this technique by fully exploiting the Time of Flight technique could improve dramatically the energy resolution and consequently the range of possible “contrast enhancement” possibilities. What we propose is a research activity using energy selective neutron imaging, applied to cultural heritage metal artefacts, to study the historical evolution of iron production on a world basis, i.e. including European, middle-east, Indian, and

  14. Determination of neutron beam quality and evaluation of image quality (neutron radiography technique)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Muhammad Saridan Wan Hassan; Manan Munhamad Jaib; Ng Sook Kien; Lai Zhong Yuan; Azali Muhammad; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohd Rawi Abdullah

    2005-01-01

    The following topics were presented: beam purity Indicator (BPI) and sensitivity indicator (SI) test objects (ASTM E545-91); No Numbra (NU) test object (ASTM E803-91); MTF and Noise; parameters used in calculation; results of the experiments; summary of analysis. The resulting data consisted exposure contributors and sensitivity levels for films that were radiographed along with 0.25 and 0.5 mm Gd converters; visibility of holes and gaps on the image of the sensitivity indicator using both 0.25 and 0.5 mm Gd converters; qualitative data obtained from observation of the blurring effect on the lower boron nitride disc for both 0.25 and 0.5 mm Gd converters

  15. The new neutron radiography/tomography/imaging station DINGO at OPAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbe, U.; Randall, T.; Hughes, C.

    2011-01-01

    A new neutron imaging instrument will be built to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/tomography) at ANSTO. The instrument will be designed for an international user community and for routine quality control for defence, industrial, mining, space and aircraft applications. It will also be a useful tool for assessing oil and water flow in sedimentary rock reservoirs (like the North West Shelf), assessing water damage in aircraft components, and the study of hydrogen distribution and cracking in steel. The instrument is planned to be completed by the end of June 2013 and is currently in the design stage. The usable neutron flux is mainly determined by the neutron source, but it also depends on the instrument position and the resolution. The designated instrument position for DINGO is the beam port HB-2 in the reactor hall. The estimated flux for an L/D of approximately 250 at HB-2 is calculated by Mcstas simulation in a range of 4.75x10 7 n/cm 2 s, which is in the same range of other facilities like ANSTARES (FRM II; Schillinger et al., 2004 ) or BT2 (NIST; Hussey et al., 2005 ). A special feature of DINGO is the in-pile collimator place in front of the main shutter at HB-2. The collimator offers two pinholes with a possible L/D of 250 and 1000. A secondary collimator will separate the two beams and block one. The whole instrument will operate in two different positions, one for high resolution and the other for high speed.

  16. The new neutron radiography/tomography/imaging station DINGO at OPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, U.; Randall, T.; Hughes, C.

    2011-09-01

    A new neutron imaging instrument will be built to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/tomography) at ANSTO. The instrument will be designed for an international user community and for routine quality control for defence, industrial, mining, space and aircraft applications. It will also be a useful tool for assessing oil and water flow in sedimentary rock reservoirs (like the North West Shelf), assessing water damage in aircraft components, and the study of hydrogen distribution and cracking in steel. The instrument is planned to be completed by the end of June 2013 and is currently in the design stage. The usable neutron flux is mainly determined by the neutron source, but it also depends on the instrument position and the resolution. The designated instrument position for DINGO is the beam port HB-2 in the reactor hall. The estimated flux for an L/ D of approximately 250 at HB-2 is calculated by Mcstas simulation in a range of 4.75×10 7 n/cm 2 s, which is in the same range of other facilities like ANSTARES (FRM II; Schillinger et al., 2004 [1]) or BT2 (NIST; Hussey et al., 2005 [2]). A special feature of DINGO is the in-pile collimator place in front of the main shutter at HB-2. The collimator offers two pinholes with a possible L/ D of 250 and 1000. A secondary collimator will separate the two beams and block one. The whole instrument will operate in two different positions, one for high resolution and the other for high speed.

  17. Angular resolution study of a combined gamma-neutron coded aperture imager for standoff detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Hayward, Jason P.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear threat source observables at standoff distances of tens of meters from mCi class sources include both gamma-rays and neutrons. This work uses simulations to investigate the effects of the angular resolution of a mobile gamma-ray and neutron coded aperture imaging system upon orphan source detection significance and specificity. The design requires maintaining high sensitivity and specificity while keeping the system size as compact as possible to reduce weight, footprint, and cost. A mixture of inorganic and organic scintillators was considered in the detector plane for high sensitivity to both gamma-rays and fast neutrons. For gamma-rays (100 to 2500 keV) and fission spectrum neutrons, angular resolutions of 1–9° and radiation angles of incidence appropriate for mobile search were evaluated. Detection significance for gamma-rays considers those events that contribute to the photopeak of the image pixel corresponding the orphan source location. For detection of fission spectrum neutrons, energy depositions above a set pulse shape discrimination threshold were tallied. The results show that the expected detection significance for the system at an angular resolution of 1° is significantly lower compared to its detection significance an angular resolution of ∼3–4°. An angular resolution of ∼3–4° is recommended both for better detection significance and improved false alarm rate, considering that finer angular resolution does not result in improved background rejection when the coded aperture method is used. Instead, over-pixelating the search space may result in an unacceptably high false alarm rate

  18. The performance of an amorphous silicon flat panel for neutron imaging at the PSI NEUTRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estermann, Mirko; Frei, Gabriel; Lehmann, Eberhard; Vontobel, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Commonly applied imaging methods in neutron radiography use a CCD camera in conjunction with a scintillator or imaging plates. CCDs and imaging plates have desirable properties concerning resolution, linearity, dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) but both techniques have the disadvantage of a slow read out and for the CCD camera, an additional disadvantage is the loss of light through the optical system. Amorphous silicon detectors, originally developed for medical and industrial X-ray imaging, generally do not have the above-mentioned disadvantages. These detectors have a much faster readout and, in comparison to the generally used crystalline silicon, can be put directly in the X-ray or neutron beam without being damaged. This type of detector also does not require any optical interface, minimizing possible light loss. The detector is operated at room temperature, which has some influence on the noise. Using the whole dynamic range with a low gain, results in a S/N of up to 30, for normal applications, however, a S/N of about 15-20 is typical. The main drawback of this imaging device is the dynamic range of only 12 bits and the relatively complicated operating system in which different operation modes can be chosen. In 2003, successful experiments were performed with this new device, but it is still in its fledgling stages and improvements from the manufacturer as well as the experience from the NEUTRA team will help to advance this technique for neutron imaging in a most efficient way

  19. Fluid-flow measurements in low permeability media with high pressure gradients using neutron imaging: Application to concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehya, Mohamad; Andò, Edward; Dufour, Frédéric; Tengattini, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    This article focuses on a new experimental apparatus for investigating fluid flow under high pressure gradients within low-permeability porous media by means of neutron imaging. A titanium Hassler cell which optimises neutron transparency while allowing high pressure confinement (up to 50 MPa) and injection is designed for this purpose and presented here. This contribution focuses on the development of the proposed methodology thanks to some preliminary results obtained using a new neutron imaging facility named NeXT on the D50 beamline at the Institute Laue Langevin (Grenoble). The preliminary test was conducted by injecting normal water into concrete sample prepared and saturated with heavy water to take advantage of the isotope sensitivity of neutrons. The front between these two types of water is tracked in space and time with a combination of neutron radiography and tomography.

  20. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R., E-mail: raspberry@lanl.gov; Danly, C.; Fatherley, V. E.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Christensen, K.; Fittinghoff, D.; Grim, G. P.; Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Skulina, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF.

  1. Determination of very low concentrations of hydrogen in zirconium alloys by neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, N. L.; Santisteban, J. R.; Tartaglione, A.; Marín, J.; Barrow, L.; Daymond, M. R.; Schulz, M.; Grosse, M.; Tremsin, A.; Lehmann, E.; Kaestner, A.; Kelleher, J.; Kabra, S.

    2018-05-01

    Zr-based alloys are used in nuclear power plants because of a unique combination of very low neutron absorption and excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance at operating conditions. However, Hydrogen (H) or Deuterium ingress due to waterside corrosion during operation can embrittle these materials. In particular, Zr alloys are affected by Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC), a stress-corrosion cracking mechanism operating at very low H content (∼100-300 wt ppm), which involves the diffusion of H to the crack tip. H content in Zr alloys is commonly determined by destructive techniques such as inert gas fusion and vacuum extraction. In this work, we have used neutron imaging to non-destructively quantify the spatial distribution of H in Zr alloys specimens with a resolution of ∼5 wt ppm, an accuracy of ∼10 wt ppm and a spatial resolution of ∼25 μm × 5 mm x 10 mm. Non-destructive experiments performed on a comprehensive set of calibrated specimens of Zircaloy-2 and Zr2.5%Nb at four neutron facilities worldwide show the typical precision and repeatability of the technique. We have observed that the microstructure of the alloy plays an important role on the homogeneity of H across a specimen. We propose several strategies for performing H determinations without calibrated specimens, with the most precise results for neutrons having wavelengths longer than 5.7 Å.

  2. Simultaneous usage of pinhole and penumbral apertures for imaging small scale neutron sources from inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, N; Volegov, P; Danly, C R; Grim, G P; Merrill, F E; Wilde, C H

    2012-10-01

    Inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility are designed to understand the basic principles of creating self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled cryogenic plastic capsules. The neutron imaging diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by observing neutron images in two different energy bands for primary (13-17 MeV) and down-scattered (6-12 MeV) neutrons. From this, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. These experiments provide small sources with high yield neutron flux. An aperture design that includes an array of pinholes and penumbral apertures has provided the opportunity to image the same source with two different techniques. This allows for an evaluation of these different aperture designs and reconstruction algorithms.

  3. High-frame rate imaging of two-phase flow in a thin rectangular channel using fast neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboray, R; Mor, I; Dangendorf, V; Stark, M; Tittelmeier, K; Cortesi, M; Adams, R

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of performing high-frame-rate, fast neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a thin channel with rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. A polychromatic, high-intensity fast neutron beam with average energy of 6 MeV was produced by 11.5 MeV deuterons hitting a thick Be target. Image sequences down to 10 ms exposure times were obtained using a fast-neutron imaging detector developed in the context of fast-neutron resonance imaging. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and mean bubble velocities have been measured. The first results are promising, improvements for future experiments are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neutron Imaging for Selective Laser Melting Inconel Hardware with Internal Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Bilheux, Hassina

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing is showing great promise for the development of new innovative designs and large potential life cycle cost reduction for the Aerospace Industry. However, more development work is required to move this technology into space flight hardware production. With selective laser melting (SLM), hardware that once consisted of multiple, carefully machined and inspected pieces, joined together can be made in one part. However standard inspection techniques cannot be used to verify that the internal passages are within dimensional tolerances or surface finish requirements. NASA/MSFC traveled to Oak Ridge National Lab's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source to perform some non-destructive, proof of concept imaging measurements to assess the capabilities to understand internal dimensional tolerances and internal passages surface roughness. This presentation will describe 1) the goals of this proof of concept testing, 2) the lessons learned when designing and building these Inconel 718 test specimens to minimize beam time, 3) the neutron imaging test setup and test procedure to get the images, 4) the initial results in images, volume and a video, 4) the assessment of using this imaging technique to gather real data for designing internal flow passages in SLM manufacturing aerospace hardware, and lastly 5) how proper cleaning of the internal passages is critically important. In summary, the initial results are very promising and continued development of a technique to assist in SLM development for aerospace components is desired by both NASA and ORNL. A plan forward that benefits both ORNL and NASA will also be presented, based on the promising initial results. The initial images and volume reconstruction showed that clean, clear images of the internal passages geometry are obtainable. These clear images of the internal passages of simple geometries will be compared to the build model to determine any differences. One surprising result was that a new cleaning

  5. Imaging of heterogeneous materials by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, Parrish; Prettyman, Tom; Lestone, John

    1999-01-01

    We have used a Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS) to produce tomographic Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Imaging of heterogeneous matrices [T.H. Prettyman, R.J. Estep, G.A. Sheppard, Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 69 (1993) 183-184]. The TGS was modified by the addition of graphite reflectors that contain isotopic neutron sources for sample interrogation. We are in the process of developing the analysis methodology necessary for a quantitative assay of large containers of heterogeneous material. This nondestructive analysis technique can be used for material characterization and the determination of neutron assay correction factors. The most difficult question to be answered is the determination of the source to sample coupling term. To assist in the determination of the coupling term we have obtained images for a range of samples that are very well characterized; such as, homogenous pseudo one-dimensional samples to three-dimensional heterogeneous samples. We then compare the measurements to Monte Carlo N-particle calculations. For an accurate quantitative measurement it is also necessary to determine the sample gamma-ray self attenuation at higher gamma-ray energies, namely pair production should be incorporated into the analysis codes

  6. Imaging of heterogeneous materials by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, P.; Prettyman, T.; Lestone, J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have used a tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) to produce tomographic prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis imaging (PGNAA) of heterogeneous matrices. The TGS was modified by the addition of graphite reflectors that contain isotopic neutron sources for sample interrogation. The authors are in the process of developing the analysis methodology necessary for a quantitative assay of large containers of heterogeneous material. This nondestructive analysis (NDA) technique can be used for material characterization and the determination of neutron assay correction factors. The most difficult question to be answered is the determination of the source-to-sample coupling term. To assist in the determination of the coupling term, the authors have obtained images for a range of sample that are very well characterized, such as, homogenous pseudo one-dimensional samples to three-dimensional heterogeneous samples. They then compare the measurements to MCNP calculations. For an accurate quantitative measurement, it is also necessary to determine the sample gamma-ray self attenuation at higher gamma-ray energies, namely pair production should be incorporated into the analysis codes

  7. Simultaneous neutron and x-ray imaging of inertial confinement fusion experiments along a single line of sight at Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Day, T. H.; Herrmann, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Martinez, J. I.; Merrill, F. E.; Schmidt, D. W.; Simpson, R. A.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Fittinghoff, D. N.; Izumi, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Neutron and x-ray imaging provide critical information about the geometry and hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, existing diagnostics at Omega and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) cannot produce images in both neutrons and x-rays along the same line of sight. This leads to difficulty comparing these images, which capture different parts of the plasma geometry, for the asymmetric implosions seen in present experiments. Further, even when opposing port neutron and x-ray images are available, they use different detectors and cannot provide positive information about the relative positions of the neutron and x-ray sources. A technique has been demonstrated on implosions at Omega that can capture x-ray images along the same line of sight as the neutron images. The technique is described, and data from a set of experiments are presented, along with a discussion of techniques for coregistration of the various images. It is concluded that the technique is viable and could provide valuable information if implemented on NIF in the near future.

  8. Monte Carlo modeling of neutron and gamma-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.

    1996-04-01

    Detailed numerical prototypes are essential to design of efficient and cost-effective neutron and gamma-ray imaging systems. We have exploited the unique capabilities of an LLNL-developed radiation transport code (COG) to develop code modules capable of simulating the performance of neutron and gamma-ray imaging systems over a wide range of source energies. COG allows us to simulate complex, energy-, angle-, and time-dependent radiation sources, model 3-dimensional system geometries with ''real world'' complexity, specify detailed elemental and isotopic distributions and predict the responses of various types of imaging detectors with full Monte Carlo accuray. COG references detailed, evaluated nuclear interaction databases allowingusers to account for multiple scattering, energy straggling, and secondary particle production phenomena which may significantly effect the performance of an imaging system by may be difficult or even impossible to estimate using simple analytical models. This work presents examples illustrating the use of these routines in the analysis of industrial radiographic systems for thick target inspection, nonintrusive luggage and cargoscanning systems, and international treaty verification

  9. Single photon image from PET with insertable collimator for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jooyoung; Suh, Tae Suk; Hong, Key Jo

    2014-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiation therapy technique for treating deep-seated brain tumors by irradiation with a thermal neutron in which boron-labelled low molecular weight compounds. Once completed, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan is conducted to investigate for the region of therapy using an isotope exclusive to SPECT. In the case of an existing PET/SPECT combination system, at least two types of isotopes should be used for each scan with their purposes. Recently, researchers examined the effects of PET/SPECT dual modality on animal imaging systems. They reported that the PET/SPECT combination system was effective for simultaneous achievement of a single event and coincidence. The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one PET module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the BNCT. We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector

  10. A new transmission based monochromator for energy-selective neutron imaging at the ICON beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peetermans, S.; Tamaki, M.; Hartmann, S.; Kaestner, A.; Morgano, M.; Lehmann, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    A new type of monochromator has been developed for energy-selective neutron imaging at continuous sources. It combines the use of a mechanical neutron velocity selector with pyrolytic graphite crystals of different mosaicity. The beam can be monochromatized to similar levels as a standard double crystal monochromator. It can flexibly produce different desired spectral shapes, even an asymmetric one. Intrinsically, no higher order contamination of the spectrum is present. Working with the transmitted beam, the beam divergence (and thus the spatial resolution) is uncompromised. The device has been calibrated, characterized and its performance demonstrated with the measurement of Bragg edges for iron and lead, resolving them more sharply than if solely a mechanical velocity selector was used

  11. GPU-based prompt gamma ray imaging from boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suk Suh, Tae; Jo Hong, Key; Sil Lee, Keum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusions: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray image reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations

  12. Unfolding and smoothing applied to the quality enhancement of neutron tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Silvani, Maria I.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2008-01-01

    Resolution and contrast are the major parameters defining the quality of a computer-aided tomographic image. These parameters depend upon several features of the image acquisition system, such as detector resolution, geometrical arrangement of the source-object-detector, beam divergence, source strength, detector efficiency and counting time. Roughly, the detector finite resolution is the main source of systematic errors affecting the separation power of the image acquisition system, while the electronic noise and statistical fluctuation are responsible for the data dispersion, which spoils the contrast. An algorithm has been developed in this work aiming at the improvement of the image quality through the minimization of both types of errors. The systematic ones are reduced by a mathematical unfolding of the position spectra - used as projections to reconstruct the 2D-images - using the Line Spread Function - LSF of the neutron tomographic system. The principle behind this technique is that every single channel contains information about all channels of the spectrum, but it is concealed due to the automatic integration carried out by the detector. Therefore, knowing the shape of this curve, it is possible to retrieve the original spectra. These spectra are unfortunately corrupted by the unavoidable statistical fluctuation, and by oscillations arising from the unfolding process, which strongly affects the quality of the final unfolded image. In order to reduce this impact, the spectra have been filtered by a Fourier transform technique or smoothed with a least square fitting procedure. The algorithm has been applied to spectra of some test-bodies generated by an earlier developed tomographic simulator, which reproduces the spectra furnished by a thermal neutron tomographic system employing a position sensitive detector. The obtained results have shown that the unfolded spectra produce final images capable to resolve features otherwise not achievable with the

  13. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root

  14. A neutron image plate quasi-Laue diffractometer for protein crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipriani, F.; Castagna, J.C.; Wilkinson, C. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    An instrument which is based on image plate technology has been constructed to perform cold neutron Laue crystallography on protein structures. The crystal is mounted at the center of a cylindrical detector which is 400mm long and has a circumference of 1000mm, with gadolinium oxide-containing image plates mounted on its exterior surface. Laue images registered on the plate are read out by rotating the drum and translating a laser read head parallel to the cylinder axis, giving a pixel size of 200{mu}m x 200{mu}m and a total read time of 5 minutes. Preliminary results indicate that it should be possible to obtain a complete data set from a protein crystal to atomic resolution in about two weeks.

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of the dark signal in CMOS image sensors affected by neutron radiation from a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zujun; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Liu, Minbo; Ma, Wuying; Sheng, Jiangkun; Dong, Guantao; Jin, Junshan

    2017-12-01

    The CMOS image sensors (CISs) are irradiated with neutron from a nuclear reactor. The dark signal in CISs affected by neutron radiation is studied theoretically and experimentally. The Primary knock-on atoms (PKA) energy spectra for 1 MeV incident neutrons are simulated by Geant4. And the theoretical models for the mean dark signal, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and dark signal distribution versus neutron fluence are established. The results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental outputs. Finally, the dark signal in the CISs under the different neutron fluence conditions is estimated. This study provides the theoretical and experimental evidence for the displacement damage effects on the dark signal CISs.

  16. Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Oda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Tsuruno, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)

  17. Alternatives to argon for gas stopping volumes in the B194 neutron imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Caggiano, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hall, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ratkiewicz, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    In a recent experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the 40Ar(d,p)41Ar excitation function between 3-7 MeV was measured, confirming a previous estimation that there may be an intolerable radiation dose from 41Ar production by slowing to rest 6.74 MeV deuterons in the gas cell of the neutron imaging facility being constructed in B194. Gas alternatives to argon are considered, including helium, nitrogen (N2), neon, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), krypton, and xenon, as well as high atomic number solid backings such as tantalum.

  18. X-ray micro-CT and neutron CT as complementary imaging tools for non-destructive 3D imaging of rare silicified fossil plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, J.; Dudák, J.; Žemlička, J.; Vavřík, D.; Kumpová, I.; Kvaček, J.; Heřmanová, Z.; Šoltés, J.; Viererbl, L.; Morgano, M.; Kaestner, A.; Trtík, P.

    2017-12-01

    Computed tomography provides 3D information of inner structures of investigated objects. The obtained information is, however, strongly dependent on the used radiation type. It is known that as X-rays interact with electron cloud and neutrons with atomic nucleus, the obtained data often provide different contrast of sample structures. In this work we present a set of comparative radiographic and CT measurements of rare fossil plant samples using X-rays and thermal neutrons. The X-ray measurements were performed using large area photon counting detectors Timepix at IEAP CTU in Prague and Perkin Elmer flat-panel detector at Center of Excellence Telč. The neutron CT measurement was carried out at Paul Scherrer Institute using BOA beam-line. Furthermore, neutron radiography of fossil samples, provided by National Museum, were performed using a large-area Timepix detector with a neutron-sensitive converting 6LiF layer at Research Centre Rez, Czech Republic. The obtained results show different capabilities of both imaging approaches. While X-ray micro-CT provides very high resolution and enables visualization of fine cracks or small cavities in the samples neutron imaging provides high contrast of morphological structures of fossil plant samples, where X-ray imaging provides insufficient contrast.

  19. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrdlicka, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a radiographic method using a neutron beam of a defined geometry. The neutron source usually consists of a research reactor, a specialized neutron radiography reactor or the 252 Cf radioisotope source. There are two types of the neutron radiography display system, viz., a system producing neutron radiography images by a photographic process or a system allowing a visual display, eg., using a television monitor. The method can be used wherever X-ray radiography is used except applications in the radiography of humans. The neutron radiography unit at UJV uses the WWR-S reactor as the neutron source and both types of the above mentioned display system. (J.P.)

  20. Transmission and signal loss in mask designs for a dual neutron and gamma imager applied to mobile standoff detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Hayward, Jason P.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    In order to design a next-generation, dual neutron and gamma imager for mobile standoff detection which uses coded aperture imaging as its primary detection modality, the following design parameters have been investigated for gamma and neutron radiation incident upon a hybrid, coded mask: (1) transmission through mask elements for various mask materials and thicknesses; and (2) signal attenuation in the mask versus angle of incidence. Each of these parameters directly affects detection significance, as quantified by the signal-to-noise ratio. The hybrid mask consists of two or three layers: organic material for fast neutron attenuation and scattering, Cd for slow neutron absorption (if applied), and one of three of the following photon or photon and slow neutron attenuating materials—Linotype alloy, CLYC, or CZT. In the MCNP model, a line source of gamma rays (100–2500 keV), fast neutrons (1000–10,000 keV) or thermal neutrons was positioned above the hybrid mask. The radiation penetrating the mask was simply tallied at the surface of an ideal detector, which was located below the surface of the last mask layer. The transmission was calculated as the ratio of the particles transmitted through the fixed aperture to the particles passing through the closed mask. In order to determine the performance of the mask considering relative motion between the source and detector, simulations were used to calculate the signal attenuation for incident radiation angles of 0–50°. The results showed that a hybrid mask can be designed to sufficiently reduce both transmission through the mask and signal loss at large angles of incidence, considering both gamma ray and fast neutron radiations. With properly selected material thicknesses, the signal loss of a hybrid mask, which is necessarily thicker than the mask required for either single mode imaging, is not a setback to the system's detection significance

  1. Neutron autoradiography imaging of selective boron uptake in human metastatic tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: saverio.altieri@pv.infn.it; Bortolussi, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P.; Chiari, P.; Fossati, F.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Prati, U.; Roveda, L. [Unit of cancer surgery, Cancer Center of Excellence, Foundation T. Campanella, Catanzaro (Italy); Zonta, A.; Zonta, C.; Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Pinelli, T. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    The ability to selectively hit the tumour cells is an essential characteristic of an anti-tumour therapy. In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) this characteristic is based on the selective uptake of {sup 10}B in the tumour cells with respect to normal tissues. An important step in the BNCT planning is the measurement of the boron concentration in the tissue samples, both tumour and healthy. When the tumour is spread through the healthy tissue, as in the case of metastases, the knowledge of the different kinds of tissues in the sample being analysed is crucial. If the percentage of tumour and normal tissues cannot be evaluated, the obtained concentration is a mean value depending on the composition of the different samples being measured. In this case an imaging method that could give information both on the morphology and on the spatial distribution of boron concentration in the sample would be a fundamental support. In this paper, the results of the boron uptake analysis in the tumour and in the healthy samples taken from human livers after boron phenylalanine (BPA) infusion are shown; boron imaging was performed using neutron autoradiography.

  2. Image analysis of bubble behavior in the pressurized fluidized bed using neutron radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Masahide; Miike, Hidetoshi; Kishimoto, Yasuyuki; Matsubayasi, Masahito; Mochiki, Kouichi.

    1996-01-01

    It is very important to know about the formation for bubble production growth and destruction. Because blowing gas nozzle decide the ability of the solid-gas fluidized bed system. For the pressurized 3-D fluidized bed, it was some interested in the bubble production and configuration which was taken place the interaction between bubble and particle under the pressurized condition. For the understanding of the three dimensional characteristics of production bubble under pressurized condition, the study of visualization of neutron radiograph seemed to be useful. In stead of typical X-ray visualization method, visualization of neutron radiograph method for observation of bubble behavior were carried out. Then an image analysis of it was done the same way as two dimension method P-system (PIAS-LA555WS Image Analysis). As the results, the characteristic of production bubble was more clear quantitatively, for example, the bubble production frequency, the bubble diameter and the bubble horizontal and vertical sizes so on. (author)

  3. Experimental approaches for distribution and behavior of water in PEMFC under flow direction and differential pressure using neutron imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, TaeJoo; Kim, JongRok; Sim, CheulMuu; Lee, SeungWook; Kaviany, Massound; Son, SangYoung; Kim, MooHwan

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, we prepared a 3-parallel serpentine single PEMFC which has an active area of 25 cm 2 and a flow channel cross section of 1x1 mm. Distribution and transport of water in an operating PEMFC were observed by varying the flow directions (co-current and counter-current) in each channel and the differential pressures (100, 200, 300 kPa) applied between the anode and cathode channels. This investigation was performed at the neutron imaging facility at the NIST of which the collimation ratio and neutron fluence rate are 600, 7.2x10 6 n/s/cm 2 , respectively. Neutron image was continuously recorded by an amorphous silicon flat panel detector every 1 s during the operation of the fuel cell. It has been observed that the differential pressure affects the total amount of water produced while the flow direction affects the spatial distribution of water when the neutron images were analyzed for several different operating conditions. More specifically, the amount of water production in the fuel cell increased as the partial pressure increases at a given current density and the water production was more uniform for the counter current than the co-current case. It is shown that the neutron imaging technique is a powerful tool to visualize the PEMFC. The information on the water distribution and behavior at an operating PEMFC helps improve the efficiency of PEMFC.

  4. Performance Study of an aSi Flat Panel Detector for Fast Neutron Imaging of Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, M.; Mauerhofer, E. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Engels, R.; Kemmerling, G. [Central Institute for Engineering, Electronics and Analytics - Electronic Systems, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Frank, M. [MATHCCES - Department of Mathematics, RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen (Germany); Havenith, A.; Kettler, J.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, T. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology Transfer, RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen (Germany); Schitthelm, O. [Corporate Technology, Siemens AG, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized to check its conformance for intermediate storage and final disposal according to national regulations. For the determination of radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents of radioactive waste packages non-destructive analytical techniques are preferentially used. Fast neutron imaging is a promising technique to assay large and dense items providing, in complementarity to photon imaging, additional information on the presence of structures in radioactive waste packages. Therefore the feasibility of a compact Neutron Imaging System for Radioactive waste Analysis (NISRA) using 14 MeV neutrons is studied in a cooperation framework of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, RWTH Aachen University and Siemens AG. However due to the low neutron emission of neutron generators in comparison to research reactors the challenging task resides in the development of an imaging detector with a high efficiency, a low sensitivity to gamma radiation and a resolution sufficient for the purpose. The setup is composed of a commercial D-T neutron generator (Genie16GT, Sodern) with a surrounding shielding made of polyethylene, which acts as a collimator and an amorphous silicon flat panel detector (aSi, 40 x 40 cm{sup 2}, XRD-1642, Perkin Elmer). Neutron detection is achieved using a general propose plastic scintillator (EJ-260, Eljen Technology) linked to the detector. The thermal noise of the photodiodes is reduced by employing an entrance window made of aluminium. Optimal gain and integration time for data acquisition are set by measuring the response of the detector to the radiation of a 500 MBq {sup 241}Am-source. Detector performance was studied by recording neutron radiography images of materials with various, but well known, chemical compositions, densities and dimensions (Al, C, Fe, Pb, W, concrete, polyethylene, 5 x 8 x 10 cm{sup 3}). To simulate gamma-ray emitting waste radiographs in presence of a gamma-ray sources ({sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241

  5. Methods and applications in high flux neutron imaging; Methoden und Anwendungen fuer bildgebende Verfahren mit hohen Neutronenfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballhausen, H.

    2007-02-07

    This treatise develops new methods for high flux neutron radiography and high flux neutron tomography and describes some of their applications in actual experiments. Instead of single images, time series can be acquired with short exposure times due to the available high intensity. To best use the increased amount of information, new estimators are proposed, which extract accurate results from the recorded ensembles, even if the individual piece of data is very noisy and in addition severely affected by systematic errors such as an influence of gamma background radiation. The spatial resolution of neutron radiographies, usually limited by beam divergence and inherent resolution of the scintillator, can be significantly increased by scanning the sample with a pinhole-micro-collimator. This technique circumvents any limitations in present detector design and, due to the available high intensity, could be successfully tested. Imaging with scattered neutrons as opposed to conventional total attenuation based imaging determines separately the absorption and scattering cross sections within the sample. For the first time even coherent angle dependent scattering could be visualized space-resolved. New applications of high flux neutron imaging are presented, such as materials engineering experiments on innovative metal joints, time-resolved tomography on multilayer stacks of fuel cells under operation, and others. A new implementation of an algorithm for the algebraic reconstruction of tomography data executes even in case of missing information, such as limited angle tomography, and returns quantitative reconstructions. The setup of the world-leading high flux radiography and tomography facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin is presented. A comprehensive appendix covers the physical and technical foundations of neutron imaging. (orig.)

  6. Influence of the beam divergence on the quality neutron radiographic images improved by Richardson-Lucy deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Silvani, Maria Ines; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Images produced by radiation transmission, as many others, are affected by disturbances caused by random and systematic uncertainties. Those caused by noise or statistical dispersion can be diminished by a filtering procedure which eliminates high-frequencies associated to the noise, but unfortunately also those belonging to the signal itself. Systematic uncertainties, in principle, could be more effectively removed if one knows the spoiling convolution function causing the degradation of the image. This function depends upon the detector resolution and the non-punctual character of the source employed in the acquisition, which blur the image making a single point to appear as a spot with a vanishing edge. For an extended source, exhibiting however a reasonable parallel beam, the penumbra degrading the image would be caused by the unavoidable beam divergence. In both cases, the essential information to improve the degraded image is the law of transformation of a single point into a blurred spot, known as point spread function-PSF. Even for an isotropic system, where this function would have a symmetric bell-like shape, it is very difficult to obtain experimentally and to apply it to the data processing. For this reason it is usually replaced by an approximated analytical function such as a Gaussian or Lorentzian. In this work, the Richardson-Lucy deconvoultion has been applied to ameliorate thermal neutron radiographic images acquired with imaging plates using a Gaussian PSF as deconvolutor. Due to the divergence of the neutron beam, reaching 1 deg 16', the penumbra affecting the final image depends upon the gap object-detector. Moreover, even if the object were placed in direct contact with the detector the non-zero dimension of the object along the beam path would produce penumbrae of different magnitudes, i.e., the spatial resolution of the system would be dependent upon the object-detector arrangement. This means that the width of the PSF increases

  7. Use of fluorine-18-BPA PET images and image registration to enhance radiation treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Khurram

    The Monte-Carlo based simulation environment for radiation therapy (SERA) software is used to simulate the dose administered to a patient undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Point sampling of tumor tissue results in an estimate of a uniform boron concentration scaling factor of 3.5. Under conventional treatment protocols, this factor is used to scale the boron component of the dose linearly and homogenously within the tumor and target volumes. The average dose to the tumor cells by such a method could be improved by better methods of quantifying the in-vivo 10B biodistribution. A better method includes radiolabeling para-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) with 18F and imaging the pharmaceutical using positron emission tomography (PET). This biodistribution of 18F-BPA can then be used to better predict the average dose delivered to the tumor regions. This work uses registered 18F-BPA PET images to incorporate the in-vivo boron biodistribution within current treatment planning. The registered 18F-BPA PET images are then coupled in a new computer software, PET2MRI.m, to linearly scale the boron component of the dose. A qualititative and quantitative assessment of the dose contours is presented using the two approaches. Tumor volume, tumor axial extent, and target locations are compared between using MRI or PET images to define the tumor volume. In addition, peak-to-normal brain value at tumor axial center is determined for pre and post surgery patients using 18F-BPA PET images. The differences noted between the registered GBM tumor volumes (range: 34.04--136.36%), tumor axial extent (range: 20--150%), and the beam target location (1.27--4.29 cm) are significantly different. The peak-to-normal brain values are also determined at the tumor axial center using the 18F-BPA PET images. The peak-to-normal brain values using the last frame of the pre-surgery study for the GBM patients ranged from 2.05--3.4. For post surgery time weighted PET data, the peak

  8. On the Design and Test of a Neutron Collimator for Real-time Neutron Imaging in the MeV Energy Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, Jonathan; Colling, Bethany; Joyce, Malcolm J.; Mellor, M.

    2013-06-01

    A neutron collimator has been designed in MCNP5 and tested for feasibility of use in imaging applications. Tungsten, polyethylene, PVC and lead have been compared as collimating materials for neutrons in the MeV energy range; tungsten is predicted to be the most successful material for a restricted volume, giving the highest signal-to-noise ratio and the best resolving power. Experimental data has been used to confirm that tungsten works effectively as a neutron collimator although some discrepancies between real and MCNP5 results were observed. A suspension of tungsten powder in polyethylene has also been tested to address the machining difficulties, mass and cost issues associated with tungsten. This material performs midway between tungsten and polyethylene for a constant volume, and more successfully than tungsten for a constant mass therefore giving this material potential as a collimation material in some scenarios. Further MCNP5 modelling has been performed by varying model parameters and monitoring the collimator functions produced by these changes. These results are conclusive but dependent on the applications of the imaging system. (authors)

  9. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tremsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods. The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (∼739 ± 98 kPa and ∼751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ∼758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ∼ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. The ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.

  10. Atomic force microscopic neutron-induced alpha-autoradiography for boron imaging in detailed cellular histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, K.; Takahashi, H.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Yanagie, H.; Eriguchi, M.; Nakagawa, Y.; Sakurai, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The information on subcellular microdistribution of 10 B compounds a cell is significant to evaluate the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) because the damage brought by the released alpha/lithium particles is highly localized along their path, and radiation sensitivity is quite different among each cell organelles. In neutron-induced alpha-autoradiography (NIAR) technique, 10 B can be measured as tracks for the energetic charged particles from 10 B(n, alpha) 7 Li reactions in solid state track detectors. To perform the NIAR at intracellular structure level for research of 10 B uptake and/or microdosimetry in BNCT, we have developed high-resolution NIAR method with an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM has been used for analyses of biological specimens such as proteins, DNAs and surface of living cells have, however, intracellular detailed histology of cells has been hardly resolved with AFM since flat surface of sectioned tissue has quite less topographical contrast among each organelle. In our new sample preparation method using UV processing, materials that absorb UV in a semi-thin section are selectively eroded and vaporized by UV exposure, and then fine relief for cellular organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, filament structure and so on reveals on flat surface of the section, which can be observed with an AFM. The imaging resolution was comparable to TEM imaging of cells. This new method provides fast and cost-effective observation of histological sections with an AFM. Combining this method with NIAR technique, intracellular boron mapping would be possible. (author)

  11. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi

    1988-01-01

    The thermal neutron absorption coefficient is essentially different from the X-ray absorption coefficient. Each substance has a characteristic absorption coefficient regardless of its density. Neutron deams have the following features: (1) neutrons are not transmitted efficiently by low molecular weight substances, (2) they are transmitted efficiently by heavy metals, and (3) the transmittance differs among isotopes. Thus, neutron beams are suitable for cheking for foreign matters in heavy metals and testing of composites consisting of both heavy and light materials. A neutron source generates fast neutrons, which should be converted into thermal neutrons by reducing their energy. Major neutron souces include nuclear reactors, radioisotopes and particle accelerators. Photographic films and television systems are mainly used to observe neutron transmission images. Computers are employed for image processing, computerized tomography and three-dimensional analysis. The major applications of neutron radiography include inspection of neclear fuel; evaluation of material for airplane; observation of fuel in the engine and oil in the hydraulic systems in airplanes; testing of composite materials; etc. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Signatures of asymmetry in neutron spectra and images predicted by three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of indirect drive implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chittenden, J. P., E-mail: j.chittenden@imperial.ac.uk; Appelbe, B. D.; Manke, F.; McGlinchey, K.; Niasse, N. P. L. [Centre for Inertial Fusion Studies, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    We present the results of 3D simulations of indirect drive inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the “high-foot” radiation pulse on the National Ignition Facility. The results are post-processed using a semi-deterministic ray tracing model to generate synthetic deuterium-tritium (DT) and deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron spectra as well as primary and down scattered neutron images. Results with low-mode asymmetries are used to estimate the magnitude of anisotropy in the neutron spectra shift, width, and shape. Comparisons of primary and down scattered images highlight the lack of alignment between the neutron sources, scatter sites, and detector plane, which limits the ability to infer the ρr of the fuel from a down scattered ratio. Further calculations use high bandwidth multi-mode perturbations to induce multiple short scale length flows in the hotspot. The results indicate that the effect of fluid velocity is to produce a DT neutron spectrum with an apparently higher temperature than that inferred from the DD spectrum and which is also higher than the temperature implied by the DT to DD yield ratio.

  13. Fast-neutron and gamma-ray imaging with a capillary liquid xenon converter coupled to a gaseous photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, I.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Vartsky, D.; Arazi, L.; Shchemelinin, S.; Caspi, E. N.; Breskin, A.

    2017-09-01

    Gamma-ray and fast-neutron imaging was performed with a novel liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation detector read out by a Gaseous Photomultiplier (GPM). The 100 mm diameter detector prototype comprised a capillary-filled LXe converter/scintillator, coupled to a triple-THGEM imaging-GPM, with its first electrode coated by a CsI UV-photocathode, operated in Ne/5%CH4 at cryogenic temperatures. Radiation localization in 2D was derived from scintillation-induced photoelectron avalanches, measured on the GPM's segmented anode. The localization properties of 60Co gamma-rays and a mixed fast-neutron/gamma-ray field from an AmBe neutron source were derived from irradiation of a Pb edge absorber. Spatial resolutions of 12± 2 mm and 10± 2 mm (FWHM) were reached with 60Co and AmBe sources, respectively. The experimental results are in good agreement with GEANT4 simulations. The calculated ultimate expected resolutions for our application-relevant 4.4 and 15.1 MeV gamma-rays and 1-15 MeV neutrons are 2-4 mm and ~ 2 mm (FWHM), respectively. These results indicate the potential applicability of the new detector concept to Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR) and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography (DDEGR) of large objects.

  14. A Micromegas Detector for Neutron Beam Imaging at the n_TOF Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Calviani, M; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Giomataris, Y; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Iguaz, F J; Kebbiri, M; Pancin, J; Papaevangelou, T; Tsinganis, A; Vlachoudis, V; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Corté-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Marítnez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A J M; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiss, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Micromegas (Micro-MEsh Gaseous Structure) detectors are gas detectors consisting of a stack of one ionization and one proportional chamber. A micromesh separates the two communicating regions, where two different electric fields establish respectively a charge drift and a charge multiplication regime. The n\\_TOF facility at CERN provides a white neutron beam (from thermal up to GeV neutrons) for neutron induced cross section measurements. These measurements need a perfect knowlodge of the incident neutron beam, in particular regarding its spatial profile. A position sensitive micromegas detector equipped with a B-10 based neutron/charged particle converter has been extensively used at the n\\_TOF facility for characterizing the neutron beam profile and extracting the beam interception factor for samples of different size. The boron converter allowed to scan the energy region of interest for neutron induced capture reactions as a function of the neutron energy, determined by the time of flight. Experimental ...

  15. The 3D tomographic image reconstruction software for prompt-gamma measurement of the boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, Boris; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2006-01-01

    A tomographic imaging system based on the spatial distribution measurement of the neutron capture reaction during Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) would be very useful for clinical purpose. Using gamma-detectors in a 2D-panel, boron neutron capture and hydrogen neutron capture gamma-rays emitted by the neutron irradiated region can be detected, and an image of the neutron capture events can be reconstructed. A 3D reconstruction software package has been written to support the development of a 3D prompt-gamma tomographic system. The package consists of three independent modules: phantom generation, reconstruction and evaluation modules. The reconstruction modules are based on algebraic approach of the iterative reconstruction algorithm (ART), and on the maximum likelihood estimation method (ML-EM). In addition to that, two subsets of the ART, the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) and the component averaging algorithms (CAV) have been included to the package employing parallel codes for multiprocessor architecture. All implemented algorithms use two different field functions for the reconstruction of the region. One is traditional voxel function, another is, so called, blob function, smooth spherically symmetric generalized Kaiser-Bessel function. The generation module provides the phantom and projections with background by tracing the prompt gamma-rays for a given scanner geometry. The evaluation module makes statistical comparisons between the generated and reconstructed images, and provides figure-of-merit (FOM) values for the applied reconstruction algorithms. The package has been written in C language and tested under Linux and Windows platforms. The simple graphical user interface (GUI) is used for command execution and visualization purposed. (author)

  16. Neutron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beynon, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    the paper concerns neutron holography, which allows an image to be constructed of the surfaces, as well as the interiors, of objects. The technique of neutron holography and its applications are described. Present and future use of the method is briefly outlined. (U.K.)

  17. Neutron imaging methods for the investigation of energy related materials. Fuel cells, battery, hydrogen storage and nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Boillat, Pierre; Kaestner, Anders; Vontobel, Peter; Mannes, David

    2015-10-01

    After a short explanation of the state-of-the-art in the field of neutron imaging we give some examples how energy related materials can be studied successfully. These are in particular fuel cell studies, battery research approaches, the storage of hydrogen, but also some investigations with nuclear fuel components. The high contrast for light isotopes like H-1, Li-6 or B-10 are used to trace low amounts of material even within compact sealing of metals which are relatively transparent for neutrons at the same time.

  18. Neutron Generators Developed at LBNL for Homeland Security and Imaging Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, Jani

    2006-01-01

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed various types of advanced D-D (neutron energy 2.5 MeV), D-T (14 MeV) and T-T (0-9 MeV) neutron generators for wide range of applications. These applications include medical (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), homeland security (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, Fast Neutron Activation Analysis and Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy) and planetary exploration with a sub-surface material characterization on Mars. These neutron generators utilize RF induction discharge to ionize the deuterium/tritium gas. This discharge method provides high plasma density for high output current, high atomic species from molecular gases, long life operation and versatility for various discharge chamber geometries. Four main neutron generator developments are discussed here: high neutron output co-axial neutron generator for BNCT applications, point neutron generator for security applications, compact and sub-compact axial neutron generator for elemental analysis applications. Current status of the neutron generator development with experimental data will be presented

  19. The use of neutron imaging for the study of honeycomb structures in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungler, P.C.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Lewis, W.J.; Brenizer, J.S.; Heller, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Highly maneuverable aircraft, such as the CF188 Hornet, have several flight control surfaces on both the leading and the trailing edges of the wing surfaces. They are composed of composite panels constructed of aluminum honeycomb core usually covered with graphite epoxy skins. Although very light and structurally stiff, they are being compromised by water ingress. The trapped water degrades their structural integrity by interacting with the adhesive. Various studies are underway to understand the movement of water in the honeycomb core as well as to determine a method of removing the water. With a vertical neutron beam tube at Royal Military College (RMC), the component can be positioned horizontally and the pooled water in each honeycomb cell can be imaged. These images have been compared with those from a horizontal beam and thus vertical placement of the structure at Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineer Center's Breazeale reactor. Thereby, both the filet bond between the honeycomb and the skin as well as the node bond between the honeycomb cells can be studied to determine their contribution to the movement of water throughout the structure. Moreover, the exit path for water has been visualized as part of developing a drying procedure for these flight control surfaces.

  20. Neutronics analysis for the ITER core imaging X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serikov, Arkady, E-mail: arkady.serikov@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Suarez, Alejandro; Barnsley, Robin; Bertalot, Luciano; O’Connor, Richard; Thenevin, Raphaël; Udintsev, Victor S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Proposed substantial radiation shielding design improvements of the CIXS system. • Radiation protection of the CIXS Port Interspace (PI) to provide personnel access. • The SDDR at PI was reduced by 100× from 2 mSv/h to 20 microSv/h. • A screen plate as a temporary shield at the CIXS maintenance period has been proposed. • The shadow effect created by a screen plate reduces SDDR by 9×. - Abstract: This paper presents new results of the MCNP neutronics analysis for the core imaging X-ray spectrometer (CIXS) system of the ITER Equatorial Port Plug #17 (EPP#17). Substantial radiation shielding design improvements of the CIXS system have been suggested as the outcomes of this analysis. These suggested improvements allow reaching two major goals: (1) radiation protection of the CIXS Port Interspace (PI) to provide personnel access for maintenance of the vacuum extension flange; (2) reduction of the neutron and gamma loads on the detectors to reduce the need for maintenance itself. By implementing the improvements in our models such as filling void spaces around the CIXS beams with boron carbide and inserting the tungsten collimators in the narrowed beam channel, we were able to reduce the Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR) in the PI by 100× from 2 mSv/h in the original CIXS design to 20 microSv/h. In case of non-changed MCNP geometry, the D1S method was applied in calculations of SDDR. To allow the maintenance access to the flange, a part of shielding was removed, therefore the R2Smesh methodology was applied instead of D1S. During the maintenance access of CIXS from the PI side, a screen plate was proposed to introduce behind which a worker receives much less SDDR.

  1. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaa eldin, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The digital processing of the neutron radiography images gives the possibility for data quantification. In this case an exact relation between the measured neutron attenuation and the real macroscopic attenuation coefficient for every point of the sample is required. The assumption that the attenuation of the neutron beam through the sample is exponential is valid only in an ideal case where a monochromatic beam, non scattering sample and non background contribution are assumed. In the real case these conditions are not fulfilled and in dependence on the sample material we have more or less deviation from the exponential attenuation law. Because of the high scattering cross-sections of hydrogen (σs=80.26 barn) for thermal neutrons, the problem with the scattered neutrons at quantitative radiography investigations of hydrogenous materials (as PE, Oil, H 2 O, etc) is not trivial. For these strong scattering materials the neutron beam attenuation is no longer exponential and a dependence of the macroscopic attenuation coefficient on the material thickness and on the distance between the sample and the detector appears. When quantitative radiography (2 D) or tomography investigations (3 D) are performed, some image correction procedures for a description of the scattering effect are required. This thesis presents a method that can be used to enhance the neutron radiography image for objects with high scattering materials like hydrogen, carbon and other light materials. This method uses the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, to simulate the neutron radiography process and get the flux distribution for each pixel of the image and determine the scattered neutrons distribution that causes the image blur and then subtract it from the initial image to improve its quality.

  2. Dynamic infrared imaging for cancer: research and development in the Argentine Boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Bertotti, J.; Marin, J.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the Argentine Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) project for treating metastatic cutaneous melanoma, we have initiated a research and development program aimed at obtaining a noninvasive methodology for following-up the treated patients. The technique is called Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) and comprises the acquisition of infrared images as a function of time of the anatomical part under study, when the region is subjected to a mild cold stress. Vascular, metabolic and regulating differences between normal and tumor tissues appear as differences in the pattern of temperature evolution, which can be correlated with the anatomical and functional aspects of both. Two patients enrolled in the BNCT protocol were studied with DIRI. A good spatial correlation between dose, temperature recovery velocity and skin reaction distributions was observed at the time of maximum expression of the erythematous reaction. Melanoma nodules appear as highly localized hyperthermic regions, surrounded and interconnected by elevated temperature areas. Their temperature recovery velocity after the thermal cold stress was substantially faster than that of normal skin with an appreciably large temperature difference (6 degreesC to 10 degreesC). These tissue differences can be related with the thermal conductivity and metabolic rate as explained by a simple one-directional heat transport model. Compared with other imaging modalities (CT and Doppler ultrasound) DIRI has had a similar ability for confirming the already diagnosed nodules. Together with the clinical observation, DIRI provides a potentially useful amount of information, at a competitive cost-benefit relationship suitable for performing a non-invasive functional assessment of this kind of cutaneous lesions and the evaluation of the acute skin reaction following irradiation. (author)

  3. Pixel pitch and particle energy influence on the dark current distribution of neutron irradiated CMOS image sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, Jean-Marc; Goiffon, Vincent; Virmontois, Cédric; Raine, Mélanie; Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Molina, Romain; Magnan, Pierre; Gilard, Olivier

    2016-02-22

    The dark current produced by neutron irradiation in CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) is investigated. Several CIS with different photodiode types and pixel pitches are irradiated with various neutron energies and fluences to study the influence of each of these optical detector and irradiation parameters on the dark current distribution. An empirical model is tested on the experimental data and validated on all the irradiated optical imagers. This model is able to describe all the presented dark current distributions with no parameter variation for neutron energies of 14 MeV or higher, regardless of the optical detector and irradiation characteristics. For energies below 1 MeV, it is shown that a single parameter has to be adjusted because of the lower mean damage energy per nuclear interaction. This model and these conclusions can be transposed to any silicon based solid-state optical imagers such as CIS or Charged Coupled Devices (CCD). This work can also be used when designing an optical imager instrument, to anticipate the dark current increase or to choose a mitigation technique.

  4. Measurement of fast neutron spectrum using CR-39 detectors and a new image analysis program (autoTRAKn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sabyasachi; Tripathy, S.P.; Sahoo, G.S.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the neutron spectrum using the CR-39 (Solid state nuclear track) detector and a new image analyzing program. For this purpose the earlier developed program (autoTRAK) is modified by introducing the required features such as angular correction for the recoil particles, fluence-to-dose conversion coefficient, detection sensitivity of CR-39 detectors, etc. to make it applicable for neutron spectrometry and dosimetry. This upgraded program (autoTRAK n ) is tested with a mono-energetic source (D–T) and two other standard neutron sources, viz. 241 Am–Be and 252 Cf. The program is validated by reproducing these standard spectra, and comparing with the spectra reported by other investigators using different measuring techniques. The ratios of dose equivalent (H ⁎ (10)) to fluence (Φ) are also estimated from the spectra and are compared with the reference values for these neutron sources. An additional feature of this program is explored for counting high density overlapping tracks more precisely and effectively compared to other commonly used image analyzing softwares. This method is found to be simple and promising, which can always be used as a supplementary measuring technique. The details of the modified program, reproduction and comparison of the neutron spectra, reproducibility of the methodology and example of overlapping track counting are presented and discussed. -- Highlights: •A novel image analysis technique (autoTRAK n ) is developed to evaluate CR-39 detectors used for neutron spectrometry and dosimetry. •The methodology is tested to reproduce three standard neutron spectra, (a) D–T, (b) 241 Am–Be, and (c) 252 Cf. •A good matching is observed between dosimetric values obtained by the program and the available reference values. •The program autoTRAK n is also observed to be efficient to distinguish high density overlapping tracks without any segregation procedure. •The methodology seems to be simple, which

  5. Neutron Imaging study of bubble behaviors in Nanofluid Through Engineered Orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol; Kim, Tae Joo

    2014-01-01

    Most studies focused on the change of surface parameters through deposited nanoparticles, while Vafaei and Wen firstly discussed modification of bubble dynamics by dispersed nanoparticles in fluid as well as deposited ones. The boiling mechanism, as an effective heat transfer mode, includes bubble generation, growth, departure, and coalescence. Therefore the change of bubble dynamics can lead to the change of boiling heat transfer condition. That is, not only surface characteristics but the dispersed nanoparticles would be the essential parameters of boiling mechanism in terms of bubble dynamics. For advanced visualization of opaque fluids, the neutron imaging technique is introduced. In the present study, the bubble dynamics in nanofluid through engineered orifices was studied. The main parameters of engineered orifices are size and geometry. Photographic analysis of bubble departure frequency and averaged bubble departure volume provides as follows: With increasing orifice diameter, averaged bubble departure volume increases, while bubble departure frequency decreases. The results are attributed to enhanced capillary force by increasing contact perimeter. Averaged bubble departure volume and bubble departure frequency remain similar for three different types of orifices. But edges of the triangle and square orifice produce small bubbles which interrupts bubble generation. The converged triple contact line due to the edge may be a reason for the emerged baby bubbles. Nanofluid shows less averaged bubble departure volume and higher bubble departure frequency. Considering little change in physical properties of the fluid, interaction between bubble interface and nanoparticles may be in charge of the results

  6. Investigation for Water Propagation at PEMFC with Single Channel by Neutron Imaging Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Joo; Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Jong Rok; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Effective water management increases performance and durability of the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cell(PEMFC). The membrane in PEMFC must be sufficiently hydrated because its conductivity relies primarily on the humidity state of the membrane. Since water is generated as a by-product when the fuel cell is generating power, this water source can be said to be a 'disturbance' to any water management system, which is trying to maintain proper humidity level without flooding. Since water is generated throughout the active area, the downstream area can be flooded even when the upstream area is under-saturated. This creates a challenging environment for water management, which adversely affects the efficiency and reliability in the operation of the PEMFC. Although there are many researches for the water management, their interests are limited on the performance. However, the fundamental information of water propagation characteristics is needed to make a scheme for water management. In this study, we used specially designed PEMFC with only single channel, and the water propagation was investigated according to the channel location by neutron imaging technique

  7. Design of the polar neutron-imaging aperture for use at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatherley, V. E., E-mail: vef@lanl.gov; Martinez, J. I.; Merrill, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Schmidt, D. W.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Barker, D. A.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Hibbard, R. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The installation of a neutron imaging diagnostic with a polar view at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) required design of a new aperture, an extended pinhole array (PHA). This PHA is different from the pinhole array for the existing equatorial system due to significant changes in the alignment and recording systems. The complex set of component requirements, as well as significant space constraints in its intended location, makes the design of this aperture challenging. In addition, lessons learned from development of prior apertures mandate careful aperture metrology prior to first use. This paper discusses the PHA requirements, constraints, and the final design. The PHA design is complex due to size constraints, machining precision, assembly tolerances, and design requirements. When fully assembled, the aperture is a 15 mm × 15 mm × 200 mm tungsten and gold assembly. The PHA body is made from 2 layers of tungsten and 11 layers of gold. The gold layers include 4 layers containing penumbral openings, 4 layers containing pinholes and 3 spacer layers. In total, there are 64 individual, triangular pinholes with a field of view (FOV) of 200 μm and 6 penumbral apertures. Each pinhole is pointed to a slightly different location in the target plane, making the effective FOV of this PHA a 700 μm square in the target plane. The large FOV of the PHA reduces the alignment requirements both for the PHA and the target, allowing for alignment with a laser tracking system at NIF.

  8. Application of backscatter electrons for large area imaging of cavities produced by neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastukhov, V.I. [Joint Stock Company “Institute of Nuclear Materials” (JSC “INM”), Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Region (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University Named After the First President of Russia, B. N. Yeltsyn, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Averin, S.A.; Panchenko, V.L. [Joint Stock Company “Institute of Nuclear Materials” (JSC “INM”), Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Region (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Portnykh, I.A. [Joint Stock Company “Institute of Nuclear Materials” (JSC “INM”), Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Region (Russian Federation); Freyer, P.D. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Giannuzzi, L.A. [L.A. Giannuzzi & Associates LLC, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Garner, F.A., E-mail: frank.garner@dslextreme.com [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Radiation Effects Consulting LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-15

    It is shown that with proper optimization, backscattered electrons in a scanning electron microscope can produce images of cavity distribution in austenitic steels over a large specimen surface for a depth of ∼500–700 nm, eliminating the need for electropolishing or multiple specimen production. This technique is especially useful for quantifying cavity structures when the specimen is known or suspected to contain very heterogeneous distributions of cavities. Examples are shown for cold-worked EK-164, a very heterogeneously-swelling Russian fast reactor fuel cladding steel and also for AISI 304, a homogeneously-swelling Western steel used for major structural components of light water cooled reactors. This non-destructive overview method of quantifying cavity distribution can be used to direct the location and number of required focused ion beam prepared transmission electron microscopy specimens for examination of either neutron or ion-irradiated specimens. This technique can also be applied in stereo mode to quantify the depth dependence of cavity distributions.

  9. Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grünzweig, C.; Kopeček, Jaromír; Betz, B.; Kaestner, A.; Jefimovs, K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Gasser, U.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Lehmann, E.; Donath, T.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 12 (2012), "125104-1"-"125104-6" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : neutron scattering (including small-angle scattering) * atom and neutron interferometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  10. Experimental Component Characterization, Monte-Carlo-Based Image Generation and Source Reconstruction for the Neutron Imaging System of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, C A; Moran, M J

    2007-08-21

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is one of seven ignition target diagnostics under development for the National Ignition Facility. The NIS is required to record hot-spot (13-15 MeV) and downscattered (6-10 MeV) images with a resolution of 10 microns and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10 at the 20% contour. The NIS is a valuable diagnostic since the downscattered neutrons reveal the spatial distribution of the cold fuel during an ignition attempt, providing important information in the case of a failed implosion. The present study explores the parameter space of several line-of-sight (LOS) configurations that could serve as the basis for the final design. Six commercially available organic scintillators were experimentally characterized for their light emission decay profile and neutron sensitivity. The samples showed a long lived decay component that makes direct recording of a downscattered image impossible. The two best candidates for the NIS detector material are: EJ232 (BC422) plastic fibers or capillaries filled with EJ399B. A Monte Carlo-based end-to-end model of the NIS was developed to study the imaging capabilities of several LOS configurations and verify that the recovered sources meet the design requirements. The model includes accurate neutron source distributions, aperture geometries (square pinhole, triangular wedge, mini-penumbral, annular and penumbral), their point spread functions, and a pixelated scintillator detector. The modeling results show that a useful downscattered image can be obtained by recording the primary peak and the downscattered images, and then subtracting a decayed version of the former from the latter. The difference images need to be deconvolved in order to obtain accurate source distributions. The images are processed using a frequency-space modified-regularization algorithm and low-pass filtering. The resolution and SNR of these sources are quantified by using two surrogate sources. The simulations show that all LOS

  11. Development and characterization of a D-D fast neutron generator for imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert; Bort, Lorenz; Zboray, Robert; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2015-02-01

    The experimental characterization of a pulsed D-D fast neutron generator designed for fan-beam tomography applications is presented. Using Monte Carlo simulations the response of an LB6411 neutron probe was related to the neutron generator output. The yield was measured to be up to ∼10(7) neutrons/s. An aluminum block was moved stepwise between the source and a BC400 plastic scintillator detector in order to measure an edge response. This edge response was related to the neutron emitting spot size using Monte Carlo simulations and a simplified geometry-based model. The experimentally determined spot size of 2.2 mm agreed well with the simulated value of 1.5 mm. The time-dependence of pulsed output for various operating conditions was also measured. The neutron generator was found to satisfy design requirements for a planned fast neutron tomography arrangement based on a plastic scintillator detector array which is expected to be capable of producing 2D tomograms with a resolution of ∼1.5 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization and MCNP simulation of neutron energy spectrum shift after transmission through strong absorbing materials and its impact on tomography reconstructed image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachouf, N; Kharfi, F; Boucenna, A

    2012-10-01

    An ideal neutron radiograph, for quantification and 3D tomographic image reconstruction, should be a transmission image which exactly obeys to the exponential attenuation law of a monochromatic neutron beam. There are many reasons for which this assumption does not hold for high neutron absorbing materials. The main deviations from the ideal are due essentially to neutron beam hardening effect. The main challenges of this work are the characterization of neutron transmission through boron enriched steel materials and the observation of beam hardening. Then, in our work, the influence of beam hardening effect on neutron tomographic image, for samples based on these materials, is studied. MCNP and FBP simulation are performed to adjust linear attenuation coefficients data and to perform 2D tomographic image reconstruction with and without beam hardening corrections. A beam hardening correction procedure is developed and applied based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of the projections data. Results from original and corrected 2D reconstructed images obtained shows the efficiency of the proposed correction procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on beam geometry and image reconstruction algorithm in fast neutron computerized tomography at NECTAR facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.; Bücherl, T.; Zou, Y.; Guo, Z.

    2011-09-01

    Investigations on the fast neutron beam geometry for the NECTAR facility are presented. The results of MCNP simulations and experimental measurements of the beam distributions at NECTAR are compared. Boltzmann functions are used to describe the beam profile in the detection plane assuming the area source to be set up of large number of single neutron point sources. An iterative algebraic reconstruction algorithm is developed, realized and verified by both simulated and measured projection data. The feasibility for improved reconstruction in fast neutron computerized tomography at the NECTAR facility is demonstrated.

  14. Study on beam geometry and image reconstruction algorithm in fast neutron computerized tomography at NECTAR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J.; Buecherl, T.; Zou, Y.; Guo, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Investigations on the fast neutron beam geometry for the NECTAR facility are presented. The results of MCNP simulations and experimental measurements of the beam distributions at NECTAR are compared. Boltzmann functions are used to describe the beam profile in the detection plane assuming the area source to be set up of large number of single neutron point sources. An iterative algebraic reconstruction algorithm is developed, realized and verified by both simulated and measured projection data. The feasibility for improved reconstruction in fast neutron computerized tomography at the NECTAR facility is demonstrated.

  15. Study on beam geometry and image reconstruction algorithm in fast neutron computerized tomography at NECTAR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and School of Physics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Lu, Beijing 100871 (China); Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching 80748 (Germany); Buecherl, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching 80748 (Germany); Zou, Y., E-mail: zouyubin@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and School of Physics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Lu, Beijing 100871 (China); Guo, Z. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and School of Physics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Lu, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-09-21

    Investigations on the fast neutron beam geometry for the NECTAR facility are presented. The results of MCNP simulations and experimental measurements of the beam distributions at NECTAR are compared. Boltzmann functions are used to describe the beam profile in the detection plane assuming the area source to be set up of large number of single neutron point sources. An iterative algebraic reconstruction algorithm is developed, realized and verified by both simulated and measured projection data. The feasibility for improved reconstruction in fast neutron computerized tomography at the NECTAR facility is demonstrated.

  16. Egypt: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongy, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) is a pool-type reactor with an open water surface and variable core arrangement. The core power is 22 MWth cooled by light water, moderated by water and with beryllium reflectors. The design concept is based on the requirement of being a reactor of versatile utilizations, It has been mainly designed for: Basic and applied research in reactor physics and nuclear engineering, neutron radiography for research and industrial purpose, radioisotope production for medical and industrial purposes, beam hole experimentation for neutron scattering experiments and neutron radiography, material testing, material irradiation, activation analysis and training of scientific and technical personnel

  17. Velocity determination of neutron-rich projectile fragments with a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitelhack, K.

    1992-11-01

    For the velocity determination of relativistic heavy ions (A>100) in the energy range 300A.MeV ≤ E kin ≤ 2A.GeV a highly resolving, compact ring-imaging Cherenkov counter with large dynamical measurement range was developed. The Cherenkov light cone emitted in the flight of a relativistic heavy ion by a liquid layer (C 6 F 14 ) is focused on the entrance window of a one-dimensional position-resolving VUV-sensitive photon detector. This gas detector is operated at atmospheric pressure with a mixture of 90% methane and 10% isobutane with 0.04% TMAE as photosensitive admixture. For 725A.MeV 129 Xe ions a velocity resolution Δβ/β=1.8.10 -3 and a nuclear charge-number resolution ΔZ/Z=5.1.10 -2 was reached. The over the photon energy range 5.4 eV ≤ E γ ≤ 7.2 eV averaged detection efficiency of the detector system was determined to ε tot =2.8%>. At the 0deg magnet spectrometer Fragmentseparator of the GSI Darmstadt the RICH detector was for the first time applied for the identification of nuclear charge number and mass of heavy relativistic projectile fragments. In the experiment the production cross sections of very neutron-rich nuclei by fragmentation of 136 Xe projectiles in the reaction 76A.MeV 136 Xe on 27 Al were determined. From the measured production erates for the production of the double-magic nucleus 132 Zn in this reaction a cross section of σ=(0.4± 0.3 0.6 ) μbarn can be extrapolated. (orig./HSI) [de

  18. Conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M image reconstruction algorithm for neutron stimulated emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, R.S.; Yoriyaz, H.; Santos, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm is an iterative computational method for maximum likelihood (M-L) estimates, useful in a variety of incomplete-data problems. Due to its stochastic nature, one of the most relevant applications of E-M algorithm is the reconstruction of emission tomography images. In this paper, the statistical formulation of the E-M algorithm was applied to the in vivo spectrographic imaging of stable isotopes called Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). In the process of E-M algorithm iteration, the conditional probability distribution plays a very important role to achieve high quality image. This present work proposes an alternative methodology for the generation of the conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M reconstruction algorithm, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and with the application of the reciprocity theorem. (author)

  19. Conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M image reconstruction algorithm for neutron stimulated emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, R.S.; Yoriyaz, H.; Santos, A., E-mail: rodrigossviana@gmail.com, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.br, E-mail: asantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm is an iterative computational method for maximum likelihood (M-L) estimates, useful in a variety of incomplete-data problems. Due to its stochastic nature, one of the most relevant applications of E-M algorithm is the reconstruction of emission tomography images. In this paper, the statistical formulation of the E-M algorithm was applied to the in vivo spectrographic imaging of stable isotopes called Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). In the process of E-M algorithm iteration, the conditional probability distribution plays a very important role to achieve high quality image. This present work proposes an alternative methodology for the generation of the conditional probability distribution associated to the E-M reconstruction algorithm, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and with the application of the reciprocity theorem. (author)

  20. TU-FG-BRB-07: GPU-Based Prompt Gamma Ray Imaging From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S; Suh, T; Yoon, D; Jung, J; Shin, H; Kim, M [The catholic university of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to perform the fast reconstruction of a prompt gamma ray image using a graphics processing unit (GPU) computation from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) simulations. Methods: To evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed image, a phantom including four boron uptake regions (BURs) was used in the simulation. After the Monte Carlo simulation of the BNCT, the modified ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm using the GPU computation was used to reconstruct the images with fewer projections. The computation times for image reconstruction were compared between the GPU and the central processing unit (CPU). Also, the accuracy of the reconstructed image was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The image reconstruction time using the GPU was 196 times faster than the conventional reconstruction time using the CPU. For the four BURs, the area under curve values from the ROC curve were 0.6726 (A-region), 0.6890 (B-region), 0.7384 (C-region), and 0.8009 (D-region). Conclusion: The tomographic image using the prompt gamma ray event from the BNCT simulation was acquired using the GPU computation in order to perform a fast reconstruction during treatment. The authors verified the feasibility of the prompt gamma ray reconstruction using the GPU computation for BNCT simulations.

  1. Miscellaneous neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddings, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Attention is brought to the less often uses of neutrons in the areas of neutron radiography, well logging, and neutron gaging. Emphasis on neutron radiography points toward the isotopic sensitivity of the method versus the classical bulk applications. Also recognized is the ability of neutron radiography to produce image changes that correspond to thickness and density changes obtained in photon radiography. Similarly, neutron gaging applications center on the measurement of radiography. Similarly, neutron gaging applications center on the measurement of water, oil, or plastics in industrial samples. Well logging extends the neutron gaging to encompass many neutron properties and reactions besides thermalization and capture. Neutron gaging also gives information on organic structure and concentrations of a variety of elements or specific compounds in selected matrices

  2. In situ diagnostic of two-phase flow phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Denis; Zhang, Jianbo; Shimoi, Ryoichi; Lehmann, Eberhard; Wokaun, Alexander; Shinohara, Kazuhiko; Scherer, Guenther G.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron radiographical measurements have been performed on operating hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). With the successful detection of liquid accumulation in flow field and gas diffusion layer (GDL) under various operating conditions a unique experimental approach for the investigation of two-phase flow phenomena in technical PEFC has been realized. The experimental setup will be described in detail. Algorithms for an enhanced quantitative evaluation of the obtained images are presented and successful application to the data demonstrated. Finally, results from PEFC investigations will be given. Different flow field geometries and their implications for liquid accumulation inside flow field and GDL are discussed

  3. Development of a hybrid MSGC detector for thermal neutron imaging with a MHz data acquisition and histogramming system

    CERN Document Server

    Gebauer, B; Richter, G; Levchanovsky, F V; Nikiforov, A

    2001-01-01

    For thermal neutron imaging at the next generation of high-flux pulsed neutron sources a large area and fourfold segmented, hybrid, low-pressure, two-dimensional position sensitive, microstrip gas chamber detector, fabricated in a multilayer technology on glass substrates, is presently being developed, which utilizes a thin composite sup 1 sup 5 sup 7 Gd/CsI neutron converter. The present article focusses on the readout scheme and the data acquisition (DAQ) system. For position encoding, interpolating and fast multihit delay line based electronics is applied with up to eightfold sub-segmentation per geometrical detector segment. All signals, i.e. position, time-of-flight and pulse-height signals, are fed into deadtime-less 8-channel multihit TDC chips with 120 ps LSB via constant fraction and time-over-threshold discriminators, respectively. The multihit capability is utilized to raise the count rate limit in combination with a sum check algorithm for disentangling pulses from different events. The first vers...

  4. Visualization and quantification of weathering effects on capillary water uptake of natural building stones by using neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raneri, Simona; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Rabot, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Building stones are frequently subjected to very intense degradation due to salt crystallization, often responsible for strong modifications of their pore network. These effects have a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of the materials, and on the penetration of water. Therefore, the quantification and visualization of water absorption into the pore network of degraded stones could provide useful information to better understand the weathering process. In this study, neutron radiography has been used (1) to monitor and visualize in two dimensions the capillary water uptake in a Sicilian calcarenite widely used as building and replace stone (namely Sabucina stone) and (2) to quantify the water content distribution, as a function of time and weathering degree. Additionally, traditional experiments based on gravimetric methods have been performed, following the standard recommendations. Results demonstrated a change in the physical properties of Sabucina stones with the intensification of the degradation process, with severe effects on the capillary imbibition dynamics. The water penetration depth at the end of the experiment was substantially higher in the fresh than in the weathered stones. The water absorption kinetics was faster in the weathered samples, and the amount of water absorbed increased with the number of weathering cycles. Good agreement between classical and neutron imaging data has also been evidenced. However, neutron radiography has allowed retrieving additional spatial information on the water absorption process, and to better understand how salt weathering affects the petrophysical properties of the studied stone and how it influences then the stone response against water. (orig.)

  5. Visualization and quantification of weathering effects on capillary water uptake of natural building stones by using neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raneri, Simona; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo [University of Catania, Department of Biological, Geological and Environment Sciences, Catania (Italy); Rabot, Eva [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CNRS/CEA), Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-15

    Building stones are frequently subjected to very intense degradation due to salt crystallization, often responsible for strong modifications of their pore network. These effects have a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of the materials, and on the penetration of water. Therefore, the quantification and visualization of water absorption into the pore network of degraded stones could provide useful information to better understand the weathering process. In this study, neutron radiography has been used (1) to monitor and visualize in two dimensions the capillary water uptake in a Sicilian calcarenite widely used as building and replace stone (namely Sabucina stone) and (2) to quantify the water content distribution, as a function of time and weathering degree. Additionally, traditional experiments based on gravimetric methods have been performed, following the standard recommendations. Results demonstrated a change in the physical properties of Sabucina stones with the intensification of the degradation process, with severe effects on the capillary imbibition dynamics. The water penetration depth at the end of the experiment was substantially higher in the fresh than in the weathered stones. The water absorption kinetics was faster in the weathered samples, and the amount of water absorbed increased with the number of weathering cycles. Good agreement between classical and neutron imaging data has also been evidenced. However, neutron radiography has allowed retrieving additional spatial information on the water absorption process, and to better understand how salt weathering affects the petrophysical properties of the studied stone and how it influences then the stone response against water. (orig.)

  6. Development of five axis robotic system for an industrial neutron tomography imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, R J; Radke, M G; Mishra, J K; Arunkumar, G V.D.; Ramakumar, M S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Div. of Remote Handling and Robotics

    1994-12-31

    Tomography is one of the latest techniques in the field of nondestructive testing. X-rays, gamma rays or neutrons are used as an energy source whereas five axis manipulator is designed to move the specimen across the beam. The 5 axis robotic system has been indigenously developed, designed, manufactured and tested to move up to 10 kg payload. Computer is necessary to process and store data and retrieve it for processing. The same computer is used for control of manipulator. Computer aided tomography is carried out for research and industrial use. Neutron beam will be used either for evaluation of organic materials in attenuation based measurements or for evaluation on the basis of neutron activation of materials like nuclear fuels. The paper describes the indigenously developed 5-axis robotic system as a part of a facility built around Kamini reactor at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam. (author). 4 figs.

  7. Neutron detection and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, R.H.; Van Esch, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method of recording neutron images is described which comprises imagewise irradiating with neutrons an intensifying screen containing a gadolinium compound that fluoresces when struck by x-rays and subjecting the fluorescent light pattern resulting from the impact of the neutrons on the screen onto a photographic material. (auth)

  8. Neutron Imaging of Lithium Concentration for Validation of Li-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    2008: Understanding liq- uid water distribution and removal phenomena in an op- erating pemfc via neutron radiography. Journal of The...2008: Measurement of liq- uid water accumulation in a pemfc with dead-ended an- ode. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 155 (11), B1168–B1178

  9. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Lefmann, Kim; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2006-01-01

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator...

  10. Setup for polarized neutron imaging using in situ 3He cells at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor CG-1D beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, I; Ziesche, Ralf; Wang, Tianhao; Bilheux, Hassina; Santodonato, Lou; Tong, X; Jiang, C Y; Manke, Ingo; Treimer, Wolfgang; Chatterji, Tapan; Kardjilov, Nikolay

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we report a new setup for polarized neutron imaging at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor CG-1D beamline using an in situ 3 He polarizer and analyzer. This development is very important for extending the capabilities of the imaging instrument at ORNL providing a polarized beam with a large field-of-view, which can be further used in combination with optical devices like Wolter optics, focusing guides, or other lenses for the development of microscope arrangement. Such a setup can be of advantage for the existing and future imaging beamlines at the pulsed neutron sources. The first proof-of-concept experiment is performed to study the ferromagnetic phase transition in the Fe 3 Pt sample. We also demonstrate that the polychromatic neutron beam in combination with in situ 3 He cells can be used as the initial step for the rapid measurement and qualitative analysis of radiographs.

  11. Inspection of the metal composite materials using a combination of X-ray radiography and Neutron Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Jeon, I.; Lehmnann, E.; Kaestner, A.; Vacík, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2011), s. 186-191 ISSN 1748-0221. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /12./. Cambridge, 12.07.2010-15.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701 Program:LC; KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron imaging * detection of defects * computerized tomography * non destructive testing Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/6/03/C03001/

  12. Estimation of water flow velocity in small plants using cold neutron imaging with D 2O tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, U.; Herppich, W. B.; Kardjilov, N.; Graf, W.; Hilger, A.; Manke, I.

    2009-06-01

    Water flow imaging may help to better understand various problems related to water stress of plants. It may help to fully understand the water relations of plants. The objective of this research was to estimate the velocity of water flow in plant samples. Cut roses ( Rosa hybrida, var. 'Milva') were used as samples. Cold neutron radiography (CNR) was conducted at CONRAD, Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin, Germany. D 2O and H 2O were interchangeably injected into the water feeding system of the sample. After the uptake of D 2O, the neutron transmission increased due to the smaller attenuation coefficient of D 2O compared to H 2O. Replacement of D 2O in the rose peduncle was clearly observed. Three different optical flow algorithms, Block Matching, Horn-Schunck and Lucas-Kanade, were used to calculate the vector of D 2O tracer flow. The quality of sequential images providing sufficient spatial and temporal resolution allowed to estimate flow vector.

  13. Neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: introduction (resume of stellar evolution, gross characteristics of neutron stars); pulsars (pulsar characteristics, pulsars as neutron stars); neutron star temperatures (neutron star cooling, superfluidity and superconductivity in neutron stars); the exterior of neutron stars (the magnetosphere, the neutron star 'atmosphere', pulses); neutron star structure; neutron star equations of state. (U.K.)

  14. Thermal neutron imaging with rare-earth-ion-doped LiCaAlF6 scintillators and a sealed 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kamada, Kei; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Chani, Valery; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Thermal neutron imaging with Ce-doped LiCaAlF 6 crystals has been performed. The prototype of the neutron imager using a Ce-doped LiCaAlF 6 scintillating crystal and a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) which had 64 multi-channel anode was developed. The Ce-doped LiCaAlF 6 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. A plate with dimensions of a diameter of 50x2 mm 2 was cut from the grown crystal, polished, and optically coupled to PSPMT by silicone grease. The 252 Cf source ( 6 .

  15. System of image package input and output for neutron radiography based on PC IBM XT/AT; Sistema paketnogo vvoda i vyvoda izobrazhenij dlya nejtronnoj radiografii na baze PEhVM IBM PC XCT/AT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avarzad, O; Rikhvitskij, V S

    1996-12-31

    System of acquisition and analysis of both statistic and dynamic images of neutron radiography includes NM IBM PC XT/AT, super vidicon, telecamera based video detector, color monitor and interface board of image input-output. 2 refs.

  16. Expansion of Lithium Ion Pouch Cell Batteries: Observations from Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    detector over a given time period. The neutron beam intensity after passing through an object of thickness δ can be described by the Lambert- Beer Law...concentration, cLi, using the Beer -Lambert Law by assuming that the other material concentrations remain constant [7]. The shift in location of...and B. Fultz, " Thermodynamics of Lithium Intercalation into Graphites and Disordered Carbons," J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 151, no. 3, pp. A422-A426

  17. Thermal neutron imaging with rare-earth-ion-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillators and a sealed {sup 252}Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Noriaki, E-mail: famicom@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Tokuyama Corporation, Shibuya 3-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kamada, Kei [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa [Tokuyama Corporation, Shibuya 3-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Chani, Valery [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Thermal neutron imaging with Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} crystals has been performed. The prototype of the neutron imager using a Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillating crystal and a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) which had 64 multi-channel anode was developed. The Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. A plate with dimensions of a diameter of 50x2 mm{sup 2} was cut from the grown crystal, polished, and optically coupled to PSPMT by silicone grease. The {sup 252}Cf source (<1 MBq) was sealed with 43 mm of polyethylene for neutron thermalization. Alphabet-shaped Cd pieces with a thickness of 2 mm were used as a mask for the thermal neutrons. After corrections for the pedestals and gain of each pixel, we successfully obtained two-dimensional neutron images using Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6}.

  18. 3-D Deep Penetration Neutron Imaging of Thick Absorgin and Diffusive Objects Using Transport Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragusa, Jean; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    here explores the inverse problem of optical tomography applied to heterogeneous domains. The neutral particle transport equation was used as the forward model for how neutral particles stream through and interact within these heterogeneous domains. A constrained optimization technique that uses Newtons method served as the basis of the inverse problem. Optical tomography aims at reconstructing the material properties using (a) illuminating sources and (b) detector readings. However, accurate simulations for radiation transport require that the particle (gamma and/or neutron) energy be appropriate discretize in the multigroup approximation. This, in turns, yields optical tomography problems where the number of unknowns grows (1) about quadratically with respect to the number of energy groups, G, (notably to reconstruct the scattering matrix) and (2) linearly with respect to the number of unknown material regions. As pointed out, a promising approach could rely on algorithms to appropriately select a material type per material zone rather than G2 values. This approach, though promising, still requires further investigation: (a) when switching from cross-section values unknowns to material type indices (discrete integer unknowns), integer programming techniques are needed since derivative information is no longer available; and (b) the issue of selecting the initial material zoning remains. The work reported here proposes an approach to solve the latter item, whereby a material zoning is proposed using one-group or few-groups transport approximations. The capabilities and limitations of the presented method were explored; they are briefly summarized next and later described in fuller details in the Appendices. The major factors that influenced the ability of the optimization method to reconstruct the cross sections of these domains included the locations of the sources used to illuminate the domains, the number of separate experiments used in the reconstruction, the

  19. Recent advances in neutron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, E.; Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA; Lanza, R.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron imaging has been shown to be an excellent imaging tool for many nondestructive evaluation applications. Significantly improved contrast over X-ray images is possible for materials commonly found in engineering assemblies. The major limitations have been the neutron source and detection. A low cost, position sensitive neutron tomography detector system has been designed and built based on an electro-optical detector system using a LiF-ZnS scintillator screen and a cooled charge coupled device. This detector system can be used for neutron radiography as well as two and three-dimensional neutron tomography. Calculated performance of the system predicted near-quantum efficiency for position sensitive neutron detection. Experimental data was recently taken using this system at McClellan Air Force Base, Air Logistics Center, Sacramento, CA. With increased availability of low cost neutron sources and advanced image processing, neutron tomography will become an increasingly important nondestructive imaging method

  20. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate-Polymeric Micelles Incorporating Gadolinium Chelates for Imaging-Guided Gadolinium Neutron Capture Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Peng; Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Li, Yanmin; Aoki, Ichio; Ono, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-06-23

    Gadolinium (Gd) chelates-loaded nanocarriers have high potential for achieving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Gd neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) of tumors. Herein, we developed calcium phosphate micelles hybridized with PEG-polyanion block copolymers, and incorporated with the clinical MRI contrast agent Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA/CaP). The Gd-DTPA/CaP were nontoxic to cancer cells at the concentration of 100 μM based on Gd-DTPA, while over 50% of the cancer cells were killed by thermal neutron irradiation at this concentration. Moreover, the Gd-DTPA/CaP showed a dramatically increased accumulation of Gd-DTPA in tumors, leading to the selective contrast enhancement of tumor tissues for precise tumor location by MRI. The enhanced tumor-to-blood distribution ratio of Gd-DTPA/CaP resulted in the effective suppression of tumor growth without loss of body weight, indicating the potential of Gd-DTPA/CaP for safe cancer treatment.

  1. TRU-ART: A cost-effective prototypical neutron imaging technique for transuranic waste certification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The certification of defense radioactive waste as either transuranic or low-level waste requires very sensitive and accurate assay instrumentation to determine the specific radioactivity within an individual waste package. An assay instrument that employs a new technique (TRU-ART), which can identify the location of the radioactive material within a waste package, was designed, fabricated, and tested to potentially enhance the certification of problem defense waste drums. In addition, the assay instrumentation has potential application in radioactive waste reprocessing and neutron tomography. The assay instrumentation uses optimized electronic signal responses from an array of boral- and cadmium-shielded polyethylene-moderated 3 H detector packages. Normally, thermal neutrons that are detected by 3 H detectors have very poor spatial dependency that may be used to determine the location of the radioactive material. However, these shielded-detector packages of the TRU-ART system maintain the spatial dependency of the radioactive material in that the point of fast neutron thermalization is immediately adjacent to the 3 H detector. The TRU-ART was used to determine the location of radioactive material within three mock-up drums (empty, peat moss, and concrete) and four actual waste drums. The TRU-ART technique is very analogous to emission tomography. The mock-up drum and actual waste drum data, which were collected by the TRU-ART, were directly input into a algebraic reconstruction code to produce three-dimensional isoplots. Finally, a comprehensive fabrication cost estimate of the fielded drum assay system and the TRU-ART system was determined, and, subsequently, these estimates were used in a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic advantage of the respective systems

  2. Cuba: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In the past, some cultural heritage research works have been carried out by the CEADEN, in collaboration with the Arqueology Laboratory of the Cultural Heritage Department, employing techniques as EDXRF, X-ray Difraction, INAA and SEM-EDS for the analysis of Cuban pre-Columbian pottery, painting pigments characterization. Recently, with a modified portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer were evaluated paintings in restoration process. Wood is the material that has accompanied the whole development of mankind in various applications, for manufacturing tools and weapons, for buildings and constructions and also as fuel. It has various appearances and is subjected to decomposing changes, so there are sufficient arguments for non-destructive testing of wooden objects in the same way as is common practice with other technologically used materials. However, even today wood is rarely tested. Moreover, artifacts of cultural heritage containing wood are rare and delicate, so dismantling these for studying purposes is undesirable. Neutrons behave complementarily; they are avidly absorbed by light elements such as hydrogen on the one hand and yet are capable of easily penetrating heavy metals on the other. This provides an alternative for X-ray radiography and tomography when material characteristics are of primary interest rather than structural details, or when shielding with plates or sleeves of heavy metal severely impedes inspections with X-ray or gamma radiation technologies. However, due to the moderating effect of wooden samples it is essential to use fast neutrons for radiography and tomography of voluminous objects. Some typical examples described here will show the difference between neutron and X-ray photon-based radiographic technologies

  3. International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe 99, V. 2. Proceedings. Embedded Meeting Neutron Imaging Methods to Detect Defects in Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gortnar, O.; Stritar, A.

    1999-01-01

    International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The second book of proceedings contain 14 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics cover Neutron Imaging Methods

  4. In situ diagnostic of two-phase flow phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianbo; Kramer, Denis; Shimoi, Ryoichi; Ono, Yoshitaka; Lehmann, Eberhard; Wokaun, Alexander; Shinohara, Kazuhiko; Scherer, Guenther G.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of liquid water in operating polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) of industrial and laboratory size has been investigated by in situ neutron imaging. The influence of the materials chosen for the structural components of the cell on droplet formation and transport in flow fields and on liquid formation in gas diffusion layers has been studied. The changing of the cathodic gas diffusion layer material allowed the relationship between materials, liquid accumulation, and electrochemical performance to be examined. It has been shown that material choice has considerable bearing on the presence of liquid inside the porous structures and the electrochemical characteristics. A simplified quasi one-dimensional cell with an active area of 25 cm 2 was used for materials comparison, and the results were related to technically relevant operating conditions - where inhomogeneities have to be considered - by subsequent examination of cells with an active area of 100 cm 2

  5. Phase Transition Mapping by Means of Neutron Imaging in SOFC Anode Supports During Reduction Under Applied Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, Malgorzata; Strobl, M.; Lauridsen, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical and electrochemical performance of layers composed of Ni-YSZ cermet in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells (SOC) depends on their microstructure and initial internal stresses. After sintering, the manufacturing conditions, i.e. temperature, atmosphere and loads, can influence...... the microstructure and in particular the internal stresses in the Ni-YSZ layer and thereby the cell performance. Spatially resolved observation of the phase transition during reduction can provide information on how parameters like temperature and external load influence the reaction progress. This information...... is crucial for optimization of the SOC performance. In this work the measurements with energy resolved neutron imaging of the phase transition during the NiOYSZ reduction performed at different temperatures with and without applied load, are presented. The results indicate a link between reduction rate...

  6. neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron radiography (or radiology) is a diverse filed that uses neutrons of various energies, subthermal, thermal, epithermal or fast in either steady state or pulsed mode to examine objects for industrial, medical, or other purposes, both microscopic and macroscopic. The applications include engineering design, biological studies, nondestructive inspection and materials evaluation. In the past decade, over 100 different centers in some 30 countries have published reports of pioneering activities using reactors, accelerators and isotopic neutron sources. While film transparency and electronic video are most common imaging methods for static or in motion objects respectively, there are other important data gathering techniques, including track etch, digital gauging and computed tomography. A survey of the world-wide progress shows the field to be gaining steadily in its diversity, its sophistication and its importance. (author)

  7. Proton-recoil proportional-counter array for neutron-image construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Eichholz, J.J.; DeVolpi, A.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel-motion measurement capability of the fast-neutron hodoscope has been upgraded by the addition of a 360-detector proton-recoil proportional-counter array, which detects high-energy fission neutrons. The current sensitive amplifier/discriminator module for each detector fits into a 12.7 by 12.7 by 102 mm package and cost less than $100 per module. It has a 50 ns rise time, a noise level of 100 nA, and a deadtime per event of 200 ns. Provision has been provided for the independent adjustment of the input current versus discriminator voltage for each module. The new proportional-counters cost approximately $400 each. Each detector has been tested to have the same gain versus voltage response. A space-charge model relating count-rate changes to space-charge effects has also been developed. The new detector array has been operational for approximately two years and has become the main detector system in fuel-motion analysis. It has significantly improved the linearity, stability, count-rate capability, and setup ease of the hodoscope

  8. Detection of 10B distributions in histological samples by NCAR using thermal and cold neutrons and photoluminiscent imaging plates. New results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Skvarc, J.; Ilic, R.; Gabel, D.; Bayon, G.; Yanagie, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Lehmann, E.; Kuehne, G.

    1999-01-01

    The Neutron Capture Autoradiography (NCAR) using various Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) is a well established and accurate method to detect and measure the distributions of 10 B in the ppm range on macroscopic and microscopic level in biological samples, such as histological sections of tumours loaded with 10 B compounds used for BNCT (e.g. 1,2). recently a new technique of NCAR using sensitive photoluminescent Imaging Plates (IP) has been proposed to detect 10 B distributions in histological sections (3), exploiting excellent detection properties of IP systems such as very high detection sensitivity and quantum detection efficiency, broad linear response and dynamic range, very small image distortion, reusability of IP and possibilities of digital autoradiography. The advantage of IP-NCAR vs. NCAR with SSNTDs should be the much lower neutron fluence (10 7 10 9 vs. 10 10 10 13 n/cm 2 with SSNTDs), no intermediate chemical treatment (track etching) and direct and fast compuitational handling and evaluation of the digitized autoradiographic image. However, the spatial resolution of the present available IP detection systems is somewhat lower (∼ 0,04 mm) than with SSNTDs (∼ 0,01 mm). Another problem with IP NCAR is rather high sensitivity of IP to all types of ionizing radiations. Therefore the background of direct and induced gamma-rays as well as of epithermal and fast neutrons has to be filtered out of thermal neutron beam to be used for IP-NCAR. To improve the signal/background ratio and to increase the detectibility of 10 B we propose to use clean cold neutron beams for the IP-NCAR of 10 B distributions in histological samples in BNCT experiments (4,5). In the present work the recent results of experiments in IP-NCAR with cold neutrons from the neutron radiographic channel of the ORPHEE reactor in Saclay and with the rather clean thermal neutron beam of the NEUTRA neutron radiography facility of the PSI (Villingen) will be presented. For the

  9. Mechanisms of cement leaching and degradation - integration of neutron imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Aldridge, Laurence P.; Brew, Daniel R.M.; McGlinn, Peter J.; De Beer, Frikkie C.; Radebe, Mabuti J.; Nshimirimana, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cementitious material is a commonly used wasteform for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, and comprises a major part of both structural components and barriers in many repository concepts. When exposed to water, cement-based barriers and waste-forms are expected to degrade by mechanisms involving both chemical and structural changes. The research program addresses several aspects of these processes, including the leaching of the waste-forms, water transport properties, as well as the effect of high pH cement leachates on the chemical and physical properties of surrounding materials (including clay barriers and host regolith materials). Chemical leaching tests and analyses by techniques such as electron microscopy can be augmented by neutron radiography and tomography. These methods provide a useful non-destructive method of determining properties related to water transport in cementitious materials, in particular the sorptivity and pore size distribution

  10. Quantitative imaging of water flow in soil and roots using neutron radiography and deuterated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen

    2013-05-08

    Where and how fast do roots take up water? Despite its importance in plant and soil sciences, there is limited experimental information on the location of water uptake along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The answer to this question requires direct and in-situ measurement of the local flow of water into the roots. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a new method to quantify the local fluxes of water into different segments of the roots of intact plants. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) into the roots of lupines. Lupines were grown in aluminum containers filled with sandy soil. The soil was partitioned into different compartments using 1 cm-thick layers of coarse sand as capillary barriers. These barriers limited the diffusion of D{sub 2}O within the soil compartments. D{sub 2}O was locally injected into the selected soil compartments during the day (transpiring plants) and night (non-transpiring plants). Transport of D{sub 2}O into roots was then monitored by neutron radiography with spatial resolution of 100 μm and time intervals of 10 seconds. Neutron radiographs showed that: i) transport of D{sub 2}O into roots was faster during the day than during the night; 2) D{sub 2}O quickly moved along the roots towards the shoots during the day, while at night this axial transport was negligible. The differences between day and night measurements were explained by convective transport of D{sub 2}O into the roots. To quantify the net flow of water into roots, a simple convection-diffusion model was developed, where the increase rate of D{sub 2}O concentration in roots depended on the convective transport (net root water uptake) and the diffusion of D{sub 2}O into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the deeper ones. Along an individual roots, the water uptake rate was higher in the

  11. Quantitative imaging of water flow in soil and roots using neutron radiography and deuterated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Where and how fast do roots take up water? Despite its importance in plant and soil sciences, there is limited experimental information on the location of water uptake along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The answer to this question requires direct and in-situ measurement of the local flow of water into the roots. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a new method to quantify the local fluxes of water into different segments of the roots of intact plants. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D 2 O) into the roots of lupines. Lupines were grown in aluminum containers filled with sandy soil. The soil was partitioned into different compartments using 1 cm-thick layers of coarse sand as capillary barriers. These barriers limited the diffusion of D 2 O within the soil compartments. D 2 O was locally injected into the selected soil compartments during the day (transpiring plants) and night (non-transpiring plants). Transport of D 2 O into roots was then monitored by neutron radiography with spatial resolution of 100 μm and time intervals of 10 seconds. Neutron radiographs showed that: i) transport of D 2 O into roots was faster during the day than during the night; 2) D 2 O quickly moved along the roots towards the shoots during the day, while at night this axial transport was negligible. The differences between day and night measurements were explained by convective transport of D 2 O into the roots. To quantify the net flow of water into roots, a simple convection-diffusion model was developed, where the increase rate of D 2 O concentration in roots depended on the convective transport (net root water uptake) and the diffusion of D 2 O into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the deeper ones. Along an individual roots, the water uptake rate was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal

  12. Basic research of neutron radiography using cold neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Tasaka, Kanji

    1995-01-01

    As the result of demanding high quality images, now the nuclear reactors which can supply stably intense neutron beam have become the most general neutron source for radiography. For the purpose, mostly thermal neutrons have been used, but it is indispensable to use other neutrons than thermal neutrons for advancing neutron radiography technology and expanding the application fields. The radiography using cold neutrons is most behind in the development because the suitable neutron source was not available in Japan. The neutron sources for exclusively obtaining intense cold neutron beam were installed in the Kyoto University reactor in 1986 and in the JRR-3M of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1991. Basically as neutron energy lowers, the cross section of substances increases. In certain crystalline substances, the Bragg cutoff arises. The removal of scattered neutrons, the measurement of parallelism of beam and the relation of the thickness of objects with the transmissivity of cold neutrons are described. The imaging by TV method and the cold neutron CT in the CNRF and the simplified neutron CT by film method are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Neutron structural biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms in protein which play important roles in physiological functions. However, there are relatively few examples of neutron crystallography in biology since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections due to the low flux of neutrons illuminating the sample. In order to overcome the flux problem, we have successfully developed the neutron IP, where the neutron converter, {sup 6}Li or Gd, was mixed with a photostimulated luminescence material on flexible plastic support. Neutron Laue diffraction 2A data from tetragonal lysozyme were collected for 10 days with neutron imaging plates, and 960 hydrogen atoms in the molecule and 157 bound water molecules were identified. These results explain the proposed hydrolysis mechanism of the sugar by the lysozyme molecule and that lysozyme is less active at pH7.0. (author)

  14. Use of artificial neural networks in drug and explosive detection through tomographic images with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Francisco J.O.; Crispim, Verginia R.; Silva, Ademir X.

    2009-01-01

    The artificial neural network technique was used to identify drugs and plastic explosives, from a tomography composed by a set of six neutrongraphic projections obtained in real time. Bidimensional tomographic images of samples of drugs, explosives and other materials, when digitally processed, yield the characteristic spectra of each type of material. The information contained in those spectra was then used for ANN training, the best images being obtained when the multilayer perceptron model, the back-propagation training algorithm and the Cross-validation interruption criterion were used. ANN showed to be useful in forecasting presence of drugs and explosives hitting a rate of success above 97 %. (author)

  15. Spectrometry and emission tomographic image reconstruction stimulated by neutrons via EM algorithm and Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Rodrigo Sartorelo Salemi

    2014-01-01

    The NSECT (Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography) figures as a new spectrographic technique able to evaluate in vivo the concentration of elements using the inelastic scattering reaction (n,n'). Since its introduction, several improvements have been proposed with the aim of investigating applications for clinical diagnosis and reduction of absorbed dose associated with CT acquisition. In this context, two new diagnostic applications are presented using spectroscopic and tomographic approaches from NSECT. A new methodology has also been proposed to optimize the sinogram sampling that is directly related to the quality of the reconstruction by the irradiation protocol. The studies were developed based on simulations with MCNP5 code. Diagnosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and the detection of breast microcalcifications were evaluated in studies conducted using a human phantom. The obtained results demonstrate the ability of the NSECT technique to detect changes in the composition of the modeled tissues as a function of the development of evaluated pathologies. The proposed method for optimizing sinograms was able to analytically simulate the composition of the irradiated medium allowing the assessment of quality of reconstruction and effective dose in terms of the sampling rate. However, future research must be conducted to quantify the sensitivity of detection according to the selected elements. (author)

  16. Improvements in PIE-techniques at the IFE hot-laboratory. 'Neutron radiography, three dimensional profilometry and image compilation of PIE data for visualization in an image based user-interface'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, H.K.; Oberlaender, B.C.

    2002-01-01

    The PIE-techniques used at IFE are continuously improved through upgrading of equipment and methods, e.g. image handling techniques and components utilized in data acquisition and editing techniques. To improve the quality or spatial resolution of neutron radiographs the normal technique was complemented with another method, i.e. the dysprosium foil/X ray film technique is supplemented with a track-etch recorder consisting of a cellulose nitrate film. For further examination of the neutron radiographs the cellulose nitrate film can be digitized to allow electronic image treatment. Promising results were obtained with this technique on neutron radiographs, namely higher spatial resolution compared to the normal technique, high contrast and sharp neutron radiography images. The traditional uniaxial profilometry of fuel rods was modified so that diameter/bow measurements are possible at several angular orientations during one acquisition sequence. This extension is very useful in several ways, for instance the built-in data symmetry of the method is used to check the correctness of the measurement results. Diameter and bow measurements give information of cladding irregularities and fuel rod profiles. Implementation of electronic image handling techniques is particularly useful in PIE when data are collected and compiled in an image file. Inspection and examination of the file contents (examination results) are possible through an ideal user-interface, i.e. Adobe Photoshop software with navigator possibilities. Examples incorporating PIE data acquired from neutron radiography, visual inspection and ceramography are utilized for illustration of the user-interface and some of its possibilities. (author)

  17. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  18. Neutron--neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A borehole logging tool includes a steady-state source of fast neutrons, two epithermal neutron detectors, and two thermal neutron detectors. A count rate meter is connected to each neutron detector. A first ratio detector provides an indication of the porosity of the formation surrounding the borehole by determining the ratio of the outputs of the two count rate meters connected to the two epithermal neutron detectors. A second ratio detector provides an indication of both porosity and macroscopic absorption cross section of the formation surrounding the borehole by determining the ratio of the outputs of the two count rate meters connected to the two thermal neutron detectors. By comparing the signals of the two ratio detectors, oil bearing zones and salt water bearing zones within the formation being logged can be distinguished and the amount of oil saturation can be determined. 6 claims, 2 figures

  19. Development of a two-dimensional imaging detector based on a neutron scintillator with wavelength-shifting fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, K; Oku, T; Morimoto, K; Shimizu, H M; Tokanai, F; Gorin, A; Manuilov, I V; Ryazantsev, A; Ino, T; Kuroda, K; Suzuki, J

    2002-01-01

    For evaluating neutron optical devices, a two-dimensional (2D) detector based on a neutron scintillator with wavelength-shifting fibers has been developed at RIKEN. We have investigated a ZnS(Ag)+LiF and a Li glass plate as neutron scintillators with the coding technique for realizing the large sensitive area of 50 x 50 mm sup 2. After fabricating the 2D detector, its performance was tested using cold neutrons at JAERI. As a result, a spatial resolution of propor to 1.0 mm was obtained. (orig.)

  20. Spontaneous imbibition of water and determination of effective contact angles in the Eagle Ford Shale Formation using neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStefano, Victoria H.; Cheshire, Michael C.; McFarlane, Joanna; Kolbus, Lindsay M.; Hale, Richard E.; Perfect, Edmund; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; LaManna, Jacob M.; Bingham, Philip R.; Starchenko, Vitaliy; Anovitz, Lawrence M.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding of fundamental processes and prediction of optimal parameters during the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing process results in economically effective improvement of oil and natural gas extraction. Although, the modern analytical and computational models can capture fracture growth, there is a lack of experimental data on spontaneous imbibition and wettability in oil and gas reservoirs for the validation of further model development. In this work, we used neutron imaging to measure the spontaneous imbibition of water into fractures of Eagle Ford Shale with known geometries and fracture orientations. An analytical solution for a set of nonlinear second-order differential equations was applied to the measured imbibition data to determine effective contact angles. The analytical solution fit the measured imbibition data reasonably well and determined effective contact angles were slightly higher than static contact angles due to effects of in-situ changes in velocity, surface roughness, and heterogeneity of mineral surfaces on the fracture surface. Additionally, small fracture widths may have retarded imbibition and affected model fits, which suggests that average fracture widths are not satisfactory for modeling imbibition in natural systems.

  1. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  2. In situ time-of-flight neutron imaging of NiO-YSZ anode support reduction under influence of stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, Malgorzata Grazyna; Strobl, Markus; Lauridsen, Erik M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on in situ macroscopic scale imaging of NiO-YSZ (YSZ is yttria-stabilized zirconia) reduction under applied stress - a phase transition taking place in solid oxide electrochemical cells in a reducing atmosphere of a hydrogen/nitrogen mixture and at operation temperatures of u...... of applying energy-resolved neutron imaging with both approaches to the NiO-YSZ reduction investigation indicate enhancement of the reduction rate due to applied stress, which is consistent with the results of the authors’ previous research....

  3. The stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, A.A.; Newell, D.L.; Heidel, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    To provide the high intensity neutron beam and support systems necessary for radiography, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System was constructed at McClellan Air Force Base. The Stationary Neutron Radiography System utilizes a one megawatt TRIGA reactor contained in an Aluminium tank surrounded by eight foot thick concrete walls. There are four neutron beam tubes at inclined angles from the reactor core to separate radiography bays. In three of the bays, robotic systems manipulate aircraft components in the neutron beam, while real-time imaging systems provide images concurrent with the irradiation. Film radiography of smaller components is performed in the remaining bay

  4. Application of Neutron imaging in pore structure of hydrated wellbore cement: comparison of hydration of H20 with D2O based Portland cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussenova, D.; Bilheux, H.; Radonjic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Wellbore Cement studies have been ongoing for decades. The studies vary from efforts to reduce permeability and resistance to corrosive environment to issues with gas migration also known as Sustained Casing Pressure (SCP). These practical issues often lead to health and safety problems as well as huge economic loss in oil and gas industry. Several techniques have been employed to reduce the impact of gas leakage. In this study we purely focus on expandable liners, which are introduced as part of oil well reconstruction and work-overs and as well abandonment procedures that help in prevention of SCP. Expandable liner is a tube that after application of a certain tool can increase its diameter. The increase in diameter creates extra force on hydrated cement that results in reducing width of interface fractures and cement-tube de-bonding. Moreover, this also causes cement to change its microstructure and other porous medium properties, primarily hydraulic conductivity. In order to examine changes before and after operations, cement pore structure must be well characterized and correlated to cement slurry design as well as chemical and physical environmental conditions. As modern oil well pipes and tubes contain iron, it is difficult to perform X-ray tomography of a bulk measurement of the cement in its wellbore conditions, which are tube wall-cement-tube wall. Neutron imaging is a complementary technique to x-ray imaging and is well suited for detection of light elements imbedded in metallic containers. Thus, Neutron Imaging (NI) is investigated as a tool for the detection of pore structure of hydrated wellbore cement. Recent measurements were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) neutron imaging facility. NI is is highly sensitive to light elements such as Hydrogen (H). Oil well cements that have undergone a full hydration contain on average 30%-40% of free water in its pore structure. The unreacted water is the main

  5. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  6. Ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenstrup, S.

    Briefly surveys recent developments in research work with ultracold neutrons (neutrons of very low velocity, up to 10 m/s at up to 10 -7 eV and 10 -3 K). Slow neutrons can be detected in an ionisation chamber filled with B 10 F 3 . Very slow neutrons can be used for investigations into the dipole moment of neutrons. Neutrons of large wave length have properties similar to those of light. The limit angle for total reflection is governed by the wave length and by the material. Total reflection can be used to filter ultracold neutrons out of the moderator material of a reactor. Total reflection can also be used to store ultracold neutrons but certain problems with storage have not yet been clarified. Slow neutrons can be made to lose speed in a neutron turbine, and come out as ultracold neutrons. A beam of ultracold neutrons could be used in a neutron microscope. (J.S.)

  7. Dynamic imaging with a triggered and intensified CCD camera system in a high-intensity neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Brunner, J.; Gildemeister, A.E.; Engelhardt, M.

    2005-01-01

    When time-dependent processes within metallic structures should be inspected and visualized, neutrons are well suited due to their high penetration through Al, Ag, Ti or even steel. Then it becomes possible to inspect the propagation, distribution and evaporation of organic liquids as lubricants, fuel or water. The principle set-up of a suited real-time system was implemented and tested at the radiography facility NEUTRA of PSI. The highest beam intensity there is 2x10 7 cm -2 s -1 , which enables to observe sequences in a reasonable time and quality. The heart of the detection system is the MCP intensified CCD camera PI-Max with a Peltier cooled chip (1300x1340 pixels). The intensifier was used for both gating and image enhancement, where as the information was accumulated over many single frames on the chip before readout. Although, a 16-bit dynamic range is advertised by the camera manufacturers, it must be less due to the inherent noise level from the intensifier. The obtained result should be seen as the starting point to go ahead to fit the different requirements of car producers in respect to fuel injection, lubricant distribution, mechanical stability and operation control. Similar inspections will be possible for all devices with repetitive operation principle. Here, we report about two measurements dealing with the lubricant distribution in a running motorcycle motor turning at 1200rpm. We were monitoring the periodic stationary movements of piston, valves and camshaft with a micro-channel plate intensified CCD camera system (PI-Max 1300RB, Princeton Instruments) triggered at exactly chosen time points

  8. Radiography using californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The current status in the technology of neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is summarized. Major emphasis is on thermal neutron radiography since it has the widest potential applicability at the present time. Attention is given to four major factors which affect the quality and useability of thermal neutron radiography: source neutron thermalization, neutron beam extraction geometry, neutron collimator dimensions, and neutron imaging methods. Each of these factors has a major effect on the quality of the radiographs which are obtained from a californium source neutron radiography system and the exposure times required to obtain the radiographs; radiograph quality and exposure time in turn affect the practicality of neutron radiography for specific nondestructive inspection applications. A brief discussion of fast neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is also included. (U.S.)

  9. First tests of the applicability of γ-ray imaging for background discrimination in time-of-flight neutron capture measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Magán, D.L.; Caballero, L. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C., E-mail: domingo@ific.uv.es [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Agramunt-Ros, J.; Albiol, F. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Casanovas, A. [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques – Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); González, A. [Institute for Instrumentation in Molecular Imaging, I3M-CSIC 46022 Valencia (Spain); Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J. [Dto. de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Tarifeño-Saldivia, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Institut de Tècniques Energètiques – Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    In this work we explore for the first time the applicability of using γ-ray imaging in neutron capture measurements to identify and suppress spatially localized background. For this aim, a pinhole gamma camera is assembled, tested and characterized in terms of energy and spatial performance. It consists of a monolithic CeBr{sub 3} scintillating crystal coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier and readout through an integrated circuit AMIC2GR. The pinhole collimator is a massive carven block of lead. A series of dedicated measurements with calibrated sources and with a neutron beam incident on a {sup 197}Au sample have been carried out at n-TOF, achieving an enhancement of a factor of two in the signal-to-background ratio when selecting only those events coming from the direction of the sample.

  10. The method of neutron imaging as a tool for the study of the dynamics of water movement in wet aramid-based ballistic body armour panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifler, Felix A.; Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Frei, Gabriel; May, Hans; Rossi, René

    2006-07-01

    A new non-destructive method based on neutron imaging (neutron radiography) to determine the exact water content in aramid-based soft body armour panels is presented. While investigating the ballistic resistance of aramid-based body armour panels under a wet condition, it is important to precisely determine their water content and its chronological development. Using the presented method, the influence of water amount and location on impact testing as well as its time dependence was shown. In the ballistic panels used, spreading of water strongly depended on the kind of quilting. Very fast water migration could be observed when the panels were held vertically. Some first results regarding the water distribution in wet panels immediately after the impact are presented. On the basis of the presented results, requirements for a standard for testing the performance of ballistic panels in the wet state are deduced.

  11. Computerized tomography using fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Schuler, P.

    1992-03-01

    The equipment is transportable and can be used at different neutron sources. CT-images are presented showing that it is possible to get good results by using CT with fast neutrons in non destructive testing. Small defects with high contrasts can be detected as well as larger defects with small differences in material density. Since the neutrons interact with the nuclei and not with the electron density the CT-images contain different information compared with X-ray or γ images. As neutron sources always emit γ-radiation too, this radiation can be detected simultaneously with the neutrons. Therefore one can get a γ CT-image along with the neutron image. For the examination of small samples or objects containing materials with great differences in the linear attenuation coefficients like Al and H 2 thermal neutrons have been used for CT-measurements too. A spatial resolution and a density resolution of 0.1 mm and about 5% respectively could be achieved in the CT-images with fast neutrons and 0.04 mm with thermal neutrons. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Monte Carlo code for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milczarek, Jacek J.; Trzcinski, Andrzej; El-Ghany El Abd, Abd; Czachor, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The concise Monte Carlo code, MSX, for simulation of neutron radiography images of non-uniform objects is presented. The possibility of modeling the images of objects with continuous spatial distribution of specific isotopes is included. The code can be used for assessment of the scattered neutron component in neutron radiograms

  13. Monte Carlo code for neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milczarek, Jacek J. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland)]. E-mail: jjmilcz@cyf.gov.pl; Trzcinski, Andrzej [Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); El-Ghany El Abd, Abd [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Nuclear Research Center, PC 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Czachor, Andrzej [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland)

    2005-04-21

    The concise Monte Carlo code, MSX, for simulation of neutron radiography images of non-uniform objects is presented. The possibility of modeling the images of objects with continuous spatial distribution of specific isotopes is included. The code can be used for assessment of the scattered neutron component in neutron radiograms.

  14. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazawa, Shuichi; Asada, Yorihisa; Yano, Munehiko; Nakanii, Takehiko.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. This article presents a new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and is equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports. The article describes a series of experiments, we conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained from 9 Be(p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. The article also describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Further, some of practical neutron radiograph examinations of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror and an attempt realizing real time imaging technique, are introduced in the article. (author)

  15. In situ diagnostic of water distribution in thickness direction of MEA by neutron imaging. Focused on characteristics of water distribution in gas diffusion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaki, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Kobo, Norio; Shinohara, Kazuhiko; Boillat, Pierre; Kramer, Denis; Scherer, Gunther G.; Lehmann, Eberhard H.

    2008-01-01

    The mass transfer characteristics of gas diffusion layer (GDL) are closely related to cell performance in PEFC. In this study, In situ diagnostic of water distribution in thickness direction of MEA by Neutron Imaging has been carried out for three MEAs with different GDLs on cathode side as well as I-V characteristics. It was confirmed that this method is useful for analyzing water distribution in thickness direction of MEA. The relationship between I-V characteristics and liquid water distribution has been studied. (author)

  16. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, College of medicine, Department of biomedical engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  17. Data imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepy, G.

    1999-01-01

    After an introduction about data imaging in general, the principles of imaging data collected via neutron scattering experiments are presented. Some computer programs designed for data imaging purposes are reviewed. (K.A.)

  18. Neutron reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Well, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron research where reflection, refraction, and interference play an essential role is generally referred to as 'neutron optics'. The neutron wavelength, the scattering length density and the magnetic properties of the material determine the critical angle for total reflection. The theoretical background of neutron reflection, experimental methods and the interpretation of reflection data are presented. (K.A.)

  19. Non-destructive assay employing 2D and 3D digital radiographic imaging acquired with thermal neutrons and reactor-produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvani, Maria Ines; Almeida, Gevaldo Lisboa de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The inner structure of some objects can only be visualized by using suitable techniques, when safety reasons or expensive costs preclude the application of invasive procedures. The kind of agent rendering an object partially transparent, unveiling thus its features, depends upon the object size and composition. As a rough rule of thumb, light materials are transparent to gamma and X-rays while the heavy ones are transparent to neutrons. When, after traversing an object, they hit a proper 2-D detector, a radiograph is produced representing a convoluted cross section, called projection, of that object. Taking a large number of such projections for different object attitudes, it is possible to obtain a 3-D tomography of the object as a map of attenuation coefficients. This procedure however, besides a time-consuming task, requires specially tailored equipment and software, not always available or affordable. Yet, in some circumstances it is feasible to replace the 3-D tomography by a stereoscopy, allowing one to visualize the spatial configuration of the object under analysis. In this work, 2-D and 3-D radiographic images have been acquired using thermal neutrons and reactor-produced radioisotopes and proper imaging plates as detectors. The stereographic vision has been achieved by taking two radiographs of the same object at different angles, from the detector point of view. After a treatment to render them red-white and green-white they were properly merged to yield a single image capable to be watched with red-green glasses. All the image treatment and rendering has been performed with the software ImageJ. (author)

  20. Spatial and temporal mapping of 10B distrubtion in vivo using nuclear reactor-based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and image reconstruction techniques. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelyn Yanch

    2006-01-01

    This project involved the development of a method for in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the investigation of Boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee. The overall objective of this work was a robust approach for rapid screening of new 10 B-labelled compounds to determine their suitability for use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis via Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS). For BNCS it is essential to obtain a compound showing high uptake levels in the synovium and long residence time in the joints. Previously the in vivo uptake behavior of potential compounds was evaluated in the arthritic knee joints of rabbits via extensive dissection studies. These studies are very labor-intensive and involve sacrificing large numbers of animals. An in vivo 10 B screening approach was developed to provide initial evaluation of potential compounds. Only those compounds showing positive uptake and retention characteristics will be evaluated further via dissection studies. No further studies will be performed with compounds showing rapid clearance and/or low synovial uptake. Two approaches to in vivo screening were investigated using both simulation methods and experimentation. Both make use of neutron beams generated at the MIT Research Reactor. The first, Transmission Computed Tomography (TCT) was developed and tested but was eventually rejected due to very limited spatial resolution using existing reactor beams. The second, in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (IVPGNAA) was much more promising. IVPGNAA was developed using computer simulation and physical measurement coupled with image reconstruction techniques. The method was tested in arthritic New Zealand rabbits previously injected intra-articularly with three boron labeled compounds and shown to be effective in providing information regarding uptake level and residence time of 10 B in the joint

  1. The neutron computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, G.; Krata, S.

    1983-01-01

    The method of computer tomography (CT) was applied for neutrons instead of X-rays. The neutron radiography image of samples was scanned by microphotometer to get the transmission data. This process was so time-consuming that the number of incident angles to samples could not be increased. The transmission data was processed by FACOM computer and CT image was gained. In the experiment at the Japan Research Reactor No. 4 at Tokai-mura with 18 projection angles, the resolution of paraffin in the aluminum block was less than 0.8 mm. In the experiment at Van de Graaf accelerator of Nagoya University, this same resolution was 1.2 mm because of the angle distribution of neutron beam. This experiment is the preliminary one, the facility which utilizes neutron television and video-recorder will be necessary for the next stage. (Auth.)

  2. System and apparatus for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a neutron radiography apparatus. It comprises an imaging plane; a neutron moderator having a cavity defining a convergent collimator, the cavity having a base and converging walls of neutron moderating material terminating at an aperture; a divergent collimator coaxially joined to the cavity at the aperture, the divergent collimator having diverging walls of radiation- absorbing material extending from the aperture to an expanded distal opening for irradiating the imaging plane; sources of neutrons disposed symmetrically about the base of the cavity; a neutron moderating material disposed for maximum neutron thermalization between the sources and the base of the cavity; and means for substantially shielding the plane from electromagnetic energy

  3. Neutron radiography with ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The neutron transmission factor of very thin films may be low if the neutron energy is comparable to the pseudo-potential of the film material. Surprisingly, perhaps, it is relatively easy to obtain neutrons with such low energies in sufficient numbers to produce neutron radiographs. (orig.)

  4. Neutron Skins and Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ("PREX") at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in 208Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron be...

  5. Neutron Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding

  6. Neutron Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhavere, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding.

  7. 3-D Deep Penetration Neutron Imaging of Thick Absorbing and Diffusive Objects Using Transport Theory. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragusa, Jean; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    here explores the inverse problem of optical tomography applied to heterogeneous domains. The neutral particle transport equation was used as the forward model for how neutral particles stream through and interact within these heterogeneous domains. A constrained optimization technique that uses Newtons method served as the basis of the inverse problem. Optical tomography aims at reconstructing the material properties using (a) illuminating sources and (b) detector readings. However, accurate simulations for radiation transport require that the particle (gamma and/or neutron) energy be appropriate discretize in the multigroup approximation. This, in turns, yields optical tomography problems where the number of unknowns grows (1) about quadratically with respect to the number of energy groups, G, (notably to reconstruct the scattering matrix) and (2) linearly with respect to the number of unknown material regions. As pointed out, a promising approach could rely on algorithms to appropriately select a material type per material zone rather than G2 values. This approach, though promising, still requires further investigation: (a) when switching from cross-section values unknowns to material type indices (discrete integer unknowns), integer programming techniques are needed since derivative information is no longer available; and (b) the issue of selecting the initial material zoning remains. The work reported here proposes an approach to solve the latter item, whereby a material zoning is proposed using one-group or few-groups transport approximations. The capabilities and limitations of the presented method were explored; they are briefly summarized next and later described in fuller details in the Appendices. The major factors that influenced the ability of the optimization method to reconstruct the cross sections of these domains included the locations of the sources used to illuminate the domains, the number of separate experiments used in the reconstruction, the

  8. X-ray micro-CT and neutron CT as complementary imaging tools for non-destructive 3D imaging of rare silicified fossil plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karch, J.; Dudák, J.; Žemlička, J.; Vavřík, Daniel; Kumpová, Ivana; Kvaček, J.; Heřmanová, Z.; Šoltés, J.; Viererbl, L.; Morgano, M.; Kaestner, A.; Trtík, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, December (2017), č. článku C12004. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : inspection with neutrons * X-ray detectors * X ray radiography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/12/12/C12004/pdf

  9. The neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kredov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The history of the neutron is displayed on the basis of contributions by scientists who produced outstanding results in neutron research (part 1), of summarizing discoveries and theories which led to the discovery of the neutron and the resulting development of nuclear physics (part 2), and of fundamental papers written by Rutherford, Chadwick, Iwanenko, and others (appendix). Of interest to physicists, historians, and students

  10. Neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  11. Non destructive testing and neutron radiography in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayon, G.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron radiography has been considered for a long time as a promising technique; however it plays a minor part in the world of non destructive testing today, due to the lack of suitable neutron sources and lack of new industrial applications. This paper reviews the present status of neutron sources, neutron radiography activities, especially in France (such as the neutron-capture-issued secondary radiation spectrometry), in nuclear, aerospace, aeronautical and metallurgical sectors, and the last applications of neutron dynamic imaging. 9 refs

  12. Switzerland: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies - MEG - Musee d’Ethnographie de Genève

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anheuser, Kilian

    2012-01-01

    Traditional X-radiography is widely used by conservation scientists in the investigation of cultural objects to assess structural problems and other technological conservation issues. In practice, however, X-radiography is sometimes unsuitable for the purpose, for instance when objects made of organic materials (wood, plastic, textile fibres) are covered by sheet metal. In these particular cases neutron radiography may present an interesting alternative. The proposed project will be closely associated with the day-to-day activities and requirements of the conservation laboratory of Geneva Ethnographic Museum (MEG), ensuring the practical relevance of the proposed research. The project follows on from an exploratory study of an Indonesian dagger from the MEG collection, using neutron imaging and tomography facilities at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) at Villigen, Switzerland. Results were presented by co-applicant Eberhard Lehman (PSI) in a paper entitled “Wood investigation by means of radiation transmission techniques in the analysis of cultural heritage objects” on the 16th November 2011 at the joint COST-action meeting IE0601/MP0601 “Photon technologies for conservation of wooden cultural heritage” in Paris, France

  13. The influence of laser scribing on magnetic domain formation in grain oriented electrical steel visualized by directional neutron dark-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, P.; Betz, B.; Hauptmann, J.; Wetzig, A.; Beyer, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-12-01

    The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the bulk magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel laminations. The core losses can be improved by post manufacturing methods, so-called domain refinement techniques. All these methods induce mechanical or thermal stress that refines the domain structure. The most commonly used technique is laser scribing due to the no-contact nature and the ease of integration in existing production systems. Here we show how directional neutron dark-field imaging allows visualizing the impact of laser scribing on the bulk and supplementary domain structure. In particular, we investigate the domain formation during magnetization of samples depending on laser treatment parameters such as laser energy and line distances. The directional dark-field imaging findings were quantitatively interpreted in the context with global magnetic hysteresis measurements. Especially we exploit the orientation sensitivity in the dark-field images to distinguish between different domain structures alignment and their relation to the laser scribing process.

  14. Visualization of water usage and photosynthetic activity of street trees exposed to 2 ppm of SO2-A combined evaluation by cold neutron and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, U.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Manke, I.; Shono, H.; Herppich, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthetic efficacy and auto-exhaust-fume resistance of street trees were evaluated by cold neutron radiography (CNR) with D 2 O tracer and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) imaging. With these techniques, information on the responses of water usage and photosynthetic activity of plants exposed to simulate toxic auto-exhaust fumes (2 ppm SO 2 in air) were obtained. Branches of hibiscus trees were detached, placed into a tub with aerated water and used for the experiments after rooting. A CF image was taken before SO 2 was applied for 1 h. During the experiment, CNR and CF imaging were conduced. H 2 O and D 2 O in the plant container were exchanged every 30 min to observe water uptake. D 2 O tracer clearly showed water uptake into the hibiscus stem during each treatment. When the atmosphere was changed from simulated auto-exhaust fumes to normal air again, the amount of D 2 O and, hence, water uptake increased. CF imaging was well suited to evaluate the effects of SO 2 as simulated toxic auto-exhaust fumes on plants. The maximum photochemical efficiency (F v /F m ), a sensitive indicator of the efficacy and the integrity of plants' photosynthesis, immediately dropped by 30% after supplying the simulated auto-exhaust fumes. This indicates that toxic auto-exhaust fumes negatively affected the photosynthetic activity of hibiscus leaves. Simultaneous CNR and CF imaging successfully visualized variations of photosynthetic activity and water uptake in the sample. Thus, this combination method was effective to non-destructive analyze the physiological status of plants.

  15. A final report for Gallium arsenide P-I-N detectors for high-sensitivity imaging of thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Vernon, S M

    1999-01-01

    This SBIR Phase I developed neutron detectors made FR-om gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (P-I-N) diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto semi-insulating (S1) bulk GaAs wafers. A layer of isotonically enriched boron-10 evaporated onto the FR-ont surface serves to convert incoming neutrons into lithium ions and a 1.47 MeV alpha particle which creates electron-hole pairs that are detected by the GaAs diode. Various thicknesses of ''intrinsic'' (I) undoped GaAs were tested, as was use of a back-surface field (BSF) formed FR-om a layer of Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As. Schottky-barrier diodes formed FR-om the same structures without the p+ GaAs top layer were tested as a comparison. After mesa etching and application of contacts, devices were tested in visible light before application of the boron coating. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the best diode near the GaAs bandedge is over 90%. The lowest dark current measured is 1 x 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 amps at -1 V o...

  16. Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made and draw plans for the future. Besides, ad-hoc sub-groups or. different topics within the field of neutron......In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Buratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear...... radiography are constituted. This paper reviews the activities and achievements of the NRWG and its sub-groups....

  17. Development of fast neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Chia Jia, E-mail: gei-i-kani@hotmail.com; Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai, E-mail: sunchai.n@chula.ac.th [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok, THAILAND 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    Due to the high installation cost, the safety concern and the immobility of the research reactors, the neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator is proposed. Since the neutrons generated from a portable neutron generator are mostly the fast neutrons, the system is emphasized on using the fast neutrons for the purpose of conducting the radiography. In order to suppress the influence of X-ray produced by the neutron generator, a combination of a shielding material sandwiched between two identical imaging plates is used. A binary XOR operation is then applied for combining the information from the imaging plates. The raw images obtained confirm that the X-ray really has a large effect and that XOR operation can help enhance the effect of the neutrons.

  18. Basic research for developing the quantitative neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Ikeda, Yasushi; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Yoneda, Kenji; Fujine, Shigenori.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation concerns the basic research and development on quantitative neutron radiography by using a honeycomb collimator which reduces the effect due to scattered neutrons in objective matter. On the observation of the hydrogenate materials such as metal hydrides, water and hydrocarbons by neutron radiography, scattered neutrons from these objectives make the quantitativeness of the neutron radiographic image lower grade. In order to improve the quantitativeness of the image, a honeycomb collimator, which is a honeycomb structure of neutron absorbing material, was introduced to the conventional neutron radiography system. By setting the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator between objective and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the objective were absorbed by the honeycomb material and attenuated before coming to the imaging system, but neutrons which were transmitted the objective sample without any interaction reached the imaging system and formed the image of the sample. As the image by purely transmitted neutrons is intrinsic due to the neutronic character of the sample, the image data give the quantitative information. In the present experiment, aluminum honeycomb which was coated with boron nitride was prepared and used in order to image the standard stepwise samples for the evaluation of the quantitative grade of the newly proposed neutron radiography method. From the comparison between macroscopic total cross section and the attenuation coefficient of the thermal neutron for aluminum, copper and hydrocarbons, it was confirmed that they were fairly consistent each other. It can be concluded that the newly proposed neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improves remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography technique. (author)

  19. Neutron beam applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S.

    2000-05-01

    For the materials science by neutron technique, the development of the various complementary neutron beam facilities at horizontal beam port of HANARO and the techniques for measurement and analysis has been performed. High resolution powder diffractometer, after the installation and performance test, has been opened and used actively for crystal structure analysis, magnetic structure analysis, phase transition study, etc., since January 1998. The main components for four circle diffractometer were developed and, after performance test, it has been opened for crystal structure analysis and texture measurement since the end of 1999. For the small angle neutron spectrometer, the main component development and test, beam characterization, and the preliminary experiment for the structure study of polymer have been carried out. Neutron radiography facility, after the precise performance test, has been used for the non-destructive test of industrial component. Addition to the development of main instruments, for the effective utilization of those facilities, the scattering techniques relating to quantitative phase analysis, magnetic structure analysis, texture measurement, residual stress measurement, polymer study, etc, were developed. For the neutron radiography, photographing and printing technique on direct and indirect method was stabilized and the development for the real time image processing technique by neutron TV was carried out. The sample environment facilities for low and high temperature, magnetic field were also developed

  20. Electron volt neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of pulsed neutron sources has made available intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons (500 meV ≤E≤100 eV ). The possibility to open new investigations on condensed matter with eV neutron scattering techniques, is related to the development of methods, concepts and devices that drive, or are inspired by, emerging studies at this energy scale. Electron volt spectrometers have undergone continuous improvements since the construction of the first prototype instruments, but in the last decade major breakthroughs have been accomplished in terms of resolution and counting statistics, leading, for example, to the direct measurement of the proton 3-D Born–Oppenheimer potential in any material, or to quantitatively probe nuclear quantum effects in hydrogen bonded systems. This paper reports on the most effective methods and concepts for energy analysis and detection, as well as devices for the optimization of electron volt spectrometers for different applications. This is set in the context of the progress made up to date in instrument development. Starting from early stages of development of the technique, particular emphasis will be given to the Vesuvio eV spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source, the first spectrometer where extensive scientific, as well as research and development programmes have been carried out. The potential offered by this type of instrumentation, from single particle excitations to momentum distribution studies, is then put in perspective into the emerging fields of eV spectroscopy applied to cultural heritages and neutron irradiation effects in electronics. - Highlights: ► Neutron spectrometers at eV energies. ► Methods and techniques for eV neutrons counting at spallation sources. ► Scattering, imaging and radiation hardness tests with multi-eV neutrons.

  1. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  2. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  3. Neutron spectometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortmans, F.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental work in the field of low-energy neutron physics can be subdivided into two classes: 1)Study of the decay process of the compound-nucleus state as for example the study of the capture gamma rays and of the neutron induced fission process; 2)Study of the reaction mechanism, mainly by measuring the reaction cross-sections and resonance parameters. These neutron cross-sections and resonance parameters are also important data required for many technological applications especially for reactor development programmes. In general, the second class of experiments impose other requirements on the neutron spectrometer than the first class. In most cases, a better neutron energy resolution and a broader neutron energy range are required for the study of the reaction mechanism than for the study of various aspects of the decay process. (author)

  4. Azimuthally anisotropic hydride lens structures in Zircaloy 4 nuclear fuel cladding: High-resolution neutron radiography imaging and BISON finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun-Li; Zhong, Weicheng; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Heuser, Brent J.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution neutron radiography has been used to image bulk circumferential hydride lens particles in unirradiated Zircaloy 4 tubing cross section specimens. Zircaloy 4 is a common light water nuclear reactor (LWR) fuel cladding; hydrogen pickup, hydride formation, and the concomitant effect on the mechanical response are important for LWR applications. Ring cross section specimens with three hydrogen concentrations (460, 950, and 2830 parts per million by weight) and an as-received reference specimen were imaged. Azimuthally anisotropic hydride lens particles were observed at 950 and 2830 wppm. The BISON finite element analysis nuclear fuel performance code was used to model the system elastic response induced by hydride volumetric dilatation. The compressive hoop stress within the lens structure becomes azimuthally anisotropic at high hydrogen concentrations or high hydride phase fraction. This compressive stress anisotropy matches the observed lens anisotropy, implicating the effect of stress on hydride formation as the cause of the observed lens azimuthal asymmetry. The cause and effect relation between compressive stress and hydride lens anisotropy represents an indirect validation of a key BISON output, the evolved hoop stress associated with hydride formation.

  5. Neutron exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prillinger, G.; Konynenburg, R.A. van

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. In chapter 6, LWR-PV neutron transport calculations and dosimetry methods and how they are combined to evaluate the neutron exposure of the steel of pressure vessels are discussed. An effort to correlate neutron exposure parameters with damage is made

  6. Atmospheric neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preszler, A.M.; Moon, S.; White, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Additional calibrations of the University of California double-scatter neutron and additional analysis corrections lead to the slightly changed neutron fluxes reported here. The theoretical angular distributions of Merker (1975) are in general agreement with our experimental fluxes but do not give the peaks for vertical upward and downward moving neutrons. The theoretical neutron escape current J 2 /sub pi/ (Merker, 1972; Armstrong et al., 1973) is in agreement with the experimental values from 10 to 100 MeV. Our experimental fluxes agree with those of the Kanbach et al. (1974) in the overlap region from 70 to 100 MeV

  7. Neutron Albedo

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatovich, V K

    2005-01-01

    A new, algebraic, method is applied to calculation of neutron albedo from substance to check the claim that use of ultradispersive fuel and moderator of an active core can help to gain in size and mass of the reactor. In a model of isotropic distribution of incident and reflected neutrons it is shown that coherent scattering on separate grains in the case of thermal neutrons increases transport cross section negligibly, however it decreases albedo from a wall of finite thickness because of decrease of substance density. A visible increase of albedo takes place only for neutrons with wave length of the order of the size of a single grain.

  8. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratin, Luciano

    1993-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  9. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratin, Luciano

    1994-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  10. Plastic fiber scintillator response to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Sjue, S.; Wilde, C. H.; Merrill, F. E.; Haight, R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The Neutron Imaging System at NIF uses an array of plastic scintillator fibers in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to form an image of the neutron emission from the imploded capsule. By gating on neutrons that have scattered from the 14.1 MeV DT energy to lower energy ranges, an image of the dense, cold fuel around the hotspot is also obtained. An unmoderated spallation neutron beamline at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos was used in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to measure the yield of a scintillating fiber array over several energy bands ranging from 1 to 15 MeV. The results and comparison to simulation are presented.

  11. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield

  12. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  13. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Tsujii, Yukio

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. A new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports, is presented in this article. A series of experiment, prior to its construction, was conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained, from 9 Be (p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. This article describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Some of practical neutron radiograph examination of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror are also presented together with an attempt realizing real time imaging technique. (author)

  14. Neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap

  15. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  16. Magnetism and magnetic materials probed with neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velthuis, S.G.E. te; Pappas, C.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques are becoming increasingly accessible to a broader range of scientific communities, in part due to the onset of next-generation, high-power spallation sources, high-performance, sophisticated instruments and data analysis tools. These technical advances also advantageously impact research into magnetism and magnetic materials, where neutrons play a major role. In this Current Perspective series, the achievements and future prospects of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering, polarized neutron reflectometry, small angle neutron scattering, and neutron imaging, are highlighted as they apply to research into magnetic frustration, superconductivity and magnetism at the nanoscale. - Highlights: • Introduction to Current Perspective series titled Magnetism and Magnetic Materials probed with Neutron Scattering. • Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering in systems with magnetic frustration and superconductivity. • Small angle neutron scattering and polarized neutron reflectometry in studying magnetism at the nanoscale. • Imaging of magnetic fields and domains

  17. Magnetism and magnetic materials probed with neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velthuis, S.G.E. te, E-mail: tevelthuis@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pappas, C. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, NL-2629JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    Neutron scattering techniques are becoming increasingly accessible to a broader range of scientific communities, in part due to the onset of next-generation, high-power spallation sources, high-performance, sophisticated instruments and data analysis tools. These technical advances also advantageously impact research into magnetism and magnetic materials, where neutrons play a major role. In this Current Perspective series, the achievements and future prospects of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering, polarized neutron reflectometry, small angle neutron scattering, and neutron imaging, are highlighted as they apply to research into magnetic frustration, superconductivity and magnetism at the nanoscale. - Highlights: • Introduction to Current Perspective series titled Magnetism and Magnetic Materials probed with Neutron Scattering. • Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering in systems with magnetic frustration and superconductivity. • Small angle neutron scattering and polarized neutron reflectometry in studying magnetism at the nanoscale. • Imaging of magnetic fields and domains.

  18. Semiconductor Thermal Neutron Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Aoki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The  CdTe  and  GaN  detector  with  a  Gd  converter  have  been developed  and  investigated  as  a  neutron  detector  for neutron  imaging.  The  fabricated  Gd/CdTe  detector  with  the  25  mm  thick  Gd  was  designed  on  the  basis  of  simulation results  of  thermal  neutron  detection  efficiency  and  spatial  resolution.  The  Gd/CdTe  detector  shows  the  detection  of neutron  capture  gamma  ray  emission  in  the  155Gd(n,  g156Gd,  157Gd(n,  g158Gd  and  113Cd(n,  g114Cd  reactions  and characteristic X-ray emissions due to conversion-electrons generated inside the Gd film. The observed efficient thermal neutron detection with the Gd/CdTe detector shows its promise in neutron radiography application. Moreover, a BGaN detector has also investigated to separate neutron signal from gamma-ray clearly. 

  19. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael L.

    2010-08-20

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni{sub 3}Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T{sub C} on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with

  20. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd 1-x Ni x and Ni 3 Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd 1-x Ni x and Ni 3 Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni 3 Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T C on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with different ordering temperatures. This

  1. Neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesler, Rudi

    1995-01-01

    Standard radiotherapy uses Xrays or electrons which have low LET (linear energy transfer); in contrast, particles such as neutrons with high LET have different radiobiological responses. In the late 1960s, clinical trials by Mary Catterall at the Hammersmith Hospital in London indicated that fast neutron radiation had clinical advantages for certain malignant tumours. Following these early clinical trials, several cyclotron facilities were built in the 1980s for fast neutron therapy, for example at the University of Washington, Seattle, and at UCLA. Most of these newer machines use extracted cyclotron proton beams in the range 42 to 66 MeV with beam intensities of 15 to 60 microamps. The proton beams are transported to dedicated therapy rooms, where neutrons are produced from beryllium targets. Second-generation clinical trials showed that accurate neutron beam delivery to the tumour site is more critical than for photon therapy. In order to achieve precise beam geometries, the extracted proton beams have to be transported through a gantry which can rotate around the patient and deliver beams from any angle; also the neutron beam outline (''field shape'') must be adjusted to extremely irregular shapes using a flexible collimation system. A therapy procedure has to be appropriately organized, with physicians, radiotherapists, nurses, medical physicists and other staff in attendance; other specialized equipment, such as CT or MRI scanners and radiation simulators must be made available. Neutron therapy is usually performed only in radiation oncology departments of major medical centres

  2. Visualization of electrolyte filling process and influence of vacuum during filling for hard case prismatic lithium ion cells by neutron imaging to optimize the production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weydanz, W. J.; Reisenweber, H.; Gottschalk, A.; Schulz, M.; Knoche, T.; Reinhart, G.; Masuch, M.; Franke, J.; Gilles, R.

    2018-03-01

    The process of filling electrolyte into lithium ion cells is time consuming and critical to the overall battery quality. However, this process is not well understood. This is partially due to the fact, that it is hard to observe it in situ. A powerful tool for visualization of the process is neutron imaging. The filling and wetting process of the electrode stack can be clearly visualized in situ without destruction of the actual cell. The wetting of certain areas inside the electrode stack can clearly be seen when using this technique. Results showed that wetting of the electrode stack takes place in a mostly isotropic manner from the outside towards a center point of the cell at very similar speed. When the electrolyte reaches the center point, the wetting process can be considered complete. The electrode wetting is a slow but rather steady process for hard case prismatic cells. It starts with a certain speed, which is reduced over the progress of the wetting. Vacuum can assist the process and accelerate it by about a factor of two as was experimentally shown. This gives a considerable time and cost advantage for designing the production process for large-scale battery cell production.

  3. Hydration and dehydration cycles in polymer electrolyte fuel cells operated with wet anode and dry cathode feed: A neutron imaging and modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Sánchez, D. G.; Boillat, P.; Vera, M.; Friedrich, K. A.

    2017-08-01

    Proper water management plays an essential role in the performance and durability of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs), but it is challenged by the variety of water transport phenomena that take place in these devices. Previous experimental work has shown the existence of fluctuations between low and high current density levels in PEFCs operated with wet hydrogen and dry air feed. The alternation between both performance states is accompanied by strong changes in the high frequency resistance, suggesting a cyclic hydration and dehydration of the membrane. This peculiar scenario is examined here considering liquid water distributions from neutron imaging and predictions from a 3D two-phase non-isothermal model. The results show that the hydration-dehydration cycles are triggered by the periodic condensation and shedding of liquid water at the anode inlet. The input of liquid water humidifies the anode channel and offsets the membrane dry-out induced by the dry air stream, thus leading to the high-performance state. When liquid water is flushed out of the anode channel, the dehydration process takes over, and the cell comes back to the low-performance state. The predicted amplitude of the current oscillations grows with decreasing hydrogen and increasing air flow rates, in agreement with previous experimental data.

  4. Neutronics codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckel, G.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives are the development, testing and cultivation of reliable, efficient and user-optimized neutron-physical calculation methods and conformity with users' requirements concerning design of power reactors, planning and analysis of experiments necessary for their protection as well as research on physical key problems. A short outline of available computing programmes for the following objectives is given: - Provision of macroscopic group constants, - Calculation of neutron flux distribution in transport theory and diffusion approximation, - Evaluation of neutron flux-distribution, - Execution of disturbance calculations for the determination reactivity coefficients, and - graphical representation of results. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Visualization of frosting phenomena by using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Umekawa, Hisashi; Ami, Takeyuki; Saito, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the frost formation on the fin-tube heat exchanger using neutron radiography. The visualization of the frost formation was estimated by the attenuation of the neutron beam through the water. The visualization image of the neutron radiography shows clearly the frost formation phenomena on the fin-tube heat exchanger. The rapid frost formation was observed at the fin and tube edges. Local mass transfer coefficient can be calculated from the differential images of the neutron radiography. (author)

  6. New prospect in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluzeau, S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a very useful non-destructive testing (NDT) method which frequently complements classical X-ray inspection. Numerous inspections in some fields are currently performed at reactor-based neutron radiography facilities but many other interesting applications in different fields are at present not considered because the objects to be tested cannot be moved to a reactor. It is the goal of the DIANE project, to allow the utilization of this NDT method in industrial facilities by developing a safe and convenient neutron radiography equipment using an ''on-off'' neutron source. As a result of the efforts of the four European partners, a first laboratory demonstration model is currently in operation in Germany and a fully mobile second one is expected by the end of 1992. Good radiographs are obtained with exposure times in the range of a few seconds to ten minutes using an electronic imaging system. The fast neutron generator uses a sealed neutron tube delivering 5.10 11 neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 in 4 π steradian; with a collimator ratio of about 12, the fluence rate onto the object is then close to 1,5.10 5 thermal neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 . (author)

  7. Neutron reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2014-01-01

    of desired information. In the course, an introduction into the method and an overview on selected instruments at large scale facilities will be presented. Examples will be given that illustrate the potential of the method, mostly based on organic films. Results from the investigation of layered films......Neutron (and X-ray) reflectometry constitute complementary interfacially sensitive techniques that open access to studying the structure within thin films of both soft and hard condensed matter. Film thickness starts oxide surfaces on bulk substrates, proceeding to (pauci-)molecular layers and up...... films or films with magnetic properties. The reason is the peculiar property of neutron light since the mass of a neutron is close to the one of a proton, and since it bears a magnetic moment. The optical properties of matter, when interacting with neutrons, are described by a refractive index...

  8. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, A.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the text of 16 lectures given at the Summer School and the report on a panel discussion entitled ''the relative merits and complementarities of x-rays, synchrotron radiation, steady- and pulsed neutron sources''. figs., tabs., refs

  9. Neutron storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  10. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayon, G.

    1989-01-01

    Neutronography or neutron radiography, a non-destructive test method which is similar in its principle to conventional X-ray photography, presently occupies a marginal position among non-destructive test methods (NDT) (no source of suitable performance or cost). Neutron radiography associated with the ORPHEE reactor permits industrial testing; it can very quickly meet a cost requirement comparable to that of conventional test methods. In 1988, 2500 parts were tested on this unit [fr

  11. Neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention detects neutrons in a reactor container under a high temperature and reduces the noise level in an FBR type reactor. That is, the detection section comprises a high heat resistant vessel containing a scintillator therein for detecting neutrons. Neutron signals sent from the detection section are inputted to a neutron measuring section by way of a signal transmission section. The detection section is disposed at the inside of the reactor container. Further, the signal transmission section is connected optically to the detection section. With such a constitution, since the detection section comprising the high temperature resistant vessel is disposed at the inside of the reactor container, neutron fluxes can be detected and measured at high sensitivity even under a high temperature circumstance. Since the signal transmission section is optically connected to the detection section, influence of radiation rays upon transmission of the neutron detection signals can be reduced. Accordingly, the noise level can be kept low. (I.S.)

  12. Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2005-01-01

    The neutron probe is a standard tool for measuring soil water content. This article provides an overview of the underlying theory, describes the methodology for its calibration and use, discusses example applications, and identifies the safety issues. Soil water makes land-based life possible by satisfying plant water requirements, serving as a medium for nutrient movement to plant roots and nutrient cycling, and controlling the fate and transport of contaminants in the soil environment. Therefore, a successful understanding of the dynamics of plant growth, nutrient cycling, and contaminant behavior in the soil requires knowledge of the soil water content as well as its spatial and temporal variability. After more than 50 years, neutron probes remain the most reliable tool available for field monitoring of soil water content. Neutron probes provide integrated measurements over relatively large volumes of soil and, with proper access, allow for repeated sampling of the subsurface at the same locations. The limitations of neutron probes include costly and time-consuming manual operation, lack of data automation, and costly regulatory requirements. As more non-radioactive systems for soil water monitoring are developed to provide automated profiling capabilities, neutron-probe usage will likely decrease. Until then, neutron probes will continue to be a standard for reliable measurements of field water contents in soils around the globe

  13. Neutron Tomography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, William Riley

    2017-01-01

    Neutron imaging is an incredibly powerful tool for non-destructive sample characterization and materials science. Neutron tomography is one technique that results in a three-dimensional model of the sample, representing the interaction of the neutrons with the sample. This relies both on reliable data acquisition and on image processing after acquisition. Over the course of the project, the focus has changed from the former to the latter, culminating in a large-scale reconstruction of a meter-long fossilized skull. The full reconstruction is not yet complete, though tools have been developed to improve the speed and accuracy of the reconstruction. This project helps to improve the capabilities of LANSCE and LANL with regards to imaging large or unwieldy objects.

  14. Neutron Tomography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, William Riley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Neutron imaging is an incredibly powerful tool for non-destructive sample characterization and materials science. Neutron tomography is one technique that results in a three-dimensional model of the sample, representing the interaction of the neutrons with the sample. This relies both on reliable data acquisition and on image processing after acquisition. Over the course of the project, the focus has changed from the former to the latter, culminating in a large-scale reconstruction of a meter-long fossilized skull. The full reconstruction is not yet complete, though tools have been developed to improve the speed and accuracy of the reconstruction. This project helps to improve the capabilities of LANSCE and LANL with regards to imaging large or unwieldy objects.

  15. Neutron-neutron probe for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron activation probe for assaying the amount of fissionable isotopes in an ore body is described which comprises a casing which is movable through a borehole in the ore body, a neutron source and a number of delayed neutron detectors arranged colinearly in the casing below the neutron source for detecting delayed neutrons

  16. Development of a 3He nuclear spin flip system on an in-situ SEOP 3He spin filter and demonstration for a neutron reflectometer and magnetic imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, H; Kira, H; Miyata, N; Akutsu, K; Mizusawa, M; Parker, J D; Matsumoto, Y; Oku, T; Sakai, K; Hiroi, K; Shinohara, T; Takeda, M; Yamazaki, D; Oikawa, K; Harada, M; Ino, T; Imagawa, T; Ohkawara, M; Ohoyama, K; Kakurai, K

    2016-01-01

    We have been developing a 3 He neutron spin filter (NSF) using the spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) technique. The 3 He NSF provides a high-energy polarized neutron beam with large beam size. Moreover the 3 He NSF can work as a π-flipper for a polarized neutron beam by flipping the 3 He nuclear spin using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. For NMR with the in-situ SEOP technique, the polarization of the laser must be reversed simultaneously because a non-reversed laser reduces the polarization of the spin-flipped 3 He. To change the polarity of the laser, a half-wavelength plate was installed. The rotation angle of the half-wavelength plate was optimized, and a polarization of 97% was obtained for the circularly polarized laser. The 3 He polarization reached 70% and was stable over one week. A demonstration of the 3 He nuclear spin flip system was performed at the polarized neutron reflectometer SHARAKU (BL17) and NOBORU (BL10) at J-PARC. Off-specular measurement from a magnetic Fe/Cr thin film and magnetic imaging of a magnetic steel sheet were performed at BL17 and BL10, respectively. (paper)

  17. Inherent unsharpness of neutron radiographic image on X-ray films; Notranja neostrina nevtronografke slike na roentgenskih filmih

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilic, R; Najzer, M [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1979-07-01

    The inherent unsharpness of the AGFA GEVART Structurix D-4 X-ray film was determined in terms of the unsharpness of the image of the knife edge test object for Gd converter 25 {mu}m In converters 50, 150 and 250 {mu}m and by Dy converters 7, 12, 25 and 60 {mu}m thick. The unsharpness of single coated film for Gd converter was found to be 56{+-}5 {mu}m. For In and Dy a value of 230 {+-} was obtained which was found to be independent on the converter type or thickness at least in the range of measuring error. The Inherent unsharpness of double coated film was 440 {+-} for In and 550{+-}50 {mu}m for Dy converter and was not dependent on the converter thickness. Comparing with single coated film the sensitivity was for a factor 1.6 higher for In and Dy converters. For Gd converter there was no gain in sensitivity and even the contrast was worse due to higher gamma ray background. (author)

  18. Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treimer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Neutron imaging became important when, besides providing impressive radiographic and tomographic images of various objects, physical, quantification of chemical, morphological or other parameters could be derived from 2D or 3D images. The spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm (and less) yields real space images of the bulk of specimens with more than some cm 3 in volume. Thus the physics or chemistry of structures in a sample can be compared with scattering functions obtained e.g. from neutron scattering. The advantages of using neutrons become more pronounced when the neutron spin comes into play. The interaction of neutrons with magnetism is unique due to their low attenuation by matter and because their spin is sensitive to magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, domains and quantum effects such as the Meissner effect and flux trapping can only be visualized and quantified in the bulk of matter by imaging with polarized neutrons. This additional experimental tool is gaining more and more importance. There is a large number of new fields that can be investigated by neutron imaging, not only in physics, but also in geology, archeology, cultural heritage, soil culture, applied material research, magnetism, etc. One of the top applications of polarized neutron imaging is the large field of superconductivity where the Meissner effect and flux pinning can be visualized and quantified. Here we will give a short summary of the results achieved by radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons. - Highlights: • Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons yield new results concerning the suppressed Meissner effect and magnetic flux trapping. • Suppressed Meissner effect was observed in pure lead samples and niobium. • Trapped magnetic fields in cylindrical Pb samples are squeezed around the rod axis. • The shape and the amount of trapped fields could be determined and quantified

  19. Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treimer, Wolfgang, E-mail: treimer@helmholtz-berlin.de [University of Applied Sciences, Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin, Department Mathematics Physics and Chemistry, Luxemburgerstr. 10, D-13353 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Department G – GTOMO, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Neutron imaging became important when, besides providing impressive radiographic and tomographic images of various objects, physical, quantification of chemical, morphological or other parameters could be derived from 2D or 3D images. The spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm (and less) yields real space images of the bulk of specimens with more than some cm{sup 3} in volume. Thus the physics or chemistry of structures in a sample can be compared with scattering functions obtained e.g. from neutron scattering. The advantages of using neutrons become more pronounced when the neutron spin comes into play. The interaction of neutrons with magnetism is unique due to their low attenuation by matter and because their spin is sensitive to magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, domains and quantum effects such as the Meissner effect and flux trapping can only be visualized and quantified in the bulk of matter by imaging with polarized neutrons. This additional experimental tool is gaining more and more importance. There is a large number of new fields that can be investigated by neutron imaging, not only in physics, but also in geology, archeology, cultural heritage, soil culture, applied material research, magnetism, etc. One of the top applications of polarized neutron imaging is the large field of superconductivity where the Meissner effect and flux pinning can be visualized and quantified. Here we will give a short summary of the results achieved by radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons. - Highlights: • Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons yield new results concerning the suppressed Meissner effect and magnetic flux trapping. • Suppressed Meissner effect was observed in pure lead samples and niobium. • Trapped magnetic fields in cylindrical Pb samples are squeezed around the rod axis. • The shape and the amount of trapped fields could be determined and quantified.

  20. Characterization of the Ljubljana TRIGA thermal column neutron radiographic facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Rant, J.; Kristof, E.; Glumac, B.

    1995-01-01

    An extensive characterization of the neutron beam of the existing neutron radiographic facility in the thermal column of the Ljubljana Triga Mark II research reactor is in progress. Neutron beam characteristics are needed to determine the effect of various neutron and gamma radiation on the neutron radiographic image. Commercially available medical scintillator converter screens based on Gd dioxy sulphite as well as Gd metal neutron converters are used to record neutron radiographic image. Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured using Au and In activation detectors and cadmium ratio is determined. Neutron beam flux profiles are measured by film densitometry and by Au activation detector wires. By exposing films shielded by boral or lead plates individual contributions of thermal, epithermal neutrons and gamma radiation are estimated by densitometric measurements. By recording images of neutron image quality indicators BPI (Beam Purity Indicator) and SI (Sensitivity Indicator) produced by Riso, standard neutron radiography image characteristic are established. In gamma dosimetric measurements thermoluminescent detectors (CaF 2 Mn) are used. (author)

  1. Neutron protein crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    X-ray diffraction of single crystal has enriched the knowledge of various biological molecules such as proteins, DNA, t-RNA, viruses, etc. It is difficult to make structural analysis of hydrogen atoms in a protein using X-ray crystallography, whereas neutron diffraction seems usable to directly determine the location of those hydrogen atoms. Here, neutron diffraction method was applied to structural analysis of hen egg-white lysozyme. Since the crystal size of a protein to analyze is generally small (5 mm{sup 3} at most), the neutron beam at the sample position in monochromator system was set to less than 5 x 5 mm{sup 2} and beam divergence to 0.4 degree or less. Neutron imaging plate with {sup 6}Li or Gd mixed with photostimulated luminescence material was used and about 2500 Bragg reflections were recorded in one crystal setting. A total of 38278 reflections for 2.0 A resolution were collected in less than 10 days. Thus, stereo views of Trp-111 omit map around the indol ring of Trp-111 was presented and the three-dimensional arrangement of 696H and 264D atoms in the lysozyme molecules was determined using the omit map. (M.N.)

  2. Simulation Study of Using High-Z EMA to Suppress Recoil Protons Crosstalk in Scintillating Fiber Array for 14.1 MeV Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qinggang; Hu, Huasi; Zhang, Fengna; Zhang, Tiankui; Lv, Wei; Zhan, Yuanpin; Liu, Zhihua

    2013-12-01

    This paper studies the effect of a high-Z extra mural absorber (EMA) to improve the spatial resolution of a plastic (polystyrene) scintillating fiber array for 14.1 MeV fusion neutron imaging. Crosstalk induced by recoil protons was studied, and platinum (Pt) was selected as EMA material, because of its excellent ability to suppress the recoil protons penetrating the fibers. Three common fiber arrays (cylindrical scintillating fibers in square and hexagonal packing arrangements and square scintillating fibers) were simulated using the Monte Carlo method for evaluating the effect of Pt-EMA in improving spatial resolution. It is found that the resolution of the 100 μm square fiber array can be improved from 1.7 to 3.4 lp/mm by using 10- μm-thick Pt-EMA; comparatively, using an array with thinner square fibers (50 μm) only obtains a resolution of 2.1 lp/mm. The packing fraction decreases with the increase of EMA thickness. Our results recommend the use of 10 μm Pt-EMA for the square and the cylindrical (hexagonal packing) scintillating fiber arrays with fibers of 50-200 μm in the cross-sectional dimension. Besides, the dead-zone material should be replaced by high-Z material for the hexagonal packing cylindrical fiber array with fibers of 50-200 μm in diameter. Tungsten (W) and gold (Au) are also used as EMA in the three fiber arrays as a comparison. The simulation results show that W can be used at a lower cost, and Au does not have any advantages in cost and resolution improvement.

  3. Improvement of neutron collimator design for thermal neutron radiography using Monte Carlo N-particle transport code version 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiagu Supramaniam

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to propose a new neutron collimator design for thermal neutron radiography facility using tangential beam port of PUSPATI TRIGA Mark II reactor, Malaysia Institute of Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). Best geometry and materials for neutron collimator were chosen in order to obtain a uniform beam with maximum thermal neutron flux, high L/ D ratio, high neutron to gamma ratio and low beam divergence with high resolution. Monte Carlo N-particle Transport Code version 5 (MCNP 5) was used to optimize six neutron collimator components such as beam port medium, neutron scatterer, neutron moderator, gamma filter, aperture and collimator wall. The reactor and tangential beam port setup in MCNP5 was plotted according to its actual sizes. A homogeneous reactor core was assumed and population control method of variance reduction technique was applied by using cell importance. The comparison between experimental results and simulated results of the thermal neutron flux measurement of the bare tangential beam port, shows that both graph obtained had similar pattern. This directly suggests the reliability of MCNP5 in order to obtained optimal neutron collimator parameters. The simulated results of the optimal neutron medium, shows that vacuum was the best medium to transport neutrons followed by helium gas and air. The optimized aperture component was boral with 3 cm thickness. The optimal aperture center hole diameter was 2 cm which produces 88 L/ D ratio. Simulation also shows that graphite neutron scatterer improves thermal neutron flux while reducing fast neutron flux. Neutron moderator was used to moderate fast and epithermal neutrons in the beam port. Paraffin wax with 90 cm thick was bound to be the best neutron moderator material which produces the highest thermal neutron flux at the image plane. Cylindrical shape high density polyethylene neutron collimator produces the highest thermal neutron flux at the image plane rather than divergent

  4. Beam Characterization at the Neutron Radiography Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarah Morgan; Jeffrey King

    2013-01-01

    The quality of a neutron imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This project characterized the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio and image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. Improvement of the existing NRAD MCNP beamline model includes validation of the model’s energy spectrum and the development of enhanced image simulation methods. The image simulation methods predict the radiographic image of an object based on the foil reaction rate data obtained by placing a model of the object in front of the image plane in an MCNP beamline model.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  6. Neutron dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartko, J.; Schoch, K.F. Jr.; Congedo, T.V.; Anderson, S.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor. It comprises a reactor core; a thermal shield surrounding the reactor core; a pressure vessel surrounding the thermal shield; a neutron dosimeter positioned outside of the thermal shield, the neutron dosimeter comprising a layer of fissile material and a second layer made of a material having an electrical conductivity which permanently varies as a function of its cumulative ion radiation dose; and means, outside the pressure vessel and electrically connected to the layer of second material, for measuring electrical conductivity of the layer of second material

  7. Neutron radiography for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray inspection in that both depend upon use of radiation that penetrates some materials and is absorbed by others to provide a contrast image of conditions not readily available for visual inspection. X-rays are absorbed by dense materials, such as metals, whereas neutrons readily penetrate metals, but are absorbed by materials containing hydrogen. The neutron radiography has been successfully applied to a number of inspection situations. These include the inspection of explosives, advanced composites, adhesively bonded structures and a number of aircraft engine components. With the availability of Californium-252, it has become feasible to construct mobile neutron radiography systems suitable for field use. Such systems have been used for in-situ inspection of flight line aircraft, particularly to locate and measure hidden corrosion

  8. Neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, N

    2003-01-01

    Various topics and issues on the neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources, mainly for neutron scattering experiments, are reviewed to give a wide circle of readers a better understanding of these sources in order to achieve a high neutronic performance. Starting from what neutrons are needed, what the spallation reaction is and how to produce slow-neutrons more efficiently, the outline of the target and moderator neutronics are explained. Various efforts with some new concepts or ideas have already been devoted to obtaining the highest possible slow-neutron intensity with desired pulse characteristics. This paper also reviews the recent progress of such efforts, mainly focused on moderator neutronics, since moderators are the final devices of a neutron source, which determine the source performance. Various governing parameters for neutron-pulse characteristics such as material issues, geometrical parameters (shape and dimensions), the target-moderator coupling scheme, the ortho-para-hydrogen ratio, po...

  9. Neutron induced electron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Marcos Leandro Garcia

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 μm in 24 μm of aluminum at a resolution of 32 μm. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  10. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator is described which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40--60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator. 2 claims, 4 figures

  11. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  12. Liquid metal flow measurement by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, N.; Ono, A.; Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1996-01-01

    Visualization of a liquid metal flow and image processing methods to measure the vector field are carried out by real-time neutron radiography. The JRR-3M real-time thermal neutron radiography facility in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. Lead-bismuth eutectic was used as a working fluid. Particles made from a gold-cadmium intermetallic compound (AuCd 3 ) were used as the tracer for the visualization. The flow vector field was obtained by image processing methods. It was shown that the liquid metal flow vector field was obtainable by real-time neutron radiography when the attenuation of neutron rays due to the liquid metal was less than l/e and the particle size of the tracer was larger than one image element size digitized for the image processing. (orig.)

  13. Lubricant distribution determination by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.

    1979-01-01

    Cold neutron radiation of energy less than 0.025 eV having a flux greater than 1 x 10 3 neutrons/square centimeter/second is used to diagnose temporal information about the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon fuel and lubrication oils in internal combustion engines, gas turbine engines and fuel systems. Images of the movement of fuel or oil are recorded by directing a beam of neutrons through an engine and using an image intensifier responsive to low light levels to intensify an image formed by neutrons which have been directed through the engine onto a fluorescent screen. The output image from the intensifier is recorded by a video or cine camera

  14. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  15. Neutron stars as cosmic neutron matter laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pines, D.

    1986-01-01

    Recent developments which have radically changed our understanding of the dynamics of neutron star superfluids and the free precession of neutron stars are summarized, and the extent to which neutron stars are cosmic neutron matter laboratories is discussed. 17 refs., 1 tab

  16. Scattered Neutron Tomography Based on A Neutron Transport Inverse Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William Charlton

    2007-01-01

    Neutron radiography and computed tomography are commonly used techniques to non-destructively examine materials. Tomography refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object from either transmission or reflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions

  17. Basic of Neutron NDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this presentation are to introduce the basic physics of neutron production, interactions and detection; identify the processes that generate neutrons; explain the most common neutron mechanism, spontaneous and induced fission and (a,n) reactions; describe the properties of neutron from different sources; recognize advantages of neutron measurements techniques; recognize common neutrons interactions; explain neutron cross section measurements; describe the fundamental of 3He detector function and designs; and differentiate between passive and active assay techniques.

  18. Compact neutron generator development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Gicquel, Frederic; Hahto, Sami; Lou, Tak-Pui

    2004-01-01

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been engaging in the development of high yield compact neutron generators for the last ten years. Because neutrons in these generators are formed by using either D-D, T-T or D-T fusion reaction, one can produce either mono-energetic (2.4 MeV or 14 MeV) or white neutrons. All the neutron generators being developed by our group utilize 13.5 MHz RF induction discharge to produce a pure deuterium or a mixture of deuterium-tritium plasma. As a result, ion beams with high current density and almost pure atomic ions can be extracted from the plasma source. The ion beams are accelerated to ∼100 keV and neutrons are produced when the beams impinge on a titanium target. Neutron generators with different configurations and sizes have been designed and tested at LBNL. Their applications include neutron activation analysis, oil-well logging, boron neutron capture therapy, brachytherapy, cargo and luggage screening. A novel small point neutron source has recently been developed for radiography application. The source size can be 2 mm or less, making it possible to examine objects with sharper images. The performance of these neutron generators will be described in this paper

  19. Characterization of weak, fair and strong neutron absorbing materials by means of neutron transmission: Beam hardening effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharfi, F.; Bastuerk, M.; Boucenna, A.

    2006-09-01

    The characterization of neutron absorbing materials as well as quantification of neutron attenuation through matter is very essential in various fields, namely in shielding calculation. The objective of this work is to describe an experimental procedure to be used for the determination of neutron transmission through different materials. The proposed method is based on the relation between the gray value measured on neutron radiography image and the corresponding inducing neutron beam. For such a purpose, three kinds of materials (in shape of plate) were investigated using thermal neutrons: (1) boron-alloyed stainless steel as strong absorber; (2) copper and steel as fair absorbers and (3) aluminum as weak absorber. This work is not limited to the determination of neutron transmission through matters; it is also spread out to the measure of the surface density of the neutron absorbing elements (ρs) as a function of thickness of neutron absorbing material such as boron-alloyed stainless steel. The beam hardening effect depending on material thickness was also studied using the neutron transmission measurements. A theoretical approach was used to interpret the experimental results. The neutron transmission measurements were performed at the Neutron Radiography and Tomography facility of the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities in Vienna. Finally, a Maxwellian neutron distribution of incident neutron beam was used in the theoretical calculations of neutron energy shift in order to compare with experiments results. The obtained experimental results are in a good agreement with the developed theoretical approach.

  20. Medical radiography with fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duehmke, E.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron radiography is important in medicine for two reasons. On the one hand, macroradiographical findings are different from X-ray findings, i.e. new information may be gained on the morphology of humans and animals. On the other hand, there is a direct practical application in the radiotherapy of malignant tumours if one considers the assessment of the growth of malignant processes. Fast neutrons are required for neutron radiographies of biological objects with a diameter of more than 2 cm. In addition sensitive, two-dimensional detectors must be used which are selective for fast neutrons. The book describes the optimisation and sensitisation of a detector using the example of cellulose nitrate foil for fast reactor neutrons. Images of human spinal chords with tumours proved by pathological and anatomical examinations give a better picture of the dimensions of the tumour than comparative X-ray pictures. For examinations of living patients, neutron radiography should be applied only in those tumour-bearing parts of the bodies in which radiation treatment is required for therapeutical purposes anyway. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Investigating phase behavior and structural changes in NiO/Ni-YSZ composite with monochromatic in-situ 2D and static 3D neutron imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, Malgorzata G.; Strobl, Markus; Kardjilov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    oxide fuel cells, and for cathodes in solid oxide electrolysis cells). Results of in-situ 2D and ex-situ 3D measurements are presented. In-situ observation of phase transition between NiO and Ni were performed at the test Beamline for neutron Optics and other Applications (BOA) at the continuous neutron...... and post mortem tomography provides complementary information about the reduction/oxidation degree and e.g. crack evolution in the investigated system and it is therefore possible to acquire information about the rate of chemical reactions and spatial evolution of phases and morphological features....

  2. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  3. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  4. Pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Vergun, I.I.; Kozlovskii, K.I.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Leonov, R.K.; Simagin, B.I.; Tsybin, A.S.; Shikanov, A.Ie.

    1986-03-01

    The paper describes a new device for generating pulsed neutron fields, utilized in nuclear geophysics for carrying out pulsed neutron logging and activation analysis under field conditions. The invention employs a sealed-off neutron tube with a laser ion source which increases neutron yield to the level of 10 neutrons per second or higher. 2 refs., 1 fig

  5. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  6. Neutron radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The rationale for the application of neutron radiation for the treatment of malignancies is well established based on radiobiological studies. These factors include the presence of tissue hypoxia, radiation response as a function of cell cycle kinetics, the repair capacity of the malignant cells and the regeneration of malignant cells during a fractionated course of radiation. Despite the constraints under which the clinical trials to date have been conducted, promising results have been obtained. Randomized trials have demonstrated that neutron therapy is the treatment of choice for inoperable salivary gland carcinomas. A randomized trial of the RTOG has demonstrated a probable advantage for neutron radiation in the treatment of advanced prostate carcinomas but is yet to be confirmed. An improvement in local control has also been observed for selected sarcomas. Equivocal or contradictory results have been obtained for squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, bronchogenic carcinomas, advanced rectal, transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder and cervical carcinomas. The practical consequences of these radiobiological and clinical observations on the current generation of clinical trials is discussed

  7. Application of Neutron Tomography in Culture Heritage research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongy, T

    2014-02-01

    Neutron Tomography (NT) investigation of Culture Heritages (CH) is an efficient tool for understanding the culture of ancient civilizations. Neutron imaging (NI) is a-state-of-the-art non-destructive tool in the area of CH and plays an important role in the modern archeology. The NI technology can be widely utilized in the field of elemental analysis. At Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), a collimated Neutron Radiography (NR) beam is employed for neutron imaging purposes. A digital CCD camera is utilized for recording the beam attenuation in the sample. This helps for the detection of hidden objects and characterization of material properties. Research activity can be extended to use computer software for quantitative neutron measurement. Development of image processing algorithms can be used to obtain high quality images. In this work, full description of ETRR-2 was introduced with up to date neutron imaging system as well. Tomographic investigation of a clay forged artifact represents CH object was studied by neutron imaging methods in order to obtain some hidden information and highlight some attractive quantitative measurements. Computer software was used for imaging processing and enhancement. Also the Astra Image 3.0 Pro software was employed for high precise measurements and imaging enhancement using advanced algorithms. This work increased the effective utilization of the ETRR-2 Neutron Radiography/Tomography (NR/T) technique in Culture Heritages activities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Canadian Neutron Source (CNS): a research reactor solution for medical isotopes and neutrons for science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes a dual purpose research facility at the University of Saskatchewan for Canada for the production of medical isotopes and neutrons for scientific research. The proposed research reactor is intended to supply most of Canada's medical isotope requirements and provide a neutron source for Canada's research community. Scientific research would include materials research, biomedical research and imaging.

  9. Non-destructive studies of fuel pellets by neutron resonance absorption radiography and thermal neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vogel, S.C.; Mocko, M.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Yuan, V.; Nelson, R.O.; Brown, D.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Many isotopes in nuclear materials exhibit strong peaks in neutron absorption cross sections in the epithermal energy range (1–1000 eV). These peaks (often referred to as resonances) occur at energies specific to particular isotopes, providing a means of isotope identification and concentration measurements. The high penetration of epithermal neutrons through most materials is very useful for studies where samples consist of heavy-Z elements opaque to X-rays and sometimes to thermal neutrons as well. The characterization of nuclear fuel elements in their cladding can benefit from the development of high resolution neutron resonance absorption imaging (NRAI), enabled by recently developed spatially-resolved neutron time-of-flight detectors. In this technique the neutron transmission of the sample is measured as a function of spatial location and of neutron energy. In the region of the spectra that borders the resonance energy for a particular isotope, the reduction in transmission can be used to acquire an image revealing the 2-dimensional distribution of that isotope within the sample. Provided that the energy of each transmitted neutron is measured by the neutron detector used and the irradiated sample possesses neutron absorption resonances, then isotope-specific location maps can be acquired simultaneously for several isotopes. This can be done even in the case where samples are opaque or have very similar transmission for thermal neutrons and X-rays or where only low concentrations of particular isotopes are present (<0.1 atom% in some cases). Ultimately, such radiographs of isotope location can be utilized to measure isotope concentration, and can even be combined to produce three-dimensional distributions using tomographic methods. In this paper we present the proof-of-principle of NRAI and transmission Bragg edge imaging performed at Flight Path 5 (FP5) at the LANSCE pulsed, moderated neutron source of Los Alamos National Laboratory. A set of urania mockup

  10. Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography: Background corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, Carey E.; Sharma, Amy C.; Bender, Janelle E.; Kapadia, Anuj J.; Xia, Jessie Q.; Harrawood, Brian P.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Kiser, Matthew R.; Crowell, Alexander S.; Pedroni, Ronald S.; Macri, Robert A.; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Howell, Calvin R.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is an imaging technique that provides an in-vivo tomographic spectroscopic image of the distribution of elements in a body. To achieve this, a neutron beam illuminates the body. Nuclei in the body along the path of the beam are stimulated by inelastic scattering of the neutrons in the beam and emit characteristic gamma photons whose unique energy identifies the element. The emitted gammas are collected in a spectrometer and form a projection intensity for each spectral line at the projection orientation of the neutron beam. Rotating and translating either the body or the beam will allow a tomographic projection set to be acquired. Images are reconstructed to represent the spatial distribution of elements in the body. Critical to this process is the appropriate removal of background gamma events from the spectrum. Here we demonstrate the equivalence of two background correction techniques and discuss the appropriate application of each

  11. Neutron radiography using a transportable superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.A. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Hawkesworth, M.R. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Beynon, T.D. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Green, S. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Rogers, J.D. (Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)); Allen, M.J. (Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)); Plummer, H.C. (Rolls-Royce, MatEval, Derby (United Kingdom)); Boulding, N.J. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom)); Cox, M. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom)); McDougall, I. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom))

    1994-12-30

    A thermal neutron radiography system based on a compact 12 MeV superconducting proton cyclotron is described. Neutrons are generated using a thick beryllium target and moderated in high density polyethylene. Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to model the neutron and photon transport in order to optimise the performance of the system. With proton beam currents in excess of 100 [mu]A, it can provide high thermal neutron fluxes with L/D ratios of between 50 and 300 for various applications. Both film and electronic imaging are used to produce radiographs. The electronic imaging system consists of a [sup 6]Li-loaded ZnS intensifier screen, and a low light CCD or SIT camera. High resolution images can be recorded and computer-controlled data processing, analysis and display are possible. ((orig.))

  12. The Thermal Neutron Beam Option for NECTAR at MLZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbauer, M. J.; Bücherl, T.; Genreith, C.; Knapp, M.; Schulz, M.; Söllradl, S.; Wagner, F. M.; Ehrenberg, H.

    The beam port SR10 at the neutron source FRM II of Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) is equipped with a moveable assembly of two uranium plates, which can be placed in front of the entrance window of the beam tube via remote control. With these plates placed in their operating position the thermal neutron spectrum produced by the neutron source FRM II is converted to fission neutrons with 1.9 MeV of mean energy. This fission neutron spectrum is routinely used for medical applications at the irradiation facility MEDAPP, for neutron radiography and tomography experiments at the facility NECTAR and for materials testing. If, however, the uranium plates are in their stand-by position far off the tip of the beam tube and the so-called permanent filter for thermal neutrons is removed, thermal neutrons originating from the moderator tank enter the beam tube and a thermal spectrum becomes available for irradiation or activation of samples. By installing a temporary flight tube the beam may be used for thermal neutron radiography and tomography experiments at NECTAR. The thermal neutron beam option not only adds a pure thermal neutron spectrum to the energy ranges available for neutron imaging at MLZ instruments but it also is an unique possibility to combine two quite different neutron energy ranges at a single instrument including their respective advantages. The thermal neutron beam option for NECTAR is funded by BMBF in frame of research project 05K16VK3.

  13. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a next-generation spallation neutron source for neutron scattering that is currently the most powerful neutron source in...

  14. The Sealed Tube Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, L.N.; Beyerle, A.; Durkee, R.; Headley, G.; Hurley, P.

    1992-01-01

    A Sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and tested at Special Technologies Laboratories (STL) in Santa Barbara, California. Unlike similar tubes that have been used for years in other applications, e.g., by the oil well logging industry, the present device was designed primarily to be part of the Associated Particle Imaging (API) system. Consequently, the size and quality of the neutron spot produced by the STNG is of primary importance. Results from initial measurements indicate that performance goals are satisfied

  15. Development of neutron science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Hong; Seong, Baik Seok; Lee, Jeong Soo

    2012-04-01

    Using various neutron scattering, imaging, and activation analysis instruments and irradiation facility and capsules, the short-term industrial application and mid and long-term basic science with neutrons was carried out. In this regard, we proposed the utilization of the neutron scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of physical, mechanical material properties in industrial components. The nano magnetic thin film structure study using neutron reflectometry, spin structure and dynamics study using neutron scattering, hydrogen combination structure study using single crystal diffraction were carried out. The triple-axis spectrometer has been installed. Also, a new growth facility of single crystal has been developed to supply crystals for the neutron scattering experiment. We have contributed to the performance enhancement of hydrogen fuel cell by the development of quantitative neutron radiography technology and developed the differential phase imaging technology using silicon grating. To perform precise neutron activation analysis, a Compton suppressed gamma-ray spectroscopy system was installed. Through the analysis of actual samples as well as geological and biological reference materials, performance test was carried out. We built up analytical data base and develope integrated analytical program for INAA/PGAA. The analysis and evaluation technology of the irradiation capsule test in HANARO for the commercial and future nuclear reactor systems was improved

  16. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  17. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  18. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  19. An empirical formula for scattered neutron components in fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Haifeng; Tang Bin

    2011-01-01

    Scattering neutrons are one of the key factors that may affect the images of fast neutron radiography. In this paper, a mathematical model for scattered neutrons is developed on a cylinder sample, and an empirical formula for scattered neutrons is obtained. According to the results given by Monte Carlo methods, the parameters in the empirical formula are obtained with curve fitting, which confirms the logicality of the empirical formula. The curve-fitted parameters of common materials such as 6 LiD are given. (authors)

  20. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  1. Application of Neutron Tomography in Culture Heritage Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongy, T.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron Tomography (NT) investigation of Culture Heritages (CH) is an efficient tool for understanding the culture of ancient civilizations. Neutron imaging (NI) is a-state-of-the-art non-destructive tool in the area of CH and plays an important role in the modern archeology. The NI technology can be widely utilized in the field of elemental analysis. At Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), a collimated Neutron Radiography (NR) beam is employed for neutron imaging purposes. A digital CCD camera is utilized for recording the beam attenuation in the sample. This helps for the detection of hidden objects and characterization of material properties. Research activity can be extended to use computer software for quantitative neutron measurement. Development of image processing algorithms can be used to obtain high quality images. In this work, full description of ETRR-2 was introduced with up to date neutron imaging system as well. Tomographic investigation of a clay forged artifact represents CH object was studied by neutron imaging methods in order to obtain some hidden information and highlight some attractive quantitative measurements. Computer software was used for imaging processing and enhancement. Also the Astra Image 3.0 Pro software was employed for high precise measurements and imaging enhancement using advanced algorithms. This work increased the effective utilization of the ETRR-2 Neutron Radiography/Tomography (NR/T) technique in Culture Heritages activities. - Highlights: • Neutron Tomography is an efficient tool in the field of Cultural Heritage research. • The full description of the ETRR-2 and state-of-the-art Neutron Tomography system. • Implementation of using computer software package in image reconstruction and imaging processing. • Precise measurements that was impossible by traditional methods. • The manuscript opens the door to investigate ancient Egyptian treasures

  2. Neutron radiography at the HFR Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markgraf, J.F.W.

    1990-03-01

    This report contains the five papers on neutron radiography activities at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR) presented at the Third World Conference on Neutron Radiography which was held in May 1989 in Osaka, Japan. In addition, a survey on neutron radiography in Europe for industry and research as presented at the SITEF NDT symposium 1989 on European Advances in Non-Destructive Testing, held in Toulouse/France in October 1989 is included. The papers compiled here are concerned with: the neutron radiography services available in Petten; the experience with and applications of neutron radiography at Petten; image evaluation and analysis techniques at Petten; the practical utilization of nitrocellulose film in neutron radiography in Europe; an introduction into the basic principles of neutron radiography; an overview of the neutron radiography facilities in Europe for industry and research; and a survey of typical applications of neutron radiography in industry, research and sciences. It is the intention of this compilation to provide a comprehensive overview of the present Petten activities and European facilities in this young and promising field of non-destructive testing of materials and components from the nuclear and the non-nuclear industries and research organizations, and from the sciences

  3. Calculations of neutron spectra after neutron-neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, B E [Gettysburg College, Box 405, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States); Stephenson, S L [Gettysburg College, Box 405, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States); Howell, C R [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Mitchell, G E [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Tornow, W [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Furman, W I [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Lychagin, E V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Muzichka, A Yu [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nekhaev, G V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Strelkov, A V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Sharapov, E I [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Shvetsov, V N [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-01

    A direct neutron-neutron scattering length, a{sub nn}, measurement with the goal of 3% accuracy (0.5 fm) is under preparation at the aperiodic pulsed reactor YAGUAR. A direct measurement of a{sub nn} will not only help resolve conflicting results of a{sub nn} by indirect means, but also in comparison to the proton-proton scattering length, a{sub pp}, shed light on the charge-symmetry of the nuclear force. We discuss in detail the analysis of the nn-scattering data in terms of a simple analytical expression. We also discuss calibration measurements using the time-of-flight spectra of neutrons scattered on He and Ar gases and the neutron activation technique. In particular, we calculate the neutron velocity and time-of-flight spectra after scattering neutrons on neutrons and after scattering neutrons on He and Ar atoms for the proposed experimental geometry, using a realistic neutron flux spectrum-Maxwellian plus epithermal tail. The shape of the neutron spectrum after scattering is appreciably different from the initial spectrum, due to collisions between thermal-thermal and thermal-epithermal neutrons. At the same time, the integral over the Maxwellian part of the realistic scattering spectrum differs by only about 6 per cent from that of a pure Maxwellian nn-scattering spectrum.