Sample records for arsenide gallium instrument

  1. Gallium Arsenide Photocathode Development (United States)


    r ~\\ 1 1 AD-A018 619 ■ i I 1 GALLIUM ARSENIDE PHOTOCATHODE DEVELOPMENT I Terry Roach, et al 1 1 ■f EPSCO ...aiwiiwnHWlffl’Wip m, «swwerf^MW^S’ GALLIUM ARSENIDE PHOTOCATHODE DEVELOPMENT T. J. Roach Bianca Contractor: EPSCO Laboratories Contract Number: F08606...PHOTOCATHODE DEVELOPMENT 7. AUTHORfaJ T. Roach J. Bianca t. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND AOORESS EPSCO Laboratories 227 High Ridge Road Stauford CT

  2. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit (United States)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.


    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  3. Development of a Multi-layer Anti-reflective Coating for Gallium Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells (United States)


    Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells by Kimberley A Olver Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Development of a Multi-layer Anti-reflective Coating for Gallium Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells by Kimberley A Olver...Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs) Solar Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kimberley A Olver

  4. Ellipsometric study of silicon nitride on gallium arsenide (United States)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Bu-Abbud, G. H.; Woollam, J. A.; Liu, D.; Chung, Y.; Langer, D.


    A method for optimizing the sensitivity of ellipsometric measurements for thin dielectric films on semiconductors is described in simple physical terms. The technique is demonstrated for the case of sputtered silicon nitride films on gallium arsenide.

  5. Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide (United States)


    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0048 TR-2015-0048 SUPERLATTICE INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE Alexandre Freundlich...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-13-1-0232 Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT solar cell incorporating low dimensional structures made with dilute nitrogen alloys of III-V semiconductors is investigated theoretically and

  6. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.


    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. A Review of Liquid Phase Epitaxial Grown Gallium Arsenide


    Alexiev, D.; Prokopovich, D. A.; Thomson, S.; Mo, L.; Rosenfeld, A B; Reinhard, M


    Liquid phase epitaxy of gallium arsenide (LPE GaAs) has been investigated intensively from the late 1960's to the present and has now a special place in the manufacture of wide band, compound semiconductor radiation detectors. Although this particular process appears to have gained prominence in the last three decades, it is interesting to note that its origins reach back to 1836 when Frankenheim made his first observations. A brief review is presented from a semiconductor applications point ...

  8. Thermal cycling, DLTS, and PEC studies on LEC gallium arsenide. [GaAs:Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanaraghavan, P. (Anna Univ., Madras (India). Crystal Growth Centre); Sankaranarayanan, K. (Anna Univ., Madras (India). Crystal Growth Centre); Arokiaraj, J. (Anna Univ., Madras (India). Crystal Growth Centre); Anbukumar, S. (Anna Univ., Madras (India). Crystal Growth Centre); Kumar, J. (Anna Univ., Madras (India). Crystal Growth Centre); Ramasamy, P. (Anna Univ., Madras (India). Crystal Growth Centre)


    This paper discusses the growth of gallium arsenide single crystals using the LEC technique. The Semi-insulating gallium arsenide was studied. The defect investigations were made by DLTS and etching studies. The variation of deep level concentration along the wafer was estimated using DLTS. The fabrication and efficiency of the PEC Solar cells are also reported. (orig.)

  9. Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, Z.M.; Vyatkin, A.P.; Krivorotov, N.P.; Shchegol' , A.A.


    Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions approx.100-200 A long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.

  10. Laser and electron beam processing of silicon and gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, J.


    Laser (photon) and electron beams provide a controlled source of heat by which surface layers of silicon and gallium arsenide can be rapidly melted and cooled with rates exceeding 10/sup 80/C/sec. The melting process has been used to remove displacement damage in ion implanted Si and GaAs, to remove dislocations, loops and precipitates in silicon and to study impurity segregation and solubility limits. The mechanisms associated with various phenomena will be examined. The possible impact of laser and electron beam processing on device technology, particularly with respect to solar cells is discussed.

  11. Macroscopic diffusion models for precipitation in crystalline gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim Wolfgang


    Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose two different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first model treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second model is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. These models generalise the well-known Mullins- Sekerka model for Ostwald ripening. We concentrate on arsenic-rich liquid spherical droplets in a gallium arsenide crystal. Droplets can shrink or grow with time but the centres of droplets remain fixed. The liquid is assumed to be homogeneous in space. Due to different scales for typical distances between droplets and typical radii of liquid droplets we can derive formally so-called mean field models. For a model in the diffusion-controlled regime we prove this limit by homogenisation techniques under plausible assumptions. These mean field models generalise the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model, which can be derived from the Mullins-Sekerka model rigorously, and is well understood. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. We determine possible equilibria and discuss their stability. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation. (orig.)

  12. Temperature dependence of carrier capture by defects in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report examines the temperature dependence of the capture rate of carriers by defects in gallium arsenide and compares two previously published theoretical treatments of this based on multi phonon emission (MPE). The objective is to reduce uncertainty in atomistic simulations of gain degradation in III-V HBTs from neutron irradiation. A major source of uncertainty in those simulations is poor knowledge of carrier capture rates, whose values can differ by several orders of magnitude between various defect types. Most of this variation is due to different dependence on temperature, which is closely related to the relaxation of the defect structure that occurs as a result of the change in charge state of the defect. The uncertainty in capture rate can therefore be greatly reduced by better knowledge of the defect relaxation.

  13. Gallium arsenide pilot line for high performance components (United States)


    The Gallium Arsenide Pilot Line for High Performance Components (Pilot Line III) is to develop a facility for the fabrication of GaAs logic and memory chips. The first thirty months of this contract are now complete, and this report covers the period from March 27 through September 24, 1989. Similar to the PT-2M SRAM function for memories, the six logic circuits of PT-2L and PT-2M have served their functions as stepping stones toward the custom, standard cell, and cell array logic circuits. All but one of these circuits was right first time; the remaining circuit had a layout error due to a bug in the design rule checker that has since been fixed. The working devices all function over the full temperature range from -55 to 125 C. They all comfortably meet the 200 MHz requirement. They do not solidly conform to the required input and output voltage levels, particularly Vih. It is known that these circuits were designed with the older design models and that they came from an era where the DFET thresholds were often not on target.

  14. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Quantum Photonic Waveguide Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jianwei; Jiang, Pisu; Bonneau, Damien; Engin, Erman; Silverstone, Joshua W; Lermer, Matthias; Beetz, Johannes; Kamp, Martin; Hofling, Sven; Tanner, Michael G; Natarajan, Chandra M; Hadfield, Robert H; Dorenbos, Sander N; Zwiller, Val; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Thompson, Mark G


    Integrated quantum photonics is a promising approach for future practical and large-scale quantum information processing technologies, with the prospect of on-chip generation, manipulation and measurement of complex quantum states of light. The gallium arsenide (GaAs) material system is a promising technology platform, and has already successfully demonstrated key components including waveguide integrated single-photon sources and integrated single-photon detectors. However, quantum circuits capable of manipulating quantum states of light have so far not been investigated in this material system. Here, we report GaAs photonic circuits for the manipulation of single-photon and two-photon states. Two-photon quantum interference with a visibility of 94.9 +/- 1.3% was observed in GaAs directional couplers. Classical and quantum interference fringes with visibilities of 98.6 +/- 1.3% and 84.4 +/- 1.5% respectively were demonstrated in Mach-Zehnder interferometers exploiting the electro-optic Pockels effect. This w...

  15. Impurities interactions in the crytal growth of LEC gallium arsenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucchino, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Parma (Italy). Lab. MASPEC; Goeroeg, T. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Parma (Italy). Lab. MASPEC; Zanotti, L. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Parma (Italy). Lab. MASPEC; Mignoni, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Parma (Italy). Lab. MASPEC; Catellani, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Parma (Italy). Lab. MASPEC


    The control of low level impurities is still considered to play a key role in obtaining GaAs based devices with an high degree of uniformity and reproducibility. Although in the recent years the importance of appropriate post growth thermal treatments has been recognized as the most relevant step in achieving homogeneous material, the contamination reduction of the melt is a fundamental requisite for growing crystals with good electric characteristics and morphology. In this work we report on new results obtained from boron and silicon doped gallium arsenide crystals grown by LEC technique in a high pressure puller: different doping procedures for heavily Si doped crystals are described and interactions between silicon and boron in the liquid, are discussed together with the analysis of their distribution in the ingot. On the basis of our experimental data from crystals doped with either B or B and Si together, a tentative explanation of the incorporation mechanism of such elements is given and a comparison with previously reported results is made. (orig.)

  16. Surface-enhanced gallium arsenide photonic resonator with a quality factor of six million

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Biswarup; Cadiz, Fabian; Morgenroth, Laurence; Ulin, Vladimir; Berkovitz, Vladimir; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Amo, Alberto; Combrié, Sylvian; Gérard, Bruno; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan


    Gallium Arsenide and related compound semiconductors lie at the heart of optoelectronics and integrated laser technologies. Shaped at the micro and nano-scale, they allow strong interaction with quantum dots and quantum wells, and promise to result in stunning devices. However gallium arsenide optical structures presently exhibit lower performances than their silicon-based counterparts, notably in nanophotonics where the surface plays a chief role. Here we report on advanced surface control of miniature gallium arsenide optical resonators, using two distinct techniques that produce permanent results. One leads to extend the lifetime of free-carriers and enhance luminescence, while the other strongly reduces surface absorption originating from mid-gap states and enables ultra-low optical dissipation devices. With such surface control, the quality factor of wavelength-sized optical disk resonators is observed to rise up to six million at telecom wavelength, greatly surpassing previous realizations and opening n...

  17. A study of the applicability of gallium arsenide and silicon carbide as aerospace sensor materials (United States)

    Hurley, John S.


    Most of the piezoresistive sensors, to date, are made of silicon and germanium. Unfortunately, such materials are severly restricted in high temperature environments. By comparing the effects of temperature on the impurity concentrations and piezoresistive coefficients of silicon, gallium arsenide, and silicon carbide, it is being determined if gallium arsenide and silicon carbide are better suited materials for piezoresistive sensors in high temperature environments. The results show that the melting point for gallium arsenide prevents it from solely being used in high temperature situations, however, when used in the alloy Al(x)Ga(1-x)As, not only the advantage of the wider energy band gas is obtained, but also the higher desire melting temperature. Silicon carbide, with its wide energy band gap and higher melting temperature suggests promise as a high temperature piezoresistive sensor.

  18. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)


    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P{sub max} was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  19. Magnetoelectric effect in layered structures of amorphous ferromagnetic alloy and gallium arsenide (United States)

    Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Leontiev, V. S.; Ivanov, S. N.; Sokolov, O. V.


    A paper devotes to theoretical and experimental studying the magnetoelectric interaction in layered structures of amorphous ferromagnetic alloy and single- crystal gallium arsenide. The authors investigated the magnetoelectric effect in the (100) plane of gallium arsenide in the electromechanical resonance range of 200-240 kHz and obtained maximal ME voltage coefficient of 120 V/A at bias field equaled 3.6 kA/m for the direction parallel to the [011] axis. Also the magnetoelectric effect in the (110) and (111) planes is discussed. The results can be used for design of new electronic devices based on the magnetostrictive-semiconductor materials.

  20. Straw man trade between multi-junction, gallium arsenide, and silicon solar cells (United States)

    Gaddy, Edward M.


    Multi-junction (MJ), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon (Si) solar cells have respective test efficiencies of approximately 24%, 18.5% and 14.8%. Multi-junction and gallium arsenide solar cells weigh more than silicon solar cells and cost approximately five times as much per unit power at the cell level. A straw man trade is performed for the TRMM spacecraft to determine which of these cell types would have offered an overall performance and price advantage to the spacecraft. A straw man trade is also performed for the multi-junction cells under the assumption that they will cost over ten times that of silicon cells at the cell level. The trade shows that the TRMM project, less the cost of the instrument, ground systems and mission operations, would spend approximately $552 thousand dollars per kilogram to launch and service science in the case of the spacecraft equipped with silicon solar cells. If these cells are changed out for gallium arsenide solar cells, an additional 31 kilograms of science can be launched and serviced at a price of approximately $90 thousand per kilogram. The weight reduction is shown to derive from the smaller area of the array and hence reductions in the weight of the array substrate and supporting structure. If the silicon solar cells are changed out for multi-junction solar cells, an additional 45 kilograms of science above the silicon base line can be launched and serviced at a price of approximately $58 thousand per kilogram. The trade shows that even if the multi-junction arrays are priced over ten times that of silicon cells, a price that is much higher than projected, that the additional 45 kilograms of science are launched and serviced at $182 thousand per kilogram. This is still much less than original $552 thousand per kilogram to launch and service the science. Data and qualitative factors are presented to show that these figures are subject to a great deal of uncertainty. Nonetheless, the benefit of the higher efficiency

  1. Progress to a Gallium-Arsenide Deep-Center Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Pan


    Full Text Available Although photoluminescence from gallium-arsenide (GaAs deep-centers was first observed in the 1960s, semiconductor lasers have always utilized conduction-to-valence-band transitions. Here we review recent materials studies leading to the first GaAs deep-center laser. First, we summarize well-known properties: nature of deep-center complexes, Franck-Condon effect, hotoluminescence. Second, we describe our recent work: insensitivity of photoluminescence with heating, striking differences between electroluminescence and photoluminescence, correlation between transitions to deep-states and absence of bandgap-emission. Room-temperature stimulated-emission from GaAs deep-centers was observed at low electrical injection, and could be tuned from the bandgap to half-the-bandgap (900–1,600 nm by changing the electrical injection. The first GaAs deep-center laser was demonstrated with electrical injection, and exhibited a threshold of less than 27 mA/cm2 in continuous-wave mode at room temperature at the important 1.54 μm fiber-optic wavelength. This small injection for laser action was explained by fast depopulation of the lower state of the optical transition (fast capture of free holes onto deep-centers, which maintains the population inversion. The evidence for laser action included: superlinear L-I curve, quasi-Fermi level separations satisfying Bernard-Duraffourg’s criterion, optical gains larger than known significant losses, clamping of the optical-emission from lossy modes unable to reach laser action, pinning of the population distribution during laser action.

  2. Noise suppression and long-range exchange coupling for gallium arsenide spin qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowski, Filip

    to put the highest, up to date, lower bound on the electron spin coherence time in gallium arsenide: 870 ms. Later, we study the perspectives of exploiting a multielectron quantum dot as a mediator of the exchange interaction. We investigate interaction between a single spin and the multelectron quantum...

  3. Determination of the Peltier coefficient for gallium arsenide in a vertical Bridgman furnace (United States)

    Wiegel, Michaela E. K.; Matthiesen, David H.


    The Peltier coefficient for gallium arsenide solid in contact with its melt was experimentally determined. Selenium doped gallium arsenide samples were hermetically sealed in a fused quartz ampoule and processed in a vertical Bridgman furnace. During the translation period seven sequences of current-on and current-off periods were processed into the solidifying crystal. An axial slice was mechanochemically polished and then etched. Photomicrographs of the slice were taken with differential interference contrast microscopy and were used to measure the thickness of the current-on and current-off layers. These results were used to calculate growth rates from which the Peltier coefficient was calculated. An average value of 0.107±0.015 V was determined. The values calculated from the different sequences were in excellent agreement with each other even though the sequences had different current densities, current-on durations, and current-on to current-off ratios.

  4. An advanced space photovoltaic concentrator array using Fresnel lenses, gallium arsenide cells, and prismatic cell covers (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Piszczor, Michael F.


    The current status of a space concentrator array which uses refractive optics, gallium arsenide cells, and prismatic cell covers to achieve excellent performance at a very low array mass is documented. The prismatically covered cells have established records for space cell performance (24.2 percent efficient at 100 AM0 suns and 25 C) and terrestrial single-junction cell performance (29.3 percent efficient at 200 AM1.5 suns and 25 C).

  5. Probing the electronic properties of p-doped gallium arsenide nanowires



    Probing the electronic properties of nm-scaled object is a challenge but is required for doping optimalization and using the nm-scaled objects as building blocks in future devices. In the present study, electron beam induced deposition of platinum was used for contacting and creating two-point probes to beryllium-doped gallium arsenide nanowires. Thereby, a metal-semiconductor-metal structure with rectifying metal-semiconductor contact characteristic is formed (i.e. back-to-back Schottky diod...

  6. Two years of on-orbit gallium arsenide performance from the LIPS solar cell panel experiment (United States)

    Francis, R. W.; Betz, F. E.


    The LIPS on-orbit performance of the gallium arsenide panel experiment was analyzed from flight operation telemetry data. Algorithms were developed to calculate the daily maximum power and associated solar array parameters by two independent methods. The first technique utilizes a least mean square polynomial fit to the power curve obtained with intensity and temperature corrected currents and voltages; whereas, the second incorporates an empirical expression for fill factor based on an open circuit voltage and the calculated series resistance. Maximum power, fill factor, open circuit voltage, short circuit current and series resistance of the solar cell array are examined as a function of flight time. Trends are analyzed with respect to possible mechanisms which may affect successive periods of output power during 2 years of flight operation. Degradation factors responsible for the on-orbit performance characteristics of gallium arsenide are discussed in relation to the calculated solar cell parameters. Performance trends and the potential degradation mechanisms are correlated with existing laboratory and flight data on both gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells for similar environments.

  7. Development of gallium arsenide high-speed, low-power serial parallel interface modules: Executive summary (United States)


    Final report to NASA LeRC on the development of gallium arsenide (GaAS) high-speed, low power serial/parallel interface modules. The report discusses the development and test of a family of 16, 32 and 64 bit parallel to serial and serial to parallel integrated circuits using a self aligned gate MESFET technology developed at the Honeywell Sensors and Signal Processing Laboratory. Lab testing demonstrated 1.3 GHz clock rates at a power of 300 mW. This work was accomplished under contract number NAS3-24676.

  8. Growth of Gold-assisted Gallium Arsenide Nanowires on Silicon Substrates via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon M. delos Santos


    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide nanowires were grown on silicon (100 substrates by what is called the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS growth mechanism using a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE system. Good quality nanowires with surface density of approximately 108 nanowires per square centimeter were produced by utilizing gold nanoparticles, with density of 1011 nanoparticles per square centimeter, as catalysts for nanowire growth. X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the nanowires are epitaxially grown on the silicon substrates, are oriented along the [111] direction and have cubic zincblende structure.

  9. Analytical and experimental procedures for determining propagation characteristics of millimeter-wave gallium arsenide microstrip lines (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.


    In this report, a thorough analytical procedure is developed for evaluating the frequency-dependent loss characteristics and effective permittivity of microstrip lines. The technique is based on the measured reflection coefficient of microstrip resonator pairs. Experimental data, including quality factor Q, effective relative permittivity, and fringing for 50-omega lines on gallium arsenide (GaAs) from 26.5 to 40.0 GHz are presented. The effects of an imperfect open circuit, coupling losses, and loading of the resonant frequency are considered. A cosine-tapered ridge-guide text fixture is described. It was found to be well suited to the device characterization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa TEMİZ


    Full Text Available Multiple quantum-well (MQW electroabsorptive self electro optic-effect devices (SEEDs are being extensively studied for use in optical switching and computing. The self electro-optic-effect devices which has quantum-well structures is a new optoelectronic technology with capability to obtain both optical inputs and outputs for Gallium-Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium-Arsenide (GaAs/AlGaAs electronic circuits. The optical inputs and outputs are based on quantum-well absorptive properties. These quantum-well structures consist of many thin layers of semiconductors materials of GaAs/AlGaAs which have emerged some important directions recently. The most important advance in the physics of these materials since the early days has been invention of the heterojunction structures which is based at present on GaAs technology. GaAs/AlGaAs structures present some important advantages to relevant band gap and index of refraction which allow to form the quantum-well structures and also to make semiconductor lasers, dedectors and waveguide optical switches.

  11. Structural and electrooptical characteristics of quantum dots emitting at 1.3 μm on gallium arsenide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiore, A.; Oesterle, U.; Stanley, R.P.;


    We present a comprehensive study of the structural and emission properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 mum. The dots are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on gallium arsenide substrates. Room-temperature emission at 1.3 mum is obtained by embedding the dots in an InGaAs layer...

  12. An effective electron mass in heavily doped gallium arsenide under ordering impurity complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanova, V A; Semikolenova, N A; Sidorov, E N


    The results of an investigation of edge photoluminescence spectra at 300 K for series of Czochralski grown tellurium doped gallium arsenide monocrystals with free carriers concentration n sub 0 = 10 sup 1 sup 7 -10 sup 1 sup 9 cm sup - sup 3 are presented. On the basis of photoluminescence spectra contour analysis the concentration dependences of chemical potential and value of band gap narrowing are obtained. The concentration dependence of electron effective mass m* sub 0 (n sub 0) at the bottom of the conduction band is calculated. It is shown, that the nonmonotonous dependence m* sub 0 (n sub 0) is an accordance with electron scattering data in the material under study and is conditioned by ordering of impurity complexes

  13. Advances in gallium arsenide monolithic microwave integrated-circuit technology for space communications systems (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Connolly, D. J.


    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. In this paper, current developments in GaAs MMIC technology are described, and the status and prospects of the technology are assessed.

  14. Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.


    We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

  15. Ultrafast photocurrents and terahertz radiation in gallium arsenide and carbon based nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtel, Hans Leonhard


    In this thesis we developed a measurement technique based on a common pump-probe scheme and coplanar stripline circuits that enables time-resolved photocurrent measurements of contacted nanosystems with a micrometer spatial and a picosecond time resolution. The measurement technique was applied to lowtemperature grown gallium arsenide (LT-GaAs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and p-doped gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires. The various mechanisms responsible for the generation of current pulses by pulsed laser excitation were reviewed. Furthermore the propagation of the resulting electromagnetic radiation along a coplanar stripline circuit was theoretically and numerically treated. The ultrafast photocurrent response of low-temperature grown GaAs was investigated. We found two photocurrent pulses in the time-resolved response. We showed that the first pulse is consistent with a displacement current pulse. We interpreted the second pulse to result from a transport current process. We further determined the velocity of the photo-generated charge carriers to exceed the drift, thermal and quantum velocities of single charge carriers. Hereby, we interpreted the transport current pulse to stem from an electron-hole plasma excitation. We demonstrated that the photocurrent response of CNTs comprises an ultrafast displacement current and a transport current. The data suggested that the photocurrent is finally terminated by the recombination lifetime of the charge carriers. To the best of our knowledge, we presented in this thesis the first recombination lifetime measurements of contacted, suspended, CVD grown CNT networks. In addition, we studied the ultrafast photocurrent dynamics of freely suspended graphene contacted by metal electrodes. At the graphene-metal interface, we demonstrated that built-in electric fields give rise to a photocurrent with a full-width-half-maximum of a few picoseconds and that a photo-thermoelectric effect generates a current with a decay time

  16. Highly ordered horizontal indium gallium arsenide/indium phosphide multi-quantum-well in wire structure on (001) silicon substrates (United States)

    Han, Yu; Li, Qiang; Lau, Kei May


    We report the characteristics of indium gallium arsenide stacked quantum structures inside planar indium phosphide nanowires grown on exact (001) silicon substrates. The morphological evolution of the indium phosphide ridge buffers inside sub-micron trenches has been studied, and the role of inter-facet diffusion in this process is discussed. Inside a single indium phosphide nanowire, we are able to stack quantum structures including indium gallium arsenide flat quantum wells, quasi-quantum wires, quantum wires, and ridge quantum wells. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements reveal a broadband emission spectrum centered at 1550 nm. Power dependent photoluminescence analysis indicates the presence of quasi-continuum states. This work thus provides insights into the design and growth process control of multiple quantum wells in wire structures for high performance nanowire lasers on a silicon substrate with 1550 nm band emission.

  17. Modelling of the small pixel effect in gallium arsenide X-ray imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J


    A Monte Carlo simulation has been carried out to investigate the small pixel effect in highly pixellated X-ray imaging detectors fabricated from semi-insulating gallium arsenide. The presence of highly non-uniform weighting fields in detectors with a small pixel geometry causes the majority of the induced signal to be generated when the moving charges are close to the pixellated contacts. The response of GaAs X-ray imaging detectors is further complicated by the presence of charge trapping, particularly of electrons. In this work detectors are modelled with a pixel pitch of 40 and 150 mu m, and with thicknesses of 300 and 500 mu m. Pulses induced in devices with 40 mu m pixels are due almost totally to the movement of the lightly-trapped holes and can exhibit significantly higher charge collection efficiencies than detectors with large electrodes, in which electron trapping is significant. Details of the charge collection efficiencies as a function of interaction depth in the detector and of the incident phot...

  18. Theory, design, and simulation of GASP: A block data flow architecture for gallium arsenide supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouts, D.J.


    The advantages and disadvantages of using high-speed gallium arsenide (GaAs) logic for implementing digital systems are reviewed. A set of design guidelines is presented for systems that will be constructed with high-speed technologies such as GaAs and silicon emitter coupled logic (ECL). A new class of computer and digital system architectures, known as functionally modular architectures, is defined and explained. Functionally modular architectures are ideal for implementation in GaAs because they adhere to the design guidelines. GASP, a new, functionally modular, block data flow computer architecture is then described. SPICE simulations indicate that if constructed with existing GaAs IC technology, parts of GASP could run at a clock speed of 1 GHz, with the rest of the architecture using a 500 MHz clock. The new architecture uses data flow techniques at a program block level, which allows efficient execution of parallel programs while maintaining reasonably good performance on sequential programs. A simulation study of the architecture's best case and worst case performance is presented. Simulations of GASP executing a highly parallel program indicate that an instruction execution rate of over 30,000 MIPS can be attained with a 65 processor system.

  19. Fabrication and applications of orientation-patterned gallium arsenide for mid-infrared generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisard, A.; Gutty, F.; Lallier, E. [Thales Research and Technology France, 1 av. Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Gerard, B. [III-V Lab, 1 av. Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Jimenez, J. [GdS Optronlab, Fisica Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    Nonlinear optical materials play a key role in the development of coherent sources of radiation, by frequency conversion of light from other light sources, e.g. diode, solid-state, and fiber lasers, into spectral ranges where few lasers exist or perform poorly. Based on the principle of the quasi-phase matching, the design and fabrication of orientation-patterned Gallium Arsenide crystals (OP-GaAs) has recently led to demonstrations of second harmonic generation, optical parametric generation, amplification and oscillation from 1 to 12 {mu}m. The most efficient fabrication route for these crystals relies on the use of the near-equilibrium growth process HVPE (Hydride Vapour Phase Epitaxy), by orientation-selective regrowth on OP-GaAs template wafers with a thickness suited to bulk nonlinear optics. This work deals with recent characterizations based on optical experiments and cathodoluminescence measurements, targeting the identification of the main defects, their spatial distribution, and their relation to the optical propagation losses. Latest improvements of the HVPE growth step have enabled to reach an unprecedented level of losses, below 0.016 cm{sup -1}, and a large range of available QPM periods and thickness of structures (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Transport-reaction model for defect and carrier behavior within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel Maxwell,


    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Charging of the defects can produce high electric fields within the cluster which may influence transport and reaction of carriers and defects, and which may enhance carrier recombination through band-to-trap tunneling. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to pulsed neutron irradiation.

  1. Evaluation of a gallium arsenide solar panel on the LIPS II satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, T.M.; Betz, F.


    On 10 February 1983 the Living Plume Shield (LIPS II) satellite was launched by the Naval Research Laboratory with three double sided solar panels providing electrical power. One side of one panel contains 300 2cm X 2cm gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells while each of the other five sides contain 104 2.1cm X 6.2cm silicon (Si) solar cells. The U.S. Air Force developed GaAs cells were provided to the Navy in a cooperative program to build, test, qualify and fly a GaAs solar panel. Nineteen months after the beginning of the cooperative program the vehicle was launched. There are considerable statistical variances in the data and data cannot be acquired continuously owing to the requirement to be over a tracking station while the GaAs panel is facing the sun. The first 30 days of operation were unmeasured due to satellite orientation problems. The first measurements indicated a 7.3% power loss in panel performance compared to ground preflight measurements. This loss is still unexplained. This paper provides a summary of the LIPS II program and the data analysis on the GaAs solar panel performance for the first year in orbit.

  2. Monopole Charge Domain in High-Gain Gallium Arsenide Photoconductive Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施卫; 陈二柱; 张显斌; 李琦


    Considering that semi-insulating gallium arsenide photoconductive switches can be triggered into the high gain mode and no reliable theories can account for the observed transient characteristics, we propose the monopole charge domain model to explain the peculiar switching phenomena occurring in the high gain mode and we discuss the requirements for the lock-on switching. During operation on this mode, the applied field across the switch and the lock-on field are all larger than the Gunn threshold field. Our developed monopole charge domain is based on the transferred-electron effect, but the domain is only composed of large numbers of electrons piled up due to the negative differential mobility. Using the model and taking the physical mechanism of the avalanche impact ionization and recombination radiation into consideration, we interpret the typical phenomena of the lock-on effect, such as the time delay between the beginning of optical illumination and turning-on of the switch, and the conduction mechanism of the sustaining phase. Under different conditions of bias field intensity and incident light energy, the time delay of the switching is calculated. The results show that the physical mechanisms of impact ionization and recombination radiation occurring in the monopole charge domain are responsible for the lock-on switching.

  3. Specific features of the formation of dislocation structure in gallium arsenide single crystals obtained by the Czochralski method (United States)

    Parfenteva, I. B.; Pugachev, B. V.; Pavlov, V. F.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Knyazev, C. N.; Yugova, T. G.


    The influence of the deviation of seed orientation from the [100] direction on the formation of a dislocation structure of gallium arsenide single crystals grown by the Czochralski method has been revealed. The intensive multiplication of dislocations and formation of a block structure occur at deviation by an angle of more than 3° in the region that is radially shifted to one of crystal sides. The linear density of dislocations in the walls changes from 1 × 104 cm-1 in low-angle boundaries to 6 × 104 cm-1 in subboundaries.

  4. Development of devices and systems of growth of gallium arsenide ingots for micro, nano electronics and photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Oksanich


    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide is a perspective semiconductor, the need for which is constantly increasing. This is associated with the development of electronic components operating in excess of the high frequency range and development of terrestrial photovoltaics based on gallium arsenide solar cells. Increase in diameter of grown ingots leads to a deterioration in their performance, which is caused by the imperfection of growing technology. The paper presents the results of the development of systems and devices which help to improve existing technology to produce GaAs ingots and wafers with a diameter of 100 mm with the best technical parameters. Developed a system to manage growing GaAs ingot. As a sensor of diameter ingot it uses a weighting method provides a measurement error in the process of growing ± 1,0 mm. The system allows to grow GaAs ingots with an error of ± 2 mm. For the formation of temperature gradients developed thermal unit, which provides a gradient of 51 .. 53 K cm in growing of ingots with diameter of 100 mm. For adjusting the process parameters were developed measuring device of the internal stresses that are generated in the ingot during the growth of the GaAs ingot. Presented in paper technical solutions provided a silicon ingot with a diameter of 100 mm. with mobility, cm2 V-1 s-1 - 2500 ÷ 3500, the charge carrier density, cm-3 - 5x1017 ÷ 5x1018; dislocation density, cm-2 - to 8x104.

  5. Cascaded Orientation-Patterned Gallium Arsenide Optical Parametric Oscillator for Improved Longwave Infrared Conversion Efficiency (United States)

    Feaver, Ryan K.

    Optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) utilizing quasi-phase matched materials offer an appealing alternative to direct laser sources. Quasi-phase matched materials provide a useful alternative to traditional birefringent nonlinear optical materials and through material engineering, higher nonlinear coefficients can now be accessed. Orientation patterned gallium arsenide (OPGaAs) is an ideal material because of its broad IR transmission and large nonlinear coefficient. In contrast to ferroelectric materials, such as lithium niobate, where the pattern is fabricated through electric poling, zincblende materials, like OPGaAs, are grown epitaxially with the designed pattern. Generating longwave output from a much shorter pump wavelength, however, is relatively inefficiency due to the large quantum defect when compared to similar devices operating in the 3 - 5 mum regime. One method to increase pump to idler conversion efficiency is to recycle the undesired and higher energy signal photons into additional idler photons via a second nonlinear stage. An external amplifier stage can be utilized, where the signal and idler from the OPO are sent to a second nonlinear crystal in which the idler is amplified at the expense of the signal. Alternatively, the second crystal can be placed within the original OPO cavity where the signal from the first-stage acts as the pump for the second crystal and the resonant intensity of the signal is higher. Pumping the second crystal within the OPO should lead to higher conversion efficiency into the longwave idler. The grating period needed for the second crystal to use the signal from the first crystal to produce additional idler has the fortuitous advantage that it will not phase match to the original pump wavelength, avoiding unwanted nonlinear interactions. Therefore, a simple linear cavity can be utilized where the pump from the first-stage will simply propagate through the second crystal without undesired results. Without this feature

  6. The effect of gallium arsenide aluminum laser therapy in the management of cervical myofascial pain syndrome: a double blind, placebo-controlled study. (United States)

    Dundar, U; Evcik, D; Samli, F; Pusak, H; Kavuncu, V


    The efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) seems controversial. A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in patients with chronic MPS in the neck to evaluate the effects of low-level 830-nm gallium arsenide aluminum (Ga-As-Al) laser therapy. The study group consisted of 64 MPS patients. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. In group 1 (n = 32), Ga-As-Al laser treatment was applied over three trigger points bilaterally for 2 min over each point once a day for 15 days during a period of 3 weeks. In group 2 (n = 32), the same treatment protocol was given, but the laser instrument was switched off during applications. All patients in both groups performed daily isometric exercise and stretching exercises for cervical region. Parameters were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks. All patients were evaluated with respect to pain (at rest, movement, and night) and assessed by visual analog scale, measurement of active range of motion using an inclinometer and a goniometer, and the neck disability index. In both groups, statistically significant improvements were detected in all outcome measures compared with baseline (p 0.05). In conclusion, although the laser therapy has no superiority over placebo groups in this study, we cannot exclude the possibility of effectivity with another treatment regimen including different laser wavelengths and dosages (different intensity and density and/or treatment interval).

  7. Point defects and electric compensation in gallium arsenide single crystals; Punktdefekte und elektrische Kompensation in Galliumarsenid-Einkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzer, Ulrich


    In the present thesis the point-defect budget of gallium arsenide single crystals with different dopings is studied. It is shown, in which way the concentration of the single point defects depende on the concentration of the dopants, the stoichiometry deviation, and the position of the Fermi level. For this serve the results of the measurement-technical characterization of a large number of samples, in the fabrication of which these parameters were directedly varied. The main topic of this thesis lies in the development of models, which allow a quantitative description of the experimentally studied electrical and optical properties of gallium arsenide single crystals starting from the point-defect concentrations. Because from point defects charge carriers can be set free, their concentration determines essentially the charge-carrier concentration in the bands. In the ionized state point defects act as scattering centers for free charge carriers and influence by this the drift mobility of the charge carriers. A thermodynamic modeling of the point-defect formation yields statements on the equilibrium concentrations of the point defects in dependence on dopant concentration and stoichiometry deviation. It is show that the electrical properties of the crystals observed at room temperature result from the kinetic suppression of processes, via which the adjustment of a thermodynamic equilibrium between the point defects is mediated. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Punktdefekthaushalt von Galliumarsenid-Einkristallen mit unterschiedlichen Dotierungen untersucht. Es wird gezeigt, in welcher Weise die Konzentration der einzelnen Punktdefekte von der Konzentration der Dotierstoffe, der Stoechiometrieabweichung und der Lage des Ferminiveaus abhaengen. Dazu dienen die Ergebnisse der messtechnischen Charakterisierung einer grossen Anzahl von Proben, bei deren Herstellung diese Parameter gezielt variiert wurden. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Entwicklung

  8. Gallium arsenide exposure impairs processing of particulate antigen by macrophages: modification of the antigen reverses the functional defect. (United States)

    Hartmann, Constance B; McCoy, Kathleen L


    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a semiconductor used in the electronics industry, causes systemic immunosuppression in animals. The chemical's impact on macrophages to process the particulate antigen, sheep red blood cells (SRBC), for a T cell response in culture was examined after in vivo exposure of mice. GaAs-exposed splenic macrophages were defective in activating SRBC-primed lymph node T cells that could not be attributed to impaired phagocytosis. Modified forms of SRBC were generated to examine the compromised function of GaAs-exposed macrophages. SRBC were fixed to maintain their particulate nature and subsequently delipidated with detergent. Delipidation of intact SRBC was insufficient to restore normal antigen processing in GaAs-exposed macrophages. However, chemically exposed cells efficiently processed soluble sheep proteins. These findings suggest that the problem may lie in the release of sequestered sheep protein antigens, which then could be effectively cleaved to peptides. Furthermore, opsonization of SRBC with IgG compensated for the macrophage processing defect. The influence of signal transduction and phagocytosis via Fcgamma receptors on improved antigen processing could be dissociated. Immobilized anti-Fcgamma receptor antibody activated macrophages to secrete a chemokine, but did not enhance processing of unmodified SRBC by GaAs-exposed macrophages. Restoration of normal processing of particulate SRBC by chemically exposed macrophages involved phagocytosis through Fcgamma receptors. Hence, initial immune responses may be very sensitive to GaAs exposure, and the chemical's immunosuppression may be averted by opsonized particulate antigens.

  9. Development of a unique laboratory standard: Indium gallium arsenide detector for the 500-1700 nm spectral region (United States)


    A planar (5 mm diameter) indium gallium arsenide detector having a high (greater than 50 pct) quantum efficiency from the visible into the infrared spectrum (500 to 1700 nm) was fabricated. Quantum efficiencies as high as 37 pct at 510 nm, 58 pct at 820 nm and 62 pct at 1300 nm and 1550 nm were measured. A planar InP/InGaAs detector structure was also fabricated using vapor phase epitaxy to grow device structures with 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 micrometer thick InP caps. Quantum efficiency was studied as a function of cap thickness. Conventional detector structures were also used by completely etching off the InP cap after zinc diffusion. Calibrated quantum efficiencies were measured. Best results were obtained with devices whose caps were completely removed by etching. Certain problems still remain with these detectors including non-uniform shunt resistance, reproducibility, contact resistance and narrow band anti-reflection coatings.

  10. A novel three-jet microreactor for localized metal-organic chemical vapour deposition of gallium arsenide: design and simulation (United States)

    Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.


    We present a novel three-jet microreactor design for localized deposition of gallium arsenide (GaAs) by low-pressure Metal-Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) for semiconductor devices, microelectronics and solar cells. Our approach is advantageous compared to the standard lithography and etching technology, since it preserves the nanostructure of the deposited material, it is less time-consuming and less expensive. We designed two versions of reactor geometry with a 10-micron central microchannel for precursor supply and with two side jets of a dilutant to control the deposition area. To aid future experiments, we performed computational modeling of a simplified-geometry (twodimensional axisymmetric) microreactor, based on Navier-Stokes equations for a laminar flow of chemically reacting gas mixture of Ga(CH3)3-AsH3-H2. Simulation results show that we can achieve a high-rate deposition (over 0.3 μm/min) on a small area (less than 30 μm diameter). This technology can be used in material production for microelectronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, solar cells, etc.

  11. A final report for Gallium arsenide P-I-N detectors for high-sensitivity imaging of thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Vernon, S M


    This SBIR Phase I developed neutron detectors made FR-om gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (P-I-N) diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto semi-insulating (S1) bulk GaAs wafers. A layer of isotonically enriched boron-10 evaporated onto the FR-ont surface serves to convert incoming neutrons into lithium ions and a 1.47 MeV alpha particle which creates electron-hole pairs that are detected by the GaAs diode. Various thicknesses of ''intrinsic'' (I) undoped GaAs were tested, as was use of a back-surface field (BSF) formed FR-om a layer of Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As. Schottky-barrier diodes formed FR-om the same structures without the p+ GaAs top layer were tested as a comparison. After mesa etching and application of contacts, devices were tested in visible light before application of the boron coating. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the best diode near the GaAs bandedge is over 90%. The lowest dark current measured is 1 x 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 amps at -1 V o...

  12. Improvement of radiation stability of semi-insulating gallium arsenide crystals by deposition of diamond-like carbon films (United States)

    Klyui, N. I.; Lozinskii, V. B.; Liptuga, A. I.; Izotov, V. Yu.; Han, Wei; Liu, Bingbing


    We studied the properties of optical elements for the IR spectral range based on semi-insulating gallium arsenide (SI-GaAs) and antireflecting diamond-like carbon films (DLCF). Particular attention has been paid to the effect of penetrating γ-radiation on transmission of the developed optical elements. A Co60 source and step-by-step gaining of γ-irradiation dose were used for treatment of both an initial SI-GaAs crystal and DLCF/SI-GaAs structures. It was shown that DLCF deposition essentially increases degradation resistance of the SI-GaAs-based optical elements to γ-radiation. Particularly, the transmittance of the DLCF/SI-GaAs structure after γ-irradiation with a dose 9ṡ104 Gy even exceeds that of initial structures. The possible mechanism that explains the effect of γ-radiation on the SI-GaAs crystals and the DLCF/SI-GaAs structures at different irradiation doses was proposed. The effect of small doses is responsible for non-monotonic transmission changes in both SI-GaAs crystals and DLCF/SI-GaAs structures. At further increasing the γ-irradiation dose, the variation of properties of both DLCF and SI-GaAs crystal influences on the transmission of DLCF/SI-GaAs system. At high γ-irradiation dose 1.4ṡ105 Gy, passivation of radiation defects in the SI-GaAs bulk by hydrogen diffused from DLCF leads to increasing the degradation resistance of the SI-GaAs crystals coated with DLCF as compared with the crystals without DLCF.

  13. Analysis of gallium arsenide deposition in a horizontal chemical vapor deposition reactor using massively parallel computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A. [and others


    A numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium from trimethylgallium (TMG) and arsine in a horizontal CVD reactor with tilted susceptor and a three inch diameter rotating substrate is performed. The three-dimensional model includes complete coupling between fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and species transport, and is solved using an unstructured finite element discretization on a massively parallel computer. The effects of three operating parameters (the disk rotation rate, inlet TMG fraction, and inlet velocity) and two design parameters (the tilt angle of the reactor base and the reactor width) on the growth rate and uniformity are presented. The nonlinear dependence of the growth rate uniformity on the key operating parameters is discussed in detail. Efficient and robust algorithms for massively parallel reacting flow simulations, as incorporated into our analysis code MPSalsa, make detailed analysis of this complicated system feasible.

  14. Wet chemical functionalization of III-V semiconductor surfaces: alkylation of gallium arsenide and gallium nitride by a Grignard reaction sequence. (United States)

    Peczonczyk, Sabrina L; Mukherjee, Jhindan; Carim, Azhar I; Maldonado, Stephen


    Crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs) (111)A and gallium nitride (GaN) (0001) surfaces have been functionalized with alkyl groups via a sequential wet chemical chlorine activation, Grignard reaction process. For GaAs(111)A, etching in HCl in diethyl ether effected both oxide removal and surface-bound Cl. X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra demonstrated selective surface chlorination after exposure to 2 M HCl in diethyl ether for freshly etched GaAs(111)A but not GaAs(111)B surfaces. GaN(0001) surfaces exposed to PCl(5) in chlorobenzene showed reproducible XP spectroscopic evidence for Cl-termination. The Cl-activated GaAs(111)A and GaN(0001) surfaces were both reactive toward alkyl Grignard reagents, with pronounced decreases in detectable Cl signal as measured by XP spectroscopy. Sessile contact angle measurements between water and GaAs(111)A interfaces after various levels of treatment showed that GaAs(111)A surfaces became significantly more hydrophobic following reaction with C(n)H(2n-1)MgCl (n = 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 18). High-resolution As 3d XP spectra taken at various times during prolonged direct exposure to ambient lab air indicated that the resistance of GaAs(111)A to surface oxidation was greatly enhanced after reaction with Grignard reagents. GaAs(111)A surfaces terminated with C(18)H(37) groups were also used in Schottky heterojunctions with Hg. These heterojunctions exhibited better stability over repeated cycling than heterojunctions based on GaAs(111)A modified with C(18)H(37)S groups. Raman spectra were separately collected that suggested electronic passivation by surficial Ga-C bonds at GaAs(111)A. Specifically, GaAs(111)A surfaces reacted with alkyl Grignard reagents exhibited Raman signatures comparable to those of samples treated with 10% Na(2)S in tert-butanol. For GaN(0001), high-resolution C 1s spectra exhibited the characteristic low binding energy shoulder demonstrative of surface Ga-C bonds following reaction with CH(3)MgCl. In addition, 4

  15. One watt gallium arsenide class-E power amplifier with a thin-film bulk acoustic resonator filter embedded in the output network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Holzer


    Full Text Available Integration of a class-E power amplifier (PA and a thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR filter is shown to provide high power added efficiency in addition to superior out-of-band spectrum suppression. A discrete gallium arsenide pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor is implemented to operate as a class-E amplifier from 2496 to 2690 MHz. The ACPF7041 compact bandpass FBAR filter is incorporated to replace the resonant LC tank in a traditional class-E PA. To reduce drain voltage stress, the supply choke is replaced by a finite inductance. The fabricated PA provides up to 1 W of output power with a peak power added efficiency (PAE of 58%. The improved out-of-band spectrum filtering is compared to a traditional class-E with discrete LC resonant filtering. Such PAs can be combined with linearisation techniques to reduce out-of-band emissions.

  16. Analysis of radiation-damaged and annealed gallium arsenide and indium phosphide solar cells using deep-level transient spectroscopy techniques. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinzon, D.


    Degradation of solar cell performance from radiation damage was found to be reversed through annealing processes. The mechanisms behind the degradation and recovery is based on deep-level traps, or defects, in the lattice structure of the solar cell. Through a process known as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), a correlation can be made between damage/recovery and trap energy level/concentration of the cell. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Indium Phosphide (InP) solar cells were subjected to 1 MeV electron irradiation by a Dynamitron linear acceleration at two fluence levels of 1E1r and 1E15 electrons/cm sq. The process of annealing included thermal annealing at 90 c with forward bias current and thermal annealing alone for (GaAs). After each cycle, DLTS measurements were taken to determine the energy level of the traps and their concentration. Multiple cycles of irradiation, annealing and DLTS were performed to observe the correlation between degradation and recovery to trap energy level and concentration. The results show that the lower energy level traps are associated with the recovery of the cells while the higher level traps are associated with the overall permanent degradation of the cells.

  17. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Gallium Arsenide (CAS No. 1303-00-0) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies). (United States)


    Gallium arsenide is used primarily to make light- emitting diodes, lasers, laser windows, and photodetectors and in the photoelectronic transmission of data through optical fibers. Gallium arsenide was nominated for study because of its widespread use in the microelectronics industry, the potential for worker exposure, and the absence of chronic toxicity data. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to gallium arsenide particles (greater than 98% pure; mass median aerodynamic diameter = 0.8 to 1.0 &mgr;m) by inhalation for 16 days, 14 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, and the frequency of micronuclei was determined in the peripheral blood of mice exposed to gallium arsenide for 14 weeks. 16-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female rats were exposed to particulate aerosols of gallium arsenide with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1 &mgr;m at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 37, 75, or 150 mg/m(3) by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 16 days. All rats survived to the end of the study. The final mean body weights of all exposed groups of males and females were similar to those of the chamber controls. Compared to chamber controls, the liver and lung weights of males exposed to 1 mg/m(3) or greater and females exposed to 10 mg/m(3) or greater were increased; the thymus weights of all exposed groups of males were decreased. Gallium arsenide particles were visible in the alveolar spaces and, to a lesser extent, within alveolar macrophages of exposed rats. Moderate proteinosis (surfactant mixed with small amounts of fibrin) and minimal histiocytic cellular infiltrate were observed in the alveoli of exposed males and females. Epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia of the larynx were observed primarily in males exposed to 150 mg/m(3). 16-DAY STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five male and four or five female mice were exposed to particulate aerosols of gallium

  18. Sub-Half Micrometer Gate Lift-Off By Three Layer Resist Process Via Electron Beam Lithography For Gallium Arsenide Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MIMICs) (United States)

    Nagarajan, Rao M.; Rask, Steven D.; King, Michael R.; Yard, Thomas K.


    A three layer resist process for gate lift-oft on Gallium Arsenide MIMICs by electron Dean and optical lithographies are described. The electron beam lithography process consists of Poly (Dimethyl Glutarimide) PMGI as tne planarizing layer, a Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition silicon nitride (SiN) as an intermediate barrier layer and Poly (Methyl methacrylate), PMMA, as the top imaging layer. The PivimA is exposed by Cambridge Electron beam system EBMF 6.4 at 20kev and developed in Methyl Ethyl Ketone/Iso Propyl Alcohol. The pattern is then transferred to the SiN layer by cF4/o2 plasma etcning. The SiN layer is then used as the mask to transfer the pattern to the PMGI layer by 02 kteactive Ion Etching until tne GaAS is exposed. The various processing parameters are optimized to obtain lip or overnang suitable for lift-off with 0.20μm gate dimension. After the GaAS has been recessed (to reduce the parasitic source resistance), a thick 9000Å Ti/Pt/Au gate metal is evaporated and the unwanted gate metal is lifted oft using PMGI stripper. To use the three layer resist process in optical litnograpny, the MG.'. planarizing layer and PECVD SiN layer is used along with optical pnotoresist AZ1450J as a top imaging layer. inc sofcbake, uV exposure dose (436 nm) and development time for AZ145UJ are optimized to obtain 0.5μm to 1.0μm gate dimensions. The etch parameters for the pattern transfer to SiN and tnen to PMGI layers are same as in tne above process. The process levels such as mesa, source/drain, contact and metal levels for GaAs mlivilt,s are defined by UV lithography (Karl Suss contact aligner) using single layer pnotoresist. A nign overlay accuracy is obtained by use of gold metal Dumps as registration marks for aligning tne electron Dean exposed gate to optically exposed source/drain channel. Thus a higher tnrougnput and better linewidtn control are obtained using electron beam/optical lithography tecnniques. This approach is currently used to

  19. Quantificaion of ion diffusion in gallium arsenide-based spintronic Light-Emitting Diode devices using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (United States)

    Cogswell, Jeffrey Ryan

    Depth profiling using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is a direct method to measure diffusion of atomic or molecular species that have migrated distances of nanometers/micrometers in a specific material. For this research, the diffusion of Mn, sequentially Ga ions, in Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)-based spin Light Emitting Diode (LED) devices is studied by quantitative Time-of-Flight (ToF) SIMS. The goal is to prove conclusively the driving force and mechanism behind Mn diffusion in GaAs by quantifying the diffusion of these ions in each device. Previous work has identified two competing processes for the movement of Mn in GaAs: diffusion and phase separation. The process is dependent on the temperature the sample is exposed to, either by post-annealing, or during the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth process. The hypothesis is that Manganese Arsenide (MnAs) is thermodynamically more stable than randomly distributed Mn ions in GaAs, and that by annealing at a certain temperature, a pure MnAs layer can be produced from a GaMnAs layer in a working spin LED device. Secondly, the spin efficiencies will be measured and the difference will be related to the formation of a pure MnAs layer. The first chapter of this dissertation discusses the history of spintronic devices, including details on the established methods for characterization, the importance for potential application to the semiconductor industry, and the requirements for the full implementation of spintronic devices in modern-day computers. MnAs and GaMnAs devices are studied, their preparation and properties are described, and the study's experimental design is covered in the latter part of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 includes a review of diffusion in semiconductors, including the types of diffusion, mechanisms they follow, and the different established experimental methods for studying diffusion. The later sections include summaries of Mn diffusion and previous studies investigating Mn diffusion in different

  20. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Chitambar


    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.


    A process was developed for the recovery of both arsenic and gallium from gallium arsenide polishing wastes. The economics associated with the current disposal techniques utilizing ferric hydroxide precipitation dictate that sequential recovery of toxic arsenic and valuble galliu...

  2. 负电子亲和势砷化镓光阴极热发射度测量%Thermal Emittance Measurement of Negative Electron Affinity Gallium Arsenide Photocathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岱; 潘清; 肖德鑫; 李凯; 杨仁俊; 王建新; 张海旸


    作为未来高平均功率、高亮度电子源的重要材料之一,负电子亲和势砷化镓(NEA‐GaAs)光阴极发射的电子束亮度一直以来都是国际上的研究热点。热发射度是电子束能够实现的发射度下限,测量热发射度有利于确定注入器能否提供高亮度的电子束。本文理论计算了 NEA‐GaAs光阴极热发射度数值范围,并基于中国工程物理研究院自由电子激光相干强太赫兹源(FEL‐T Hz )装置,在28 fC的极低电荷量下,采用螺线管扫描法初步测量了NEA‐GaAs光阴极的热发射度。结果显示,NEA‐GaAs光阴极的热发射度为(0.603±0.002)μm/m m。%As one of the most important high average power electron source materials , the high brightness negative electron affinity (NEA ) gallium arsenide (GaAs) photo‐cathode becomes a researcher focus nowadays .The thermal emittance is the lower limit of emittance ,and its measurement is of great importance to determine the brightness that an injector can provide .In this paper ,based on the terahertz free electron laser (FEL‐T Hz) facility in China Academy of Engineering Physics ,some efforts were made to calculate and measure the thermal emittance of NEA‐GaAs photocathode . Under ultra‐low charge of 28 fC NEA‐GaAs photocathode ,the thermal emittance is (0.603 ± 0.002)μm/mm by the solenoid scan method .

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Gallium Arsenide. (United States)


    dependance of the second moment of the line- shapes on the orientation of the crystal in the field supports a continuous solid model of the strain, in which...visible in the lightly doped sample. Hester, Sher, Soest, and Weisz have shown that, assuming first order broadening, the angular dependance of the second...this study. The second moments found agreed qualitatively with those found by Hester, Sher, Soest, and Weisz in their 3angular dependance . However

  4. Deep Impurity States in Gallium Arsenide. (United States)


    density of electron states, E, is the ree -eleroi Form. enerry. E, . =(/ 2 ex F, , - > + ! . is the forbidden band gap, and E, is the averave or Penn...Ledebo, J. Appl. Phys. 46, was observed in the bulk sample C. 2155 (1975). 5H.J. Stocker, E. Bauser, and Laurence Schmidt Figure 6 finally shows the

  5. Gallium Arsenide and Related Compounds, 1986. (United States)


    California at Santa Barbara , for his contributions to hot-electron effects, the Gunn Oscillator, and III - V heterojunction devices including the... Caper )o p A11k ’I T~’I N-H Lboratoiets Mimarrai% ill. N.J (;70)71 lh.-.tra1 t ml’.Ii"’i"~t. lh’~t’~’ I)(- it first rt’alizaioni of a t’(’"mmianit... Barbara , CA 93106 J. R. Abelson and T. W. Sigmon Stanford Electronics Laboratories Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Abstract Epitaxial regrowth

  6. Spalling fracture behavior in (100) gallium arsenide (United States)

    Sweet, Cassi A.

    Record-high conversion efficiencies inherent in III-V solar cells make them ideal for one-sun photovoltaic applications. However, material costs associated with implementation prevent competitive standing with other solar technologies. This dissertation explores controlled exfoliation of III-V single junction photovoltaic devices from (100) GaAs substrates by spalling to enable wafer reuse for material cost reductions. Spalling is a type of fracture that occurs within the substrate of a bilayer under sufficient misfit stress. A spalling crack propagates parallel to the film/substrate interface at a steady-state spalling depth within the substrate. Spalling in (100) GaAs, a semiconductor with anisotropic fracture properties, presents unique challenges. Orientation of the cleavage plane is not parallel to the steady-state spalling depth which results in a faceted fracture surface. A model is developed by modifying Suo and Hutchinson's spalling mechanics to approximate quantitatively the spalling process parameter window and the thickness of the exfoliated film, i.e. spalling depth, for use with (100) GaAs and other semiconductor materials. Experimental data for faceted (100)-GaAs spalling is shown to be in agreement with this model. A faceted surface leads to undesirable waste material for low cost application to the solar industry. Therefore, methods to mitigate the facet size are explored. Trends in facet size and distribution are linked with both the stressor film deposition parameters and the spalling pull velocity. A spalling fracture is a high energy process where damage to the exfoliated material is a concern. Spalled material quality is assessed directly by dislocation density analysis and indirectly by characterization of electrical performance of high quality spalled photovoltaic devices sensitive to material damage such as dislocation and microcrack occurrence. Controlled application of spalling in (100) GaAs is achieved by exfoliation of a high performance single junction solar cell resulting in 18.2% conversion efficiency without the use of an anti-reflective coating. It is shown that spalling in (100) GaAs is a successful device exfoliation process that does not generate defects or cause degradation to device performance.

  7. Phonon heat transport in gallium arsenide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Richa Saini; Vinod Ashokan; B D Indu; R Kumar


    The lifetimes of quantum excitations are directly related to the electron and phonon energy linewidths of a particular scattering event. Using the versatile double time thermodynamic Green’s function approach based on many-body theory, an ab-initio formulation of relaxation times of various contributing processes has been investigated with newer understanding in terms of the linewidths of electrons and phonons. The energy linewidth is found to be an extremely sensitive quantity in the transport phenomena of crystalline solids as a collection of large number of scattering processes, namely, boundary scattering, impurity scattering, multiphonon scattering, interference scattering, electron–phonon processes and resonance scattering. The lattice thermal conductivities of three samples of GaAs have been analysed on the basis of modified Callaway model and a fairly good agreement between theory and experimental observations has been reported.

  8. High-power X- and Ka-band Gallium Nitride Amplifiers with Exceptional Efficiency Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achieving very high-power amplification with maximum efficiency at X- and Ka-band is challenging using solid-state technology. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) has been the...

  9. Excitation and De-Excitation Mechanisms of ER - Gallium Arsenide and Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (United States)

    Elsaesser, David William

    Electrical and optical characterization have been performed on GaAs and Al_{rm x}Ga_{rm 1-x} As samples doped with Er either by ion implantation and during Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) growth. The electrical techniques of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Temperature-Dependent Hall Effect (TDH) indicated that Er primarily formed two electrically active centers in both materials. The first center gave rise to a hole trap at E_{rm v} + 35 meV, which was thought to be due to Er substituting for a Ga atom (Er_{rm Ga}) and giving rise to an isoelectronic impurity potential. The second center also gave rise to a hole trap at approximately E_{rm v} + 360 meV, and was attributed to an Er atom occupying an interstitial position (Er_{rm i}). Annealing studies performed on Er-implanted GaAs indicated that the Er_{rm Ga} center preferentially formed at higher annealing temperatures (> 850^circC), with the Er_{rm i} reaching a maximum concentration at an annealing temperature of around 750^circC. Additionally, optical characterization performed by Photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that the Er_{ rm i} center gave much stronger Er-related emissions due to the transition ^4I _{13/2} to ^4 I_{15/2} in the unfilled Er^{3+}-4f shell than was observed for 4f-emissions associated with the Er_{rm Ga} center. Mechanisms for the excitation and de-excitation of the Er-4f shell in GaAs, consistent with all experimental observations, were proposed. DLTS measurements also detected the presence of a large concentration of Ga-antisite (Ga_ {rm As}) defects as well as As-interstitial (As_{rm i}) defects. Based upon reports of Er^{3+} -4f emissions from four distinct Er-centers, two other likely Er-centers were proposed, Er_{rm Ga}-Ga_{rm As} and Er_{rm Ga} -As_{rm i}. Finally, electrical and optical characterization of Er-doped MBE -grown Al_{0.5}Ga _{rm 0.5}As indicated that the solubility limit of Er in this material was possibly as high as 2 times 10^ {19} cm^{-3}, as compared to 7 times 10 ^{17} cm^ {-3} in GaAs. This may explain the observation that Er^{3+}-4f emissions are more intense in AlGaAs compared to GaAs.

  10. Efficient injection of spin-polarized electrons from manganese arsenide contacts into aluminum gallium arsenide/gallium arsenide spin LEDs (United States)

    Schweidenback, Lars

    In this thesis we describe two spectroscopic projects project on semiconductor heterostructures, as well as putting together and testing a micro-photoluminescence/7 tesla magnet system for the study of micron size two-dimensional crystals. Below we discuss the three parts in more detail. i) MnAs-based spin light emitting diodes. We have studied the injection of spin-polarized electrons from a ferromagnetic MnAs contact into an AlGaAs(n)/GaAs(i)/AlGaAs(p) n-i-p light emitting diode. We have recorder the emitted electroluminescence as function of magnetic field applied at right angles to the device plane in the 7-300 K temperature range. It was found that at 7 Kelvin the emitted light is circularly polarized with a polarization that is proportional to the MnAs contact magnetization with a saturation value of 26% for B > 1.25 tesla. The polarization persists up to room temperature with a saturation value of 6%. ii) Optical Aharonov-Bohm effect in InGaAs quantum wells. The excitonic photoluminescence intensity from InGaAs quantum wells as function of magnetic field exhibits two local maxima superimposed on a decreasing background. The maxima are attributed to the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect of electrons orbiting around a hole localized at the center of an Indium rich InGaAs islands detected by cross sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. Analysis of the position of the maxima yields a value of the electron orbit radius. iii) Micro-Photoluminescence. We have put together a micro-photoluminescence /7 tesla system for the study of two dimensional crystals. The samples are placed inside a continuous flow cryostat whose tail is positioned in the bore of the 7 tesla magnet. A microscope objective is used to focus the exciting laser light and collect the emitted photoluminescence. The system was tested by recording the photoluminescence spectra of WS2 and WSe 2 monolayers at T = 77 K.

  11. Uso do laser arseneto de gálio (904nm após excisão artroplástica da cabeça do fêmur em cães Use of low-power gallium arsenide laser (904nm after arthroplasty excision of the femoral head in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Matera


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação do laser diodo Arseneto de Gálio na evolução pós-operatória de cães submetidos à excisão artroplástica da cabeça e colo do fêmur. MÉTODOS: Treze cães portadores de Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease ou Necrose Asséptica da Cabeça do Fêmur (NACF foram divididos em dois grupos: (I sete cães que não foram irradiados - grupo controle; (II seis cães irradiados uma vez ao dia durante cinco dias consecutivos com o laser Arseneto de Gálio (904nm, densidade de energia 4J/cm2 e tempo de exposição automaticamente ajustado pelo aparelho. Para a avaliação da evolução pós-operatória preencheu-se protocolo com graduação da dor de apoio do membro operado. Utilizou-se teste estatístico não paramétrico U de Mann-Whitney para análise dos resultados. RESULTADOS: O grupo I iniciou o apoio do membro com uma média de 12 dias de pós-operatório e o grupo II com uma média de quatro dias de pós-operatório, sendo estatisticamente significante (p=0.0012. CONCLUSÃO: A irradiação com o laser de baixa potência Arseneto de Gálio (904nm na dose 4J/cm2, periarticular, promoveu rápido retorno da função do membro em cães após a excisão artroplástica da cabeça do fêmur, otimizando a recuperação pós-operatória.PURPOSE: Evaluate the action of the Gallium Arsenide semiconductor laser in the post-operative evolution in dogs after the femoral head and neck artroplastic excision. METHODS: Thirteen dogs bearing Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease were divided into two groups: (I 7 non-radiated dogs - control group; (II 6 dogs irradiated once a day for 5 consecutive days with the Galium Arsenide laser (904nm, energy density 4J/cm² and exposition time automatically adjusted by the device. In order to evaluate the post-operative evolution it was needed to fill a report stating the degree of the pain as well as the weight bearing of the affected limb. A U non-parametric statistics test of Mann-Whitney was used to perform

  12. Clinical evaluation of dentin hypersensitivity treatment with the low intensity Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenide laser - AsGaAl Avaliação clínica do tratamento da hiperestesia dentinária com laser de baixa potência de Arseniato de Gálio-Alumínio - AsGaAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Chucre Gentile


    Full Text Available The dentin hypersensitivity is a painful condition rather prevalent in the general population. There are several ways of treatment for such condition, including the low intensity lasers. The proposal of this study was to verify the effectiveness of the Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenide diode laser in the treatment of this painful condition, using a placebo as control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients were selected, 22 females and 10 males, with ages ranging from 20 to 52 years old. The 32 patients were randomly distributed into two groups, treated and control; the sample consisted of 68 teeth, 35 in the treated group and 33 in the control group. The treated group was exposed to six laser applications with intervals from 48 to 72 hours, and the control group received, as placebo, applications of a curing light. RESULTS: A significant reduction was observed in the pain condition between the initial phase and after six laser applications; however, such reduction could also be observed for the control group exposed to the placebo. CONCLUSION: Therapy with the low intensity Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenide laser - AsGaAl induces a statistically significant reduction in the painful condition after each application and between the beginning and end of treatment, although there was no statistically significant difference between the treated group (laser and the control group (placebo at the end of treatment and after the mediate evaluation results (after 6 weeks, this way impairing the real measurement of laser effectiveness and placebo effect.A hiperestesia dentinária trata-se de uma condição dolorosa bastante prevalente nas populações mundiais. Várias são as modalidades de tratamento para tal condição, entre elas, os lasers de baixa potência. A proposta deste estudo foi a de verificar a efetividade do laser de diodo de Arseniato de Gálio-Alumínio no tratamento desta condição dolorosa, utilizando-se um placebo como controle. MATERIAIS E M

  13. 0.15-micron Gallium Nitride (GaN) Microwave Integrated Circuit Designs Submitted to TriQuint Semiconductor for Fabrication (United States)


    arsenide GaN gallium nitride LNA low-noise amplifier MMIC monolithic microwave integrated circuit PA power amplifier HEMT high electron mobility...0.15-µm Gallium Nitride ( GaN ) Microwave Integrated Circuit Designs Submitted to TriQuint Semiconductor for Fabrication by John Penn ARL...MD 20783-1197 ARL-TN-0496 September 2012 0.15-µm Gallium Nitride ( GaN ) Microwave Integrated Circuit Designs Submitted to TriQuint

  14. Spontaneous low frequency oscillation studies in gallium arsenide fast photoconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Foulon, F; Brullot, B; Petit, P; Bergonzo, P; Rubbelynck, C


    We have investigated the influence of spontaneous low frequency oscillations (LFO, f approx 0.01 Hz) occurring at high electric field (>1 kV/cm) in resistive photoconductors (PCD) made from semi-insulating GaAs on the response of the PCDs under pulsed gamma-ray irradiation (E approx 1.2 MeV, tau sub F sub W sub H sub M =30 ns). The PCDs were fabricated using GaAs from five commercially available sources. The PCDs were irradiated with fission neutrons in order to reduce their response time down to less than 100 ps. The amplitude of the LFOs was found to be related to the carrier lifetime, and thus defect concentration in the GaAs material. It was larger for material exhibiting high carrier lifetime. Increasing the localised defect concentration, such as EL2 type defect, through GaAs irradiation with fission neutrons was found to decrease the amplitude of the LFOs. PCDs irradiated at high neutron doses (>1x10 sup 1 sup 5 neutrons/cm sup 2) showed no LFOs. It is suggested that interactions between the propagatin...

  15. Gallium arsenide based surface plasmon resonance for glucose monitoring (United States)

    Patil, Harshada; Sane, Vani; Sriram, G.; Indumathi, T. S; Sharan, Preeta


    The recent trends in the semiconductor and microwave industries has enabled the development of scalable microfabrication technology which produces a superior set of performance as against its counterparts. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based biosensors are a special class of optical sensors that become affected by electromagnetic waves. It is found that bio-molecular recognition element immobilized on the SPR sensor surface layer reveals a characteristic interaction with various sample solutions during the passage of light. The present work revolves around developing painless glucose monitoring systems using fluids containing glucose like saliva, urine, sweat or tears instead of blood samples. Non-invasive glucose monitoring has long been simulated using label free detection mechanisms and the same concept is adapted. In label-free detection, target molecules are not labeled or altered, and are detected in their natural forms. Label-free detection mechanisms involves the measurement of refractive index (RI) change induced by molecular interactions. These interactions relates the sample concentration or surface density, instead of total sample mass. After simulation it has been observed that the result obtained is highly accurate and sensitive. The structure used here is SPR sensor based on channel waveguide. The tools used for simulation are RSOFT FULLWAVE, MEEP and MATLAB etc.

  16. Monolithic series-connected gallium arsenide converter development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, M.B.; McClelland, R.W.; Dingle, B.D.; Dingle, J.E.; Hill, D.S. (Kopin Corp., Taunton, MA (United States)); Rose, B.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))


    We report the development of monolithic GaAs photovoltaic devices intended to convert light generated by a laser or other bright source to electricity. The converters described here can provide higher operating voltage than is possible using a single-junction converter, owing to use of a monolithic circuit that forms a planar series-connected string of single-junction sub-cells. This planar monolithic circuit is arranged to deliver the desired voltage and current during operation at the maximum power point. The paper describes two-, six-, and twelve-junction converters intended for illumination by a laser diode with a wavelength of 0.8 {mu}m. Design and characterization data are presented for optical power in the range of 100 mW to 1 W. The best conversion efficiency exceeds 50%. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Photoluminescence Study of Ion Implantation Damage in Gallium Arsenide. (United States)


    appreciation is finally extended to my family, whose active moral sup- port was of great comfort during this trying period. Manual V. Key This thesis...Mounted directly behind the sample area on the cylinder was a pre- viously calibrated silicon diode which was used as a tempera - ture sensor. Also on...discriLminator- was connected to an in-house-built interface 26 - -j which amplif ied, stre- tcIed and inv(erted the2 signal properly conditioning it for

  18. High Energy Electron Radiation Degradation of Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells. (United States)


    relative spectral output of the Kratos source was determined. This procedure may be algebraically verified since the cell output current, i, is equal...A (cm2), then a unique voltage may be calculated for given values of 0 and C. Algebraically , this equation may be written as ~q A 77e ____ __ 8) C...position as necessary to achieve proper voltage. (d) Place solar cell on test block using plastic tweezers. (e) Start test program by typing " BASICA

  19. Gallium Arsenide Pilot Line for High Performance Components (United States)


    4K SRAM I, where there are about 100,000 isolated vias. 3.5 Advanced Technology (A. G. Baca, A. I. Faris, R. M. Havrilla , S. E. Lengle, D. D. Manchon...Aluminum Interconnects (R. J. Shul, A. G. Baca, R. M. Havrilla , S. E. Lengle)........... C-3 2.2 Process Tester Characterization (A. G, Baca, D. D. Manchon...TECHNOLOGY 2.1 Aluminum Interconnects (R. J. Shul, A. G. Baca, R. M. Havrilla , S. E. Lengle) The aluminum interconnect metallization process requires

  20. High-performance fused indium gallium arsenide/silicon photodiode (United States)

    Kang, Yimin

    Modern long haul, high bit rate fiber-optic communication systems demand photodetectors with high sensitivity. Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) exhibit superior sensitivity performance than other types of photodetectors by virtual of its internal gain mechanism. This dissertation work further advances the APD performance by applying a novel materials integration technique. It is the first successful demonstration of wafer fused InGaAs/Si APDs with low dark current and low noise. APDs generally adopt separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) structure, which allows independent optimization of materials properties in two distinct regions. While the absorption material needs to have high absorption coefficient in the target wavelength range to achieve high quantum efficiency, it is desirable for the multiplication material to have large discrepancy between its electron and hole ionization coefficients to reduce noise. According to these criteria, InGaAs and Si are the ideal materials combination. Wafer fusion is the enabling technique that makes this theoretical ideal an experimental possibility. APDs fabricated on the fused InGaAs/Si wafer with mesa structure exhibit low dark current and low noise. Special device fabrication techniques and high quality wafer fusion reduce dark current to nano ampere level at unity gain, comparable to state-of-the-art commercial III/V APDs. The small excess noise is attributed to the large difference in ionization coefficients between electrons and holes in silicon. Detailed layer structure designs are developed specifically for fused InGaAs/Si APDs based on principles similar to those used in traditional InGaAs/InP APDs. An accurate yet straightforward technique for device structural parameters extraction is also proposed. The extracted results from the fabricated APDs agree with device design parameters. This agreement also confirms that the fusion interface has negligible effect on electric field distributions for devices fabricated from high quality fusion materials. The feasibility of fused InGaAs/Si APD for analog systems is also explored. Preliminary two-tone measurement shows that a moderately high dynamic range of 70 dBc/Hz1/2 for broadband Spur Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) or 82 dBc/Hz2/3 suboctave SFDR, up to 50 muA of optical current, can be achieved. The theoretical analyses of SNR show that fused InGaAs/Si APD receivers can provide larger Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) than their III/V counterparts.

  1. Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy of Ion Implanted Gallium Arsenide. (United States)


    PECVD processes are silane (SiH4 ) plus either 47 t - Im ammonia (NH 3 ) or nitrogen (N2 ) or both. The chemical reactions are, 3SiH4+2N 2-Si3N 4+6H 2...Physics, 44:5183-5184 (Nov 1973). 68 I i . 13. Sawyer, R., Experimental Spectroscopy, New York: Dover Publication, Inc. (1963) 14. Kerm , W., R. Rosler...composition as functions of the follow- ing parameters: flow, pressure, substrate temperature, and RF power. Kerm , et al., (Ref 14) studied films grown

  2. Investigation of spin transport and accumulation in aluminum gallium arsenide (United States)

    Misuraca, Jennifer

    This dissertation describes spin injection, transport, and detection experiments from Fe electrodes into a bulk AlGaAs channel. This semiconducting alloy is one of a class of persistent photoconductors, chosen as the spin transport medium because its carrier density can be tuned in a controlled manner via photoexcitation through the metal to insulator transition (MIT) in situ. This allows one to determine the dependence of spin lifetime on a variety of external parameters including carrier density, all on one sample. This research represents the first electrical spin-dependent measurements in this material and describes the dependence of the Hanle signal size and spin lifetime on bias, temperature, and carrier density. The photoexcitation needed to change the carrier density in this material comes from an infrared light-emitting diode (IR LED). The first step of this project was to characterize the new, highly Si doped Al0.3Ga 0.7As heterostructures, in order to determine how the illumination of the sample will affect the parameters of the material. To complete this study, Hall crosses were fabricated from the AlGaAs material and the transport properties were measured between 350 mK and 165 K. The resistivity, carrier density, and mobility were determined as a function of temperature for a variety of different illumination times. From this data, the MIT, scattering mechanisms, and the shape of the band tail of the density of states (DOS) were investigated. In fact, this is the first work to electrically probe the DOS in AlGaAs. Once the materials were characterized, they were used to fabricate lateral spin transport devices. Spin transport and accumulation were studied in detail via Hanle effect measurements, which measure the dephasing of electron spins in a perpendicular magnetic field. From these measurements, the spin lifetime of the material can be calculated, and is in the nanosecond range for all measured carrier densities. The spin lifetimes are measured using three distinct measurement configurations which all give consistent results. The dependence of spin lifetime and Hanle signal size are reported as a function of bias, temperature, and carrier density. This is the first spin transport experiment using a persistently photoconductive material as the spin transport channel in order to change the carrier density of the material in situ. The research in this dissertation successfully provides a framework for the continuation of spin injection and detection studies in this and other alloy semiconductors, and provides insight into how the spin lifetime depends on the doping levels in semiconductors.

  3. Mechanism of Current Oscillations in Gallium Arsenide Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li-Qiang; SHI Wei


    Semi-insulating photoconductive semiconductor switch with an electrode gap of 4mm, triggered by a laser pulse with energy of 0.5mJ, and applied bias of 2.5kV, the periodicity current oscillation with a cycle of 12ns is obtained. It is indicated that the current oscillation is one mode of transferred electron effect, namely quenched domain mode. This mode of trans-electron oscillator is obtained when the instantaneous bias electric field drops below the sustaining field (the minimum electric field required to support the domain) before the domain reaches the anode, which leads to the domain disappears somewhere in the bulk of the switch and away from the ohmic contacts. We mainly analyse the time-dependent characteristic of the mode, the theoretical analysis results are in excellent agreement with the experiment.

  4. Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistors with Semi-Insulated Gates. (United States)


    lower carrier concentration . Use of epitaxially grown n+ l ayers was examined as an alternate approach . Dev ices fabricated from this materia l- were...was de- posi ted in preparation for annealing. Initial ly, the S1 3 N4 was deposited by a - - low-temperature, plasma —enhanced process. Unfortunately

  5. Ion-beam induced isolation of gallium arsenide layers (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Zemanski, J. M.; Williams, J. S.; Johnson, S. T.; Pogany, A. P.


    Epitaxial (n +-n) layers on semi-insulating GaAs samples were implanted with 60 keV He + ions at elevated temperatures. Samples were analysed to provide sheet resistivity, Hall mobility and carrier depth profiles using electrical measurement techniques and damage distributions using TEM and Rutherford backscattering and channeling. All of the data were correlated to identify the optimum conditions to achieve electrical isolation. Elevated temperature He + implants have been found to create uniform, single step isolation of GaAs layers. Isolation of the GaAs layers can be enhanced and stabilised further by a suitable post-implantation annealing process.

  6. Resonance Raman Scattering Studies of Gallium - - Aluminum-Arsenide Superlattices. (United States)

    Gant, Thomas Andrew

    We have made resonance Raman scattering studies of folded LA phonons and quantized LO phonons in several GaAs-AlAs superlattices. The motivation for this work was to study the electronic structure and the electron -phonon interaction in these structures. The samples were not intentionally doped. The Raman spectra of optic phonons were usually taken at a temperature of 10 K or less. The folded acoustic phonon work was taken at temperatures ranging from 200-300 K in order to enhance the scattering by the thermal factor. Two samples in particular have received very close attention: sample 2292 (50 A GaAs- 20 A AlAs) and sample 3250 (20 A GaAs- 50 A AlAs). In sample 2292 we have made resonance studies of the folded LA phonons and the GaAs -like confined LO_2 mode near the second heavy hole exciton. The results on the folded acoustic phonons show a very strong resonance enhancement for the second order folded phonons, but very little for the first order. An interference between two different scattering channels (the n = 1 light hole and the n = 2 heavy hole subbands) seems to be responsible for this effect. The resonance profile for the LO_2 confined optic phonon in sample 2292 shows 4 peaks in the region from 1.8 eV to 2.05 eV. We have studied the dependence of this resonance profile on the power density. A higher power density was achieved by using the same laser power with a tighter focus. At the higher power density the peak at 1.93 eV (formerly the strongest peak present) vanished. This "bleaching" effect is related to screening due to the higher carrier density. In sample 3250 we have studied the polarization dependence of the resonance profiles of four peaks (LO _2, LO_4, LO_6, and an interface mode) near the lowest direct gap. The A_1 symmetry confined LO modes are seen in both polarized and depolarized geometries, in violation of the usual selection rule (polarized). A mechanism is proposed to explain this result, which has been previously observed by other workers.

  7. Laser Induced Chemical Vapor Epitaxial Growth of Gallium Arsenide Films. (United States)


    heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs. The important process parameters are: the substrate surface cleanliness , substrate temperature, composition and flow rate of the...hydrogen was used as the diluent and win.dw purging gas [9]. The important process parameters are: the substrate surface cleanliness , substrate temperature

  8. Nickel-gallium arsenide high-voltage power Schottky diodes (United States)

    Ashkinazi, G.; Hadas, Tz.; Meyler, B.; Nathan, M.; Zolotarevski, L.; Zolotarevski, O.


    A power GaAs Schottky diode (SD) with a chemically deposited Ni barrier was designed, fabricated and tested. The diode has a reverse breakdown voltage VBR of 140 V, forward voltage drop VF (at 50 A/cm 2) of 0.7 V at 23°C, 0.5 V at 150°C and 0.3 V at 250°C, and reverse leakage current densities jR (at -50 V) of 0.1 μA/cm 2 at 23°C and 1 mA/cm 2 at 150°C. Calculated forward and reverse I- V characteristics using a simple self-consistent computer model are in good agreement with measured values. Calculated characteristics of a silicon SD with identical structure parameters, using the same model, show much poorer VBR, VF and jR values. The theoretical maximum value of VBR is physically limited by the largest allowed VF. For a V Fof ⋍1.6 V, V BR.maxis ⋍200 V in Si and ⋍800 simple technology allows manufacturing of large area GaAs Schottky diodes with average currents up to V in GaAs SDs. Our relatively 100 A.

  9. Radiation annealing of gallium arsenide implanted with sulphur

    CERN Document Server

    Ardyshev, V M


    Sulfur ions were implanted in a semi-insulating GaAs. Photon annealing (805 deg C/(10-12) s) and the thermal one (800 deg C/30 min) were conducted under SiO sub 2 -films coating obtained by different ways. Contents of GaAs components in films were determined from Rutherford backscattering spectra; concentration profiles of electrons were measured by the voltage-capacitance method. Diffusion of sulfur was shown to go in two directions - to the surface and into bulk of GaAs. The first process was induced by vacancies that had been formed near the surface of semiconductors during the dielectric coating. The coefficient of the bulk-diffusion and diffusion-to-surface of sulfur ions under photon annealing was twice as much as that under thermal one. The doping efficiency was also larger

  10. Photoelastic coupling in gallium arsenide optomechanical disk resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Christopher; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Andronico, Alessio; Ducci, Sara; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan


    We analyze the magnitude of the radiation pressure and electrostrictive stresses exerted by light confined inside GaAs semiconductor WGM optomechanical disk resonators, through analytical and numerical means, and find the electrostrictive force to be of prime importance. We investigate the geometric and photoelastic optomechanical coupling resulting respectively from the deformation of the disk boundary and from the strain-induced refractive index changes in the material, for various mechanical modes of the disks. Photoelastic optomechanical coupling is shown to be a predominant coupling mechanism for certain disk dimensions and mechanical modes, leading to total coupling g$_{om}$ and g$_0$ reaching respectively 3 THz/nm and 4 MHz. Finally, we point towards ways to maximize the photoelastic coupling in GaAs disk resonators, and we provide some upper bounds for its value in various geometries.

  11. Photoinduced Dissociation Of N-alkyl Bromides On Gallium Arsenide(110) And Gallium Arsenide(100) Electron And Fragment Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, K A


    In this study we investigate the UV-initiated electron transfer and dissociation fragment dynamics of selected n-alkyl bromides physisorbed on single crystals of GaAs. By systematically varying different chemical and structural parameters of the adsorbate/substrate system we explore a number of fundamental questions regarding the basic physics and chemistry of photochemical processes on surfaces. Monolayers of methyl, ethyl and propyl bromide were deposited on the (110), Ga-terminated (100) and As- terminated (100) surfaces of GaAs without thermal decomposition at 80 K. Substrate-mediated electron transfer to the molecule, induced by exposure to UV light at 193, 248 and 351 nm, causes C-Br bond cleavage. The electron transfer dynamics of this mechanism are examined as a function of wavelength and molecular complexity of the adsorbate to better understand the flow of energy and charge across the adsorbate/substrate interface. The photodynamics of the alkyl fragments are studied using mass-, energy- and angle-r...

  12. Acoustic Phonon Scattering in Modulation Doped Aluminum sub x Gallium sub (1-x) Arsenide/Gallium Arsenide Heterojunctions (United States)


    of the distribution function through Monte Carlo simula- • tions of a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlxGaj-xAs/GaAs heterostructure confirm this...shown in Fig. 4.1b). The broadening may be regarded somewhat imprecisely as arising from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, ,Er t, where AE is a...significant energy dependence of the den- ,,. sity of states. From the Heisenberg uncertainty principle we see that the broadening of the Landau levels

  13. Chemical mechanical polishing of Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide and Indium gallium arsenide films and related environment and safety aspects (United States)

    Matovu, John Bogere

    As scaling continues with advanced technology nodes in the microelectronic industry to enhance device performance, the performance limits of the conventional substrate materials such as silicon as a channel material in the front-end-of-the-line of the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) need to be surmounted. These challenges have invigorated research into new materials such as III-V materials consisting of InP, GaAs, InGaAs for n-channel CMOS and Ge for p-channels CMOS to enhance device performance. These III-V materials have higher electron mobility that is required for the n-channel while Ge has high hole mobility that is required for the p-channel. Integration of these materials in future devices requires chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to achieve a smooth and planar surface to enable further processing. The CMP process of these materials has been associated with environment, health and safety (EH&S) issues due to the presence of P and As that can lead to the formation of toxic gaseous hydrides. The safe handling of As contaminated consumables and post-CMP slurry waste is essential. In this work, the chemical mechanical polishing of InP, GaAs and InGaAs films and the associated environment, health and safety (EH&S) issues are discussed. InP removal rates (RRs) and phosphine generation during the CMP of blanket InP films in hydrogen peroxide-based silica particle dispersions in the presence and absence of three different multifunctional chelating carboxylic acids, namely oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid are reported. The presence of these acids in the polishing slurry resulted in good InP removal rates (about 400 nm min-1) and very low phosphine generation (slurry compositions consisting of 3 wt % silica, 1 wt % hydrogen peroxide and 0.08 M oxalic acid or citric acid that provided the best results on blanket InP films were used to evaluate their planarization capability of patterned InP-STI structures of 200 mm diameter wafers. Cross sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that InP in the shallow trench isolation structures was planarized and scratches, slurry particles and smearing of InP were absent. Additionally, wafers polished at pH 6 showed very low dishing values of about 12-15 nm, determined by cross sectional SEM. During the polishing of blanket GaAs, GaAs RRs were negligible with deionized water or with silica slurries alone. They were relatively high in aq. solutions of H2O2 alone and showed a strong pH dependence, with significantly higher RRs in the alkaline region. The addition of silica particles to aq. H2O2 did not increase the GaAs RRs significantly. The evolution of arsenic trihydride (AsH3) during the dissolution of GaAs in aq. H2O2 solution was similarly higher in the basic pH range than in neutral pH or in the acidic pH range. However, no AsH3 was measured during polishing, evidently because of the relatively high water solubility of AsH3. The work done on InGaAs polishing shows that InGaAs RR trends are different from those observed for InP or GaAs. InGaAs RRs at pH 2 are higher than those at pH 10 and highest at pH 4. Dissolution rates (DRs), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angles, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), zeta potential measurements and calculated Gibbs free energy changes of the reactions involved during polishing and gas formation were used to discuss the observed RRs and hydride gas generation trends and to propose the reaction pathways involved in the material removal and in hydride gas generation mechanisms.

  14. Radiant Power Degradation of Silicon-Doped Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Aluminum Arsenide Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes. (United States)


    measured using a United Detector Technology Model 61AC (UDT61AC) Optometer , a United Detector Technol- ogy Model 2575R (UDT2575R) Integrating Sphere...the opening of the integrating sphere. Be sure both the integrating sphere and the diode are stationary. 3. Check the optometer . Be sure the CH 10-2. (You have now compensated the optometer for ambient light). The display may still read something on the 10-2 MULTIPLIER setting. If it does

  15. Theoretical Studies of High Energy Transport of Electrons and Holes in Gallium Arsenide, Indium Phosphide, Indium Arsenide, and Gallium Antimonide. (United States)


    interest and support in many aspects of this work. The author would also like to thank Professors N. Holonyak Jr., G. * Stillman, and B. Wheeler for...York, 1958. [321 R. P. Feynman , Statistical Mechanics, A Set of Lectures, W. A. * -. Benjamin, Reading Ma., 1972. [33] G. 3. lafrate, "Quantum transport

  16. Doped Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs)/Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch (PCSS) Fabrication (United States)


    substrate and the first layer, regardless of pregrowth surface treatments or growth technology . Epilayer defect density and unintentional doping increase...stress bubble and hash-mark or crack tensile defects. The ammonia (NH3) to silane (SiH4) ratio optimizes the index to a SiNx slightly rich in Si over the...Conference, Tampa, FL, 2009. 7. Filmtronics: Spin-on diffusant, zinc film— product code 980. Butler (PA): Filmtronics Inc.; 2004 Jul [accessed 2016

  17. Electroluminescence Studies on Longwavelength Indium Arsenide Quantum Dot Microcavities Grown on Gallium Arsenide (United States)


    K.M. Groom, S. MacNeil, R.A. Hogg, R. Smallwood. “Quantum Dot Superluminescent Diodes for Optical Coherence Tomography: Skin Imaging” IEEE Journal of... diodes (RCLEDs) and three 1.3 µm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) samples were fabricated and electro-optically characterized over a...layer-by-layer, or Frank-van der Merwe growth [18] .................................26 2.17. Active region of diode lasers representing a layer

  18. Lung gallium scan (United States)

    Gallium 67 lung scan; Lung scan; Gallium scan - lung; Scan - lung ... Gallium is injected into a vein. The scan will be taken 6 to 24 hours after the gallium is injected. (Test time depends on whether your condition is acute or chronic .) ...

  19. Gallium self-diffusion in gallium arsenide: A study using isotope heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Hsu, L.; Haller, E.E. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Erickson, J.W. [Evans (Charles) and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Fischer, A.; Eberl, K.; Cardona, M. [Max-Planck-Institut, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Ga self-diffusion was studied with secondary-ion mass spectroscopy in {sup 69}GaAs/{sup 71}GaAs isotope heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates. Results show that the Ga self- diffusion coefficient in intrinsic GaAs can be described accurately with D = (43{+-}25 cm{sup 2}s{sup -1})exp(-4.24{+-}0.06 eV/k{sub B}T) over 6 orders of magnitude between 800 and 1225 C under As-rich condition. Experimental results combined with theoretical calculations strongly suggest Ga vacancy being the dominant native defect controlling the diffusion. No significant doping effects were observed in samples where the substrates were doped with Te up to 4x10{sup 17}cm{sup -3} or Zn up to 1x10{sup 19}cm{sup -3}.

  20. Efeito da terapia com laser de arsenieto de gálio e alumínio (660Nm sobre a recuperação do nervo ciático de ratos após lesão por neurotmese seguida de anastomose epineural: análise funcional Effect of gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser therapy (660Nm on recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats following neurotmesis lesion and epineural anastomosis: functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA Reis


    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: As lesões nervosas periféricas podem comprometer atividades diárias de um indivíduo e resultam em perda da sensibilidade e motricidade do território inervado. OBJETIVO: Com o intuito de acelerar os processos regenerativos, objetivou-se analisar a influência da aplicação do laser de arsenieto de gálio e alumínio (AsGaAl, 660Nm sobre a recuperação funcional do nervo ciático de ratos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O nervo ciático de 12 ratos Wistar foi submetido à lesão por neurotmese e anastomose epineural e divididos em dois grupos: controle e laserterapia. Após a lesão, utilizou-se o laser de GaAlAs, 660Nm, 4J/cm², 26,3mW, feixe de 0,63cm², em três pontos eqüidistantes sobre a lesão, por 20 dias. As impressões das pegadas dos animais foram obtidas antes e após (sete, 14 e 21 dias pós-operatórios o procedimento cirúrgico e calculou-se o índice funcional do ciático (IFC. RESULTADOS: A comparação do IFC não resultou em diferença significante (p>0,05 entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Conclui-se que os parâmetros e métodos empregados na laserterapia demonstram resultados nulos sobre o IFC no período avaliado.CONTEXT: Peripheral nerve injuries result in sensory and motor losses in the innervated area and can hinder individuals’ daily activities. Objective: The objective was to analyze the influence of applying gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs laser (660Nm on the functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats. METHODS: The sciatic nerve of 12 Wistar rats was subjected to injury consisting of neurotmesis and epineural anastomosis. The rats were divided into two groups: control and laser therapy. After the injury, a GaAlAs laser was used (660Nm, 4J/cm², 26.3mW and 0.63cm² beam at three equidistant points on the injury, for 20 days. Footprint impressions were obtained from the animals before and seven, 14 and 21 days after the surgical procedure and the sciatic functional index (SFI was calculated

  1. Investigations in gallium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Beard, C.A. [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States)


    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  2. Gallium nitride optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.


    The growth of bulk gallium nitride crystals was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride. Gallium nitride single crystals up to 2.5 x 0.5 cm in size were produced. The crystals are suitable as substrates for the epitaxial growth of gallium nitride. The epitaxial growth of gallium nitride on sapphire substrates with main faces of (0001) and (1T02) orientations was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride in a gas flow system. The grown layers had electron concentrations in the range of 1 to 3 x 10 to the 19th power/cu cm and Hall mobilities in the range of 50 to 100 sq cm/v/sec at room temperature.

  3. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson


    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  4. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is

  5. Native gallium adatoms discovered on atomically-smooth gallium nitride surfaces at low temperature. (United States)

    Alam, Khan; Foley, Andrew; Smith, Arthur R


    In advanced compound semiconductor devices, such as in quantum dot and quantum well systems, detailed atomic configurations at the growth surfaces are vital in determining the structural and electronic properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate the surface reconstructions in order to make further technological advancements. Usually, conventional semiconductor surfaces (e.g., arsenides, phosphides, and antimonides) are highly reactive due to the existence of a high density of group V (anion) surface dangling bonds. However, in the case of nitrides, group III rich growth conditions in molecular beam epitaxy are usually preferred leading to group III (Ga)-rich surfaces. Here, we use low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy to reveal a uniform distribution of native gallium adatoms with a density of 0.3%-0.5% of a monolayer on the clean, as-grown surface of nitrogen polar GaN(0001̅) having the centered 6 × 12 reconstruction. Unseen at room temperature, these Ga adatoms are strongly bound to the surface but move with an extremely low surface diffusion barrier and a high density saturation coverage in thermodynamic equilibrium with Ga droplets. Furthermore, the Ga adatoms reveal an intrinsic surface chirality and an asymmetric site occupation. These observations can have important impacts in the understanding of gallium nitride surfaces.

  6. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is to provide a platform for the researchers,academicians,

  7. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M


    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  8. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M


    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  9. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M


    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  10. Electrodeposition of gallium for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.


    An electroplating solution and method for producing an electroplating solution containing a gallium salt, an ionic compound and a solvent that results in a gallium thin film that can be deposited on a substrate.

  11. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  12. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal,Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial

  13. Bragg Reflector-Induced Increased Nonradiative Lifetime in Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)/Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs) Double Heterostructures (United States)


    is essential for the design and analysis of high- efficiency semiconductor solar cells1 and other optoelectronic devices.2 Time-resolved... solar cell uses a GaAs/AlGaAs DH with a roughly 1–2 µm GaAs active region on top of an internal distributed Bragg reflector (BR) to take advantage of...carrier lifetimes and the radiative recombination constant were determined from PL decay time and internal radiative quantum efficiency measurements on

  14. Material growth and characterization of gallium arsenic antimide on gallium arsenide grown by MOCVD for long wavelength laser applications (United States)

    Noh, Min-Soo

    Due to the demand for faster and higher bit rate optical communication, long wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) has been attracting great interests because of its ability of 2D array application. Although InGaAsP/InP edge emitting lasers (EEL) have been well developed and commercially available, the lack of high contrast distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for the material system forced to find new active materials that can be grown on GaAs substrate to exploit AlGaAs/GaAs DBR pairs. For the purpose, GaAsSb has been studied as the active material. This dissertation describes and discusses the GaAsSb semiconductor material growth, the optimization of the growth conditions, and the characterization of the laser devices fabricated from GaAsSb QW structures. Based on the optimal growth conditions, EELs operating at room temperature in CW mode at the wavelength of 1.27 mum have been demonstrated from the GaAsSb QW structure with GaAsP barriers grown monolithically by MOCVD.

  15. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds


    Chitambar, Christopher R.


    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks cross resistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is n...

  16. Gallium--A smart metal (United States)

    Foley, Nora; Jaskula, Brian W.


    Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. The French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered gallium in sphalerite (a zinc-sulfide mineral) in 1875 using spectroscopy. He named the element "gallia" after his native land of France (formerly Gaul; in Latin, Gallia). The existence of gallium had been predicted in 1871 by Dmitri Mendeleev, the Russian chemist who published the first periodic table of the elements. Mendeleev noted a gap in his table and named the missing element "eka-aluminum" because he determined that its location was one place away from aluminum in the table. Mendeleev thought that the missing element (gallium) would be very much like aluminum in its chemical properties, and he was right. Solid gallium has a low melting temperature (~29 degrees Celsius, or °C) and an unusually high boiling point (~2,204 °C). Because of these properties, the earliest uses of gallium were in high-temperature thermometers and in designing metal alloys that melt easily. The development of a gallium-based direct band-gap semiconductor in the 1960s led to what is now one of the most well-known applications for gallium-based products--the manufacture of smartphones and data-centric networks.

  17. Peculiarities of defect and impurity behaviour in gallium arsenide during surface gettering

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelenok, A T; Kamanin, A V; Kokhanovskii, S I; Mezdrogina, M M; Shmidt, N M; Vasilev, V I


    Spatial redistribution of anti-site defects after surface gettering of GaAs wafers coated by an yttrium film has been found. It has been established that both one- and two-side coating of the GaAs wafer with an yttrium film followed by a heat treatment allows a high-resistivity (n = 10 sup 1 sup 2 cm sup - sup 3) material to be obtained with uniform distributions of both electrons and the effective hole lifetime in a depth of 1.6 mm. The material obtained is suitable for creating Schottky barriers and structures for use in both high-power devices and x-ray detectors.

  18. Microwave Semiconductor Research - Materials, Devices and Circuits and Gallium Arsenide Ballistic Electron Transistors. (United States)


    limited effort basis with industrial support. Projected limits, after considerable effort, should reach f 1 00 GHz. TA 77 72 such transistor was the...shorter recovery time each cycle due to the spatial removal of hot electrons. This device is being pursued with a small grant from industry . The...Broadband MMIC FET Amplifiers", Y.S. Wu and H.J. Carlin, Acta Electronica , Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 39-46 (Nov. 1983). 6. "Double Broadband Matching and

  19. Sparse gallium arsenide to silicon metal waferbonding for heterogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuits (United States)

    Bickford, Justin Robert

    Waferbonding is a technique that integrates different semiconductors together, in order to obtain hybrid structures that exploit the strengths of each material. Work was done at the University of California at San Diego to investigate the waferbonding of III/V compound semiconductors to silicon using a metal interface. GaAs and other III/V compound semiconductors surpass silicon in their ability to create high performance microwave devices, while silicon offers an inexpensive platform with a proven digital architecture that can interface with microwave devices and support passive components and driver circuitry. Intimate integration of the two will be required, as mixed RF/digital and optical/digital systems for communications devices such as cell phones, wi-fi, and optical communications systems are pushed smaller, faster, and to higher power. The metalbonding implementation of a proposed heterogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuit (HMMIC) system was investigated, and was shown to extend the capabilities of existing homogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) systems. The main goals of this work were two-fold; first to implement a robust heterogeneous integration technique, and second, to show that this approach uniquely improves upon existing microwave integration technology. The metalbonding technique investigated sparsely integrated GaAs structures onto silicon, in pursuit of this HMMIC scheme. Both bottom-up and top-down fabrication methods were implemented. These approaches required the development of a myriad of meticulously designed fabrication procedures capable of avoiding the many incompatibilities between the compound semiconductor, bondmetal, and silicon materials. The bondmetal interface, provided by these techniques, broadens the scope of existing monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology design possibilities. Essential bond interface properties were measured to establish the performance of this heterogeneous integration method. Passive bond test structures were designed, fabricated, and measured to extract the bond interface electrical behavior, electrical contact resistivity, and thermal conductivity. The In-Pd alloy, employed as the bondmetal interface between these GaAs/silicon test structures, provided a universal ohmic contact between all doping combinations. The bond interface contact resistivity between n-type GaAs and p-type Si was found to be 1.03x10-5 ohm-cm2 and a bondmetal thermal conductivity of 2.51 W/m-K was also determined. In addition, passive un-bonded and bonded microwave waveguides were constructed to test the microwave propagation properties of the bondmetal. The characteristics of these test structures qualified the metalbonding technique for use in heterogeneous microwave systems. The successful fabrication of these structures demonstrated that this metalbonding method could be extended to active devices as well, which would be of similar size, form factor, and utilize the same fabrication methods. An un-bonded active microwave waveguide, similar to one which could become common in heterogeneous microwave systems, was investigated to illustrate its unique microwave properties. This un-bonded traveling wave PIN semiconductor waveguide propagated microwaves in a 'slow-wave' manner, as a consequence of its diode structure.

  20. Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field. (United States)

    Sallen, G; Kunz, S; Amand, T; Bouet, L; Kuroda, T; Mano, T; Paget, D; Krebs, O; Marie, X; Sakoda, K; Urbaszek, B


    Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain--that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations.

  1. Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field (United States)

    Sallen, G.; Kunz, S.; Amand, T.; Bouet, L.; Kuroda, T.; Mano, T.; Paget, D.; Krebs, O.; Marie, X.; Sakoda, K.; Urbaszek, B.


    Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain—that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations.

  2. Growth and characterization of epitaxial aluminum layers on gallium-arsenide substrates for superconducting quantum bits (United States)

    Tournet, J.; Gosselink, D.; Miao, G.-X.; Jaikissoon, M.; Langenberg, D.; McConkey, T. G.; Mariantoni, M.; Wasilewski, Z. R.


    The quest for a universal quantum computer has renewed interest in the growth of superconducting materials on semiconductor substrates. High-quality superconducting thin films will make it possible to improve the coherence time of superconducting quantum bits (qubits), i.e., to extend the time a qubit can store the amplitude and phase of a quantum state. The electrical losses in superconducting qubits highly depend on the quality of the metal layers the qubits are made from. Here, we report on the epitaxy of single-crystal Al (011) layers on GaAs (001) substrates. Layers with 110 nm thickness were deposited by means of molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and monitored by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction performed simultaneously at four azimuths. The single-crystal nature of the layers was confirmed by ex situ high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Differential interference contrast and atomic force microscopy analysis of the sample’s surface revealed a featureless surface with root mean square roughness of 0.55 nm. A detailed in situ study allowed us to gain insight into the nucleation mechanisms of Al layers on GaAs, highlighting the importance of GaAs surface reconstruction in determining the final Al layer crystallographic orientation and quality. A highly uniform and stable GaAs (001)-(2× 4) reconstruction reproducibly led to a pure Al (011) phase, while an arsenic-rich GaAs (001)-(4× 4) reconstruction yielded polycrystalline films with an Al (111) dominant orientation. The near-atomic smoothness and single-crystal character of Al films on GaAs, in combination with the ability to trench GaAs substrates, could set a new standard for the fabrication of superconducting qubits.

  3. Ultra-Low Power Fiber-Coupled Gallium Arsenide Photonic Crystal Cavity Electro-Optical Modulator (United States)


    200 nA corresponding to voltages of 0, 0.67, and 1 V (inset of Fig. 2(b)). As can be seen, the cavity resonance blueshifts monotonically even for...these ultra- low injection levels. In fact, 50% of the blueshift occurs in the first 20 nA of injection before saturating at approximately 200 nA (Fig...with a better MBE growth method as minimal leakage current was observed for similar devices in [13]. Nonetheless, the total blueshift of 110 pm is

  4. Origin of optical losses in gallium arsenide disk whispering gallery resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Parrain, David; Wang, Guillaume; Guha, Biswarup; Santos, Eduardo Gil; Lemaitre, Aristide; Senellart, Pascale; Leo, Giuseppe; Ducci, Sara; Favero, Ivan


    Whispering gallery modes in GaAs disk resonators reach half a million of optical quality factor. These high Qs remain still well below the ultimate design limit set by bending losses. Here we investigate the origin of residual optical dissipation in these devices. A Transmission Electron Microscope analysis is combined with an improved Volume Current Method to precisely quantify optical scattering losses by roughness and waviness of the structures, and gauge their importance relative to intrinsic material and radiation losses. The analysis also provides a qualitative description of the surface reconstruction layer, whose optical absorption is then revealed by comparing spectroscopy experiments in air and in different liquids. Other linear and nonlinear optical loss channels in the disks are evaluated likewise. Routes are given to further improve the performances of these miniature GaAs cavities.

  5. Gallium Arsenide Waveguide Detector Array for Electronic Warfare Support Measure Systems. (United States)


    65 4.2 Procedure .............. ................. 68 4.3 Results ................................ 68 4.3.1 Pulsed...presented here are derived by Marcuse (11] and the notation is chosen to be consistent with his results. Both the TE and TM modes will be considered and the...2 DREI - 3 I+ 2 - 2 V 0. ( 68 ) Equation ( 68 ) is analytically useful only if one can find some closed form for R. The responsivity data of Sun et aZ

  6. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Bulk Grown Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Alloys (United States)


    using the liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) method but suffered from a large number of 13 misfits and some cracks [3]. In 1995, Suzuki et of samples grown through the vertical Bridgman (or multi-component zone melting growth) method have been investigated through...applications. 2 The InxGa1-xAs samples analyzed here were grown using the vertical Bridgman or multi-component zone melting growth method (MCZM) by

  7. Chromium compensated gallium arsenide detectors for X-ray and γ-ray spectroscopic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veale, M.C., E-mail: [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bell, S.J.; Duarte, D.D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); French, M.J.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Wilson, M.D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Lozinskaya, A.D.; Novikov, V.A.; Tolbanov, O.P.; Tyazhev, A.; Zarubin, A.N. [Siberian Physical–Technical Institute of Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    Semi-insulating GaAs material of 500 μm thickness grown using the Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) method has been compensated with chromium to produce high resistivity single crystals suitable for spectroscopic imaging applications. Results are presented for the performance of three small pixel detectors each with 80×80 pixels on a 250 μm pitch, fabricated with metal contacts and bonded to a spectroscopic imaging ASIC. Current–voltage measurements demonstrated a material resistivity of 2.5×10{sup 9} Ω cm at room temperature. At an optimised bias voltage, the average energy resolution at 60 keV (FWHM) was in the range 2.8–3.3 keV per pixel. An analysis of the voltage dependent X-ray spectroscopy suggests that the electron mobility lifetime (μτ{sub e}) for each detector is in the range 2.1–4.5×10{sup −5} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1}. The spectroscopic imaging capability of the detectors is also demonstrated in X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements.

  8. A customizable commercial miniaturized 320×256 indium gallium arsenide shortwave infrared camera (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Che; O'Grady, Matthew; Groppe, Joseph V.; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Brubaker, Robert M.


    The design and performance of a commercial short-wave-infrared (SWIR) InGaAs microcamera engine is presented. The 0.9-to-1.7 micron SWIR imaging system consists of a room-temperature-TEC-stabilized, 320x256 (25 μm pitch) InGaAs focal plane array (FPA) and a high-performance, highly customizable image-processing set of electronics. The detectivity, D*, of the system is greater than 1013 cm-√Hz/W at 1.55 μm, and this sensitivity may be adjusted in real-time over 100 dB. It features snapshot-mode integration with a minimum exposure time of 130 μs. The digital video processor provides real time pixel-to-pixel, 2-point dark-current subtraction and non-uniformity compensation along with defective-pixel substitution. Other features include automatic gain control (AGC), gamma correction, 7 preset configurations, adjustable exposure time, external triggering, and windowing. The windowing feature is highly flexible; the region of interest (ROI) may be placed anywhere on the imager and can be varied at will. Windowing allows for high-speed readout enabling such applications as target acquisition and tracking; for example, a 32x32 ROI window may be read out at over 3500 frames per second (fps). Output video is provided as EIA170-compatible analog, or as 12-bit CameraLink-compatible digital. All the above features are accomplished in a small volume < 28 cm3, weight < 70 g, and with low power consumption < 1.3 W at room temperature using this new microcamera engine. Video processing is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform with a soft-embedded processor that allows for ease of integration/addition of customer-specific algorithms, processes, or design requirements. The camera was developed with the high-performance, space-restricted, power-conscious application in mind, such as robotic or UAV deployment.

  9. Theoretical Studies of High Field, High Energy Transport in Gallium Arsenide, Silicon and Heterostructures, (United States)


    semiconductor transport by Kurosawa [15] in 1966. The pioneering work of Fawcett, Boardman and Swain in 1970 [161, which successfully reproduced the...Semiconductors, Montpellier, France, 1981. K. Binder, Monte Carlo Methods in Statistical Physics, Springer- VerlaC, Berlin, 1979. T. Kurosawa , Proc

  10. Formation of defects at high temperature plastic deformation of gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhnovich, V.V.


    The purpose of the present thesis consists in acquiring more concrete information concerning the mechanism of the movement of dislocations and types of defects that appear during the process of dislocation motion on the basis of systematic experimental studies of the GaAs deformation. Experimental studies concerning the dependence of the stress of the samples from their deformation at different values of the deformation parameters (like temperature and deformation speed) were conducted in this paper. To determine the concentration of defects introduced in samples during the deformation process the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) method was used. The second chapter of this paper deals with models of movement of dislocations and origination of defects during deformation of the samples. In the third chapter channels and models of positron annihilation in the GaAs samples are investigated. In the forth chapter the used experimental methods, preparation procedure of test samples and technical data of conducted experiments are described. The fifth chapter shows the results of deformation experiments. The sixth chapter shows the results of positron lifetime measurements by the PAS method. In the seventh chapter one can find analyses of the values of defects concentration that were introduced in samples during deformation. (orig.)

  11. Gallium Arsenide detectors for X-ray and electron (beta particle) spectroscopy (United States)

    Lioliou, G.; Barnett, A. M.


    Results characterizing GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa photodiodes with a 10 μm i layer for their spectral response under illumination of X-rays and beta particles are presented. A total of 22 devices, having diameters of 200 μm and 400 μm, were electrically characterized at room temperature. All devices showed comparable characteristics with a measured leakage current ranging from 4 nA/cm2 to 67 nA/cm2 at an internal electric field of 50 kV/cm. Their unintentionally doped i layers were found to be almost fully depleted at 0 V due to their low doping density. 55Fe X-ray spectra were obtained using one 200 μm diameter device and one 400 μm diameter device. The best energy resolution (FWHM at 5.9 keV) achieved was 625 eV using the 200 μm and 740 eV using the 400 μm diameter device, respectively. Noise analysis showed that the limiting factor for the energy resolution of the system was the dielectric noise; if this noise was eliminated by better design of the front end of the readout electronics, the achievable resolution would be 250 eV. 63Ni beta particle spectra obtained using the 200 μm diameter device showed the potential utility of these detectors for electron and beta particle detection. The development of semiconductor electron spectrometers is important particularly for space plasma physics; such devices may find use in future space missions to study the plasma environment of Jupiter and Europa and the predicted electron impact excitation of water vapor plumes from Europa hypothesized as a result of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV observations.

  12. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of 0.1 Micrometer Gallium Arsenide Mesfet's. (United States)

    Moore, Karen Elizabeth

    Very high performance 0.1 μm GaAs-based MESFET's have been designed, fabricated, and characterized in order to obtain an improved understanding of the full potential of these devices and the effects of process variations and layer structures on device performance. The FET's were fabricated with both "mushroom" and "gamma" gates using a bi-layer (PMMA/P(MMA-MAA)) electron beam lithography process. Process variations, including gate size, shape, and location, and gate recess depth, were systematically evaluated in GaAs FET's through DC and RF transistor performance, biased and un-biased equivalent circuit parameters, and transistor minimum noise figure. The bias dependence of the devices was studied using the results of cold de-embedding to determine intrinsic and extrinsic equivalent circuit values. These bias variations were related back to DC and RF device performance, in order to better understand how to optimize the biasing of a GaAs MESFET. The performance of the devices fabricated and tested was world class, with maximum f_sp {t}{'}s over 100 GHz, f_sp{max}{'}s over 150 GHz, and little sensitivity to process variations. This demonstrates the continued importance of GaAs and GaAs based MESFET's as high performance microwave devices with large scale commercial potential.

  13. Soft-mask fabrication of gallium arsenide nanomembranes for integrated quantum photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Midolo, Leonardo; Kiršanskė, Gabija; Stobbe, Søren


    We report on the fabrication of quantum photonic integrated circuits based on suspended GaAs membranes. The fabrication process consists of a single lithographic step followed by inductively-coupled-plasma dry etching through an electron-beam-resist mask and wet etching of a sacrificial layer. This method does not require depositing, etching, and stripping a hard mask, greatly reducing fabrication time and costs, while at the same time yielding devices of excellent structural quality. We discuss in detail the procedures for cleaning the resist residues caused by the plasma etching and present a statistical analysis of the etched feature size after each fabrication step.

  14. The attachment and characterization of DNA probes on gallium arsenide-based semiconductor surfaces (United States)

    Yang, Joonhyuk


    Immobilization of nucleic acid molecules on solid surfaces is the core of numerous important technologies in the genomics, disease diagnostics and biosensors applications. The architecture and density of immobilized probe molecules depend on the type of the solid surface on which they are anchored. Even though many different types of surfaces have been studied as substrates for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) attachment, the development of a new type of substrate, which is reproducible, stable, highly controlled and easily transferred to practical applications, is still needed. Recent studies have shown that As terminated GaAs-based semiconductors can be used as substrates for immobilized DNA layers. In this study, I aim to understand the attachment of nucleic acid onto the surfaces of As-terminated GaAs-based semiconductors and focus on improving the "brush-structure", which is essential for high quality of biochip based on a DNA layer. Attachment of 8-base and 100-base thiolated ssDNA layers on arsenic terminated GaAs(001) was achieved and characterized. The covalent bonds between the thiolated oligonucleotides with As atoms on the GaAs surface were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the surface morphology was obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In addition, I studied the effect of DNA length and the presence of a good solvent, such as water, on the oligonucleotides on a GaAs surface. I also investigated the effects of the thiol-based spacer and electrolyte concentration to improve the brush-like structure of the DNA layer. Finally, irradiation effects and AlGaAs resonators have been studied for the applications of DNA brush layer on GaAs as biosensor during the change of attachment probe DNA and hybridization to target DNA. For the 8-base thiolated ssDNA case, AFM results showed that the layer thickness was about ˜2.2 nm in dry mode and increased in wet mode. Replacement reaction from N-, O-As bonds to S-As bonds was observed with addition of MCH as indicated by analysis of XPS spectra. The concentration of electrolyte affected the brush like layer structure. In the case of the longer, more flexible DNA with 100 bases, the DNA molecules strongly interacted with each other and formed big cluster, of 330˜440nm in diameter on the surface. Finally, for the applications, a high level of radiation destroyed the brush layer. An AlGaAs resonator used as proof of concept a change in mass by a change in resonance frequency under hybridization reaction with complementary target DNA. This result shows that the design is viable and has a defection of ˜25pg.

  15. Computer modeling characterization, and applications of Gallium Arsenide Gunn diodes in radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El- Basit, Wafaa Abd; El-Ghanam, Safaa Mohamed; Kamh, Sanaa Abd El-Tawab [Electronics Research Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Maksood, Ashraf Mosleh; Soliman, Fouad Abd El-Moniem Saad [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo (Egypt)


    The present paper reports on a trial to shed further light on the characterization, applications, and operation of radar speed guns or Gunn diodes on different radiation environments of neutron or γ fields. To this end, theoretical and experimental investigations of microwave oscillating system for outer-space applications were carried out. Radiation effects on the transient parameters and electrical properties of the proposed devices have been studied in detail with the application of computer programming. Also, the oscillation parameters, power characteristics, and bias current were plotted under the influence of different γ and neutron irradiation levels. Finally, shelf or oven annealing processes were shown to be satisfactory techniques to recover the initial characteristics of the irradiated devices.

  16. Surface preparation for ALD of High-k dielectrics on indium gallium arsenide (United States)

    Melitz, Wilhelm

    The key for a successful gate-first process is when subsequent processing steps cannot degrade the semiconductor, the dielectric, or the oxide-semiconductor interfaces. For silicon, the only commercial ALD high-k fabrication process, which avoids processing induced damage, is a replacement gate process (a type of gate-last process). While preparing silicon for gate-last processing is straightforward, the key to a gate-last process for III-V semiconductors is the order and cleanliness of the III-V channel prior to dielectric deposition. Aggressive oxide thickness reduction (equivalent oxide thickness, or EOT, scaling) is needed to fabricate small gate length devices with small subthreshold swings. Furthermore, aggressive EOT scaling requires a very high uniform ALD nucleation density, with no pinholes due to surface contaminants. The key barrier to solving a very practical problem is a surface chemistry challenge: develop a chemical process which removes nearly all air induced defects and contaminants and leaves the III-V surface flat and electrically active for high nucleation density ALD gate oxide deposition, which unpins the Fermi level. The following study uses scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to observe the removal of the oxide layer and restoration of the clean InGaAs surface reconstruction with atomic hydrogen cleaning, allowing for a gate-last or replacement-gate process. Along with surface cleaning STM and STS was used to characterize the initial passivation of InGaAs surfaces via ALD of trimethyl aluminum (TMA). The substrate temperature and initial surface reconstruction was critical to forming an unpinned passivation layer with a high nucleation density. A method was developed to use Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) as a tool for insightful feedback on the electrostatics of scaled MOSFET devices. KPFM is a unique technique for providing two-dimensional potential profiles inside a working device. A procedure is described to obtain high-resolution KPFM results on ultra-high vacuum (UHV) cleaved III-V MOSCAPs.

  17. A simple soft lithographic nanopatterning of gold on gallium arsenide via galvanic displacement. (United States)

    Lim, Hyuneui; Noh, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Dae-Geun; Kim, Wan-Doo; Maboudian, Roya


    Nanoscale patterning of gold layers on GaAs substrate is demonstrated using a combination of soft lithographic molding and galvanic displacement deposition. First, an electroless deposition method has been developed to plate gold on GaAs with ease and cost-effectiveness. The electroless metallization process is performed by dipping the GaAs substrates into a gold salt solution without any reducing agents or additives. The deposition proceeds via galvanic displacement in which gold ions in the aqueous solution are reduced by electrons arising from the GaAs substrate itself. The deposition rate, surface morphology and adhesion property can be modulated by the plating parameters such as the choice of acids and the immersion time. Second, soft lithographic patterning of nanodots, nanorings, and nanolines are demonstrated on GaAs substrates with hard-polydimethylsiloxane (h-PDMS) mold and plasma etching. This method can be easily applied to the metallization and nanopatterning of gold on GaAs surfaces.

  18. Ion implantation of silicon in gallium arsenide: Damage and annealing characterizations (United States)

    Pribat, D.; Dieumegard, D.; Croset, M.; Cohen, C.; Nipoti, R.; Siejka, J.; Bentini, G. G.; Correra, L.; Servidori, M.


    The purpose of this work is twofold: (i) to study the damage induced by ion implantation, with special attention to low implanted doses; (ii) to study the efficiency of annealing techniques — particularly incoherent light annealing — in order to relate the electrical activity of implanted atoms to damage annealing. We have used three methods to study the damage induced by ion implantation: (1) RBS (or nuclear reactions) in random or in channeling geometry (2) RX double crystal diffractometry and (3) electrical measurements (free carrier profiling). Damage induced by silicon implantation at doses >10 14at/cm 2 can be monitored by all three techniques. However, the sensitivity of RBS is poor and hence this technique is not useful for low implantation doses. As device technology requires dopant levels in the range of 5 × 10 12 atoms/cm 2, we are particularly interested to the development of analytical techniques able to detect the damage at this implantation level. The sensitivity of such techniques was checked by studying homogeneously doped (5 × 10 16 e -/cm 3) and semi-insulating GaAs samples implanted with 3 × 10 12 silicon atoms/cm 2 at 150 keV. The substrate temperature during implantation was 200°C. The damage produced in these samples and its subsequent annealing are evidenced by strong changes in X-ray double crystal diffraction spectra. This method hence appears as a good monitoring technique. Annealing of the implanted layers has been performed using incoherent light sources (xenon lamps) either in flash or continuous conditions. Reference samples have also been thermally annealed (850°C, 20 min in capless conditions). The results are compared, and the electrical carrier profiles obtained after continuous incoherent light irradiation indicate that the implanted silicon atoms are almost dully activated. The advantages and disadvantages of incoherent light irradiation are discussed (surface oxidation, surface damage) in comparison with standard thermal treatment.

  19. Superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor planar junctions of aluminium on DELTA-doped gallium arsenide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Clausen, Thomas; Kutchinsky, jonatan


    We have fabricated and characterized planar superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor (S-Sm-S) junctions with a high quality (i.e. low barrier) interface between an n++ modulation doped conduction layer in MBE grown GaAs and in situ deposited Al electrodes. The Schottky barrier at the S...

  20. Digital Control of the Czochralski Growth of Gallium Arsenide-Controller Software Reference Manual (United States)


    response by means of two stacked PID controllers . The setpoint and actual data inputs of both controllers are to be connected in parallel; the output of...setpoints is obtained from two stacked PID controllers which permit to obtain a non- linear control response (compare chapter 4.5.1). The first PID...the "manu- al" setpoint can be chosen to lie close to the actually re- quired controller output, the PID controllers need only make small

  1. Preparation of quantum fingerprint(TM)-ready metal-gallium arsenide interfaces for molecular characterization (United States)

    De Castro, Julian Paulo B.

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women with a very high incident rate, especially for those women who are between 40-60 years old. Most drugs are large or non-polar macromolecules, which cannot get into cancer cells autonomously, so a method that can deliver those drugs is very important. Optoporation method has been facilitated with gold nanoparticles, which are bound to breast cancer cells, and then absorb the optical energy to improve the membrane permeabilization. Long-term dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables high in beta-carotene and other phytochemicals has been shown beneficial in terms of anti-cancer, anti-aging, preventing cardiovascular disease and cataract. However they are large non-polar molecules that are difficult to enter the cancer cells. Here in this study, we applied optoporation method by using beta-carotene, and tetracycline as anti-cancer drugs in various concentrations to optimize highest selective cell death/best potential for T47D breast cancer cell lines.

  2. A Gallium Arsenide MESFET Operational Amplifier for Use in Composite Operational Amplifiers (United States)


    F., Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, 1991. 6. Sedra , A. S., and Smith , K. C., Microelectronic Circuits...7, pp. 1422-1429, July 1992. 17. McCamant, A. J., McCormack G. D., and Smith , D. H., "An Improved GaAs MESFET Model for SPICE," IEEE Transactions of...34Modeling Frequency Dependence of out Impedance of a Microwave MESFET at Low Frequencies," Electronics Letters, pp. 528-529, June 1985. 39. Smith , M. et al

  3. Two-valley Hydrodynamical Models for Electron Transport in Gallium Arsenide: Simulation of Gunn Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marcello Anile


    Full Text Available To accurately describe non-stationary carrier transport in GaAs devices, it is necessary to use Monte Carlo methods or hydrodynamical (or energy transport models which incorporate population transfer between valleys.We present here simulations of Gunn oscillations in a GaAs diode based on two-valley hydrodynamical models: the classic Bløtekjær model and two recently developed moment expansion models. Scattering parameters within the models are obtained from homogeneous Monte Carlo simulations, and these are compared against expressions in the literature. Comparisons are made between our hydrodynamical results, existing work, and direct Monte Carlo simulations of the oscillator device.

  4. Gallium arsenide p+–n–p+-structures with impoverished base area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimov A. V.


    Full Text Available It is displayed experimentally, that the current transport’s mechanism through p+GaAs–nGaAs–p+GaAs-structure is formed by injection-tunnel and generation-recombination mechanisms. Injection-tunnel current prevails at modulation of base’s part which contains defects, and generation-recombination currents are determinative at modulation of base’s part with lesser defectiveness. p+GaAs–nGaAs–p+GaAs-structures are of interest for creating voltage suppressors and electronic switches on their base.

  5. Computer Modeling, Characterization, and Applications of Gallium Arsenide Gunn Diodes in Radiation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Abd El-Basit


    Full Text Available The present paper reports on a trial to shed further light on the characterization, applications, and operation of radar speed guns or Gunn diodes on different radiation environments of neutron or γ fields. To this end, theoretical and experimental investigations of microwave oscillating system for outer-space applications were carried out. Radiation effects on the transient parameters and electrical properties of the proposed devices have been studied in detail with the application of computer programming. Also, the oscillation parameters, power characteristics, and bias current were plotted under the influence of different γ and neutron irradiation levels. Finally, shelf or oven annealing processes were shown to be satisfactory techniques to recover the initial characteristics of the irradiated devices.

  6. Hot-Electron Degradation of Gallium Arsenide Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors. (United States)

    Tkachenko, Yevgeniy A.


    The physical mechanism of gradual degradation of GaAs MESFETs during RF overdrive is investigated in detail. A hot-electron effect was found responsible for this so-called "power slump" problem. Hot electrons produced by a large drain-gate voltage swing, tunnel from the MESFET channel and get trapped in SiN. These trapped electrons (i) increase surface depletion, hence reduce maximum channel current, transconductance and transistor gain, (ii) increase knee voltage through an increase in series channel resistance, (iii) relax gate-drain field distribution, thereby suppressing avalanche breakdown, (iv) decrease gate-drain capacitance, hence rm S_{22} under open-channel condition, and (v) increase surface leakage through trap hopping in SiN. The damage to SiN can only be partially recovered by deep UV illumination or 200^circrm C anneal. The evidence supports that trapping occurs in the bulk SiN, instead of at the GaAs/SiN interface. The possible chemical reaction responsible for this trap formation is breaking of the Si-H bond in SiN. An analytical theory of hot-electron effects, which combines hot-electron trapping with gate-drain breakdown and pinched-channel electro-luminescence, was developed and verified using experimental data and numerical simulations. Based on this theory, the rate of hot electron trapping was obtained and the threshold energy for trap formation was determined. The square-root time dependence given by the theory and the threshold energy of 1.9 eV were found consistent with gate current and electro-luminescence measurements. Numerical analysis was consistent with a trap density of the order of 5times10^{12}/rm cm^2 over a distance of approximately 0.1 murm m from the gate toward the drain, and it predicted the experimentally observed open-channel current reduction and gate-drain field relaxation. The spatial distribution of trapped electrons was directly observed by a novel high-voltage electron-beam-induced -current imaging technique. It confirmed the model's prediction. These results can be incorporated into large-signal transistor models for computer-aided circuit design. Such models would quantify trade-off between performance and reliability. An accelerated qualification procedure for the hot-electron-induced degradation trend is devised. This is based on the high-frequency waveform probing and high -sensitivity electro-luminescence measurements. Hot-electron-induced degradation was also found to take place in pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistors (PHEMT). The basic signatures of PHEMT degradation are similar to those of MESFETs, however some differences exist due to the structural differences between them. For PHEMT, in addition to SiN surface passivation, hot-electron traps may be formed in the AlGaAs layer under the gate. In addition, various temperature-activated degradation modes are more strongly coupled in the case of PHEMT, which requires analyzing them separately from the field-activated mode.

  7. Type-II indium arsenide/gallium antimonide superlattices for infrared detectors (United States)

    Mohseni, Hooman

    In this work, the unique properties of type-II InAs/GaSb heterojunctions were utilized for the realization of novel infrared photodetectors with higher operating temperature, detectivity and uniformity than the commonly available infrared detectors. This effort was concentrated on two major devices: uncooled infrared detectors in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range, and cooled devices in the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) range. Uncooled infrared (IR) detectors are required for low-cost, lightweight sensor systems that have many industrial and medical applications. Commercially available uncooled IR sensors use ferroelectric or microbolometer detectors. These sensors are inherently slow and cannot detect rapid signal changes needed for high-speed infrared systems. Some of the applications which require a fast detector (tau LIDARs. Although photon detectors have frequency responses in the megahertz range, their high temperature detectivity is severely degraded due to high Auger recombination rates. Bandgap engineering was used in order to suppress Auger recombination at room temperature in type-II superlattices. Our experimental results demonstrated nearly one order of magnitude lower Auger recombination rate at room temperature in these type-II superlattices compared to typical intrinsic detectors, such as HgCdTe, with similar bandgap. Uncooled detectors based on the engineered superlattices showed a detectivity of 1.3 x 108g cmHz 1/2/W at 11 Et m, which is comparable to microbolometers. However, the measured response time of the detectors was more than five orders of magnitude faster than microbolometers. In parallel, devices for operation in the VLWIR were developed. High-performance infrared detectors with cutoff wavelength above 14 mum are highly needed for many space-based applications. Commonly used detectors are extrinsic silicon and HgCdTe. However, the former has to be cooled below 10K, and the latter do not have good uniformity in the VLWIR range. We demonstrated high-performance type-II superlattice photodiodes with cutoff wavelength up to 25 mum and excellent bandgap uniformity over a three-inch wafer area. Devices with a 50% cutoff wavelength of 16 mum showed a nearly 50% internal quantum efficiency and background limited infrared photodetector (BLIP) performance at T = 60 K for the first time.

  8. Drift velocity oscillations in n-gallium arsenide at 77/sup 0/K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matulionis, A.; Pozela, J.; Reklaitis, A.


    Electron relaxation after an instantaneous application of dc electric fields ranging from 10 V/cm to 1 kV/cm was studied numerically by a many-particle Monte Carlo method. The model takes into account polar optical, acoustic, and impurity scattering in the nonparabolic central valley. In the limited range of doping, electric field, and temperature the electron mean energy and drift velocity oscillate. The oscillation frequency is nearly proportional to the applied electric field (approximately 35 GHz at 60 V/cm). The oscillations are associated with a shuttle-type electron motion in the Debye sphere of k-space; they are not heavily damped if the electron runaway is favored inside and restrained outside the Debye sphere. (WDM)

  9. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader


    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  10. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.


    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  11. Gallium-67 myocardial scintigraphy in dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Toshikazu; Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Morita, Yuriko; Futagami, Yasuo; Hayashi, Takamaro; Hamada, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi


    Gallium-67 imaging has been employed clinically in the detection of malignant tumor or chronic inflammatory disease. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of Gallium-67 myocardial imaging as an adjunct to endomyocardial biopsy in the diagnosis of myocarditis. Nine patients who had been diagnosed clinically as dilated cardiomyopathy underwent Gallium-67 myocardial imaging. Left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy was performed on all patients. Two had positive Gallium-67 imaging, but myocarditis was not proven in their tissue specimen. Two others with proven myocarditis had negative Gallium-67 imaging. These results suggest that Gallium-67 imaging is not always a useful tool to detect latent myocarditis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

  12. Framework structures of interconnected layers in calcium iron arsenides. (United States)

    Stürzer, Tobias; Hieke, Christine; Löhnert, Catrin; Nitsche, Fabian; Stahl, Juliane; Maak, Christian; Pobel, Roman; Johrendt, Dirk


    The new calcium iron arsenide compounds Ca(n(n+1)/2)(Fe(1-x)M(x))(2+3n)M'(n(n-1)/2)As((n+1)(n+2)/2) (n = 1-3; M = Nb, Pd, Pt; M' = □, Pd, Pt) were synthesized and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The series demonstrates the structural flexibility of iron arsenide materials, which otherwise prefer layered structures, as is known from the family of iron-based superconductors. In the new compounds, iron arsenide tetrahedral layers are bridged by iron-centered pyramids, giving rise to so far unknown frameworks of interconnected FeAs layers. Channels within the structures are occupied with calcium and palladium or platinum, respectively. Common basic building blocks are identified that lead to a better understanding of the building principles of these structures and their relation to CaFe4As3.

  13. Gallium localization in peritonitis. Two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaManna, M.M.; Saluk, P.H.; Zekavat, P.P.; Mobini, J.; Parker, J.A.


    Diffuse abdominal localization of gallium was found in two patients with peritonitis, one due to M. tuberculosis and the other presumably pyogenic. Gallium scanning may be useful in the diagnosis of peritonitis and perhaps of other serosal infections.

  14. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, P.E.; Dinetta, L.C.; Goetz, M.A.


    Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need for thermal dissipation. Results are presented for GaP direct conversion devices powered by Ni-63 and compared to the conversion of light emitted by tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp {minus}17) A/sq cm have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. Temperature dependent IV, QE, R(sub sh), and V(sub oc) results are also presented. These data are used to predict the high-temperature solar cell and betacell performance of GaP devices and suggest appropriate applications for the deployment of this technology.

  15. The 3-5 semiconductor solid solution single crystal growth. [low gravity float zone growth experiments using gallium indium antimonides and cadmium tellurides (United States)

    Gertner, E. R.


    Techniques used for liquid and vapor phase epitaxy of gallium indium arsenide are described and the difficulties encountered are examined. Results show that the growth of bulk III-V solid solution single crystals in a low gravity environment will not have a major technological impact. The float zone technique in a low gravity environment is demonstrated using cadmium telluride. It is shown that this approach can result in the synthesis of a class of semiconductors that can not be grown in normal gravity because of growth problems rooted in the nature of their phase diagrams.

  16. Recent progress in the determination of gallium, indium, and thallium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jinzhang


    This mini-review covers the literatures of the determination of gallium, indium, and thallium by instrumental analysis with computer-assisted searching over the period of 1994 to 2003. Some papers appearing in the early of 2004 are also included. Because the rapid progress in the instrument has been made, these new papers are prioritized in selection in the similar papers. The contents are considered to be separation and preconcentration, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, electroanalyses, atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and so forth.

  17. Oligonuclear gallium nitrogen cage compounds: molecular intermediates on the way from gallium hydrazides to gallium nitride. (United States)

    Uhl, Werner; Abel, Thomas; Hagemeier, Elke; Hepp, Alexander; Layh, Marcus; Rezaeirad, Babak; Luftmann, Heinrich


    Gallium hydrazides are potentially applicable as facile starting compounds for the generation of GaN by thermolysis. The decomposition pathways are, however, complicated and depend strongly on the substituents attached to the gallium atoms and the hydrazido groups. This paper describes some systematic investigations into the thermolysis of the gallium hydrazine adduct Bu(t)(3)Ga←NH(2)-NHMe (1a) and the dimeric gallium hydrazides [R(2)Ga(N(2)H(2)R')](2) (2b, R = Bu(t), R' = Bu(t); 2c, R = Pr(i), R' = Ph; 2d, R = Me, R' = Bu(t)) which have four- or five-membered heterocycles in their molecular cores. Heating of the adduct 1a to 170 °C gave the heterocyclic compound Bu(t)(2)Ga(μ-NH(2))[μ-N(Me)-N(=CH(2))]GaBu(t)(2) (3) by cleavage of N-N bonds and rearrangement. 3 was further converted at 400 °C into the tetrameric gallium cyanide (Bu(t)(2)GaCN)(4) (4). The thermolysis of the hydrazide (Bu(t)(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHBu(t))(2) (2b) at temperatures between 270 and 420 °C resulted in cleavage of all N-N bonds and the formation of an octanuclear gallium imide, (Bu(t)GaNH)(8) (6). The trimeric dialkylgallium amide (Bu(t)(2)GaNH(2))(3) (5) was isolated as an intermediate. Thermolysis of the hydrazides (Pr(i)(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHPh)(NH(2)-NPh) (2c) and (Me(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHBu(t))(2) (2d) proceeded in contrast with retention of the N-N bonds and afforded a variety of novel gallium hydrazido cage compounds with four gallium atoms and up to four hydrazido groups in a single molecule: (Pr(i)Ga)(4)(NH-NPh)(3)NH (7), (MeGa)(4)(NH-NBu(t))(4) (8), (MeGa)(4)(NH-NBu(t))(3)NBu(t) (9), and (MeGa)(4)(NHNBu(t))(3)NH (10). Partial hydrolysis gave reproducibly the unique octanuclear mixed hydrazido oxo compound (MeGa)(8)(NHNBu(t))(4)O(4) (11).

  18. Common features of gallium perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksiyko, R; Berkowski, M; Byszewski, P; Dabrowski, B; Diduszko, R; Fink-Finowicki, J; Vasylechko, LO


    The Czochralski and floating zone methods have been used to grow single crystals of gallium perovskites solid solutions with rare earth elements La, Pr, Nd, Sm and with Sr. The structure of the crystals has been investigated by powder X-ray, synchrotron radiation and neutron diffraction methods over

  19. Gallium nitride electronics (United States)

    Rajan, Siddharth; Jena, Debdeep


    In the past two decades, there has been increasing research and industrial activity in the area of gallium nitride (GaN) electronics, stimulated first by the successful demonstration of GaN LEDs. While the promise of wide band gap semiconductors for power electronics was recognized many years before this by one of the contributors to this issue (J Baliga), the success in the area of LEDs acted as a catalyst. It set the field of GaN electronics in motion, and today the technology is improving the performance of several applications including RF cell phone base stations and military radar. GaN could also play a very important role in reducing worldwide energy consumption by enabling high efficiency compact power converters operating at high voltages and lower frequencies. While GaN electronics is a rapidly evolving area with active research worldwide, this special issue provides an opportunity to capture some of the great advances that have been made in the last 15 years. The issue begins with a section on epitaxy and processing, followed by an overview of high-frequency HEMTs, which have been the most commercially successful application of III-nitride electronics to date. This is followed by review and research articles on power-switching transistors, which are currently of great interest to the III-nitride community. A section of this issue is devoted to the reliability of III-nitride devices, an area that is of increasing significance as the research focus has moved from not just high performance but also production-worthiness and long-term usage of these devices. Finally, a group of papers on new and relatively less studied ideas for III-nitride electronics, such as interband tunneling, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and high-temperature electronics is included. These areas point to new areas of research and technological innovation going beyond the state of the art into the future. We hope that the breadth and quality of articles in this issue will make it

  20. Evaluation of critical materials for five advanced design photovoltaic cells with an assessment of indium and gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Jamieson, W.M.; Long, L.W.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Smith, S.A.; Teeter, R.R.


    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. This report presents the results of the screening of the five following advanced PV cell designs: polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide frontwall, polycrystalline gallium arsenide MIS, and advanced concentrator-500X. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 GWe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online cpacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary basline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. Earlier DOE sponsored work on the assessment of critical materials in PV cells conclusively identtified indium and gallium as warranting further investigation as to their availability. Therefore, this report includes a discussion of the future availability of gallium and indium. (WHK)

  1. Construction of Gallium Point at NMIJ (United States)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Saito, I.; Yamazawa, K.


    Two open-type gallium point cells were fabricated using ingots whose nominal purities are 7N. Measurement systems for the realization of the melting point of gallium using these cells were built. The melting point of gallium is repeatedly realized by means of the measurement systems for evaluating the repeatability. Measurements for evaluating the effect of hydrostatic pressure coming from the molten gallium existing during the melting process and the effect of gas pressure that fills the cell were also performed. Direct cell comparisons between those cells were conducted. This comparison was aimed to evaluate the consistency of each cell, especially related to the nominal purity. Direct cell comparison between the open-type and the sealed-type gallium point cell was also conducted. Chemical analysis was conducted using samples extracted from ingots used in both the newly built open-type gallium point cells, from which the effect of impurities in the ingot was evaluated.

  2. Studies of Electronic Conduction in Some Small Gallium Arsenic Based. (United States)

    Whittington, Geoffrey

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis describes experimental investigations of the physics involved with low temperature electronic conduction in three different semiconductor systems. The research relies upon technological advances in fabrication of such semiconductor samples. The first work deals with the effects of quantum interference of electrons in some submicron size, heavily doped Gallium Arsenide wire samples. The interesting effect of aperiodic fluctuations in the magnetoresistance of these samples is studied, making use of recently formulated theory on the subject, and with experimental data taken over the magnetic field range 0 to 10 tesla. The results verify the connection between the mean amplitude of the fluctuations and the field correlation period, in terms of the correlation function introduced in the theory. The second work is on the impurity-assisted tunnelling conduction in a magnetic field of three thin rm n^{+}/n^{-}/n^ {+} GaAs sandwich layer structures. The conduction of the system is shown to be determined by impurities lying in the centre of the middle layer. This allows the connection to be made between the conductivity of the system in a magnetic field, and the field-dependent shape of the donor electron wavefunction. The relative variation in resistance with angle to an applied magnetic field was measured, and is shown to be in agreement with predictions based on calculations of the shape of a normalised hydrogenic state wavefunction in high magnetic fields. The third work concerns the tunnelling conduction of a symmetrical GaAs/(AlGa)As/GaAs hetero-barrier system. The current-voltage characteristics at low temperature are fully modelled for applied voltages up to 180mV, using conventional theory of tunnelling and a position-dependent effective mass in the barrier. Low current oscillations in the Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling regime, corresponding to quantum reflection at the

  3. Optical control of gallium nanoparticle growth (United States)

    MacDonald, K. F.; Fedotov, V. A.; Pochon, S.; Ross, K. J.; Stevens, G. C.; Zheludev, N. I.; Brocklesby, W. S.; Emel'yanov, V. I.


    We report that low-intensity light can dramatically influence and regulate the nanoparticle self-assembly process: Illumination of a substrate exposed to a beam of gallium atoms results in the formation of gallium nanoparticles with a relatively narrow size distribution. Very low light intensities, below the threshold for thermally induced evaporation, exert considerable control over nanoparticle formation.

  4. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wanyu [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hsieh Jihfang [Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Tainan (Taiwan)


    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es wurden Ganzkoerper-Gallium-Szintigramme angefertigt, um den Nutzen der Gallium-Szintigraphie zur Erfassung von extrapulmonalen Tuberkuloseherden (TB) zu erfassen. Methoden: 37 Patienten mit extrapulmonaler TB wurden eingeschlossen. 4 Patienten hatten 2 Laesionen. Insgesamt wurden 41 Laesionen identifiziert, hierunter 19 TB-Arthritis, 8 spinale TB, 5 TB-Meningitis, 3 TB-Lymphadenopathie, 2 TB-Perikarditis, 1 TB-Peritonitis, 1 intestinale TB, 1 Haut-TB und eine Nieren-TB. Ergebnisse: Von den 41 extrapulmonalen TB-Herden erfasste die Gallium-Szintigraphie 32 Herde mit einer Sensitivitaet von 78%. Alle Patienten mit TB-Meningitis zeigten einen negativen Gallium-Scan. Wenn die 5 Faelle mit TB-Meningitis ausgeschlossen wurden, stieg die Sensitivititaet der Gallium-Szintigraphie auf 88,9% (32/36). Schlussfolgerung: Die Daten zeigen, dass die Gallium-Szintigraphie eine einfache und nuetzliche Methode zur Erfassung extrapulmonaler TB-Herde ist

  5. Strategic Review of Arsenide, Phosphide and Nitride MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dutta


    Full Text Available Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor used as an amplifier and switch uses Si primarily as a channel material for its very stable oxide SiO2. In-spite of many advantages there are some restrictions for Si MOS, so the world is approaching towards compound semiconductor for higher frequency and current. The development of compound semiconductor metal oxide semiconductor is also facing critical problems due to the lack of availability of proper gate oxide material. Research is being conducted on arsenide and phosphide metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. Nitride channel MOS are in focus due to their high band gap, high current and high temperature uses.

  6. Indium gallium nitride multijunction solar cell simulation using silvaco atlas


    Garcia, Baldomero


    This thesis investigates the potential use of wurtzite Indium Gallium Nitride as photovoltaic material. Silvaco Atlas was used to simulate a quad-junction solar cell. Each of the junctions was made up of Indium Gallium Nitride. The band gap of each junction was dependent on the composition percentage of Indium Nitride and Gallium Nitride within Indium Gallium Nitride. The findings of this research show that Indium Gallium Nitride is a promising semiconductor for solar cell use. United...

  7. Bismuth incorporation into gallium phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Puru [Virginia Commonwealth Univ. (United States); Kandalam, Anil K. [West Chester Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States); Christian, Theresa M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States); Beaton, Daniel A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States); Mascarenhas, Angelo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States); Alberi, Kirstin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States)


    Gallium phosphide bismide (GaP1-xBix) epilayers with bismuth fractions from 0.9% to 3.2%, as calculated from lattice parameter measurements, were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to directly measure bismuth incorporation. The total bismuth fractions found by RBS were higher than expected from the lattice parameter calculations. Furthermore, in one analyzed sample grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 300 degrees C, 55% of incorporated bismuth was found to occupy interstitial sites. We discuss implications of this high interstitial incorporation fraction and its possible relationship to x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements of GaP0.99Bi0.01.

  8. Arsenic (III, V), indium (III), and gallium (III) toxicity to zebrafish embryos using a high-throughput multi-endpoint in vivo developmental and behavioral assay. (United States)

    Olivares, Christopher I; Field, Jim A; Simonich, Michael; Tanguay, Robert L; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes


    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other III/V materials are finding increasing application in microelectronic components. The rising demand for III/V-based products is leading to increasing generation of effluents containing ionic species of gallium, indium, and arsenic. The ecotoxicological hazard potential of these streams is unknown. While the toxicology of arsenic is comprehensive, much less is known about the effects of In(III) and Ga(III). The embryonic zebrafish was evaluated for mortality, developmental abnormalities, and photomotor response (PMR) behavior changes associated with exposure to As(III), As(V), Ga(III), and In(III). The As(III) lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for mortality was 500 μM at 24 and 120 h post fertilization (hpf). As(V) exposure was associated with significant mortality at 63 μM. The Ga(III)-citrate LOEL was 113 μM at 24 and 120 hpf. There was no association of significant mortality over the tested range of In(III)-citrate (56-900 μM) or sodium citrate (213-3400 μM) exposures. Only As(V) resulted in significant developmental abnormalities with LOEL of 500 μM. Removal of the chorion prior to As(III) and As(V) exposure was associated with increased incidence of mortality and developmental abnormality suggesting that the chorion may normally attenuate mass uptake of these metals by the embryo. Finally, As(III), As(V), and In(III) caused PMR hypoactivity (49-69% of control PMR) at 900-1000 μM. Overall, our results represent the first characterization of multidimensional toxicity effects of III/V ions in zebrafish embryos helping to fill a significant knowledge gap, particularly in Ga(III) and In(III) toxicology.

  9. Characterization and modeling of the intrinsic properties of 1.5-micrometer gallium indium nitrogen arsenic antimonide/gallium arsenide laser (United States)

    Goddard, Lynford


    Low cost access to optical communication networks is needed to satisfy the rapidly increasing demands of home-based high-speed Internet. Existing light sources in the low-loss 1.2--1.6mum telecommunication wavelength bandwidth are prohibitively expensive for large-scale deployment, e.g. incorporation in individual personal computers. Recently, we have extended the lasing wavelength of room-temperature CW GaInNAs(Sb) lasers grown monolithically on GaAs by MBE up to 1.52mum in an effort to replace the traditional, more expensive, InP-based devices. Besides lower cost wafers, GaInNAs(Sb) opto-electronic devices have fundamental material advantages over InP-based devices: a larger conduction band offset which reduces temperature sensitivity and enhances differential gain, a lattice match to a material with a large refractive index contrast, i.e. AlAs, which decreases the necessary number of mirror pairs in DBRs for VCSELs, and native oxide apertures for current confinement. High performance GaInNAs(Sb) edge-emitting lasers, VCSELs, and DFB lasers have been demonstrated throughout the entire telecommunication band. In this work, we analyze the intrinsic properties of the GaInNAsSb material system, e.g. recombination, gain, band structure and renormalization, and efficiency. Theoretical modeling is performed to calculate a map of the bandgap and effective masses for various material compositions. We also present device performance results, such as: room temperature CW threshold densities below 450A/cm2, quantum efficiencies above 50%, and over 425mW of total power from a SQW laser when mounted epi-up and minimally packaged. These results are generally 2--4x better than previous world records for GaAs based devices at 1.5mum. The high CW power and low threshold exhibited by these SQW lasers near 1.5mum make feasible many novel applications, such as broadband Raman fiber amplifiers and uncooled WDM at the chip scale. Device reliability of almost 500 hours at 200mW CW output power has also been demonstrated. Comparative experiments using innovative characterization techniques, such as: the multiple section absorption/gain method to explore the band structure, as well as the Z-parameter to analyze the dominant recombination processes, have identified the physical mechanisms responsible for improved performance. Also, by measuring the temperature dependence of relevant laser parameters, we have been able to simulate device operation while varying temperature and device geometry.

  10. Lattice parameters guide superconductivity in iron-arsenides (United States)

    Konzen, Lance M. N.; Sefat, Athena S.


    The discovery of superconducting materials has led to their use in technological marvels such as magnetic-field sensors in MRI machines, powerful research magnets, short transmission cables, and high-speed trains. Despite such applications, the uses of superconductors are not widespread because they function much below room-temperature, hence the costly cooling. Since the discovery of Cu- and Fe-based high-temperature superconductors (HTS), much intense effort has tried to explain and understand the superconducting phenomenon. While no exact explanations are given, several trends are reported in relation to the materials basis in magnetism and spin excitations. In fact, most HTS have antiferromagnetic undoped ‘parent’ materials that undergo a superconducting transition upon small chemical substitutions in them. As it is currently unclear which ‘dopants’ can favor superconductivity, this manuscript investigates crystal structure changes upon chemical substitutions, to find clues in lattice parameters for the superconducting occurrence. We review the chemical substitution effects on the crystal lattice of iron-arsenide-based crystals (2008 to present). We note that (a) HTS compounds have nearly tetragonal structures with a-lattice parameter close to 4 Å, and (b) superconductivity can depend strongly on the c-lattice parameter changes with chemical substitution. For example, a decrease in c-lattice parameter is required to induce ‘in-plane’ superconductivity. The review of lattice parameter trends in iron-arsenides presented here should guide synthesis of new materials and provoke theoretical input, giving clues for HTS.

  11. Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy of Gallium in Bladder Tissue following Gallium Maltolate Administration during Urinary Tract Infection


    Ball, Katherine R.; Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L.; Blyth, Robert I. R.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M.; Thompson, Julie


    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived ...

  12. Optical Bistable Arrays: Prospects for Ultimate Performances, (United States)


  13. The surface tension of liquid gallium (United States)

    Hardy, S. C.


    The surface tension of liquid gallium has been measured using the sessile drop technique in an Auger spectrometer. The experimental method is described. The surface tension in mJ/sq m is found to decrease linearly with increasing temperature and may be represented as 708-0.66(T-29.8), where T is the temperature in centigrade. This result is of interest because gallium has been suggested as a model fluid for Marangoni flow experiments. In addition, the surface tension is of technological significance in the processing of compound semiconductors involving gallium.

  14. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Melt-Grown Bulk Indium Gallium Arsenide and Indium Arsenic Phosphide Alloys (United States)


    constant match and mismatch effects on the quality of crystal. Bulk crystal growth typically uses the Czochralski Method (melt). In this method , a...deviation and Michelson Fabry-Perot interferometry methods . The measured results of refractive indices, transport properties, bandgap energies, and...exhibit some random compositional fluctuations across the sample. A practical method of extracting bandgap energies directly from the FTIR

  15. Technology characteristics and concerns arising in the design and fabrication of an entire signal processor using gallium arsenide integrated circuits (United States)

    Naused, Barbara A.; Samson, Mark L.; Schwab, Daniel J.; Gilbert, Barry K.

    Various GaAs transistor and gate technologies that have been developed since 1980 are analyzed. The characteristics of GaAs logic gates and ICs and the buffered FET logic, Shottky diode FET logic, direct coupled FET logic, and heterojunction integrated injection logic used to implement GaAs gate arrays of LSI complexity are described. The use of digital GaAs in a complex target signal processor, the Advanced Onboard Signal Processor (AOSP), is studied. Data from the testing of GaAs components for the AOSP at the wafer probe, package, and assembled circuit board levels are examined.

  16. Development of a unique laboratory standard indium gallium arsenide detector for the 500 to 1700 micron spectral region, phase 2 (United States)

    Ban, Vladimir S.; Olsen, Gregory H.


    In the course of this work, 5 mm diameter InGaAs pin detectors were produced which met or exceeded all of the goals of the program. The best results achieved were: shunt resistance of over 300 K ohms; rise time of less than 300 ns; contact resistance of less than 20 ohms; quantum efficiency of over 50 percent in the 0.5 to 1.7 micron range; and devices were maintained and operated at 125 C without deterioration for over 100 hours. In order to achieve the goals of this program, several major technological advances were realized, among them: successful design, construction and operation of a hydride VPE reactor capable of growing epitaxial layers on 2 inch diameter InP substrates with a capacity of over 8 wafers per day; wafer processing was upgraded to handle 2 inch wafers; a double layer Si3N4/SiO2 antireflection coating which enhances response over the 0.5 to 1.7 micron range was developed; a method for anisotropic, precisely controlled CH4/H2 plasma etching for enhancement of response at short wavelengths was developed; and electronic and optical testing methods were developed to allow full characterization of detectors with size and spectral response characteristics. On the basis of the work and results achieved in this program, it is concluded that large size, high shunt resistance, high quantum efficiency InGaAs pin detectors are not only feasible but also manufacturable on industrial scale. This device spans a significant portion of visible and near infrared spectral range and it will allow a single detector to be used for the 0.5 to 1.7 micron spectral region, rather than the presently used silicon (for 0.5 to 1.1 microns) and germanium (0.8 to 1.7 microns).

  17. Thin films of gallium arsenide on low-cost substrates. Final report, July 5, 1976--July 2, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, R.P.; Dapkus, P.D.; Dupuis, R.D.; Campbell, A.G.; Johnson, R.E.; Manasevit, H.M.; Moudy, L.A.; Yang, J.J.; Yingling, R.D.


    The metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) technique has been applied to the growth of thin films of GaAs and GaAlAs on inexpensive polycrystalline or amorphous substrate materials (glasses, glass-ceramics, alumina ceramics, and metals) for use in fabrication of large-area low-cost photovoltaic device structures. Trimethylgallium (TMG), arsine (AsH/sub 3/), and trimethylaluminum (TMAl) are mixed in appropriate concentrations at room temperature in the gaseous state and pyrolyzed at the substrate, which is heated in a vertical reactor chamber to temperature in the range 600 to 800/sup 0/C, to produce the desired film composition and properties. Of ten candidate low-cost substrates initially identified for investigation, Corning Code 0317 glass and composites of CVD Ge/glass and sputtered Mo/glass were found to be the most satisfactory, the latter eventually serving as a reference substrate against which to compare the performance of other substrates. Single-crystal window-type solar cells, polycrystalline Schottky-barrier cells, and deposited-junction polycrystalline cells have been grown, fabricated, and characterized. Epitaxial GaAlAs/GaAs p-n junction cells with thin (approx. 500A) Ga/sub 0/ /sub 2/Al/sub 0/ /sub 8/As windows and GaAs:Zn - GaAs:Se junctions were made with AMO efficiencies as high as 12.8 percent with no AR coating. Schottky barrier cells with efficiencies of 2.25 percent AMO (no AR coating) have been made on n/n polycrystalline GaAs structures on Mo/glass composite substrates, with short-circuit current densities up to 12.5 mA/cm/sup 2/. Also, results of analyses of material and processing costs associated with fabrication of thin-film GaAlAs/GaAs solar cells by the MO-CVD process are discussed.

  18. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Angelo


    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  19. Transient Velocity Assessment in Gallium Arsenide, and of Other GaAs Characteristics Related to Device Functions (United States)


    RW-809 ^ C^> Scientific Program Officer: Mr . Sven A. Roosild, DARPA/DSO 1400 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22209 Contractor: Oregon Graduate...of acoustic phonons, non-parabolicity of the conduction band minimum and intervaliey scattering through the admixture of p-type states. He concluded...llarrlta 1985 LEC (HP) 50 5 Goutereaux et_ al. lUrrltt 1985 LEC (HP) 50 5 Ilakemore et_ al. MOCSEMHAD 1985 IXC (HP) 50 0.5 Dobrllla et al. MRS /5F0 1985

  20. Electrical detection of the biological interaction of a charged peptide via gallium arsenide junction-field-effect transistors (United States)

    Lee, Kangho; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Janes, David B.; Wampler, Heeyeon P.; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Ivanisevic, Albena


    GaAs junction-field-effect transistors (JFETs) are utilized to achieve label-free detection of biological interaction between a probe transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and the target trans-activation-responsive (TAR) RNA. The TAT peptide is a short sequence derived from the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 TAT protein. The GaAs JFETs are modified with a mixed adlayer of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and TAT peptide, with the ODT passivating the GaAs surface from polar ions in physiological solutions and the TAT peptide providing selective binding sites for TAR RNA. The devices modified with the mixed adlayer exhibit a negative pinch-off voltage (VP) shift, which is attributed to the fixed positive charges from the arginine-rich regions in the TAT peptide. Immersing the modified devices into a TAR RNA solution results in a large positive VP shift (>1 V) and a steeper subthreshold slope (˜80 mV/decade), whereas "dummy" RNA induced a small positive VP shift (˜0.3 V) without a significant change in subthreshold slopes (˜330 mV/decade). The observed modulation of device characteristics is analyzed with analytical modeling and two-dimensional numerical device simulations to investigate the electronic interactions between the GaAs JFETs and biological molecules.

  1. Electrical detection of the biological interaction of a charged peptide via gallium arsenide junction-field-effect transistors


    Lee, Kangho; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Janes, David B.; Wampler, Heeyeon P; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Ivanisevic, Albena


    GaAs junction-field-effect transistors (JFETs) are utilized to achieve label-free detection of biological interaction between a probe transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and the target trans-activation-responsive (TAR) RNA. The TAT peptide is a short sequence derived from the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 TAT protein. The GaAs JFETs are modified with a mixed adlayer of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and TAT peptide, with the ODT passivating the GaAs surface from polar ions ...

  2. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Angelo


    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is sued to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  3. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) (001) after sublimation of arsenic (As) thin-film cap, by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, Mark H.; Lyubinetsky, Andre; Baer, Don R.


    Survey and high energy resolution spectra are reported for MBE grown GaAs (001) that had been capped with As. The As cap was removed by heating in situ prior to analysis. The current data expands upon the spectral regions previously reported in Surface Science Spectra. High energy resolution spectral features reported include: 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, and L3M45M45 peaks for As; 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, and L3M45M45 peaks for Ga; and the valance band region.

  4. Radiochemical separation of gallium by amalgam exchange (United States)

    Ruch, R.R.


    An amalgam-exchange separation of radioactive gallium from a number of interfering radioisotopes has been developed. A dilute (ca. 0.3%) gallium amalgam is agitated with a slightly acidic solution of 72Ga3+ containing concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and either perchlorate or chloride. The amalgam is then removed and the radioactive gallium stripped by agitation with dilute nitric acid. The combined exchange yield of the perchlorate-thiocyanate system is 90??4% and that of the chloride-thiocyanate system is 75??4%. Decontamination yields of most of the 11 interfering isotopes studied were less than 0.02%. The technique is applicable for use with activation analysis for the determination of trace amounts of gallium. ?? 1969.

  5. Materials synthesis: Two-dimensional gallium nitride (United States)

    Koratkar, Nikhil A.


    Graphene is used as a capping sheet to synthesize 2D gallium nitride by means of migration-enhanced encapsulation growth. This technique may allow the stabilization of 2D materials that are not amenable to synthesis by traditional methods.

  6. First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs : numerical supplement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew


    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz, 'First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in Aluminum Arsenide, AlAs', Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 1370 (2011; SAND2011-2436C), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  7. Nanoscale photonics of structural transformations in gallium (United States)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Fedotov, V. A.; MacDonald, K. F.; Stevens, G. C.; Pochon, Sebastien C.; Woodford, M.


    We have found recently that Gallium, confined at an interface with silica, responds dramatically to low power optical excitation when held at temperatures close to its melting point (29.8oC). Intensities of just a few kW/cm2 can reversibly modulate the intensity (by up to 40%) and phase (by as much as several degrees) of reflected light as the result of a light-induced structural transition occurring in a layer of gallium of only a few nm thick. Here, we report that this concept - of achieving a nonlinearity via a light-induced transformation in a confined solid at a temperature close to a phase transition temperature - can also be applied to gallium nanoparticles. We present the transient all-optical switching characteristics of gallium nanoparticle films comprising particles, typically 80 nm in diameter, which were formed directly on the ends of optical fibers using a new light-assisted self-assembly technique. We also report, for the first time, that this light-induced structural transition in gallium confined at an interface with silica underlies a new mechanism for photoconductivity. In our opinion, the exploitation of the light-induced phase transition in gallium may be a means of enabling the development of nanoscale photonic devices.

  8. Methods for forming group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials (United States)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)


    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  9. Gallium-67 uptake in cutaneous lesions of mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimi, L.; Chen, D.C.; Ansari, A.N.; Siegel, M.E.


    The literature on gallium imaging in mycosis fungoides is limited and conflicting. A case of mycosis fungoides with increased uptake of Ga-67 in clinically noninfected skin lesions is reported. The literature regarding mycosis fungoides and gallium imaging is reviewed.

  10. Role of gallium and bone scintigraphy in disseminated coccidioidomycosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.J.; Braunstein, P.; Pais, M.J.


    The osseous lesions of disseminated coccidioidomycosis may be detected by bone but not by gallium scintigraphy or vice versa. This case emphasizes the need for performing both bone and gallium scans to avoid missing potentially serious bone lesions.

  11. Electron emitting device and method of making the same (United States)

    Olsen, Gregory Hammond; Martinelli, Ramon Ubaldo; Ettenberg, Michael


    A substrate of single crystalline gallium arsenide has on a surface thereof a layer of single crystalline indium gallium phosphide. A layer of single crystalline gallium arsenide is on the indium gallium phosphide layer and a work function reducing material is on the gallium arsenide layer. The substrate has an opening therethrough exposing a portion of the indium gallium phosphide layer.

  12. Design of Indium Arsenide nanowire sensors for pH and biological sensing and low temperature transport through p-doped Indium Arsenide nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Upadhyay, Shivendra

    remains the primary material of choice. This research is about investigating Indium Arsenide nanowires as alternative platform for sensing charged species - chemical and biological, in solution. Starting with nanowires grown via molecular beam epitaxy in an ultra-high vacuum chamber, we discuss...

  13. Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers. (United States)

    Johnson, Justin C; Choi, Heon-Jin; Knutsen, Kelly P; Schaller, Richard D; Yang, Peidong; Saykally, Richard J


    There is much current interest in the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires, because the cylindrical geometry and strong two-dimensional confinement of electrons, holes and photons make them particularly attractive as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronic devices, including lasersand nonlinear optical frequency converters. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a wide-bandgap semiconductor of much practical interest, because it is widely used in electrically pumped ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diodes, lasers and photodetectors. Recent progress in microfabrication techniques has allowed stimulated emission to be observed from a variety of GaN microstructures and films. Here we report the observation of ultraviolet-blue laser action in single monocrystalline GaN nanowires, using both near-field and far-field optical microscopy to characterize the waveguide mode structure and spectral properties of the radiation at room temperature. The optical microscope images reveal radiation patterns that correlate with axial Fabry-Perot modes (Q approximately 10(3)) observed in the laser spectrum, which result from the cylindrical cavity geometry of the monocrystalline nanowires. A redshift that is strongly dependent on pump power (45 meV microJ x cm(-2)) supports the idea that the electron-hole plasma mechanism is primarily responsible for the gain at room temperature. This study is a considerable advance towards the realization of electron-injected, nanowire-based ultraviolet-blue coherent light sources.

  14. Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control. (United States)

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S


    A ternary, ionically conducting, deep eutectic solvent based on acetamide, urea and gallium nitrate is reported for the electrodeposition of gallium nitride/gallium indium nitride under ambient conditions; blue and white light emitting photoluminescent deposits are obtained under potential control.

  15. Structural, elastic, electronic properties and stability trends of 1111-like silicide arsenides and germanide arsenides MCuXAs (M = Ti, Zr, Hf; X = Si, Ge) from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, V.V.; Shein, I.R. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ivanovskii, A.L., E-mail: [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silicide arsenides and germanide arsenides of Ti, Zr, Hf are probed from first principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, elastic, electronic properties and stability trends are evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bulk moduli of HfCuSiAs and HfCuGeAs are the largest among all 1111-like phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical bonding is analyzed. - Abstract: The tetragonal (s.g. I4/nmm; no. 129) silicide arsenide ZrCuSiAs is well known as a structural type of the broad family of so-called 1111-like quaternary phases which includes now more than 150 representatives. These materials demonstrate a rich variety of outstanding physical properties (from p-type transparent semiconductors to high-temperature Fe-based superconductors) and attracted a great interest as promising candidates for a broad range of applications. At the same time, the data about the electronic and elastic properties of the ZrCuSiAs phase itself, as well as of related silicide arsenides and germanide arsenides are still very limited. Here for a series of six isostructural and isoelectronic 1111-like phases which includes both synthesized (ZrCuSiAs, HfCuSiAs, ZrCuGeAs, and HfCuGeAs) and hypothetical (TiCuSiAs and TiCuGeAs) materials, systematical studies of their structural, elastic, electronic properties and stability trends are performed by means of first-principles calculations.

  16. Gallium-67 scintigraphy in patients with hemochromatosis treated by deferoxamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Ono, Seiji; Watanabe, Katsushi


    Gallium scintigraphy was performed as an aid for determining the presence or absence of malignant neoplasm in two patients with hemochromatosis treated by deferoxamine. However, gallium scan images could not be obtained. So gallium scintigraphy was performed once more to investigate the cause of low activity. Both patients had heavy urinary excretion of gallium in the first 24 hrs after the injection, and activity was very low on the day of examination. This phenomenon may be attributed to the effect of deferoxamine which is highly bound to the gallium.

  17. Chlorine and gallium solar neutrino experiments (United States)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Cleveland, B. T.; Davis, R., Jr.; Rowley, J. K.


    The authors reevaluate the expected capture rates and their uncertainties for the chlorine and gallium solar neutrino experiments using improved laboratory data and new theoretical calculations. They also derive a minimum value for the flux of solar neutrinos that is expected provided only (1) that the sun is currently producing energy by fusing light nuclei at the rate that it is emitting energy in the form of photons from its surface and (2) that nothing happens to solar neutrinos on their way to earth. These results are used - together with Monte Carlo simulations - to determine how much gallium is required for a solar neutrino experiment.

  18. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of gallium in bladder tissue following gallium maltolate administration during urinary tract infection. (United States)

    Ball, Katherine R; Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L; Blyth, Robert I R; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M; Thompson, Julie


    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli.

  19. Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy of Gallium in Bladder Tissue following Gallium Maltolate Administration during Urinary Tract Infection (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L.; Blyth, Robert I. R.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M.; Thompson, Julie


    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23877680

  20. Synergistic Extraction of Gallium for Sulfate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGTong; HUANGLijuan; 等


    A novel extractant mixture, di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate (DEHPA) plus HX, was propose and tested for recovering gallium from sulfate solution.It was found that the extraction capacity of DEPHA for gallium from sulfate solution could be enhanced significantly due to the synergistic effect of acidix extractant HX. Gallium extraction is negligible below pH 0 and highly sensitive to pH of aqueous phase in the range from 0 to 1, and satisfactory extraction can be gained at pH>1. More than 96% Ga extraction was obtained using 15% DEHPA plus 2% HX. Although Fe(Ⅲ) was found to be extracted preferentially to Ga (Ⅲ), effective extraction of Ga (Ⅲ) was possible by reducing ferric to the ferrous state prior to extraction. A loaded organic phase containing 0.48g·L-1 Ga could be produced from solution of 0.12g·L-1 Ga at A/O ratio of 4:1 via three mixer-settler operation stages. Gallium was stripped quantitatively from the loaded organic phase with 1.5mol·L-1 of sulfuric acid.

  1. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium (United States)

    Pankey, T.


    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  2. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials. (United States)

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng


    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage.

  3. Gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Levy, P.S.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.


    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease, 45 patients with various glomerulopathies, excluding lupus nephritis and renal vasculitis, were studied. Persistent renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive scintigram, was graded as + (less than), ++ (equal to), and +++ (greater than) the hepatic uptake. Positive scintigrams were seen in ten of 16 cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, six of 11 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis, and one case of minimal change, and one of two cases of membranous nephropathy; also in three of six cases of sickle glomerulopathy, two cases of diabetic neuropathy, one of two cases of amyloidosis, and one case of mild chronic allograft rejection. The 25 patients with positive scans were younger than the 20 with negative scans (31 +/- 12 v 42 +/- 17 years; P less than 0.01), and exhibited greater proteinuria (8.19 +/- 7.96 v 2.9 +/- 2.3 S/d; P less than 0.01) and lower serum creatinine values (2 +/- 2 v 4.1 +/- 2.8 mg/dL; P less than 0.01). The amount of proteinuria correlated directly with the intensity grade of the gallium image (P less than 0.02), but there was no correlation between the biopsy diagnosis and the outcome of the gallium scan. It was concluded that gallium scintigraphy is not useful in the differential diagnosis of the glomerular diseases under discussion. Younger patients with good renal function and heavy proteinuria are likely to have a positive renal scintigram regardless of the underlying glomerulopathy.

  4. High-field phase-diagram of Fe arsenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Y.J.; Jaroszynski, J.; Yamamoto, A.; Gurevich, A.; Riggs, S.C.; Boebinger, G.S.; Larbalestier, D. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee-FL 32310 (United States); Wen, H.H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhigadlo, N.D.; Katrych, S.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Liu, R.H.; Chen, H.; Chen, X.H. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science a Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Balicas, L., E-mail: balicas@magnet.fsu.ed [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee-FL 32310 (United States)


    Here, we report an overview of the phase-diagram of single-layered and double-layered Fe arsenide superconductors at high magnetic fields. Our systematic magneto-transport measurements of polycrystalline SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} at different doping levels confirm the upward curvature of the upper critical magnetic field H{sub c2}(T) as a function of temperature T defining the phase boundary between the superconducting and metallic states for crystallites with the ab planes oriented nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We further show from measurements on single-crystals that this feature, which was interpreted in terms of the existence of two superconducting gaps, is ubiquitous among both series of single- and double-layered compounds. In all compounds explored by us the zero temperature upper critical field H{sub c2}(0), estimated either through the Ginzburg-Landau or the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg single gap theories, strongly surpasses the weak-coupling Pauli paramagnetic limiting field. This clearly indicates the strong-coupling nature of the superconducting state and the importance of magnetic correlations for these materials. Our measurements indicate that the superconducting anisotropy, as estimated through the ratio of the effective masses gamma = (m{sub c}/m{sub ab}){sup 1/2} for carriers moving along the c-axis and the ab-planes, respectively, is relatively modest as compared to the high-T{sub c} cuprates, but it is temperature, field and even doping dependent. Finally, our preliminary estimations of the irreversibility field H{sub m}(T), separating the vortex-solid from the vortex-liquid phase in the single-layered compounds, indicates that it is well described by the melting of a vortex lattice in a moderately anisotropic uniaxial superconductor.

  5. Applying bacterial metallophores to mobilize gallium (United States)

    Schwabe, Ringo; Obst, Britta; Mehnert, Marika; Tischler, Dirk; Wiche, Oliver


    Metallophores are produced by many organisms such as bacteria, fungi and plants in order to mobilize metals, especially iron (Greek: "siderophore" = iron carrier), to overcome limitations or stress. Respectively, it is well known these compounds loaded with relevant metal ions are used not only by the producing organism but also by others. Thus metallophores as metal carriers are relevant for many processes at various habitats (e.g. metal acquisition, pathogenic factors, antimicrobial activity, sensing). However, metallophores do also mobilize metals of industrial interest which have no critical role in the living world. Here we focused on gallium as industrial relevant metal and compared it to iron which is important for all organisms. The herein described mobilization of valuable metals such as gallium from soils provides first hints towards alternative strategies, such as phytomining, sensor development, or solvent extraction based on metallophores. Two produced metallophore preparations of soil bacteria (Gordonia rubripertincta CWB2 and Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222) and the commercially available metallophore desferrioxamine B were analyzed for iron binding activity by means of a standard chromazurol S assay and equal iron binding activities were employed to treat a soil sample. The pH was set constant to 6 in order to avoid pH related effects. Therefore, the metallophore was prepared in a special medium and control of water and medium were also applied onto the soil. The soil was washed and incubated with the mentioned preparations. The mobilization of iron and gallium was determined prior and after the treatment by means of ICP-MS. Water showed no effect and medium only a little on metal mobilization which is related to its ionic strength. All metallophores mobilized iron at a similar strength but showed significant differences in case of gallium. Here the metallophore mix produced by strain CWB2 showed best results and allowed to mobilize gallium 3-times

  6. Myopericarditis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosed by gallium scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cregler, L.L.; Sosa, I.; Ducey, S.; Abbey, L. (Bronx VA Medical Center, NY (USA))


    Myocarditis is among the cardiac complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and, yet, is often not discovered until autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy has been employed in diagnosing this entity, but few data are available about its diagnostic accuracy and value. Here, the authors report two cases of myopericarditis as diagnosed by gallium scan.

  7. Two octanuclear gallium metallamacrocycles of topologically different connectivities. (United States)

    Park, Mira; John, Rohith P; Moon, Dohyun; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Lah, Myoung Soo


    Two topologically different metallamacrocycles--S8 symmetric octanuclear gallium(III) metalladiazamacrocycle and pseudo-D4 symmetric octanuclear gallium(III) metalladiazamacrocycle--could be prepared using two similar heteroditopic bridging ligands having asymmetrical tridentate-bidentate binding residues.

  8. Benchmarking of Evaluated Neutron Data for Gallium Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Rui; NIE; Yang-bo; RUAN; Xi-chao; BAO; Jie; REN; Jie; HUANG; Han-xiong; LI; Xia; ZHANG; Kai; ZHOU; Zu-ying


    Gallium(Ga)is a kind of target material and an important fission product.It has the characteristics of low melting point and high boiling point.The integral experimental study on Gallium data is an important issue.It has an important application for design of reactors and ADS(Accelerator Driven System)

  9. Magnetism and superconductivity in praseodymium-based filled skutterudite arsenides (United States)

    Sayles, Todd Allen

    This work will cover studies on single crystals of PrRu4As 12 and PrFe4As12. It will begin by introducing the topic and the types of behavior and effects that can be expected to be found in materials. After this a brief discussion of sample growth and characterization will be given. Finally, work on the individual materials will be presented. It is found the various phases present in the antimonide Pr-based filled skutterudites continues with the arsenides as well. The first to be measured, PrOs4As12, proved just how interesting this topic would be. It displays two low temperature ordered states, the ground state of which is antiferromagnetically ordered. PrOs4As12 is also found to display single ion Kondo behavior from electrical resistivity and specific heat measurements. The electronic specific heat coefficient at zero temperature is found to decrease from a incredible value of ≈ 1 J/mol-K 2 in zero field to the still high values of several hundred mJ/mol-K 2 as the field is increased to 16 T. When the transition metal Os is replaced with Ru, PrRu4As 12, a BCS superconductor is discovered. Zero resistance is found below Tc = 2.4 K, and a Meissner state is found in magnetic susceptibility measurements at Tc = 2.4 K. In addition to the obvious phase transition at Tc = 2.4 K in specific heat, PrRu4As12 shows very conventional BCS properties in the specific heat measurements: DeltaC( Tc)/gammaTc = 1.53 and (perhaps more convincing) Ce has an exponential temperature dependence. For temperatures above Tc, a normal state electronic specific heat coefficient of 70 mJ/mol-K2 was found and, furthermore, crystalline electric field effects were present and studied. A Gamma1 singlet ground state was deduced, followed by a Gamma5 triplet first excited state. The final member of the family, PrFe4As12, was found to be a ferromagnet, with a possible low temperature spin reorientation. Magnetic susceptibility measurements find Curie-Weiss behavior above 80 K, and an onset to an

  10. Nuclear microprobe imaging of gallium nitrate in cancer cells (United States)

    Ortega, Richard; Suda, Asami; Devès, Guillaume


    Gallium nitrate is used in clinical oncology as treatment for hypercalcemia and for cancer that has spread to the bone. Its mechanism of antitumor action has not been fully elucidated yet. The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of anticancer drugs is of particular interest in oncology to better understand their cellular pharmacology. In addition, most metal-based anticancer compounds interact with endogenous trace elements in cells, altering their metabolism. The purpose of this experiment was to examine, by use of nuclear microprobe analysis, the cellular distribution of gallium and endogenous trace elements within cancer cells exposed to gallium nitrate. In a majority of cellular analyses, gallium was found homogeneously distributed in cells following the distribution of carbon. In a smaller number of cells, however, gallium appeared concentrated together with P, Ca and Fe within round structures of about 2-5 μm diameter located in the perinuclear region. These intracellular structures are typical of lysosomial material.

  11. Gallium-containing hydroxyapatite for potential use in orthopedics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, P., E-mail: [Department of Clinical Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil); Teixeira, A.R.; Malzac, A. [Department of Clinical Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil); Coelho, M. de B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - EMBRAPA (Brazil)


    A novel material that may be recommended for grafts and implants stimulating bone growth has been obtained by introducing gallium ions (up to 11.0 mass%) into crystalline lattice of hydroxyapatite. The doping was carried out using gallium nitrate and sodium gallate solutions. In both cases, lattice parameters of gallium-doped hydroxyapatite are identical to those of pure synthetic hydroxyapatite. Gallium does not replace calcium as a result of heterovalent substitution and consequently produces no distortions in the framework of hydroxyapatite matrix. It remains strongly fixed in the form of solid solution of intercalation. According to scanning electron microscopy images gallium insertion does not cause any morphological alterations in hydroxyapatite structure and the product developed meets physico-chemical criteria for biomaterial to be employed in orthopedic practice and local handling of traumatic injuries. Its future usage opens the opportunity to enhance osteosynthesis and calcium retention in loco.

  12. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hee Kim


    Full Text Available Gallium nitride (GaN nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO33∙xH2O was used as a raw material and NH3 gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C3H6N6 powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga2O3. Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C3H6N6. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  13. Contribution the scintigraphy with gallium 67 in the sarcoidosis; Apport de la scintigraphie au gallium 67 dans la sarcoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbez, I.; Sellem, A.; Rejeb, O.; Elkadri, N.; Hammami, H. [Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital militaire, Tunis, (Tunisia)


    The objective is to show the interest of the scintigraphy with citrates of gallium 67 in the diagnosis and follow up of sarcoidosis injuries. The conclusions are that the scintigraphy with gallium 67 constitutes an imaging technique of good performance, non invasive in the diagnosis, le injuries evaluation and the sarcoidosis follow-up. (N.C.)

  14. Patterned gallium surfaces as molecular mirrors. (United States)

    Bossi, Alessandra; Rivetti, Claudio; Mangiarotti, Laura; Whitcombe, Michael J; Turner, Anthony P F; Piletsky, Sergey A


    An entirely new means of printing molecular information on a planar film, involving casting nanoscale impressions of the template protein molecules in molten gallium, is presented here for the first time. The metallic imprints not only replicate the shape and size of the proteins used as template. They also show specific binding for the template species. Such a simple approach to the creation of antibody-like properties in metallic mirrors can lead to applications in separations, microfluidic devices, and the development of new optical and electronic sensors, and will be of interest to chemists, materials scientists, analytical specialists, and electronic engineers.

  15. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.


    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  16. The effect of gallium nitrate on synoviocyte MMP activity. (United States)

    Panagakos, F S; Kumar, E; Venescar, C; Guidon, P


    Gallium, a group IIIa metal salt, has been demonstrated to be an effective immunosuppressive agent. Gallium has also been shown to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, produced by macrophage-like cells in vitro. To further characterize the effects of gallium on the inflammatory process, we examined the effects of gallium nitrate on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity utilizing the rabbit synoviocyte cell line HIG-82. HIG-82 cells were incubated with IL-1beta and TPA, with and without increasing concentrations of gallium nitrate. Conditioned medium was collected and assayed for MMP activity using a synthetic substrate and substrate gel zymography. IL-1beta and TPA alone induced MMP activity in HIG-82 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of IL-1beta and TPA stimulated MMP activity by gallium nitrate at increasing concentrations was observed. This study demonstrates that gallium nitrate can inhibit the activity of MMPs and may be useful as a modulator of inflammation in arthritis.

  17. Gallium vacancies in β-Ga2O3 crystals (United States)

    Kananen, B. E.; Halliburton, L. E.; Stevens, K. T.; Foundos, G. K.; Giles, N. C.


    The gallium vacancy, an intrinsic acceptor, is identified in β-Ga2O3 using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Spectra from doubly ionized ( VG a 2 - ) and singly ionized ( VG a - ) gallium vacancies are observed at room temperature, without photoexcitation, after an irradiation with high-energy neutrons. The VG a 2 - centers (with S = 1/2) have a slight angular variation due to a small anisotropy in the g matrix (principal values are 2.0034, 2.0097, and 2.0322). The VG a 2 - centers also exhibit a resolved hyperfine structure due to equal and nearly isotropic interactions with the 69,71Ga nuclei at two Ga sites (the hyperfine parameters are 1.28 and 1.63 mT for the 69Ga and 71Ga nuclei, respectively, when the field is along the a direction). Based on these g-matrix and hyperfine results, the model for the ground state of the doubly ionized vacancy ( VG a 2 - ) has a hole localized on one threefold-coordinated oxygen ion. The vacancy is located at one of the three neighboring gallium sites, and the remaining two gallium neighbors are responsible for the equal hyperfine interactions. The singly ionized ( VG a - ) gallium vacancies are also paramagnetic. In this latter acceptor, the two holes are localized on separate oxygen ions adjacent to one gallium vacancy. Their spins align parallel to give a triplet S = 1 EPR spectrum with resolved hyperfine structure from interactions with gallium neighbors.

  18. Growth and characterization of indium antimonide and gallium antimonide crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N K Udayashankar; H L Bhat


    Indium antimonide and gallium antimonide were synthesized from the respective component elements using an indigenously fabricated synthesis unit. Bulk crystals of indium antimonide and gallium antimonide were grown using both the vertical and horizontal Bridgman techniques. Effect of ampoule shapes and diameters on the crystallinity and homogeneity was studied. The grown crystals were characterized using X-ray analysis, EDAX, chemical etching, Hall effect and conductivity measurements. In the case of gallium antimonide, effect of dopants (Te and In) on transport and photoluminescence properties was investigated.

  19. Effect of oxidation on the Mechanical Properties of Liquid Gallium and Eutectic Gallium-Indium

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Qin; Guo, Qiti; Jaeger, Heinrich; Brown, Eric


    Liquid metals exhibit remarkable mechanical properties, in particular large surface tension and low viscosity. However, these properties are greatly affected by oxidation when exposed to air. We measure the viscosity, surface tension, and contact angle of gallium (Ga) and a eutectic gallium-indium alloy (eGaIn) while controlling such oxidation by surrounding the metal with an acid bath of variable concentration. Rheometry measurements reveal a yield stress directly attributable to an oxide skin that obscures the intrinsic behavior of the liquid metals. We demonstrate how the intrinsic viscosity can be obtained with precision through a scaling technique that collapses low- and high-Reynolds number data. Measuring surface tension with a pendant drop method, we show that the oxide skin generates a surface stress that mimics surface tension and develop a simple model to relate this to the yield stress obtained from rheometry. We find that yield stress, surface tension, and contact angle all transition from solid-...

  20. Recovery of gallium from coal fly ash by a dual reactive extraction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J. [University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology


    This paper describes the extraction of gallium from coal fly ash by leaching and extraction with commercial extractants Amerlite LA-2 and LIX-54N dissolved in kerosene. Leaching of gallium and other metals from the fly ash was carried out with 6 M hydrochloric acid. The leaching liquor is first contacted with Amerlite LA-2 which extracts the gallium and iron. The iron is then precipitated with sodium hydroxide, while gallium remains in solution. Gallium is extracted selectively from the base solution with LIX 54; the resulting stripped solution contains 83% of the gallium present in the leaching liquor.

  1. Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods. (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Chang; Li, Guan-Hua; Lin, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Ching-Wen; Wadekar, Paritosh; Chen, Quark Yung-Sung; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Julien, François Henri; Tu, Li-Wei


    Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studied. The results reveal that the 3.2-eV peak comes from the structural defect at the interface between the GaN nanorod and Si substrate. The surface state emission of the single GaN nanorod is stronger as the diameter of the GaN nanorod becomes smaller due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio.

  2. Thickness dependent thermal conductivity of gallium nitride (United States)

    Ziade, Elbara; Yang, Jia; Brummer, Gordie; Nothern, Denis; Moustakas, Theodore; Schmidt, Aaron J.


    As the size of gallium nitride (GaN) transistors is reduced in order to reach higher operating frequencies, heat dissipation becomes the critical bottleneck in device performance and longevity. Despite the importance of characterizing the physics governing the thermal transport in thin GaN films, the literature is far from conclusive. In this letter, we report measurements of thermal conductivity in a GaN film with thickness ranging from 15-1000 nm grown on 4H-SiC without a transition layer. Additionally, we measure the thermal conductivity in the GaN film when it is 1 μm-thick in the temperature range of 300 < T < 600 K and use a phonon transport model to explain the thermal conductivity in this film.

  3. Handling characteristics of gallium alloy for dental restoration. (United States)

    Mash, L K; Miller, B H; Nakajima, H; Collard, S M; Guo, I Y; Okabe, T


    The handling characteristics of a gallium alloy (Gallium Alloy GF) were compared to those of a spherical high-copper amalgam (Tytin). Ten dentists each restored four identical MO preparations in acrylic typodont teeth (no. 30), two with amalgam and two with gallium alloy. Each restoration was evaluated immediately following completion by the operator for six clinically relevant criteria. Each criterion was scored between 1 and 5, where 1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = fair, 4 = good, and 5 = very good. Three two-sided Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the median scores for significant differences (P < 0.05). The first test indicated no significant difference between scores for the first- and second-placed restorations, within criteria and within alloy type (n = 10). The second test indicated a significant difference between amalgam and gallium alloy, within criteria and within restoration sequence (n = 10), for each criterion except resistance to fracture during removal of the matrix band. The third test indicated a significant difference between amalgam and gallium alloy, within each criteria, combining scores for first- and second-placed restorations (n = 20). During simulated clinical placement, amalgam was rated significantly higher than gallium alloy in each handling characteristic evaluated.

  4. Gallium Nitride Schottky betavoltaic nuclear batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Min, E-mail: [Su zhou Institute of Nano-technology and Nano-bionics, CAS, Su zhou 215125 (China); Zhang Guoguang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Fu Kai; Yu Guohao [Su zhou Institute of Nano-technology and Nano-bionics, CAS, Su zhou 215125 (China); Su Dan; Hu Jifeng [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} Gallium Nitride nuclear batteries with Ni-63 are demonstrated for the first time. {yields} Open circuit voltage of 0.1 V and conversion efficiency of 0.32% have been obtained. {yields} The limited performance is due to thin effective energy deposition layer. {yields} The output power is expected to greatly increase with growing thick GaN films. -- Abstract: Gallium Nitride (GaN) Schottky betavoltaic nuclear batteries (GNBB) are demonstrated in our work for the first time. GaN films are grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and then GaN Schottky diodes are fabricated by normal micro-fabrication process. Nickel with mass number of 63 ({sup 63}Ni), which emits {beta} particles, is loaded on the GaN Schottky diodes to achieve GNBB. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) are carried out to investigate the crystal quality for the GaN films as grown. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics shows that the GaN Schottky diodes are not jet broken down at -200 V due to consummate fabrication processes, and the open circuit voltage of the GNBB is 0.1 V and the short circuit current density is 1.2 nA cm{sup -2}. The limited performance of the GNBB is due to thin effective energy deposition layer, which is only 206 nm to absorb very small partial energy of the {beta} particles because of the relatively high dislocation density and carrier concentration. However, the conversion efficiency of 0.32% and charge collection efficiency (CCE) of 29% for the GNBB have been obtained. Therefore, the output power of the GNBB are expected to greatly increase with growing high quality thick GaN films.

  5. Electronic properties and chemical bonding in quaternary arsenide oxides LaZnAsO and YZnAsO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, V.V.; Shein, I.R. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pervomaiskaya, 91, 620041, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ivanovskii, A.L., E-mail: [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pervomaiskaya, 91, 620041, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    First principles FLAPW-GGA band structure calculations are employed to obtain the structural, electronic properties and chemical bonding picture for two related phases, namely, quaternary arsenide oxides LaZnAsO and YZnAsO. These compounds are found to be direct-transition type semiconductors with the GGA gaps of about 0.65-1.30 eV. The peculiarities of chemical bonding in these phases are investigated and discussed in comparison with quaternary arsenide oxide LaFeAsO-a basic phase for the newly discovered 26-55 K superconductors.

  6. Synergic phototoxic effect of visible light or Gallium-Arsenide laser in the presence of different photo-sensitizers on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Ghanbari


    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the synergic phototoxic effect of visible light in combination with each of the photosensitizers on P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. However, the synergic phototoxic effect of laser exposure and hydrogen peroxide and curcumin as photosensitizers on F. nucleatum was not shown.

  7. Electronic Properties of III-V Semiconductors under [111] Uniaxial Strain; a Tight-Binding Approach: I. Arsenides and Gallium Phosphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Mora-Ramos


    Full Text Available Empleando un esquema de cálculo tight-binding que usa una base de orbitales sp3s*d5, se estudian propiedades de la estructura electrónica de un grupo de materiales semiconductores IIIV los cuales son de notable interés para la tecnología de dispositivos electrónicos y optoelectrónicos. En específico, se analiza la influencia sobre estas propiedades de una tensión aplicada según la dirección cristalográfica [111], haciendo uso de una formulación basada en la teoría de la elasticidad para establecer las posiciones relativas de los iones vecinos más próximos. Especial atención se presta a la inclusión del efecto de deformación interna de la red cristalina. Para cada material de los estudiados presentamos las dependencias de las brechas energéticas asociadas a los puntos L, X y L de la zona de Brillouin como funciones de la tensión uniaxial en AlAs, GaAs, InAs y GaP. Asimismo, reportamos expresiones de ajuste para los valores de las masas efectivas de conducción en esos cuatro materiales. La comparación de la variación de la brecha de energía en X para el GaP, calculada con nuestro modelo, y recientes resultados experimentales para la transición indirecta entre la banda de huecos pesados y la banda X de conducción arroja una muy buena concordancia.

  8. a Dlts Study of the EL2 Deep Level in Epitaxial Layers of GALLIUM(1-X) Indium(x) Arsenide Deposited by Mocvd (United States)

    Lang, Rick


    The EL2 deep level is the dominant naturally occurring electron trapping level in metal organic chemical vapour deposited (MOCVD) GaAs. It is also present in ternary alloys such as Ga_{1-x} Al_{x}As, GaAs_{rm 1-x}P _{x} and Ga_ {1-x}In_{ x}As where the changing composition of the crystal lattice alters the local environment of the deep levels. This can influence the properties of the deep level wave functions due to their sensitivity to their immediate environment. In the present work Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) has been employed to measure the thermal activation energy of the EL2 deep level in Ga_{ 1-x}In_{x}As epilayers deposited by low pressure MOCVD onto degenerately doped GaAs substrates. To perform these measurements Au Schottky barrier diodes were fabricated on the epilayers and characterized by Current-Voltage (I -V) and Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) measurements. For some of the samples investigated, the results of these measurements and the DLTS measurements performed using various biasing conditions revealed either back-to-back diode behaviour, or large temperature dependencies for the calculated depletion region widths, or severe bias-sensitive variations in the DLTS spectra. Such behaviours are related to conditions at the Schottky interface and denote that the DLTS results are distorted and unreliable. After elimination of these distorted results, two different dependences of the EL2 thermal activation energy on the indium concentration of the epilayer were apparent. The dependences differed for epilayers deposited using different substrate orientations and V/III reagent ratios during epilayer deposition. For both cases the thermal activation energy decreased with increasing indium concentration in the epilayers. Investigations of the DLTS measurement conditions were made to determine if the differences in the thermal activation energy dependences on the indium concentrations were caused by conditions which are known to influence the capacitance transients. Consideration was also given to the possibility that different residual stresses or impurity concentrations in the epilayers were responsible for these results. None of these possibilities were able to explain the difference between the two sets of results. Two likely possibilities for the differences in the dependence of the thermal activation energy on the epilayer indium content were concluded. The first is that different members of a family of EL2 deep levels are being produced by the different deposition conditions. These related levels could be influenced to different extents by changes in the lattice resulting from the increasing indium concentration. The second is that the indium concentration in the epilayers deposited on (100) oriented substrates is not homogeneous but produces microscopic regions of increased concentration. This would explain the slower decrease in the thermal activation energy with increasing average indium content in these epilayers and irregularities reported in their low temperature photoluminescence spectra. The thermal activation energies of the EL2 deep level are presented as a function of the epilayer indium concentrations. The results for epilayers deposited onto substrates oriented 2^circ off (100) are found to be in good agreement with previously reported findings. Investigation of the minority carrier trapping levels in the bulk of these n-type epilayers was attempted using Minority Carrier Transient Spectroscopy (MCTS). The rapid increase in the absorption coefficient of these direct band gap materials resulted in the conditions where interfacial states dominated the spectra obtained. This prevented the acquisition of useful information about minority carrier trapping levels in the epilayers.

  9. Materials Integration and Metamorphic Substrate Engineering from Silicon to Gallium Arsenide to Indium Phosphide for Advanced III-V/Silicon Photovoltaics (United States)

    Carlin, Andrew M.

    Lattice-mismatched epitaxy in the III-V compound semiconductor system based on III-AsP and related alloys are of enormous importance, and considerable research interest, for many years. The reason is straightforward if one considers the limitations placed on available materials properties for devices dictated by lattice matching to the dominant substrate technologies - Si, GaAs (and/or Ge) and InP. For III-V epitaxy, the lattice constants of these substrates have defined a generation or more of device advances since growth of heterostructures possessing the same equilibrium lattice constants as the substrate yields essentially defect-free (specifically extended defect-free) materials and devices. Removing the restriction of lattice matching to current substrate technology opens a rich spectrum of bandgaps, bandgap combinations, conduction and valence band offsets, etc., that are desirable and exploitable for advancing device technologies for new functionality and greater performance. However successful exploitation of these properties requires mitigation of a variety of extended defects that result from the lattice mismatch between substrate and epitaxial heterostructures. A well known method to achieve this solution is through the use of compositionally (lattice constant-graded) buffer interlayers, in which the equilibrium lattice constants of interlayers are slowly altered by controlled changes in layer composition so that the mismatch strain between the initial substrate and the final device layers is spread across a thickness of buffer. The research accomplished has yielded success for both lattice constant ranges Si - GaAs and GaAs - InP. For the Si - GaAs system, a three step GaP nucleation process on Si has been developed and demonstrated, which maintains total avoidance of creating coalescence-related defects such as antiphase domains and stacking faults resulting from the initial III-V/IV interfaces while reducing overall threading dislocation density by ~10x, to a range of 1×107 cm-2, compared to current state of the art. This reduction can now enable future III-V/Si solar cells based on GaAsP metamorphic buffers in which the underlying Si substrate can participate as an active sub-cell, and such buffers have been demonstrated in this research. Second, in this same lattice constant range, novel GaP/SiGe interfaces on Si were grown and demonstrated to eliminate the small, but not negligible lattice misfit between GaP and Si, and provides a second pathway for future III-V/Si solar cell integration through subsequent metamorphic buffer growth. For the GaAs-InP range of lattice constants, multiple metamorphic buffer strategies, including those based on anion-specific quaternary GaInAsP, combinations of step and linearly-graded buffers, and buffers with multiple ternary alloys were all investigated. Micro-scale phase separation within quaternary anion-graded GaInAsP was identified as a mechanism to significantly inhibit proper lattice misfit strain relaxation, which was explained by thermodynamic arguments consistent with theoretical phase separation. This led to the creation of hybrid step and linearly graded InGaAs/InGaP metamorphic buffers through which phase separation was totally eliminated by avoiding specific compositions that were identified as sources for phase separation. These findings have enabled a realistic path for accessing the full range of bandgaps needed for future high efficiency III-V solar cells through optimized metamorphic III-V grading strategies.

  10. Time-resolved characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dot gain material for 1.3 µm lasers on gallium arsenide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiore, Andrea; Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang


    The time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 ìm is presented. A photoluminescence decay time of 1.8 ns and a fast rise time of 10ps are measured close to room temperature.......The time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 ìm is presented. A photoluminescence decay time of 1.8 ns and a fast rise time of 10ps are measured close to room temperature....

  11. Effect of Heat Treatment on Electrical Properties and Charge Collection Efficiency of X-Ray Sensors Based on Chrome-Compensated Gallium Arsenide (United States)

    Zarubin, A. N.; Kolesnikova, I. I.; Lozinskaya, A. D.; Novikov, V. A.; Skakunov, M. S.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Tyazhev, A. V.; Shemeryankina, A. V.


    We present the results of experimental studies of the dependences of the specific resistance, charge collection efficiency, product of the mobility on the lifetime (μ×τ)n, and current-voltage characteristics on the heat treatment regimes of X-ray Me-GaAs:Cr-Me-sensors. Experimental samples were the pad-sensors with the area of 0.1-0.25 cm2 and sensitive-layer thickness in the range of 400-500 μm. The values of (μ×τ)n were evaluated by measuring the dependence of the charge collection efficiency on the bias voltage when exposed to gamma rays from the source of 241Am. It is shown that heat treatment in the temperature range 200-500°C does not lead to a significant degradation of properties of Me-GaAs:Cr-Me-sensors and can be used in the manufacturing technology of matrix detectors of ionizing radiation.

  12. Drug-induced gingival enlargement: biofilm control and surgical therapy with gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser-A 2-year follow-up. (United States)

    de Oliveira Guaré, Renata; Costa, Soraya Carvalho; Baeder, Fernando; de Souza Merli, Luiz Antonio; Dos Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues


    Drug-induced gingival enlargement has been reported in patients treated with various types of anticonvulsant drugs, and is generally associated with the presence of plaque, gingival inflammation, and a genetic predisposition. Effective treatment includes daily oral hygiene and periodic professional prophylaxis. However, in some patients, surgical removal of the gingival tissue overgrowth becomes necessary. The patient in this case report was mentally impaired and had severe drug-induced gingival enlargement. This report describes the initial protocol, the gingivectomy, and a 2-year follow-up. A diode laser was used as an effective and safe method to remove the patient's overgrown gingival tissue.

  13. Estimation of various scattering parameters and 2-DEG mobilities from electron mobility calculations in the three conduction bands , L and X of gallium arsenide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonal Singhal; A K Saxena; S Dasgupta


    The electron drift mobility in conduction band of GaAs has been calculated before, but for the first time, we have made attempts to estimate the electron mobilities in higher energy L and X minima. We have also calculated the value of mobility of two-dimensional electron gas needed to predict hetero-structure device characteristics using GaAs. Best scattering parameters have been derived by close comparison between experimental and theoretical mobilities. Room temperature electron mobilities in , L and X valleys are found to be nearly 9094, 945 and 247 cm2 /V-s respectively. For the above valleys, the electron masses, deformation potentials and polar phonon temperatures have been determined to be (0.067, 0.22, 0.39m 0 ), (8.5, 9.5, 6.5 eV), and (416, 382, 542 K) as best values, respectively. The 2-DEG electron mobility in minimum increases to 1.54 × 106 from 1.59 × 105 cm2 /V-s (for impurity concentration of 1014 cm-3) at 10 K. Similarly, the 2-DEG electron mobility values in L and X minima are estimated to be 2.28 × 105 and 1.44 × 105 cm2 /V-s at 10 K, which are about ∼ 4.5 and ∼ 3.9 times higher than normal value with impurity scattering present.

  14. Measurement and comparison of AC parameters of silicon (BSR and BSFR) and gallium arsenide (GaAs/Ge) solar cells used in space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Kumar, R.; Suresh, M.S. [ISRO Satellite Centre, ISRO, Bangalore 560, 017 Kolhapur (India); Nagaraju, J. [Department of Instrumentation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560, 012 Kolhapur (India)


    The AC parameters of silicon (BSR and BSFR) solar cells and GaAs/Ge solar cell have been measured using impedance spectroscopy. Each cell capacitance, dynamic resistance and series resistance were measured and compared. GaAs/Ge solar cell has shown only the transition capacitance throughout its operating range while silicon (BSR and BSFR) solar cells exhibited both transition and diffusion capacitance. The theoretical and experimental values of dynamic resistance were compared and found in good agreement while the diode factor in silicon solar cells varies from 2 to 1, where as in GaAs/Ge solar cell it varies from 4 to 2 to 1.

  15. Capacitance-voltage studies of atomic-layer-deposited MOS structrures on Gallium Arsenide and other III-V compound semiconductors


    Yang, Tian


    Si-based CMOS devices with traditional structure are approaching the fundamental physical limits. New device structures and materials must be explored to continue the trend of increasing electronic device speed and decreasing size at the same time. Recently, III-V compound semiconductors are considered as novel channel materials to replace Si due to their high electron mobilities. However, the main obstacle to implement III-V as novel channel materials for CMOS application is the lack of high...

  16. A Novel Approach to Modeling the Effects of Radiation in Gallium-Arsenide Solar Cells Using Silvaco’s ATLAS Software (United States)


    Substrate subTH=200; subDop=5e17; % Depletion Layer Vo=k*T*log(Bdop*Edop/((ni)^2))/e; WDep =((2*epsR*epso*Vo*(Bdop+Edop))/(e*Bdop*Edop))^.5*10^6...BDepTH= WDep /(1+Bdop/Edop); EDepTH= WDep /(1+Edop/Bdop); %Standard number of Divisions divs=8; % Cell Structure calculations ### %\\Cell is

  17. Thin films of gallium arsenide on low-cost substrates. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8 and topical report No. 3, April 2-July 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, R.P.; Dapkus, P.D.; Dupuis, R.D.; Johnson, R.E.; Manasevit, H.M.; Moudy, L.A.; Yang, J.J.; Yingling, R.D.


    The seventh quarter of work on the contract is summarized. The metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) technique has been applied to the growth of thin films of GaAs and GaAlAs on inexpensive polycrystalline or amorphous substrate materials (primarily glasses and metals) for use in fabrication of large-area low-cost photovoltaic device structures. Trimethylgallium (TMG), arsine (AsH/sub 3/), and trimethylaluminum (TMAl) are mixed in appropriate concentrations at room temperature in the gaseous state and pyrolyzed at the substrate, which is heated in a vertical reactor chamber to temperatures of 725 to 750/sup 0/C, to produce the desired film composition and properties. The technical activities during the quarter were concentrated on (1) a continuing evaluation of various graphite materials as possible substrates for MO-CVD growith of the polycrystalline GaAs solar cells; (2) attempts to improve the quality (especially the grain size) of polycrystalline GaAs films on Mo sheet and Mo/glass substrates by using HCl vapor during the MO-CVD growith process; (3) further studies of the transport properties of polycrystalline GaAs films, wth emphasis on n-type films; (4) continuing investigations of the properties of p-n junctions in polycrystalline GaAs, with emphasis on the formation and properties of p/sup +//n/n/sup +/ deposited structures; and (5) assembling apparatus and establishing a suitable technique for producing TiO/sub 2/ layers for use as AR coatings on GaAs cells. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  18. Functional renormalization group study of an 8-band model for the iron arsenides (United States)

    Honerkamp, Carsten; Lichtenstein, Julian; Maier, Stefan A.; Platt, Christian; Thomale, Ronny; Andersen, Ole Krogh; Boeri, Lilia


    We investigate the superconducting pairing instabilities of eight-band models for 1111 iron arsenides. Using a functional renormalization group treatment, we determine how the critical energy scale for superconductivity depends on the electronic band structure. Most importantly, if we vary the parameters from values corresponding to LaFeAsO to SmFeAsO, the pairing scale is strongly enhanced, in accordance with the experimental observation. We analyze the reasons for this trend and compare the results of the eight-band approach to those found using five-band models.

  19. Functional renormalization group study of an eight-band model for the iron arsenides (United States)

    Lichtenstein, J.; Maier, S. A.; Honerkamp, C.; Platt, C.; Thomale, R.; Andersen, O. K.; Boeri, L.


    We investigate the superconducting pairing instabilities of eight-band models for the iron arsenides. Using a functional renormalization group treatment, we determine how the critical energy scale for superconductivity depends on the electronic band structure. Most importantly, if we vary the parameters from values corresponding to LaFeAsO to SmFeAsO, the pairing scale is strongly enhanced, in accordance with the experimental observation. We analyze the reasons for this trend and compare the results of the eight-band approach to those found using five-band models.

  20. Indium arsenide nanowire field-effect transistors for pH and biological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, S.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J., E-mail: [Center for Quantum Devices and Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Frederiksen, R.; Lloret, N.; Martinez, K. L. [Bio-Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); De Vico, L.; Jensen, J. H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Indium Arsenide is a high mobility semiconductor with a surface electron accumulation layer that allows ohmic electrical contact to metals. Here, we present nanowire devices based on this material as a platform for chemical and biological sensing. The sensing principle involves the binding of a charged species at the sensor surface transduced via field effect into a change in current flowing through the sensor. We show the sensitivity of the platform to the H{sup +} ion concentration in solution as proof of principle and demonstrate the sensitivity to larger charged protein species. The sensors are highly reproducible and reach a detection limit of 10 pM for Avidin.

  1. High Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study on Icosahedral Boron Arsenide (B12As2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Wu; H Zhu; D Hou; C Ji; C Whiteley; J Edgar; Y Ma


    The high pressure properties of icosahedral boron arsenide (B12As2) were studied by in situ X-ray diffraction measurements at pressures up to 25.5 GPa at room temperature. B12As2 retains its rhombohedral structure; no phase transition was observed in the pressure range. The bulk modulus was determined to be 216 GPa with the pressure derivative 2.2. Anisotropy was observed in the compressibility of B12As2-c-axis was 16.2% more compressible than a-axis. The boron icosahedron plays a dominant role in the compressibility of boron-rich compounds.

  2. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J


    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  3. Role of Gallium and labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in AIDS patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J. [Division of nuclear medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York (United States); Goldsmith, S.J. [Division of nuclear medicine, New York Hospital, Cornell Medical Center, New York (United States)


    Because AIDS patients frequently present with minimal symptomatology, radionuclide imaging with its ability to survey the entire body, is especially valuable. Gallium-67 citrate, the most commonly performed radionuclide study for localizing infection in these patients, is most useful for detecting opportunistic infections, especially in the thorax. A negative gallium scan, particularly when the chest X-ray is unremarkable, rules strongly against pulmonary disease. A negative gallium scan in a patient with an abnormal chest X-ray and Kaposi`s sarcoma, suggests that the patient`s respiratory distress is related to the neoplasm. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal uptake of gallium in the HIV (+) patient is most often associated with PCP. While there are other causes of diffuse pulmonary uptake, the more intense or heterogeneous the uptake, the more likely the patient is to have PCP. Focal pulmonary uptake is usually associated with bacterial pneumonia although PCP may occasionally present in this fashion. Lymph node uptake of gallium is usually associated with Mycob acterium avium complex, tuberculosis, or Iymphoma. When corresponding abnormalities are present on thallium scintigraphy lymphoma is likely. Gallium positive, thallium negative, studies suggest mycobacterial disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for detecting opportunistic infections probably because of the inflammatory response incited by these organisms. Leukocyte imaging is, however, more sensitive for detecting bacterial pneumonia. In the abdomen, gallium imaging is most useful for identifying lymphadenopathy, while labeled leukocyte imaging is superior for detecting AlDS-associated colitides. In summary, radionuclide studies are valuable diagnostic modalities in AIDS. Their success can be maximized by tailoring the study to the individual`s needs.

  4. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, B.


    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  5. Chemical exfoliation and optical characterization of threading-dislocation-free gallium-nitride ultrathin nanomembranes

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.


    Semiconductor nanostructures have generated tremendous scientific interests as well as practical applications stemming from the engineering of low dimensional physics phenomena. Unlike 0D and 1D nanostructures, such as quantum dots and nanowires, respectively, 2D structures, such as nanomembranes, are unrivalled in their scalability for high yield manufacture and are less challenging in handling with the current transfer techniques. Furthermore, due to their planar geometry, nanomembranes are compatible with the current complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Due to these superior characteristics, there are currently different techniques in exfoliating nanomembranes with different crystallinities, thicknesses and compositions. In this work we demonstrate a new facile technique of exfoliating gallium nitride (GaN) nanomembranes with novel features, namely with the non-radiative cores of their threading-dislocations (TDs) being etched away. The exfoliation process is based on engineering the gallium vacancy (VGa) density during the GaN epitaxial growth with subsequent preferential etching. Based on scanning and transmission electron microscopies, as well as micro-photoluminescence measurements, a model is proposed to uncover the physical processes underlying the formation of the nanomembranes. Raman measurements are also performed to reveal the internal strain within the nanomembranes. After transferring these freely suspended 25 nm thin GaN nanomembranes to other substrates, we demonstrate the temperature dependence of their bandgap by photoluminescence technique, in order to shed light on the internal carrier dynamics. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  6. Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R. (Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (USA)); Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))


    The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Gallium based low-interaction anions (United States)

    King, Wayne A.; Kubas, Gregory J.


    The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

  8. Gallium nitrate inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating mesenchymal cell culture. (United States)

    Boskey, A L; Ziecheck, W; Guidon, P; Doty, S B


    The effect of gallium nitrate on alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell culture was monitored in order to gain insight into the observation that rachitic rats treated with gallium nitrate failed to show the expected increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Cultures maintained in media containing 15 microM gallium nitrate showed drastically decreased alkaline phosphatase activities in the absence of significant alterations in total protein synthesis and DNA content. However, addition of 15 microM gallium nitrate to cultures 18 h before assay for alkaline phosphatase activity had little effect. At the light microscopic and electron microscopic level, gallium-treated cultures differed morphologically from gallium-free cultures: with gallium present, there were fewer hypertrophic chondrocytes and cartilage nodules were flatter and further apart. Because of altered morphology, staining with an antibody against chick cartilage alkaline phosphatase appeared less extensive; however, all nodules stained equivalently relative to gallium-free controls. Histochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase activity was negative in gallium-treated cultures, demonstrating that the alkaline phosphatase protein present was not active. The defective alkaline phosphatase activity in cultures maintained in the presence of gallium was also evidenced when cultures were supplemented with the alkaline phosphatase substrate, beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP). The data presented suggest that gallium inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in this culture system and that gallium causes alterations in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  9. Imaging Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors to Identify Point Defects (United States)


    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMAGING GALLIUM NITRIDE HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS TO IDENTIFY...Identification of these trends will assist in the improvement of gallium nitride HEMT fabrication processes leading to the development of more...reliable devices. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Electron microscopy, Gallium Nitride (GaN), high electron mobility transistor (HEMT

  10. Gallium scintigraphy in a case of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Gladstone, A.G.; Richman, A.H.


    Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, a relatively uncommon disease entity, frequently can be fatal. Early diagnosis is imperative in order that appropriate treatment be instituted. A 59-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution with complaints of diplopia, blurred vision and fevers that developed following a tooth extraction is presented. Initial CT and lumbar puncture on the day of admission were totally normal. A repeat CT performed 48 hours after admission, on the same day as gallium imaging, demonstrated findings consistent with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Gallium imaging demonstrated intense uptake in the left cavernous sinus and left orbit as well as moderately increased activity in the right cavernous sinus and orbit, confirming infection. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and repeat CT and gallium imaging were performed ten days later, both of which demonstrated near total resolution of the disease process. Conceivably, if gallium imaging had been initiated on the day of admission it may have been the first study to demonstrate an infectious process in the cavernous sinus. Gallium imaging should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the noninvasive workup of this entity.

  11. Gallium nitride based logpile photonic crystals. (United States)

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Li, Qiming; Lee, Yun-Ju; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Wang, George T; Fischer, Arthur J


    We demonstrate a nine-layer logpile three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) composed of single crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods, ∼100 nm in size with lattice constants of 260, 280, and 300 nm with photonic band gap in the visible region. This unique GaN structure is created through a combined approach of a layer-by-layer template fabrication technique and selective metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). These GaN 3DPC exhibit a stacking direction band gap characterized by strong optical reflectance between 380 and 500 nm. By introducing a "line-defect" cavity in the fifth (middle) layer of the 3DPC, a localized transmission mode with a quality factor of 25-30 is also observed within the photonic band gap. The realization of a group III nitride 3DPC with uniform features and a band gap at wavelengths in the visible region is an important step toward realizing complete control of the electromagnetic environment for group III nitride based optoelectronic devices.

  12. Investigation on gallium ions impacting monolayer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wu


    Full Text Available In this paper, the physical phenomena of gallium (Ga+ ion impacting monolayer graphene in the nanosculpting process are investigated experimentally, and the mechanisms are explained by using Monte Carlo (MC and molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Firstly, the MC method is employed to clarify the phenomena happened to the monolayer graphene target under Ga+ ion irradiation. It is found that substrate has strong influence on the damage mode of graphene. The mean sputtering yield of graphene under 30 keV Ga+ ion irradiation is 1.77 and the least ion dose to completely remove carbon atoms in graphene is 21.6 ion/nm2. Afterwards, the focused ion beam over 21.6 ion/nm2 is used for the irradiation on a monolayer graphene supported by SiO2 experimentally, resulting in the nanostructures, i.e., nanodot and nanowire array on the graphene. The performances of the nanostructures are characterized by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectrum. A plasma plume shielding model is put forward to explain the nanosculpting results of graphene under different irradiation parameters. In addition, two damage mechanisms are found existing in the fabrication process of the nanostructures by using empirical MD simulations. The results can help us open the possibilities for better control of nanocarbon devices.

  13. Investigation on gallium ions impacting monolayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xin; Zhao, Haiyan, E-mail:; Yan, Dong; Pei, Jiayun [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. Chinaand Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    In this paper, the physical phenomena of gallium (Ga{sup +}) ion impacting monolayer graphene in the nanosculpting process are investigated experimentally, and the mechanisms are explained by using Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Firstly, the MC method is employed to clarify the phenomena happened to the monolayer graphene target under Ga{sup +} ion irradiation. It is found that substrate has strong influence on the damage mode of graphene. The mean sputtering yield of graphene under 30 keV Ga{sup +} ion irradiation is 1.77 and the least ion dose to completely remove carbon atoms in graphene is 21.6 ion/nm{sup 2}. Afterwards, the focused ion beam over 21.6 ion/nm{sup 2} is used for the irradiation on a monolayer graphene supported by SiO2 experimentally, resulting in the nanostructures, i.e., nanodot and nanowire array on the graphene. The performances of the nanostructures are characterized by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectrum. A plasma plume shielding model is put forward to explain the nanosculpting results of graphene under different irradiation parameters. In addition, two damage mechanisms are found existing in the fabrication process of the nanostructures by using empirical MD simulations. The results can help us open the possibilities for better control of nanocarbon devices.

  14. Antibacterial effect of gallium and silver on Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with gallium-silver-phosphate-based glasses. (United States)

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Higham, Susan M


    Gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses were evaluated for antibacterial effect on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a leading cause of opportunistic infections. The glasses were produced by conventional melt quenching methods at 1100°C for 1 h. Glass degradation studies were conducted by weight loss method. Disc diffusion assay and cell viability assay displayed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.0005) effect on P. aeruginosa growth which increased with decreasing calcium content in the glasses. The gallium ion release rates (1.83, 0.69 and 0.48 ppm·h(-1)) and silver ion release rates (2.97, 2.84 and 2.47 ppm·h(-1)) were found to account for this variation. Constant depth film fermentor was used to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of the glasses. Both gallium and silver in the glass contributed to biofilm growth inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa (up to 2.68 reduction in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with controls). The glasses were found to deliver gallium and silver in a controlled way and exerted cumulative antibacterial action on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. The antibacterial, especially anti-biofilm, properties of the gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses make them a potential candidate to combat infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  15. Spectrofluorimetric determination of gallium with calon-carboxylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric procedure for the analysis of microquantities of gallium in alloy wasdescribed. The method is based on the formation of Ga(Ⅲ)-CCA (calon-carboxylic acid) complex. The emission of thefluorescent complex was measured at λ = 620 nm with excitation at λ = 584 nm. A good linearity was found in the galliumrange of 0.7-280 ng/mL. The precision of the method is good and the relative standard deviation is 1.9% for a gallium stan-dard solution of 70 ng/mL. The procedure was proved to be suitable in terms of accuracy and selectivity for the mi-croamount of gallium in alloy.

  16. Photoconductive Properties of Brush Plated Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Subiramaniyam


    Full Text Available Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS films were deposited for the first time by the brush electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the formation of single phase chalcopyrite CIGS. Lattice parameters, dislocation density, and strain were calculated. Band gap of the films increased from 1.12 eV to 1.63 eV as the gallium concentration increased. Room temperature transport parameters of the films, namely, resistivity increased from 0.10 ohm cm to 12 ohm cm, mobility decreased from 125 cm2V−1s−1 to 20.9 cm2V−1s−1, and carrier concentration decreased from 4.99 × 1017 cm−3 to 2.49 × 1016 cm−3 as the gallium concentration increased. Photosensitivity of the films increased linearly with intensity of illumination and with increase of applied voltage.

  17. Gallium scintigraphy in Hansen's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, F.J.H.N. (Hopital Henri-Mondor, 75 - Paris (France). Service de Biophysique de Medecine Nucleaire Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear); Araejo, E.B.; Camargo, E.E. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear); Tedesco-Marchesi, L.C.M.; Rivitti, M.C.M. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Servicio de Dermatologia); Bouladour, H.; Galle, P. (Hopital Henri-Mondor, 75 - Paris (France). Service de Biophysique de Medecine Nucleaire)


    Gallium 67 imaging was used in 12 patients with documented Hansen's disease undergoing treatment or not in an attempt to determine the pattern of the disease. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in all patients. The Mitsuda reaction was seen in all patients. Specific nuclear studies were performed when needed to evaluate particular organs better. Gallium 67 images show homogeneous, diffuse and moderate accumulation over the entire skin surface (except for the face) of untreated patients with multibacillary disease. The face skin in these cases presented homogeneous, diffuse but very marked uptake of gallium. Internal organ involvement was variable. There was a very good correlation among clinical, scintigraphical, immunological and histopathological data. The pattern of the body skin ('skin outlining') and face skin ('beard distribution') may be distinct for untreated patients with multibacillary leprosy. (orig.).

  18. Extremely-efficient, miniaturized, long-lived alpha-voltaic power source using liquid gallium (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)


    A power source converts .alpha.-particle energy to electricity for use in electrical systems. Liquid gallium or other liquid medium is subjected to .alpha.-particle emissions. Electrons are freed by collision from neutral gallium atoms to provide gallium ions. The electrons migrate to a cathode while the gallium ions migrate to an anode. A current and/or voltage difference then arises between the cathode and anode because of the work function difference of the cathode and anode. Gallium atoms are regenerated by the receiving of electrons from the anode enabling the generation of additional electrons from additional .alpha.-particle collisions.

  19. Photoconductive Properties of Brush Plated Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Films


    Subiramaniyam, N. P.; P. Thirunavukkarasu; Murali, K. R.


    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) films were deposited for the first time by the brush electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the formation of single phase chalcopyrite CIGS. Lattice parameters, dislocation density, and strain were calculated. Band gap of the films increased from 1.12 eV to 1.63 eV as the gallium concentration increased. Room temperature transport parameters of the films, namely, resistivity increased from 0.10 ohm cm to 12 ohm cm, mobility decre...

  20. Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material


    Katsuhiro Atsumi; Yoku Inoue; Hidenori Mimura; Toru Aoki; Takayuki Nakano


    In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN) semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN) samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to α-rays but poor sensitivity to γ-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in ...

  1. Magnetostriction and magnetic heterogeneities in iron-gallium. (United States)

    Laver, M; Mudivarthi, C; Cullen, J R; Flatau, A B; Chen, W-C; Watson, S M; Wuttig, M


    Iron-gallium alloys Fe(1-x)Ga(x) exhibit an exceptional increase in magnetostriction with gallium content. We present small-angle neutron scattering investigations on a Fe(0.81)Ga(0.19) single crystal. We uncover heterogeneities with an average spacing of 15 nm and with magnetizations distinct from the matrix. The moments in and around the heterogeneities are observed to reorient with an applied magnetic field or mechanical strain. We discuss the possible roles played by nanoscale magnetic heterogeneities in the mechanism for magnetostriction in this material.

  2. Magnetostriction and Magnetic Heterogeneities in Iron-Gallium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laver, Mark; Mudivarthi, C.; Cullen, J.R.;


    Iron-gallium alloys Fe1-xGax exhibit an exceptional increase in magnetostriction with gallium content. We present small-angle neutron scattering investigations on a Fe0.81Ga0.19 single crystal. We uncover heterogeneities with an average spacing of 15 nm and with magnetizations distinct from...... the matrix. The moments in and around the heterogeneities are observed to reorient with an applied magnetic field or mechanical strain. We discuss the possible roles played by nanoscale magnetic heterogeneities in the mechanism for magnetostriction in this material. © 2010 The American Physical Society...

  3. Laser spectroscopy of gallium isotopes using the ISCOOL RFQ cooler

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Kowalska, M; Ware, T; Procter, T J


    We propose to study the radioisotopes of gallium (Z=31) by collinear laser spectroscopy using the ISCOOL RFQ ion cooler. The proposed measurements on $^{62-83}$Ga will span both neutron-deficient and neutron-rich isotopes. Of key interest is the suggested development of a proton-skin in the neutron-deficient isotopes. The isotope shifts measured by laser spectroscopy will be uniquely sensitive to this feature. The measurements will also provide a wealth of new information on the gallium nuclear spins, static moments and nuclear charge radii.

  4. Pseudomembranous colitis: a possible role for Gallium scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, E.L.; Charap, M.; Sanger, J.J.; Tiu, S.S.


    A case of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis is presented in which the Gallium scan was the first diagnostic modality to alert the clinicians to the existence of an inflammatory bowel process. The mechanism of localization of the radiopharmaceutical in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed. Although colonoscopy is far more specific and should be the first-line diagnostic tool used in assessing the presence of pseudomembranous colitis, Gallium scanning may have a role in the follow-up of treatment and in cases of relapse.

  5. Spectroscopy of titanium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass



    Titanium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (Ti:GLS) and gallium lanthanum oxysulfide (Ti:GLSO) glasses have an absorption band at similar to 500-600 nm that cannot be fully resolved because of its proximity to the band edge of the glass. At concentrations >0.5% a shoulder at 980 nm is observed in Ti:GLS but not in Ti :GLSO. The emission spectra of Ti:GLS and T :GLSO both peak at 900 nm with lifetimes of 67 and 97)us, respectively. We propose that the absorption at similar to 600 nm is due to th...

  6. Unintentional gallium incorporation in InGaN layers during epitaxial growth (United States)

    Zhou, Kun; Ren, Huaijin; Ikeda, Masao; Liu, Jianping; Ma, Yi; Gao, Songxin; Tang, Chun; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Liquan; Yang, Hui


    Unintentional gallium incorporation was observed and investigated in the epitaxial growth of InGaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. InGaN was grown without intentional gallium precursor and the gallium incorporation rate was found not dependent on TEGa source but was significantly influenced by temperature and TMIn source flow. The source of the unintentional gallium incorporation is confirmed to be from the flow distributor of the reactor. The incorporation mechanism was analyzed to be the diffusion of resultant of transmetalation reaction between TMIn or its decomposed products (for example DMIn) and residual gallium. Due to the unintentional gallium incorporation, the growth rate and indium content of InGaN layer are determined by indium source, gallium source and the growth temperature.

  7. Exchange of iron by gallium in siderophores. (United States)

    Emery, T


    Siderophores are iron transport compounds produced by numerous microorganisms and which strongly chelate Fe(III), but not Fe(II). Other trivalent metals, such as Al(III), Cr(III), or Ga(III), are not capable of significantly displacing iron from siderophores. However, I demonstrate here that Ga(III) can effectively displace iron under reducing conditions. With ascorbate as reductant and ferrozine as Fe(II) trapping agent, the kinetics of reductive displacement of iron by Ga(III) were followed spectroscopically by the increase of absorbance at 562 nm due to formation of the Fe(II)-ferrozine complex. No significant reduction of siderophore occurred in the absence of Ga(III). With excess Ga(III), the displacement was quantitative and very rapid. The rate of metal exchange was pseudo first order with respect to Ga(III) concentration and highly pH dependent, suggesting that siderophore ligands are displaced from the iron in a concerted mechanism by Ga(III) and protonation to expose the Fe(III) to reduction by ascorbate. Reaction rates were dependent upon the structure of the siderophore, being greatest for ferric rhodotorulic acid and slowest for ferrichrome A at pH 5.4. The pH profile for ferric rhodotorulic acid was unusual in that it showed a maximum at pH 6.5, while all other siderophores examined showed an increase in rate as pH was lowered from 7.0. The physiological significance of this reaction to the clinical use of gallium is discussed.

  8. Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of Photo-excited Dirac Fermion in Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetal Cadmium Arsenide

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Xuefeng; Lu, Hong; Li, Caizhen; Lai, Jiawei; Zhao, Chuan; Tian, Ye; Liao, Zhimin; Jia, Shuang; Sun, Dong


    Three dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal exhibiting ultrahigh mobility has recently attracted enormous research interests as 3D analogues of graphene. From the prospects of future application toward electronic/optoelectronic devices with extreme performance, it is crucial to understand the relaxation dynamics of photo-excited carriers and their coupling with lattice. In this work, we report ultrafast transient reflection measurements of photo-excited carrier dynamics in cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2), which is among the most stable Dirac semimetals that have been confirmed experimentally. With low energy probe photon of 0.3 eV, photo-excited Dirac Fermions dynamics closing to Dirac point are probed. Through transient reflection measurements on bulk and nanoplate samples that have different doping intensities, and systematic probe wavelength, pump power and lattice temperature dependent measurements, the dynamical evolution of carrier distributions can be retrieved qualitatively using a two-temperature model. The pho...

  9. Electronic structure, magnetic and superconducting properties of co-doped iron-arsenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, Helge; Schnelle, Walter; Nicklas, Michael; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas [MPI CPfS Dresden (Germany); Weikert, Franziska [Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico (United States); HLD Dresden Rossendorf (Germany); Wosnitza, Joachim [HLD Dresden Rossendorf (Germany)


    We present a joint experimental and theoretical study of co-doped iron-arsenide superconductors of the 122 family A{sub 1-x}K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}T{sub y}As{sub 2} (A = Ba,Sr,Eu; T = Co,Ru,Rh). In these systems, the co-doping enables the separation of different parameters - like electron count, disorder or the specific geometry of the FeAs layer - with respect to the position of the respective compounds in the general 122 phase diagram. For a series of compounds, we investigate the relevance of the different parameters for the magnetic, thermodynamic and superconducting properties. Our experimental investigations are supported by density functional electronic structure calculations applying different approximations for doping and disorder.

  10. NMR studies on the new iron arsenide superconductors including the superconducting state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Lang, Guillaume; Hammerath, Franziska; Manthey, Katarina; Behr, Guenther; Werner, Jochen; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Paar, Dalibor [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Science, Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia); Curro, Nicholas [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)


    We summarize our Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) results on the new iron arsenide superconductor LaO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}FeAs in the normal state, and show new NMR data in the superconducting state. Beyond early evidence of nodes and spin-singlet pairing[2], we find evidence of a deviation of the T{sup 3} behaviour of the spin lattice relaxation rate, 1/T{sub 1}, at temperatures significantly below T{sub c}, which would agree with the suggested extended s-wave symmetry. The deviation of the T{sup 3} behaviour is induced by the pair breaking effect of impurities. Different amounts of impurities would lead to different temperature dependences of 1/T{sub 1}, which would allow to differentiate between d-wave and extended s-wave symmetries.

  11. Methods for forming group III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials (United States)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)


    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III--arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  12. Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate (United States)

    Ghazali, Norizzawati Mohd; Yasui, Kanji; Hashim, Abdul Manaf


    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm2 using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish, and a new nanowire-like GaN structures appear. These results show that the presented method seems to be promising in producing high-quality h-GaN nanostructures on Si.

  13. Instrumentation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  14. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, J L


    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  15. [Dimensional changes of silver and gallium-based alloy]. (United States)

    Ballester, R Y; Markarian, R A; Loguercio, A D


    Gallium-based dental alloys were created with the aim of solving the problem of toxicity of mercury. The material shows mechanical properties similar to those of dental amalgam, but researches point out two unfavorable characteristics: great corrosion and excessive post-setting expansion, and the latter is capable of cracking dental structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate, during 7 days, the in vitro dimensional alteration of a gallium dental alloy (Galloy, SDI, Australia), in comparison with a dental amalgam containing zinc (F400, SDI, Australia), as a function of the contact with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) during the setting period. The storage experimental conditions were: storage in dry environment, immersion in saline solution and contamination during condensation. Additionally, the effects of contamination during the trituration of dental amalgam and the effects of protecting the surface of the gallium alloy with a fluid resin were studied. Specimens were stored at 37 degrees C +/- 1 degree C, and measuring was carried out, sequentially, every 24 h during 7 days. When the gallium alloy was either contaminated or immersed, an expansion significantly greater than that observed in the other experimental conditions was noticed after 7 days. The application of a fluid resin to protect the surface of the cylinders was able to avoid the increase in expansion caused by superficial moisture. The amalgam alloy did not show significant dimensional alterations, except when it was contaminated during trituration.

  16. Gallium Nitride MMICs for mm-Wave Power Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quay, R.; Maroldt, S.; Haupt, C.; Heijningen, M. van; Tessmann, A.


    In this paper a Gallium Nitride MMIC technology for high-power amplifiers between 27 GHz and 101 GHz based on 150 nm- and 100 nm-gate technologies is presented. The GaN HEMT MMICs are designed using coplanar waveguide transmission-line-technology on 3-inch semi-insulating SiC substrates. The measure

  17. Targeting Gallium to Cancer Cells through the Folate Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa Viola-Villegas


    Full Text Available The development of gallium(III compounds as anti-cancer agents for both treatment and diagnosis is a rapidly developing field of research. Problems remain in exploring the full potential of gallium(III as a safe and successful therapeutic agent or as an imaging agent. One of the major issues is that gallium(III compounds have little tropism for cancer cells. We have combined the targeting properties of folic acid (FA with long chain liquid polymer poly(ethylene glycol (PEG ‘spacers’. This FA-PEG unit has been coupled to the gallium coordination complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetraacetic acid (DOTA through amide linkages for delivery into target cells overexpressing the folate receptor (FR. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were conducted against a multi-drug resistant ovarian cell line (A2780/AD that overexpresses the FR and contrasted against a FR free Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. Results are rationalized taking into account stability studies conducted in RPMI 1640 media and HEPES buffer at pH 7.4.

  18. Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintalapalle, Ramana V. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)


    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were produced by sputter deposition by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (Ts=25-800 °C). The structural characteristics and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of growth temperature is significant on the chemistry, crystal structure and morphology of Ga2O3 films. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the Ga2O3 films grown at lower temperatures were amorphous while those grown at Ts≥500 oC were nanocrystalline. RBS measurements indicate the well-maintained stoichiometry of Ga2O3 films at Ts=300-800 °C. The electronic structure determination indicated that the nanocrystalline Ga2O3films exhibit a band gap of ~5 eV. Tungsten (W) incorporated Ga2O3 films were produced by co-sputter deposition. W-concentration was varied by the applied sputtering-power. No secondary phase formation was observed in W-incorporated Ga2O3 films. W-induced effects were significant on the structure and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films. The band gap of Ga2O3 films without W-incorporation was ~5 eV. Oxygen sensor characteristics evaluated using optical and electrical methods indicate a faster response in W-doped Ga2O3 films compared to intrinsic Ga2O3 films. The results demonstrate the applicability of both intrinsic and W-doped Ga-oxide films for oxygen sensor application at temperatures ≥700 °C.

  19. In-Plane Electronic Anisotropy of Underdoped ___122___ Fe-Arsenide Superconductors Revealed by Measurements of Detwinned Single Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Ian Randal


    The parent phases of the Fe-arsenide superconductors harbor an antiferromagnetic ground state. Significantly, the Neel transition is either preceded or accompanied by a structural transition that breaks the four fold symmetry of the high-temperature lattice. Borrowing language from the field of soft condensed matter physics, this broken discrete rotational symmetry is widely referred to as an Ising nematic phase transition. Understanding the origin of this effect is a key component of a complete theoretical description of the occurrence of superconductivity in this family of compounds, motivating both theoretical and experimental investigation of the nematic transition and the associated in-plane anisotropy. Here we review recent experimental progress in determining the intrinsic in-plane electronic anisotropy as revealed by resistivity, reflectivity and ARPES measurements of detwinned single crystals of underdoped Fe arsenide superconductors in the '122' family of compounds.

  20. The Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of Boron Arsenide (B12As2) Between 25 C and 850 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteley, Clinton E. [Kansas State University; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Edgar, J H [Kansas State University


    The semiconductor boron arsenide has a high 10B density, a wide bandgap, and a high melting temperature, all of which make it an interesting candidate for high-temperature electronic devices and radiation detectors. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion for boron arsenide. B12As2 powder was synthesized from boron and arsenic heated in a sealed quartz ampoule at 1100 C for 72 hrs with excess boron. Using high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) between 25 C and 850 C, the average lattice coefficients of thermal expansion were measured perpendicular and parallel to the <111> axis in the rhombohedral setting (equivalent to the a and c axes in the hexagonal setting): 4.9x10-6 K-1 and 5.3x10-6 K-1, respectively. The average unit cell volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion was determined to be 1.5x10-5 K-1.

  1. Boron Arsenide and Boron Phosphide for High Temperature and Luminescent Devices. [semiconductor devices - crystal growth/crystal structure (United States)

    Chu, T. L.


    The crystal growth of boron arsenide and boron phosphide in the form of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers on suitable substrates is discussed. The physical, chemical, and electrical properties of the crystals and epitaxial layers are examined. Bulk crystals of boron arsenide were prepared by the chemical transport technique, and their carrier concentration and Hall mobility were measured. The growth of boron arsenide crystals from high temperature solutions was attempted without success. Bulk crystals of boron phosphide were also prepared by chemical transport and solution growth techniques. Techniques required for the fabrication of boron phosphide devices such as junction shaping, diffusion, and contact formation were investigated. Alloying techniques were developed for the formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts to boron phosphide. Four types of boron phosphide devices were fabricated: (1) metal-insulator-boron phosphide structures, (2) Schottky barriers; (3) boron phosphide-silicon carbide heterojunctions; and (4) p-n homojunctions. Easily visible red electroluminescence was observed from both epitaxial and solution grown p-n junctions.

  2. Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate. (United States)

    Ghazali, Norizzawati Mohd; Yasui, Kanji; Hashim, Abdul Manaf


    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm(2) using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish, and a new nanowire-like GaN structures appear. These results show that the presented method seems to be promising in producing high-quality h-GaN nanostructures on Si.

  3. Luminescence Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars


    This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference...

  4. Nanosecond dynamics of a gallium mirror's light-induced reflectivity change

    CERN Document Server

    Albanis, V; Emelyanov, V I; Fedotov, V A; MacDonald, K F; Petropoulos, P M; Richardson, D J; Zheludev, N I


    Transient pump-probe optical reflectivity measurements of the nano/microsecond dynamics of a fully reversible, light-induced, surface-assisted metallization of gallium interfaced with silica are reported. The metallization leads to a considerable increase in the interface's reflectivity when solid a-gallium is on the verge of melting. The reflectivity change was found to be a cumulative effect that grows with light intensity and pulse duration. The reflectivity relaxes back to that of alpha-gallium when the excitation is withdrawn in a time that increases critically at gallium's melting point. The effect is attributed to a non-thermal light-induced structural phase transition.

  5. Cutaneous gallium uptake in patients with AIDS with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare septicemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.


    Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection.

  6. Thermo-chemical properties and electrical resistivity of Zr-based arsenide chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schlechte, R. Niewa, M. Schmidt, G. Auffermann, Yu. Prots, W. Schnelle, D. Gnida, T. Cichorek, F. Steglich and R. Kniep


    Full Text Available Ternary phases in the systems Zr–As–Se and Zr–As–Te were studied using single crystals of ZrAs1.40(1Se0.50(1 and ZrAs1.60(2Te0.40(1 (PbFCl-type of structure, space group P4/nmm as well as ZrAs0.70(1Se1.30(1 and ZrAs0.75(1Te1.25(1 (NbPS-type of structure, space group Immm. The characterization covers chemical compositions, crystal structures, homogeneity ranges and electrical resistivities. At 1223 K, the Te-containing phases can be described with the general formula ZrAsxTe2−x, with 1.53(1≤x≤1.65(1 (As-rich and 0.58(1≤x≤0.75(1 (Te-rich. Both phases are located directly on the tie-line between ZrAs2 and ZrTe2, with no indication for any deviation. Similar is true for the Se-rich phase ZrAsxSe2−x with 0.70(1≤x≤0.75(1. However, the compositional range of the respective As-rich phase ZrAsx−ySe2−x (0.03(1≤y≤0.10(1; 1.42(1≤x≤1.70(1 is not located on the tie-line ZrAs2–ZrSe2, and exhibits a triangular region of existence with intrinsic deviation of the composition towards lower non-metal contents. Except for ZrAs0.75Se1.25, from the homogeneity range of the Se-rich phase, all compounds under investigation show metallic characteristics of electrical resistivity at temperatures >20 K. Related uranium and thorium arsenide selenides display a typical magnetic field-independent rise of the resistivity towards lower temperatures, which has been explained by a non-magnetic Kondo effect. However, a similar observation has been made for ZrAs1.40Se0.50, which, among the Zr-based arsenide chalcogenides, is the only system with a large concentration of intrinsic defects in the anionic substructure.

  7. Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atsumi, Katsuhiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Inoue, Yoku; Nakano, Takayuki, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan)


    In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN) semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN) samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to α-rays but poor sensitivity to γ-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after α-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

  8. Ultra-low threshold gallium nitride photonic crystal nanobeam laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Nan, E-mail:; Woolf, Alexander; Wang, Danqing; Hu, Evelyn L. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Zhu, Tongtong; Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Quan, Qimin [Rowland Institute at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (United States)


    We report exceptionally low thresholds (9.1 μJ/cm{sup 2}) for room temperature lasing at ∼450 nm in optically pumped Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanobeam cavity structures. The nanobeam cavity geometry provides high theoretical Q (>100 000) with small modal volume, leading to a high spontaneous emission factor, β = 0.94. The active layer materials are Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) fragmented quantum wells (fQWs), a critical factor in achieving the low thresholds, which are an order-of-magnitude lower than obtainable with continuous QW active layers. We suggest that the extra confinement of photo-generated carriers for fQWs (compared to QWs) is responsible for the excellent performance.

  9. Amorphous carbon buffer layers for separating free gallium nitride films (United States)

    Altakhov, A. S.; Gorbunov, R. I.; Kasharina, L. A.; Latyshev, F. E.; Tarala, V. A.; Shreter, Yu. G.


    The possibility of using amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films for self-separation of gallium nitride (GaN) layers grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy has been analyzed. DLC films have been synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition under low pressure on sapphire (Al2O3) substrates with a (0001) crystallographic orientation. The samples have been studied by the methods of Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that thin DLC films affect only slightly the processes of nucleation and growth of gallium nitride films. Notably, the strength of the "GaN film-Al2O3" substrate interface decreases, which facilitates separation of the GaN layers.

  10. Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Atsumi


    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to α-rays but poor sensitivity to γ-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after α-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

  11. Schottky Contact of Gallium on p-Type Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Modi


    Full Text Available The evolution of barrier at Schottky contact and its stabilization to value characterized by the barrier height and unambiguous measurement is still being curiously perused as they hold the key control and manufacture of tailor made Schottky devices for a host of existing and potential for future applications in electronics, optoelectronics and microwave devices. In this context, gallium – silicon Schottky diode has been fabricated and analyzed.

  12. CRITICAL ASSESSMENT: Gallium nitride based visible light emitting diodes


    Oliver, Rachel A.


    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Maney Publishing. Solid state lighting based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a technology with the potential to drastically reduce energy usage, made possible by the development of gallium nitride and its alloys. However, the nitride materials family exhibits high defect densities and, in the equilibrium wurtzite crystal phase, large piezo-electric and polarisation fields arising a...

  13. Error in anti-DNA antibody radioimmunoassay after gallium scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torretti, D.; Rooney, P.; Williams, G.; Decker, J.L.


    Significant interference with the accurate measurement of anti-DNA antibodies occurs after gallium-67 scanning. The observed effect is dependent on the radioimmunoassay used. False-negative results are observed with a modified Farr assay whereas false-positive results are noted in the millipore filter assay. These spurious values are the result of persistent radioactivity in the patients' sera after administration of /sup 67/Ga citrate.

  14. Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11) (United States)


    for HPE GaN high electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ) compared to SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Although a few...Figure 16. Asymmetric rocking curve for an HVPE film grown on an HVPE substrate. ............19 Figure 17. Schematic of a GaN /AlGaN HEMT structure grown...frequency (RF) HEMTs . These considerable investments can be leveraged for GaN HPE. Some people are concerned about the relative scarcity of gallium

  15. Single and double ionization of gallium by electron impact

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L K Jha


    Electron impact single and double ionization cross sections of gallium have been calculated in the binary encounter approximation using accurate expression for including exchange and interference as given by Vriens and Hartree–Fock velocity distributions for the target electrons throughout the calculations. It is concluded that the ionization of 3d shell contributes partly to single ionization and partly to double ionization. The results so obtained show reasonably good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Aging and memory effect in magnetoelectric gallium ferrite single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Vijay; Mukherjee, Somdutta [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Mitra, Chiranjib [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata 741252 (India); Garg, Ashish [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Gupta, Rajeev, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)


    Here, we present a time and temperature dependent magnetization study to understand the spin dynamics in flux grown single crystals of gallium ferrite (GaFeO{sub 3}), a known magnetoelectric, ferroelectric and ferrimagnet. Results of the magnetic measurements conducted in the field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) protocols in the heating and cooling cycles were reminiscent of a “memory” effect. Subsequent time dependent magnetic relaxation measurements carried out in ZFC mode at 30 K with an intermittent cooling to 20 K in the presence of a small field show that the magnetization in the final wait period tends to follow its initial state which was present before the cooling break taken at 20 K. These observations provide an unambiguous evidence of single crystal gallium ferrite having a spin glass like phase. - Highlights: • Gallium ferrite a room temperature magnetoelectric and ferrimagnetic material. • Spin‐glass like phase at low temperatures below ∼200 K. • Observation of memory and aging effects in GFO.

  17. Aqueous stability of Ga- and N-polar gallium nitride. (United States)

    Foster, Corey M; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko; Ivanisevic, Albena


    The stability of III-nitride semiconductors in various solutions becomes important as researchers begin to integrate them into sensing platforms. This study quantitatively compares the stability of GaN surfaces with different polarities. This type of quantification is important because it represents the first step toward designing semiconductor material interfaces compatible with solution conditions. A stability study of Ga- and N-polar GaN was conducted by immersion of the surfaces in deionized H(2)O, pH 5, pH 9, and H(2)O(2) solutions for 7 days. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of the solutions was conducted to determine the amount of gallium leached from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to compare the treated surfaces to untreated surfaces. The results show that both gallium nitride surface types exhibit the greatest stability in acidic and neutral solutions. Gallium polar surfaces were found to exhibit superior stability to nitrogen polar surfaces in the solutions studied. Our findings highlight the need for further research on surface passivation and functionalization techniques for polar III-nitride semiconductors.

  18. Gallium-68: chemistry and radiolabeled peptides exploring different oncogenic pathways. (United States)

    Morgat, Clément; Hindié, Elif; Mishra, Anil K; Allard, Michèle; Fernandez, Philippe


    Abstract Early and specific tumor detection and also therapy selection and response evaluation are some challenges of personalized medicine. This calls for high sensitive and specific molecular imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET). The use of peptides for PET molecular imaging has undeniable advantages: possibility of targeting through peptide-receptor interaction, small size and low-molecular weight conferring good penetration in the tissue or at cellular level, low toxicity, no antigenicity, and possibility of wide choice for radiolabeling. Among β(+)-emitter radioelements, Gallium-68 is a very attractive positron-emitter compared with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 taking into account its easy production via a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator and well established radiochemistry. Gallium-68 chemistry is based on well-defined coordination complexes with macrocycle or chelates having strong binding properties, particularly suitable for linking peptides that allow resistance to in vivo transchelation of the metal ion. Understanding specific and nonspecific molecular mechanisms involved in oncogenesis is one major key to develop new molecular imaging tools. The present review focuses on peptide signaling involved in different oncogenic pathways. This peptide signalization might be common for tumoral and non-tumoral processes or could be specific of an oncological process. This review describes gallium chemistry and different (68)Ga-radiolabeled peptides already in use or under development aiming at developing molecular PET imaging of different oncological processes.

  19. Challenges for critical raw material recovery from WEEE - The case study of gallium. (United States)

    Ueberschaar, Maximilian; Otto, Sarah Julie; Rotter, Vera Susanne


    Gallium and gallium compounds are more frequently used in future oriented technologies such as photovoltaics, light diodes and semiconductor technology. In the long term the supply risk is estimated to be critical. Germany is one of the major primary gallium producer, recycler of gallium from new scrap and GaAs wafer producer. Therefore, new concepts for a resource saving handling of gallium and appropriate recycling strategies have to be designed. This study focus on options for a possible recycling of gallium from waste electric and electronic equipment. To identify first starting points, a substance flow analysis was carried out for gallium applied in integrated circuits applied on printed circuit boards and for LEDs used for background lighting in Germany in 2012. Moreover, integrated circuits (radio amplifier chips) were investigated in detail to deduce first approaches for a recycling of such components. An analysis of recycling barriers was carried out in order to investigate general opportunities and risks for the recycling of gallium from chips and LEDs. Results show, that significant gallium losses arose in primary production and in waste management. 93±11%, equivalent to 43,000±4700kg of the total gallium potential was lost over the whole primary production process until applied in electronic goods. The largest share of 14,000±2300kggallium was lost in the production process of primary raw materials. The subsequent refining process was related to additional 6900±3700kg and the chip and wafer production to 21,700±3200kg lost gallium. Results for the waste management revealed only low collection rates for related end-of-life devices. Not collected devices held 300 ± 200 kg gallium. Due to the fact, that current waste management processes do not recover gallium, further 80 ± 10 kg gallium were lost. A thermal pre-treatment of the chips, followed by a manual separation allowed an isolation of gallium rich fractions, with gallium mass fractions up to

  20. Instrumented SSH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott


    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  1. Nonlinear radiation response of n-doped indium antimonide and indium arsenide in intense terahertz field (United States)

    Gong, Jiao-Li; Liu, Jin-Song; Chu, Zheng; Yang, Zhen-Gang; Wang, Ke-Jia; Yao, Jian-Quan


    The nonlinear radiation responses of two different n-doped bulk semiconductors: indium antimonide (InSb) and indium arsenide (InAs) in an intense terahertz (THz) field are studied by using the method of ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) at room temperature. The results show that the radiations of two materials generate about 2-THz periodic regular spectrum distributions under a high field of 100 kV/cm at 1-THz center frequency. The center frequencies are enhanced to about 7 THz in InSb, and only 5 THz in InAs, respectively. The electron valley occupancy and the percentage of new electrons excited by impact ionization are also calculated. We find that the band nonparabolicity and impact ionization promote the generation of nonlinear high frequency radiation, while intervalley scattering has the opposite effect. Moreover, the impact ionization dominates in InSb, while impact ionization and intervalley scattering work together in InAs. These characteristics have potential applications in up-convension of THz wave and THz nonlinear frequency multiplication field. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574105 and 61177095), the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant Nos. 2012FFA074 and 2013BAA002), the Wuhan Municipal Applied Basic Research Project, China (Grant No. 20140101010009), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2013KXYQ004 and 2014ZZGH021).

  2. Superconductivity in the ternary iridium-arsenide BaIr2As2 (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Ruan, Bin-Bin; Yu, Jia; Pan, Bo-Jin; Mu, Qing-Ge; Liu, Tong; Chen, Gen-Fu; Ren, Zhi-An


    Here we report the synthesis and discovery of superconductivity in a novel ternary iridium-arsenide compound BaIr2As2. The polycrystalline BaIr2As2 sample was first synthesized by a high temperature and high pressure method. Crystal structural analysis indicates that BaIr2As2 crystallizes in the ThCr2Si2-type layered tetragonal structure with space group I4/mmm (No. 139), and the lattice parameters were refined to be a = 4.052(9) Å and c = 12.787(8) Å. By the electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements we found type-II superconductivity in the new BaIr2As2 compound with a T c (critical temperature) of 2.45 K, and an upper critical field μ 0 H c2(0) about 0.2 T. Low temperature specific heat measurements gave a Debye temperature of about 202 K and a distinct specific jump with ΔC e /γT c = 1.36, which is close to the value of BCS weak coupling limit and confirms the bulk superconductivity in this new BaIr2As2 compound.

  3. Ab-initio Electronic, Transport and Related Properties of Zinc Blende Boron Arsenide (zb-BAs) (United States)

    Nwigboji, Ifeanyi H.; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola

    We present results from ab-initio, self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) calculations of electronic, transport, and bulk properties of zinc blende boron arsenide (zb-BAs). We utilized a local density approximation (LDA) potential and the linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) formalism. Our computational technique follows the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin. Our results include electronic energy bands, densities of states, and effective masses. We explain the agreement between these findings, including the indirect band gap, and available, corresponding, experimental ones. This work confirms the capability of DFT to describe accurately properties of materials, provided the computations adhere to the conditions of validity of DFT [AIP Advances, 4, 127104 (2014)]. Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE- NA0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.

  4. Triamidoamine thorium-arsenic complexes with parent arsenide, arsinidiide and arsenido structural motifs (United States)

    Wildman, Elizabeth P.; Balázs, Gábor; Wooles, Ashley J.; Scheer, Manfred; Liddle, Stephen T.


    Despite a major expansion of uranium-ligand multiple bond chemistry in recent years, analogous complexes involving other actinides (An) remain scarce. For thorium, under ambient conditions only a few multiple bonds to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and chalcogenides are reported, and none to arsenic are known; indeed only two complexes with thorium-arsenic single bonds have been structurally authenticated, reflecting the challenges of stabilizing polar linkages at the large thorium ion. Here, we report thorium parent-arsenide (ThAsH2), -arsinidiides (ThAs(H)K and ThAs(H)Th) and arsenido (ThAsTh) linkages stabilized by a bulky triamidoamine ligand. The ThAs(H)K and ThAsTh linkages exhibit polarized-covalent thorium-arsenic multiple bonding interactions, hitherto restricted to cryogenic matrix isolation experiments, and the AnAs(H)An and AnAsAn linkages reported here have no precedent in f-block chemistry. 7s, 6d and 5f orbital contributions to the Th-As bonds are suggested by quantum chemical calculations, and their compositions unexpectedly appear to be tensioned differently compared to phosphorus congeners.

  5. Triamidoamine thorium-arsenic complexes with parent arsenide, arsinidiide and arsenido structural motifs (United States)

    Wildman, Elizabeth P.; Balázs, Gábor; Wooles, Ashley J.; Scheer, Manfred; Liddle, Stephen T.


    Despite a major expansion of uranium–ligand multiple bond chemistry in recent years, analogous complexes involving other actinides (An) remain scarce. For thorium, under ambient conditions only a few multiple bonds to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and chalcogenides are reported, and none to arsenic are known; indeed only two complexes with thorium–arsenic single bonds have been structurally authenticated, reflecting the challenges of stabilizing polar linkages at the large thorium ion. Here, we report thorium parent–arsenide (ThAsH2), –arsinidiides (ThAs(H)K and ThAs(H)Th) and arsenido (ThAsTh) linkages stabilized by a bulky triamidoamine ligand. The ThAs(H)K and ThAsTh linkages exhibit polarized-covalent thorium–arsenic multiple bonding interactions, hitherto restricted to cryogenic matrix isolation experiments, and the AnAs(H)An and AnAsAn linkages reported here have no precedent in f-block chemistry. 7s, 6d and 5f orbital contributions to the Th–As bonds are suggested by quantum chemical calculations, and their compositions unexpectedly appear to be tensioned differently compared to phosphorus congeners. PMID:28276437

  6. Zintl cluster chemistry in the alkali-metal-gallium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Robert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Previous research into the alkali-metal-gallium systems has revealed a large variety of networked gallium deltahedra. The clusters are analogues to borane clusters and follow the same electronic requirements of 2n+2 skeletal electrons for closo-deltahedra. This work has focused on compounds that do not follow the typical electron counting rules. The first isolated gallium cluster was found in Cs8Ga11. The geometry of the Ga117- unit is not deltahedral but can be described as a penta-capped trigonal prism. The reduction of the charge from a closo-Ga1113- to Ga117- is believed to be the driving force of the distortion. The compound is paramagnetic because of an extra electron but incorporation of a halide atom into the structure captures the unpaired electron and forms a diamagnetic compound. A second isolated cluster has been found in Na10Ga10Ni where the tetra-capped trigonal prismatic gallium is centered by nickel. Stabilization of the cluster occurs through Ni-Ga bonding. A simple two-dimensional network occurs in the binary K2Ga3 Octahedra are connected through four waist atoms to form a layered structure with the potassium atoms sitting between the layers. Na30.5Ga60-xAgx is nonstoichiometric and needs only a small amount of silver to form (x ~ 2-6). The structure is composed of three different clusters which are interconnected to form a three-dimensional structure. The RbGa3-xAux system is also nonstoichiometric with a three-dimensional structure composed of Ga8 dodecahedra and four-bonded gallium atoms. Unlike Na30.5Ga60-xAgx, the RbGa3 binary is also stable. The binary is formally a Zintl phase but the ternary is not. Some chemistry in the alkali-metal-indium system also has been explored. A new potassium-indium binary

  7. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams


    ) show the dynamic nature of policy processes, and (3) consider the search for policy reference points among the different actors. We present rankers in motion, policies in motion, and finally the complex nature of the ranking device that needs to be both a relevant and malleable policy instrument...

  8. Bone tissue incorporates in vitro gallium with a local structure similar to gallium-doped brushite. (United States)

    Korbas, M; Rokita, E; Meyer-Klaucke, W; Ryczek, J


    During mineral growth in rat bone-marrow stromal cell cultures, gallium follows calcium pathways. The dominant phase of the cell culture mineral constitutes the poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP). This model system mimics bone mineralization in vivo. The structural characterization of the Ga environment was performed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ga K-edge. These data were compared with Ga-doped synthetic compounds (poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite, amorphous calcium phosphate and brushite) and with strontium-treated bone tissue, obtained from the same culture model. It was found that Sr(2+) substitutes for Ca(2+) in the HAP crystal lattice. In contrast, the replacement by Ga(3+) yielded a much more disordered local environment of the probe atom in all investigated cell culture samples. The coordination of Ga ions in the cell culture minerals was similar to that of Ga(3+), substituted for Ca(2+), in the Ga-doped synthetic brushite (Ga-DCPD). The Ga atoms in the Ga-DCPD were coordinated by four oxygen atoms (1.90 A) of the four phosphate groups and two oxygen atoms at 2.02 A. Interestingly, the local environment of Ga in the cell culture minerals was not dependent on the onset of Ga treatment, the Ga concentration in the medium or the age of the mineral. Thus, it was concluded that Ga ions were incorporated into the precursor phase to the HAP mineral. Substitution for Ca(2+ )with Ga(3+) distorted locally this brushite-like environment, which prevented the transformation of the initially deposited phase into the poorly crystalline HAP.

  9. Gallium-containing polymer brush film as efficient supported Lewis acid catalyst in a glass microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munirathinam, Rajesh; Ricardi, Roberto; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Holtkamp, Michael; Wormeester, Herbert; Karst, U.; Verboom, Willem


    Polystyrene sulfonate polymer brushes, grown on the interior of the microchannels in a microreactor, have been used for the anchoring of gallium as a Lewis acid catalyst. Initially, gallium-containing polymer brushes were grown on a flat silicon oxide surface and were characterized by FTIR,

  10. Gallium nitrate: effects on cartilage during limb regeneration in the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. (United States)

    Tassava, Roy A; Mendenhall, Luciara; Apseloff, Glen; Gerber, Nicholas


    Gallium nitrate, a drug shown to have efficacy in Paget's disease of bone, hypercalcemia of malignancy, and a variety of experimental autoimmune diseases, also inhibits the growth of some types of cancer. We examined dose and timing of administration of gallium nitrate on limb regeneration in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. Administered by intraperitoneal injection, gallium nitrate inhibited limb regeneration in a dose-dependent manner. Gallium nitrate initially suppressed epithelial wound healing and subsequently distorted both anterior-posterior and proximo-distal chondrogenic patterns. Gallium nitrate given at three days after amputation severely inhibited regeneration at high doses (6.25 mg/axolotl) and altered the normal patterning of the regenerates at low doses (3.75 mg/axolotl). Administration of 6.25 mg of gallium nitrate at four or 14 days prior to amputation also inhibited regeneration. In amputated limbs of gallium-treated axolotls, the chondrocytes were lost from inside the radius/ulna. Limbs that regenerated after gallium treatment was terminated showed blastema formation preferentially over the ulna. New cartilage of the regenerate often attached to the sides of the existing radius/ulna proximally into the stump and less so to the distal cut ends. J. Exp. Zool. 293:384-394, 2002.

  11. Failure of Gallium-67 scintigraphy to identify reliably noninfectious interstitial nephritis: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Moreno, A.J.


    Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of noninfectious interstitial nephritis. We studied 12 patients with Ga-67 citrate that were diagnosed as having noninfectious interstitial nephritis on renal biopsy. Only seven of the twelve patients with interstitial nephritis on biopsy were scan-positive. Gallium-67 scintigraphy may not reliably identify noninfectious interstitial nephritis.

  12. Thermal Stability and Spectroscopic Properties of Yb3+-Doped New Gallium-Lead-Germanate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-Qing; FENG Ai-Ming; ZHANG Li-Yan; ZHAO Shi-Long; WANG Bao-Ling; ZHANG Jue; WANG Wei; BAO Ren-Qiang


    @@ Yb3+-doped new gallium-lead-germanate glass is presented. Thermal stability, spectroscopic and laser performance parameters of the Yb3+-doped new gallium-lead-germanate glass are calculated. The results show that the Yb3+-doped new gallium-lead-germanate glass has good thermal stability (△T = 198 ℃), high stimulated emission cross section (0.79pm2), and long fluorescence lifetime (1.46ms). Compared with other Yb3+-doped glass hosts, the Yb3+-doped new gallium-lead-germanate glass has better laser performance parameters and laser properties, indicating that Yb3+-doped new gallium-lead-germanate glass is a promising laser material for short pulse generation in diode pumped lasers, short pulse generation tunable laser, high-peak power and high-average power lasers.

  13. Activity of gallium on prevention of fatal cage-layer osteoporosis. (United States)

    Chen, Xiuxia; Wang, Chao


    The prevention of fatal cage-layer osteoporosis of gallium was studied in this paper. One-day-old hens were fed up to 68 weeks on a control diet and diets containing gallium. Plasma variables were measured during lay. End-of-lay trabecular and medullary bone volumes in the proximal tarsometatarsus and free thoracic vertebra were measured by histomorphometry. Medullary and trabecular bone volumes were increased significantly by supplementation with gallium. The experiment confirmed that dietary gallium supplementation was an effective way to enhance the egg production and reduce mortality percentage. The beneficial effects of gallium supplementation over the lifetime of the hens were attributable mainly to improved cage-layer osteoporosis.

  14. Gallium nitrate regulates rat osteoblast expression of osteocalcin protein and mRNA levels. (United States)

    Guidon, P T; Salvatori, R; Bockman, R S


    Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, has been found to be clinically effective for the treatment of accelerated bone resorption in cancer-related hypercalcemia and Paget's disease. Here we report the effects of gallium nitrate on osteocalcin mRNA and protein levels on the rat osteoblast-like cell line ROS 17/2.8. Gallium nitrate reduced both constitutive and vitamin D3-stimulated osteocalcin protein levels in culture medium by one-half and osteocalcin mRNA levels to one-third to one-tenth of control. Gallium nitrate also inhibited vitamin D3 stimulation of osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA levels but did not affect constitutive osteopontin mRNA levels. Among several different metals examined, gallium was unique in its ability to reduce osteocalcin mRNA levels without decreasing levels of other mRNAs synthesized by ROS 17/2.8 cells. The effects of gallium nitrate on osteocalcin mRNA and protein synthesis mimic those seen when ROS 17/2.8 cells are exposed to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1); however, TGF-beta 1 was not detected in gallium nitrate-treated ROS 17/2.8 cell media. Use of the RNA polymerase II inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole demonstrated that gallium nitrate did not alter the stability of osteocalcin mRNA. Transient transfection assays using the rat osteocalcin promoter linked to the bacterial reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase indicated that gallium nitrate blocked reporter gene expression stimulated by the osteocalcin promoter. This is the first reported effect of gallium nitrate on isolated osteoblast cells.

  15. Control of Surface Attack by Gallium Alloys in Electrical Contacts. (United States)


    and atmospheric control but does not allow visual observation of the contact brushes. This machine is a small homopolar motor built from mild steel...collectors,gallium, homopolar devices,liquid metals,~- is. ABSTRACT ICNI.. .. w 41N"w Wrllt by Itabata" * Electrical contact between a copp’er...32 5 Test rig with felt metal brushes 32 6 Homopolar test apparatus 33 7 Rewetting of alloy track 33 8 Alloy track after running with finger 34 brushes

  16. Phase Coexistence in Gallium Nanoparticles Controlled by Electron Excitation (United States)

    Pochon, S.; MacDonald, K. F.; Knize, R. J.; Zheludev, N. I.


    In gallium nanoparticles 100nm in diameter grown on the tip of an optical fiber from an atomic beam we observed equilibrium coexistence of γ, β, and liquid structural phases that can be controlled by e-beam excitation in a highly reversible and reproducible fashion. With 2keV electrons only 1pJ of excitation energy per nanoparticle is needed to exercise control, with the equilibrium phase achieved in less than a few tenths of a microsecond. The transformations between coexisting phases are accompanied by a continuous change in the nanoparticle film's reflectivity.

  17. Gallium uptake in tryptophan-related pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.M.; Park, C.H.; Intenzo, C.M.; Patel, R. (Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))


    We describe a patient who developed fever, fatigue, muscle weakness, dyspnea, skin rash, and eosinophilia after taking high doses of tryptophan for insomnia for two years. A gallium-67 scan revealed diffuse increased uptake in the lung and no abnormal uptake in the muscular distribution. Bronchoscopy and biopsy confirmed inflammatory reactions with infiltration by eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes. CT scan showed an interstitial alveolar pattern without fibrosis. EMG demonstrated diffuse myopathy. Muscle biopsy from the right thigh showed an inflammatory myositis with eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltrations.

  18. Self-diffusion in liquid gallium and hard sphere model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagoveshchenskii Nikolay


    Full Text Available Incoherent and coherent components of quasielastic neutron scattering have been studied in the temperature range of T = 313 K – 793 K aiming to explore the applicability limits of the hard-sphere approach for the microscopic dynamics of liquid gallium, which is usually considered as a non-hard-sphere system. It was found that the non-hard-sphere effects come into play at the distances shorter than the average interatomic distance. The longer range diffusive dynamics of liquid Ga is dominated by the repulsive forces between the atoms.

  19. Electronic transport properties of graphene doped by gallium (United States)

    Mach, J.; Procházka, P.; Bartošík, M.; Nezval, D.; Piastek, J.; Hulva, J.; Švarc, V.; Konečný, M.; Kormoš, L.; Šikola, T.


    In this work we present the effect of low dose gallium (Ga) deposition (graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. In situ graphene transport measurements performed with a graphene field-effect transistor structure show that at low Ga coverages a graphene layer tends to be strongly n-doped with an efficiency of 0.64 electrons per one Ga atom, while the further deposition and Ga cluster formation results in removing electrons from graphene (less n-doping). The experimental results are supported by the density functional theory calculations and explained as a consequence of distinct interaction between graphene and Ga atoms in case of individual atoms, layers, or clusters.

  20. Spectroscopy of vanadium (III) doped gallium lanthanum sulphide chalcogenide glass

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, M; Rutt, H; Hewak, D


    Vanadium doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass (V:GLS) displays three absorption bands at 580, 730 and 1155 nm identified by photoluminescence excitation measurements. Broad photoluminescence, with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 500 nm, is observed peaking at 1500 nm when exciting at 514, 808 and 1064 nm. The fluorescence lifetime and quantum efficiency at 300 K were measured to be 33.4 us and 4 % respectively. From the available spectroscopic data we propose the vanadium ions valence to be 3+ and be in tetrahedral coordination The results indicate potential for development of a laser or optical amplifier based on V:GLS.

  1. Properties Of Gallium-doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium



    The effects of adding small quantities of gallium atoms to hydrogenated amorphous germanium (a-Ge:H) on its dark-conductivity, band-gap, electronic density of states and the hydrogen bonding, were studied in detail by dark-conductivity, optical and infrared-transmission, and photothermal- deflection-spectroscopy measurements. Films of a-Ge:H having relative Ga atomic concentrations ranging between 3×10-5 and 1×10-2 were deposited by the cosputtering of solid Ge and Ga targets in a rf-plasma s...

  2. Visible light metasurfaces based on gallium nitride high contrast gratings (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhai; He, Shumin; Liu, Qifa; Wang, Wei


    We propose visible-light metasurfaces (VLMs) capable of serving as lens and beam deflecting element based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). By precisely manipulating the wavefront of the transmitted light, we theoretically demonstrate an HCG focusing lens with transmissivity of 86.3%, and a VLM with beam deflection angle of 6.09° and transmissivity as high as 91.4%. The proposed all-dielectric metasurfaces are promising for GaN-based visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which would be robust and versatile for controlling the output light propagation and polarization, as well as enhancing the extraction efficiency of the LEDs.

  3. Fabrication of hexagonal gallium nitride films on silicon (111) substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li; XUE Chengshan; WANG Cuimei; LI Huaixiang; REN Yuwen


    Hexagonal gallium nitride films were successfully fabricated through ammoniating Ga2O3 films deposited on silicon (111 ) substrates by electrophoresis. The structure, composition, and surface morphology of the formed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measurement results reveal that the polycrystalline GaN films with hexagonal wurtzite structure were successfully grown on the silicon (111) substrates. Preliminary results suggest that varying the ammoniating temperature has obvious effect on the quality of the GaN films formed with this method.

  4. Lasing action in gallium nitride quasicrystal nanorod arrays. (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Pang; Sou, Kuok-Pan; Chen, Chieh-Han; Cheng, Yuh-Jen; Huang, Ji-Kai; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsieh, Wen-Feng


    We report the observation of lasing action from an optically pumped gallium nitride quasicrystal nanorod arrays. The nanorods were fabricated from a GaN substrate by patterned etching, followed by epitaxial regrowth. The nanorods were arranged in a 12-fold symmetric quasicrystal pattern. The regrowth grew hexagonal crystalline facets and core-shell multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on nanorods. Under optical pumping, multiple lasing peaks resembling random lasing were observed. The lasing was identified to be from the emission of MQWs on the nanorod sidewalls. The resonant spectrum and mode field of the 12-fold symmetric photonic quasicrystal nanorod arrays is discussed.

  5. Gallium nitride electrodes for membrane-based electrochemical biosensors. (United States)

    Schubert, T; Steinhoff, G; von Ribbeck, H-G; Stutzmannn, M; Eickhoff, M; Tanaka, M


    We report on the deposition of planar lipid bilayers (supported membranes) on gallium nitride (GaN) electrodes for potential applications as membrane-based biosensors. The kinetics of the lipid membrane formation upon vesicle fusion were monitored by simultaneous measurements of resistance and capacitance of the membrane using AC impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range between 50 mHz and 50 kHz. We could identify a two-step process of membrane spreading and self-healing. Despite its relatively low resistance, the membrane can be modeled by a parallel combination of an ideal resistor and capacitor, indicating that the membrane efficiently blocks the diffusion of ions.

  6. A review of magnetostrictive iron-gallium alloys (United States)

    Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Flatau, Alison B.


    A unique combination of low hysteresis, moderate magnetostriction at low magnetic fields, good tensile strength, machinability and recent progress in commercially viable methods of processing iron-gallium alloys make them well poised for actuator and sensing applications. This review starts with a brief historical note on the early developments of magnetostrictive materials and moves to the recent work on FeGa alloys and their useful properties. This is followed by sections addressing the challenges specific to the characterization and processing of FeGa alloys and the state of the art in modeling their actuation and sensing behavior.

  7. Phase diagram of (Li(1-x)Fe(x))OHFeSe: a bridge between iron selenide and arsenide superconductors. (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Zhou, Huaxue; Yang, Huaixin; Yuan, Jie; Jin, Kui; Zhou, Fang; Yuan, Dongna; Wei, Linlin; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Xinqiang; Zhang, Guangming; Zhao, Zhongxian


    Previous experimental results have shown important differences between iron selenide and arsenide superconductors which seem to suggest that the high-temperature superconductivity in these two subgroups of iron-based families may arise from different electronic ground states. Here we report the complete phase diagram of a newly synthesized superconducting (SC) system, (Li1-xFex)OHFeSe, with a structure similar to that of FeAs-based superconductors. In the non-SC samples, an antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin-density-wave (SDW) transition occurs at ∼127 K. This is the first example to demonstrate such an SDW phase in an FeSe-based superconductor system. Transmission electron microscopy shows that a well-known √5×√5 iron vacancy ordered state, resulting in an AFM order at ∼500 K in AyFe2-xSe2 (A = metal ions) superconductor systems, is absent in both non-SC and SC samples, but a unique superstructure with a modulation wave vector q = (1)/2(1,1,0), identical to that seen in the SC phase of KyFe2-xSe2, is dominant in the optimal SC sample (with an SC transition temperature Tc = 40 K). Hence, we conclude that the high-Tc superconductivity in (Li1-xFex)OHFeSe stems from the similarly weak AFM fluctuations as FeAs-based superconductors, suggesting a universal physical picture for both iron selenide and arsenide superconductors.

  8. Gallium-67 uptake by the thyroid associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoberg, R.J.; Blue, P.W.; Kidd, G.S.


    Although thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 has been described in several thyroid disorders, gallium-67 scanning is not commonly used in the evaluation of thyroid disease. Thyroidal gallium-67 uptake has been reported to occur frequently with subacute thyroiditis, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma, and occasionally with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular thyroid carcinoma. A patient is described with progressive systemic sclerosis who, while being scanned for possible active pulmonary involvement, was found incidentally to have abnormal gallium-67 uptake only in the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs with increased frequency in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 associated with progressive systemic sclerosis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. Since aggressive thyroid malignancies frequently are imaged by gallium-67 scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid often is essential in the evaluation of thyroidal gallium-67 uptake.

  9. Gallium-67 scanning in the staging of cryptogenetic fibrosing alveolitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderstappen, M.; Mornex, J.F.; Lahneche, B.; Chauvot, P.; Bouvier, J.F.; Wiesendanger, T.; Pages, J.; Webert, P.; Cordier, J.F.; Brune, J.


    Gallium-67 citrate is known to localize within inflammatory sites. Gallium-67 scanning is used for the evaluation of lung inflammation (i.e. alveolitis) during interstitial lung diseases. We investigated 27 patients with cryptogenetic fibrosing alveolitis (n=17) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n=10) using gallium-67 lung scanning and lung function tests (forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity, resting and exercise blood gases). Investigations were performed before and after one year of methylprednisolone treatment. None of eight healthy volunteers had any abnormal gallium-67 uptake. In all patients with cryptogenetic fibrosing alveolitis and initial abnormal gallium-67 uptake was observed (mean fixation index: 163+-18). In addition, analysis of lung function tests a year after initial evaluation showed that unchanged or improving patients presented initially with a lower gallium-67 index than patients with evidence of deterioration (163.9+-23.7 vs 251.0+-23.3.; p<0.01). Similarly, among patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis the index was lower in unchanged or improving patients than in those with deterioration (74.0+-22 vs 226.7+-4.9; p<0.05). Thus gallium-67 scanning is useful in the management of cryptogenetic fibrosing alveolitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

  10. Gallium nanoparticles colloids synthesis for UV bio-optical sensors (United States)

    Nucciarelli, Flavio; Bravo, Iria; Vázquez, Luis; Lorenzo, Encarnación; Pau, Jose Luis


    A new method for the synthesis of colloidal gallium nanoparticles (Ga NPs) based on the thermal evaporation of Ga on an expendable aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) layer is presented here. The growth of AZO layers was investigated on different substrates at room temperature and 300 °C. By means of physical evaporation process, nanoparticles were deposited with a distribution ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm in diameter. A study of their endurance in acidic environment was carried out in order to assure the NPs shape and size stability during the etching process. Smaller particles start to disappear between 1h and 2h immersion time in a pH=1 solution, while bigger particles reduce their dimension. The NPs were dispersed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) organic solvent and optically characterized, showing strong UV absorption with a band centered at 280 nm. The colloids size distribution of as-evaporated samples was compared with the distribution obtained in droplets of the solution after drop-casting. By Dipole Discrete Approximation simulations, a close relationship between the UV absorption and the NPs with diameter smaller than 40 nm was found. Because of the gallium oxide (Ga1-xOx) outer shell that surrounds the Ga NPs, an enhancement of their hydrophobicity occurs. Hence, the low agglomeration state between NPs in tetrahydrofuran allows to obtain narrow absorption band in the optical spectrum.

  11. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of chromium in gallium. (United States)

    Palrecha, M M; Mathur, P K


    The electroanalytical chemistry of trace metals has progressed strongly with the development of cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) preceded by adsorption collection of organic metal complexes. A sensitive method for the determination of trace amount of chromium in gallium is described. Gallium is dissolved in sodium hydroxide containing hydrogen peroxide. The method is based on the catalytic activity of nitrate ions on the reduction of Cr(III)TTHA (triethylene tetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexaacetic acid) complex. The sensitivity of this method is further improved by adsorption preconcentration of Cr(III)TTHA complex at a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The Cr(III) formed at the electrode surface by the reduction of Cr(VI), which is present in the bulk solution, is immediately complexed by TTHA. The adsorbed complex is then reduced at a peak potential of - 1.26 V, and the peak height of Cr(III) reduction is measured. The determination limit was restricted by the amount of chromium present in the reagent blank solution. The method is suitable for the determination of chromium at level as low as 0.2 mug g(-1) (with about 50 mg of sample) and a relative standard deviation of 15%.

  12. Low temperature solid-state synthesis of nanocrystalline gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liangbiao, E-mail: [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Liang; Li, Qianwen; Si, Lulu; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► GaN nanocrystalline was prepared via a solid-state reacion at relatively low temperature. ► The sizes and crystallinities of the GaN samples obtained at the different temperatures are investigated. ► The GaN sample has oxidation resistance and good thermal stability below 1000 °C. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline gallium nitride was synthesized by a solid-state reaction of metallic magnesium powder, gallium sesquioxide and sodium amide in a stainless steel autoclave at a relatively low temperature (400–550 °C). The structures and morphologies of the obtained products were derived from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD patterns indicated that the products were hexagonal GaN (JCPDS card no. 76-0703). The influence of reaction temperature on size of the products was studied by XRD and TEM. Furthermore, the thermal stability and oxidation resistance of the nanocrystalline GaN were also investigated. It had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 800 °C in air.

  13. Manganese Atom Ordered Monolayer on Wurtzite Gallium Nitride (United States)

    Chinchore, Abhijit; Wang, Kangkang; Lin, Wenzhi; Pak, Jeongihm; Liu, Yinghao; Smith, Arthur


    While transition-metal-doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films have been explored as potential dilute magnetic semiconductor bulk layers, the structural and magnetic effects of various transition metal adatoms on GaN surfaces are not even well understood. In this work, we investigate the sub-monolayer deposition of manganese (Mn) onto the N-polar wurtzite GaN (000-1) 1x1 surface. The growth is monitored in-situ using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). A fresh GaN(000-1) 1x1 surface is prepared by rf nitrogen plasma-assisted MBE followed by annealing to remove excess gallium adatoms. The atomically flat GaN surface, held at 200^o C, is then exposed to submonolayer doses of Mn. The deposition rate is maintained at 0.007 ML per second, and a 3x pattern develops along [10-10]; whereas, only 1x is seen along [11-20]. Analysis of the RHEED pattern and subsequent modeling indicates a 3 x3 R 30^o structure consisting of 2/3 ML Mn atoms in a row-like arrangement having spacing 3a/2 along rows and 3a/2 between rows. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy studies are currently underway to explore this surface further. This work is supported by DOE (Grant No.DE-FG02-06ER46317) and NSF (Grant No. 0730257).

  14. Crystallographic alignment of high-density gallium nitride nanowire arrays. (United States)

    Kuykendall, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter J; Zhang, Yanfeng; Goldberger, Joshua; Sirbuly, Donald; Denlinger, Jonathan; Yang, Peidong


    Single-crystalline, one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are considered to be one of the critical building blocks for nanoscale optoelectronics. Elucidation of the vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanism has already enabled precise control over nanowire position and size, yet to date, no reports have demonstrated the ability to choose from different crystallographic growth directions of a nanowire array. Control over the nanowire growth direction is extremely desirable, in that anisotropic parameters such as thermal and electrical conductivity, index of refraction, piezoelectric polarization, and bandgap may be used to tune the physical properties of nanowires made from a given material. Here we demonstrate the use of metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and appropriate substrate selection to control the crystallographic growth directions of high-density arrays of gallium nitride nanowires with distinct geometric and physical properties. Epitaxial growth of wurtzite gallium nitride on (100) gamma-LiAlO(2) and (111) MgO single-crystal substrates resulted in the selective growth of nanowires in the orthogonal [1\\[Evec]0] and [001] directions, exhibiting triangular and hexagonal cross-sections and drastically different optical emission. The MOCVD process is entirely compatible with the current GaN thin-film technology, which would lead to easy scale-up and device integration.

  15. Single step low temperature synthesis of gadolinium gallium garnet nanopowders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rekha Mann; Kiranmala Laishram; Neelam Malhan


    Solution combustion synthesis of single-phase gadolinium gallium oxide (Gd3Ga5O12,GGG) nanopowders,by a fuel mixture approach using urea and glycine at a low temperature of 500 ℃,was being reported for the first time.Based on the fact that urea and glycine are good fuels for gallium oxide and gadolinium oxide synthesis,the fuel mixture composition was obtained,which could lead to direct phase pure cubic Gd3Ga5O12 formation without any subsequent calcination step.Combustion was carried out in furnace pre-heated at 500 ℃.Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of combustion product showed negligible mass loss indicating direct formation of GGG powder.Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of combusted product showed peak characteristic of GGG in case of mixed fuel.X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed formation of phase pure GGG at 500 ℃ in preheated furnace.Very fine,well dispersed nanometric particles of size range of 50-100 nm were obtained,being uniform and close to spherical morphology as observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM).

  16. Gallium-67 scintigraphy and intraabdominal sepsis. Clinical experience in 140 patients with suspected intraabdominal abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, G.B.; Kan, M.; Mende, C.W.


    In 140 patients with suspected intraabdominal abscess, studies were made using gallium-67 citrate and technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Gallium-67 scintigrams correctly localized 52 of 56 intraabdominal abscesses confirmed at surgical operation or necropsy. In an additional 20 patients in whom findings on scintigrams were abnormal, there were clinically established infections. Sixty-one patients in whom findings on scintigrams were normal were conservatively managed and discharged from the hospital; none proved to have an abscess. Four false-negative and three false-positive studies were recorded. Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a useful noninvasive diagnostic adjunct that should be employed early in the evaluation of patients with suspected intraabdominal sepsis.

  17. Precise Analysis of Gallium Isotopic Composition by MC-ICP-MS. (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Chen, Jiu Bin; Birck, Jean-Louis; Yin, Zuo Ying; Yuan, Sheng Liu; Cai, Hong Ming; Wang, Zhong Wei; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Zhu Hong


    Though an isotope approach could be beneficial for better understanding the biogeochemical cycle of gallium (Ga), an analogue of the monoisotopic element aluminum (Al), the geochemistry of Ga isotopes has not been widely elaborated. We developed a two-step method for purifying Ga from geological (biological) samples for precise measurement of Ga isotope ratio using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Ga was thoroughly separated from other matrix elements using two chromatographic columns loaded with AG 1-X4 and Ln-spec resin, respectively. The separation method was carefully calibrated using both synthetic and natural samples and validated by assessing the extraction yield (99.8 ± 0.8%, 2SD, n = 23) and the reproducibility (2SD uncertainty better than 0.05‰, n = 116) of the measured isotopic ratio (expressed as δ(71)Ga). The validation of the whole protocol, together with instrumental analysis, was confirmed by the investigation of the matrix effect, the result of a standard addition experiment, and the comparison of Ga isotope measurement on two mass spectrometers-Nu Plasma II and Neptune Plus. Although the measurements using the sample-standard bracketing (SSB) correction method on both instruments resulted in identical δ(71)Ga values for reference materials, the modified empirical external normalization (MEEN) method gave relatively better precision compared to SSB on Neptune. Our preliminary results showed large variation of δ(71)Ga (up to 1.83‰) for 10 standards, with higher values in industrially produced materials, implying potential application of Ga isotopes.

  18. Optical Instruments (United States)


    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  19. Limits on nu_e and anti-nu_e disappearance from Gallium and reactor experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, Mario A; Laveder, Marco


    The disappearance of electron neutrinos observed in the Gallium radioactive source experiments is analyzed in the framework of two-neutrino mixing. It is shown that there is an indication of neutrino disappearance due to neutrino oscillations with sin^2 2 theta >~ 0.04 and Delta m^2 >~ 0.1 eV^2. The compatibility of this result with the data of the Bugey and Chooz reactor short-baseline antineutrino disappearance experiments is studied. It is found that the Bugey data present a weak indication in favor of neutrino oscillations with 0.02 <~ sin^2 2 theta <~ 0.08 and Delta m^2 =~ 1.85 eV^2, which is compatible with the Gallium allowed region of the mixing parameters. This indication persists in the combined analyses of Bugey and Chooz data, of Gallium and Bugey data, and of Gallium, Bugey, and Chooz data.

  20. Homogeneous dispersion of gallium nitride nanoparticles in a boron nitride matrix by nitridation with urea. (United States)

    Kusunose, Takafumi; Sekino, Tohru; Ando, Yoichi


    A Gallium Nitride (GaN) dispersed boron nitride (BN) nanocomposite powder was synthesized by heating a mixture of gallium nitrate, boric acid, and urea in a hydrogen atmosphere. Before heat treatment, crystalline phases of urea, boric acid, and gallium nitrate were recognized, but an amorphous material was produced by heat treatment at 400 degrees C, and then was transformed into GaN and turbostratic BN (t-BN) by further heat treatment at 800 degrees C. TEM obsevations of this composite powder revealed that single nanosized GaN particles were homogeneously dispersed in a BN matrix. Homogeneous dispersion of GaN nanoparticles was thought to be attained by simultaneously nitriding gallium nitrate and boric acid to GaN and BN with urea.

  1. Efficient bifunctional gallium-68 chelators for positron emission tomography: tris(hydroxypyridinone) ligands


    Berry, David J; Ma, Yongmin; Ballinger, James R.; Tavaré, Richard; Koers, Alexander; Sunassee, Kavitha; Zhou, Tao; Nawaz, Saima; Mullen, Gregory E. D.; Robert C. Hider; Blower, Philip J.


    A new tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) bifunctional chelator for gallium allows easy production of 68Ga-labelled proteins rapidly under mild conditions in high yields at exceptionally high specific activity and low concentration.

  2. A generator-produced gallium-68 radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of myocardial perfusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Vijay; Sivapackiam, Jothilingam; Harpstrite, Scott E; Prior, Julie L; Gu, Hannah; Rath, Nigam P; Piwnica-Worms, David


    ... incorporating alternative radionuclides. Recently, germanium/gallium (Ge/Ga) generators capable of producing high quality 68Ga, an isotope with excellent emission characteristics for clinical PET imaging, have emerged...

  3. Electrical properties of boron, phosphorus and gallium co-doped silicon


    Fourmond, Erwann; Forster, Maxime; Einhaus, Roland; Lauvray, Hubert


    à paraître dans Energy Procedia; International audience; A number of ingots were grown from solar grade poly Silicon, to which Boron, Phosphorous and Gallium were added as dopants. The introduction of Gallium as a third dopant allowed for a better control of the resistivity and the doping type during ingot growth. Measured resistivity in this material is shown to be systematically higher than that calculated using Scheil's law for the dopants distribution and Klaassen's model for the majority...

  4. Heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Detection by gallium scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drane, W.E.; Tipler, B.M.


    A case of heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) secondary to the central nervous system complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported. Because of the overwhelming suspicion of infection in this patient, this diagnosis was not considered until a gallium scan revealed the typical findings of heterotopic ossification. Because of the increasing utilization of gallium imaging in the AIDS population, every imaging specialist should be aware of this potential disorder.

  5. Heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Detection by gallium scintigraphy. (United States)

    Drane, W E; Tipler, B M


    A case of heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) secondary to the central nervous system complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported. Because of the overwhelming suspicion of infection in this patient, this diagnosis was not considered until a gallium scan revealed the typical findings of heterotopic ossification. Because of the increasing utilization of gallium imaging in the AIDS population, every imaging specialist should be aware of this potential disorder.

  6. The Role of Gallium scanning in the detection of bone and joint sepsis


    Gavin, Anna; Laird, J. D.; Roberts, S.D.


    The value of gallium (67Ga) scanning in the diagnosis of septic disease of bone or joint was assessed in 34 patients. The results show a sensitivity of 60 per cent and specificity of 64 per cent. The low accuracy of this method for the detection of bone and joint sepsis (62 per cent) means that gallium scanning can be used only as an adjunct to other investigative techniques.

  7. Evaluation of Magnetostrictive Shunt Damper Performance Using Iron (Fe)-Gallium (Ga) Alloy (United States)


    Evaluation of Magnetostrictive Shunt Damper Performance Using Iron (Fe)-Gallium (Ga) Alloy by Andrew James Murray and Dr. JinHyeong Yoo...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 ARL-TN-0566 September 2013 Evaluation of Magnetostrictive Shunt Damper Performance Using Iron (Fe... Magnetostrictive Shunt Damper Performance Using Iron (Fe)- Gallium (Ga) Alloy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  8. Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire localized by gallium scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, G.S.; Calubiran, O.; Cunha, B.A. (Winthrop-Univ. Hospital, Mineola, NY (USA))


    A young woman with a history of sick sinus syndrome and placement of a permanent pacemaker 6 months before admission had fever and Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia. A gallium scan localized the infection to the site of the pacemaker wire. Echocardiograms were negative for any vegetations. The patient responded to cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy. We believe that this is the first case of H. parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire and localized by gallium scan.

  9. Fabrication and properties of gallium phosphide variable colour displays (United States)

    Effer, D.; Macdonald, R. A.; Macgregor, G. M.; Webb, W. A.; Kennedy, D. I.


    The unique properties of single-junction gallium phosphide devices incorporating both red and green radiative recombination centers were investigated in application to the fabrication of monolithic 5 x 7 displays capable of displaying symbolic and alphanumeric information in a multicolor format. A number of potentially suitable material preparation techniques were evaluated in terms of both material properties and device performance. Optimum results were obtained for double liquid-phase-epitaxial process in which an open-tube dipping technique was used for n-layer growth and a sealed tipping procedure for subsequent p-layer growth. It was demonstrated that to prepare devices exhibiting a satisfactory range of dominant wavelengths which can be perceived as distinct emission colors extending from the red through green region of the visible spectrum involves a compromise between the material properties necessary for efficient red emission and those considered optimum for efficient green emission.

  10. Kinetically controlled growth of gallium on stepped Si (553) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, Syed Khalid; Govind,, E-mail:


    Kinetically controlled growth of gallium (Ga) metal has been reported on high index stepped Si (553) surface and its thermal stability with various novel superstructural phases has been analyzed. Auger electron spectroscopy studies revealed that the adsorption of Ga at room temperature (RT) follows Frank–van der Merwe (FM) growth mode while for higher substrate temperature, Ga adsorption remains within the submonolayer range. Thermal desorption and low energy electron diffraction studies investigated the formation of thermally stable Ga-islands and the various Ga induced superstructural phase on Si (553). During room temperature adsorption, (1 1 1)7 × 7 facet of Si (553) reconstructed into (1 1 1)6 × 6 facet while during desorption process, stable (1 1 1)6 × 6 and (1 1 1)√3 × √3-R30° surface reconstructions has been observed.

  11. Low-threshold indium gallium nitride quantum dot microcavity lasers (United States)

    Woolf, Alexander J.

    Gallium nitride (GaN) microcavities with embedded optical emitters have long been sought after as visible light sources as well as platforms for cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) experiments. Specifically, materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots (QDs) offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices, such as on-chip light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Inherent advantages of nitride-based microcavities include low surface recombination velocities, enhanced room-temperature performance (due to their high exciton binding energy, as high as 67 meV for InGaN QDs), and emission wavelengths in the blue region of the visible spectrum. In spite of these advantages, several challenges must be overcome in order to capitalize on the potential of this material system. Such diffculties include the processing of GaN into high-quality devices due to the chemical inertness of the material, low material quality as a result of strain-induced defects, reduced carrier recombination effciencies due to internal fields, and a lack of characterization of the InGaN QDs themselves due to the diffculty of their growth and therefore lack of development relative to other semiconductor QDs. In this thesis we seek to understand and address such issues by investigating the interaction of light coupled to InGaN QDs via a GaN microcavity resonator. Such coupling led us to the demonstration of the first InGaN QD microcavity laser, whose performance offers insights into the properties and current limitations of the nitride materials and their emitters. This work is organized into three main sections. Part I outlines the key advantages and challenges regarding indium gallium nitride (InGaN) emitters embedded within gallium nitride (GaN) optical microcavities. Previous work is also discussed which establishes context for the work presented here. Part II includes the fundamentals related to laser operation, including the

  12. From Bidentate Gallium Lewis Acids to Supramolecular Complexes. (United States)

    Horstmann, Jan; Hyseni, Mentor; Mix, Andreas; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Mitzel, Norbert W


    Bidentate gallium Lewis acids were prepared by the reaction of diethynyldiphenylsilane with neat trimethyl- or triethylgallium. Bis[(dimethylgallyl)ethynyl]diphenylsilane (1) and diethylgallyl derivative 2 were characterized as Et2 O or pyridine adducts by NMR spectroscopy; 2⋅2Py was isolated. Lewis acids 1 and 2 form host-guest adducts with bidentate nitrogen bases, but defined cyclic 1:1 adducts are only formed between 1 and bases with matching N⋅⋅⋅N distances: 4,4'-dimethyl-3,3'-bipyridinylacetylene (3), bis[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]diphenylsilane (4), and bis[(2-methylpyridin-5-yl)ethynyl]diphenylsilane (5). The structures of adducts 1⋅3, 1⋅4, and 1⋅5 were established by X-ray diffraction experiments. 2⋅2Py reacts with DABCO to afford polymeric (DABCO-2-)n . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Compilation of gallium resource data for bauxite deposits (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Foley, Nora K.


    Gallium (Ga) concentrations for bauxite deposits worldwide have been compiled from the literature to provide a basis for research regarding the occurrence and distribution of Ga worldwide, as well as between types of bauxite deposits. In addition, this report is an attempt to bring together reported Ga concentration data into one database to supplement ongoing U.S. Geological Survey studies of critical mineral resources. The compilation of Ga data consists of location, deposit size, bauxite type and host rock, development status, major oxide data, trace element (Ga) data and analytical method(s) used to derive the data, and tonnage values for deposits within bauxite provinces and districts worldwide. The range in Ga concentrations for bauxite deposits worldwide is

  14. Fractal characteristics of nanocrystalline indium and gallium sulfide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, P.U., E-mail: [Solid State Physics Division, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dutta, Dimple P. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    The structure of nano-sized powders of indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) and gallium sulfide (Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}), prepared by single source precursor route has been investigated by small angle X-ray scattering technique. The particle morphology shows interesting fractal nature. For In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, the nanoparticle aggregates show a mass fractal with fractal dimension 2.0 that increases with longer time of thermal treatment. Below the length scale of about 20 nm, the particles have a rough surface with a surface fractal dimension of 2.8. Unlike In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, structure of Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} exhibits a single surface fractal over whole q-range of study. The estimated particle sizes are in range of 5-15 nm and the results are supported by transmission electron microscope.

  15. Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide parametric oscillator crystals. (United States)

    Marquardt, C L; Cooper, D G; Budni, P A; Knights, M G; Schepler, K L; Dedomenico, R; Catella, G C


    We performed an experimental investigation of thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide (AgGaSe(2)) optical parametric oscillator crystals pumped by a 2-µm laser at ambient temperature. We determined an empirical expression for the effective thermal focusing power in terms of the pump power, beam diameter, crystal length, and absorption coefficient. This relation may be used to estimate average power limitations in designing AgGaSe(2) optical parametric oscillators. We also demonstrated an 18% slope efficiency from a 2-µm pumped AgGaSe(2) optical parametric oscillator operated at 77 K, at which temperature thermal lensing is substantially reduced because of an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the thermal index gradient dn/dT. Cryogenic cooling may provide an additional option for scaling up the average power capability of a 2-µm pumped AgGaSe(2) optical parametric oscillator.

  16. L-Cysteine-assisted Synthesis of Copper Gallium Sulfide Microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiao-juan; ZHONG Jia-song; CAI Qian; HUANG Hai-yu; LIU Hai-tao; XIANG Wei-dong; SUN Jun-cai


    An effective L-cysteine-assisted synthetic route has been successfully developed to prepare copper gallium sulfide(CuGaS2) microspheres under solvothermal conditions with CuCI2-2H2O,GaCl3 and L-cysteine as source materials,in which L-cysteine was used as the sulfide source and eomplexing molecule.The experiments revealed that the synthesized sample was of a typical CuGaS2 tetragonal structure.Moreover,the prepared CuGaS2 crystals consisting of microspheres made up of nanoflakes,and the diameter of the nanoflakes was about 20 nm.Raman spectrum of the obtained CuGaS2 exhibits a high-intensity peak of the A1 mode at 306 cm-1.Meanwhile,a possible growth mechanism was proposed based on the investigations.

  17. Gallium-68 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET Imaging. (United States)

    Hofman, Michael S; Iravani, Amir


    The role of gallium-68 ((68)Ga) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET imaging is evolving and finding its place in the imaging armamentarium for prostate cancer (PCa). Despite the progress of conventional imaging strategies, significant limitations remain, including identification of small-volume disease and assessment of bone. Clinical studies have demonstrated that (68)Ga-PSMA is a promising tracer for detection of PCa metastases, even in patients with low prostate-specific antigen. To provide an accurate interpretation of (68)Ga-PSMA PET/computed tomography, nuclear medicine specialists and radiologists should be familiar with physiologic (68)Ga-PSMA uptake, common variants, patterns of locoregional and distant spread of PCa, and inherent pitfalls.

  18. Band structures in silicene on monolayer gallium phosphide substrate (United States)

    Ren, Miaojuan; Li, Mingming; Zhang, Changwen; Yuan, Min; Li, Ping; Li, Feng; Ji, Weixiao; Chen, Xinlian


    Opening a sizable band gap in the zero-gap silicene is a key issue for its application in nanoelectronics. We design new 2D silicene and GaP heterobilayer (Si/GaP HBL) composed of silicene and monolayer (ML) GaP. Based on first-principles calculations, we find that the interaction energies are in the range of -295.5 to -297.5 meV per unit cell, indicating a weak interaction between silicene and gallium phosphide (GaP) monolayer. The band gap changes ranging from 0.06 to 0.44 eV in hybrid HBLs. An unexpected indirect-direct band gap crossover is also observed in HBLs, dependent on the stacking pattern. These provide a possible way to design effective FETs out of silicene on GaP monolayer.

  19. Localized surface phonon polariton resonances in polar gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Kaijun, E-mail:; Islam, S. M.; Verma, Jai; Hoffman, Anthony J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Streyer, William; Wasserman, Daniel [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)


    We demonstrate the excitation of localized surface phonon polaritons in an array of sub-diffraction pucks fabricated in an epitaxial layer of gallium nitride (GaN) on a silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. The array is characterized via polarization- and angle-dependent reflection spectroscopy in the mid-infrared, and coupling to several localized modes is observed in the GaN Reststrahlen band (13.4–18.0 μm). The same structure is simulated using finite element methods and the charge density of the modes are studied; transverse dipole modes are identified for the transverse electric and magnetic polarizations and a quadrupole mode is identified for the transverse magnetic polarization. The measured mid-infrared spectrum agrees well with numerically simulated spectra. This work could enable optoelectronic structures and devices that support surface modes at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths.

  20. Modeling and simulation of bulk gallium nitride power semiconductor devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sabui


    Full Text Available Bulk gallium nitride (GaN power semiconductor devices are gaining significant interest in recent years, creating the need for technology computer aided design (TCAD simulation to accurately model and optimize these devices. This paper comprehensively reviews and compares different GaN physical models and model parameters in the literature, and discusses the appropriate selection of these models and parameters for TCAD simulation. 2-D drift-diffusion semi-classical simulation is carried out for 2.6 kV and 3.7 kV bulk GaN vertical PN diodes. The simulated forward current-voltage and reverse breakdown characteristics are in good agreement with the measurement data even over a wide temperature range.

  1. Gallium Nitride Electrical Characteristics Extraction and Uniformity Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyr-Long Jeng


    Full Text Available This study examined the output electrical characteristics—current-voltage (I-V output, threshold voltage, and parasitic capacitance—of novel gallium nitride (GaN power transistors. Experimental measurements revealed that both enhanced- and depletion-mode GaN field-effect transistors (FETs containing different components of identical specifications yielded varied turn-off impedance; hence, the FET quality was inconsistent. Establishing standardized electrical measurements can provide necessary information for designers, and measuring transistor electrical characteristics establishes its equivalent-circuit model for circuit simulations. Moreover, high power output requires multiple parallel power transistors, and sorting the difference between similar electrical characteristics is critical in a power system. An isolated gate driver detection method is proposed for sorting the uniformity from the option of the turn-off characteristic. In addition, an equivalent-circuit model for GaN FETs is established on the basis of the measured electrical characteristics and verified experimentally.

  2. Infrared emission from holmium doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass (United States)

    Schweizer, T.; Samson, B. N.; Hector, J. R.; Brocklesby, W. S.; Hewak, D. W.; Payne, D. N.


    Infrared emission at 1.2, 1.25, 1.67, 2.0, 2.2, 2.9, 3.9, and 4.9 μm is measured in holmium (Ho 3+) doped gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glass. Branching ratios, radiative quantum efficiencies, and emission cross-sections are calculated from lifetime, absorption, and emission measurements using Judd-Ofelt analysis and the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg equation. The fluorescence band at 3.9 μm coincides with an atmospheric transmission window and the fluorescence band at 4.9 μm overlaps with the fundamental absorption of carbon monoxide, making the glass a potential fibre laser source for remote sensing and gas sensing applications. This is the first time this latter transition has been reported in any holmium doped host.

  3. Kinetically controlled growth of gallium on stepped Si (553) surface (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, Syed Khalid; Govind


    Kinetically controlled growth of gallium (Ga) metal has been reported on high index stepped Si (553) surface and its thermal stability with various novel superstructural phases has been analyzed. Auger electron spectroscopy studies revealed that the adsorption of Ga at room temperature (RT) follows Frank-van der Merwe (FM) growth mode while for higher substrate temperature, Ga adsorption remains within the submonolayer range. Thermal desorption and low energy electron diffraction studies investigated the formation of thermally stable Ga-islands and the various Ga induced superstructural phase on Si (553). During room temperature adsorption, (1 1 1)7 × 7 facet of Si (553) reconstructed into (1 1 1)6 × 6 facet while during desorption process, stable (1 1 1)6 × 6 and (1 1 1)√3 × √3-R30° surface reconstructions has been observed.

  4. Trivalent gallium ion conduction in NASICON-type solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Tamura


    Full Text Available A new trivalent gallium (Ga3+ ion conducting solid was successfully developed by selecting the three dimensionally well-ordered NASICON-type structure. Although Ga is accepted as a species whose covalency is so high that trivalent Ga3+ ion is inappropriate ionic species in solids to migrate due to its strong bonding with surrounding ions such as oxide anion, we demonstrated the trivalent Ga3+ ion conduction in the NASICON-type (GaxTi1−x4/(4−xNb(PO43 solids by strictly selecting the constituent cations. Among the samples prepared, (Ga0.1Ti0.940/39Nb(PO43 showed the highest Ga3+ ion conductivity of 5.1 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 600 °C.

  5. Resonant magnetic properties of gadolinium-gallium garnet single crystals (United States)

    Bedyukh, A. R.; Danilov, V. V.; Nechiporuk, A. Yu.; Romanyuk, V. F.


    The results of experimental investigations of resonant magnetic properties of gadolinium-gallium garnet (GGG) single crystals at temperatures 4.2-300 K in the frequency range 1.6-9.3 GHz are considered. It is found that magnetic losses in GGG are determined by the initial splitting of energy levels for gadolinium ions in the garnet crystal lattice and by the dipole broadening. The width and shape of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line in the GGG crystal, whose asymmetry is manifested most strongly at low frequencies, can be explained by the influence of these factors. Magnetic losses in GGG increase with frequency and upon cooling. It is found that the EPR linewidth increases considerably with decreasing temperature due to the presence of rapidly relaxing impurities.

  6. High-Temperature Decomposition of Brønsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo


    The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.

  7. Novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate containing 6-fold coordinated gallium atoms with unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Espina, Aránzazu; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Amghouz, Zakariae [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García, José R. [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García-Granda, Santiago, E-mail: [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)


    A novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate, formulated as Ga(H{sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure, including hydrogen positions, was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic, a=9.4886(3) Å, b=6.0374(2) Å, c=10.2874(3) Å, and β=104.226(3)°, space group Pc) and the bulk was characterized by chemical (Ga–P–C–H–N) and thermal analysis (TG–MS and DSC), including activation energy data of its thermo-oxidative degradation, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, SAED/NBD, and STEM BF-EDX). The crystal structure is built up of infinite zig-zag chains running along the c-axis, formed by vertex-shared (PO{sub 4}) and (GaO{sub 2}N{sub 4}) polyhedra. The new compound is characterized by unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds coming from two nonequivalent ethylenediamine molecules and exhibits strong blue emission at 430 nm (λ{sub ex}=350 nm) in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of a new ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate, Ga(H{sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, were obtained and the structural features presented. This structure is one of the scarce examples of GaPO with Ga–N bonds reported. - Highlights: • A novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate was hydrothermally synthesized. • The new compound is characterized by unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds. • Void-volume analysis shows cages and channels with sizes ideally suited to accommodate small molecules. • The new compound exhibits strong blue emission.

  8. Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.

  9. Origin of optical bistability and hysteretic reflectivity on account of nonlinearity at optically induced gallium silica interface (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind; Nagar, A. K.


    The origin of optical bistability and hysterectic reflectivity on account of nonlinearity at optically induced Gallium silica interface has been investigated. Assuming the wave to be incident from the gallium nano particle layer side at gallium silica interface. The coupling between incident and reflected waves has shown nonlinear effects on Snell's law and Fresnel law. Effect of these nonlinear processes optical bistability and hysterectic reflectivity theoretically has been investigated. Theoretical results obtained are consistent with the available experimental results.

  10. Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices (United States)


    Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices by Marc Litz...MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7082 September 2014 Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN... Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  11. Epitaxially-grown Gallium Nitride on Gallium Oxide substrate for photon pair generation in visible and telecomm wavelengths

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.


    Gallium Nitride (GaN), along with other III-Nitrides, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications due to its wide direct energy bandgap, as well as high thermal stability. GaN is transparent over a wide wavelength range from infra-red to the visible band, which makes it suitable for lasers and LEDs. It is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a wide range of applications from all-optical signal processing to quantum computing and on-chip wavelength conversion. Despite its abundant use in commercial devices, there is still need for suitable substrate materials to reduce high densities of threading dislocations (TDs) and other structural defects like stacking faults, and grain boundaries. All these defects degrade the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer as they act as non-radiative recombination centers.

  12. Nucleation, propagation, electronic levels and elimination of misfit dislocations in III-V semiconductor interfaces. Final report, September 1, 1986--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ast, D.G.; Watson, G.P.; Matragrano, M.


    Misfit dislocations in gallium arsenides, indium arsenides, and zinc selenides are discussed. The growth of strained epitaxial layers, isolation and nucleation, thermal stability, and electronic and structural characteristics of misfit dislocations are described.

  13. In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics. (United States)

    Hofstetter, Markus; Howgate, John; Schmid, Martin; Schoell, Sebastian; Sachsenhauser, Matthias; Adigüzel, Denis; Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D; Thalhammer, Stefan


    There is an increasing interest in the integration of hybrid bio-semiconductor systems for the non-invasive evaluation of physiological parameters. High quality gallium nitride and its alloys show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Nevertheless, such applications not only request appropriate sensing capabilities but also the biocompatibility and especially the biofunctionality of materials. Here we show extensive biocompatibility studies of gallium nitride and, for the first time, a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Analytical sensor devices are used in medical settings, as well as for cell- and tissue engineering. Within these fields, semiconductor devices have increasingly been applied for online biosensing on a cellular and tissue level. Integration of advanced materials such as gallium nitride into these systems has the potential to increase the range of applicability for a multitude of test devices and greatly enhance sensitivity and functionality. However, for such applications it is necessary to optimize cell-surface interactions and to verify the biocompatibility of the semiconductor. In this work, we present studies of mouse fibroblast cell activity grown on gallium nitride surfaces after applying external noxa. Cell-semiconductor hybrids were irradiated with X-rays at air kerma doses up to 250 mGy and the DNA repair dynamics, cell proliferation, and cell growth dynamics of adherent cells were compared to control samples. The impact of ionizing radiation on DNA, along with the associated cellular repair mechanisms, is well characterized and serves as a reference tool for evaluation of substrate effects. The results indicate that gallium nitride does not require specific surface treatments to ensure biocompatibility and suggest that cell signaling is not affected by micro-environmental alterations arising from gallium nitride-cell interactions. The observation that gallium nitride provides no bio-functional influence on

  14. High Spatial Resolution Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for the Masses: A Novel Orthogonal ToF FIB-SIMS Instrument with In Situ AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Whitby


    Full Text Available We describe the design and performance of an orthogonal time-of-flight (TOF secondary ion mass spectrometer that can be retrofitted to existing focused ion beam (FIB instruments. In particular, a simple interface has been developed for FIB/SEM instruments from the manufacturer Tescan. Orthogonal extraction to the mass analyser obviates the need to pulse the primary ion beam and does not require the use of monoisotopic gallium to preserve mass resolution. The high-duty cycle and reasonable collection efficiency of the new instrument combined with the high spatial resolution of a gallium liquid metal ion source allow chemical observation of features smaller than 50 nm. We have also demonstrated the integration of a scanning probe microscope (SPM operated as an atomic force microscope (AFM within the FIB/SEM-SIMS chamber. This provides roughness information, and will also allow true three dimensional chemical images to be reconstructed from SIMS measurements.

  15. Electron tunneling transport across heterojunctions between europium sulfide and indium arsenide (United States)

    Kallaher, Raymond L.

    This dissertation presents research done on utilizing the ferromagnetic semiconductor europium sulfide (EuS) to inject spin polarized electrons into the non-magnetic semiconductor indium arsenide (InAs). There is great interest in expanding the functionality of modern day electronic circuits by creating devices that depend not only on the flow of charge in the device, but also on the transport of spin through the device. Within this mindset, there is a concerted effort to establish an efficient means of injecting and detecting spin polarized electrons in a two dimensional electron system (2DES) as the first step in developing a spin based field effect transistor. Thus, the research presented in this thesis has focused on the feasibility of using EuS, in direct electrical contact with InAs, as a spin injecting electrode into an InAs 2DES. Doped EuS is a concentrated ferromagnetic semiconductor, whose conduction band undergoes a giant Zeeman splitting when the material becomes ferromagnetic. The concomitant difference in energy between the spin-up and spin-down energy bands makes the itinerant electrons in EuS highly spin polarized. Thus, in principle, EuS is a good candidate to be used as an injector of spin polarized electrons into non-magnetic materials. In addition, the ability to adjust the conductivity of EuS by varying the doping level in the material makes EuS particularly suited for injecting spins into non-magnetic semiconductors and 2DES. For this research, thin films of EuS have been grown via e-beam evaporation of EuS powder. This growth technique produces EuS films that are sulfur deficient; these sulfur vacancies act as intrinsic electron donors and the resulting EuS films behave like heavily doped ferromagnetic semiconductors. The growth parameters and deposition procedures were varied and optimized in order to fabricate films that have minimal crystalline defects. Various properties and characteristics of these EuS films were measured and compared to

  16. Evaluating musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. Murray


    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  17. Cell behavior on gallium nitride surfaces: peptide affinity attachment versus covalent functionalization. (United States)

    Foster, Corey M; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko; Ivanisevic, Albena


    Gallium nitride is a wide band gap semiconductor that demonstrates a unique set of optical and electrical properties as well as aqueous stability and biocompatibility. This combination of properties makes gallium nitride a strong candidate for use in chemical and biological applications such as sensors and neural interfaces. Molecular modification can be used to enhance the functionality and properties of the gallium nitride surface. Here, gallium nitride surfaces were functionalized with a PC12 cell adhesion promoting peptide using covalent and affinity driven attachment methods. The covalent scheme proceeded by Grignard reaction and olefin metathesis while the affinity driven scheme utilized the recognition peptide isolated through phage display. This study shows that the method of attaching the adhesion peptide influences PC12 cell adhesion and differentiation as measured by cell density and morphological analysis. Covalent attachment promoted monolayer and dispersed cell adhesion while affinity driven attachment promoted multilayer cell agglomeration. Higher cell density was observed on surfaces modified using the recognition peptide. The results suggest that the covalent and affinity driven attachment methods are both suitable for promoting PC12 cell adhesion to the gallium nitride surface, though each method may be preferentially suited for distinct applications.

  18. Bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy in patients with adult still's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanegae, Futoshi; Tada, Yoshifumi; Ohta, Akihide; Ushiyama, Osamu; Suzuki; Noriaki; Koarada, Syuichi; Haruta, Yoshio; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Nagasawa, Kohei [Saga Medical School (Japan)


    We investigated the features and the usefulness of gallium scintigraphy in the diagnosis and the assessment of Adult Still's disease (ASD) by retrospective case review. Gallium scintigraphy have been done for 11 cases of ASD (3 males and 8 females) and 4 females were positive. Among these, 67 Ga-citrate was accumulated to the bone marrow in all 4 cases and to the major joints in 2 cases. Positive cases were rather serious and administered more immunosuppressants than negative cases. In order to characterize gallium scintigraphy findings of ASD, i.e. bone marrow accumulation, we analyzed 130 cases of collagen vascular disease. Although 101 cases (77.7%) were positive, only 7 cases (5.4%) showed the accumulation of {sup 67}Ga-citrate to the bone marrow. These include 3 cases with ASD, and 1 case with systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis and Sjogren's syndrome. We also accumulated 18 patients who exhibited bone marrow accumulation of {sup 69}Ga-citrate, and found that 7 patients had collagen vascular and their related diseases. In conclusion, bone marrow accumulation in gallium scintigraphy is a specific feature of collagen vascular diseases, especially ASD, and it is suggested that cases with positive gallium scintigraphy in ASD can be serious and resistant to treatment. (author)

  19. Gallium nitrate increases type I collagen and fibronectin mRNA and collagen protein levels in bone and fibroblast cells. (United States)

    Bockman, R S; Guidon, P T; Pan, L C; Salvatori, R; Kawaguchi, A


    Gallium is a Group IIIa transitional element with therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of metabolic bone disorders. Previously described antiresorptive effects of gallium on osteoclasts are not sufficient to account for the full range of effects of gallium on bone structure and metabolism. We have recently shown that gallium nitrate inhibits osteocalcin gene expression and the synthesis of osteocalcin protein, an osteoblast-specific bone matrix protein that is thought to serve as a signal to trigger osteoclastic resorption. Here we present evidence for an additional mechanism by which gallium may function to augment bone mass by altering matrix protein synthesis by osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. Rat calvarial explants exposed to gallium nitrate for 48 h showed increased incorporation of 3H-proline into hydroxyproline and collagenase digestible protein. In addition, gallium treatment increased steady-state mRNA levels for fibronectin and type I procollagen chains in primary rat calvarial osteoblast-enriched cultures, the ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic osteosarcoma line, and nontransformed human dermal fibroblasts. These findings suggest that the exposure of mesenchymally-derived cells to gallium results in an altered pattern of matrix protein synthesis that would favor increased bone formation.

  20. Studies on the reliability of ni-gate aluminum gallium nitride / gallium nitride high electron mobility transistors using chemical deprocessing (United States)

    Whiting, Patrick Guzek

    Aluminum Gallium Nitride / Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors are becoming the technology of choice for applications where hundreds of volts need to be applied in a circuit at frequencies in the hundreds of gigahertz, such as microwave communications. However, because these devices are very new, their reliability in the field is not well understood, partly because of the stochastic nature of the defects which form as a result of their operation. Many analytical techniques are not well suited to the analysis of these defects because they sample regions of the device which are either too small or too large for accurate observation. The use of chemical deprocessing in addition to surface-sensitive analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Probe Microscopy can be utilized in the analysis of defect formation in devices formed with nickel gates. Hydrofluoric acid is used to etch the passivation nitride which covers the semiconducting layer of the transistor. A metal etch utilizing FeCN/KI is used to etch the ohmic and gate contacts of the device and a long exposure in various solvent solutions is used to remove organic contaminants, exposing the surface of the semiconducting layer for analysis. Deprocessing was used in conjunction with a variety of metrology techniques to analyze three different defects. One of these defects is a nanoscale crack which emanates from metal inclusions formed during alloying of the ohmic contacts of the device prior to use in the field, could impact the yield of production-level manufacturing of these devices. This defect also appears to grow, in some cases, during electrostatic stressing. Another defect, a native oxide at the surface of the semiconducting layer which appears to react in the presence of an electric field, has not been observed before during post-mortem analysis of degraded devices. It could play a major part in the degredation of the gate contact during high-field, off

  1. Spin-phonon coupling in scandium doped gallium ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Keka R., E-mail:, E-mail:; Mukadam, M. D.; Basu, S.; Yusuf, S. M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Paul, Barnita; Roy, Anushree [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Grover, Vinita; Tyagi, A. K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    We embarked on a study of Scandium (Sc) doped (onto Ga site) gallium ferrite (GaFeO{sub 3}) and found remarkable magnetic properties. In both doped as well as parent compounds, there were three types of Fe{sup 3+} ions (depending on the symmetry) with the structure conforming to space group Pna2{sub 1} (Sp. Grp. No. 33) below room temperature down to 5 K. We also found that all Fe{sup 3+} ions occupy octahedral sites, and carry high spin moment. For the higher Sc substituted sample (Ga{sub 1−x}Sc{sub x}FeO{sub 3}: x = 0.3), a canted magnetic ordered state is found. Spin-phonon coupling below Néel temperature was observed in doped compounds. Our results indicated that Sc doping in octahedral site modifies spin-phonon interactions of the parent compound. The spin-phonon coupling strength was estimated for the first time in these Sc substituted compounds.

  2. The hyperfine properties of iron-gallium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M., E-mail:; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Rawas, A.; Yousif, A.; Widatallah, H.; Al-Azri, Maya [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Physics (Oman); Al-Barwani, M. [NYU Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    The hyperfine properties at Fe site in iron-gallium alloy are calculated using the full-potential linear-augmented-plane-waves method. We have calculated the Fermi contact field (B{sub hf}) and isomer shift (δ) at the Fe site versus the number of neighbouring Ga atoms. We found that B{sub hf} decrease whereas δ increases with increasing number of neighbouring G atom. In addition we have calculated the hyperfine properties of FeGa system with DO{sub 3} structure, where various distributions of 4 the Ga atoms in the conventional unit cell are considered (including the regular DO{sub 3} structure). We found that the DO{sub 3} structure has the lowest energy as compared to the other configurations. The two distinct A and D sites of the ordered DO{sub 3} conventional unit cell have two distinct values for B{sub hf} and δ. On changing the atomic arrangement of the Ga atoms within the conventional unit cell, the configuration of the A site is maintained whereas that of the D site becomes imperfect. The contact magnetic hyperfine fields of the D-like sites in the imperfect structures are lower than that of the DO{sub 3}D site.

  3. Thickness-induced structural phase transformation of layered gallium telluride. (United States)

    Zhao, Q; Wang, T; Miao, Y; Ma, F; Xie, Y; Ma, X; Gu, Y; Li, J; He, J; Chen, B; Xi, S; Xu, L; Zhen, H; Yin, Z; Li, J; Ren, J; Jie, W


    The thickness-dependent electronic states and physical properties of two-dimensional materials suggest great potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the enhanced surface effect in ultra-thin materials might significantly influence the structural stability, as well as the device reliability. Here, we report a spontaneous phase transformation of gallium telluride (GaTe) that occurred when the bulk was exfoliated to a few layers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicate a structural variation from a monoclinic to a hexagonal structure. Raman spectra suggest a critical thickness for the structural transformation. First-principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis show that the surface energy and the interlayer interaction compete to dominate structural stability in the thinning process. A two-stage transformation process from monoclinic (m) to tetragonal (T) and then from tetragonal to hexagonal (h) is proposed to understand the phase transformation. The results demonstrate the crucial role of interlayer interactions in the structural stability, which provides a phase engineering strategy for device applications.

  4. Two-dimensional gallium nitride realized via graphene encapsulation (United States)

    Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.; Wang, Ke; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Vilá, Rafael A.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Qin, Xiaoye; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Desario, Paul A.; Stone, Greg; Subramanian, Shruti; Paul, Dennis F.; Wallace, Robert M.; Datta, Suman; Redwing, Joan M.; Robinson, Joshua A.


    The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials `beyond graphene’ offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (~5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides `beyond hBN’ and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

  5. The hyperfine properties of iron-gallium alloys (United States)

    Elzain, M.; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Rawas, A.; Yousif, A.; Widatallah, H.; Al-Azri, Maya; Al-Barwani, M.


    The hyperfine properties at Fe site in iron-gallium alloy are calculated using the full-potential linear-augmented-plane-waves method. We have calculated the Fermi contact field (Bhf) and isomer shift ( δ) at the Fe site versus the number of neighbouring Ga atoms. We found that Bhf decrease whereas δ increases with increasing number of neighbouring G atom. In addition we have calculated the hyperfine properties of FeGa system with DO3 structure, where various distributions of 4 the Ga atoms in the conventional unit cell are considered (including the regular DO3 structure). We found that the DO3 structure has the lowest energy as compared to the other configurations. The two distinct A and D sites of the ordered DO3 conventional unit cell have two distinct values for Bhf and δ. On changing the atomic arrangement of the Ga atoms within the conventional unit cell, the configuration of the A site is maintained whereas that of the D site becomes imperfect. The contact magnetic hyperfine fields of the D-like sites in the imperfect structures are lower than that of the DO3D site.

  6. Optical Properties of Strained Wurtzite Gallium Phosphide Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Greil, J.


    Wurtzite gallium phosphide (WZ GaP) has been predicted to exhibit a direct bandgap in the green spectral range. Optical transitions, however, are only weakly allowed by the symmetry of the bands. While efficient luminescence has been experimentally shown, the nature of the transitions is not yet clear. Here we apply tensile strain up to 6% and investigate the evolution of the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of WZ GaP nanowires (NWs). The pressure and polarization dependence of the emission together with a theoretical analysis of strain effects is employed to establish the nature and symmetry of the transitions. We identify the emission lines to be related to localized states with significant admixture of Γ7c symmetry and not exclusively related to the Γ8c conduction band minimum (CBM). The results emphasize the importance of strongly bound state-related emission in the pseudodirect semiconductor WZ GaP and contribute significantly to the understanding of the optoelectronic properties of this novel material.

  7. Discovery of the superlarge gallium ore deposit in Jungar, Inner Mongolia, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shifeng; REN Deyi; LI Shengsheng


    Mineralogy and geochemistry of No.6 Coal from the Heidaigou Mine of the Jungar Coalfield of North China were studied using instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The results show that gallium concentration is as high as 44.8 μg·g-1 in the whole coal-channel sample, and varies from 30.1 μg·g-1 to 76.0 μg·g-1 (mean 51.9 μg·g-1) in the main minable benches of No.6 Coal. Such high concentration of Ga in the coal is far higher than the industrial grade (30 μg·g-1). The thickness of the main minable benches accounts for 81.9% of the whole coal bed. The laboratory high-temperature ashes (550℃) of the main minable coal benches also contain a high concentration of Ga, varying from 62.2 μg·g-1 to 178 μg·gμ1, with an average of 89.2 μg·g-1. The boehmite significantly enriched in No.6 Coal is the main carrier of the high Ga in the coal. Average concentration of Ga in boehmite is 0.09%. The average content of boehmite is 6.1% in the whole coal and 7.5% in the main minable benches. Boehmite is derived from the bauxite in the weathered crust of the underlying Benxi Formation in the north of the basin during the peat accumulation. The colloidal idrargillite had been shortly transported from the weathered crust to the peat mire, and owing to the compaction of the overlying strata during the peat accumulation and early diagenesis, the idrargillite colloid had begun to be dehydrated, leading to boehmite formation. A preliminary estimation showed that the ensured and prospected reserves of Ga in No.6 Coal are up to 6.3×104t and 8.57×105t, indicating a superlarge gallium ore deposit. The particular paleogeography of the Jungar Coalfield and the peculiar carrier of Ga in coal suggest that this Ga ore deposit is unique in the world. Rare earth elements are also enriched in coal and laboratory ashes

  8. Analysis and Design of a Gated Envelope Feedback Technique for Automatic Hardware Reconfiguration of RFIC Power Amplifiers, with Full On-Chip Implementation in Gallium Arsenide Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Technology (United States)

    Constantin, Nicolas Gerard David

    In this doctoral dissertation, the author presents the theoretical foundation, the analysis and design of analog and RF circuits, the chip level implementation, and the experimental validation pertaining to a new radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) power amplifier (PA) architecture that is intended for wireless portable transceivers. A method called Gated Envelope Feedback is proposed to allow the automatic hardware reconfiguration of a stand-alone RFIC PA in multiple states for power efficiency improvement purposes. The method uses self-operating and fully integrated circuitry comprising RF power detection, switching and sequential logic, and RF envelope feedback in conjunction with a hardware gating function for triggering and activating current reduction mechanisms as a function of the transmitted RF power level. Because of the critical role that RFIC PA components occupy in modern wireless transceivers, and given the major impact that these components have on the overall RF performances and energy consumption in wireless transceivers, very significant benefits stem from the underlying innovations. The method has been validated through the successful design of a 1.88GHz COMA RFIC PA with automatic hardware reconfiguration capability, using an industry renowned state-of-the-art GaAs HBT semiconductor process developed and owned by Skyworks Solutions, Inc., USA. The circuit techniques that have enabled the successful and full on-chip embodiment of the technique are analyzed in details. The IC implementation is discussed, and experimental results showing significant current reduction upon automatic hardware reconfiguration, gain regulation performances, and compliance with the stringent linearity requirements for COMA transmission demonstrate that the gated envelope feedback method is a viable and promising approach to automatic hardware reconfiguration of RFIC PA's for current reduction purposes. Moreover, in regard to on-chip integration of advanced PA control functions, it is demonstrated that the method is better positioning GaAs HBT technologies, which are known to offer very competitive RF performances but inherently have limited integration capabilities. Finally, an analytical approach for the evaluation of inter-modulation distortion (IMD) in envelope feedback architectures is introduced, and the proposed design equations and methodology for IMD analysis may prove very helpful for theoretical analyses, for simulation tasks, and for experimental work.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Cationic Low-Valent Gallium Complexes of Cryptand[2.2.2]. (United States)

    Bourque, Jeremy L; Boyle, Paul D; Baines, Kim M


    The synthesis and characterization of two bimetallic, cationic low-valent gallium-cryptand[2.2.2] complexes is reported. The reaction of cryptand[2.2.2] with Ga2Cl4 gave two different cations, [Ga3Cl4 (crypt-222)](+) (1) or [Ga2Cl2 (crypt-222)](2+) (2), depending on whether or not trimethylsilyl triflate (Me3SiOTf) was added as a co-reagent. Complexes 1 and 2 are the first examples of bimetallic cryptand[2.2.2] complexes, as well as the first low-valent gallium-cryptand[2.2.2] complexes. Computational methods were used to evaluate the bonding in the gallium cores.

  10. Investigating change of properties in gallium ion irradiation patterned single-layer graphene (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Dong, Jinyao; Bai, Bing; Xie, Guoxin


    Besides its excellent physical properties, graphene promises to play a significant role in electronics with superior properties, which requires patterning of graphene for device integration. Here, we presented the changes in properties of single-layer graphene before and after patterning using gallium ion beam. Combined with Raman spectra of graphene, the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) image confirmed that a metal-insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. The changes in work function and Raman spectra of graphene indicated that the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. The patterning width of graphene presented an increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate.

  11. Gallium-assisted growth of silicon nanowires by electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M J; Cervera, M; Ruiz, E; Pau, J L; Piqueras, J [Laboratorio de Microelectronica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Avella, M; Jimenez, J, E-mail: [Fisica de la Materia Condensada, ETSII, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    The use of gallium droplets for growing Si nanowires (SiNWs) by electron cyclotron resonance plasmas is investigated. First, the relationship between evaporation time and resultant size of the gallium droplets is studied. Through the use of spectroscopic ellipsometry, the dependence of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) energy on the droplet size is determined. From these gallium droplets, SiNWs were grown at 300 and 550 deg. C in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas containing SiH{sub 4}, Ar, and H{sub 2}. Scanning electron microscopy results show that tapered NWs are obtained for a wide range of growth conditions. Besides, it is found that H{sub 2} plays an important role in the parasitic axial growth of the SiNWs. Namely, H{sub 2} inhibits the radial growth and contributes dramatically to increasing the SiNW defects.

  12. A gallium nitride single-photon source operating at 200 K. (United States)

    Kako, Satoshi; Santori, Charles; Hoshino, Katsuyuki; Götzinger, Stephan; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Arakawa, Yasuhiko


    Fundamentally secure quantum cryptography has still not seen widespread application owing to the difficulty of generating single photons on demand. Semiconductor quantum-dot structures have recently shown great promise as practical single-photon sources, and devices with integrated optical cavities and electrical-carrier injection have already been demonstrated. However, a significant obstacle for the application of commonly used III-V quantum dots to quantum-information-processing schemes is the requirement of liquid-helium cryogenic temperatures. Epitaxially grown gallium nitride quantum dots embedded in aluminium nitride have the potential for operation at much higher temperatures. Here, we report triggered single-photon emission from gallium nitride quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K, a temperature easily reachable with thermo-electric cooling. Gallium nitride quantum dots also open a new wavelength region in the blue and near-ultraviolet portions of the spectrum for single-photon sources.

  13. Dielectric response of wurtzite gallium nitride in the terahertz frequency range (United States)

    Hibberd, M. T.; Frey, V.; Spencer, B. F.; Mitchell, P. W.; Dawson, P.; Kappers, M. J.; Oliver, R. A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Graham, D. M.


    We report on the characterization of the intrinsic, anisotropic, dielectric properties of wurtzite gallium nitride in the spectral range of 0.5-11 THz, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The ordinary (ε˜⊥) and extraordinary (ε˜∥) components of the complex dielectric function were determined experimentally for a semi-insulating, m-plane gallium nitride single crystal, providing measurements of the refractive indices (n⊥,∥) and absorption coefficients (α⊥,∥) . These material parameters were successfully modeled by considering the contribution of the optical phonon modes, measured using Raman spectroscopy, to the dielectric function, giving values for the relative static dielectric constants of ε0⊥ = 9.22 ± 0.02 and ε0∥ = 10.32 ± 0.03 for wurtzite gallium nitride.

  14. Development of a production scale purification of Ge-68 from irradiated gallium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan M.; Mausner, Leonard [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)


    Germanium-68 (Ge-68) is produced by proton irradiation of a gallium metal target and purified by organic extraction. The Ge-68 can be used in a medical isotope generator to produce Gallium-68 (Ga-68) which can be used to radiolabel PET imaging agents. The emerging use of Ge-68 in the Ga-68 medical isotope generator has caused us to develop a new purification method for Ge-68 that does not use toxic solvents. The purpose of this work was to develop a production scale separation of Ge-68 that utilizes a leaching step to remove a bulk of the gallium metal, followed by purification with Sephadex {sup copyright} G25. Production scale (300 mCi) purification was performed with the new method. The purified Ge-68 contained the highest radioactivity concentration of Ge-68 produced at BNL; the sample meet Department of Energy specifications and the method had an excellent recovery of Ge-68.

  15. IOT Overview: IR Instruments (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  16. 镓含量对纯铝的耐蚀性的影响%Studies on the Influence of Gallium Content on the Corrosion Resistance of Pure Aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jin-ping; WANG Jun; SUN Bao-de


    The effect of small amount gallium (up to 0.06%) on the corrosion behavior of pure aluminum (99.99%,4N) in chloride solution was investigated using a potentiodynamic polarization technique.It has been found that the open circuit corrosion potential and the pitting potential shifted in the active (negative) direction with increasing gallium content,while corrosion rate and pitting occurrence factor for aluminum increased.The effect of gallium on the degradation of corrosion resistance is rather small while the gallium content is below 0.03mass%.The gallium content should be kept less than 0.03mass% in the pure aluminum.

  17. Controlling the coexistence of structural phases and the optical properties of gallium nanoparticles with optical excitation (United States)

    MacDonald, K. F.; Fedotov, V. A.; Pochon, S.; Stevens, G.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Emel'yanov, V. I.; Zheludev, N. I.


    We have observed reversible structural transformations, induced by optical excitation at 1.55 μm, between the β, γ and liquid phases of gallium in self-assembled gallium nanoparticles, with a narrow size distribution around 50 nm, on the tip of an optical fiber. Only a few tens of nanowatts of optical excitation per particle are required to control the transformations, which take the form of a dynamic phase coexistence and are accompanied by substantial changes in the optical properties of the nanoparticle film. The time needed to achieve phase equilibrium is in the microsecond range, and increases sharply near the transition temperatures.

  18. Gallium-67 scintigraphy in myocarditis. A review; Gal-67 w diagnostyce zapalenia miesnia sercowego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojnicz, R. [Slaskie Centrum Chorob Serca, Zabrze (Poland); Kozielska, E.; Wodniecki, J.; Wycisk, A. [Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland)


    Gallium-67 imaging is a non-invasive technique with a good sensitivity for the diagnosis of inflammatory heart disease. Due to the affinity with the mononuclear cell infiltration, {sup 67}Ga enables visualize the moderate and severe myocardial inflammation. This could be used as a screening test, with a high sensitivity and low cost, to identify the patients for endomyocardial biopsy. Furthermore, in some patients diagnosed with other non-invasive techniques such as echocardiography or MRI, the gallium-67 imaging may be useful to verify clinical diagnosis. (author) 23 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  19. In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Markus [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Howgate, John [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Schmid, Martin [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Schoell, Sebastian; Sachsenhauser, Matthias [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Adiguezel, Denis [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Thalhammer, Stefan, E-mail: [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gallium nitride based sensors show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell growth experiments reveal excellent biocompatibiltiy of the host GaN material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA repair is utilized to evaluate material induced alterations in the cellular behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GaN shows no bio-functional influence on the cellular environment. -- Abstract: There is an increasing interest in the integration of hybrid bio-semiconductor systems for the non-invasive evaluation of physiological parameters. High quality gallium nitride and its alloys show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Nevertheless, such applications not only request appropriate sensing capabilities but also the biocompatibility and especially the biofunctionality of materials. Here we show extensive biocompatibility studies of gallium nitride and, for the first time, a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Analytical sensor devices are used in medical settings, as well as for cell- and tissue engineering. Within these fields, semiconductor devices have increasingly been applied for online biosensing on a cellular and tissue level. Integration of advanced materials such as gallium nitride into these systems has the potential to increase the range of applicability for a multitude of test devices and greatly enhance sensitivity and functionality. However, for such applications it is necessary to optimize cell-surface interactions and to verify the biocompatibility of the semiconductor. In this work, we present studies of mouse fibroblast cell activity grown on gallium nitride surfaces after applying external noxa. Cell-semiconductor hybrids were irradiated with X-rays at air kerma doses up to 250 mGy and the DNA repair dynamics, cell proliferation, and cell growth

  20. Thermal Cycling and High Temperature Reverse Bias Testing of Control and Irradiated Gallium Nitride Power Transistors (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Boomer, Kristen T.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad


    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling and testing under high temperature reverse bias conditions in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Result of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  1. Results of the Gallium-Clad Phase 3 and Phase 4 tasks (canceled prior to completion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.N.


    This report summarizes the results of the Gallium-Clad interactions Phase 3 and 4 tasks. Both tasks were to involve examining the out-of-pile stability of residual gallium in short fuel rods with an imposed thermal gradient. The thermal environment was to be created by an electrical heater in the center of the fuel rod and coolant flow on the rod outer cladding. Both tasks were canceled due to difficulties with fuel pellet fabrication, delays in the preparation of the test apparatus, and changes in the Fissile Materials Disposition program budget.

  2. Semi-quantitative evaluation of gallium-67 scintigraphy in lupus nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wanyu [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Dept. of Radiological Technology, Chung-Tai College of Medical Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Hsieh Jihfang [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Yunk Kang City, Tainan (Taiwan); Tsai Shihchuan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Lan Joungliang [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Cheng Kaiyuan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Chung-Tai College of Medical Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Wang Shyhjen [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan)


    Within nuclear medicine there is a trend towards quantitative analysis. Gallium renal scan has been reported to be useful in monitoring the disease activity of lupus nephritis. However, only visual interpretation using a four-grade scale has been performed in previous studies, and this method is not sensitive enough for follow-up. In this study, we developed a semi-quantitative method for gallium renal scintigraphy to find a potential parameter for the evaluation of lupus nephritis. Forty-eight patients with lupus nephritis underwent renal biopsy to determine World Health Organization classification, activity index (AI) and chronicity index (CI). A delayed 48-h gallium scan was also performed and interpreted by visual and semi-quantitative methods. For semi-quantitative analysis of the gallium uptake in both kidneys, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over both kidneys, the right forearm and the adjacent spine. The uptake ratios between these ROIs were calculated and expressed as the ''kidney/spine ratio (K/S ratio)'' or the ''kidney/arm ratio (K/A ratio)''. Spearman's rank correlation test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Our data showed a good correlation between the semi-quantitative gallium scan and the results of visual interpretation. K/S ratios showed a better correlation with AI than did K/A ratios. Furthermore, the left K/S ratio displayed a better correlation with AI than did the right K/S ratio. In contrast, CI did not correlate well with the results of semi-quantitative gallium scan. In conclusion, semi-quantitative gallium renal scan is easy to perform and shows a good correlation with the results of visual interpretation and renal biopsy. The left K/S ratio from semi-quantitative renal gallium scintigraphy displays the best correlation with AI and is a useful parameter in evaluating the disease activity in lupus nephritis. (orig.)

  3. Increased parasellar activity on gallium SPECT is not specific for active cluster headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sianard-Gainko, J.; Milet, J.; Ghuysen, V.; Schoenen, J. (Univ. Departments of Neurology and Nuclear Medicine, Liege (Belgium))


    The authors have performed gallium SPECT head scans in 30 successive cluster headache (CH) patients and in 7 migraineurs without aura. Parasellar hyperactivity was judged as present in 81% of chronic CH patients. 54% of episodic CH patients in an active period, 56% of episodic CH patients in remission and 71% of migraineurs. No significant correlations were found between the SPECT images and the duration of the disease, of cluster periods or of remissions. Increased parasellar activity on gallium SPECT is thus not specific for CH, nor for the active period of episodic CH. The method lacks reliability for investigation of putative cavernous sinus inflammation. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Gallium-SPECT in the detection of prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic ring abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, K.; Barnes, D.; Martin, R.H.; Rae, J.R. (Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Victoria General Hospital Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))


    A 52-yr-old man who had a bioprosthetic aortic valve developed Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Despite antibiotic therapy he had persistent pyrexia and developed new conduction system disturbances. Echocardiography did not demonstrate vegetations on the valve or an abscess, but gallium scintigraphy using SPECT clearly identified a focus of intense activity in the region of the aortic valve. The presence of valvular vegetations and a septal abscess was confirmed at autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy, using SPECT, provided a useful noninvasive method for the demonstration of endocarditis and the associated valve ring abscess.

  5. On Fermi level pinning in the alloys based on the lead telluride doped with gallium

    CERN Document Server

    Skipetrov, E P; Skipetrova, L A; Volkova, O S; Slynko, E I


    Effect of doping with gallium and fast electron irradiation on the galvanomagnetic properties of n-Pb sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x Te (0.04 <= x <= 0.06) alloys is investigated. The transformations the metal-type conductivity are obtained both by increasing the impurity content and under the electron irradiation. The conclusion has been drawn that Fermi level pinning by the impurity level does not take place while the doping with gallium as well as the electron irradiation may serve as effective mutually complementary tools for modifying of electrical properties of alloys

  6. Universal heat conduction in the iron arsenide superconductor KFe2As2: evidence of a d-wave state. (United States)

    Reid, J-Ph; Tanatar, M A; Juneau-Fecteau, A; Gordon, R T; de Cotret, S René; Doiron-Leyraud, N; Saito, T; Fukazawa, H; Kohori, Y; Kihou, K; Lee, C H; Iyo, A; Eisaki, H; Prozorov, R; Taillefer, Louis


    The thermal conductivity κ of the iron arsenide superconductor KFe2As2 was measured down to 50 mK for a heat current parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis. A residual linear term at T→0, κ(0)/T is observed for both current directions, confirming the presence of nodes in the superconducting gap. Our value of κ(0)/T in the plane is equal to that reported by Dong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 087005 (2010)] for a sample whose residual resistivity ρ(0) was 10 times larger. This independence of κ(0)/T on impurity scattering is the signature of universal heat transport, a property of superconducting states with symmetry-imposed line nodes. This argues against an s-wave state with accidental nodes. It favors instead a d-wave state, an assignment consistent with five additional properties: the magnitude of the critical scattering rate Γ(c) for suppressing T(c) to zero; the magnitude of κ(0)/T, and its dependence on current direction and on magnetic field; the temperature dependence of κ(T).

  7. Non-local exchange correlation functionals impact on the structural, electronic and optical properties of III-V arsenides

    KAUST Repository

    Anua, N. Najwa


    Exchange correlation (XC) energy functionals play a vital role in the efficiency of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, more soundly in the calculation of fundamental electronic energy bandgap. In the present DFT study of III-arsenides, we investigate the implications of XC-energy functional and corresponding potential on the structural, electronic and optical properties of XAs (X = B, Al, Ga, In). Firstly we report and discuss the optimized structural lattice parameters and the band gap calculations performed within different non-local XC functionals as implemented in the DFT-packages: WIEN2k, CASTEP and SIESTA. These packages are representative of the available code in ab initio studies. We employed the LDA, GGA-PBE, GGA-WC and mBJ-LDA using WIEN2k. In CASTEP, we employed the hybrid functional, sX-LDA. Furthermore LDA, GGA-PBE and meta-GGA were employed using SIESTA code. Our results point to GGA-WC as a more appropriate approximation for the calculations of structural parameters. However our electronic bandstructure calculations at the level of mBJ-LDA potential show considerable improvements over the other XC functionals, even the sX-LDA hybrid functional. We report also the optical properties within mBJ potential, which show a nice agreement with the experimental measurements in addition to other theoretical results. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the physical properties of magnesium arsenide in cubic and hexagonal phases (United States)

    Mokhtari, Ali; Sedighi, Matin


    Full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT) was applied to study the structural and electronic properties of the magnesium arsenide in both cubic and hexagonal phases. The exchange-correlation functional was approximated as a generalized gradient functional introduced by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA96) and Engel-Vosko (EV-GGA). The lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, cohesive energy, band structures and effective mass of electrons and holes (EME and EMH) were obtained and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. A phase transition was predicted at pressure of about 1.63 GPa from the cubic to the hexagonal phase. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of the electronic properties such as band gap, valence bandwidths, anti-symmetry gap (the energy gap between two parts of the valence bands), EME and EMH were investigated using both GGA96 and EV-GGA methods. High applied pressure can decrease (increase) the holes mobility of cubic (hexagonal) phase of this compound.

  9. Universal Heat Conduction in the Iron Arsenide Superconductor KFe2As2: Evidence of a d-Wave State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, J.-Ph.; Tanatar, Makariy A.; Juneau-Fecteau, A.; Gordon, R.T.; Rene de Cotret, S.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Saito, T.; Fukazawa, H.; Kohori, Y.; Kihou, K.; Lee, C.H.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Taillefer, Louis


    The thermal conductivity κ of the iron arsenide superconductor KFe2As2 was measured down to 50 mK for a heat current parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis. A residual linear term at T→0, κ0/T is observed for both current directions, confirming the presence of nodes in the superconducting gap. Our value of κ0/T in the plane is equal to that reported by Dong et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 087005 (2010)] for a sample whose residual resistivity ρ0 was 10 times larger. This independence of κ0/T on impurity scattering is the signature of universal heat transport, a property of superconducting states with symmetry-imposed line nodes. This argues against an s-wave state with accidental nodes. It favors instead a d-wave state, an assignment consistent with five additional properties: the magnitude of the critical scattering rate Γc for suppressing Tc to zero; the magnitude of κ0/T, and its dependence on current direction and on magnetic field; the temperature dependence of κ(T).

  10. The specific gallium-67 scan uptake pattern in psoas abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, P.-F.; Tzen, K.-Y.; Tsai, M.-F.; Yen, T.-C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. School of Medicine, Tauyuan (Taiwan, Province of China); Tsui, K.-H. [Dept. of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Tauyuan (Taiwan, Province of China)


    A psoas abscess is a rare clinical entity that presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this retrospective study, we reviewed gallium-67 scan findings in cases of psoas abscess to determine the specific uptake pattern and the usefulness of {sup 67}Ga scans in diagnosis and management. Fifteen psoas abscess lesions in 13 patients who had undergone a {sup 67}Ga scan during an 8-year period were found in the hospital computer. All but two of the patients had been diagnosed as having fever of unknown origin, urinary tract infection or another irrelevant disease prior to the {sup 67}Ga scan. Of the 15 psoas abscess lesions, 12 (80%) could be clearly diagnosed on the basis of the specific {sup 67} Ga uptake pattern, in which: (1) the oblique direction of the {sup 67}Ga-avid lesion correlates with the orientation of the psoas muscle from the lumbar region to the hip joint region; (2) the lesion does not cross the abdominal midline; (3) the lesion goes through the inguinal region; and (4) the lesion involves at least two-thirds of the whole length of the psoas muscle. The specific features may help in the differentiation of psoas abscess from other intra-abdominal lesions or normal bowel distribution, especially with single-photon emission tomographic images. In 7 of 13 patients (53.8%) the {sup 67}Ga scan findings contributed to the clinical management of the patients by first detecting the focus of the infection. Multiple concomitant {sup 67}Ga-avid lesions were found in ten patients. In conclusion, the specific features as well as the whole-body survey with {sup 67}Ga scan are useful and important in the diagnosis of psoas abscesses and the detection of unexpected concomitant multiple infectious foci in clinically suspicious infectious disease patients. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  11. Sensor of hydrostatic pressure based on gallium antimonide microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.


    Full Text Available Currently, silicon and germanium, the most common materials in the production of discrete semiconductor devices and integrated circuits, do not always meet all the requirements to the sensing elements of mechanical quantities sensors. Therefore, it is logical to research the properties of other semiconductor materials that could be used as sensing elements in such sensors. A3B5 semiconductor compounds seem promising for such purpose. Effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 5000 bar on the resistance of n-type antimonide gallium whiskers doped by Se or Te was studied. Coefficient of hydrostatic pressure for this crystals was determined, it equals Kh = (16,5—20,0•10–5 bar–1 at 20°N. Temperature dependence of resistance and coefficient Kh for this crystals in the temperature range ±60°N was studied. Design of the developed hydrostatic pressure sensor based on GaSb whiskers and its characteristics are presented. The possibility to decrease the temperature dependence of sensitive element resistance by mounting GaSb whiskers on the substrates fabricated from materials with different temperature coefficient of expansion was examined. It was shown that mounting of GaSb crystals on Cu substrate gives the optimal result, in this case the temperature coefficient decrease to 0,05%•°N–1, that leads to decrease of output temperature dependence. The main advantages of developed pressure sensor are: the simplified design in comparison with pressure sensors with strain gauges mounted on spring elements; the high sensitivity to pressure that is constant in the wide pressure range; the improvement of sensors metrological characteristics owing to hysteresis absence. The possible application fields of developed sensors are measuring of high and extremely high pressure, chemical and oil industries, measuring of pressure in oil bore-holes, investigation of explosive processes.

  12. Gallium-68 EDTA PET/CT for Renal Imaging. (United States)

    Hofman, Michael S; Hicks, Rodney J


    Nuclear medicine renal imaging provides important functional data to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with a variety of renal disorders. Physiologically stable metal chelates like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (DTPA) are excreted by glomerular filtration and have been radiolabelled with a variety of isotopes for imaging glomerular filtration and quantitative assessment of glomerular filtration rate. Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) EDTA PET usage predates Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) renal imaging, but virtually disappeared with the widespread adoption of gamma camera technology that was not optimal for imaging positron decay. There is now a reemergence of interest in (68)Ga owing to the greater availability of PET technology and use of (68)Ga to label other radiotracers. (68)Ga EDTA can be used a substitute for (99m)Tc DTPA for wide variety of clinical indications. A key advantage of PET for renal imaging over conventional scintigraphy is 3-dimensional dynamic imaging, which is particularly helpful in patients with complex anatomy in whom planar imaging may be nondiagnostic or difficult to interpret owing to overlying structures containing radioactive urine that cannot be differentiated. Other advantages include accurate and absolute (rather than relative) camera-based quantification, superior spatial and temporal resolution and integrated multislice CT providing anatomical correlation. Furthermore, the (68)Ga generator enables on-demand production at low cost, with no additional patient radiation exposure compared with conventional scintigraphy. Over the past decade, we have employed (68)Ga EDTA PET/CT primarily to answer difficult clinical questions in patients in whom other modalities have failed, particularly when it was envisaged that dynamic 3D imaging would be of assistance. We have also used it as a substitute for (99m)Tc DTPA if unavailable owing to supply issues, and have additionally examined the role of

  13. NREL preprints for the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M. [ed.


    Topics covered include various aspects of solar cell fabrication and performance. Aluminium-gallium arsenides, cadmium telluride, amorphous silicon, and copper-indium-gallium selenides are all characterized in their applicability in solar cells.

  14. Impact of atmospheric species on copper indium gallium selenide solar cell stability: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.


    An overview of the measurement techniques and results of studies on the stability of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) solar cells and their individual layers in the presence of atmospheric species is presented: in these studies, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, their molybdenum back contact, and their

  15. Electrical Activation Studies of Silicon Implanted Aluminum Gallium Nitride with High Aluminum Mole Fraction (United States)


    important to minimize imperfections and defects as well as the amount of unwanted impurities. The most common bulk method is the Czochralski Method , in...demonstrates a method for producing highly conductive Si- implanted n-type aluminum gallium nitride (AlxGa1-xN) alloys, and represents a comprehensive...54 IV. Experimental Method ..................................................................................... 57 Sample

  16. Properties of Erbium and Ytterbium Doped Gallium Nitride Layers Fabricated by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler


    Full Text Available We report about some properties of erbium and erbium/ytterbium doped gallium nitride (GaN layers fabricated by magnetron sputtering onsilicon, quartz and Corning glass substrates. For fabricating GaN layers two types of targets were used - gallium in a stainless steel cup anda Ga2O3 target. Deposition was carried out in the Ar+N2 gas mixture. For erbium and ytterbium doping into GaN layers, erbium metallicpowder and ytterbium powder or Er2O3 and Yb2O3 pellets were laid on the top of the target. The samples were characterized by X-raydiffraction (XRD, photoluminescence spectra and nuclear analytical methods. While the use of a metallic gallium target ensured thedeposition of well-developed polycrystalline layers, the use of gallium oxide target provided GaN films with poorly developed crystals. Bothapproaches enabled doping with erbium and ytterbium ions during deposition, and typical emission at 1 530 nm due to the Er3+ intra-4f 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition was observed.

  17. An alternative approach to the growth of single crystal gallium nitride (United States)

    Jonathan, Neville


    This project has been primarily concerned with investigating a new approach to the synthesis of epitaxial layers of high purity gallium nitride. The new approach involves the use of hydrazoic acid, HN3, a previously untried precursor as the source of active nitrogen. A new, all-stainless steel apparatus which is UHV compatible, has been constructed. It has been designed to allow growth studies to be made by the chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) technique or by low pressure metal organic vapour phase deposition (LPMOCVD) at pressures up to ca. 1 mbar. During the grant period, the apparatus has been constructed, tested, and modified. Experiments have been carried out which show that gallium nitride and aluminium nitride can be made from the reaction of hydrazoic acid with trimethyl gallium and trimethyl aluminium respectively, at a hot substrate surface. In-situ RHEED patterns and ex-situ Auger spectra and x-ray diffraction data have been obtained. Systematic studies aimed at producing high quality single crystal films have been made. The results are promising and uniform, golden yellow films of gallium nitride can now be produced. RHEED data show that the films are composed of highly orientated crystals. The x-ray results support this, with crystal sizes being at least 1000 A with the crystals strongly orientated along the c-axis.

  18. On-demand frequency tunability of fluidic antenna implemented with gallium-based liquid metal alloy (United States)

    Kim, Daeyoung; Doo, Seok Joo; Won, Heong Sup; Lee, Woojin; Jeon, Jinpyo; Chung, Sang Kug; Lee, Gil-Young; Oh, Semyoung; Lee, Jeong-Bong


    We investigated frequency tunability of a microfluidic-based antenna using on-demand manipulation of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy. The fluidic antenna was fabricated by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and filled with the gallium-based liquid metal alloy (Galinstan®). It is composed of a digital number "7"-shaped feedline, and a square-shaped and a digital number "6"-shaped patterns, which are all implemented with the liquid metal. The gallium-based liquid metal was adhered to the channel surface due to its viscous oxide layer originating from the gallium oxide forming when it exposed to the air environment. We treated the liquid metal with hydrochloric acid solution to remove the oxide layer on the surface resulting in easy movement of the liquid metal in the channel, as the liquid metal surface has been transformed to be non-wettable. We controlled the physical length of the liquid metal slug filled in feedline with an applied air pressure, resulting in tuning the resonant frequency ranging from 2.2 GHz to 9.3 GHz. The fluidic antenna properties using the liquid metal's electrical conductivity and mobility were characterized by measuring the return loss (S11), and also simulated with CST Microwave Studio.

  19. Gallium-67 imaging in a patient with paracoccidioidomycosis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Beatriz Marinho de Jesus; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo; Lima, Mariana Cunha Lopes de; Santos, Allan de Oliveira; Pires, Bruno Cunha; Valenca Junior, Jose Telmo; Ramos, Celso Dario; Camargo, Edwaldo E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail:


    A 26 year-old female was admitted with abdominal pain, fever and weight loss. The clinical and laboratory investigations led to the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. Gallium-67 whole body images correlated well with the clinical course of the disease and with the patient's prognosis. (author)

  20. Fabrication methods and applications of microstructured gallium based liquid metal alloys (United States)

    Khondoker, M. A. H.; Sameoto, D.


    This review contains a comparative study of reported fabrication techniques of gallium based liquid metal alloys embedded in elastomers such as polydimethylsiloxane or other rubbers as well as the primary challenges associated with their use. The eutectic gallium-indium binary alloy (EGaIn) and gallium-indium-tin ternary alloy (galinstan) are the most common non-toxic liquid metals in use today. Due to their deformability, non-toxicity and superior electrical conductivity, these alloys have become very popular among researchers for flexible and reconfigurable electronics applications. All the available manufacturing techniques have been grouped into four major classes. Among them, casting by needle injection is the most widely used technique as it is capable of producing features as small as 150 nm width by high-pressure infiltration. One particular fabrication challenge with gallium based liquid metals is that an oxide skin is rapidly formed on the entire exposed surface. This oxide skin increases wettability on many surfaces, which is excellent for keeping patterned metal in position, but is a drawback in applications like reconfigurable circuits, where the position of liquid metal needs to be altered and controlled accurately. The major challenges involved in many applications of liquid metal alloys have also been discussed thoroughly in this article.

  1. Propagation of surface plasmon polariton in the single interface of gallium lanthanum sulfide and silver (United States)

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Saber, Md. Ghulam; Amin, Md. Ruhul


    The propagation characteristics of the surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) mode in the single interface of silver (Ag) and gallium lanthanum sulfide (GLS) have been studied both analytically and numerically. The obtained numerical results show an excellent agreement with the analytical ones. The locations of the spatial resonance point along the direction of propagation were determined for the dielectric and the metal.

  2. Influence of various factors on the accuracy of gallium-67 imaging for occult infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maderazo, E.G.; Hickingbotham, N.B.; Woronick, C.L.; Sziklas, J.J.


    To examine whether the results and interpretation of gallium-67 citrate imaging may be adversely influenced by factors present in compromised patients, we reviewed our 1-year experience in 69 patients in intensive care units, renal transplants, and those on hemodialysis. Our results indicate that it is an inappropriate diagnostic procedure for acute pancreatitis since seven of nine had false-negative results. Using loglinear modeling and chi-square analysis we found that treatment with antiinflammatory steroids, severe liver disease, end-stage renal disease, and renal transplantation with immunosuppressive therapy did not interfere with gallium-67 uptake. Increased rate of true-negative results in patients with end-stage renal disease was due to a greater and earlier use of the test in the febrile transplant patient and in hemodialysis patients with infections not amenable to diagnosis with gallium-67 scan (transient bacteremia and bacteriuria). We conclude that gallium-67 imaging is a useful diagnostic tool that, with the exception of acute pancreatitis, has very few false-negative results.

  3. Adaptive behavior of a redox-active gallium carbenoid in complexes with molybdenum. (United States)

    Fedushkin, Igor L; Sokolov, Vladimir G; Piskunov, Alexander V; Makarov, Valentine M; Baranov, Eugeny V; Abakumov, Gleb A


    A gallium(I) carbenoid derived from redox-active diimine 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene (dpp-bian) in complexes with molybdenum may serve either as a neutral [(dpp-bian)Ga:] or an anionic [(dpp-bian)Ga:](-) two-electron donor depending on the electronic state of the transition metal.

  4. Gallium(III) and indium(III) dithiolate complexes: Versatile precursors for metal sulfides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shamik Ghoshal; Vimal K Jain


    The chemistry of classical and organometallic complexes of gallium and indium with dithiolate ligands, i.e., dithiocarboxylates, xanthates, dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, dithiophophinates and dithioarsenates, has been reviewed. Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural aspects of these complexes are described. Their emerging role as single source molecular precursors for the preparation of metal sulfide thin films and nano-particles has been discussed.

  5. Gallium-67 scanning at 6 hr in active inflammatory bowel disease: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, L.R.; Griep, R.J.; Schuffler, M.D.; Silliman, R.A.


    Gallium citrate scanning at 6 hr was used to evaluate a patient with active ulcerative colitis. The localization of /sup 67/Ga in the colon correlated with the extent of the inflammatory process. When either colonoscopy or radiographic contrast studies are contraindicated, /sup 67/Ga scanning at 6 hr may prove useful in the evaluation of active inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Preparation and properties of hydrogen-intercalated indium and gallium monoselenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koz' mik, I.D.; Kovalyuk, Z.D.; Grigorchak, I.I.; Bakhmatyuk, B.P.


    Indium and gallium monoselenides can be intercalated by hydrogen ions. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated for the intercalation and the proton diffusion coefficient in the van der Waals' spaces has been determined. The effects of hydrogen intercalation on the resistance perpendicular to the layers in InSe and GaSe have been determined.

  7. Gallium-67 breast uptake in a patient with hypothalamic granuloma (sarcoid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, R.; Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.; Fay, J.; Gale, D.R.


    An unusual case is presented of bilateral breast uptake of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate in a patient with a hypothalamic granuloma in the absence of galactorrhea is presented. A possible mechanism for this incidental finding is elevated prolactin levels, as other causes of gallium breast uptake such as drug therapy, and intrinsic breast disease, were not present.

  8. Gallium doping in transparent conductive ZnO thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis (United States)

    Babar, A. R.; Deshamukh, P. R.; Deokate, R. J.; Haranath, D.; Bhosale, C. H.; Rajpure, K. Y.


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZnO : Ga films have been deposited by the spray pyrolysis method onto preheated glass substrates using zinc acetate and gallium nitrate as precursors for Zn and Ga ions, respectively. The effect of Ga doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of sprayed ZnO thin films were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and Hall effect techniques. XRD studies reveal that films are polycrystalline with hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The thin films were oriented along the (0 0 2) plane. Room temperature PL measurements indicate that the deposited films exhibit proper doping of Ga in ZnO lattice. The average transparency in the visible range was around ~85-95% for typical thin film deposited using 2 at% gallium doping. The optical band gap increased from 3.31 to 3.34 eV with Ga doping of 2 at%. The addition of gallium induces a decrease in electrical resistivity of the ZnO : Ga films up to 2 at% gallium doping. The highest figure of merit observed in this present study was 3.09 × 10-3 cm2 Ω-1.

  9. Gallium doping in transparent conductive ZnO thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babar, A R; Deshamukh, P R; Deokate, R J; Bhosale, C H; Rajpure, K Y [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Haranath, D [National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India)], E-mail:


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZnO : Ga films have been deposited by the spray pyrolysis method onto preheated glass substrates using zinc acetate and gallium nitrate as precursors for Zn and Ga ions, respectively. The effect of Ga doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of sprayed ZnO thin films were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and Hall effect techniques. XRD studies reveal that films are polycrystalline with hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The thin films were oriented along the (0 0 2) plane. Room temperature PL measurements indicate that the deposited films exhibit proper doping of Ga in ZnO lattice. The average transparency in the visible range was around {approx}85-95% for typical thin film deposited using 2 at% gallium doping. The optical band gap increased from 3.31 to 3.34 eV with Ga doping of 2 at%. The addition of gallium induces a decrease in electrical resistivity of the ZnO : Ga films up to 2 at% gallium doping. The highest figure of merit observed in this present study was 3.09 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2} {omega}{sup -1}.

  10. Theoretical investigation on spin-forbidden cooling transitions of gallium hydride. (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Guang; Zhang, Hua; Song, Hai-Yang; Yu, You; Wan, Ming-Jie


    Herein, the spin-forbidden cooling of a gallium hydride molecule is investigated using ab initio quantum chemistry. The cooling transition and the corresponding potential energy curves including , a(3)Π0(-), a(3)Π0(+), a(3)Π1, a(3)Π2, A(1)Π1, , 1(3)Σ, , , and 2(3)Σ states are simulated based on the multi-reference configuration interaction approach plus Davidson corrections method. By solving the nuclear Schrödinger equation, we calculate the spectroscopic constants of these states, which are in good agreement with the available experimental values. Based on the transition data, there seems to be a theoretical puzzle: highly diagonally distributed Franck-Condon factor f00 for transitions , , and for the gallium hydride molecule but the intervening state A(1)Π1 for transition is prohibitive to laser cooling. In addition, the transition does not have a suitable rate of optical cycling owing to a large radiative lifetime for state. Our theoretical simulation indicates the solution to the puzzle: the transition has a high emission rate, and there is a suitable radiative lifetime for a(3)Π1 state, which can ensure rapid and efficient laser cooling of gallium hydride. The proposed laser drives transition by using three wavelengths (main pump laser λ00; two repumping lasers λ10 and λ21). These results demonstrate the possibility of laser-cooling the gallium hydride molecule, and a sub-microkelvin cool temperature can be reached for this molecule.

  11. Efficient bifunctional gallium-68 chelators for positron emission tomography: tris(hydroxypyridinone) ligands. (United States)

    Berry, David J; Ma, Yongmin; Ballinger, James R; Tavaré, Richard; Koers, Alexander; Sunassee, Kavitha; Zhou, Tao; Nawaz, Saima; Mullen, Gregory E D; Hider, Robert C; Blower, Philip J


    A new tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) bifunctional chelator for gallium allows easy production of (68)Ga-labelled proteins rapidly under mild conditions in high yields at exceptionally high specific activity and low concentration. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  12. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  13. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria


    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  14. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria


    provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...

  15. [Spectrophotometric determination of scandium,gallium and vanadium in white cabbage leaves]. (United States)

    Buhl, F; Połedniok, J


    Scandium, gallium and vanadium contents in plants is on the ppm level, although plants from industrial areas can show higher concentrations of these elements. In Department of Analytical Chemistry of Silesian University there have been elaborated new, sensitive, spectrophotometric methods of determination of scandium, gallium and vanadium using Chrome Azurol S (CAS) and Sterinol (ST). The aim of this study was the application of these methods in analysis of cultivated plants from polluted regions. White cabbage from Upper Silesia was chosen. Because the spectrophotometric methods are not selective, scandium, gallium and vanadium should be preliminary separated from interfering elements. The solvent reaction was applied for the isolation from main and trace components of investigated material. Tienoiltrifluoracetone solution in xylene was used for the extraction of scandium, mesithyloxide for vanadium and n-butyl acetate--for gallium. Interfering and not separated Fe(III) was isolated using the extraction with acetylacetone solution in CHCl3 in the case of scandium and the reduction to Fe(II) by ascorbic acid in the case of gallium and vanadium. Due to influence of Fe(II) on the vanadium determination, KCN was used as a masking agent directly after the reduction. Scandium, gallium and vanadium were determined in 6 independent samples of white cabbage after dry or wet mineralization and contents of these leemnets were found from calibration graphs. Obtain results were checked by the internal standard addition method and Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method (ICP AES). The amounts of gallium and vanadium in white cabbage from Upper Silesia District determined by elaborated methods are in good correlation with a literature data, although the contents of vanadium are on the toxic level. The scandium concentration is higher than in plants from not industrial areas. The standard recovery is satisfactory. The Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method gave comparable results. The

  16. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, A.; Pelorson, X.


    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  17. Preconceptual design for separation of plutonium and gallium by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.F.


    The disposition of plutonium from decommissioned nuclear weapons, by incorporation into commercial UO{sub 2}-based nuclear reactor fuel, is a viable means to reduce the potential for theft of excess plutonium. This fuel, which would be a combination of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide, is referred to as a mixed oxide (MOX). Following power generation in commercial reactors with this fuel, the remaining plutonium would become mixed with highly radioactive fission products in a spent fuel assembly. The radioactivity, complex chemical composition, and large size of this spent fuel assembly, would make theft difficult with elaborate chemical processing required for plutonium recovery. In fabricating the MOX fuel, it is important to maintain current commercial fuel purity specifications. While impurities from the weapons plutonium may or may not have a detrimental affect on the fuel fabrication or fuel/cladding performance, certifying the effect as insignificant could be more costly than purification. Two primary concerns have been raised with regard to the gallium impurity: (1) gallium vaporization during fuel sintering may adversely affect the MOX fuel fabrication process, and (2) gallium vaporization during reactor operation may adversely affect the fuel cladding performance. Consequently, processes for the separation of plutonium from gallium are currently being developed and/or designed. In particular, two separation processes are being considered: (1) a developmental, potentially lower cost and lower waste, thermal vaporization process following PuO{sub 2} powder preparation, and (2) an off-the-shelf, potentially higher cost and higher waste, aqueous-based ion exchange (IX) process. While it is planned to use the thermal vaporization process should its development prove successful, IX has been recommended as a backup process. This report presents a preconceptual design with material balances for separation of plutonium from gallium by IX.

  18. Spin-phonon coupling and ferroelectricity in magnetoelectric gallium ferrite (United States)

    Mukherjee, Somdutta


    Gallium ferrite (GaFeO3 or GFO) is a low temperature ferrimagnet and room temperature piezoelectric wherein the magnetic transition temperature (TC) could be tailored to room temperature and above by tuning the stoichiometry and processing conditions. Such tunability of the magnetic transition temperature renders GFO a unique perspective in the research of multiferroics to potentially demonstrate room temperature magnetoelectric effect attractive for futuristic digital memory applications. Recent studies in several transition metal oxides highlight the importance of spin-phonon coupling in designing novel multiferroics by means of strain induced phase transition. In the present work, we have systematically studied the evolution of phonons in good quality samples of GFO across the TC using Raman spectroscopy. Using the phonon softening behavior and nearest neighbor spin-spin correlation function below TC we estimated spin-phonon coupling strength in the magnetically ordered state. In the process, we also show, for the first time, the presence of a spin glass phase in GFO where the spin-glass transition has a signature of abrupt change in spin-phonon coupling strength. Though GFO is piezoelectric and crystallizes in polar Pc21n symmetry, its ferroelectric nature remained controversial probably due to the large leakage current in the bulk material. To address this issue, we deposited epitaxial thin film on single crystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate using indium tin oxide (ITO) as a bottom conducting layer. We demonstrate clear evidence of room temperature ferroelectricity in the thin films from the 180o phase shift of the piezoresponse upon switching the electric field. Further, suppression of dielectric anomaly in presence of an external magnetic field clearly reveals a pronounced magneto-dielectric coupling across the magnetic transition temperature. In addition, using first principles calculations we elucidate that Fe ions are not only

  19. Fabrication and characterization of gallium nitride electronic devices (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry Wayne

    Gallium nitride (GaN)-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), and Schottky rectifiers were fabricated and characterized. Novel dielectric materials Gd 2O3 and ScO were evaluated as potential gate dielectrics for GaN MOS applications. The devices presented herein show tremendous potential for elevated temperature, high frequency, and/or high voltage operation. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs were grown by MOCVD on sapphire and SiC substrates and by RF-MBE on sapphire substrates. Devices were fabricated with gate lengths from 100 nm to 1.2 mum. Drain current density approached 1 A/mm and extrinsic transconductance exceeded 200 mS/mm for small gate periphery devices. For the shortest gate length, a unity-gain cutoff frequency (fT) of 59 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) of 90 GHz were extracted from measured scattering parameters. The experimental s-parameters were in excellent agreement with simulated results from small-signal linear modeling. Large signal characterization of 0.25 x 150 mum2 devices produced 2.75 W/mm at 3 GHz and 1.7 W/mm at 10 GHz. Devices fabricated on high thermal conductivity SiC substrates exhibited superior high temperature performance and a reduced density of threading dislocations. Novel gate dielectrics Gd2O3 and ScO were grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) data were collected from MOS capacitors to evaluate the bulk and interfacial electrical properties of the insulators. Single crystal Gd2O 3 was demonstrated on GaN, but the resultant MOSFET exhibited a large gate leakage attributed to defects and dislocations in the oxide. MOSFETs with a stacked gate dielectric of Gd2O3/SiO2 were operational at a drain source bias of 80 V and a gate bias of +7 V. Bulk GaN templates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HYPE) were used to fabricate vertical geometry Schottky rectifiers. Size- and temperature

  20. Advanced W-Band Gallium Nitride Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) for Cloud Doppler Radar Supporting ACE Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop W-band Gallium Nitride (GaN) MMICs to enable the advanced cross-track scanning, dual-frequency Doppler cloud radar concept in support of the...

  1. Exposure Potential and Health Impacts of Indium and Gallium, Metals Critical to Emerging Electronics and Energy Technologies. (United States)

    White, Sarah Jane O; Shine, James P


    The rapid growth of new electronics and energy technologies requires the use of rare elements of the periodic table. For many of these elements, little is known about their environmental behavior or human health impacts. This is true for indium and gallium, two technology critical elements. Increased environmental concentrations of both indium and gallium create the potential for increased environmental exposure, though little is known about the extent of this exposure. Evidence is mounting that indium and gallium can have substantial toxicity, including in occupational settings where indium lung disease has been recognized as a potentially fatal disease caused by the inhalation of indium particles. This paper aims to review the basic chemistry, changing environmental concentrations, potential for human exposure, and known health effects of indium and gallium.

  2. O gálio e a patologia óssea Gallium and bone pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Melnikov


    Full Text Available PROPOSTA: Revisão de trabalhos científicos referentes à incorporação do gálio no tecido ósseo, ao mecanismo da atividade terapêutica desse elemento, bem como a formação, crescimento e solubilidade da hidroxiapatita na presença dos sais de gálio. JUSTIFICATIVA: Diferente de outras drogas que impedem a perda de cálcio, os sais de elemento traço gálio são eficazes em hipercalcemia severa. O gálio (geralmente na forma de nitrato aumenta a concentração de cálcio e fósforo no osso, influindo nos osteoclastos de maneira direta não tóxica, em doses surpreendentemente baixas. Apesar de que os detalhes do mecanismo de ação do gálio não são bem esclarecidos, está comprovado que esse mecanismo envolve a inserção do gálio na matriz de hidroxiapatita, protegendo-a contra a reabsorção e melhorando as propriedades biomecânicas do sistema esquelético. Este fármaco age também nos componentes celulares do osso, impedindo sua absorção ao diminuir a secreção ácida dos osteoclastos. São necessárias mais publicações sobre o uso do gálio no tratamento de várias doenças onde prevalece esta patologia. CONCLUSÕES: Devido as suas características interessantes e promissoras, o gálio merece ser futuramente avaliado do ponto de vista experimental e clínico, como um agente antiabsortivo em ortopedia, traumatologia e doenças relacionadas com o câncer. Maior conhecimento dos mecanismos envolvidos pode fornecer as idéias para estratégia terapêutica, com o objetivo de diminuir hipercalcemia e perda óssea. Espera-se que novos compostos do gálio sejam desenvolvidos e avaliados clinicamente.PURPOSE: To review the literature concerning the incorporation of gallium into bone tissue, mechanisms of therapeutic activity of this element, as well as the formation, growth and solubility of hydroxiapatite in the presence of gallium salts. JUSTIFICATION: In contrast to other calcium-saving drugs, salts of trace element gallium are

  3. A new automated NaCl based robust method for routine production of gallium-68 labeled peptides


    Schultz, Michael K.; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P.; Watkins, G. Leonard; Breeman, Wouter A. P.


    A new NaCl based method for preparation of gallium-68 labeled radiopharmaceuticals has been adapted for use with an automated gallium-68 generator system. The method was evaluated based on 56 preparations of [68Ga]DOTATOC and compared to a similar acetone-based approach. Advantages of the new NaCl approach include reduced preparation time ( 97%), and specific activity (> 40 MBq nmole?1 [68Ga]DOTATOC) and is ...

  4. LiCa₃As₂H and Ca₁₄As₆X₇ (X = C, H, N): two new arsenide hydride phases grown from Ca/Li metal flux. (United States)

    Blankenship, Trevor V; Wang, Xiaoping; Hoffmann, Christina; Latturner, Susan E


    The reaction of arsenic with sources of light elements in a Ca/Li melt leads to the formation of two new arsenide hydride phases. The predominant phase Ca14As6X7 (X = C(4-), N(3-), H(-)) exhibits a new tetragonal structure type in the space group P4/mbm (a = 15.749(1) Å, c = 9.1062(9) Å, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0150). The minor phase LiCa3As2H also has a new structure type in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (a = 11.4064(7) Å, b = 4.2702(3) Å, c = 11.8762(8)Å, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0135). Both phases feature hydride and arsenide anions separated by calcium cations. The red color of these compounds indicates they should be charge-balanced. DOS calculations on LiCa3As2H confirm a band gap of 1.4 eV; UV-vis spectroscopy on Ca14As6X7 shows a band gap of 1.6 eV. Single-crystal neutron diffraction studies were necessary to determine the mixed occupancy of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen anions on the six light-element sites in Ca14As6X7; these data indicated an overall stoichiometry of Ca14As6C(0.445)N(1.135)H(4.915).

  5. VIRUS instrument enclosures (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.


    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  6. Gemini Instrument Upgrade Program (United States)

    Diaz, Ruben; Goodsell, Stephen; Kleinman, Scot


    The Gemini Observatory* remains committed to keeping its operational instrumentation competitive and serving the needs of its user community. Currently the observatory operates a 4 instruments + 1 AO system at each site. At Gemini North the GMOS-N, GNIRS, NIFS and NIRI instruments are offered supported by the ALTAIR AO system. In the south, GMOS-S, F-2, GPI and GSAOI are offered instrumentation and GeMS is the provided AO System. This paper reviews our strategy to keep our instrumentation suite competitive, examines both our current funded upgrade projects and our potential future enhancements. We summarize the work done and the results so far obtained within the instrument upgrade program.

  7. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P


    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  8. Chelator free gallium-68 radiolabelling of silica coated iron oxide nanorods via surface interactions (United States)

    Burke, Benjamin P.; Baghdadi, Neazar; Kownacka, Alicja E.; Nigam, Shubhanchi; Clemente, Gonçalo S.; Al-Yassiry, Mustafa M.; Domarkas, Juozas; Lorch, Mark; Pickles, Martin; Gibbs, Peter; Tripier, Raphaël; Cawthorne, Christopher; Archibald, Stephen J.


    The commercial availability of combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/positron emission tomography (PET) scanners for clinical use has increased demand for easily prepared agents which offer signal or contrast in both modalities. Herein we describe a new class of silica coated iron-oxide nanorods (NRs) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and/or a tetraazamacrocyclic chelator (DO3A). Studies of the coated NRs validate their composition and confirm their properties as in vivo T2 MRI contrast agents. Radiolabelling studies with the positron emitting radioisotope gallium-68 (t1/2 = 68 min) demonstrate that, in the presence of the silica coating, the macrocyclic chelator was not required for preparation of highly stable radiometal-NR constructs. In vivo PET-CT and MR imaging studies show the expected high liver uptake of gallium-68 radiolabelled nanorods with no significant release of gallium-68 metal ions, validating our innovation to provide a novel simple method for labelling of iron oxide NRs with a radiometal in the absence of a chelating unit that can be used for high sensitivity liver imaging.The commercial availability of combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/positron emission tomography (PET) scanners for clinical use has increased demand for easily prepared agents which offer signal or contrast in both modalities. Herein we describe a new class of silica coated iron-oxide nanorods (NRs) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and/or a tetraazamacrocyclic chelator (DO3A). Studies of the coated NRs validate their composition and confirm their properties as in vivo T2 MRI contrast agents. Radiolabelling studies with the positron emitting radioisotope gallium-68 (t1/2 = 68 min) demonstrate that, in the presence of the silica coating, the macrocyclic chelator was not required for preparation of highly stable radiometal-NR constructs. In vivo PET-CT and MR imaging studies show the expected high liver uptake of gallium-68 radiolabelled nanorods with no

  9. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review (United States)


    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology (United States)

    Havskov, Jens; Alguacil, Gerardo

    Here is unique and comprehensive coverage of modern seismic instrumentation, based on the authors' practical experience of a quarter-century in seismology and geophysics. Their goal is to provide not only detailed information on the basics of seismic instruments but also to survey equipment on the market, blending this with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles. Seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments will find here the answers to their practical problems.

  11. [Controlling instruments in radiology]. (United States)

    Maurer, M


    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  12. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  13. Networked Instrumentation Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  14. Satellite oceanography - The instruments (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.


    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  15. Instrumentation Design and Development Facilities (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC has facilities for design, development and fabrication of: custominstrumentation, mobile instrumentation, miniaturized instrumentation, wirelessinstrumentation,...

  16. Iron implantation in gadolinium gallium garnet studied by conversion-electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Szucs, I; Fetzer, C; Langouche, G


    Gadolinium gallium garnet single crystals were implanted with doses of sup 5 sup 7 Fe ions in the range 8x10 sup 1 sup 5 - 6x10 sup 1 sup 6 atoms cm sup - sup 2. Depending on the dose, iron with Fe sup 2 sup + or Fe sup 3 sup + charge states was found to have formed after the implantation. After a subsequent annealing in air, the iron oxidized to Fe sup 3 sup +. The Moessbauer and channelling measurements showed lattice recrystallization taking place at 600 deg. C. After recrystallization, the iron was found to have substituted for gallium ions both at the octahedral and at the tetrahedral positions. The relative concentration of the two types of iron at the two sites shifted towards the equilibrium distribution upon high-temperature annealing. (author)

  17. Photocurrent enhancement of an individual gallium nitride nanowire decorated with gold nanoparticles (United States)

    Sundararajan, Jency Pricilla; Sargent, Meredith; McIlroy, David N.


    Variation in electron transport properties of individual n-type gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire and gold decorated gallium nitride (Au-GaN) nanowire were studied with respect to laser exposure of different wavelength and intensity. Single nanowire devices were manufactured by photolithography process in nanotechnology cleanroom, were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). A drop in electrical conductivity of Au-GaN nanowire was observed relative to bare GaN nanowire. Under laser illumination, we noticed an enhancement in photocurrent in Au-GaN nanowire, which increased with increase in excitation power at ambient conditions. We present a comparative study of the opto-electrical behavior of bare GaN nanowire vs Au-GaN nanowire and explain the IV characteristics and FET characteristics with respect to the length and diameter of nanowire. USDA, UI-BANTech.

  18. High magneto-optical characteristics of Holmium-doped terbium gallium garnet crystal. (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiangyong; Yin, Hang


    Magneto-optical characteristics of a new magneto-active material, (Tb(1-x)Hox)3Ga5O12 crystal, have been grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. A high value of the Verdet constant was obtained at room temperature-namely, 214.9 and 77.8  rad·m-1 T-1 for 632.8 and 1064 nm, respectively. The Verdet constant of the Ho-doped terbium gallium garnet crystal at 1064 nm is about 2 times higher than that of terbium gallium garnet crystal. High value of magneto-optical figure-of-merit makes it an attractive next-generation magneto-optics material for high-power Faraday isolators.

  19. Osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies: differentiation by combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, T.R.; Siegel, M.J.; Siegel, B.A.


    Clinical records and scintigrams were reviewed of 18 patients with sickle cell hemoglobinophaties who had undergone combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy during 22 separate episodes of suspected osseous infection. The combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis in four studies. Of 18 studies in patients with infarction, the combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted in 16 and showed either no local accumulation of Ga-67 or less accumulation than that of Tc-99m MDP at symptomatic sites. In the other two studies, the scintigrams were falsely interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis and showed congruent, increased accumulation of both Tc-99, MDP and Ga-67. This pattern must be considered indeterminate. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of technetium and gallium scintigraphy is an effective means to distinguish osteomyelitis from infarction in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies.

  20. Gallium antimonide texturing for enhanced light extraction from infrared optoelectronics devices (United States)

    Wassweiler, Ella; Toor, Fatima


    The use of gallium antimonide (GaSb) is increasing, especially for optoelectronic devices in the infrared wavelengths. It has been demonstrated in gallium nitride (GaN) devices operating at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, that surface textures increase the overall device efficiency. In this work, we fabricated eight different surface textures in GaSb to be used in enhancing efficiency in infrared wavelength devices. Through chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and tartaric acid we characterize the types of surface textures formed and the removal rate of entire layers of GaSb. Through optimization of the etching recipes we lower the reflectivity from 35.7% to 1% at 4 μm wavelength for bare and textured GaSb, respectively. In addition, we simulate surface textures using ray optics in finite element method solver software to provide explanation of our experimental findings.

  1. Hodgkin`s disease: internal mammary lymph nodes relapse diagnosed by Gallium-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Ampudia, J.; Castillo, F.J.; Romero, C. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Medicina Nuclear; Pallardo, Y. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Garcia Conde, J. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Hematologia y Oncologia Medica; Ramos, D. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Anatomia Patologica


    This article presents the case of a 62-year-old man with treated Hodgkin`s disease who had internal mammary lymph nodes relapse after a complete initial response. These masses were gallium avid. These findings were explained by histologically documented Hodgkin`s relapse, the first such case reported in that localization without chest wall involvement. The literature on mediastinal Hodgkin`s disease and diagnostic procedures are reviewed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Beschrieben wird der Fall eines 62jaehrigen Mannes, der nach initial erfolgreicher Therapie eines Morbus Hodgkin ein Lymphknotenrezidiv im Bereich der Brust aufweist. Die Lymphknoten reicherten Gallium an. Histologisch wurde das Hodgkinrezidiv gesichert. Es handelt sich um den ersten in diesem Bereich beschriebenen Fall ohne Infiltration der Brustwand. Die Literatur ueber mediastinalen Morbus Hodgkin und diagnostisches Vorgehen wurde ueberprueft. (orig.)

  2. Diagnostic value of gallium and bone scans in evaluation of extrapulmonary coccidioidal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Goldstein, E.; Hoeprich, P.D.; dos Sontos, P. A.; Lee, K.K.


    The value of /sup 67/Ga and methylene diphosphonate labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in detecting extrapulmonary lesions was evaluated in 12 patients with whom disseminated nonmeningeal coccidioidomycosis developed. Studies were performed with each radionuclide from 4 to 9 months after infection. Comparison of scintigraphy with radiography showed that eight of 14 osteolytic lesions identified by radiography were present on the bone and gallium scans; four were present only on the gallium scan, and two were undetected. Of 15 additional lesions present in both scanning procedures, eight were not present in matching roentgenograms and seven were in unstudied areas. Because nuclear scanning detected almost all lesions present in radiographs and demonstrated otherwise unrecognized lesions, scans should be performed in all patients in whom coccidioidal dissemination is suspected.

  3. Proof-of-Concept Experiments on a Gallium-Based Ignitron for Pulsed Power Applications (United States)

    Ali, H. K.; Hanson, V. S.; Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.


    ignitron designs have used mercury as the liquid metal cathode, owing to its presence as a liquid at room temperatures and a vapor pressure of 10 Pa (75 mtorr) at room temperature. While these are favorable properties, there are obvious environmental and personal safety concerns with the storage, handling, and use of mercury and its compounds. The purpose of the present work was to fabricate and test an ignitron that used as its cathode an alternate liquid metal that was safe to handle and store. To that end, an ignitron test article that used liquid gallium as the cathode material was developed and tested. Gallium is a metal that has a melting temperature of 29.76 C, which is slightly above room temperature, and a boiling point of over 2,300 C at atmospheric pressure. This property makes gallium the element with the largest relative difference between melting and boiling points. Gallium has a limited role in biology, and when ingested, it will be subsequently processed by the body and expelled rather than accumulating to toxic levels. The next section of this Technical Memorandum (TM) provides background information on the development of mercury-based ignitrons, which serves as the starting point for the development of the gallium-based variant. Afterwards, the experimental hardware and setup used in proof-of-concept testing of a basic gallium ignitron are presented. Experimental data, consisting of discharge voltage and current waveforms as well as high-speed imaging of the gallium arc discharge in the gallium ignitron test article, are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the concept. Discussion of the data and suggestions on improvements for future iterations of the design are presented in the final two sections of this TM.

  4. Novel approach for n-type doping of HVPE gallium nitride with germanium (United States)

    Hofmann, Patrick; Krupinski, Martin; Habel, Frank; Leibiger, Gunnar; Weinert, Berndt; Eichler, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas


    We present a novel method for germanium doping of gallium nitride by in-situ chlorination of solid germanium during the hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) process. Solid germanium pieces were placed in the doping line with a hydrogen chloride flow directed over them. We deduce a chlorination reaction taking place at 800 ° C , which leads to germanium chloroform (GeHCl3) or germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4). The reactor shows a germanium rich residue after in-situ chlorination experiments, which can be removed by hydrogen chloride etching. All gallium nitride crystals exhibit n-type conductivity, which shows the validity of the in-situ chlorination of germanium for doping. A complex doping profile is found for each crystal, which was assigned to a combination of localised supply of the dopant and sample rotation during growth and switch-off effects of the HVPE reactor.

  5. Gallium antimonide texturing for enhanced light extraction from infrared optoelectronics devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Wassweiler


    Full Text Available The use of gallium antimonide (GaSb is increasing, especially for optoelectronic devices in the infrared wavelengths. It has been demonstrated in gallium nitride (GaN devices operating at ultraviolet (UV wavelengths, that surface textures increase the overall device efficiency. In this work, we fabricated eight different surface textures in GaSb to be used in enhancing efficiency in infrared wavelength devices. Through chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and tartaric acid we characterize the types of surface textures formed and the removal rate of entire layers of GaSb. Through optimization of the etching recipes we lower the reflectivity from 35.7% to 1% at 4 μm wavelength for bare and textured GaSb, respectively. In addition, we simulate surface textures using ray optics in finite element method solver software to provide explanation of our experimental findings.

  6. Homoepitaxial n-core: p-shell gallium nitride nanowires: HVPE overgrowth on MBE nanowires. (United States)

    Sanders, Aric; Blanchard, Paul; Bertness, Kris; Brubaker, Matthew; Dodson, Christopher; Harvey, Todd; Herrero, Andrew; Rourke, Devin; Schlager, John; Sanford, Norman; Chiaramonti, Ann N; Davydov, Albert; Motayed, Abhishek; Tsvetkov, Denis


    We present the homoepitaxial growth of p-type, magnesium doped gallium nitride shells by use of halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on n-type gallium nitride nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Scanning electron microscopy shows clear dopant contrast between the core and shell of the nanowire. The growth of magnesium doped nanowire shells shows little or no effect on the lattice parameters of the underlying nanowires, as measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence measurements of the nanowires show the appearance of sub-bandgap features in the blue and the ultraviolet, indicating the presence of acceptors. Finally, electrical measurements confirm the presence of electrically active holes in the nanowires.

  7. Defect reactions in gallium antimonide studied by zinc and self-diffusion (United States)

    Sunder, Kirsten; Bracht, Hartmut


    Extrinsic diffusion of zinc (Zn) in gallium antimonide (GaSb) under Ga-rich conditions was analyzed on the basis of the kick-out and the dissociative diffusion mechanism. It is concluded that the changeover of interstitial Zn to substitutional gallium (Ga) sites is mainly mediated by Ga interstitials ( IGa). Fitting of the Zn profiles provides the relative contributions of IGa to Ga diffusion. This contribution is lower than the directly measured Ga diffusion coefficient indicating that Ga diffusion in GaSb is rather mediated by Ga vacancies than by Ga interstitials even under Ga-rich conditions. This finding supports transformation reactions between native point defects that are confirmed by first-principles total-energy calculations. In addition Ga and Sb diffusion experiments under H22 atmosphere were performed to reconcile the controversial data on self-diffusion in GaSb published by Weiler et al. and Bracht et al.

  8. Gallium transformation under femtosecond laser excitation: Phase coexistence and incomplete melting

    CERN Document Server

    Uteza, O P; Rode, A V; Samoc, M; Luther-Davies, B


    The reversible phase transition induced by femtosecond laser excitation of Gallium has been studied by measuring the dielectric function at 775 nm with ~ 200 fs temporal resolution. The real and imaginary parts of the transient dielectric function were calculated from absolute reflectivity of Gallium layer measured at two different angles of incidence, using Fresnel formulas. The time-dependent electron-phonon effective collision frequency, the heat conduction coefficient and the volume fraction of a new phase were restored directly from the experimental data, and the time and space dependent electron and lattice temperatures in the layer undergoing phase transition were reconstructed without ad hoc assumptions. We converted the temporal dependence of the electron-phonon collision rate into the temperature dependence, and demonstrated, for the first time, that the electron-phonon collision rate has a non-linear character. This temperature dependence converges into the known equilibrium function during the coo...

  9. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas G, D., E-mail: [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76246 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)


    For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylinder-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0.9992±0.0004 in the 8 μm to 14 μm wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have and expanded uncertainty of 54 m K, with a coverage factor k = 2. (Author)

  10. Determination of lattice orientation in aluminium alloy grains by low energy gallium ion-channelling (United States)

    Silk, Jonathan R.; Dashwood, Richard J.; Chater, Richard J.


    Polished sections of a fine-grained aluminium, silicon carbide metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy were prepared by sputtering using a low energy gallium ion source and column (FIB). The MMC had been processed by high temperature extrusion. Images of the polished surface were recorded using the ion-induced secondary electron emission. The metal matrix grains were distinguished by gallium ion-channelling contrast from the silicon carbide component. The variation of the contrast from the aluminium grains with tilt angle can be recorded and used to determine lattice orientation with the contrast from the silicon carbide (SiC) component as a reference. This method is rapid and suits site-specific investigations where classical methods of sample preparation fail.

  11. Production scale purification of Ge-68 and Zn-65 from irradiated gallium metal. (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan M; Mausner, Leonard


    Germanium-68 (Ge-68) is produced by proton irradiation of a gallium metal target, purified by organic extraction and used in a medical isotope generator to produce Gallium-68 PET imaging agents. The purpose of this work was to implement a production scale separation of Ge-68 and Zn-65 that does not use organic solvents and uses a limited number of columns. The current separation approach was modified to use AG1 resin and/or Sephadex(©) G25 with zinc spikes to purify Ge-68 with near quantitative recovery. The purified Ge-68 meets DOE specifications. Methods utilizing zinc spikes resulted in the purist Ge-68 produced at Brookhaven National Lab with no other impurities by ICP-OES. During process optimization approximately 2.5 Ci of Ge-68 was purified utilizing the different processing methods, and the material was sold to the Nuclear Medicine community between 2012-2013. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of the current break-down phenomena in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K.; Srinivasamurthy, N.; Agrawal, B.L. [Power Systems Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India)


    Observed reverse current-voltage characteristics of the single crystal silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells have been analyzed. Physical mechanisms behind the junction break-down in silicon cells and current break-down in gallium arsenide cells have been identified. Preliminary estimates of the diffusion capacitance in GaAs cells have been presented

  13. BAA instrument no. 93 (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.


    Instrument no. 93 has been in almost continual use for more than a hundred years. Since it left the workshop of its maker, George Calver, it has kept company with several other notable instruments and has been used by many eminent astronomers. It was added to the Association's collection in 1945.

  14. Instrumentation in endourology


    Khanna, Rakesh; Monga,Manoj


    Success with endourological procedures requires expertise and instrumentation. This review focuses on the instrumentation required for ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and provides a critical assessment of in vitro and clinical studies that have evaluated the comparative effectiveness of these medical devices.

  15. Realization of ultrathin Copper Indium Gallium Di-selenide (CIGSe) solar cells


    Jehl, Zacharie


    In this thesis, we investigate on the possibility to realize ultrathin absorber Copper Indium Gallium Di-Selenide (CIGSe) solar cells, by reducing the CIGSe thickness from 2500 nm down to 100 nm, while conserving a high conversion efficiency.Using numerical modeling, we first study the evolution of the photovoltaic parameters when reducing the absorber thickness. A strong decrease of the efficiency of the solar cell is observed, mainly related to a reduced light absorption and carrier collect...

  16. Layer-by-Layer Nanoassembly of Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Nanoparticle Films for Solar Cell Applications


    Hemati, A; Shrestha, S; M. Agarwal; K. Varahramyan


    Thin films of CIGS nanoparticles interdigited with polymers have been fabricated through a cost-effective nonvacuum film deposition process called layer-by-layer (LbL) nanoassembly. CIGS nanoparticles synthesized by heating copper chloride, indium chloride, gallium chloride, and selenium in oleylamine were dispersed in water, and desired surface charges were obtained through pH regulation and by coating the particles with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Raising the pH of the nanoparticle disper...

  17. The Effects of Thermal Cycling on Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Devices for Aerospace Use (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad


    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These Include radiation, extreme temperatures, thermal cycling, to name a few. Preliminary data obtained on new Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide power devices under exposure to radiation followed by long term thermal cycling are presented. This work was done in collaboration with GSFC and JPL in support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

  18. Effects of heat shock, stannous chloride, and gallium nitrate on the rat inflammatory response


    House, S.D.; Guidon, P T; Perdrizet, G.A.; Rewinski, M.; Kyriakos, R.; Bockman, R S; Mistry, T.; Gallagher, P.A.; Hightower, L E


    Heat and a variety of other stressors cause mammalian cells and tissues to acquire cytoprotection. This transient state of altered cellular physiology is nonproliferative and antiapoptotic. In this study, male Wistar rats were stress conditioned with either stannous chloride or gallium nitrate, which have immunosuppressive effects in vivo and in vitro, or heat shock, the most intensively studied inducer of cytoprotection. The early stages of inflammation in response to topical suffusion of me...

  19. Gallium scintigraphy demonstration of an appendiceal mucocele: a proposed mechanism of uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpert, L.; Friedman, R.


    An appendiceal mucocele demonstrated intense early avidity for Ga-67, despite the lack of inflammatory cells to account for the uptake. It is proposed that the acid mucopolysaccharide component of the mucus within the lumen and lining cells accounted for the uptake of the gallium ion, in a similar manner to the uptake of its analogue, the ferric ion, as demonstrated by intense staining of mucus by the colloidal iron technique.

  20. Characterization and Reliability of Vertical N-Type Gallium Nitride Schottky Contacts (United States)


    fabricating ultra-pure, large diameter Si wafers has enabled rapid advancement in military technologies and consumer electronics; however, material...difference between the metal work function φM and the semiconductor electron affinity χ equals the Schottky barrier height φB : . (12...bandgap of GaN, approximately 3.3 eV, plus the electron affinity , approximately 1.5 eV. Second, the solubility of metals into gallium was taken into

  1. Surface modification of gallium phosphide caused by swift (200 MeV) silver ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, S.K., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Analysis of atomic force microscopic images of the gallium phosphide samples irradiated with different fluences showed the presence of hillocks at the surface of gallium phosphide. At higher fluences, the big size hillocks having arbitrary shape are formed. • Phonon confinement model employed to first order Raman scattering from longitudinal optical phonon mode revealed the decrease in phonon coherence length with the increase in ion fluence. • Stress induced in the sample and phonon coherence length saturate at lower ion fluence, suggests that the swift silver ion irradiation in gallium phosphide do not create the significant damage upon impact. - Abstract: In the present work, the effects of swift silver ion irradiation in crystalline gallium phosphide samples with various fluences ranging between 1 × 10{sup 11} and 2 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2} have been described. Atomic force microscopy images of the samples irradiated with different fluences showed the existence of hillocks at the surface, the diameter and density of these clusters were found to be depend on the ion fluence. As the ion fluence increased (⩾1 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}), the big size hillocks having arbitrary shapes were observed due to outflow of the molten material to the sample surface or defect induced swelling of track areas accumulated during the track overlapping. Phonon confinement model employed to first order Raman scattering from longitudinal optical phonon mode revealed the decrease in phonon coherence length from 73.0 nm to 23.7 nm with the increase in ion fluence from 1 × 10{sup 12} to 2 × 10{sup 13} ion cm{sup −2}.

  2. Galvanic corrosion and cytotoxic effects of amalgam and gallium alloys coupled to titanium. (United States)

    Bumgardner, J D; Johansson, B I


    The aim of this study was to examine and compare the galvanic corrosion of a conventional, a dispersed high-copper, and a palladium-enriched spherical high-copper amalgam and a gallium alloy coupled to titanium in saline and cell culture solutions, and to evaluate the effects of the couples on cultured cells. The potentials and charge transfers between amalgams and titanium were measured by electrochemical corrosion methods. Cytotoxicity of the couples, as indicated by the uptake of neutral red vital stain, was determined in 24-h direct contact human gingival fibroblast cell cultures. Results of this study indicated that before connecting the high-copper amalgams to titanium, the amalgams exhibited more positive potentials which resulted in initial negative charge transfers, i.e. corrosion of titanium. However, this initial corrosion appeared to cause titanium to passivate, and a shift in galvanic currents to positive charge transfers, i.e. corrosion of the amalgam samples. Lower galvanic currents were measured for the amalgam-titanium couples as compared to the gallium alloy-titanium couple. Coupling the conventional or the palladium-enriched high-copper amalgams to titanium did not significantly affect the uptake of neutral red as compared to cells not exposed to any test alloy. However, significant cytotoxic effects were observed when the dispersed-type high-copper amalgam and the gallium alloy were coupled to titanium. Even though the corrosion currents measured for these couples were less than gold alloys coupled to amalgam, these results suggest there is the potential for released galvanic corrosion products to become cytotoxic. These data warrant further investigations into the effects of coupling amalgam and gallium alloys to titanium in the oral environment.

  3. Coupling Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds Mediated by Gallium Metal in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志勇; 袁仕祯; 查正根; 张祖德


    A simple and effective pinacol coupling of various aromatic aldehydes mediated by gallium in good yields has been carried out. The reaction is highly effective in water in the prurience of KOH or HCl and was strongly affected by the steric environ-ment surrounding the carbonyl group. Aliphaflc aldehydes, ke-tones and aromatic ketones appear inert under the same reac-tion conditions.

  4. Experimental study of electroinsulating coatings in gallium coolant related to the divertor cooling loop (United States)

    Beznosov, A. V.; Sherbakov, R. V.; Karatushina, I. V.; Romanov, P. V.


    Experimental investigation of electroinsulating coatings stability on the samples made of stainless stell, vanadium alloy and beryllium has been conducted at 80-350°C. The impact of gas pressure upon the liquid gallium open surface was studied. The stability of electroinsulating film parameters on divertor structure materials was confirmed for the divertor with open liquid metal coolant surface in the vacuum chamber.

  5. Gallium-68 DOTATATE Production with Automated PET Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System: A Three Year Experience


    Alireza Aslani; Snowdon, Graeme M; Bailey, Dale L.; Schembri, Geoffrey P; Bailey, Elizabeth A; Roach, Paul J.


    Objective(s): Gallium-68 (Ga-68) is an ideal research and hospital-based PET radioisotope. Currently, the main form of Ga-68 radiopharmaceutical that is being synthesised in-house is Ga-68 conjugated with DOTA based derivatives. The development of automated synthesis systems has increased the reliability, reproducibility and safety of radiopharmaceutical productions. Here we report on our three year, 500 syntheses experience with an automated system for Ga-68 DOTATATE. Methods: The automated ...

  6. Conversion of n-Butane to iso-Butene on Gallium/HZSM-5 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Gheno


    Full Text Available The conversion of n-butane to iso-butene on gallium/HZSM-5 catalysts at 350ºC and WHSV=2.5h8-1 was studied. The catalysts were prepared by ion exchange from a Ga(NO32 solution and further submitted to calcination in air at 530ºC. TEM analysis with an EDAX detector and TPR-H2 data showed that after calcination the Ga species were present mainly as Ga2O3, which are reduced to Ga2O at temperatures near 610ºC. The specific acid activity (SAA of the catalysts increased with the increase in aluminum content in the zeolite, and for a fixed Si/Al ratio, the SAA increased with Ga content. Values for specific hydro/dehydrogenation activity (SH/DHA were significantly higher than those for SAA, indicating that the catalytic process is controlled by the kinetics on acid sites. Moreover, the production of iso-butene with a selectivity higher than 25% was a evidence that in gallium/HZSM-5-based catalysts the rate of the hydrogenation reaction is lower than that of the dehydrogenation reaction; this behavior confirmed the dehydrogenation nature of gallium species, thereby showing great promise for iso-butene production.

  7. Gallium suboxide vapor attack on chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten and their alloys at 1200 [degrees] C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolman, D. G. (David G.); Taylor, T. N. (Thomas N.); Park, Y. (Youngsoo); Stan, M. (Marius); Butt, D. P. (Darryl P.); Maggiore, C. J. (Carl J.); Tesmer, Joseph R.; Havrilla, G. J. (George J.)


    Our prior work elucidated the failure mechanism of furnace materi als (304 SS, 316 SS, and Hastelloy C-276) exposed to gallium suboxide (Ga{sub 2}O) and/or gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) during plutonium - gallium compound processing. Failure was hypothesized to result from concurrent alloy oxidation/Ga compound reduction followed by Ga uptake. The aim of the current work is to screen candidate replacement materials. Alloys Haynes 25 (49 Co - 20 Cr - 15 W - 10 Ni - 3 Fe - 2 Mn - 0.4 Si, wt%), 52 Mo - 48 Re (wt%), 62 W - 38 Cu (wt%), and commercially pure Cr, Co, Mo, W, and alumina were examined. Preliminary assessments of commercially pure W and Mo - Re suggest that these materials may be suitable for furnace construction. Thermodynamics calculations indicating that materials containing Al, Cr, Mn, Si, and V would be susceptible to oxidation in the presence of Ga{sub 2}O were validated by experimental results. In contrast to that reported previously, an alternate reaction mechanism for Ga uptake, which does not require concurrent alloy oxidation, controls Ga uptake for certain materials. A correlation between Ga solubility and uptake was noted.

  8. Anomalous properties and the liquid-liquid phase transition in gallium (United States)

    Li, Renzhong; Sun, Gang; Xu, Limei


    A group of materials including water and silicon exhibit many anomalous behaviors, e.g., density anomaly and diffusivity anomaly (increase upon compression). These materials are hypothesized to have a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) and the critical fluctuation in the vicinity of the liquid-liquid critical point is considered as the origin of different anomalies. Liquid gallium was also reported to have a LLPT, yet whether it shows similar water-like anomalies is not yet studied. Using molecular dynamics simulations on a modified embedded-atom model, we study the thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural properties of liquid gallium as well as its LLPT. We find that, similar to water-like materials predicted to have the LLPT, gallium also shows different anomalous behaviors (e.g., density anomaly, diffusivity anomaly, and structural anomaly). We also find that its thermodynamic and structural response functions are continuous and show maxima in the supercritical region, the loci of which asymptotically approach to the other and merge to the Widom line. These phenomena are consistent with the supercritical phenomenon in a category of materials with a liquid-liquid critical point, which could be common features in most materials with a LLPT.

  9. Cerium, gallium and zinc containing mesoporous bioactive glass coating deposited on titanium alloy (United States)

    Shruti, S.; Andreatta, F.; Furlani, E.; Marin, E.; Maschio, S.; Fedrizzi, L.


    Surface modification is one of the methods for improving the performance of medical implants in biological environment. In this study, cerium, gallium and zinc substituted 80%SiO2-15%CaO-5%P2O5 mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) in combination with polycaprolactone (PCL) were coated over Ti6Al4 V substrates by dip-coating method in order to obtain an inorganic-organic hybrid coating (MBG-PCL). Structural characterization was performed using XRD, nitrogen adsorption, SEM-EDXS, FTIR. The MBG-PCL coating uniformly covered the substrate with the thickness found to be more than 1 μm. Glass and polymer phases were detected in the coating along with the presence of biologically potent elements cerium, gallium and zinc. In addition, in vitro bioactivity was investigated by soaking the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 30 days at 37 °C. The apatite-like layer was monitored by FTIR, SEM-EDXS and ICP measurements and it formed in all the samples within 15 days except zinc samples. In this way, an attempt was made to develop a new biomaterial with improved in vitro bioactive response due to bioactive glass coating and good mechanical strength of Ti6Al4 V alloy along with inherent biological properties of cerium, gallium and zinc.

  10. Activity of Gallium Meso- and Protoporphyrin IX against Biofilms of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chang


    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a challenging pathogen due to antimicrobial resistance and biofilm development. The role of iron in bacterial physiology has prompted the evaluation of iron-modulation as an antimicrobial strategy. The non-reducible iron analog gallium(III nitrate, Ga(NO33, has been shown to inhibit A. baumannii planktonic growth; however, utilization of heme-iron by clinical isolates has been associated with development of tolerance. These observations prompted the evaluation of iron-heme sources on planktonic and biofilm growth, as well as antimicrobial activities of gallium meso- and protoporphyrin IX (Ga-MPIX and Ga-PPIX, metal heme derivatives against planktonic and biofilm bacteria of multidrug-resistant (MDR clinical isolates of A. baumannii in vitro. Ga(NO33 was moderately effective at reducing planktonic bacteria (64 to 128 µM with little activity against biofilms (≥512 µM. In contrast, Ga-MPIX and Ga-PPIX were highly active against planktonic bacteria (0.25 to 8 µM. Cytotoxic effects in human fibroblasts were observed following exposure to concentrations exceeding 128 µM of Ga-MPIX and Ga-PPIX. We observed that the gallium metal heme conjugates were more active against planktonic and biofilm bacteria, possibly due to utilization of heme-iron as demonstrated by the enhanced effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation.

  11. Effects of heat shock, stannous chloride, and gallium nitrate on the rat inflammatory response. (United States)

    House, S D; Guidon, P T; Perdrizet, G A; Rewinski, M; Kyriakos, R; Bockman, R S; Mistry, T; Gallagher, R A; Hightower, L E


    Heat and a variety of other stressors cause mammalian cells and tissues to acquire cytoprotection. This transient state of altered cellular physiology is nonproliferative and antiapoptotic. In this study, male Wistar rats were stress conditioned with either stannous chloride or gallium nitrate, which have immunosuppressive effects in vivo and in vitro, or heat shock, the most intensively studied inducer of cytoprotection. The early stages of inflammation in response to topical suffusion of mesentery tissue with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were monitored using intravital microscopy. Microvascular hemodynamics (venular diameter, red blood cell velocity [Vrbc], white blood cell [WBC] flux, and leukocyte-endothelial adhesion [LEA]) were used as indicators of inflammation, and tissue levels of inducible Hsp70, determined using immunoblot assays, provided a marker of cytoprotection. None of the experimental treatments blocked decreases in WBC flux during FMLP suffusion, an indicator of increased low-affinity interactions between leukocytes and vascular endothelium known as rolling adhesion. During FMLP suffusion LEA, an indicator of firm attachment between leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells increased in placebo and gallium nitrate-treated animals but not in heat- and stannous chloride-treated animals, an anti-inflammatory effect. Hsp70 was not detected in aortic tissue from placebo and gallium nitrate-treated animals, indicating that Hsp70-dependent cytoprotection was not present. In contrast, Hsp70 was detected in aortic tissues from heat- and stannous chloride-treated animals, indicating that these tissues were in a cytoprotected state that was also an anti-inflammatory state.

  12. Gallium sulfide and indium sulfide nanoparticles from complex precursors: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D.P. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail:; Sharma, G. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kulshreshtha, S.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    Nanocrystalline gallium sulfide (Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}) and indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) have been prepared by a two-step process. The first step involves metathesis reaction of trimethyl gallium/indium ether adduct (Me{sub 3}Ga/In.OEt{sub 2}) with 1,2-ethanedithiol (HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SH) resulting in the formation of a polymeric precursor. The precursor complex has been characterized using Ga/In analysis, IR, proton NMR and mass spectroscopy. The thermal behavior of both complexes has been studied using thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. In the second step, these precursor complexes have been pyrolysed in furnace under flowing nitrogen atmosphere whereupon they undergo thermodestruction to yield nanometer-sized particles of gallium/indium sulfide. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The average size of the nanoparticles ranged from 10 to 12 nm for Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} and 20 to 22 nm for In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, respectively. This is the first report on use of a binary single source precursor to synthesize {beta}-Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles.

  13. Gallium-67 imaging in human heart transplantation: correlation with endomyocardial biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguetti, J.C.; Camargo, E.E.; Soares, J. Jr.; Bellotti, G.; Bocchi, E.; Higuchi, M.L.; Stolff, N.; Hironaka, F.H.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Pileggi, F.


    Endomyocardial biopsy seems to be the most accurate method to use for diagnosis and follow-up of acute rejection of the transplanted heart. This investigation compared a noninvasive procedure, gallium-67 imaging, with endomyocardial biopsy in the detection of acute rejection in heart transplantation. Seven male patients (aged 41 to 54 years) sequentially had 46 gallium-67 scintigrams and 46 endomyocardial biopsies between 1 week and 8 months after transplantation. Both studies were obtained in the same day, 48 hours after the administration of an intravenous injection of gallium-67 citrate. Cardiac uptake was graded as negative, mild, moderate, and marked according to an increasing count ratio with rib and sternal uptakes. Histologic findings were graded as negative, mild acute rejection, moderate acute rejection, severe acute rejection, resolving rejection, and nonspecific reaction. Negative biopsies were not found with moderate uptake, and neither moderate nor severe acute rejection were found with negative scintigrams. Imaging sensitivity was 83% with 17% false negatives and 9% false positives. Of seven studies with moderate uptake, five showed moderate acute rejection, and the patients had specific therapy with a decline in uptake, which correlated with resolving rejection. It is conceivable that in the future this technique may be used as a screening procedure for sequential endomyocardial biopsies in the follow-up of heart transplant patients.

  14. molecular dynamics study of the gallium vacancy diffusion in GaAs (United States)

    Bockstedte, Michel; Scheffler, Matthias


    Experimentally(T. Y. Tan et al.), Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 17, 47 (1991). it is well established that cation self-diffusion in GaAs proceeds by gallium vacancies. An analysis(J-L. Rouviere et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2798 (1992). of diffusion experiments yielded an exceptionally high value for the formation entropy of 32.9 kB and a migration energy barrier of 1.7 eV. The physics underlying this result is quite puzzling. Even the question whether the diffusion involves only the gallium sublattice or whether it proceeds by nearest neighbor hops is unanswered. Employing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations we analyze the motion of atoms and evaluate the free energy of vacancy formation and the diffusion constant. For the Ga vacancy we obtain a value for the formation entropy of 8 kB - comparable to that of the vacancy in silicon - but significantly lower than that extracted from experimentfootnotemark[2]. Based on our studies we therefore dare to question the experimental analysis. The calculated motion of a gallium vacancy close to the melting temperature of GaAs and the analysis of the different diffusion events exclude a diffusion mechanism by nearest neighbor hops. We discuss the microscopic picture of the second nearest neighbor hop, and determine its rate constant.

  15. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide. (United States)

    Kerr, A J; Chagarov, E; Gu, S; Kaufman-Osborn, T; Madisetti, S; Wu, J; Asbeck, P M; Oktyabrsky, S; Kummel, A C


    A combined wet and dry cleaning process for GaN(0001) has been investigated with XPS and DFT-MD modeling to determine the molecular-level mechanisms for cleaning and the subsequent nucleation of gate oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ XPS studies show that for the wet sulfur treatment on GaN(0001), sulfur desorbs at room temperature in vacuum prior to gate oxide deposition. Angle resolved depth profiling XPS post-ALD deposition shows that the a-Al2O3 gate oxide bonds directly to the GaN substrate leaving both the gallium surface atoms and the oxide interfacial atoms with XPS chemical shifts consistent with bulk-like charge. These results are in agreement with DFT calculations that predict the oxide/GaN(0001) interface will have bulk-like charges and a low density of band gap states. This passivation is consistent with the oxide restoring the surface gallium atoms to tetrahedral bonding by eliminating the gallium empty dangling bonds on bulk terminated GaN(0001).

  16. Ingestion of gallium phosphide nanowires has no adverse effect on Drosophila tissue function. (United States)

    Adolfsson, Karl; Schneider, Martina; Hammarin, Greger; Häcker, Udo; Prinz, Christelle N


    Engineered nanoparticles have been under increasing scrutiny in recent years. High aspect ratio nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires have raised safety concerns due to their geometrical similarity to asbestos fibers. III-V epitaxial semiconductor nanowires are expected to be utilized in devices such as LEDs and solar cells and will thus be available to the public. In addition, clean-room staff fabricating and characterizing the nanowires are at risk of exposure, emphasizing the importance of investigating their possible toxicity. Here we investigated the effects of gallium phosphide nanowires on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila larvae and/or adults were exposed to gallium phosphide nanowires by ingestion with food. The toxicity and tissue interaction of the nanowires was evaluated by investigating tissue distribution, activation of immune response, genome-wide gene expression, life span, fecundity and somatic mutation rates. Our results show that gallium phosphide nanowires applied through the diet are not taken up into Drosophila tissues, do not elicit a measurable immune response or changes in genome-wide gene expression and do not significantly affect life span or somatic mutation rate.

  17. Effect of Oxide Assisted Metal Nanoparticles on Microstructure and Morphology of Gallium oxide Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Several researches have been reported about the characteristic of β-Ga2O3 nanowires which was synthesized on nickel oxide particle. But indeed, recent researches about synthesis of β-Ga2O3 nanowires on oxide-assisted transition metal are limited to nickel or cobalt oxide catalyst. In this work, Gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3 ) nanowires were synthesized by a simple thermal evaporation method from gallium powder in the range of 700 - 1000℃ using the iron, nickel, copper, cobalt and zinc oxide as a catalyst, respectively. The β-Ga2O3 nanowires with single crystalline without defects were successfully synthesized at the reaction temperature of 850, 900 and 950℃ in all the catalysts. But optimum experimental condition in synthesis of nanowires varied with the kind of catalyst. As increasing synthesis temperature,the morphology of gallium oxide nanowires changed from nanowires to nanorods, and its diameter increased. From these results, we could be proposed that the growth mechanism of β-Ga2O3 nanowires was changed with synthesis temperature of nanowires. Microstructure and morphology of Synthesized nanowire was characterized by HR-TEM, FE-SEM, EDX and XRD.

  18. Ternary arsenides based on platinum–indium and palladium–indium fragments of the Cu{sub 3}Au-type: Crystal structures and chemical bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharova, Elena Yu.; Andreeva, Natalia A.; Kazakov, Sergey M. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-3, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Alexey N., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-3, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 31, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Three metal-rich platinum–indium and palladium–indium arsenides were synthesized. • Their crystal structures were determined from powder XRD. • Electronic structures and bonding were studied using DFT/FP-LAPW calculations. • Multi-centered Pt–In or Pd–In bonding was revealed using ELF and ELI-D analysis. • Extra pairwise Pt–Pt interactions are observed only for Pt-based compounds. - Abstract: Three metal-rich palladium–indium and platinum–indium arsenides, Pd{sub 5}InAs, Pt{sub 5}InAs, and Pt{sub 8}In{sub 2}As, were synthesized using a high-temperature ampoule technique. Their crystal structures were determined from Rietveld analysis of powder diffraction data. All the compounds crystallize in tetragonal system with P4/mmm space group (Pd{sub 5}InAs: a = 3.9874(1) Å, c = 6.9848(2) Å, Z = 1, R{sub p} = 0.053; R{sub b} = 0.013; Pt{sub 5}InAs: a = 3.9981(2) Å, c = 7.0597(4) Å, Z = 1, R{sub p} = 0.058, R{sub b} = 0.016; Pt{sub 8}In{sub 2}As: a = 3.9872(3) Å, c = 11.1129(7) Å, Z = 1, R{sub p} = 0.047; R{sub b} = 0.014). The first two compounds belong to the Pd{sub 5}TlAs structure type, while the third one is isotypic with the recently discovered Pd{sub 8}In{sub 2}Se. Main structural units in all arsenides are indium-centered [TM{sub 12}In] cuboctahedra (TM = Pd, Pt) of the Cu{sub 3}Au type, single- and double-stacked along the c axis in TM{sub 5}InAs and Pt{sub 8}In{sub 2}As, respectively, alternating with [TM{sub 8}As] rectangular prisms. DFT electronic structure calculations predict all three compounds to be 3D metallic conductors and Pauli-like paramagnets. According to the bonding analysis based on the electron localization function and electron localizability indicator topologies, all compounds feature multi-centered interactions between transition metal and indium in their heterometallic fragments. Additionally, pairwise interactions between platinum atoms are also observed, indicating a somewhat more localized bonding

  19. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt


    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  20. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf


    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system