WorldWideScience

Sample records for arsenic promotes progressive

  1. Disruption of Mitotic Progression by Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    States, J Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Arsenic is an enigmatic xenobiotic that causes a multitude of chronic diseases including cancer and also is a therapeutic with promise in cancer treatment. Arsenic causes mitotic delay and induces aneuploidy in diploid human cells. In contrast, arsenic causes mitotic arrest followed by an apoptotic death in a multitude of virally transformed cells and cancer cells. We have explored the hypothesis that these differential effects of arsenic exposure are related by arsenic disruption of mitosis and are differentiated by the target cell's ability to regulate or modify cell cycle checkpoints. Functional p53/CDKN1A axis has been shown to mitigate the mitotic block and to be essential to induction of aneuploidy. More recent preliminary data suggest that microRNA modulation of chromatid cohesion also may play a role in escape from mitotic block and in generation of chromosomal instability. Other recent studies suggest that arsenic may be useful in treatment of solid tumors when used in combination with other cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin.

  2. Stimulatory effects of arsenic-tolerant soil fungi on plant growth promotion and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (PLasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

  3. Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P

  4. Arsenic Biotransformation as a Cancer Promoting Factor by Inducing DNA Damage and Disruption of Repair Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water poses a major global health concern. Populations exposed to high concentrations of arsenic-contaminated drinking water suffer serious health consequences, including alarming cancer incidence and death rates. Arsenic is biotransformed through sequential addition of methyl groups, acquired from s-adenosylmethionine (SAM. Metabolism of arsenic generates a variety of genotoxic and cytotoxic species, damaging DNA directly and indirectly, through the generation of reactive oxidative species and induction of DNA adducts, strand breaks and cross links, and inhibition of the DNA repair process itself. Since SAM is the methyl group donor used by DNA methyltransferases to maintain normal epigenetic patterns in all human cells, arsenic is also postulated to affect maintenance of normal DNA methylation patterns, chromatin structure, and genomic stability. The biological processes underlying the cancer promoting factors of arsenic metabolism, related to DNA damage and repair, will be discussed here.

  5. Low doses of arsenic, via perturbing p53, promotes tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Suthakar; Li, Ping; Fagman, Johan; Yu, Tianqi; Lafontant, Jean; Zhang, Guojun; Chen, Changyan

    2016-09-01

    In drinking water and in workplace or living environments, low doses of arsenic can exist and operate as a potent carcinogen. Due to insufficient understanding and information on the pervasiveness of environmental exposures to arsenic, there is an urgent need to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of arsenic regarding its carcinogenic effect on human health. In this study, we demonstrate that low doses of arsenic exposure mitigate or mask p53 function and further perturb intracellular redox state, which triggers persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activates UPR (unfolded protein response), leading to transformation or tumorigenesis. Thus, the results suggest that low doses of arsenic exposure, through attenuating p53-regulated tumor suppressive function, change the state of intracellular redox and create a microenvironment for tumorigenesis. Our study also provides the information for designing more effective strategies to prevent or treat human cancers initiated by arsenic exposure. PMID:27425828

  6. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of countries, including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, and the United States of America. Drinking-water, ... ingestion of inorganic arsenic include developmental effects, neurotoxicity, diabetes, pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Arsenic-induced myocardial ...

  7. Ionizing radiation in tumor promotion and progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to beta radiation has been tested as a tumor promoting or progressing agent. The dorsal skins of groups of 25 female SENCAR mice were chemically initiated with a single exposure to DMBA, and chronic exposure to strontium-90/yttrium-90 beta radiation was tested as a stage 1, stage 2 or complete skin tumor promoter. Exposure of initiated mice to 0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks produced no papillomas, indicating no action as a complete promoter. Another similar group of animals was chemically promoted through stage 1 (with TPA) followed by 0.5 gray of beta radiation twice a week for 13 weeks. Again no papillomas developed indicating no action of chronic radiation as a stage 2 tumor promoter. The same radiation exposure protocol in another DMBA initiated group receiving both stage 1 and 2 chemical promotion resulted in a decrease in papilloma frequency, compared to the control group receiving no beta irradiation, indicating a tumor preventing effect of radiation at stage 2 promotion, probably by killing initiated cells. Chronic beta radiation was tested three different ways as a stage 1 tumor promoter. When compared to the appropriate control, beta radiation given after initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks), after initiation and along with a known stage 1 chemical promoter (1.0 gray twice a week for 2 weeks), or prior to initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 4 weeks), each time showed a weak (∼ 15% stimulation) but statistically significant (p<0.01) ability to act as a stage 1 promoter. When tested as a tumor progressing agent delivered to pre-existing papillomas, beta radiation (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks) increased carcinoma frequency from 0.52 to 0.68 carcinoma/animal, but this increase was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. We conclude that in the addition to the known initiating, progressing and complete carcinogenic action of acute exposures to ionizing

  8. Arsenic induces structural and compositional colonic microbiome change and promotes host nitrogen and amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheer, Rishu; Patterson, Jena; Dudash, Mark; Stachler, Elyse N; Bibby, Kyle J; Stolz, Donna B; Shiva, Sruti; Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L; Barchowsky, Aaron; Stolz, John F

    2015-12-15

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer and non-cancer diseases. However, mechanisms for chronic arsenic-induced pathogenesis, especially in response to lower exposure levels, are unclear. In addition, the importance of health impacts from xeniobiotic-promoted microbiome changes is just being realized and effects of arsenic on the microbiome with relation to disease promotion are unknown. To investigate impact of arsenic exposure on both microbiome and host metabolism, the stucture and composition of colonic microbiota, their metabolic phenotype, and host tissue and plasma metabolite levels were compared in mice exposed for 2, 5, or 10weeks to 0, 10 (low) or 250 (high) ppb arsenite (As(III)). Genotyping of colonic bacteria revealed time and arsenic concentration dependent shifts in community composition, particularly the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, relative to those seen in the time-matched controls. Arsenic-induced erosion of bacterial biofilms adjacent to the mucosal lining and changes in the diversity and abundance of morphologically distinct species indicated changes in microbial community structure. Bacterical spores increased in abundance and intracellular inclusions decreased with high dose arsenic. Interestingly, expression of arsenate reductase (arsA) and the As(III) exporter arsB, remained unchanged, while the dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nrfA) gene expression increased. In keeping with the change in nitrogen metabolism, colonic and liver nitrite and nitrate levels and ratios changed with time. In addition, there was a concomitant increase in pathogenic arginine metabolites in the mouse circulation. These data suggest that arsenic exposure impacts the microbiome and microbiome/host nitrogen metabolism to support disease enhancing pathogenic phenotypes.

  9. A high-selenium lentil dietary intervention in Bangladesh to counteract arsenic toxicity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Regina M Krohn; Raqib, Rubhana; Akhtar, Evana; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit E. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Millions of people worldwide are exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic (above the WHO water standard of 10 ppb) in drinking water and food. Lack of nutritious foods exacerbates the adverse health effects of arsenic poisoning. The micronutrient selenium is a known antagonist to arsenic, promoting the excretion of arsenic from the body. Studies are in progress examining the potential of using selenium supplement pills to counteract arsenic toxicity. We are planning a clinical trial ...

  10. Arsenic-tolerant plant-growth-promoting bacteria isolated from arsenic-polluted soils in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagol, Charlotte C; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Kim, Kiyoon; Sundaram, Subbiah; Sa, Tongmin

    2014-01-01

    The Janghang smelter in Chungnam, South Korea started in 1936 was subsequently shutdown in 1989 due to heavy metal (loid) pollution concerns in the vicinity. Thus, there is a need for the soil in the area to be remediated to make it usable again especially for agricultural purposes. The present study was conducted to exploit the potential of arsenic (As)-tolerant bacteria thriving in the vicinity of the smelter-polluted soils to enhance phytoremediation of hazardous As. We studied the genetic and taxonomic diversity of 21 As-tolerant bacteria isolated from soils nearer to and away from the smelter. These isolates belonging to the genera Brevibacterium, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Rhodococcus, Rahnella, and Paenibacillus, could tolerate high concentrations of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) with the minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 3 to >20 mM for NaAsO2 and 140 to 310 mM NaH2AsO4 · 7H2O, respectively. All isolates exhibited As(V) reduction except Pseudomonas koreensis JS123, which exhibited both oxidation and reduction of As. Moreover, all the 21 isolates produced indole acetic acid (IAA), 13 isolates exhibited 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, 12 produced siderophore, 17 solubilized phosphate, and 13 were putative nitrogen fixers under in vitro conditions. Particularly, Rhodococcus aetherivorans JS2210, P. koreensis JS2214, and Pseudomonas sp. JS238 consistently increased root length of maize in the presence of 100 and 200 μM As(V). Possible utilization of these As-tolerant plant-growth-promoting bacteria can be a potential strategy in increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation in As-polluted soils. PMID:24737020

  11. Research progress on toxicity and excretion of arsenic%砷的毒性及排砷研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李羡筠

    2012-01-01

    砷是有毒的类金属元素,通过环境污染和职业性接触进入体内,对人体的皮肤、神经系统、心血管、肝脏及肾脏等有明显的损伤.在砷中毒治疗中,常用临床药物虽然排砷效果好,但具有一定的局限性,寻求一种高效、价廉、无不良反应且能广泛用于患者的排砷药物是当务之急.笔者就近年来国内外学者有关砷对机体的损害及排砷治疗的研究进展进行综述.%Arsenic is a toxic metalloid element, it enter the body through environmental pollution and occupational exposure, and may cause an obvious damage on skin, nervous system, cardiovascular system, liver and kidney. In the treatment of arsenic poisoning, although the common drugs have good effect on excretion of arsenic, there are some limitations. It is the urgent affair to find out an arsenic excretion drug which has good effect, low cost, less adverse reaction and extensive use. This article reviews the research progress on damages caused by arsenic and excretion of arsenic at home and abroad.

  12. Evidence of arsenic release promoted by disinfection by-products within drinking-water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Botsaris, George; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Kalyvas, Harris; Costa, Costas N

    2014-02-15

    Changes in disinfectant type could trigger a cascade of reactions releasing pipe-anchored metals/metalloids into finished water. However, the effect of pre-formed disinfection by-products on the release of sorbed contaminants (arsenic-As in particular) from drinking water distribution system pipe scales remains unexplored. A bench-scale study using a factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the independent and interaction effects of trihalomethanes (TTHM) and haloacetic acids (HAA) on arsenic (As) release from either scales-only or scale-biofilm conglomerates (SBC) both anchored on asbestos/cement pipe coupons. A model biofilm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was allowed to grow on select pipe coupons prior experimentation. Either TTHM or HAA individual dosing did not promote As release from either scales only or SBC, detecting water. In the case of scales-only coupons, the combination of the highest spike level of TTHM and HAA significantly (pdisinfected finished water in pipe networks remains to be investigated in the field.

  13. A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground

  14. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  15. Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 variants evolving in AIDS patients frequently show increased replicative capacity compared to those present during early asymptomatic infection. It is known that late stage HIV-1 variants often show an expanded coreceptor tropism and altered Nef function. In the present study we investigated whether enhanced HIV-1 LTR promoter activity might also evolve during disease progression. Our results demonstrate increased LTR promoter activity after AIDS progression in 3 of 12 HIV-1-infected individuals studied. Further analysis revealed that multiple alterations in the U3 core-enhancer and in the transactivation-response (TAR) region seem to be responsible for the enhanced functional activity. Our findings show that in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals enhanced LTR transcription contributes to the increased replicative potential of late stage virus isolates and might accelerate disease progression

  16. Arsenic in private well water part 2 of 3: Who benefits the most from traditional testing promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara V; Spayd, Steven E; Procopio, Nicholas A; Chillrud, Steven N; Ross, James; Braman, Stuart; Zheng, Yan

    2016-08-15

    Arsenic, a toxic element naturally found in groundwater, is a public health concern for households drinking from wells. Private well water is not regulated to meet the federal drinking water arsenic Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10μg/L, or the more protective 5μg/L New Jersey (NJ) state MCL. In the absence of consistent private well regulation, public health efforts have relied on promoting testing in affected communities to various degrees of success. Few interventions publish results, and more often focus on the outcome of tested wells rather than who completed a test, and more importantly, who did not. Through our survey of randomly selected addresses (n=670) in 17 NJ towns we find higher rates of arsenic testing in areas with a history of testing promotion. However, we also see a stronger correlation of testing behavior with income and education in high promotion areas, suggesting that community engagement activities may be exacerbating socioeconomic status (SES) testing disparities. Well owners with a bachelor's degree had ten times greater odds of participating in our direct mail testing intervention than those with less education when tests cost $40. After all households (n=255) were offered free tests to overcome many of the usual testing barriers - awareness, convenience, and cost - only 47% participated and those who chose to return water samples were of higher income and education than those who did not. Our findings highlight that while efforts to promote and provide arsenic testing succeed in testing more wells, community testing interventions risk increasing SES disparities if those with more education and resources are more likely to take advantage of testing programs. Therefore, testing interventions can benefit by better targeting socially vulnerable populations in an effort to overcome SES-patterned self-selection when individuals are left alone with the responsibility of managing their drinking water quality. PMID:27142115

  17. Hypothermia activates adipose tissue to promote malignant lung cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangjun Du

    Full Text Available Microenvironment has been increasingly recognized as a critical regulator of cancer progression. In this study, we identified early changes in the microenvironment that contribute to malignant progression. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to methylnitrosourea (MNU caused a reduction in cell toxicity and an increase in clonogenic capacity when the temperature was lowered from 37°C to 28°C. Hypothermia-incubated adipocyte media promoted proliferation in A549 cells. Although a hypothermic environment could increase urethane-induced tumor counts and Lewis lung cancer (LLC metastasis in lungs of three breeds of mice, an increase in tumor size could be discerned only in obese mice housed in hypothermia. Similarly, coinjections using differentiated adipocytes and A549 cells promoted tumor development in athymic nude mice when adipocytes were cultured at 28°C. Conversely, fat removal suppressed tumor growth in obese C57BL/6 mice inoculated with LLC cells. Further studies show hypothermia promotes a MNU-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and protects the tumor cell against immune control by TGF-β1 upregulation. We also found that activated adipocytes trigger tumor cell proliferation by increasing either TNF-α or VEGF levels. These results suggest that hypothermia activates adipocytes to stimulate tumor boost and play critical determinant roles in malignant progression.

  18. RECENT PROGRESS IN ARSENIC RESEARCH IN CHINA%中国关于砷的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈保卫; Le X. Chris

    2011-01-01

    综述了近年来有关中国的砷污染状况、相关的分析监测技术及砷化合物毒性的研究进展.在中国部分地区,长期砷暴露导致了严重的区域性的砷中毒,主要的暴露途径是饮用水、食物和煤炭的燃烧.样品前处理、砷的富集和形态分析技术的丰富和发展,为环境科学、毒理学和流行病学的研究提供了可靠的技术支持.生物检测是一种直接有效的污染物健康风险评估方法,尿样、血液、唾液、头发和指甲中的砷及生理生化指标直接反映了暴露主体的砷暴露程度和砷相关的损伤程度.在砷的生物代谢过程中,产生活性氧和自由基,导致氧化应激的提高,影响亚铁血红蛋白的生物合成,导致细胞膜的过氧化,线粒体相关的细胞凋亡,DNA的氧化损伤而产生基因突变.砷中毒的易受程度,与年龄、营养状况、硒的摄入相关.砷化合物能穿过胎盘屏障影响胎儿的发育,穿过脑血屏障影响智力发育和导致神经毒性.慢性砷中毒的机理还有待进一步的研究.%This review summarizes recent research conducted on environmental arsenic in China,covering the topics of environmental contamination,human exposure,speciation analysis,biomonitoring,biotransformation,and toxicity of arsenic compounds.Chronic exposure to arsenic through ingestion of drinking water and contaminated food,and/or inhalation of contaminated air due to coal combustion is responsible for endemic arsenicosis in several areas of China.Progress has been made in analytical techniques for speciation analysis,increasing the number of studies on environmental chemistry,toxicology,and epidemiology of arsenic.Urine,blood,saliva,hair,and nail have been analyzed for arsenic species to assess arsenic exposure.Epidemiological,biochemical,and animal studies have linked excess arsenic exposure with the elevated levels of oxidation stress,as measured by oxidative damage to DNA and peroxidation of cell

  19. Cyr61 promotes breast tumorigenesis and cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Bogart, Daphne F.; Castaneda, Jessica M.; Li, Patricia; Lupu, Ruth

    2002-01-16

    Cyr61, a member of the CCN family of genes, is an angiogenic factor. We have shown that it is overexpressed in invasive and metastatic human breast cancer cells and tissues. Here, we investigated whether Cyr61 is necessary and/or sufficient to bypass the ''normal'' estrogen (E2) requirements for breast cancer cell growth. Our results demonstrate that under E2-depleted condition, Cyr61 is sufficient to induce MCF-7 cells grow in the absence of E2. MCF-7 cells transfected with Cyr61 (MCF-7/Cyr61) became E2-independent but still E2-responsive. On the other hand, MCF-7/vector cells remain E2-dependent. MCF-7/Cyr61 cells acquire an antiestrogen-resistant phenotype, one of the most common clinical occurrences during breast cancer progression. MCF-7/Cyr61 cells are anchorage-independent and capable of forming Matrigel outgrowth patterns in the absence of E2. ERa expression in MCF-7/Cyr61 cells is decreased although still functional. Additionally, MCF-7/Cyr61 cells are tumorigenic in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. The tumors resemble human invasive carcinomas with increased vascularization and overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our results demonstrate that Cyr61 is a tumor-promoting factor and a key regulator of breast cancer progression. This study provides evidence that Cyr61 is sufficient to induce E2-independence and anti-E2 resistance, and to promote invasiveness in vitro, and to induce tumorigenesis in vivo, all of which are characteristics of an aggressive breast cancer phenotype.

  20. Embryonic morphogen nodal promotes breast cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F Quail

    Full Text Available Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (<100 cells micrometastases at secondary sites, it supports an elevated proliferation:apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks, we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  1. A cluster-based randomized controlled trial promoting community participation in arsenic mitigation efforts in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Christine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To reduce arsenic (As exposure, we evaluated the effectiveness of training community members to perform water arsenic (WAs testing and provide As education compared to sending representatives from outside communities to conduct these tasks. Methods We conducted a cluster based randomized controlled trial of 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. Fifty eligible respondents were randomly selected in each village. In 10 villages, a community member provided As education and WAs testing. In a second set of 10 villages an outside representative performed these tasks. Results Overall, 53% of respondents using As contaminated wells, relative to the Bangladesh As standard of 50 μg/L, at baseline switched after receiving the intervention. Further, when there was less than 60% arsenic contaminated wells in a village, the classification used by the Bangladeshi and UNICEF, 74% of study households in the community tester villages, and 72% of households in the outside tester villages reported switching to an As safe drinking water source . Switching was more common in the outside-tester (63% versus community-tester villages (44%. However, after adjusting for the availability of arsenic safe drinking water sources, well switching did not differ significantly by type of As tester (Odds ratio =0.86[95% confidence interval 0.42-1.77. At follow-up, among those using As contaminated wells who switched to safe wells, average urinary As concentrations significantly decreased. Conclusion The overall intervention was effective in reducing As exposure provided there were As-safe drinking water sources available. However, there was not a significant difference observed in the ability of the community and outside testers to encourage study households to use As-safe water sources. The findings of this study suggest that As education and WAs testing programs provided by As testers, irrespective of their residence, could be used as an effective, low cost

  2. Epigenetic targets of arsenic: emphasis on epigenetic modifications during carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ram Vinod; Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Lei; Hitron, John Andrew; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; D, Rakesh; Kim, Donghern; Yin, Yuanqin; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone modification promote opening and closure of chromatin structure, which affects gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. Epigenetic markers regulate the dynamic nature of chromatin structure at different levels: DNA, histone, noncoding RNAs, as well as the higher-order chromatin structure. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that arsenic-induced carcinogenesis involves frequent changes in the epigenetic marker. However, progress in identifying arsenic-induced epigenetic changes has already been made using genome-wide approaches; the biological significance of these epigenetic changes remains unknown. Moreover, arsenic-induced changes in the chromatin state alter gene expression through the epigenetic mechanism. The current review provides a summary of recent literature regarding epigenetic changes caused by arsenic in carcinogenesis. We highlight the transgenerational studies needed to explicate the biological significance and toxicity of arsenic over a broad spectrum.

  3. The present treatment and mechanism progress of arsenic trioxide in hematological malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Liu; Zhi-Gang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioide (ATO) is a kind of highly toxic substances and the main effective components of arsenic. ATO has been used medicinally for over 2400 years. Recent years, many studies have found that ATO has a significant efficacy on the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). To further explore the latest findings of research on the treatment of hematologic malignanies of ATO, this paper reviewed the development history of ATO, and summarized its mechanisms and clinical application in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. In addition, we want to provide new ideas for researches on the treatment of cancer of ATO.%三氧化二砷(ATO)是一种剧毒物质,又是中药砒霜的主要成分,人类用它作为药物治疗疾病已有2400多年的历史。近年来发现ATO对急性早幼粒细胞性白血病(APL)具有显著的疗效。为进一步了解ATO治疗血液系统恶性肿瘤作用的研究近况,本文回顾ATO的研发历史,并总结其在治疗血液恶性肿瘤中的作用机制及临床应用,以期为ATO治疗肿瘤方面的研究提供新的思路。

  4. Arsenic trioxide promotes senescence and regulates the balance of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanchen Cheng; Lin Qiu; Hao Zhang; Mei Cheng; Wei Li; Xuefei Zhao; Keyu Liu; Lei Lei; Jun Ma

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) as an anti-tumor drug could induce differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells.Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play important roles in the hematogenesis of bone marrow. Many reports have shown that the disorder of MSC adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation occurs in some diseases. However,reports about the effects of ATO on MSCs are limited. In this study, we found that 1μM ATO promoted MSC senescence mainly through p21, although it had no effect on apoptosis at this dose. Furthermore, ATO promoted adipogenic differentiation, but inhibited osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. Our study also showed that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma PPARγ might be involved in the regulation of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation induced by ATO. Our results indicated that ATO may exert an anti-tumor effect by influencing bone marrow micro-environment. Moreover, it may regulate the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.

  5. Research progress in detection methods of arsenic and arsenic speciation%砷及砷的形态检测方法的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金玲; 钟耀广; 孙晓红; 邓健康; 林栋

    2012-01-01

    砷是一种广泛分布于自然界的微量元素,摄入过量砷元素容易引起砷的急性中毒而致死,应引起人们足够的重视。砷的毒性主要取决于它的化学形态,形态不同毒性差异很大,所以选择适当、简便、快速的测定方法是现代分析技术取得发展的必要条件。本文综述了近年来砷及其形态常用的测定方法,并且分析了各检测方法的优缺点,展望了砷及其形态检测技术的发展前景。%Arsenic,a kind of trace elements, is widely distributed in nature. Excessive arsenic intake can lead to acute poisoning and even to death, which should arouse the society' s enough attention and awareness. The toxicity of arsenic compounds is mainly determined by its chemical speciation, and the toxicity of arsenic in different speciation varies greatly.It is essential for the development of modern analytical techniques that selecting the appropriate,simple and rapid determination method.Some common methods for the determination of arsenic and its speciation were reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of various detection methods were analyzed.The article prospected the research on detection technique of arsenic and its speciation.

  6. Research and application progress of MGMT promoter methylation in gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Cui-yun SUN; Shi-zhu YU

    2014-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is an important DNA repair enzyme. The promoter methylation status of MGMT gene has recently become a biomarker of gliomas. Methylation of the MGMT promoter not only is an important biomarker to evaluate the sensitivity to the chemotherapy with alkylating agents, but also contributes to predicting prognosis and distinguishing between recurrence and pseudoprogression in glioma patients. Especially in the elderly, MGMT promoter methylation stat...

  7. Research Progress of the Arsenic-containing Refractory Gold Flotation%含砷难处理金矿浮选研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈述保; 唐明刚

    2014-01-01

    随着易处理单一金矿储量不断减少,含砷难处理金矿所占比重越来越大。此类矿石普遍采用浮选法处理,总结含砷难处理矿石浮选技术研究进展有重要意义。浮选药剂的研发是含砷金矿分选技术的重点,近年来高选择性捕收剂和砷抑制剂的研发和应用取得了较多进展,浮选工艺研究也取得了创新性成果,而新型捕收剂及砷抑制剂的研究应用和浮选联合工艺开发是未来含砷难处理金矿研究的主要方向。%With the increasingly exhausting of easily leachable gold ores,the proportion of refractory gold ores which containing arsenic is growing larger.The ores were dealt commonly with the flotation method,and summarizing the flotation technology of refractory gold ores which containing arsenic is very important. Obviously,research and development of the flotation reagent is the key to the flotation technology of the containing arsenic gold ores.In recent years,it has made more progress for the development and application of the high selective collector and arsenic inhibitors.And the research on flotation also has made innovative achievements.In short,the development and application of the high selective collector and arsenic inhibitors and the exploitations of combined processes are the main directions for the research of refractory gold ores which containing arsenic.

  8. Research and application progress of MGMT promoter methylation in gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-yun SUN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT is an important DNA repair enzyme. The promoter methylation status of MGMT gene has recently become a biomarker of gliomas. Methylation of the MGMT promoter not only is an important biomarker to evaluate the sensitivity to the chemotherapy with alkylating agents, but also contributes to predicting prognosis and distinguishing between recurrence and pseudoprogression in glioma patients. Especially in the elderly, MGMT promoter methylation status has recently been introduced to be a biomarker for glioma classification and personalized treatment strategies. This review gives a short summary of the function of MGMT and clinical application of MGMT promoter methylation in personalized treatment strategies, prognosis evaluation and differentiation of recurrence and pseudoprogression of glioma. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.07.017

  9. Promotion of arsenic phytoextraction efficiency in the fern Pteris vittata by the inoculation of As-resistant bacteria: a soil bioremediation perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eLampis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of arsenic phytoextraction by the fern Pteris vittata growing in arsenic-contaminated soil, with or without the addition of selected rhizobacteria isolated from the polluted site. The bacterial strains were selected for arsenic resistance, the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite, and the ability to promote plant growth. P. vittata plants were cultivated for 4 months in a contaminated substrate consisting of arsenopyrite cinders and mature compost. Four different experimental conditions were tested: i non-inoculated plants; ii plants inoculated with the siderophore-producing and arsenate-reducing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. P1III2 and Delftia sp. P2III5 (A; iii plants inoculated with the siderophore and indoleacetic acid-producing bacteria Bacillus sp. MPV12, Variovorax sp. P4III4 and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. P4V6 (B, and iv plants inoculated with all five bacterial strains (AB. The presence of growth-promoting rhizobacteria increased plant biomass by up to 45% and increased As removal efficiency from 13% without bacteria to 35% in the presence of the mixed inoculum. Molecular analysis confirmed the persistence of the introduced bacterial strains in the soil and resulted in a significant impact on the structure of the bacterial community.

  10. Arsenic-induced promoter hypomethylation and over-expression of ERCC2 reduces DNA repair capacity in humans by non-disjunction of the ERCC2-Cdk7 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Somnath; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Chatterjee, Aditi; Sau, Tanmoy J; Das, Jayanta K; Mishra, Prafulla K; Chakrabarti, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Giri, Ashok K

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is of critical concern in West Bengal, India, as it results in several physiological symptoms including dermatological lesions and cancers. Impairment of the DNA repair mechanism has been associated with arsenic-induced genetic damage as well as with several cancers. ERCC2 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing rodent repair, complementation group 2), mediates DNA-repair by interacting with Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, which helps in DNA proof-reading during transcription. Arsenic metabolism alters epigenetic regulation; we tried to elucidate the regulation of ERCC2 in arsenic-exposed humans. Water, urine, nails, hair and blood samples from one hundred and fifty seven exposed and eighty eight unexposed individuals were collected. Dose dependent validation was done in vitro using HepG2 and HEK-293. Arsenic content in the biological samples was higher in the exposed individuals compared with the content in unexposed individuals (p < 0.001). Bisulfite-modified methylation specific PCR showed a significant (p < 0.0001) hypomethylation of the ERCC2 promoter in the arsenic-exposed individuals. Densitometric analysis of immunoblots showed a nearly two-fold increase in expression of ERCC2 in exposed individuals, but there was an enhanced genotoxic insult as measured by micronuclei frequency. Immuno-precipitation and western blotting revealed an increased (p < 0.001) association of Cdk7 with ERCC2 in highly arsenic exposed individuals. The decrease in CAK activity was determined by observing the intensity of Ser(392) phosphorylation in p53, in vitro, which decreased with an increase in arsenic dose. Thus we infer that arsenic biotransformation leads to promoter hypomethylation of ERCC2, which in turn inhibits the normal functioning of the CAK-complex, thus affecting DNA-repair; this effect was highest among the arsenic exposed individuals with dermatological lesions. PMID:24473091

  11. TLR5 signaling, commensal microbiota and systemic tumor promoting inflammation: the three parcae of malignant progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Melanie R; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2015-01-01

    We have reported that TLR5-mediated recognition of commensal microbiota modulates systemic tumor-promoting inflammation and malignant progression of tumors at distal locations. Approximately 7–10% of the general population harbors a deleterious single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR5, implicating a novel role for genetic variation during the initiation and progression of cancer. PMID:26405577

  12. Self-reported health promotion and disability progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, Marie Beatrice; Nagels, Guy; De Keyser, Jacques; Haentjens, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health behavior may be associated with disability progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives: To investigate health-promoting behavior as measured by the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, which includes the subscales of health responsibility, physical activity, nutrition, sp

  13. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-02-01

    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change.

  14. Neuropilin-2 promotes melanoma growth and progression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Whei F; Kim, Edward; Gerber, Stephanie A; Hammers, Hans; Alani, Rhoda M

    2016-08-01

    Tumor cell interactions with their microenvironment, and neighboring endothelial cells in particular, are critical for tumor cell survival and the metastatic process. Within the spectrum of tumors, melanomas are notorious for their ability to metastasize at a relatively early stage of development; however, little is known about the molecular pathways mediating this process. We recently performed a screen to assess critical mediators of melanoma metastasis by evaluating melanoma-endothelial cell communication. Neuropilin-2 (NRP2), a cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis and axonal guidance, was found to be an important mediator of melanoma-endothelial cell cross-talk in these studies. Here we seek to further define the role of NRP2 in melanoma growth and progression. We use stable gene silencing of NRP2 in melanomas from varying stages of tumor progression to define the role of NRP2 in melanoma growth, migration, invasion, and metastasis. We found that NRP2 gene silencing in metastatic melanoma cell lines inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro; furthermore, knockdown of NRP2 expression in the metastatic melanoma cell line 1205Lu significantly inhibited in-vivo tumor growth and metastasis. We conclude that NRP2 plays an important role in mediating melanoma growth and metastasis and suggest that targeting this cell surface molecule may represent a significant therapeutic strategy for patients diagnosed with aggressive forms of melanoma. PMID:26881875

  15. Plan and Design Meticulously and Promoting Technical Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Chengwu

    1994-01-01

    @@ Plan and design is the key link in captial construction, and the soul of engineering construction. China Petroleum Planning & Engineering Institute (CPPEI) is one of the main undertakers for planning and designing of petroleum industry,the only leading multi-functional institute with the first class design certificate. Now it has been an organization under the China National Petroleum Corporation(CNPC)for making development strategy planning, project evaluations and technical consulting, drawing up project development plan and providing technical recommendations. It can complete plan and design for the oil and gas field facilities, pipeline construction,petroleum relinery and petro-chemical industry engineering at home and abroad. It is also a center of servicing for new technical development and scientific research. Since CPPEI was established in 1978,it has meticulously conducted on planning and designing for the technical progress of petroleum engineering.

  16. FYN promotes breast cancer progression through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ye-Gong; Yu, Yue; Hou, Li-Kun; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Bin; Cao, Xu-Chen

    2016-08-01

    FYN, one of the members of the Src family of kinases (SFKs), has been reported to be overexpressed in various types of cancers and correlated with cell motility and proliferation. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we found that FYN was overexpressed in breast cancer and overexpression of FYN promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in the MCF10A cells, whereas depletion of FYN suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, FYN upregulated the expression of mesenchymal markers and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcription factors, and downregulated the expression of epithelial markers, suggesting that FYN induces EMT in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, FYN was transcriptionally regulated by FOXO1 and mediated FGF2-induced EMT through both the PI3K/AKT and ERK/MAPK pathways. PMID:27349276

  17. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R. H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report.

  18. 地下水砷污染研究进展%Research Progress of Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金阳; 姜月华; 李云

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a severely toxic substance resulting in cancer. Arsenic contamination of groundwater has had a sig-nificantly negative influence not only on human health, but also on ecological environment, and it has been a hot issue for a-broad and domestic scholars in recent years. This paper summarizes arsenic contamination in groundwater, introduces current status of the research focused on Arsenic in groundwater, meanwhile, it also simply depicts its source. In addition, this article shows several aspects of Arsenic contamination in details, including existence form, impact factors, and points out the instruc-tion for preventive control and remediation of arsenic contamination in groundwater.%砷是一种毒性很强的致癌物质,地下水的砷污染严重破坏生态环境,危害人类健康,已成为近年来国内外学者研究的热点问题。本文针对地下水的砷污染问题进行综述,介绍了地下水砷污染研究现状,并简单介绍了地下水中砷的来源。另外,还针对地下水中砷的存在形态及其影响因素等方面作了详细介绍,对砷污染的预防控制和修复治理起到指导作用。

  19. 无机砷甲基化研究进展%Recent Research Progress in the Methylation of Inorganic Arsenic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓丽; 耿志荣; 王志林

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a bioactive element. Throughout the world, millions of people are at risk of cancer, heart disease, and diabetes because of chronic arsenic exposure. The methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) attract abroad attention since it is the main metabolism pathway in mammals and has been commonly considered as a detoxification mechanism. This dissertation summarizes the recent research advancement of "arsenic (+3) methyltransferase", "the mechanism of arsenite methylation" and "the inhibition of arsenite methylation".%砷是一种生物活性元素.长期接触砷会导致癌症、心脏病、糖尿病等疾病的发生.无机砷甲基化是砷在动物体内的主要代谢方式,被公认为砷元素的解毒过程,因此无机砷甲基化的研究引起了科学家们的广泛关注并取得了重要进展.本文综述了近年来国内外学者及作者研究组在“砷甲基化酶”,“无机砷甲基化机制”及“无机砷甲基化抑制”等方面的研究进展.

  20. Adverse effect of the CCR5 promoter -2459A allele on HIV-1 disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T B; Kristiansen, T B; Katzenstein, T L;

    2001-01-01

    HIV positive individuals heterozygous for a 32 basepair deletion in the CCR5 encoding gene (CCR5 Delta32) have a reduced number of CCR5 receptors on the cell surface and a slower progression towards AIDS and death. Other human polymorphisms, such as the CCR2 64I and the CCR5 promoter -2459 A...

  1. Research progress of arsenic removal technology by ferric salt%铁盐除砷技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志斌; 李锦祥; 边兴玉; 魏垒垒; 郭宁彬; 王志俊

    2012-01-01

    基于砷是一种自然界普遍存在的有毒元素,砷污染已成为一个亟待解决的全球性的环境问题.围绕低分子类铁盐、高分子类铁盐及其它铁类化合物三个方面综述了当前铁盐除砷技术的研究进展.结果表明:(1)铁盐除砷技术具有除砷效果好、经济、操作简单等优点;(2)研制高效、价成本、低能耗的除砷铁盐药剂以及多种药剂的联合使用将成为今后铁盐除砷技术的发展方向.%Arsenic is a prevalent toxic element in nature and the treatment of water with arsenic pollution has become a global environmental problem. The study introduces the technology of arsenic removal by ferric salt from the aspects of low molecular ferric salts, high molecular ferric salts and other iron species. The results show: (1) the technology of arsenic removal by feme salt has many advantages, such as higher removal efficiency, economy, simple operation and so on; (2)developing the ferric salts with high efficiency, low cost and low energy consumption and combined use of several chemicals will be the development direction of the technology of arsenic removal by ferric salt.

  2. Arsenic ototoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulin Gokçen Kesici

    2016-01-01

    High levels of arsenic are found in many parts of the world and more than 100 million people may have been exposed to it. There is growing evidence to indicate that arsenic has a deleterious effect on the auditory system. This paper provides the general information of arsenic and its ototoxic effects.

  3. Activated Cdc42-associated kinase Ack1 promotes prostate cancer progression via androgen receptor tyrosine phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Nupam P.; Liu, Yuanbo; Majumder, Samarpan; Warren, Maria R.; Parker, Carol E.; Mohler, James L.; Earp, H. Shelton; Whang, Young E.

    2007-01-01

    Activation of the androgen receptor (AR) may play a role in androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. Multiple mechanisms of AR activation, including stimulation by tyrosine kinases, have been postulated. We and others have recently shown involvement of activated Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase Ack1 in advanced human prostate cancer. Here we provide the molecular basis for interplay between Ack1 and AR in prostate cancer cells. Activated Ack1 promoted androgen-independent growth o...

  4. Proinflammatory Cytokines in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression Promoted by High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to examine whether proinflammatory cytokines participated in prostate cancer (PCa development and progression promoted by high-fat diet (HFD. Methods. TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal diet group and HFD group. Mortality rate and tumor formation rate were examined. TRAMP mice were sacrificed and sampled on the 20th, 24th, and 28th week, respectively. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were tested by FlowCytomix. Prostate tissue of TRAMP mice was used for histology study. Results. A total of 13 deaths of TRAMP mice were observed, among which 3 (8.33% were from the normal diet group and 10 (27.78% from the HFD group. The mortality rate of TRAMP mice from HFD group was significantly higher than that of normal diet group (P=0.032. Tumor formation rate at 20th week of age of HFD group was significantly higher than that of normal diet group (P=0.045. Proinflammatory cytokines levels, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were significantly higher in HFD TRAMP mice. Conclusions. HFD could promote TRAMP mouse PCa development and progression with elevated proinflammatory cytokines levels. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to PCa development and progression promoted by HFD.

  5. YAP promotes malignant progression of Lkb1-deficient lung adenocarcinoma through downstream regulation of survivin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Gao, Yijun; Li, Fuming; Tong, Xinyuan; Ren, Yan; Han, Xiangkun; Yao, Shun; Long, Fei; Yang, Zhongzhou; Fan, Hengyu; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Hongbin

    2015-11-01

    The serine/threonine kinase LKB1 is a well-characterized tumor suppressor that governs diverse cellular processes, including growth, polarity, and metabolism. Somatic-inactivating mutations in LKB1 are observed in about 15% to 30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). LKB1 inactivation confers lung adenocarcinomas (ADC) with malignant features that remain refractory to therapeutic intervention. YAP activation has been linked to LKB1 deficiency, but the role of YAP in lung ADC formation and progression is uncertain. In this study, we showed that ectopic expression of YAP in type II alveolar epithelial cells led to hyperplasia in mouse lungs. YAP overexpression in the Kras(G12D) lung cancer mouse model accelerated lung ADC progression. Conversely, YAP deletion dramatically delayed the progression of lung ADC in LKB1-deficient Kras(G12D) mice. Mechanistic studies identified the antiapoptotic oncoprotein survivin as the downstream mediator of YAP responsible for promoting malignant progression of LKB1-deficient lung ADC. Collectively, our findings identify YAP as an important contributor to lung cancer progression, rationalizing YAP inhibition in the context of LKB1 deficiency as a therapeutic strategy to treat lung ADC.

  6. Promoter hypermethylation-mediated inactivation of multiple Slit-Robo pathway genes in cervical cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansukhani Mahesh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical Cancer (CC exhibits highly complex genomic alterations. These include hemizygous deletions at 4p15.3, 10q24, 5q35, 3p12.3, and 11q24, the chromosomal sites of Slit-Robo pathway genes. However, no candidate tumor suppressor genes at these regions have been identified so far. Slit family of secreted proteins modulates chemokine-induced cell migration of distinct somatic cell types. Slit genes mediate their effect by binding to its receptor Roundabout (Robo. These genes have shown to be inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in a number of human cancers. Results To test whether Slit-Robo pathway genes are targets of inactivation at these sites of deletion, we examined promoter hypermethylation of SLIT1, SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, and ROBO3 genes in invasive CC and its precursor lesions. We identified a high frequency of promoter hypermethylation in all the Slit-Robo genes resulting in down regulated gene expression in invasive CC, but the inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylases (HDACs in CC cell lines failed to effectively reactivate the down-regulated expression. These results suggest a complex mechanism of inactivation in the Slit-Robo pathway in CC. By analysis of cervical precancerous lesions, we further show that promoter hypermethylation of Slit-Robo pathway occurs early in tumor progression. Conclusion Taken together, these findings suggest that epigenetic alterations of Slit-Robo pathway genes (i play a role in CC development, (ii further delineation of molecular basis of promoter methylation-mediated gene regulation provides a potential basis for epigenetic-based therapy in advanced stage CC, and (iii form epigenetic signatures to identify precancerous lesions at risk to progression.

  7. PIAS1-FAK Interaction Promotes the Survival and Progression of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerfiz D. Constanzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of genomic alterations acquired by cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis is poorly understood. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that integrates cytoskeleton remodeling, mitogenic signaling and cell survival. FAK has previously been reported to undergo nuclear localization during cell migration, cell differentiation and apoptosis. However, the mechanism behind FAK nuclear accumulation and its contribution to tumor progression has remained elusive. We report that amplification of FAK and the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 gene loci frequently co-occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells, and that both gene products are enriched in a subset of primary NSCLCs. We demonstrate that endogenous FAK and PIAS1 proteins interact in the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus of NSCLC cells. Ectopic expression of PIAS1 promotes proteolytic cleavage of the FAK C-terminus, focal adhesion maturation and FAK nuclear localization. Silencing of PIAS1 deregulates focal adhesion turnover, increases susceptibility to apoptosis in vitro and impairs tumor xenograft formation in vivo. Nuclear FAK in turn stimulates gene transcription favoring DNA repair, cell metabolism and cytoskeleton regulation. Consistently, ablation of FAK by CRISPR/Cas9 editing, results in basal DNA damage, susceptibility to ionizing radiation and impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Our findings provide insight into a mechanism regulating FAK cytoplasm-nuclear distribution and demonstrate that FAK activity in the nucleus promotes NSCLC survival and progression by increasing cell-ECM interaction and DNA repair regulation.

  8. Neural Cell Adhesion Protein CNTN1 Promotes the Metastatic Progression of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Judy; Ojo, Diane; Kapoor, Anil; Lin, Xiaozeng; Pinthus, Jehonathan H; Aziz, Tariq; Bismar, Tarek A; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; De Melo, Jason; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Major, Pierre; Wood, Geoffrey; Peng, Hao; Tang, Damu

    2016-03-15

    Prostate cancer metastasis is the main cause of disease-related mortality. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying prostate cancer metastasis is critical for effective therapeutic intervention. In this study, we performed gene-expression profiling of prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSC) derived from DU145 human prostate cancer cells to identify factors involved in metastatic progression. Our studies revealed contactin 1 (CNTN1), a neural cell adhesion protein, to be a prostate cancer-promoting factor. CNTN1 knockdown reduced PCSC-mediated tumor initiation, whereas CNTN1 overexpression enhanced prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro and promoted xenograft tumor formation and lung metastasis in vivo. In addition, CNTN1 overexpression in DU145 cells and corresponding xenograft tumors resulted in elevated AKT activation and reduced E-cadherin (CDH1) expression. CNTN1 expression was not readily detected in normal prostate glands, but was clearly evident on prostate cancer cells in primary tumors and lymph node and bone metastases. Tumors from 637 patients expressing CNTN1 were associated with prostate cancer progression and worse biochemical recurrence-free survival following radical prostatectomy (P prostate cancer progression and metastasis, prompting further investigation into the mechanisms that enable neural proteins to become aberrantly expressed in non-neural malignancies.

  9. Association Study between Promoter Polymorphism of TPH1 and Progression of Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablanski, Vasil; Nikolova, Svetla; Vlaev, Evgeni; Savov, Alexey; Kremensky, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The concept of disease-modifier genes as an element of genetic heterogeneity has been widely accepted and reported. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association between the promoter polymorphism TPH1 (rs10488682) and progression of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) in Eastern European population sample. A total of 105 patients and 210 healthy gender-matched controls were enrolled in this study. The TPH1 promoter polymorphism was genotyped by amplification followed by restriction. The statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's Exact Test. The results indicated that the genotypes and alleles of TPH1 (rs10488682) are not correlated with curve severity, curve pattern, or bracing. Therefore, the examined polymorphic variant could not be considered as a genetic factor with modifying effect of IS. In conclusion, this case-control study revealed no statistically significant association between TPH1 (rs10488682) and progression of IS in Eastern European population sample. These preliminary results should be replicated in extended population studies including larger sample sizes. The identification of molecular markers for IS could be useful for a more accurate prognosis of the risk for a rapid progression of the curve. That would permit early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures. PMID:27293961

  10. Association Study between Promoter Polymorphism of TPH1 and Progression of Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Yablanski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of disease-modifier genes as an element of genetic heterogeneity has been widely accepted and reported. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association between the promoter polymorphism TPH1 (rs10488682 and progression of idiopathic scoliosis (IS in Eastern European population sample. A total of 105 patients and 210 healthy gender-matched controls were enrolled in this study. The TPH1 promoter polymorphism was genotyped by amplification followed by restriction. The statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s Exact Test. The results indicated that the genotypes and alleles of TPH1 (rs10488682 are not correlated with curve severity, curve pattern, or bracing. Therefore, the examined polymorphic variant could not be considered as a genetic factor with modifying effect of IS. In conclusion, this case-control study revealed no statistically significant association between TPH1 (rs10488682 and progression of IS in Eastern European population sample. These preliminary results should be replicated in extended population studies including larger sample sizes. The identification of molecular markers for IS could be useful for a more accurate prognosis of the risk for a rapid progression of the curve. That would permit early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures.

  11. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (arsenic present in soils or rice paddies is released via volatilization. Additionally, past studies often have not monitored arsenic release in the aqueous phase. Two main pathways for microbial arsenic volatilization are known and include methylation of arsenic during methanogenesis and methylation by arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase. In this study, we compare the roles of these two pathways in arsenic volatilization and aqueous mobilization through mesocosm experiments with cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to

  12. Bcl-2 promotes malignant progression in a PDGF-B-dependent murine model of oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Tiffany; Yang, Yuhui; Zhang, Wei; Fuller, Gregory N; Suki, Dima; Fults, Daniel W; Rao, Ganesh

    2011-11-01

    A significant subset of gliomas arises after activation of the proproliferative platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) pathway. The progression of low-grade gliomas to more malignant tumors may be due to oncogenic cellular programs combining with those suppressing apoptosis. Antiapoptotic genes are overexpressed in a variety of cancers, and the antiapoptotic gene, BCL2, is associated with treatment resistance and tumor recurrence in gliomas. However, the impact of antiapoptotic gene expression to tumor formation and progression is unclear. We overexpressed Bcl-2 in a PDGFB-dependent mouse model of oligodendroglioma, a common glioma subtype, to assess its effect in vivo. We hypothesized that the antiapoptotic effect would complement the proproliferative effect of PDGFB to promote tumor formation and progression to anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO). Here, we show that coexpression of PDGFB and Bcl-2 results in a higher overall tumor formation rate compared to PDGFB alone. Coexpression of PDGFB and Bcl-2 promotes progression to AO with prominent foci of necrosis, a feature of high-grade gliomas. Median tumor latency was shorter in mice injected with PDGFB and Bcl-2 compared to those injected with PDGFB alone. Although independent expression of Bcl-2 was insufficient to induce tumors, suppression of apoptosis (detected by cleaved caspase-3 expression) was more pronounced in AOs induced by PDGFB and Bcl-2 compared to those induced by PDGFB alone. Tumor cell proliferation (detected by phosphohistone H3 activity) was also more robust in high-grade tumors induced by PDGFB and Bcl-2. Our results indicate that suppressed apoptosis enhances oligodendroglioma formation and engenders a more malignant phenotype.

  13. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  14. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to increase arsenic mobilization in the aqueous phase, raising concerns with this approach.

  15. CAV1 promotes HCC cell progression and metastasis through Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiu Yu

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 has significant roles in many primary tumors and metastasis, despite the fact that malignant cells from different cancer types have different profiles of CAV1 expression. There is little information concerning CAV1 expression and role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC progresion and metastasis. The role of CAV1 in HCC progression was explored in this study. We reported that CAV1 was overexpressed in highly invasive HCC cell lines compared with poorly invasive ones. The immunohistochemical staining was obviously stronger in metastatic HCC samples than in the non-metastatic specimens via tissue microarrays. Furthermore, CAV1 overexpression enhanced HCC cell invasiveness in vitro, and promoted tumorigenicity and lung metastasis in vivo. By contrast, CAV1 stable knockdown markedly reduced these malignant behaviors. Importantly, we found that CAV1 could induce EMT process through Wnt/β-catenin pathway to promote HCC metastasis. We also identify MMP-7 as a novel downstream target of CAV1. We have determined that CAV1 acts as a mediator between hyperactive ERK1/2 signaling and regulation of MMP-7 transcription. Together, these studies mechanistically show a previously unrecognized interplay between CAV1, EMT, ERK1/2 and MMP-7 that is likely significant in the progression of HCC toward metastasis.

  16. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Promote the Development and Progression of Liver Metastases after Surgical Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Samer; Yazdani, Hamza O; Al-Khafaji, Ahmed B; Chidi, Alexis P; Loughran, Patricia; Mowen, Kerri; Wang, Yanming; Simmons, Richard L; Huang, Hai; Tsung, Allan

    2016-03-15

    Risks of tumor recurrence after surgical resection have been known for decades, but the mechanisms underlying treatment failures remain poorly understood. Neutrophils, first-line responders after surgical stress, may play an important role in linking inflammation to cancer progression. In response to stress, neutrophils can expel their protein-studded chromatin to form local snares known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). In this study, we asked whether, as a result of its ability to ensnare moving cells, NET formation might promote metastasis after surgical stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, in a cohort of patients undergoing attempted curative liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer, we observed that increased postoperative NET formation was associated with a >4-fold reduction in disease-free survival. In like manner, in a murine model of surgical stress employing liver ischemia-reperfusion, we observed an increase in NET formation that correlated with an accelerated development and progression of metastatic disease. These effects were abrogated by inhibiting NET formation in mice through either local treatment with DNAse or inhibition of the enzyme peptidylarginine deaminase, which is essential for NET formation. In growing metastatic tumors, we found that intratumoral hypoxia accentuated NET formation. Mechanistic investigations in vitro indicated that mouse neutrophil-derived NET triggered HMGB1 release and activated TLR9-dependent pathways in cancer cells to promote their adhesion, proliferation, migration, and invasion. Taken together, our findings implicate NET in the development of liver metastases after surgical stress, suggesting that their elimination may reduce risks of tumor relapse. PMID:26759232

  17. Arsenic trioxide promotes mitochondrial DNA mutation and cell apoptosis in primary APL cells and NB4 cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide(As2O3) on the mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) of acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL) cells.The NB4 cell line was treated with 2.0 μmol/L As2O3 in vitro,and the primary APL cells were treated with 2.0 μmol/L As2O3 in vitro and 0.16 mg kg-1 d-1 As2O3 in vivo.The mitochondrial DNA of all the cells above was amplified by PCR,directly sequenced and analyzed by Sequence Navigatore and Factura software.The apoptosis rates were assayed by flow cytometry.Mitochondrial DNA mutation in the D-loop region was found in NB4 and APL cells before As2O3 use,but the mutation spots were remarkably increased after As2O3 treatment,which was positively correlated to the rates of cellular apoptosis,the correlation coefficient:rNB4-As2O3=0.973818,and rAPL-As2O3=0.934703.The mutation types include transition,transversion,codon insertion or deletion,and the mutation spots in all samples were not constant and regular.It is revealed that As2O3 aggravates mtDNA mutation in the D-loop region of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells both in vitro and in vivo.Mitochondrial DNA might be one of the targets of As2O3 in APL treatment.

  18. Biochar in co-contaminated soil manipulates arsenic solubility and microbiological community structure, and promotes organochlorine degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Gregory

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of biochar on the water-soluble arsenic (As concentration and the extent of organochlorine degradation in a co-contaminated historic sheep-dip soil during a 180-d glasshouse incubation experiment. Soil microbial activity, bacterial community and structure diversity were also investigated. Biochar made from willow feedstock (Salix sp was pyrolysed at 350 or 550°C and added to soil at rates of 10 g kg-1 and 20 g kg-1 (representing 30 t ha-1 and 60 t ha-1. The isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH (lindane, underwent 10-fold and 4-fold reductions in concentration as a function of biochar treatment. Biochar also resulted in a significant reduction in soil DDT levels (P < 0.01, and increased the DDE:DDT ratio. Soil microbial activity was significantly increased (P < 0.01 under all biochar treatments after 60 days of treatment compared to the control. 16S amplicon sequencing revealed that biochar-amended soil contained more members of the Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Dyadobacter and Pseudomonadaceae which are known bioremediators of hydrocarbons. We hypothesise that a recorded short-term reduction in the soluble As concentration due to biochar amendment allowed native soil microbial communities to overcome As-related stress. We propose that increased microbiological activity (dehydrogenase activity due to biochar amendment was responsible for enhanced degradation of organochlorines in the soil. Biochar therefore partially overcame the co-contaminant effect of As, allowing for enhanced natural attenuation of organochlorines in soil.

  19. DNAJC6 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression through induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • DNAJC6 is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. • DNAJC6 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and invasion. • DNAJC6 induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition by activating transforming growth factor β signaling. - Abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program, which is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. DNAJC6 (DNA/HSP40 homolog subfamily C member 6) encodes auxilin, which is responsible for juvenile Parkinsonism with phenotypic variability. However, the role of DNAJC6 in HCC development and progression is limited. Here, we report that DNAJC6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues and up-regulation of DNAJC6 expression predicts poor outcome in patients with HCC. Furthermore, overexpression of DNAJC6 enhances the ability for acquisition of mesenchymal traits, enhanced cell proliferation and invasion. DNAJC6 positively regulated expression of EMT-related transcription factor, also activating transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway to contribute to EMT. Our findings demonstrated an important function of DNAJC6 in the progression of HCC by induction of EMT, and they implicate DNAJC6 as a marker of poor outcome in HCC

  20. DNAJC6 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression through induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tao [Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Hospital of Shijiazhuang City, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China); Li, Xiao-Na [General Surgery, Sports Science Institute of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China); Li, Xing-Guang; Li, Ming [General Surgery, The First Hospital of Shijiazhuang City, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China); Gao, Peng-Zhi, E-mail: pengzhigaovip@163.com [Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Hospital of Shijiazhuang City, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • DNAJC6 is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. • DNAJC6 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and invasion. • DNAJC6 induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition by activating transforming growth factor β signaling. - Abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program, which is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. DNAJC6 (DNA/HSP40 homolog subfamily C member 6) encodes auxilin, which is responsible for juvenile Parkinsonism with phenotypic variability. However, the role of DNAJC6 in HCC development and progression is limited. Here, we report that DNAJC6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues and up-regulation of DNAJC6 expression predicts poor outcome in patients with HCC. Furthermore, overexpression of DNAJC6 enhances the ability for acquisition of mesenchymal traits, enhanced cell proliferation and invasion. DNAJC6 positively regulated expression of EMT-related transcription factor, also activating transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway to contribute to EMT. Our findings demonstrated an important function of DNAJC6 in the progression of HCC by induction of EMT, and they implicate DNAJC6 as a marker of poor outcome in HCC.

  1. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  2. Arsenic Induced Phytate Exudation, and Promoted FeAsO4 Dissolution and Plant Growth in As-Hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Fu, Jing-Wei; Guan, Dong-Xing; Cao, Yue; Luo, Jun; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) is efficient in taking up As and nutrients from As-contaminated soils. We evaluated the mechanisms used by PV to mobilize As and Fe by examining the impacts of As and root exudates on FeAsO4 solubilization, and As and Fe uptake in four plants: As-hyperaccumulators PV and Pteris multifida (PM), nonhyperaccumulator Pteris ensiformis (PE), and angiosperm plant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Phytate and oxalate were dominant in fern plants (>93%), which were 50-83, 15-42, and 0-32 mg kg(-1) phytate and 10-15, 7-26, and 4-12 mg kg(-1) oxalate for PV, PM, and PE respectively, with higher As inducing greater phytate exudation and no phytate being detected in tomato exudates. PV treated with phytate+FeAsO4 had higher As and Fe contents and larger biomass than phytate or FeAsO4 treatment, which were 340 vs 20 and 130 mg kg(-1) As in the fronds and 7900 vs 1600 and 4100 mg kg(-1) Fe in the roots. We hypothesized that As-induced phytate exudation helped PV to take up Fe and As from insoluble FeAsO4 and promoted PV growth. Our study suggests that phytate exudation may be special to fern plants, which may play an important role in enhancing As and nutrient uptake by plants, thereby increasing their efficiency in phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. PMID:27483027

  3. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation.

  4. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation. PMID:26469935

  5. Study on Causes of Slow Progress in Promoting the Application of Food Traceability System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinghua; HE; Peisi; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Chinese government has attempted to promote food traceability system with all strength,but the application process of this system is very slow. The reason is that the adopters have a low level of system application,which causes the system to be invalid at the source of traceability. This paper applies literature research method to analyze the influencing factors for slow application process of the food traceability system in China from various angles including manufacturer,technology,consumer and law,and further concludes that the applying intention of manufacturers,cognizing and purchasing intentions of consumers,and legal environment are important factors for slow progress of system application. On the basis of the research conclusions,the paper proposes practical ways for better construction of food traceability system in China.

  6. [Effects of organic fertilization on arsenic absorption of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) on arsenic-contaminated red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Fang; Geng, Zhi-Xi; Zeng, Xi-Bai; Bai, Ling-Yu; Su, Shi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment with arsenic-contaminated red soil was conducted to study the effects of applying pig dung and chicken manure on the growth and arsenic absorption of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis), and on soil available arsenic. Applying pig dung and chicken manure to the arsenic-contaminated red soil increased the biomass of pakchoi to some extent. Comparing with the control, applying pig dung increased the pakchoi biomass significantly (P Organic fertilization promoted the arsenic absorption of pakchoi, with the arsenic uptake after applying pig dung increased by 20.7%-53.9%. The application of pig dung and chicken manure to arsenic-contaminated red soil could somewhat increase the soil available arsenic content and the arsenic uptake by crops, and thus, increase the risks of agricultural product quality and environment.

  7. Overexpression of transcriptional coactivator AIB1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression by enhancing cell proliferation and invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Chen, Q; Li, W; Su, X; Chen, T; Liu, Y; Zhao, Y; Yu, C

    2010-06-10

    Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors and other transcription factors. AIB1 has an important role in malignancy of several cancers such as breast and prostate cancers. However, its involvement in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remains unclear. Here, we found that AIB1 protein was overexpressed in 23 of 34 human HCC specimens (68%). Down-regulation of AIB1 reduced HCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion, colony formation ability and tumorigenic potential in nude mice. These phenotypic changes caused by AIB1 knockdown correlated with increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Cip1/Waf1) and decreased Akt activation and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and matrix metallopeptidase MMP-9. In agreement with these findings, clinical AIB1-positive HCC expressed higher levels of PCNA than AIB1-negative HCC. A positive correlation was established between the levels of AIB1 protein and PCNA protein in HCC, suggesting that AIB1 may contribute to HCC cell proliferation. In addition, MMP-9 expression in AIB1-postive HCC was significantly higher than that in AIB1-negative HCC, suggesting that AIB1-postive HCC may be more invasive. Collectively, our results show that overexpression of AIB1 promotes human HCC progression by enhancing cell proliferation and invasiveness. Therefore, AIB1 is a master regulator of human HCC growth and might be a useful molecular target for HCC prognosis and treatment.

  8. Neural protein gamma-synuclein interacting with androgen receptor promotes human prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-synuclein (SNCG) has previously been demonstrated to be significantly correlated with metastatic malignancies; however, in-depth investigation of SNCG in prostate cancer is still lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the role of SNCG in prostate cancer progression and explored the underlying mechanisms. First, alteration of SNCG expression in LNCaP cell line to test the ability of SNCG on cellular properties in vitro and vivo whenever exposing with androgen or not. Subsequently, the Dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to evaluate whether the role of SNCG in LNCaP is through AR signaling. Last, the association between SNCG and prostate cancer progression was assessed immunohistochemically using a series of human prostate tissues. Silencing SNCG by siRNA in LNCaP cells contributes to the inhibition of cellular proliferation, the induction of cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase, the suppression of cellular migration and invasion in vitro, as well as the decrease of tumor growth in vivo with the notable exception of castrated mice. Subsequently, mechanistic studies indicated that SNCG is a novel androgen receptor (AR) coactivator. It interacts with AR and promotes prostate cancer cellular growth and proliferation by activating AR transcription in an androgen-dependent manner. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SNCG was almost undetectable in benign or androgen-independent tissues prostate lesions. The high expression of SNCG is correlated with peripheral and lymph node invasion. Our data suggest that SNCG may serve as a biomarker for predicting human prostate cancer progression and metastasis. It also may become as a novel target for biomedical therapy in advanced prostate cancer

  9. Spontaneous initiation, promotion and progression of colorectal cancer in the novel A/J Min/+ mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sødring, Marianne; Gunnes, Gjermund; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2016-04-15

    The C57BL/6J multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min/+) mouse is a widely used murine model for familial adenomatous polyposis, a hereditary form of human colorectal cancer. However, it is a questionable model partly because the vast majority of tumors arise in the small intestine, and partly because the fraction of tumors that progress to invasive carcinomas is minuscule. A/J mice are typically more susceptible to carcinogen-induced colorectal cancer than C57BL/6J mice. To investigate whether the novel Min/+ mouse on the A/J genetic background could be a better model for colorectal cancer, we examined the spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in 81 A/J Min/+ mice ranging in age from 4 to 60 weeks. The A/J Min/+ mouse exhibited a dramatic increase in number of colonic lesions when compared to what has been reported for the conventional Min/+ mouse; however, an increase in small intestinal lesions did not occur. In addition, this novel mouse model displayed a continual development of colonic lesions highlighted by the transition from early lesions (flat ACF) to tumors over time. In mice older than 40 weeks, 13 colonic (95% CI: 8.7-16.3) and 21 small intestinal (95% CI: 18.6-24.3) tumors were recorded. Notably, a considerable proportion of those lesions progressed to carcinomas in both the colon (21%) and small intestine (51%). These findings more closely reflect aspects of human colorectal carcinogenesis. In conclusion, the novel A/J Min/+ mouse may be a relevant model for initiation, promotion and progression of colorectal cancer.

  10. PCAF-primed EZH2 acetylation regulates its stability and promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Junhu; Chin Y Eugene; Zhang Hongquan; Zhan Jun; Li Shuai; Ma Ji; Xu Weizhi; Liu Chang; Xue Xiaowei; Xie Yuping; Fang Weigang

    2015-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 ( EZH2 ) is a key epigenetic regulator that catalyzes the trimethyla-tion of H3K27 and is modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs). However, the precise regulation of EZH2 PTMs remains elusive. We, herein, report that EZH2 is acetylated by acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associat-ed factor (PCAF) and is deacetylated by deacetylase SIRT1. We identified that PCAF interacts with and acetylates EZH2 mainly at lysine 348 (K348). Mechanistically, K348 acetylation decreases EZH2 phosphorylation at T345 and T487 and increases EZH2 stability without disrupting the formation of polycomb repressive complex 2 ( PRC2 ) . Functionally, EZH2 K348 acetylation enhances its capacity in suppression of the target genes and promotes lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Further, elevated EZH2 K348 acetylation in lung adenocarcinoma patients pre-dicts a poor prognosis. Our findings define a new mechanism underlying EZH2 modulation by linking EZH2 acety-lation to its phosphorylation that stabilizes EZH2 and promotes lung adenocarcinoma progression.

  11. Neurotensin promotes the progression of malignant glioma through NTSR1 and impacts the prognosis of glioma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Qing; Gong, Xueyang; Xiao, Hualiang; Zhou, Ji; Xu, Minhui; Dai, Yun; Xu, Lunshan; Feng, Hua; Cui, Hongjuan; Yi, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background The poor prognosis and minimally successful treatments of malignant glioma indicate a challenge to identify new therapeutic targets which impact glioma progression. Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) overexpression induces neoplastic growth and predicts the poor prognosis in various malignancies. Whether NTS can promote the glioma progression and its prognostic significance for glioma patients remains unclear. Methods NTS precursor (ProNTS), NTS and NTSR1 expr...

  12. Ssrp1a controls organogenesis by promoting cell cycle progression and RNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltowska, Katarzyna; Apitz, Holger; Stamataki, Despina; Hirst, Elizabeth M. A.; Verkade, Heather; Salecker, Iris; Ober, Elke A.

    2013-01-01

    Tightly controlled DNA replication and RNA transcription are essential for differentiation and tissue growth in multicellular organisms. Histone chaperones, including the FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, are central for these processes and act by mediating DNA access through nucleosome reorganisation. However, their roles in vertebrate organogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of zebrafish mutants for the gene encoding Structure specific recognition protein 1a (Ssrp1a), which, together with Spt16, forms the FACT heterodimer. Focussing on the liver and eye, we show that zygotic Ssrp1a is essential for proliferation and differentiation during organogenesis. Specifically, gene expression indicative of progressive organ differentiation is disrupted and RNA transcription is globally reduced. Ssrp1a-deficient embryos exhibit DNA synthesis defects and prolonged S phase, uncovering a role distinct from that of Spt16, which promotes G1 phase progression. Gene deletion/replacement experiments in Drosophila show that Ssrp1b, Ssrp1a and N-terminal Ssrp1a, equivalent to the yeast homologue Pob3, can substitute Drosophila Ssrp function. These data suggest that (1) Ssrp1b does not compensate for Ssrp1a loss in the zebrafish embryo, probably owing to insufficient expression levels, and (2) despite fundamental structural differences, the mechanisms mediating DNA accessibility by FACT are conserved between yeast and metazoans. We propose that the essential functions of Ssrp1a in DNA replication and gene transcription, together with its dynamic spatiotemporal expression, ensure organ-specific differentiation and proportional growth, which are crucial for the forming embryo. PMID:23515471

  13. 膜技术在饮用水除砷中的应用研究进展%INVESTIGATION PROGRESS OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATION TO ARSENIC REMOVAL IN DRINKING WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓伟; 席北斗; 霍守亮; 杨天学; 夏训峰; 刘鸿亮

    2011-01-01

    以低压驱动膜的微滤膜(MF)与超滤膜(UF),和高压驱动膜的反渗透膜(RO)与纳滤膜(NF)为主,分析了目前国内外膜技术在饮用水除砷方面的效果、影响因素、浓水处理、膜污染及其清洗等方面的应用研究和进展情况,同时对膜技术优缺点及其在除砷中的应用研究方向与前景做了展望.%Excessive arsenic (As) in drinking water has been threatening the human health, which is also one of the most important issues in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan of China. In this paper, the low pressure driven membranes of microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF), and the high pressure driven membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) were chosen to discuss and compare there investigation progress of arsenic removal efficiency, influence factors, concentrated water disposal, membrane fouling, and cleaning methods, etc., application to drinking water. In addition, the disadvantages & advantages and the issues aspects of membranes application to arsenic removal were compared and forecasted.

  14. Research Progress on Treatment of Arsenic-Containing Drinking Water by Oxidation Methods%氧化法处理含砷饮用水的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文庆; 冯燕; 朱友利; 邴帅; 齐欣

    2012-01-01

    According to the presence form,physicochemical property and toxicity of arsenic in drinking water, the several conventional treatment methods of arsenic-containing drinking water and their principles,advantages and disadvantages are briefly introduced in the paper. The principles and research progress on As( III )removal by oxidation methods from drinking water are emphasisly summarized,and the prospect of application of arsenic-containing treatment by oxidation methods from drinking water is put forward to provide a theoretical basis.%根据砷在水体中的存在形式、性质和毒性,简要介绍了含砷饮用水的几种常规处理方法及其原理、优缺点,重点综述了氧化法的原理及研究进展,并对氧化法在含砷饮用水处理中的应用进行了展望,以期为氧化法在含砷饮用水处理中的应用提供理论依据.

  15. Progress in Japanese uranium enrichment technology and the promotion of industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of uranium enrichment technology with centrifuges, undertaken as a national project, has reached the stage that the pilot plant built by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation will start the partial operation around the middle of this year. In order to assure the constant supply of nuclear fuel to Japan, it is necessary to establish an independent nuclear fuel cycle, and for the purpose, uranium enrichment must be industrialized by the use of Japanese own technology, because for the time being, light water reactors will be mainly employed. The Uranium Enrichment Evaluation Subcommittee was set up in July, 1978, and began the studies by evaluating the progress made in the development of centrifugal enrichment techniques by the PNC. The goal of development is changing from the technical improvement of centrifuges themselves to the economic performance. The facilities for the conversion of feed uranium into UF6, the blending and storage of enriched uranium, and the enrichment proper including centrifuge production were studied, and the existing fundamental technologies in Japan can solve the problems without much difficulty. The results of evaluation of the enrichment technology, the urgent need for uranium enrichment in Japan, and the measures to promote the industrialization are explained. (Kako, I.)

  16. Genistein increases epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and promotes tumor progression in advanced human prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisae Nakamura

    Full Text Available Genistein is an isoflavone found in soy, and its chemo-preventive and -therapeutic effects have been well established from in vitro studies. Recently, however, its therapeutic actions in vivo have been questioned due to contradictory reports from animal studies, which rely on rodent models or implantation of cell lines into animals. To clarify in vivo effects of genistein in advanced prostate cancer patients, we developed a patient-derived prostate cancer xenograft model, in which a clinical prostatectomy sample was grafted into immune deficient mice. Our results showed an increased lymph node (LN and secondary organ metastases in genistein-treated mice compared to untreated controls. Interestingly, invasive malignant cells aggregated to form islands/micrometastasis only in the secondary organs of the genistein-treated groups, not in the untreated control group. To understand the underlying mechanism for metastatic progression, we examined cell proliferation and apoptosis on paraffin-sections. Immunohistological data show that tumors of genistein-treated groups have more proliferating and fewer apoptotic cancer cells than those of the untreated group. Our immunoblotting data suggest that increased proliferation and metastasis are linked to enhanced activities of tyrosine kinases, EGFR and its downstream Src, in genistein-treated groups. Despite the chemopreventive effects proposed by earlier in vitro studies, the cancer promoting effect of genistein observed here suggests the need for careful selection of patients and safer planning of clinical trials.

  17. Small Interfering RNA Targeted to ASPP2 Promotes Progression of Experimental Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is vital in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR development. Apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP2 have recently been reported to participate in EMT. However, the role of ASPP2 in PVR pathogenesis has not been identified. Methods. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of ASPP2 in epiretinal membranes of PVR patients. ARPE-19 cells were transfected with ASPP2-siRNA, followed with measurement of cell cytotoxicity, proliferation, and migration ability. EMT markers and related inflammatory and fibrosis cytokines were measured by western blot or flow cytometry. Additionally, PVR rat models were induced by intravitreal injection of ARPE-19 cells transfected with ASPP2-siRNA and evaluated accordingly. Results. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed less intense expression of ASPP2 in PVR membranes. ASPP2 knockdown facilitated the proliferation and migration of RPE cells and enhanced the expression of mesenchymal markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and ZEB1. Meanwhile, ASPP2-siRNA increased EMT-related and inflammatory cytokines, including TGF-β, CTGF, VEGF, TNF-α, and interleukins. PVR severities were more pronounced in the rat models with ASPP2-siRNA treatment. Conclusions. ASPP2 knockdown promoted EMT of ARPE-19 cells in vitro and exacerbated the progression of experimental PVR in vivo, possibly via inflammatory and fibrosis cytokines.

  18. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy

  19. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tian-Li [Department of General Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Wuqing, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Yue [Department of Respiration, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin (China); Chen, Ao-Xiang; Sun, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie, E-mail: gejie198003@163.com [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy.

  20. Overexpressed HDAC4 is associated with poor survival and promotes tumor progression in esophageal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Shi-Juan; Wang, Meng-He; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Zheng, X.F. Steven; Wang, Hui-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) mediate histone deacetylation, leading to transcriptional repression, which is involved in many diseases, including age-related tissue degeneration, heart failure and cancer. In this study, we were aimed to investigate the expression, clinical significance and biological function of HDAC4 in esophageal carcinoma (EC). We found that HDAC4 mRNA and protein are overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and cell lines. HDAC4 overexpression is associated with higher tumor grade, advanced clinical stage and poor survival. Mechanistically, HDAC4 promotes proliferation and G1/S cell cycle progression in EC cells by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 and up-regulating CDK2/4 and CDK-dependent Rb phosphorylation. HDAC4 also enhances ESCC cell migration. Furthermore, HDAC4 positively regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by increasing the expression of Vimentin and decreasing the expression of E-Cadherin/α-Catenin. Together, our study shows that HDAC4 overexpression is important for the oncogenesis of EC, which may serve as a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for this malignancy. PMID:27295551

  1. Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed.

  2. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furr, A.

    1977-01-01

    The route of arsenic exposure is usually by ingestion, thus the veterinarian is concerned with treating either an acute or a peracute condition. The arsenic compounds are considered to be highly toxic with a rapid onset of clinical signs. The toxicity and rapidity of onset are variable, depending upon the age and the species of animal. The chemical form and solubility of the toxicant also play a role in the course of the clinical syndrome. Inorganic arsenicals inhibit the sulfhydryl enzyme systems which are essential for normal cellular respiration and for metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Therapeutic measures are intended to either remove or inactivate the unabsorbed material in the intestine, protect the alimentary tract, reverse the toxic syndrome and restore the homeostatic equilibrium of the animal. 5 references.

  3. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  4. A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    This Progress Report presents the initial findings of the research project 'A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production. Progress Report' funded...... by the Department of Environment, Malaysia...

  5. Inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase promotes albuminuria in mice with progressive renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Jung

    Full Text Available Epoxyeicotrienoic acids (EETs are cytochrome P450-dependent anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory derivatives of arachidonic acid, which are highly abundant in the kidney and considered reno-protective. EETs are degraded by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH and sEH inhibitors are considered treatment for chronic renal failure (CRF. We determined whether sEH inhibition attenuates the progression of CRF in the 5/6-nephrectomy model (5/6-Nx in mice. 5/6-Nx mice were treated with a placebo, an ACE-inhibitor (Ramipril, 40 mg/kg, the sEH-inhibitor cAUCB or the CYP-inhibitor fenbendazole for 8 weeks. 5/6-Nx induced hypertension, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial damage and these effects were attenuated by Ramipril. In contrast, cAUCB failed to lower the blood pressure and albuminuria was more severe as compared to placebo. Plasma EET-levels were doubled in 5/6 Nx-mice as compared to sham mice receiving placebo. Renal sEH expression was attenuated in 5/6-Nx mice but cAUCB in these animals still further increased the EET-level. cAUCB also increased 5-HETE and 15-HETE, which derive from peroxidation or lipoxygenases. Similar to cAUCB, CYP450 inhibition increased HETEs and promoted albuminuria. Thus, sEH-inhibition failed to elicit protective effects in the 5/6-Nx model and showed a tendency to aggravate the disease. These effects might be consequence of a shift of arachidonic acid metabolism into the lipoxygenase pathway.

  6. Daily goal progress is facilitated by spousal support and promotes psychological, physical, and relational well-being throughout adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubiak, Brittany K; Feeney, Brooke C

    2016-09-01

    In 2 daily diary studies, we tested the consequences and precursors of daily goal progress throughout the adult life span. Attachment theory posits that exploration-including the pursuit of autonomous goals-promotes well-being across the life span and is facilitated by support from close others. For both young-adult newlyweds (Study 1) and married couples in late adulthood (Study 2), daily independent goal progress predicted same-day and next-day improvements in psychological, physical, and relational well-being. Specifically, when participants made more progress on their goals than usual on one day, they reported increases in positive affect, sleep quality, and relationship quality, and decreased physical symptoms, the following day (as well as concurrently). Additionally, spousal support (i.e., availability, encouragement, and noninterference) enabled same-day and next-day goal progress. Mediational analyses showed indirect links between spousal support and well-being through goal progress. Some effects were moderated by attachment orientation in the newlywed sample; individuals with greater insecure attachment benefited most from goal progress, and spousal support enabled goal progress most strongly for individuals with less anxious attachment. Overall, these results support and extend attachment theoretical propositions regarding the importance of the exploration system across the adult life span. They contribute to existing literature by demonstrating wide-ranging consequences of successful exploration for well-being and by providing evidence for the importance of both exploration and support for exploration into late adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27560610

  7. Postmenopausal obesity promotes tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian-Wei; Young, Emily; Patterson, Sharla G; Makey, Kristina L; Wells, Jeremy; Huang, Min; Tucker, Kevan B; Miele, Lucio

    2011-05-15

    Obese postmenopausal women have a 50% higher risk of breast cancer than non-obese women. There is not an animal model that mimics postmenopausal obesity related to breast cancer progression. Using age-relevant C57BL/6 mice, this study determined whether postmenopausal obesity increases VEGF expression, tumor angiogenesis, and breast tumor growth. Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed in 12 sixty week-old female mice, then followed by a low-fat (5%, LF, n=6) or a high-fat (60%, HF, n=6) diet for 12 weeks. In the eighth week of the dietary program, 10(6) E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells were injected in the left fourth mammary gland. Tumor size was monitored for 4 weeks. Body weights were monitored weekly. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, visceral fat and tumors were collected for measuring VEGF expression using ELISA and intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) using CD31 immunochemistry. Body weight was significantly increased in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group (55.3±1.7 vs. 41.5±1.5 g; p < 0.01). There was a two-fold increase in the ratio of visceral fat/BW in OVX/HF mice, compared to those in OVX/LF group (0.062±0.005 vs. 0.032±0.003; p < 0.01). Postmenopausal obesity significantly increased breast tumor weight over the control (4.62±0.63 vs. 1.98±0.27 g; p < 0.01) and IMD (173±3.7 vs. 139±4.3 IM#/mm^2; p < 0.01). Tumor VEGF levels were higher in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group (73.3±3.8 vs. 49.5±4.3 pg/mg protein; p < 0.01). Plasma VEGF levels (69±7.1 vs. 48±3.5 pg/ml) and visceral fat VEGF levels (424.4±39.5 vs. 208.5±22.4 pg/mg protein) were significantly increased in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group, respectively (n=6; p < 0.01). Interestingly, adipose tissue primary culture showed that subcutaneous fat released more VEGF, compared to visceral fat (6.77±1.14 vs. 0.94±0.16 pg/mg tissue; n=6; p < 0.01). These findings support the hypothesis that postmenopausal obesity promotes tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer

  8. 水体砷污染微生物修复的研究进展%Progress in Research of Microbial Remediation of Arsenic-polluted Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭盾; 张艮林; 金军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, researches of microbial remediation of arsenic-polluted water by application of bacteria, fungi and algal-bacterial symbiosis are introduced. Further study focus on the techniques of microbial remediation of arsenic-polluted water in the future is discussed.%介绍了细菌、真菌以及菌藻共生体等相关微生物对水体砷污染的生物修复研究。对水体砷污染的微生物修复技术未来进一步的研究重点进行了简单的讨论。

  9. δ-Catenin promotes prostate cancer cell growth and progression by altering cell cycle and survival gene profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yan-Hua

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background δ-Catenin is a unique member of β-catenin/armadillo domain superfamily proteins and its primary expression is restricted to the brain. However, δ-catenin is upregulated in human prostatic adenocarcinomas, although the effects of δ-catenin overexpression in prostate cancer are unclear. We hypothesized that δ-catenin plays a direct role in prostate cancer progression by altering gene profiles of cell cycle regulation and cell survival. Results We employed gene transfection and small interfering RNA to demonstrate that increased δ-catenin expression promoted, whereas its knockdown suppressed prostate cancer cell viability. δ-Catenin promoted prostate cancer cell colony formation in soft agar as well as tumor xenograft growth in nude mice. Deletion of either the amino-terminal or carboxyl-terminal sequences outside the armadillo domains abolished the tumor promoting effects of δ-catenin. Quantitative RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays demonstrated gene alterations involved in cell cycle and survival regulation. δ-Catenin overexpression upregulated cyclin D1 and cdc34, increased phosphorylated histone-H3, and promoted the entry of mitosis. In addition, δ-catenin overexpression resulted in increased expression of cell survival genes Bcl-2 and survivin while reducing the cell cycle inhibitor p21Cip1. Conclusion Taken together, our studies suggest that at least one consequence of an increased expression of δ-catenin in human prostate cancer is the alteration of cell cycle and survival gene profiles, thereby promoting tumor progression.

  10. Research Progress on Molecular Mechanisms of Arsenic- induced Oxidative Stress%砷的氧化应激分子机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白彩军; 刘丹; 李冰

    2012-01-01

    砷暴露能够引起多种疾病和病理损伤.目前氧化应激机制是砷毒性的研究热点.砷通过扰乱氧化/抗氧化平衡,从而引起细胞信号通路和转录因子活性、细胞周期和细胞凋亡、线粒体、抗氧化物酶的活性、抗氧化防御系统等方面的改变.本文将就砷的氧化应激分子机制的研究进展进行综述.%Arsenic exposure can cause a variety of diseases and pathological damages. In recent years, oxidative stress mechanism has been considered to be the research focus of arsenic toxicity. Arsenic alters multiple cellular pathways and transcription factor activities, cell cycle and cell apoptosis, mitochondria, antioxidant enzymes activity, and antioxidant defense system by disturbing the pro/antioxidant balance. This review summarizes the molecular mechanism of arsenic- induced oxidative stress.

  11. 饮用水除砷吸附剂的研究进展%Research progress on adsorbent for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 黄显怀; 伍昌年; 唐玉朝; 彭艳

    2011-01-01

    砷在水体中主要以As(Ⅲ)和As(Ⅴ)的无机酸形式存在,对人体的危害很大,吸附法是国内外研究最广泛的饮用水除砷技术之一.详细说明了饮用水除砷的吸附剂类型,指出:复合材料效率高、费用低,目前应用最为广泛;纳米材料与砷结合后性质稳定,除砷效率最高,是今后的主要发展方向;生物吸附材料以其高吸附率、低成本成为研究的热点.%Arsenic in water mainly exists in the form of mineral acid: As(Ⅲ) and As(Ⅴ), which is harmful to people's health. Adsorption process is one of the most widely studied technologies for arsenic removal from drinking water both in China and abroad. The types of adsorbents for arsenic removal from drinking water were introduced in detail, and it was indicated that: composite material characterized by high efficiency and low cost was the most widely applied material these days. As nanometer material showed a stable performance when combined with arsenic, it had the highest arsenic removal efficiency and would be the main development direction in the future; in addition, biosorption material was becoming a research hotspot for the advantages of high adsorption rate and low cost.

  12. RPS27a promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis of leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Houcai; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Lixia; Xiong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shuying; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Tang, Kejing; Wei, Hui; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jianxiang, E-mail: wangjx@ihcams.ac.cn

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • RPS27a expression was up-regulated in advanced-phase CML and AL patients. • RPS27a knockdown changed biological property of K562 and K562/G01 cells. • RPS27a knockdown affected Raf/MEK/ERK, P21 and BCL-2 signaling pathways. • RPS27a knockdown may be applicable for new combination therapy in CML patients. - Abstract: Ribosomal protein S27a (RPS27a) could perform extra-ribosomal functions besides imparting a role in ribosome biogenesis and post-translational modifications of proteins. The high expression level of RPS27a was reported in solid tumors, and we found that the expression level of RPS27a was up-regulated in advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute leukemia (AL) patients. In this study, we explored the function of RPS27a in leukemia cells by using CML cell line K562 cells and its imatinib resistant cell line K562/G01 cells. It was observed that the expression level of RPS27a was high in K562 cells and even higher in K562/G01 cells. Further analysis revealed that RPS27a knockdown by shRNA in both K562 and K562G01 cells inhibited the cell viability, induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases and increased cell apoptosis induced by imatinib. Combination of shRNA with imatinib treatment could lead to more cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 expression in RPS27a knockdown cells. Further, it was found that phospho-ERK(p-ERK) and BCL-2 were down-regulated and P21 up-regulated in RPS27a knockdown cells. In conclusion, RPS27a promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis of leukemia cells. It appears that drugs targeting RPS27a combining with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) might represent a novel therapy strategy in TKI resistant CML patients.

  13. MGMT promoter methylation is associated with temozolomide response and prolonged progression-free survival in disseminated cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Rainer; Jewell, Rosalyn; van den Oord, Joost J; Wolter, Pascal; Stierner, Ulrika; Lindholm, Christer; Hertzman Johansson, Carolina; Lindén, Diana; Johansson, Hemming; Frostvik Stolt, Marianne; Walker, Christy; Snowden, Helen; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Hansson, Johan; Egyházi Brage, Suzanne

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the predictive and prognostic value of O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) inactivation by analyses of promoter methylation in pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients with cutaneous melanoma treated with dacarbazine (DTIC) or temozolomide (TMZ) were performed. The patient cohorts consisted of Belgian and Swedish disseminated melanoma patients. Patients were subdivided into those receiving single-agent treatment with DTIC/TMZ (cohort S, n = 74) and those treated with combination chemotherapy including DTIC/TMZ (cohort C, n = 79). Median follow-up was 248 and 336 days for cohort S and cohort C, respectively. MGMT promoter methylation was assessed by three methods. The methylation-related transcriptional silencing of MGMT mRNA expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Response to chemotherapy and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were correlated to MGMT promoter methylation status. MGMT promoter methylation was detected in tumor biopsies from 21.5 % of the patients. MGMT mRNA was found to be significantly lower in tumors positive for MGMT promoter methylation compared to tumors without methylation in both treatment cohorts (p < 0.005). DTIC/TMZ therapy response rate was found to be significantly associated with MGMT promoter methylation in cohort S (p = 0.0005), but did not reach significance in cohort C (p = 0.16). Significantly longer PFS was observed among patients with MGMT promoter-methylated tumors (p = 0.002). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified presence of MGMT promoter methylation as an independent variable associated with longer PFS. Together, this implies that MGMT promoter methylation is associated with response to single-agent DTIC/TMZ and longer PFS in disseminated cutaneous melanoma. PMID:25400033

  14. Dual therapeutic functions of F-5 fragment in burn wounds: preventing wound progression and promoting wound healing in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ayesha; O'Brien, Kathryn; Chen, Mei; Wong, Alex; Garner, Warren; Woodley, David T; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5-treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing.

  15. Twisted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition promotes progression of surviving bladder cancer T24 cells with hTERT-dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cancer cells maintain telomeres to protect cells from senescence through telomerase activity (TA or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT in different cell types. Moreover, cellular senescence can be bypassed by Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT during cancer progression in diverse solid tumors. However, it has not been elucidated the characteristics of telomere maintenance and progression ability after long-term culture in bladder cancer T24 cells with hTERT dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, by using a dominant negative mutant human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT vector to inhibit TA in bladder cancer T24 cells, we observed the appearance of long phenotype of telomere length and the ALT-associated PML body (APB complex after the 27(th passage, indicating the occurrence of ALT-like pathway in surviving T24/DN868A cells with telomerase inhibition. Meanwhile, telomerase inhibition resulted in significant EMT as shown by change in cellular morphology concomitant with variation of EMT markers. Consistently, the surviving T24/DN868A cells showed increased progression ability in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found Twist was activated to mediate EMT in surviving T24/DN868A samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings indicate that bladder cancer T24 cells may undergo the telomerase-to-ALT-like conversion and promote cancer progression at advanced stages through promoting EMT, thus providing novel possible insight into the mechanism of resistance to telomerase inhibitors in cancer treatment.

  16. Over expression of hyaluronan promotes progression of HCC via CD44-mediated pyruvate kinase M2 nuclear translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Huan; Wang, Ying-Cong; Qin, Cheng-Dong; Yao, Rong-Rong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Xie, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Yan-Hong; Ren, Zheng-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan is expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as HCC generally arises from a cirrhotic liver in which excessive production and accumulation of HA leads to developing cirrhosis. Though it has been suggested HA is involved in progression of HCC, the mechanisms underlying the connection between HA and HCC progression are unclear. Since increased aerobic glycolysis is a metabolic trait of malignant cells and HA-CD44 can modulate glucose metabolism, we aim to investigate the roles of PKM2, a key enzyme in glucose metabolism, in the HA-CD44 axis facilitated the progress of HCC. We shown PKM2 was required for HA-promoted HCC progression, which was not modulated by PKM2 kinase activity but by nuclear translocation of PKM2. PKM2 translocation was Erk (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation dependent, which functioned at the downstream of HA-CD44 binding. Furthermore, elevated HA expression significantly correlated with PKM2 nuclear location and was an independent factors predicting poor HCC prognosis. In conclusions PKM2 nuclear translocation is required for mediating the described HA biological effects on HCC progression and our results imply that inhibition of HA may have therapeutic value in treating HCC. PMID:27186420

  17. OCT4 increases BIRC5 and CCND1 expression and promotes cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Lu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background OCT4 and BIRC5 are preferentially expressed in human cancer cells and mediate cancer cell survival and tumor maintenance. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates OCT4 and BIRC5 expression is not well characterized. Methods By manipulating OCT4 and BIRC5 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines, the regulatory mechanism of OCT4 on BIRC5 and CCND1 were investigated. Results Increasing or decreasing OCT4 expression could enhance or suppress BIRC5 expression, respectively, by regulating the activity of BIRC5 promoter. Because there is no binding site for OCT4 within BIRC5 promoter, the effect of OCT4 on BIRC5 promoter is indirect. An octamer motif for OCT4 in the CCND1 promoter has directly and partly participated in the regulation of CCND1 promoter activity, suggesting that OCT4 also could upregulated the expression of CCND1. Co-suppression of OCT4 and BIRC5 induced cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, thereby efficiently inhibiting the proliferative activity of cancer cells and suppressing the growth of HCC xenogrfts in nude mice. Conclusion OCT4 can upregulate BIRC5 and CCND1 expression by increasing their promoter activity. These factors collusively promotes HCC cell proliferation, and co-suppression of OCT4 and BIRC5 is potentially beneficial for HCC treatment.

  18. PUMA promotes apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitors driving leukemic progression in a mouse model of myelodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, A A; Slape, C I; Failla, L M; Saw, J; Tremblay, C S; Powell, D R; Rossello, F; Wei, A; Strasser, A; Curtis, D J

    2016-06-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with resultant cytopenias. Increased apoptosis and aberrantly functioning progenitors are thought to contribute to this phenotype. As is the case for other malignancies, overcoming apoptosis is believed to be important in progression toward acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using the NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) transgenic mouse model of MDS, we previously reported that overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2, blocked apoptosis and improved cytopenias, paradoxically, delaying leukemic progression. To further understand this surprising result, we examined the role of p53 and its pro-apoptotic effectors, PUMA and NOXA in NHD13 mice. The absence of p53 or PUMA but not NOXA reduced apoptosis and expanded the numbers of MDS-repopulating cells. Despite a similar effect on apoptosis and cell numbers, the absence of p53 and PUMA had diametrically opposed effects on progression to AML: absence of p53 accelerated leukemic progression, while absence of PUMA significantly delayed progression. This may be explained in part by differences in cellular responses to DNA damage. The absence of p53 led to higher levels of γ-H2AX (indicative of persistent DNA lesions) while PUMA-deficient NHD13 progenitors resolved DNA lesions in a manner comparable to wild-type cells. These results suggest that targeting PUMA may improve the cytopenias of MDS without a detrimental effect on leukemic progression thus warranting further investigation. PMID:26742432

  19. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  20. Research Progress in the Speciation of Arsenic with Hyphenated Techniques%联用技术在砷形态分析中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林林; 朱英存

    2013-01-01

    Currently the main analysis techniques for arsenic speciation were the combination of chromatograph with atomic spectrum and mass spectrum, especially the combination of HPLC with ICP-OES or ICP-MS. The methods were accurate and reliable and had high sensitivity. But they can not provide the structural information of arsenic compounds. So the combination of chromatograph with ESI-MS was used as the main method for qualitative analysis. The insufficient sensitivity and vulnerability to matrix interference of ESI-MS can be overcome by the complex pretreatment technique. In this article hyphenated techniques were evaluated with particular emphasis on interfaced separation with element-selective detection and identification of the arsenic compounds detected.%  目前用元素砷的形态分析技术主要是色谱与子光谱、质谱等的联用,最常用的是HPLC与ICP-OES、 ICP-MS的联用,方法准确可靠,灵敏度高,但是不能提供砷化合物的分子结构信息。此以色谱-电喷雾质谱(ESI-MS)的联用作为定性分析的主要手段,但是ESI-MS灵敏度低,易受基体干扰,此需要复杂的前处理技术。

  1. 联用技术在砷形态分析中的研究进展%Research Progress in the Speciation of Arsenic with Hyphenated Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林林; 朱英存

    2013-01-01

    Currently the main analysis techniques for arsenic speciation were the combination of chromatograph with atomic spectrum and mass spectrum, especially the combination of HPLC with ICP-OES or ICP-MS. The methods were accurate and reliable and had high sensitivity. But they can not provide the structural information of arsenic compounds. So the combination of chromatograph with ESI-MS was used as the main method for qualitative analysis. The insufficient sensitivity and vulnerability to matrix interference of ESI-MS can be overcome by the complex pretreatment technique. In this article hyphenated techniques were evaluated with particular emphasis on interfaced separation with element-selective detection and identification of the arsenic compounds detected.%  目前用元素砷的形态分析技术主要是色谱与子光谱、质谱等的联用,最常用的是HPLC与ICP-OES、 ICP-MS的联用,方法准确可靠,灵敏度高,但是不能提供砷化合物的分子结构信息。此以色谱-电喷雾质谱(ESI-MS)的联用作为定性分析的主要手段,但是ESI-MS灵敏度低,易受基体干扰,此需要复杂的前处理技术。

  2. 土壤砷污染及其植物修复的研究进展与展望%Progress and Prospect on Arsenic Contamination of Soil and Its Phytoremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李圣发

    2011-01-01

    砷是一种广泛存在于自然界的类金属元素,砷及其化合物具有剧毒、致癌、致畸和致突变特性。土壤砷污染已成为严重的环境和公共健康问题之一,并日益受到人们的密切关注。本文介绍了土壤砷污染的概况、来源及其危害,同时探讨了土壤砷污染的植物修复的研究现状,文中最后对今后土壤砷污染植物修复研究方向进行了展望。%Arsenic(As) is a metalloid element widely distributed in the environment,and it has such chemical properties as high toxicity,carcinogenesis,teratogenesis and mutagenesis.Arsenic contamination of soils has become one of the serious environmental and public health issues,which has attracted more and more attention of the people.This paper reviews recent progress in research on the source and hazard of As which has made soil contaminated,and its phytoremediation.Finally,the phytoremediation technology for future research on arsenic is also prospected.

  3. Long noncoding RNA PVT1 promotes cervical cancer progression through epigenetically silencing miR-200b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaorong; Zhang, Guanli; Liu, Jingying

    2016-08-01

    Long noncoding RNA PVT1 has been reported to be dysregulated and play vital roles in a variety of cancers. However, the functions and molecular mechanisms of PVT1 in cervical cancer remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression, clinical significance, biological roles, and underlying functional mechanisms of PVT1 in cervical cancer. Our results revealed that PVT1 is upregulated in cervical cancer tissues. Enhanced expression of PVT1 is associated with larger tumor size, advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, and poor prognosis of cervical cancer patients. Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrated that overexpression of PVT1 promotes cervical cancer cells proliferation, cell cycle progression and migration, and depletion of PVT1 inhibits cervical cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and migration. Mechanistically, we verified that PVT1 binds to EZH2, recruits EZH2 to the miR-200b promoter, increases histone H3K27 trimethylation level on the miR-200b promoter, and inhibits miR-200b expression. Furthermore, the effects of PVT1 on cervical cell proliferation and migration depend upon silencing of miR-200b. Taken together, our findings confirmed that PVT1 functions as an oncogene in cervical cancer and indicated that PVT1 is not only an important prognostic marker, but also a potential therapy target for cervical cancer. PMID:27272214

  4. Defining and implementing arsenic policies in Bangladesh: possible roles for public and private sector actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shakeel Ahmed Ibne; Ball, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    A UN report warned up to 50% of Bangladesh's population (57 million) are at risk of arsenic poisoning from naturally occurring arsenic in well water. This article explores how this problem occurred, assesses what factors impede progress eliminating this problem and recommends governmental measures for prevention of arsenic poisoning.

  5. MICROBIAL DRIVEN TLR5-DEPENDENT SIGNALING GOVERNS DISTAL MALIGNANT PROGRESSION THROUGH TUMOR-PROMOTING INFLAMMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Stephen, Tom L.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Allegrezza, Michael J.; Tesone, Amelia J.; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Brencicova, Eva; Escovar-Fadul, Ximena; Nguyen, Jenny M.; Cadungog, Mark G.; Zhang, Rugang; Salatino, Mariana; Tchou, Julia; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    The dominant TLR5R392X polymorphism abrogates flagellin responses in >7% of humans. We report that TLR5-dependent commensal bacteria drive malignant progression at extra-mucosal locations by increasing systemic IL-6, which drives mobilization of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Mechanistically, expanded granulocytic MDSCs cause γδ lymphocytes in TLR5-responsive tumors to secrete galectin-1, dampening anti-tumor immunity and accelerating malignant progression. In contrast, IL-17 is consistently up-regulated in TLR5-unresponsive tumor-bearing mice, but only accelerates malignant progression in IL-6-unresponsive tumors. Importantly, depletion of commensal bacteria abrogates TLR5-dependent differences in tumor growth. Contrasting differences in inflammatory cytokines and malignant evolution are recapitulated in TLR5-responsive/unresponsive ovarian and breast cancer patients. Therefore, inflammation, anti-tumor immunity and the clinical outcome of cancer patients are influenced by a common TLR5 polymorphism. PMID:25533336

  6. Science as a Common Language in a Globalised World - Scientific Collaboration Promoting Progress, Building Bridges

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2003-01-01

    International scientific collaboration and co-operation can accelerate the progress of science, help build bridges between diverse societies, and foster the development of science and technology in non-industrialised countries. This is possible because science is a common language (although the progress of science is often influenced by non-scientific factors). I shall describe examples of the role that scientific collaboration can play in bridge building and in conflict resolution. I shall then present a proposal for "Bridge Building Fellowships" which would contribute to strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries by helping to stem the brain drain and providing a basis for collaborations with scientists in industrialised countries.

  7. Genomically amplified Akt3 activates DNA repair pathway and promotes glioma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kristen M; Sun, Youting; Ji, Ping; Granberg, Kirsi J; Bernard, Brady; Hu, Limei; Cogdell, David E; Zhou, Xinhui; Yli-Harja, Olli; Nykter, Matti; Shmulevich, Ilya; Yung, W K Alfred; Fuller, Gregory N; Zhang, Wei

    2015-03-17

    Akt is a robust oncogene that plays key roles in the development and progression of many cancers, including glioma. We evaluated the differential propensities of the Akt isoforms toward progression in the well-characterized RCAS/Ntv-a mouse model of PDGFB-driven low grade glioma. A constitutively active myristoylated form of Akt1 did not induce high-grade glioma (HGG). In stark contrast, Akt2 and Akt3 showed strong progression potential with 78% and 97% of tumors diagnosed as HGG, respectively. We further revealed that significant variations in polarity and hydropathy values among the Akt isoforms in both the pleckstrin homology domain (P domain) and regulatory domain (R domain) were critical in mediating glioma progression. Gene expression profiles from representative Akt-derived tumors indicated dominant and distinct roles for Akt3, consisting primarily of DNA repair pathways. TCGA data from human GBM closely reflected the DNA repair function, as Akt3 was significantly correlated with a 76-gene signature DNA repair panel. Consistently, compared with Akt1 and Akt2 overexpression models, Akt3-expressing human GBM cells had enhanced activation of DNA repair proteins, leading to increased DNA repair and subsequent resistance to radiation and temozolomide. Given the wide range of Akt3-amplified cancers, Akt3 may represent a key resistance factor.

  8. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  9. Matriptase promotes inflammatory cell accumulation and progression of established epidermal tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, K U; Friis, S; Abusleme, L;

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of matriptase is a consistent feature of human epithelial cancers and correlates with poor disease outcome. We have previously shown that matriptase promotes multi-stage squamous cell carcinogenesis in transgenic mice through dual activation of pro-hepatocyte growth factor...

  10. Pro-oncogene Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression

    OpenAIRE

    Zu, Xuyu; Ma, Jun; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Feng; Tan, Chunyan; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jue; Xie, Zhenhua; Cao, Deliang; Jiang, Yuyang

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription factor involved in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis, but little is known about its role in human breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to reveal the role of Pokemon in breast cancer progression and patient survival and to understand its underlying mechanisms. Methods Tissue microarray analysis of breast cancer tissues from patients with complete clinicopathological data and more than 20 years of follow-up were used to evaluate Po...

  11. Hypoxia Mediated Downregulation of miRNA Biogenesis Promotes Tumor Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Wu, Sherry Y.; Pradeep, Sunila; Ivan, Cristina; Pecot, Chad V.; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Nagaraja, Archana S; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; McGuire, Michael; Zand, Behrouz; Dalton, Heather J.; Filant, Justyna; Miller, Justin Bottsford; Lu, Chunhua; Sadaoui, Nouara C.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-related deregulation of miRNA biogenesis has been suggested, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report a previously unrecognized effect of hypoxia in the downregulation of Drosha and Dicer in cancer cells that leads to dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis and increased tumor progression. We show that hypoxia mediated downregulation of Drosha is dependent on ETS1/ELK1 transcription factors. Moreover, mature miRNA array and deep sequencing studies reveal altered miRNA ma...

  12. Ground water pollution by arsenic and its effects on health. Involvement of metabolic methylation in arsenic-induced genetic damage and tumorigenesis; Muki hiso no mechiru ka taisha to idenshi shogaisei narabini shuyo yuhatsusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, K. [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan)] Okada, S. [Shizuoka Prefecture (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    Drinking water contamination has become a worldwide problem. It is pointed out that re-evaluation of genetic damage with carcinogen is considered as an important problem particularly arsenic`s effects on health. To explain the genetic damage development mechanism of arsenic compound, results of the research conducted on the action of arsenic compound which develops during metabolic methylation process and inorganic arsenic are explained in this paper. The results of the study are summarized as follows. Arsenic genetic damage mutation is caused by dimethyl arsenic in main metabolism than inorganic arsenic. Lung DNA damage is induced by the interaction of O2 and arsenic peroxide radical. Dimethyl arsenic shows very important effect on lung cancer formation process which is induced based on 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). It not only promotes lung cancer but it also plays an important role in malignant tumor`s mutation. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase α subunit 2 promotes breast cancer progression and metastasis by regulating collagen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased collagen deposition provides physical and biochemical signals to support tumor growth and invasion during breast cancer development. Therefore, inhibition of collagen synthesis and deposition has been considered a strategy to suppress breast cancer progression. Collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase α subunit 2 (P4HA2), an enzyme hydroxylating proline residues in -X-Pro-Gly- sequences, is a potential therapeutic target for the disorders associated with increased collagen deposition. However, expression and function of P4HA2 in breast cancer progression are not well investigated. Gene co-expression analysis was performed in the published microarray datasets to identify potential regulators of collagen I, III, and IV in human breast cancer tissue. Expression of P4HA2 was silenced by shRNAs, and its activity was inhibited by 1, 4-DPCA, a prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor. Three-dimensional culture assay was used to analyze roles of P4HA2 in regulating malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells. Reduced deposition of collagen I and IV was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Control and P4HA2-silenced breast cancer cells were injected into fat pad and tail vein of SCID mice to examine effect of P4HA2 on tumor growth and lung metastasis. Using gene co-expression analysis, we showed that P4HA2 was associated with expression of Col1A1, Col3A1, and Col4A1 during breast cancer development and progression. P4HA2 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in breast cancer compared to normal mammary tissue. Increased mRNA levels of P4HA2 correlated with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients, which is independent of estrogen receptor status. Silencing P4HA2 expression or treatment with the P4HA inhibitor significantly inhibited cell proliferation and suppressed aggressive phenotypes of breast cancer cells in 3D culture, accompanied by reduced deposition of collagen I and IV. We also found that knockdown of P4HA2 inhibited mammary tumor growth and

  14. NMU signaling promotes endometrial cancer cell progression by modulating adhesion signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Yu; Wu, Fang-Ju; Chang, Chia-Lin; Li, Zhongyou; Luo, Ching-Wei

    2016-03-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) was originally named based on its strong uterine contractile activity, but little is known regarding its signaling/functions in utero. We identified that NMU and one of its receptors, NMUR2, are not only present in normal uterine endometrium but also co-expressed in endometrial cancer tissues, where the NMU level is correlated with the malignant grades and survival of patients. Cell-based assays further confirmed that NMU signaling can promote cell motility and proliferation of endometrial cancer cells derived from grade II tumors. Activation of NMU pathway in these endometrial cancer cells is required in order to sustain expression of various adhesion molecules, such as CD44 and integrin alpha1, as well as production of their corresponding extracellular matrix ligands, hyaluronan and collagen IV; it also increased the activity of SRC and its downstream proteins RHOA and RAC1. Thus, it is concluded that NMU pathway positively controls the adhesion signaling-SRC-Rho GTPase axis in the tested endometrial cancer cells and that changes in cell motility and proliferation can occur when there is manipulation of NMU signaling in these cells either in vitro or in vivo. Intriguingly, this novel mechanism also explains how NMU signaling promotes the EGFR-driven and TGFβ receptor-driven mesenchymal transitions. Through the above axis, NMU signaling not only can promote malignancy of the tested endometrial cancer cells directly, but also helps these cells to become more sensitive to niche growth factors in their microenvironment. PMID:26849234

  15. Arsenic efflux from Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhou Yan

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton plays an important role in arsenic speciation, distribution, and cycling in freshwater environments. Little information, however, is available on arsenic efflux from the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes. This study investigated M. aeruginosa arsenic efflux and speciation by pre-exposing it to 10 µM arsenate or arsenite for 24 h during limited (12 h and extended (13 d depuration periods under phosphate enriched (+P and phosphate depleted (-P treatments. Arsenate was the predominant species detected in algal cells throughout the depuration period while arsenite only accounted for no greater than 45% of intracellular arsenic. During the limited depuration period, arsenic efflux occurred rapidly and only arsenate was detected in solutions. During the extended depuration period, however, arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were found to be the two predominant arsenic species detected in solutions under -P treatments, but arsenate was the only species detected under +P treatments. Experimental results also suggest that phosphorus has a significant effect in accelerating arsenic efflux and promoting arsenite bio-oxidation in M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, phosphorus depletion can reduce arsenic efflux from algal cells as well as accelerate arsenic reduction and methylation. These findings can contribute to our understanding of arsenic biogeochemistry in aquatic environments and its potential environmental risks under different phosphorus levels.

  16. Slug-upregulated miR-221 promotes breast cancer progression through suppressing E-cadherin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yaqin; Wang, Nan; Liang, Hongwei; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    It is generally regarded that E-cadherin is downregulated during tumorigenesis via Snail/Slug-mediated E-cadherin transcriptional reduction. However, this transcriptional suppressive mechanism cannot explain the failure of producing E-cadherin protein in metastatic breast cancer cells after overexpressing E-cadherin mRNA. Here we reveal a novel mechanism that E-cadherin is post-transcriptionally regulated by Slug-promoted miR-221, which serves as an additional blocker for E-cadherin expression in metastatic tumor cells. Profiling the predicted E-cadherin-targeting miRNAs in breast cancer tissues and cells showed that miR-221 was abundantly expressed in breast tumor and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells and its level was significantly higher in breast tumor or MDA-MB-231 cells than in distal non-tumor tissue and low-metastatic MCF-7 cells, respectively. MiR-221, which level inversely correlated with E-cadherin level in breast cancer cells, targeted E-cadherin mRNA open reading frame (ORF) and suppressed E-cadherin protein expression. Depleting or increasing miR-221 level in breast cancer cells induced or decreased E-cadherin protein level, leading to suppressing or promoting tumor cell progression, respectively. Moreover, miR-221 was specifically upregulated by Slug but not Snail. TGF-β treatment enhanced Slug activity and thus increased miR-221 level in MCF-7 cells. In summary, our results provide the first evidence that Slug-upregulated miR-221 promotes breast cancer progression via reducing E-cadherin expression. PMID:27174021

  17. Circulating low IL-23: IL-35 cytokine ratio promotes progression associated with poor prognosisin breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanghui; Liang, Yanfang; Guan, Xin; Chen, Hui; Liu, Qiankun; Lin, Bihua; Chen, Can; Huang, Mingyuan; Chen, Jianan; Wu, Weiquan; Liang, Yi; Zhou, Keyuan; Zeng, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family, composed of heterodimeric cytokines including IL-12 (formed by IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 subunits), IL-23 (formed by IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 subunits), IL-27 (formed by IL-27p28 and EBI3 subunits) and IL-35 (formed by IL-12p35 and EBI3 subunits), establishes a link between innate and adaptive immunity that involves different immune effector cells and cytokines to tumors. However, the role of IL-12 family in breast cancer (BC) progression and prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated evidence indicating that EBI3, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 but not IL-23p19 or IL-27p28 were highly expressed in BC tissues, suggested that tumor derived EBI3, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 were associated with tumor progression. Circulating IL-12 and IL-23 low expressed, but IL-27 and IL-35 high expressed in BC patients, especially circulating IL-23 associated with IL-35 to mediate BC tumor resection. Ki-67, p53 and EGFR expression on BC tissues, as well as CA125, CA153 and CA199 levels on BC bloods increased when circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio decreased. Together, for the first time, our data suggest that circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio may be an important indicator association with BC progression and prognosis. However, further research should be carried out to assess the implications of circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio in a larger sample size.

  18. Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter-572 C Allele May Play a Role in Rate of Disease Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M. Greer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system. Although the exact pathogenesis of MS is unknown, it is generally considered to be an autoimmune disease, with numerous genetic and environmental factors determining disease susceptibility and severity. One important mediator of immune responses and inflammation is interleukin-6 (IL-6. Previously, elevated levels of IL-6 in mononuclear cells in blood and in brain tissue from MS patients have been reported. Various polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL6 gene have also been linked with IL-6 protein levels. In MS, several small studies have investigated whether two IL6 promoter polymorphisms (−597 G>A and −174 G>C correlate with MS susceptibility, but with varying results. In the present study, we analyzed these polymorphisms, together with an additional polymorphism (−572 G>C in 279 healthy controls and 509 patients with MS. We found no significant differences between MS patients and healthy controls for the different −597 or −174 IL6 promoter alleles or genotypes. There was a slight reduction in the percentage of individuals with MS who carried a C allele at position −572, although this was not significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Interestingly, however, the −572 C allele showed a significant correlation with the MS severity score, suggesting a possible role in disease progression.

  19. Nuclear vasohibin-2 promotes cell proliferation by inducing G0/G1 to S phase progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qianqian; Zhou, Jia; Tu, Min; Xue, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhanjun; Lu, Zipeng; Wei, Jishu; Song, Guoxin; Chen, Jianmin; Guo, Feng; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi; Gao, Wentao

    2015-09-01

    As a member of the vasohibin (VASH2) family, VASH2 is localized intracellularly as a nuclear and cytoplasmic type. Cytoplasmic VASH2 is associated with carcinoma angiogenesis and malignant transformation and promotes cancer growth. However, the function of nuclear VASH2 has yet to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to detect the nuclear VASH2 expression profile in human organs and tissues by protein microarray technique. To examine the function of nuclear VASH2, we analyzed the relationship between nuclear VASH2 and Ki-67, and stably constructed VASH2 overexpression and knockdown in LO2 and HepG2 cell lines, based on a previous study in hepatic cells. The study was conducted using bromodeoxyuridine, immunofluorescent staining, western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Nuclear VASH2 was highly expressed in actively dividing cells in normal and cancer tissues. There was a significant positive correlation between nuclear VASH2 and Ki-67, indicating that nuclear VASH2 positively correlated with cell proliferation in normal and cancer tissues. The bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation test showed that nuclear VASH2 increased the S-phase population and promoted cell proliferation, while VASH2 knockdown reduced BrdU absorbance. Cell cycle analysis revealed that nuclear VASH2 overexpression increased the S-phase population in LO2 and HepG2 cells, while nuclear VASH2 knockdown reduced the S-phase population and increased the G0/G1 population. The findings of this study challenge the classic view of VASH2, which was previously reported as an angiogenesis factor. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, these results are the first clinical data indicating that nuclear VASH2, but not cytoplasmic VASH2, promotes cell proliferation by driving the cell cycle from the G0/G1 to S phase.

  20. SCF, regulated by HIF-1α, promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuntao Gao

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α both have important functions in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. This study aims to analyze the expression and clinicopathological significance of SCF and HIF-1α in PDAC specimens and explore the molecular mechanism at PDAC cells in vitro and in vivo. We showed that the expression of SCF was significantly correlated with HIF-1α expression via Western blot, PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay, and luciferase assay analysis. The SCF level was also correlated with lymph node metastasis and the pathological tumor node metastasis (pTNM stage in PDAC samples. The SCF higher-expression group had significantly lower survival rates than the SCF lower-expression group (p<0.05. Hypoxia up-regulated the expression of SCF through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α in PDAC cells at the protein and RNA levels. When HIF-1α was knocked down by RNA interference, the SCF level decreased significantly. Additionally, ChIP and luciferase results demonstrated that HIF-1α can directly bind to the hypoxia response element (HRE region of the SCF promoter and activate the SCF transcription under hypoxia. The results of colony formation, cell scratch, and transwell migration assay showed that SCF promoted the proliferation and invasion of PANC-1 cells under hypoxia. Furthermore, the down-regulated ability of cell proliferation and invasion following HIF-1α knockdown was rescued by adding exogenous SCF under hypoxia in vitro. Finally, when the HIF-1α expression was inhibited by digoxin, the tumor volume and the SCF level decreased, thereby proving the relationship between HIF-1α and SCF in vivo. In conclusion, SCF is an important factor for the growth of PDAC. In our experiments, we proved that SCF, a downstream gene of HIF-1α, can promote the development of PDAC under hypoxia. Thus, SCF might be a potential therapeutic target for PDAC.

  1. SCF, Regulated by HIF-1α, Promotes Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cell Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Ren, He; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Xiuchao; Lang, Mingxiao; Liu, Jingcheng; Gao, Song; Zhao, Xiao; Sheng, Jun; Yuan, Zhanna; Hao, Jihui

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) both have important functions in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study aims to analyze the expression and clinicopathological significance of SCF and HIF-1α in PDAC specimens and explore the molecular mechanism at PDAC cells in vitro and in vivo. We showed that the expression of SCF was significantly correlated with HIF-1α expression via Western blot, PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, and luciferase assay analysis. The SCF level was also correlated with lymph node metastasis and the pathological tumor node metastasis (pTNM) stage in PDAC samples. The SCF higher-expression group had significantly lower survival rates than the SCF lower-expression group (p<0.05). Hypoxia up-regulated the expression of SCF through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in PDAC cells at the protein and RNA levels. When HIF-1α was knocked down by RNA interference, the SCF level decreased significantly. Additionally, ChIP and luciferase results demonstrated that HIF-1α can directly bind to the hypoxia response element (HRE) region of the SCF promoter and activate the SCF transcription under hypoxia. The results of colony formation, cell scratch, and transwell migration assay showed that SCF promoted the proliferation and invasion of PANC-1 cells under hypoxia. Furthermore, the down-regulated ability of cell proliferation and invasion following HIF-1α knockdown was rescued by adding exogenous SCF under hypoxia in vitro. Finally, when the HIF-1α expression was inhibited by digoxin, the tumor volume and the SCF level decreased, thereby proving the relationship between HIF-1α and SCF in vivo. In conclusion, SCF is an important factor for the growth of PDAC. In our experiments, we proved that SCF, a downstream gene of HIF-1α, can promote the development of PDAC under hypoxia. Thus, SCF might be a potential therapeutic target for PDAC. PMID:25799412

  2. Radiation promotes colorectal cancer initiation and progression by inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Bozeman, R G; Kaisani, A; Kim, W; Zhang, L; Richardson, J A; Wright, W E; Shay, J W

    2016-06-30

    Proton radiotherapy is becoming more common as protons induce more precise DNA damage at the tumor site with reduced side effects to adjacent normal tissues. However, the long-term biological effects of proton irradiation in cancer initiation compared with conventional photon irradiation are poorly characterized. In this study, using a human familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome susceptible mouse model, we show that whole-body irradiation with protons are more effective in inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses (SIRs), which are involved in colon cancer initiation and progression. After proton irradiation, a subset of SIR genes (Troy, Sox17, Opg, Faim2, Lpo, Tlr2 and Ptges) and a gene known to be involved in invasiveness (Plat), along with the senescence-associated gene (P19Arf), are markedly increased. Following these changes, loss of Casein kinase Iα and induction of chronic DNA damage and TP53 mutations are increased compared with X-ray irradiation. Proton irradiation also increases the number of colonic polyps, carcinomas and invasive adenocarcinomas. Pretreatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid-ethyl amide (CDDO-EA), reduces proton irradiation-associated SIR and tumorigenesis. Thus exposure to proton irradiation elicits significant changes in colorectal cancer initiation and progression that can be mitigated using CDDO-EA. PMID:26477319

  3. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic trioxide is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL; a type of cancer in which there ... worsened following treatment with other types of chemotherapy. Arsenic trioxide is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Cryptic exposure to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossy, Kathleen M; Janusz, Christopher A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  5. Cryptic exposure to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossy Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  6. Arsenic: the forgotten poison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E N; Gilbert, D T; Raju, K; Morgan, O S

    1992-03-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is an uncommon cause of peripheral neuropathy in Jamaica. A patient with this disorder is described. The insidious nature of chronic arsenic poisoning, with its disabling complications, is emphasised.

  7. Early Epigenetic Downregulation of microRNA-192 Expression Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botla, Sandeep K; Savant, Soniya; Jandaghi, Pouria; Bauer, Andrea S; Mücke, Oliver; Moskalev, Evgeny A; Neoptolemos, John P; Costello, Eithne; Greenhalf, William; Scarpa, Aldo; Gaida, Matthias M; Büchler, Markus W; Strobel, Oliver; Hackert, Thilo; Giese, Nathalia A; Augustin, Hellmut G; Hoheisel, Jörg D

    2016-07-15

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by very early metastasis, suggesting the hypothesis that metastasis-associated changes may occur prior to actual tumor formation. In this study, we identified miR-192 as an epigenetically regulated suppressor gene with predictive value in this disease. miR-192 was downregulated by promoter methylation in both PDAC and chronic pancreatitis, the latter of which is a major risk factor for the development of PDAC. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo in mouse models of PDAC showed that overexpression of miR-192 was sufficient to reduce cell proliferation and invasion. Mechanistic analyses correlated changes in miR-192 promoter methylation and expression with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cell proliferation and invasion were linked to altered expression of the miR-192 target gene SERPINE1 that is encoding the protein plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an established regulator of these properties in PDAC cells. Notably, our data suggested that invasive capacity was altered even before neoplastic transformation occurred, as triggered by miR-192 downregulation. Overall, our results highlighted a role for miR-192 in explaining the early metastatic behavior of PDAC and suggested its relevance as a target to develop for early diagnostics and therapy. Cancer Res; 76(14); 4149-59. ©2016 AACR.

  8. Carcinoembryonic antigen promotes colorectal cancer progression by targeting adherens junction complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajenova, Olga, E-mail: o.bazhenova@spbu.ru [Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Chaika, Nina [Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Tolkunova, Elena; Davydov-Sinitsyn, Alexander [Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); Gapon, Svetlana [Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Thomas, Peter [Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); O’Brien, Stephen [Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-10

    Oncomarkers play important roles in the detection and management of human malignancies. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) are considered as independent tumor markers in monitoring metastatic colorectal cancer. They are both expressed by cancer cells and can be detected in the blood serum. We investigated the effect of CEA production by MIP101 colorectal carcinoma cell lines on E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) protein complexes. No direct interaction between E-cadherin and CEA was detected; however, the functional relationships between E-cadherin and its AJ partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins were impaired. We discovered a novel interaction between CEA and beta-catenin protein in the CEA producing cells. It is shown in the current study that CEA overexpression alters the splicing of p120 catenin and triggers the release of soluble E-cadherin. The influence of CEA production by colorectal cancer cells on the function of E-cadherin junction complexes may explain the link between the elevated levels of CEA and the increase in soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Elevated level of CEA increases the release of soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. • CEA over-expression alters the binding preferences between E-cadherin and its partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins in adherens junction complexes. • CEA produced by colorectal cancer cells interacts with beta-catenin protein. • CEA over-expression triggers the increase in nuclear beta-catenin. • CEA over-expression alters the splicing of p120 catenin protein.

  9. Foxp3 promoter polymorphism (rs3761548) in breast cancer progression: a study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Parveen; Ramachander, V R Vinish; Maruthi, G; Nalini, S; Latha, K Prasanna; Murthy, T S R

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female neoplasm that drives the transformation of normal mammary epithelial cells into highly malignant derivatives. Forkhead Box Protein3 (Foxp3), a tumor suppressor/immunomodulatory gene, which controls the function of Treg cells and oncogenes is down regulated in breast cancer. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential influence of Foxp3-3279 C>A polymorphism (rs3761548) and -2383 C>T polymorphism (rs3761549) in 202 breast cancer patients and 130 normal healthy women of Indian origin. The genotypes were determined using ARMS-PCR for rs3761548 and PCR-RFLP method for rs3761549 using specific primers. The results revealed lack of association of these two polymorphisms with breast cancer susceptibility. However, with respect to AA genotype of rs3761548, we found highly significant association with the advanced stage (T3-4) of the tumor (OR = 3.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.56-9.70; p = 0.03). Stratified data also revealed an association of homozygous mutant genotype with advanced stage of tumor in premenopausal women (OR = 4.56; 95% CI = 1.07-19.38; p = 0.04) with disease duration of <6 months (OR =  .10; 95% CI = 1.80-20.50; p = 0.002) suggestive of modulating effect of rs3761548 in tumor progression. We conclude that Foxp3 rs37161548 has a potential to be a polymorphic marker for tumor progression in premenopausal breast cancer patients in Indian women. PMID:24338714

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-10 promotes tumor progression through regulation of angiogenic and apoptotic pathways in cervical tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer invasion and metastasis develops through a series of steps that involve the loss of cell to cell and cell to matrix adhesion, degradation of extracellular matrix and induction of angiogenesis. Different protease systems (e.g., matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs) are involved in these steps. MMP-10, one of the lesser studied MMPs, is limited to epithelial cells and can facilitate tumor cell invasion by targeting collagen, elastin and laminin. Enhanced MMP-10 expression has been linked to poor clinical prognosis in some cancers, however, mechanisms underlying a role for MMP-10 in tumorigenesis and progression remain largely unknown. Here, we report that MMP-10 expression is positively correlated with the invasiveness of human cervical and bladder cancers. Using commercial tissue microarray (TMA) of cervical and bladder tissues, MMP-10 immunohistochemical staining was performed. Furthermore using a panel of human cells (HeLa and UROtsa), in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed in which MMP-10 was overexpressed or silenced and we noted phenotypic and genotypic changes. Experimentally, we showed that MMP-10 can regulate tumor cell migration and invasion, and endothelial cell tube formation, and that MMP-10 effects are associated with a resistance to apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that increasing MMP-10 expression stimulates the expression of HIF-1α and MMP-2 (pro-angiogenic factors) and PAI-1 and CXCR2 (pro-metastatic factors), and accordingly, targeting MMP-10 with siRNA in vivo resulted in diminution of xenograft tumor growth with a concomitant reduction of angiogenesis and a stimulation of apoptosis. Taken together, our findings show that MMP-10 can play a significant role in tumor growth and progression, and that MMP-10 perturbation may represent a rational strategy for cancer treatment

  11. ANGPTL4 deficiency in haematopoietic cells promotes monocyte expansion and atherosclerosis progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Binod; Rotllan, Noemi; Araldi, Elisa; Ramírez, Cristina M.; He, Shun; Chousterman, Benjamin G.; Fenn, Ashley M.; Wanschel, Amarylis; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Warrier, Nikhil; Martín-Ventura, Jose L.; Swirski, Filip K.; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Lipid accumulation in macrophages has profound effects on macrophage gene expression and contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we report that angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is the most highly upregulated gene in foamy macrophages and it's absence in haematopoietic cells results in larger atherosclerotic plaques, characterized by bigger necrotic core areas and increased macrophage apoptosis. Furthermore, hyperlipidemic mice deficient in haematopoietic ANGPTL4 have higher blood leukocyte counts, which is associated with an increase in the common myeloid progenitor (CMP) population. ANGPTL4-deficient CMPs have higher lipid raft content, are more proliferative and less apoptotic compared with the wild-type (WT) CMPs. Finally, we observe that ANGPTL4 deficiency in macrophages promotes foam cell formation by enhancing CD36 expression and reducing ABCA1 localization in the cell surface. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that haematopoietic ANGPTL4 deficiency increases atherogenesis through regulating myeloid progenitor cell expansion and differentiation, foam cell formation and vascular inflammation.

  12. Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Promotes Colon Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui-yuan; Sui, Ming-hua; Yu, Xiao; Qu, Zhen; Hu, Jin-chen; Sun, Hai-qing; Zheng, Hai-tao; Zhou, Kai; Jiang, Li-xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. It is still necessary to further define the mechanisms and explore therapeutic targets of colon cancer. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been shown to be correlated with diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. This study aimed to characterize the biological mechanism of taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in colon cancer. Material/Methods qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression level of TUG1 and p63 in 75 colon cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue. In vitro, cultured colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and LoVo were used as cell models. TUG1 and p63 were silenced via transferring siRNA into HCT-116 or LoVo. The effects of TUG1 were investigated by examining cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. Results Among the 75 colon cancer cases, the expression of TUG1 was significantly higher in colon cancer tissues compared with the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue, while p63 expression was lower in the tumor tissue. In HCT-116 and LoVo, the expression of TUG1 was significantly increased by p63 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, down-regulation of TUG1 by siRNA significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and promoted colon cancer cell apoptosis. In addition, inhibition of TUG1 expression significantly blocked the cell migration ability of colon cancer cells. Conclusions LncRNA TUG1 may serve as a potential oncogene for colon cancer. Overexpressed TUG1 may contribute to promoting cell proliferation and migration in colon cancer cells. PMID:27634385

  13. Elevated serum alpha fetoprotein levels promote pathological progression of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Shan-Shan Wang; Hui Liu; Ning Li; Michael A McNutt; Gang Li; Hui-Guo Ding

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological role of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and its clinical significance in carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Clinical analysis of HCC patients and immunohistochemical examination were conducted to eva-luate the relationship between serum AFP level and patient mortality. Confocal microscopy, Western blotting, dimethylthiahzolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Cell Counting Kit-8 assays and flow cytometry were performed to explore the possible mechanism.RESULTS: Among the 160 HCC patients enrolled in this study, 130 patients survived 2 years (81.25%), with a survival rate of 86.8% in AFP 250 μg/L group, demonstrating a higher mortality rate in HCC patients with higher AFP levels. Surgical treatment was beneficial only in patients with low AFP levels. The mortality rate of HCC patients with high AFP levels who were treated surgically was apparently higher than those treated with conservative management. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that AFP and AFP receptor were merely expressed in tissues of HCC patients with positive serum AFP. Consistently, in vitro analysis showed that AFP and AFPS were expressed in HepG2 but not in HLE cells. AFP showed a capability to promote cell growth, and this was more apparent in HepG2 cells, in which the proliferation was increased by 3.5 folds. Cell cycle analysis showed that the percentage of HepG2 cells in S phase after exposure to AFP was modestly increased.CONCLUSION: HCC patients with higher AFP levels show a higher mortality rate, which appears to be attributable to the growth promoting properties of AFP.

  14. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  15. KAP1 promotes proliferation and metastatic progression of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Joseph B; Koontz, Colton; Fugett, James H; Creighton, Chad J; Chen, Dongquan; Farrugia, Mark K; Padon, Renata R; Voronkova, Maria A; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Livengood, Ryan H; Lin, Chen-Chung; Ruppert, J Michael; Pugacheva, Elena N; Ivanov, Alexey V

    2015-01-15

    KAP1 (TRIM28) is a transcriptional regulator in embryonic development that controls stem cell self-renewal, chromatin organization, and the DNA damage response, acting as an essential corepressor for KRAB family zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZNF). To gain insight into the function of this large gene family, we developed an antibody that recognizes the conserved zinc fingers linker region (ZnFL) in multiple KRAB-ZNF. Here, we report that the expression of many KRAB-ZNF along with active SUMOlyated KAP1 is elevated widely in human breast cancers. KAP1 silencing in breast cancer cells reduced proliferation and inhibited the growth and metastasis of tumor xenografts. Conversely, KAP1 overexpression stimulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. In cells where KAP1 was silenced, we identified multiple downregulated genes linked to tumor progression and metastasis, including EREG/epiregulin, PTGS2/COX2, MMP1, MMP2, and CD44, along with downregulation of multiple KRAB-ZNF proteins. KAP1-dependent stabilization of KRAB-ZNF required direct interactions with KAP1. Together, our results show that KAP1-mediated stimulation of multiple KRAB-ZNF contributes to the growth and metastasis of breast cancer.

  16. NDRG1 overexpression promotes the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through modulating Wnt signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Runna; Sun, Yulin; Guo, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Lanping; Liu, Fang; Hendricks, Denver T.; Xu, Yang; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT N-myc down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has been shown to regulate tumor growth and metastasis in various malignant tumors and also to be dysregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Here, we show that NDRG1 overexpression (91.9%, 79/86) in ESCC tumor tissues is associated with poor overall survival of esophageal cancer patients. When placed in stable transfectants of the KYSE 30 ESCC cell line generated by lentiviral transduction with the ectopic overexpression of NDRG1, the expression of transducin-like enhancer of Split 2 (TLE2) was decreased sharply, however β−catenin was increased. Mechanistically, NDRG1 physically associates with TLE2 and β−catenin to affect the Wnt pathway. RNA interference and TLE2 overexpression studies demonstrate that NDRG1 fails to active Wnt pathway compared with isogenic wild-type controls. Strikingly, NDRG1 overexpression induces the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activating the Wnt signaling pathway in ESCC cells, decreased the expression of E-cadherin and enhanced the expression of Snail. Our study elucidates a mechanism of NDRG1-regulated Wnt pathway activation and EMT via affecting TLE2 and  β-catenin expression in esophageal cancer cells. This indicates a pro-oncogenic role for NDRG1 in esophageal cancer cells whereby it modulates tumor progression. PMID:27414086

  17. A health promotion logic model to review progress in HIV prevention in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutbeam, Don; Padmadas, Sabu S; Maslovskaya, Olga; Wu, Zhiwei

    2015-06-01

    Using the theory and concepts of health promotion, this paper proposes a logic model for HIV/AIDS prevention and control which provides a structure for describing planned actions and predicted impacts/outcomes from comprehensive HIV prevention interventions. The potential usefulness of the model is examined by reviewing the evolution of HIV prevention and management in China, drawing on evidence from interventions reported from a mixture of study designs and formats. It reports that HIV interventions in China can be considered in two distinctive phases, before and after 2003 when China commenced its 'official' response to the HIV epidemic. The logic model was useful in comparing actions taken over these two periods highlighting the importance of political leadership in distinguishing between the two phases, and the continuing importance of systematic and broadly based public education and communication. We conclude that the logic model can not only be used as a planning model, but can also be applied retrospectively to assess successes and failures in national and local responses to HIV in complex social settings. PMID:23753059

  18. OTX1 promotes colorectal cancer progression through epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Kun; Cai, Xin-Yi; Li, Qiang; Yang, Zhi-Bin; Xiong, Wei; Shen, Tao; Wang, Wei-Ya; Li, Yun-Feng, E-mail: ynsliyunfeng@163.com

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • OTX1 is overexpression in colorectal cancer tissues. • Overexpression of OTX1 promotes colorectal cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. • Depletion of OTX1 inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. • Overexpression of OTX1 is linked to the EMT-like phenotype. - Abstract: Orthodenticle homeobox 1 (OTX1), a transcription factor containing a bicoid-like homeodomain, plays a role in brain and sensory organ development. In this study, we report that OTX1 is overexpressed in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and OTX1 overexpression is associated with higher stage. Functional analyses reveal that overexpression of OTX1 results in accumulation of CRC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, whereas ablation of OTX1 expression significantly inhibits the proliferative and invasive capability of CRC cells in vitro. Together, our results indicate that OTX1 is involved in human colon carcinogenesis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for human colorectal cancer.

  19. Knockdown of TWIST1 enhances arsenic trioxide- and ionizing radiation-induced cell death in lung cancer cells by promoting mitochondrial dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Sung-Keum; Kim, Jae-Hee; Choi, Ha-Na [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Tae-Boo [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seok-Il [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jae-Youn [Laboratory of Modulation of Radiobiological Responses, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Gyu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsan-no, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Han, E-mail: yhlee87@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsan-no, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: parkic@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Knockdown of TWIST1 enhanced ATO- and IR-induced cell death in NSCLCs. • Intracellular ROS levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA. • TWIST1 siRNA induced MMP loss and mitochondrial fragmentation. • TWIST1 siRNA upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. - Abstract: TWIST1 is implicated in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition, metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance in cancer cells, and therefore is a potential target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we found that knockdown of TWIST1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced arsenic trioxide (ATO)- and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Interestingly, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA and further increased by co-treatment with ATO or IR. Pretreatment of lung cancer cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine markedly suppressed the cell death induced by combined treatment with TWIST1 siRNA and ATO or IR. Moreover, treatment of cells with TWIST1 siRNA induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. Collectively, our results demonstrate that siRNA-mediated TWIST1 knockdown induces mitochondrial dysfunction and enhances IR- and ATO-induced cell death in lung cancer cells.

  20. Arsenic compounds toxic to rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epps, E.A.; Sturgis, M.B.

    1939-01-01

    A study has been made of the kinds of arsenic compounds that may be toxic to rice and of means for correcting the toxicity. Some of the arsenic compounds in flooded soils are reduced, with consequent increase in soluble arsenic content of the soil and decrease in total arsenic content due to liberation of gaseous compounds of arsenic. It was demonstrated that some of the arsenic was lost as arsine. Many of the naturally-occurring compounds of arsenic are not attacked by the micro-organisms and do not become more soluble. Additions of sulfur to soils containing toxic amounts of arsenic decreased the amount of soluble arsenic in the soil.

  1. Fibroblast-derived MT1-MMP promotes tumor progression in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vick Catherine C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of fibroblast derived factors in tumor progression has the potential to provide novel molecular targets for modulating tumor cell growth and metastasis. Multiple matrix metalloproteases (MMPs are expressed by both mesenchymal and epithelial cells within head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs, but the relative importance of these enzymes and the cell source is the subject of controversy. Methods The invasive potential of HNSCC tumor cells were assessed in vitro atop type I collagen gels in coculture with wild-type (WT, MMP-2 null, MMP-9 null or MT1-MMP null fibroblasts. A floor of mouth mouse model of HNSCC was used to assess in vivo growth after co-injection of FaDu tumor cells with MMP null fibroblasts. Results Here we report changes in tumor phenotype when FaDu HNSCCs cells are cocultured with WT, MMP-2 null, MMP-9 null or MT1-MMP null fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo. WT, MMP-2 null and MMP-9 null fibroblasts, but not MT1-MMP null fibroblasts, spontaneously invaded into type I collagen gels. WT fibroblasts stimulated FaDu tumor cell invasion in coculture. This invasive phenotype was unaffected by combination with MMP-9 null fibroblasts, reduced with MMP-2 null fibroblasts (50% and abrogated in MT1-MMP null fibroblasts. Co-injection of FaDu tumor cells with fibroblasts in an orthotopic oral cavity SCID mouse model demonstrated a reduction of tumor volume using MMP-9 and MMP-2 null fibroblasts (48% and 49%, respectively compared to WT fibroblasts. Consistent with in vitro studies, MT1-MMP null fibroblasts when co-injected with FaDu cells resulted in a 90% reduction in tumor volume compared to FaDu cells injected with WT fibroblasts. Conclusion These data suggest a role for fibroblast-derived MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in HNSCC tumor invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.

  2. Metastasis-inducing S100A4 and RANTES cooperate in promoting tumor progression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Forst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment has been described as a critical milieu determining tumor growth and metastases. A pivotal role of metastasis-inducing S100A4 in the development of tumor stroma has been proven in animal models and verified in human breast cancer biopsies. Expression and release of S100A4 has been shown in various types of stroma composing cells, including fibroblasts and immune cells. However, the events implicated in upstream and downstream pathways regulating the activity of the extracellular S100A4 protein in the tumor milieu remain unsolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the interplay between the tumor cell-derived cytokine regulated-upon-activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES; CCL5 and S100A4 which were shown to be critical factors in tumor progression. We found that RANTES stimulates the externalization of S100A4 via microparticle shedding from the plasma membrane of tumor and stroma cells. Conversely, the released S100A4 protein induces the upregulation of fibronectin (FN in fibroblasts and a number of cytokines, including RANTES in tumor cells as well as stimulates cell motility in a wound healing assay. Importantly, using wild type and S100A4-deficient mouse models, we demonstrated a substantial influence of tumor cell-derived RANTES on S100A4 release into blood circulation which ultimately increases the metastatic burden in mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, the data presented strongly validate the pro-metastatic function of S100A4 in the tumor microenvironment and define how the tumor cell-derived cytokine RANTES acts as a critical regulator of S100A4-dependent tumor cell dissemination. Additionally, for the first time we demonstrated the mechanism of S100A4 release associated with plasma membrane microparticle shedding from various cells types.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yun-Fei [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Department of Pathology, Shandong University (China); Lu, Xiao-Fei [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jinan Central Hospital (China); Guo, Sen; Liu, Yi; Iqbal, Mohammad; Ning, Shang-Lei; Yang, Hui [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China); Suo, Ning [Department of Anatomy, Shandong University (China); Chen, Yu-Xin, E-mail: yxu8@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

  4. Selection, de-selection and progression in German football talent promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllich, Arne

    2014-01-01

    This study explored to which extent the development of German professional football players is based on early talent identification (TID) and long-term nurture in talent promotion (TP) programmes or on their emergence in the course of repeated procedures of player selection and de-selection in these programmes through childhood and youth. The annual turnover of squad members in national junior teams (2001-2013) and youth elite academies was calculated; national U-team members were followed up with regard to nominations through subsequent seasons and to their success level eventually achieved at senior age; and all current Bundesliga players were analysed retrospectively regarding their earlier involvement in TID/TP programmes. Analyses revealed that the mean annual turnover of squad members was 24.5% (youth academies) and 41.0% (national U-teams), respectively. At any age, the probability of persisting in the programme three years later was <50%. Among current Bundesliga players, the age of recruitment into the TID/TP programme was widely evenly distributed across childhood and youth, respectively. Accordingly, the number of (future) Bundesliga players who were involved in TID/TP was built up continuously through all age categories. The observations suggest that the collective of professional players emerged from repeated procedures of selection and de-selection through childhood and youth rather than from early selection and long-term continuous nurture in TID/TP programmes. The findings are discussed with regard to the uncertainty of TID and of interventions applied to the selected players, and they are related to the individualistic and collectivistic approach in TP. PMID:24245783

  5. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target

  6. Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Mandal, Ardhendu K. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Saito, Hiroshi [Department of Surgery and Physiology, Lucille P. Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pulliam, Joseph F.; Lee, Eun Y. [Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-Ji; Lu, Jian; Ding, Songze [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Li, Li [Department of Family Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Shelton, Brent J.; Tucker, Thomas [Markey Cancer Control Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40504 (United States); Evers, B. Mark [Department of Surgery and Physiology, Lucille P. Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of β-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of β-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited β-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggests that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. -- Highlights: ► Carcinogenic metals in drinking water promote colorectal tumor formation in vivo. ► Carcinogenic metals induce β-catenin activation in vivo and in vitro. ► ROS generation induced by carcinogenic metals mediated β-catenin activation.

  7. Arsenic cardiotoxicity: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamolhodaei, Nafiseh Sadat; Shirani, Kobra; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic, a naturally ubiquitous element, is found in foods and environment. Cardiac dysfunction is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Arsenic exposure is associated with various cardiopathologic effects including ischemia, arrhythmia and heart failure. Possible mechanisms of arsenic cardiotoxicity include oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, apoptosis and functional changes of ion channels. Several evidences have shown that mitochondrial disruption, caspase activation, MAPK signaling and p53 are the pathways for arsenic induced apoptosis. Arsenic trioxide is an effective and potent antitumor agent used in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and produces dramatic remissions. As2O3 administration has major limitations such as T wave changes, QT prolongation and sudden death in humans. In this review, we discuss the underlying pathobiology of arsenic cardiotoxicity and provide information about cardiac health effects associated with some medicinal plants in arsenic toxicity.

  8. Arsenic removal from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  9. Reduction and coordination of arsenic in Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, I J; Prince, R C; George, M J; Smith, R D; George, G N; Salt, D E

    2000-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an As(III)-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an As(III)-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from As(III)-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element.

  10. Association of promoter methylation of VGF and PGP9.5 with ovarian cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brait

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elucidate the role of biological and clinical impact of aberrant promoter hypermethylation (PH in ovarian cancer (OC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: PH of PGP9.5, HIC1, AIM1, APC, PAK3, MGMT, KIF1A, CCNA1, ESR1, SSBP2, GSTP1, FKBP4 and VGF were assessed by quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP in a training set. We selected two genes (VGF and PGP9.5 for further QMSP analysis in a larger independent validation (IV set with available clinical data. Biologic relevance of VGF gene was also evaluated. RESULTS: PH frequency for PGP9.5 and VGF were 85% (316/372 and 43% (158/366 respectively in the IV set of samples while no PH was observed in controls. In 372 OC cases with available follow up, PGP9.5 and VGF PH were correlated with better patient survival [Hazard Ratios (HR for overall survival (OS were 0.59 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI  = 0.42-0.84, p = 0.004, and 0.73 (95%CI = 0.55-0.97, p = 0.028 respectively, and for disease specific survival (DSS were 0.57 (95%CI 0.39-0.82, p = 0.003 and 0.72 (95%CI 0.54-0.96, p = 0.027. In multivariate analysis, VGF PH remained an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.86, p<0.005 and DSS (HR 0.58, 95%CI 0.41-0.83, p<0.003. Furthermore, PGP9.5 PH was significantly correlated with lower grade, early stage tumors, and with absence of residual disease. Forced expression of VGF in OC cell lines inhibited cell growth. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that VGF and PGP9.5 PH are potential biomarkers for ovarian carcinoma. Confirmatory cohorts with longitudinal follow-up are required in future studies to define the clinical impact of VGF and PGP9.5 PH before clinical application.

  11. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  12. Fibroblast growth factor 8 increases breast cancer cell growth by promoting cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Emeli M., E-mail: Emeli.Nilsson@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Brokken, Leon J.S., E-mail: Leon.Brokken@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Haerkoenen, Pirkko L., E-mail: Pirkko.Harkonen@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)

    2010-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) is expressed in a large proportion of breast cancers, whereas its level in normal mammary gland epithelium is low. Previous studies have shown that FGF-8b stimulates breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. To explore the mechanisms by which FGF-8b promotes growth, we studied its effects on cell cycle regulatory proteins and signalling pathways in mouse S115 and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We also studied the effect of FGF-8b on cell survival. FGF-8b induced cell cycle progression and up-regulated particularly cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in S115 cells. Silencing cyclin D1 with siRNA inhibited most but not all FGF-8b-induced proliferation. Inhibition of the FGF-8b-activated ERK/MAPK pathway decreased FGF-8b-stimulated proliferation. Blocking the constitutively active PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways also lowered FGF-8b-induced cyclin D1 expression and proliferation. Corresponding results were obtained in MCF-7 cells. In S115 and MCF-7 mouse tumours, FGF-8b increased cyclin D1 and Ki67 levels. Moreover, FGF-8b opposed staurosporine-induced S115 cell death which effect was blocked by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway but not the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that FGF-8b increases breast cancer cell growth both by stimulating cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death.

  13. AKAP95 promotes cell cycle progression via interactions with cyclin E and low molecular weight cyclin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Deng-Cheng; Zhuang, Wen-Xin; Hua, Su-Hang; Dai, Yue; Yuan, Yang-Yang; Feng, Li-Li; Huang, Qian; Teng, Bo-Gang; Yu, Xiu-Yi; Liu, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    AKAP95 in lung cancer tissues showed higher expression than in paracancerous tissues. AKAP95 can bind with cyclin D and cyclin E during G1/S cell cycle transition, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To identify the mechanism of AKAP95 in cell cycle progression, we performed AKAP95 transfection and silencing in A549 cells, examined AKAP95, cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 expression, and the interactions of AKAP95 with cyclins E1 and E2. Results showed that over-expression of AKAP95 promoted cell growth and AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and E2, low molecular weight cyclin E1 (LWM-E1) and LWM-E2. Additionally AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 in the nucleus during G1/S transition, bound LMW-E1 during G1, S and G2/M, and bound cyclin E2 mainly on the nuclear membrane during interphase. Cyclin E2 and LMW-E2 were also detected. AKAP95 over-expression increased cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 expression but decreased cyclin E2 levels. Unlike cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 that were nuclear located during the G1, S and G1/S phases, cyclin E2 and LMW-E1 were expressed in all cell cycle phases, with cyclin E2 present in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane, with traces in the nucleus. LMW-E1 was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The 20 kDa form of LMW-E1 showed only cytoplasmic expression, while the 40 kDa form was nuclear expressed. The expression of AKAP95, cyclin E1, LMW-E1 and -E2, might be regulated by cAMP. We conclude that AKAP95 might promote cell cycle progression by interacting with cyclin E1 and LMW-E2. LMW-E2, but not cyclin E2, might be involved in G1/S transition. The binding of AKAP95 and LMW-E1 was found throughout cell cycle. PMID:27158371

  14. Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumorigenesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Mandal, Ardhendu K.; Saito, Hiroshi; Pulliam, Joseph F.; Lee, Eun Y.; Ke, Zun-Ji; Lu, Jian; Ding, Songze; Li, Li; Shelton, Brent J; Tucker, Thomas; Evers, B. Mark; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to carcinogenic metals, such as trivalent arsenic [As(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], through drinking water is a major global public health problem and is associated with various cancers. However, the mechanism of their carcinogenicity remains unclear. In this study, we used azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model to investigate their tumorigenesis. Our results demonstrate that exposure to As(III) or Cr(VI), alone or in combination, together with AOM/DSS pretreatment has a promotion effect, increasing the colorectal tumor incidence, multiplicity, size, and grade, as well as cell inflammatory response. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that As(III) or Cr(VI) treatment alone significantly changed the density of proteins. The expression of β-catenin and phospho-GSK was increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Concomitantly, the expression of NADPH oxidase1 (NOX1) and the level of 8-OHdG were also increased by treatment of carcinogenic metals alone. Antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were decreased. Similarly, in an in vitro system, exposure of CRL-1807 to carcinogenic metals increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the expression of β-catenin, phospho-GSK, and NOX1. Inhibition of ROS generation by addition of SOD or catalase inhibited β-catenin expression and activity. Our study provides a new animal model to study the carcinogenicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) and suggest that As(III) and Cr(VI) promote colorectal cancer tumorigenesis, at least partly, through ROS-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:22552367

  15. Inhibitory mechanism of dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) in the cellular biomethylation of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Shi, Nan; Geng, Zhirong; Li, Xiangli; Hu, Xin; Wang, Zhilin

    2014-11-01

    Dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) has been approved for the treatment of arsenic poisoning through promoting arsenic excretion and modulating arsenic species. To clarify how DMPS regulates the excretion of arsenic species, we investigated the effects of DMPS on the biomethylation of arsenite (As(3+)) in HepG2 cells. In the experiments, we found that DMPS at low concentrations dramatically decreased the content of arsenic in HepG2 cells and inhibited the cellular methylation of As(3+). Three aspects, the expression of human arsenic (III) methyltransferase (hAS3MT), the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the in vitro enzymatic methylation of arsenic, were considered to explain the reasons for the inhibition of DMPS in arsenic metabolism. The results suggested that DMPS competitively coordinated with As(3+) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(3+)) to inhibit the up-regulation of arsenic on the expression of hAS3MT and block arsenic involving in the enzymatic methylation. Moreover, DMPS eliminated arsenic-induced accumulation of ROS, which might contribute to the antidotal effects of DMPS on arsenic posing.

  16. Arsenic in ground-water under oxidizing conditions, south-west United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F.N.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved arsenic in ground-water in alluvial basins of Arizona commonly exceed 50 ??g L-1 and reach values as large as 1,300 ??g L-1. Arsenic speciation analyses show that arsenic occurs in the fully oxidized state of plus 5 (As+5), most likely in the form of HAsO4???2, under existing oxidizing and pH conditions. Arsenic in source areas presumably is oxidized to soluble As before transport into the basin or, if after transport, before burial. Probable sources of arsenic are the sulphide and arsenide deposits in the mineralized areas of the mountains surrounding the basins. Arsenic content of alluvial material ranged from 2 to 88 ppm. Occurrence and removal of arsenic in ground-water are related to the pH and the redox condition of the ground-water, the oxidation state of arsenic, and sorption or exchange. Within basins, dissolved arsenic correlates (Pwater. Silicate hydrolysis reactions, as defined within the alluvial basins, under closed conditions cause increases in pH basinward and would promote desorption. Within the region, large concentrations of arsenic are commonly associated with the central parts of basins whose chemistries evolve under closed conditions. Arsenic does not correlate with dissolved iron (r = 0.09) but may be partly controlled by iron in the solid phase. High solid-phase arsenic contents were found in red clay beds. Large concentrations of arsenic also were found in water associated with red clay beds. Basins that contain the larger concentrations are bounded primarily by basalt and andesite, suggesting that the iron content as well as the arsenic content of the basin fill may play a role in the occurrence of arsenic in ground-water. Under oxidizing conditions in Arizona, arsenic in ground-water appears to be controlled in part by sorption or desorption of HAsO4???2 on active ferric oxyhydroxide surfaces. ?? 1989 Sciences and Technology Letters.

  17. Arsenic removal from flowing irrigation water in bangladesh: impacts of channel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineberger, Ethan M; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Ali, M Ashraf; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2013-11-01

    Across Bangladesh, dry-season irrigation with arsenic-contaminated well water is loading arsenic onto rice paddies, leading to increased arsenic concentrations in plants, diminished crop yields, and increased human health risks. As irrigation water flows through conveyance channels between wells and rice fields, arsenic concentrations change over space and time, indicating that channels may provide a location for removing arsenic from solution. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the processes controlling arsenic concentrations in irrigation channels, limiting the ability to manipulate these systems and enhance arsenic removal from solution. The central goal of this study was to quantify how channel design affected removal of dissolved arsenic from flowing irrigation water. Field experiments were conducted in Bangladesh using a chemically constant source of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water and an array of constructed channels with varying geometries. The resulting hydraulic conditions affected the quantity of arsenic removed from solution within the channels by promoting known hydrogeochemical processes. Channels three times the width of control channels removed ∼3 times the mass of arsenic over 32 min of flowing conditions, whereas negligible arsenic removal was observed in tarp-lined channels, which prevented soil-water contact. Arsenic removal from solution was ∼7 times higher in a winding, 200-m-long channel than in the straight, 45-m-long control channels. Arsenic concentrations were governed by oxidative iron-arsenic coprecipitation within the water column, sorption to soils, and phosphate competition. Collectively, these results suggest that better design and management of irrigation channels may play a part in arsenic mitigation strategies for rice fields in Southern Asia. PMID:25602413

  18. Effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation therapy as a worksite health promotion program in the automobile assembly line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Bala Murali; Dahlui, Maznah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2016-06-10

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) as part of a Worksite Health Promotion Program on self-perceived stress, anxiety and depression among male automotive assembly-line workers through a quasi-experimental trial. Two assembly plants were chosen with one receiving PMR therapy and the other Pamphlets. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of the relaxation therapy. Stress, Depression and Anxiety levels were measured using the shortened DASS-21 questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Independent sample t test and Repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the significance of the effects of intervention (time * group) for the measures of Stress, Depression and Anxiety. Significant favourable intervention effects on stress were found in the PMR group (Effect size=0.6) as compared to the Pamphlet group (Effect size=0.2). There was a significant group *time interaction effect (p<0.001) on Stress levels. Depression and Anxiety levels were minimal at baseline in both the groups with mild or no reduction in levels. The improvement in stress levels showed the potential of PMR therapy as a coping strategy at the workplace. Further research in this field is necessary to examine the beneficial effects of coping strategies in the workplace. PMID:26726829

  19. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drewniak Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

  20. Arsenic compounds and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, O

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic compounds has been epidemiologically associated with various types of cancers, particularly cancer of the lung among copper smelters and pesticide workers, whereas skin cancers and liver angiosarcomas have been associated with ingestion of arsenic for treatment of skin disorders, especially psoriasis. Attempts to reproduce cancer in animals have been mainly unsuccessful, however. Experimental evidence suggests that arsenic inhibits DNA repair; this might help to explain the somewhat conflicting observations from epidemiologic studies and animal experiments with regard to carcinogenicity, and perhaps also cardiovascular morbidity related to arsenic exposure. PMID:7463514

  1. Arsenite-oxidizing bacteria exhibiting plant growth promoting traits isolated from the rhizosphere of Oryza sativa L.: Implications for mitigation of arsenic contamination in paddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chou, Mon-Lin; Rathod, Jagat; Liu, Chia-Chuan

    2016-01-25

    Arsenite-oxidizing bacteria exhibiting plant growth promoting (PGP) traits can have the advantages of reducing As-uptake by rice and promoting plant growth in As-stressed soil. A gram-positive bacterium Bacillus flexus ASO-6 resistant to high levels of As (32 and 280 mM for arsenite and arsenate, respectively) and exhibiting elevated rates of As(III) oxidation (Vmax=1.34 μM min(-1) 10(-7) cell) was isolated from rhizosphere of rice. The presence of aoxB gene and exhibition of As(III)-oxidase enzyme activity of this strain was observed. The ability of the strain to produce siderophore, IAA, ACC-deaminase and to solubilize phosphate was verified. The rice seed treated with the strain exhibited significantly improved seed germination and seedling vigor compared with the un-inoculated seeds. The bacterial inoculation significantly increased root biomass, straw yield, grain yield, chlorophyll and carotenoid in the rice plant. Moreover, As uptake from root to shoot and As accumulation in straw and grain decreased significantly as a result of the bacterial inoculation. Noteworthy, the inoculation effect is more prominent in non-flooded soil than it is in flooded soil. Owing to its wide action spectrum, this As(III)-oxidizing PGPB could serve as a potential bio-inoculant for mitigation of As in paddies and sustainable rice production in As-contaminated areas. PMID:26448489

  2. Promoting universal financial protection: evidence from seven low- and middle-income countries on factors facilitating or hindering progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Di; Ranson, Michael K; Aulakh, Bhupinder K; Honda, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    problem in LMICs. The case studies also highlighted the critical role of high-level political leadership in pursuing UHC policies and citizen support in sustaining these policies.This series demonstrates the value of promoting greater sharing of experiences on UHC reforms across LMICs. It also identifies key areas of future research on health care financing in LMICs that would support progress towards UHC.

  3. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagor, J.C.

    Reports of heavy metal intoxication submitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory indicate that arsenic is the most common heavy metal intoxicant in Texas. The most frequent sources of arsenic are compounds used as herbicides and cotton defoliants. The misuse of these compounds and subsequent intoxication of cattle is discussed in this paper. 8 references, 1 table.

  4. Arsenic in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants Metals Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... and previous or current use of arsenic-containing pesticides. Are there ... compounds in water, food, air, and soil: organic and inorganic (these together ...

  5. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  6. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  7. Specific disruption of Tsc1 in ovarian granulosa cells promotes ovulation and causes progressive accumulation of corpora lutea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1 is a tumor suppressor negatively regulating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. It is reported that mice lacking Tsc1 gene in oocytes show depletion of primordial follicles, resulting in premature ovarian failure and subsequent infertility. A recent study indicated that deletion of Tsc1 in somatic cells of the reproductive tract caused infertility of female mice. However, it is not known whether specific disruption of Tsc1 in granulosa cells influences the reproductive activity of female mice. To clarify this problem, we mated Tsc1(flox/flox mice with transgenic mice strain expressing cyp19-cre which exclusively expresses in granulosa cells of the ovary. Our results demonstrated that Tsc1(flox/flox; cyp19-cre mutant mice were fertile, ovulating more oocytes and giving birth to more pups than control Tsc1(flox/flox mice. Progressive accumulation of corpora lutea occurred in the Tsc1(flox/flox; cyp19-cre mutant mice with advanced age. These phenotypes could be explained by the elevated activity of mTORC1, as indicated by increased phosphorylation of rpS6, a substrate of S6 in the Tsc1(flox/flox; cyp19-cre mutant granulosa cells. In addition, rapamycin, a specific mTORC1 inhibitor, effectively rescued the phenotype caused by increased mTORC1 activity in the Tsc1(cko ovaries. Our data suggest that conditional knockout of Tsc1 in granulosa cells promotes reproductive activity in mice.

  8. Ras and TGF-β signaling enhance cancer progression by promoting the ΔNp63 transcriptional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilaki, Eleftheria; Morikawa, Masato; Koinuma, Daizo; Mizutani, Anna; Hirano, Yudai; Ehata, Shogo; Sundqvist, Anders; Kawasaki, Natsumi; Cedervall, Jessica; Olsson, Anna-Karin; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Moustakas, Aristidis; Miyazono, Kohei; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The p53 family of transcription factors includes p63, which is a master regulator of gene expression in epithelial cells. Determining whether p63 is tumor-suppressive or tumorigenic is complicated by isoform-specific and cellular context-dependent protein associations, as well as antagonism from mutant p53. ΔNp63 is an amino-terminal-truncated isoform, that is, the predominant isoform expressed in cancer cells of epithelial origin. In HaCaT keratinocytes, which have mutant p53 and ΔNp63, we found that mutant p53 antagonized ΔNp63 transcriptional activity but that activation of Ras or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways reduced the abundance of mutant p53 and strengthened target gene binding and activity of ΔNp63. Among the products of ΔNp63-induced genes was dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), which promoted the degradation of mutant p53, likely by dephosphorylating p53. Knocking down all forms of p63 or DUSP6 and DUSP7 (DUSP6/7) inhibited the basal or TGF-β-induced or epidermal growth factor (which activates Ras)-induced migration and invasion in cultures of p53-mutant breast cancer and squamous skin cancer cells. Alternatively, overexpressing ΔNp63 in the breast cancer cells increased their capacity to colonize various tissues upon intracardiac injection in mice, and this was inhibited by knocking down DUSP6/7 in these ΔNp63-overexpressing cells. High abundance of ΔNp63 in various tumors correlated with poor prognosis in patients, and this correlation was stronger in patients whose tumors also had a mutation in the gene encoding p53. Thus, oncogenic Ras and TGF-β signaling stimulate cancer progression through activation of the ΔNp63 transcriptional program. PMID:27555661

  9. Identification of a Novel Membrane Transporter Mediating Resistance to Organic Arsenic in Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Zhangqi; Luangtongkum, Taradon; Qiang, Zhiyi; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Qijing

    2014-01-01

    Although bacterial mechanisms involved in the resistance to inorganic arsenic are well understood, the molecular basis for organic arsenic resistance has not been described. Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, is highly prevalent in poultry and is reportedly resistant to the arsenic compound roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid), which has been used as a feed additive in the poultry industry for growth promotion. In this study, we re...

  10. Research Progress in the Mutual Transformation of Different Arsenic Speciation in Metabolic Pathways%不同形态的As在代谢途径中相互转化的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱美霖; 姜阳; 曹红斌

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic contamination occurs in many regions. It produces toxic effects to humans mainly through groundwater and food chain. Due to the different toxicity of different arsenic speciation, the toxic harms of arsenic can be reduced through transforming its speciation. Based on the understanding about the mechanism and influencing factors of mutual transformation of arsenic speciation, the arsenic speciation can be transformed through a certain method. In this paper, the transformation of arsenic speciation in metabolic pathways was introduced.%环境中的As污染问题在很多国家和地区都存在,As通过地下水和食物链进入人体造成毒害作用.由于不同形态的As毒性差别很大,因此可以通过调控其存在形态减少其对人或其他生物造成的毒害;了解不同形态的As在生物体中的转化机理和影响因素,就可以采取一定的方法促使其形态发生转化.在此对生物体代谢途径中不同形态As的转化进行了综述.

  11. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jason; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

  12. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  13. P01.23NEUROTENSIN PROMOTES THE PROGRESSION OF MALIGNANT GLIOMA THROUGH NTSR1 AND IMPACTS THE PROGNOSIS OF GLIOMA PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, L.; Xu, M.; Xu, L.; Feng, H.; Cui, H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurotensin (NTS) functions as a neuromodulator and induces cellular proliferation and migration in various solid tumors. However, whether NTS can promote the progression of malignant glioma and its prognostic significance for glioma patients remain unclear. METHODS: NTS and its high-affinity receptor (NTSR1) expression levels in clinical glioma samples were detected by immunohistochemistry and immunobloting. The prognostic analysis in glioma patients were conducted online by R2 m...

  14. The die is cast - Arsenic exposure in early life and disease susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Early life exposure to arsenic in humans and mice produces similar patterns of disease in later life. Given the long interval between exposure and effect, epigenetic effects of early life exposure to arsenic may account for development and progression of disease in bo...

  15. Investigating groundwater arsenic contamination using aquifer push-pull test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, A. R.; Jin, Q.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater of the Southern Willamette Basin, OR is contaminated with arsenic at concentrations as high as several ppm. A single-well push-pull test was conducted to investigate how microbial metabolisms control arsenic occurrence and levels in the bedrock aquifer of the area. During the experiments, a test solution containing ethanol was first injected into the aquifer. As the experiment progressed, dissolved gasses, groundwater, and sediment were sampled to monitor the variations in the chemical parameters, including the speciation of iron, sulfur, and arsenic, in the aquifer. Ethanol amendment stimulated a series of microbial metabolisms, including arsenate reduction, iron reduction, and sulfate reduction. Iron reduction released arsenic sorbed onto the aquifer sediments, increasing groundwater arsenic levels. Arsenate reduction converted arsenate to arsenite and, as a result, most arsenic occurred as arsenite in the groundwater. Results of the experiments demonstrate how different microbial functional groups influenced arsenic contamination in the area. These results also shed new light on potential bioremediation strategies in the area.

  16. Thallium and arsenic poisoning in a small midwestern town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyniak, Daniel E; Furbee, R Brent; Kirk, Mark A

    2002-03-01

    Thallium and arsenic have been used as a means of criminal poisoning. Although both manifest characteristically with peripheral neuropathies, thallium is associated with alopecia and arsenic with gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the symptoms, physical findings, diagnostic test results, and outcomes in a group of men poisoned with thallium and arsenic. Seven patients had evidence of elevated thallium levels, and 2 patients had elevated arsenic and thallium levels. The most commonly reported symptoms included myalgias, arthralgias, paresthesias, and dysesthesias. Five patients developed alopecia. All patients with symptoms and peripheral neuropathies had characteristic blackening of their hair roots. Initially treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid, patients were switched to multiple-dose activated charcoal after testing revealed thallium poisoning. By 6 months, all patients' symptoms and peripheral neuropathies improved, but 5 patients had ongoing psychiatric problems. Thallium remains a means of criminal poisoning and should be considered in any patient with a rapidly progressing peripheral neuropathy with or without alopecia.

  17. USEPA Arsenic Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides background information on the USEPA arsenic removal program. The summary includes information on the history of the program, sites and technology selected, and a summary of the data collected from two completed projects.

  18. Spectral reflectance as an indicator of foliar concentrations of arsenic in common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Yuridia Patricia Peralta De

    Studies were conducted to investigate the use of spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination of soil. Germination method was developed for sunflower seeds, and cohorts of sunflower seedlings in hydroponic tanks were established. The cohorts were exposed to 0 ppm, 5 ppm, 7.5 ppm, and 10 ppm treatments of As (V) and reflectance measurements of foliage were collected using a spectroradiometer during two experiments. Results demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination. In both experiments, arsenic concentrations in leaf tissues were directly proportional to arsenic concentrations in hydroponic solutions in which such plants were grown. Although the effect(s) of arsenic accumulation had minimal impact on reflectance of visible wavelengths, the effects on NIR reflectance were substantial and resulted in a progressive decrease in reflectance as arsenic concentrations in foliage increased.

  19. EXAFS study on arsenic species and transformation in arsenic hyperaccumulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Zechun; CHEN; Tongbin; LEI; Mei; HU; Tiandou; HUANG

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation extended X-ray absorption fine structure (SR EXAFS) was employed to study the transformation of coordination environment and the redox speciation of arsenic in a newly discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Cretan brake (Pteris cretica L. var nervosa Thunb). It showed that the arsenic in the plant mainly coordinated with oxygen, except that some arsenic coordinated with S as As-GSH in root. The complexation of arsenic with GSH might not be the predominant detoxification mechanism in Cretan brake. Although some arsenic in root presented as As(V) in Na2HAsO4 treatments, most of arsenic in plant presented as As(III)-O in both treatments, indicating that As(V) tended to be reduced to As(III) after it was taken up into the root, and arsenic was kept as As(III) when it was transported to the above-ground tissues. The reduction of As(V) primarily proceeded in the root.

  20. Early Involvement of Death-Associated Protein Kinase Promoter Hypermethylation in the Carcinogenesis of Barrett's Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Its Association with Clinical Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerthe Kuester

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BA develops through a multistage process, which is associated with the transcriptional silencing of tumor-suppressor genes by promoter CpG island hypermethylation. In this study, we explored the promoter hypermethylation and protein expression of proapoptotic deathassociated protein kinase (DAPK during the multistep Barrett's carcinogenesis cascade. Early BA and paired samples of premalignant lesions of 61 patients were analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. For the association of clinicopathological markers and protein expression, an immunohistochemical tissue microarray analysis of 66 additional BAs of advanced tumor stages was performed. Hypermethylation of DAPK promoter was detected in 20% of normal mucosa, 50% of Barrett's metaplasia, 53% of dysplasia, and 60% of adenocarcinomas, and resulted in a marked decrease in DAPK protein expression (P < .01. The loss of DAPK protein was significantly associated with advanced depth of tumor invasion and advanced tumor stages (P < .001. Moreover, the severity of reflux esophagitis correlated significantly with the hypermethylation rate of the DAPK promoter (P < .003. Thus, we consider DAPK inactivation by promoter hypermethylation as an early event in Barrett's carcinogenesis and suggest that a decreased protein expression of DAPK likely plays a role in the development and progression of BA.

  1. Promoter hypermethylation of miR-34a contributes to the risk, progression, metastasis and poor survival of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhisen; Zhou, Chongchang; Li, Jinyun; Ye, Dong; Li, Qun; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xiang; Chen, Xiaoying; Bao, Tianlian; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-11-30

    MiR-34a is a direct transcriptional target of p53, which induces cell cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. Recently, we and others identified abnormal expression of miR-34a in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). The aim of our present study was to investigate the contribution of miR-34a promoter methylation to LSCC. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was applied to measure DNA methylation levels of six CpG sites in the miR-34a promoter from 104 LSCC tumor tissues and their corresponding adjacent tissues. Our results showed that the methylation levels of the miR-34a promoter were significantly higher in cancer tissues compared with the adjacent tissues (adjusted P=5.05E-10). A breakdown analysis for cigarette smoking behavior indicated a significantly elevated tendency of miR-34a methylation level in LSCC patients with smoking behavior but not in LSCC patients without smoking behavior (Smoking: Tumor vs Normal, adjusted P=3.12E-9; Non-smoking: Tumor vs Normal, adjusted P=0.073). In addition, miR-34a promoter methylation frequency remarkably increased in the advanced stage patients (adjusted P=0.003) and advanced T classified tumors (adjusted P=0.015). Moreover, significant association of miR-34a promoter hypermethylation with LSCC lymph metastasis was observed (adjusted P=0.002). Meanwhile, Kaplan-Meier survival curves results showed that high methylation of miR-34a promoter were associated with poor overall survival (log-rank test, P=0.023). Our study revealed that miR-34a promoter hypermethylation was a risk factor for LSCC, played a critical role in the disease progression and metastasis, and could serve as a poor prognostic factor for LSCC.

  2. The role of arsenic compounds in oxidative stress and in the development of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bizoń

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For many years arsenic compounds were used in medicine, including treatment of skin diseases, malaria, diabetes, malaria, stomach ulcers, leukemia and in the eighteenth and the nineteenth century formed the basis of contemporary pharmacology. Due to its toxicity and carcinogenic activity, most of the compounds of this element were removed from use. The major cause of human arsenic toxicity is attributed to contamination of potable water from natural geological sources rather than from mining, smelting and agricultural sources (pesticides or fertilizers. Tobacco smoke also contains arsenic compounds. The characteristics of severe acute arsenic toxicity in humans include gastrointestinal discomfort, vomiting, diarrhea, skin lesions or even death. Chronic exposure frequently causes vascoocclusive disease (such as Blackfoot disease, and the development of lung, skin, liver, kidney and bladder cancers. Arsenic is a pro-inflammatory metal and appears to induce oxidative stress, apoptosis, affect cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Generation of free radicals by arsenic is associated with its genotoxicity and contributes to the development of neoplastic lesions. Exposure to arsenic can also cause damage of the central nervous system, peripheral neuropathies, and behavioral changes. It was shown the association of exposure to arsenic and type 2 diabetes. Compounds with +3 oxidation state are more toxic and can induce tumor development. Arsenic interacts with other heavy metals, e.g. enhances the toxicity of cadmium nephropathy and acts antagonistically relative to selenium. Studies on the mechanism of interacting the toxicity of arsenic in the human body are crucial and point to lack of access to pure potable water in some regions of the world. People should be aware of the risks that are associated with exposure to arsenic because it is ubiquitous in the industry, as well as the environment. Arsenic is also involved in the spread of

  3. CXCL17 expression by tumor cells recruits CD11b+Gr1 high F4/80- cells and promotes tumor progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Matsui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemokines are involved in multiple aspects of pathogenesis and cellular trafficking in tumorigenesis. In this study, we report that the latest member of the C-X-C-type chemokines, CXCL17 (DMC/VCC-1, recruits immature myeloid-derived cells and enhances early tumor progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CXCL17 was preferentially expressed in some aggressive types of gastrointestinal, breast, and lung cancer cells. CXCL17 expression did not impart NIH3T3 cells with oncogenic potential in vitro, but CXCL17-expressing NIH3T3 cells could form vasculature-rich tumors in immunodeficient mice. Our data showed that CXCL17-expressing tumor cells increased immature CD11b(+Gr1(+ myeloid-derived cells at tumor sites in mice and promoted CD31(+ tumor angiogenesis. Extensive chemotactic assays proved that CXCL17-responding cells were CD11b(+Gr1(highF4/80(- cells (≈ 90% with a neutrophil-like morphology in vitro. Although CXCL17 expression could not increase the number of CD11b(+Gr1(+ cells in tumor-burdened SCID mice or promote metastases of low metastatic colon cancer cells, the existence of CXCL17-responding myeloid-derived cells caused a striking enhancement of xenograft tumor formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that aberrant expression of CXCL17 in tumor cells recruits immature myeloid-derived cells and promotes tumor progression through angiogenesis.

  4. Atherosclerosis induced by arsenic in drinking water in rats through altering lipid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic in drinking water is a global environmental health problem, and the exposure may increase cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases mortalities, most likely through causing atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure is still unclear. To study the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure and explore the role of high cholesterol diet (HCD) in this process, we fed spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats with basal diet or HCD and provided with them drinking water containing arsenic at different ages and orders for 20 consecutive weeks. We measured high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at predetermined intervals and determined expressions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein-1 (CETP-1) and liver X receptor β (LXRβ) in the liver. Atherosclerosis was determined by examining the aorta with hematoxylin and eosin stain. After 20 weeks, we found arsenic, alone or combined with HCD, may promote atherosclerosis formation with transient increases in HSP 70 and hs-CRP. Early combination exposure decreased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio without changing the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride until 30 weeks old. Both CETP-1 and LXRβ activities were suppressed, most significantly in early combination exposure. In conclusion, arsenic exposure may induce atherosclerosis through modifying reverse cholesterol transport in cholesterol metabolism and suppressing LXRβ and CEPT-1 expressions. For decreasing atherosclerosis related mortality associated with arsenic, preventing exposure from environmental sources in early life is an important element. - Highlights: → Arsenic causes cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases through atherosclerosis. → Arsenic may promote atherosclerosis with transient increase in HSP 70 and hs

  5. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  6. A conserved cyclin-binding domain determines functional interplay between anaphase-promoting complex-Cdh1 and cyclin A-Cdk2 during cell cycle progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, C; Kramer, E R; Peters, J M;

    2001-01-01

    Periodic activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) ubiquitin ligase determines progression through multiple cell cycle transitions by targeting cell cycle regulators for destruction. At the G(1)/S transition, phosphorylation-dependent dissociation of the Cdh1-activating subunit inhibits...... the APC, allowing stabilization of proteins required for subsequent cell cycle progression. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that initiate and maintain Cdh1 phosphorylation have been identified. However, the issue of which cyclin-CDK complexes are involved has been a matter of debate, and the mechanism...... of how cyclin-CDKs interact with APC subunits remains unresolved. Here we substantiate the evidence that mammalian cyclin A-Cdk2 prevents unscheduled APC reactivation during S phase by demonstrating its periodic interaction with Cdh1 at the level of endogenous proteins. Moreover, we identified...

  7. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  8. Investigation progress of arsenic removal from groundwater by nanofiltration membrane technology%纳滤膜技术在地下水除砷应用中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席北斗; 王晓伟; 霍守亮; 杨天学; 刘文君; 李德生; 刘鸿亮

    2012-01-01

    The frequent emergencies of arsenic pollution seriously threatening the water quality and safety of underground drinking water sources,coupling with the improvement of controlling standards for drinking water,have put forward higher requirements for the arsenic removal from drinking water.However,nanofiltration(NF) membrane separation technology provides a new method for arsenic removal.Firstly,the arsenic existing conformation in groundwater,its chemical properties and distributions in groundwater of China were overviewed.Then,NF membrane characteristics and its performances of arsenic removal mechanism were analyzed.The influences by the various factors,including membrane operating factors(operating pressure,recovery rate,the membrane arrangement,etc.) and raw water quality factors(pH,temperature,coexisting ions,organic compounds,arsenic concentration and the valence states of arsenic,etc.),on NF membrane performance,were systematically exposited.In addition,some key issues for arsenic removal by NF,such as raw water pretreatment,membrane concentrated water disposal,and membrane fouling/cleaning,were also discussed.Finally,the current problems of NF application for arsenic removal were summarized,and application research aspects of NF membrane technology for arsenic removal were tentatively proposed.%砷污染突发事件的频发严重威胁着地下水饮用水水源的水质安全,加之饮用水控制标准的提高,就对饮用水除砷技术提出了更高的要求,而纳滤(NF)膜分离技术为饮用水除砷提供了新的思路。首先概述了地下水中砷的存在形态、化学性质以及我国高砷地下水地区分布,然后分析了NF膜特点、除砷机理与性能,系统地阐述了各种因素包括膜操作因素(操作压力、膜回收率、膜排布方式等)和原水水质因素(pH、水温、共存离子、共存有机物及砷浓度与砷价态等),对NF膜除砷性能的影响。此外,对NF除砷的关键

  9. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  10. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  11. Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris Vittata L. and its arsenic accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) was first discovered in China by means of field survey and greenhouse cultivation. Field survey showed that Chinese brake had large accumulating capacity to arsenic; the orders of arsenic content in different parts of the fern were as follows: leaves>leafstalks>roots, which is totally different from that of ordinary plants; bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts of the fern decreased as a power function of soil arsenic contents. In the control of pot trials with normal unpolluted soil containing 9 mg/kg of arsenic, the bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts and rhizoids of Chinese brake were as high as 71 and 80 respectively. Greenhouse cultivation in the contaminated soil from mining areas has shown that more than 1 times greater arsenic can be accumulated in the leaves of the fern than that of field samples with the largest content of 5070 mg/kg As on a dry matter basis. During greenhouse cultivation, arsenic content in the leaves of the fern increased linearly with time prolonging. Not only has Chinese brake extraordinary tolerance and accumulation to arsenic, but it grew rapidly with great biomass, wide distribution and easy adaptation to different environmental conditions as well. Therefore, it has great potential in future remediation of arsenic contamination. It also demonstrates important value for studies of arsenic physiology and biochemistry such as arsenic absorption, translocation and detoxification mechanisms in plants.

  12. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  13. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  14. Chromatin inactivation precedes de novo dna methylation during the progressive epigenetic silencing of the rassf1a promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunnikova Maria; Schagdarsurengin, Undraga; Kehlen, Astrid; Garbe, James C.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Dammann, Reinhard

    2005-02-23

    Epigenetic inactivation of the RASSF1A tumor suppressor by CpG island methylation was frequently detected in cancer. However, the mechanisms of this aberrant DNA methylation are unknown. In the RASSF1A promoter, we characterized four Sp1 sites, which are frequently methylated in cancer. We examined the functional relationship between DNA methylation, histone modification, Sp1 binding, and RASSF1A expression in proliferating human mammary epithelial cells. With increasing passages, the transcription of RASSF1A was dramatically silenced. This inactivation was associated with deacetylation and lysine 9 trimethylation of histone H3 and an impaired binding of Sp1 at the RASSF1A promoter. In mammary epithelial cells that had overcome a stress-associated senescence barrier, a spreading of DNA methylation in the CpG island promoter was observed. When the RASSF1A-silenced cells were treated with inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase, binding of Sp1 and expression of RASSF1 A reoccurred. In summary, we observed that histone H3 deacetylation and H3 lysine 9 trimethylation occur in the same time window as gene inactivation and precede DNA methylation. Our data suggest that in epithelial cells, histone inactivation may trigger de novo DNA methylation of the RASSF1A promoter and this system may serve as a model for CpG island inactivation of tumor suppressor genes.

  15. Assessing tumor progression factors by somatic gene transfer into a mouse model: Bcl-xL promotes islet tumor cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Nancy Du

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumors develop through multiple stages, implicating multiple effectors, but the tools to assess how candidate genes contribute to stepwise tumor progression have been limited. We have developed a novel system in which progression of phenotypes in a mouse model of pancreatic islet cell tumorigenesis can be used to measure the effects of genes introduced by cell-type-specific infection with retroviral vectors. In this system, bitransgenic mice, in which the rat insulin promoter (RIP drives expression of both the SV40 T antigen (RIP-Tag and the receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis virus (RIP-tva, are infected with avian viral vectors carrying cDNAs encoding candidate progression factors. Like RIP-Tag mice, RIP-Tag; RIP-tva bitransgenic mice develop isolated carcinomas by approximately 14 wk of age, after progression through well-defined stages that are similar to aspects of human tumor progression, including hyperplasia, angiogenesis, adenoma, and invasive carcinoma. When avian retroviral vectors carrying a green fluorescent protein marker were introduced into RIP-Tag; RIP-tva mice by intra-cardiac injection at the hyperplastic or early dysplastic stage of tumorigenesis, approximately 20% of the TVA-positive cells were infected and expressed green fluorescent proteins as measured by flow cytometry. Similar infection with vectors carrying cDNA encoding either of two progression factors, a dominant-negative version of cadherin 1 (dnE-cad or Bcl-xL, accelerated the formation of islet tumors with invasive properties and pancreatic lymph node metastasis. To begin studying the mechanism by which Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic protein, promotes invasion and metastasis, RIP-Tag; RIP-tva pancreatic islet tumor cells were infected in vitro with RCASBP-Bcl-xL. Although no changes were observed in rates of proliferation or apoptosis, Bcl-xL altered cell morphology, remodeled the actin cytoskeleton, and down-regulated cadherin 1; it also induced cell migration and

  16. Inorganic arsenic toxicosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, J E; Boosinger, T R; Everson, R J

    1981-03-01

    In 4 occurrences of arsenic poisoning in cattle, the principal clinical sign was acute hemorrhagic diarrhea attributable to hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Arsenic concentrations in the liver, kidney and rumen contents varied. In one occurrence, arsenic in the hair of affected survivors was assayed at 0.8-3.40 ppm, vs 0.09-0.10 ppm in randomly selected control samples of hair. Sudden death was the only clinical sign in another occurrence in which gastric contents contained arsenic at 671 ppm. In another occurrence, arsenic poisoning caused lesions similar to those of salmonellosis.

  17. Arsenic Trioxide Modulates DNA Synthesis and Apoptosis in Lung Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Ndebele

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic trioxide, the trade name Trisenox, is a drug used to treat acute promyleocytic leukemia (APL. Studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide slows cancer cells growth. Although arsenic influences numerous signal-transduction pathways, cell-cycle progression, and/or apoptosis, its apoptotic mechanisms are complex and not entirely delineated. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis and to determine whether arsenic-induced apoptosis is mediated via caspase activation, p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase (MAPK, and cell cycle arrest. To achieve this goal, lung cancer cells (A549 were exposed to various concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 µg/mL of arsenic trioxide for 48 h. The effect of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis was determined by the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Apoptosis was determined by the caspase-3 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC assay, p38 MAP kinase activity was determined by an immunoblot assay, and cell-cycle analysis was evaluated by the propidium iodide assay. The [3H]thymidine-incorporation assay revealed a dose-related cytotoxic response at high levels of exposure. Furthermore, arsenic trioxide modulated caspase 3 activity and induced p38 MAP kinase activation in A549 cells. However, cell-cycle studies showed no statistically significant differences in DNA content at subG1 check point between control and arsenic trioxide treated cells.

  18. ChIP-seq in studying epigenetic mechanisms of disease and promoting precision medicine: progresses and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huihuang; Tian, Shulan; Slager, Susan L; Sun, Zhifu

    2016-09-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is widely used for mapping histone modifications, histone proteins, chromatin regulators, transcription factors and other DNA-binding proteins. It has played a significant role in our understanding of disease mechanisms and in exploring epigenetic changes for potential clinical applications. However, the conventional protocol requires large amounts of starting material and does not quantify the actual occupancy, limiting its applications in clinical settings. Herein we summarize the latest progresses in utilizing ChIP-seq to link epigenetic alterations to disease initiation and progression, and the implications in precision medicine. We provide an update on the newly developed ChIP-seq protocols, especially those suitable for scare clinical samples. Technical and analytical challenges are outlined together with recommendations for improvement. Finally, future directions in expediting ChIP-seq use in clinic are discussed.

  19. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  20. Olfactomedin 4 deficiency promotes prostate neoplastic progression and is associated with upregulation of the hedgehog-signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Hongzhen Li; Wenli Liu; Weiping Chen; Jianqiong Zhu; Chu-Xia Deng; Rodgers, Griffin P.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) gene expression is associated with the progression of human prostate cancer, but its role and the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have not been completely understood. In this study, we found that Olfm4-knockout mice developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Importantly, we found that the hedgehog-signaling pathway was significantly upregulated in the Olfm4-knockout mouse model. We also found that restoration of OLF...

  1. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  2. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  3. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  4. Human Cdc14B promotes progression through mitosis by dephosphorylating Cdc25 and regulating Cdk1/cyclin B activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Tumurbaatar

    Full Text Available Entry into and progression through mitosis depends on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of key substrates. In yeast, the nucleolar phosphatase Cdc14 is pivotal for exit from mitosis counteracting Cdk1-dependent phosphorylations. Whether hCdc14B, the human homolog of yeast Cdc14, plays a similar function in mitosis is not yet known. Here we show that hCdc14B serves a critical role in regulating progression through mitosis, which is distinct from hCdc14A. Unscheduled overexpression of hCdc14B delays activation of two master regulators of mitosis, Cdc25 and Cdk1, and slows down entry into mitosis. Depletion of hCdc14B by RNAi prevents timely inactivation of Cdk1/cyclin B and dephosphorylation of Cdc25, leading to severe mitotic defects, such as delay of metaphase/anaphase transition, lagging chromosomes, multipolar spindles and binucleation. The results demonstrate that hCdc14B-dependent modulation of Cdc25 phosphatase and Cdk1/cyclin B activity is tightly linked to correct chromosome segregation and bipolar spindle formation, processes that are required for proper progression through mitosis and maintenance of genomic stability.

  5. Arsenic release by indigenous bacteria Bacillus cereus from aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zuoming; Wang, Yanxin; Duan, Mengyu; Xie, Xianjun; Su, Chunli

    2011-03-01

    Endemic arsenic poisoning due to long-term drinking of high arsenic groundwater has been reported in Datong Basin, northern China. To investigate the effects of microbial activities on arsenic mobilization in contaminated aquifers, Bacillus cereus ( B. cereus) isolated from high arsenic aquifer sediments of the basin was used in our microcosm experiments. The arsenic concentration in the treatment with both bacteria and sodium citrate or glucose had a rapid increase in the first 18 d, and then, it declined. Supplemented with bacteria only, the concentration could increase on the second day. By contrast, the arsenic concentration in the treatment supplemented with sodium citrate or glucose was kept very low. These results indicate that bacterial activities promoted the release of arsenic in the sediments. Bacterial activities also influenced other geochemical parameters of the aqueous phase, such as pH, Eh, and the concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al that are important controls on arsenic release. The removal of Fe, Mn, and Al from sediment samples was observed with the presence of B. cereus. The effects of microbial activities on Fe, Mn, and Al release were nearly the same as those on As mobilization. The pH values of the treatments inoculated with bacteria were lower than those without bacteria, still at alkaline levels. With the decrease of Eh values in treatments inoculated with bacteria, the microcosms became more reducing and are thus favorable for arsenic release.

  6. Arsenic release by indigenous bacteria Bacillus cereus from aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoming XIE; Yanxin WANG; Mengyu DUAN; Xianjun XIE; Chunli SU

    2011-01-01

    Endemic arsenic poisoning due to long-term drinking of high arsenic groundwater has been reported in Datong Basin, northern China. To investigate the effects of microbial activities on arsenic mobilization in contaminated aquifers, Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) isolated from high arsenic aquifer sediments of the basin was used in our microcosm experiments. The arsenic concentration in the treatment with both bacteria and sodium citrate or glucose had a rapid increase in the first 18 d, and then, it declined.Supplemented with bacteria only, the concentration could increase on the second day. By contrast, the arsenic concentration in the treatment supplemented with sodium citrate or glucose was kept very low. These results indicate that bacterial activities promoted the release of arsenic in the sediments. Bacterial activities also influenced other geochemical parameters of the aqueous phase, such as pH,Eh, and the concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al that are important controls on arsenic release. The removal of Fe, Mn, and Al from sediment samples was observed with the presence of B. cereus. The effects of microbial activities on Fe, Mn, and Al release were nearly the same as those on As mobilization. The pH values of the treatments inoculated with bacteria were lower than those without bacteria, still at alkaline levels. With the decrease of Eh values in treatments inoculated with bacteria, the microcosms became more reducing and are thus favorable for arsenic release.

  7. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    least) the operation and maintenance of the system. The arsenic 'crisis' has taught that the use of groundwater for water supply - and for that matter also agricultural irrigation - needs much more thorough scrutiny with respect to its chemical composition. In general, if arsenic now has proved to be more widely present in groundwater than originally thought, and if it has such dramatic health effects that occur after long-term ingestion, then other low-concentration elements in groundwater may equally be a cause or a factor in other disease patterns. This requires simpler techniques to determine water quality of different aquifers and the long-term safety of these aquifers. Isotope hydrology has proved to be a good tool in Bangladesh to identify source of water in different aquifers. Water quality dimensions are often absent in ongoing efforts to clarify, codify, and implement the policy, legal and institutional dimensions to promote groundwater use for economic and social development, particularly in the developing world. Moreover, past water and sanitation projects financed by the World Bank and other donor agencies have rarely included a systematic consideration of groundwater quality issues. Our belief is that some of these issues require urgent attention - such as the need to immediately include and implement the systematic analysis of groundwater quality in the environmental analysis of development efforts with a groundwater component or impact

  8. 香蕉根际促生菌的研究展望%Progress and Prospect on Plant Growth - promoting Rhizobacteria of Banana Rhizosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文英; 彭智平; 于俊红; 黄继川; 宋慧敏

    2011-01-01

    植物根际促生菌(plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria,PGPR)是一类具有促进作物生长并增加产量的作用,兼有抑制植物病原菌、根际有害微生物的根际微生物,作为生物肥料和生物农药的重要资源库,PGPR相关研究受到越来越多的重视.着重从PGPR的概念演变、功能机制、研究手段及应用现状等方面进行综述,并在分析香蕉根际促生菌研究现状的基础上,对香蕉PGPR研究的理论意义和现实意义提出讨论与展望.%Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are microorganisms colonized in the plant rhizosphere, which can promote the plant growth and yield, and inhibit plant pathogens.As an important resource of biofertilizer and biocontrol agents, PGPR have been paid more and more attention by researchers in the sustainable agriculture.This paper reviewed progresses on the concept development, functioning mechanisms, study techniques and the application of PGPR.In addition, the theoretical and practical significance of banana PG PR were disscused, and some future directions in PGPR study were suggested.

  9. 非洲推动传统医学发展的举措与进展%African initiatives and progress in promoting the development of traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄睿; 潘艳丽; 柳长华

    2014-01-01

    To study the initiatives and progress of African nations in promoting the development of traditional medicine to determine if these measures can be applied to the protection of traditional Chinese medicine knowledge. Information research methods were used to collect and analyze relevant literature. The development of African traditional medicine has been effectively promoted through various measures taken by African organizations and governments. In recent years, Africa has achieved remarkable results in promoting the development of traditional medicine. Many other countries will benefit from studying their examples and adopting similar measures.%本文采用信息研究的方法收集和分析相关文献,重点研究了非洲推动传统医学发展的举措与进展,为中医药传统知识保护提供思路。结果表明,非洲各组织和各国家政府采取多种措施,有力地促进了非洲传统医学发展,其成效值得其他国家推广和借鉴。

  10. MicroRNA-124 slows down the progression of Huntington′s disease by promoting neurogenesis in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-124 contributes to neurogenesis through regulating its targets, but its expression both in the brain of Huntington′s disease mouse models and patients is decreased. However, the effects of microRNA-124 on the progression of Huntington′s disease have not been reported. Results from this study showed that microRNA-124 increased the latency to fall for each R6/2 Huntington′s disease transgenic mouse in the rotarod test. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU staining of the striatum shows an increase in neurogenesis. In addition, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha protein levels in the striatum were increased and SRY-related HMG box transcription factor 9 protein level was decreased. These findings suggest that microRNA-124 slows down the progression of Huntington′s disease possibly through its important role in neuronal differentiation and survival.

  11. Olfactomedin 4 deficiency promotes prostate neoplastic progression and is associated with upregulation of the hedgehog-signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongzhen; Liu, Wenli; Chen, Weiping; Zhu, Jianqiong; Deng, Chu-Xia; Rodgers, Griffin P

    2015-01-01

    Loss of olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) gene expression is associated with the progression of human prostate cancer, but its role and the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have not been completely understood. In this study, we found that Olfm4-knockout mice developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Importantly, we found that the hedgehog-signaling pathway was significantly upregulated in the Olfm4-knockout mouse model. We also found that restoration of OLFM4 in human prostate-cancer cells that lack OLFM4 expression significantly downregulated hedgehog signaling-pathway component expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the OLFM4 protein interacts with sonic hedgehog protein, as well as significantly inhibits GLI-reporter activity. Bioinformatic and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that decreased OLFM4 and increased SHH expression was significantly associated with advanced human prostate cancer. Thus, olfactomedin 4 appears to play a critical role in regulating progression of prostate cancer, and has potential as a new biomarker for prostate cancer. PMID:26581960

  12. n-Butyl benzyl phthalate promotes breast cancer progression by inducing expression of lymphoid enhancer factor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hua Hsieh

    Full Text Available Environmental hormones play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, drug resistance, and breast cancer risk; however, their precise role in human breast cancer cells during cancer progression remains unclear. To elucidate the effect of the most widely used industrial phthalate, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, on cancer progression, we evaluated the results of BBP treatment using a whole human genome cDNA microarray and MetaCore software and selected candidate genes whose expression was changed by more than ten-fold by BBP compared with controls to analyze the signaling pathways in human breast cancer initiating cells (R2d. A total of 473 genes were upregulated, and 468 were downregulated. Most of these genes are involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis signaling. BBP induced the viability, invasion and migration, and tube formation in vitro, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis in vivo of R2d and MCF-7. Furthermore, the viability and invasion and migration of these cell lines following BBP treatment was reduced by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting the mRNA for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1; notably, the altered expression of this gene consistently differentiated tumors expressing genes involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the environmental hormone BBP and suggest possible strategies for preventing and treating human breast cancer.

  13. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaike, R N

    2003-07-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water.

  14. Arsenic and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of epidemiologic, experimental and clinical evidence shows that arsenic may exert relevant cardiovascular effects with early damage such as endothelial dysfunction. Early biomarkers of cardiovascular damage together with markers of exposure, genetic and epigenetic effects, DNA damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress remain unexplored and a study is ongoing in Italy.

  15. Overexpressed KDM5B is associated with the progression of glioma and promotes glioma cell growth via downregulating p21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • KDM5B is overexpressed in glioma samples. • KDM5B stimulated proliferation of glioma cells. • Inhibition of p21contributes to KDM5B-induced proliferation. - Abstract: Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Upregulation of lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B (KDM5B) has been reported in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the impact of KDM5B in glioma remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of KDM5B in glioma. In clinical glioma samples, we found that KDM5B expression was significantly upregulated in cancer lesions compared with normal brain tissues. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients with glioma and higher KDM5B expression tend to have shorter overall survival time. By silencing or overexpressing KDM5B in glioma cells, we found that KDM5B could promote cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that KDM5B promoted glioma proliferation partly via regulation of the expression of p21. Our study provided evidence that KDM5B functions as a novel tumor oncogene in glioma and may be a potential therapeutic target for glioma management

  16. Overexpressed KDM5B is associated with the progression of glioma and promotes glioma cell growth via downregulating p21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Bin [Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100038 (China); Hu, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zhiqhutg@126.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100038 (China); Huang, Hui; Zhu, Guangtong; Xiao, Zhiyong [Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100038 (China); Wan, Weiqing; Zhang, Peng; Jia, Wang; Zhang, Liwei [Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • KDM5B is overexpressed in glioma samples. • KDM5B stimulated proliferation of glioma cells. • Inhibition of p21contributes to KDM5B-induced proliferation. - Abstract: Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Upregulation of lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B (KDM5B) has been reported in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the impact of KDM5B in glioma remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of KDM5B in glioma. In clinical glioma samples, we found that KDM5B expression was significantly upregulated in cancer lesions compared with normal brain tissues. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients with glioma and higher KDM5B expression tend to have shorter overall survival time. By silencing or overexpressing KDM5B in glioma cells, we found that KDM5B could promote cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that KDM5B promoted glioma proliferation partly via regulation of the expression of p21. Our study provided evidence that KDM5B functions as a novel tumor oncogene in glioma and may be a potential therapeutic target for glioma management.

  17. Arsenic-induced Aurora-A activation contributes to chromosome instability and tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Han; Tseng, Ya-Shih; Yang, Chao-Chun; Kao, Yu-Ting; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic may cause serious environmental pollution and is a serious industrial problem. Depending on the dosage, arsenic may trigger the cells undergoing either proliferation or apoptosis-related cell death. Because of lack of the proper animal model to study arsenic induced tumorigenesis, the accurate risk level of arsenic exposure has not been determined. Arsenic shows genotoxic effect on human beings who uptake water contaminated by arsenic. Chromosome aberration is frequently detected in arsenic exposure-related diseases and is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased DNA repairing activity, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Aurora-A is a mitotic kinase, over-expression of Aurora-A leads to centrosome amplification, chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We revealed that Aurora-A is over-expressed in the skin and bladder cancer patients from blackfoot-disease endemic areas. Our cell line studies reveal that arsenic exposure between 0.5 μM and 1 μM for 2-7 days are able to induce Aurora-A expression and activation based on promoter activity, RNA and protein analysis. Aurora-A overexpression further increases the frequency of unsymmetrical chromosome segregation through centrosome amplification followed by cell population accumulated at S phase in immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) and uroepithelial cells (E7). Furthermore, Aurora-A over-expression was sustained for 1-4 weeks by chronic treatment of immortalized bladder and skin cells with NaAsO2. Aurora-A promoter methylation and gene amplification was not detected in the long-term arsenic treated E7 cells. Furthermore, the expression level of E2F1 transcription factor (E2F1) is increased in the presence of arsenic, and arsenic-related Aurora-A over-expression is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1. We further demonstrated that overexpression of Aurora-A and mutant Ha-ras or Aurora-A and mutant p53 may act additively to trigger arsenic-related bladder and skin cancer

  18. 负载铁离子活性炭除砷的研究进展%Research progress on arsenic removal from water using ion-adopted activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆梦楠; 张利波; 李玮; 彭金辉; 夏洪应

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic in natural water is a worldwide problem. Activated carbon adopted ion iron can be used as the adsorbent to efficiently remove arsenic from water,which takes into account the advantages of both flocculation and activated carbon adsorption. The synthesizing method of the materials, main effects on arsenic removed and research development of adsorption model were discussed in details. More specifically, the paper focused on the adsorption capacity of the sample, mainly dependent of pore structure,surface properties and the characteristics of the ion (such as species,distribution,morphology and content). Furthermore,the relation between the arsenic removed and the stirring time, solution pH, temperature and ion strength was studied. The Langmuir model and Freundlich model were used to describe the physical adsorption.The Surface Complex Formation Model was used to illustrate the mechanism of ligand exchange and chemical adsorption. Finally, future developments for arsenic uptake by activated carbon adopted ion iron were reviewed.%砷污染是一个严重的世界问题,在其诸多的去除方法中,负载铁离子活性炭兼顾了活性炭和混凝沉淀的优势,可高效去除砷离子.作者对负载铁离子活性炭的制备方法、影响砷去除率的主要因素和吸附模型的研究现状进行了详细评述,其中负载铁离子活性炭的孔径结构、表面性质,负载铁离子的形貌、分布、种类和质量等决定着其吸附容量;通过调节搅拌时间、溶液pH值、温度和离子强度可提高砷的去除率;Langmuir模型、Freundlich模型可描述砷在负载铁离子活性炭表面的物理吸附,而表面络合模型均可描述其配位体交换、化学吸附机理,最后对其发展方向进行了简要评述.

  19. Research progress on oxidative damage of liver and kidney exposed to arsenic%砷暴露对肝脏、肾脏氧化损害的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟源霞; 孙文长

    2013-01-01

    砷污染广泛存在于水、土壤和空气中,全球70个国家230多个地区遭受砷污染.砷主要通过污染饮用水的方式进入人体,全球5 000多万人口的饮用水砷浓度超过50 μg/L,1亿4 000万人口饮用水的砷浓度超过10 μg/L.砷暴露诱导活性氧的产生增加,同时降低抗氧化酶、抗氧化物的水平,导致DNA突变、脂质过氧化和蛋白质羰基化增加.因此,砷的毒性机理目前认为是砷诱导机体产生氧化应激.砷暴露可以引起机体多脏器的损害,包括肝脏和肾脏,其机制与线粒体氧化损伤、细胞色素c的释放、诱导靶细胞凋亡有关.某些转录因子起保护作用,如Nrf2,其基因敲除小鼠在砷暴露后表现出明显的肝坏死及炎性细胞浸润.砷中毒的防治主要有螯合剂疗法和抗氧化剂疗法.%Arsenic contamination is widespread in water, soil and air, influences 70 countries over 230 regions and has resulted in the global human health hazards. More than 50 million people drink water with arsenic concentrations exceeding 50μg/L, and more than 140 million population exceeding 10 μg/L. Arsenic increases the production of reactive oxygen species, while reducing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant, leading to DNA mutations, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Arsenic exposure can results in multi - organ damages, including liver and kidney. The mechanism is associated with mitochondrial oxidative damage, cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Some transcription factors, such as Nrf2, play a protective role, and the knockout mice of it showed significant liver necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. The major preventions and treatments of arsenic poisoning are chelating agents and antioxidants.

  20. Rural methods to mitigate arsenic contaminated water

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water is one of the burning issues in the rural world. Poor public awareness program about health effects of drinking arsenic contaminated water and the rural methods to mitigate this problem poses a great threat of arsenic poisoning many people of the rural world. In this thesis, arsenic removal efficiency and the working mechanism of four rural and economical arsenic mitigation technologies i.e. solar oxidation and reduction of arsenic (SORAS), Bucket tr...

  1. Long non-coding RNA APTR promotes the activation of hepatic stellate cells and the progression of liver fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we aimed at assessing a role of Alu-mediated p21 transcriptional regulator (APTR) in hepatofibrogenesis. APTR was upregulated in fibrotic liver samples and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Knockdown of APTR inhibited the activation of HSCs in vitro and mitigated the accumulation of collagen in vivo. Importantly, APTR silencing could abrogate TGF-β1-induced upregulation of α-SMA in HSCs. In addition, inhibition of cell cycle and cell proliferation by APTR knockdown was attenuated by p21 siRNA1 in primary HSCs. Finally, serum APTR levels were increased in patients with liver cirrhosis, indicating a potential biomarker for liver cirrhosis. Collectively, evidence is proposed for a new biological role of APTR in hepatofibrogenesis. - Highlights: • APTR is upregulated in fibrotic liver tissues and activated HSCs. • APTR silencing inhibits HSC activation and the progression of liver fibrosis. • Antifibrotic effect of APTR silencing is achieved by increasing p21

  2. NOK/STYK1 promotes the genesis and remodeling of blood and lymphatic vessels during tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Li, Tianqi; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the overexpression of NOK, also named STYK1, led to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here, we provide evidence that increased expression of NOK/STYK1 caused marked alterations in the overall and inner structures of tumors and substantially facilitates the genesis and remodeling of the blood and lymphatic vessels during tumor progression. In particular, NOK-expressed HeLa stable cells (HeLa-K) significantly enhanced tumor growth and metastasis in xenografted nude mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining demonstrated that the tumor tissues generated by HeLa-K cells were much more ichorous and had more interspaces than those generated by control HeLa cells (HeLa-C). The fluorescent areas stained with cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), a marker protein for blood vessels, appeared to be in different patterns. The total blood vessels, especially the ring patterns, within the tumors of the HeLa-K group were highly enriched compared with those in the HeLa-C group. NOK-HA was demonstrated to be well colocalized with CD31 in the wall of the tubular structures within tumor tissues. Interestingly, antibody staining of the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) further revealed the increase in ring (oratretic strip-like) lymphatic vessels in either the peritumoral or intratumoral areas in the HeLa-K group compared with the HeLa-C group. Consistently, the analysis of human cancerous tissue also showed that NOK was highly expressed in the walls of tubular structures. Thus, our results reveal a novel tumorigenic function of NOK to mediate the genesis and remodeling of blood and lymphatic vessels during tumor progression.

  3. NOK/STYK1 promotes the genesis and remodeling of blood and lymphatic vessels during tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Li, Tianqi; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the overexpression of NOK, also named STYK1, led to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here, we provide evidence that increased expression of NOK/STYK1 caused marked alterations in the overall and inner structures of tumors and substantially facilitates the genesis and remodeling of the blood and lymphatic vessels during tumor progression. In particular, NOK-expressed HeLa stable cells (HeLa-K) significantly enhanced tumor growth and metastasis in xenografted nude mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining demonstrated that the tumor tissues generated by HeLa-K cells were much more ichorous and had more interspaces than those generated by control HeLa cells (HeLa-C). The fluorescent areas stained with cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), a marker protein for blood vessels, appeared to be in different patterns. The total blood vessels, especially the ring patterns, within the tumors of the HeLa-K group were highly enriched compared with those in the HeLa-C group. NOK-HA was demonstrated to be well colocalized with CD31 in the wall of the tubular structures within tumor tissues. Interestingly, antibody staining of the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) further revealed the increase in ring (oratretic strip-like) lymphatic vessels in either the peritumoral or intratumoral areas in the HeLa-K group compared with the HeLa-C group. Consistently, the analysis of human cancerous tissue also showed that NOK was highly expressed in the walls of tubular structures. Thus, our results reveal a novel tumorigenic function of NOK to mediate the genesis and remodeling of blood and lymphatic vessels during tumor progression. PMID:27444381

  4. Continuous taurocholic acid exposure promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression due to reduced cell loss resulting from enhanced vascular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refluxogenic effects of smoking and alcohol abuse may be related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. The present study attempts to clarify the effects of continuous taurocholic acid (TCA exposure, which is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, on ESCC progression. METHODS: A squamous carcinoma cell line (ESCC-DR was established from a tumor induced in a rat model of gastroduodenal reflux. ESCC-DR cells were incubated with 2 mM TCA for ≥2 months. The effects of continuous TCA exposure were evaluated in vitro on cell morphology, growth, and invasion and in vivo on xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, the mean level of secreted transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF proteins in cell culture supernatants and mRNA synthesis of TGF-β1 and VEGF-A of ESCC cells were measured. The angiogenic potential was further examined by a migration assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Continuous TCA exposure induced marked formation of filopodia in vitro. Expression levels of angiogenic factors were significantly higher in the cells treated with TCA than in control cells. Tumor xenografts derived from cells pre-exposed to TCA were larger and more vascularized than those derived from control cells. In addition, TCA exposure increased HUVEC migration. CONCLUSION: Continuous TCA exposure enhanced ESCC progression due to reduced cell loss in vivo. Cell loss was inhibited by TCA-induced vascular endothelial cell migration, which was mediated by TGF-β1 and VEGF-A released from ESCC cells.

  5. Loss of Abhd5 Promotes Colorectal Tumor Development and Progression by Inducing Aerobic Glycolysis and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Ou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How cancer cells shift metabolism to aerobic glycolysis is largely unknown. Here, we show that deficiency of α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 5 (Abhd5, an intracellular lipolytic activator that is also known as comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58, promotes this metabolic shift and enhances malignancies of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs. Silencing of Abhd5 in normal fibroblasts induces malignant transformation. Intestine-specific knockout of Abhd5 in ApcMin/+ mice robustly increases tumorigenesis and malignant transformation of adenomatous polyps. In colon cancer cells, Abhd5 deficiency induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by suppressing the AMPKα-p53 pathway, which is attributable to increased aerobic glycolysis. In human CRCs, Abhd5 expression falls substantially and correlates negatively with malignant features. Our findings link Abhd5 to CRC pathogenesis and suggest that cancer cells develop aerobic glycolysis by suppressing Abhd5-mediated intracellular lipolysis.

  6. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooki...

  7. Arsenic-induced plant growth of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata: Impact of arsenic and phosphate rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-He; Yang, Guang-Mei; Fu, Jing-Wei; Guan, Dong-Xing; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) has been shown to promote plant growth and arsenic (As) uptake by As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). However, little is known about its behaviors in agricultural soils. In this study, impact of 50 mg kg(-1) As and/or 1.5% PR amendment on plant As accumulation and growth was investigated by growing PV for 90 d in three agricultural soils. While As amendment significantly increased plant As uptake and substantially promoted PV growth, the opposite was observed with PR amendment. Arsenic amendment increased plant frond As from 16.9-265 to 961-6017 mg kg(-1),whereas PR amendment lowered frond As to 10.2-216 mg kg(-1). The As-induced plant growth stimulation was 69-71%. While PR amendment increased plant Ca and P uptake, As amendment showed opposite results. The PV biomass was highly correlated with plant As at r = 0.82, but with weak correlations with plant Ca or P at r < 0.30. This study confirmed that 1) As significantly promoted PV growth, probably independent of Ca or P uptake, 2) PR amendment didn't enhance plant growth or As uptake by PV in agricultural soils with adequate available P, and 3) PV effluxed arsenite (AsIII) growing in agricultural soils. PMID:26874625

  8. Research Progress of "Warm-promoting Needle" in Recent Years%近年来"温通针法"研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵耀东; 韩豆瑛; 方晓丽

    2012-01-01

    We concluded research progress of "warm-promoting needle" in recent years from clinical and experimental study and pointed out that future study should adhere to the principle of "control, random, double-blind and repetitive" strictly and increase more cases, which could make the research more perfect.%从临床和实验研究两方面总结"温通针法"近年来的研究概况,指出"温通针法"今后的研究应该严格按照对照、随机、双盲、重复的原则,加大病例数并进行系统、深入的研究,才能使之更加完善.

  9. Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B

    1980-02-01

    Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country.

  10. Co-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase and Treponema denticola cysteine desulfhydrase for enhanced arsenic accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shen-Long; Singh, Shailendra; Dasilva, Nancy A; Chen, Wilfred

    2012-02-01

    Arsenic is one of the most hazardous pollutants found in aqueous environments and has been shown to be a carcinogen. Phytochelatins (PCs), which are cysteine-rich and thio-reactive peptides, have high binding affinities for various metals including arsenic. Previously, we demonstrated that genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS) produced PCs and accumulated arsenic. In an effort to further improve the overall accumulation of arsenic, cysteine desulfhydrase, an aminotransferase that converts cysteine into hydrogen sulfide under aerobic condition, was co-expressed in order to promote the formation of larger AsS complexes. Yeast cells producing both AtPCS and cysteine desulfhydrase showed a higher level of arsenic accumulation than a simple cumulative effect of expressing both enzymes, confirming the coordinated action of hydrogen sulfide and PCs in the overall bioaccumulation of arsenic.

  11. Telephone-based motivational interviewing to promote physical activity and stage of change progression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Kaitlin R; Pignol, Anna Evans; Holm, Jeffrey E; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) for increasing physical activity in aging adults. Eighty-six participants aged 55 years and older were randomly assigned to receive either four weekly sessions of telephone-based MI for increasing physical activity, or a healthy activity living guide (information only control). Changes from baseline weekly caloric expenditure from physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and stage of change for physical activity were compared across groups at posttreatment and six months follow-up. Results indicated that MI participants had higher weekly caloric expenditures from physical activity at posttreatment, but not at six months follow-up; higher self-efficacy for physical activity at six months follow-up; and demonstrated greater stage of change progression across assessments. These findings support the use of telephone-based MI for increasing physical activity in older adults in the short-term. Future studies will need to determine if follow-up booster sessions increase long-term efficacy.

  12. Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

  13. HER family kinase domain mutations promote tumor progression and can predict response to treatment in human breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Boulbes, Delphine R.

    2014-11-11

    Resistance to HER2-targeted therapies remains a major obstacle in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the development of drug resistance is needed to improve the clinical utility of novel agents, and to predict the success of targeted personalized therapy based on tumor-specific mutations. Little is known about the clinical significance of HER family mutations in breast cancer. Because mutations within HER1/EGFR are predictive of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in lung cancer, we investigated whether mutations in HER family kinase domains are predictive of response to targeted therapy in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We sequenced the HER family kinase domains from 76 HER2-overexpressing invasive carcinomas and identified 12 missense variants. Patients whose tumors carried any of these mutations did not respond to HER2 directed therapy in the metastatic setting. We developed mutant cell lines and used structural analyses to determine whether changes in protein conformation could explain the lack of response to therapy. We also functionally studied all HER2 mutants and showed that they conferred an aggressive phenotype and altered effects of the TKI lapatinib. Our data demonstrate that mutations in the finely tuned HER kinase domains play a critical function in breast cancer progression and may serve as prognostic and predictive markers.

  14. Long non-coding RNA APTR promotes the activation of hepatic stellate cells and the progression of liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Fujun [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Jinshan, Shanghai, 201508 (China); Zheng, Jianjian [Wenzhou Key Laboratory of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Mao, Yuqing [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Jinshan, Shanghai, 201508 (China); Dong, Peihong [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Li, Guojun [Department of Hepatology, Ningbo Yinzhou Second Hospital, Ningbo, 315000 (China); Lu, Zhongqiu [Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Guo, Chuanyong; Liu, Zhanju [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Fan, Xiaoming, E-mail: ktsqdph@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Jinshan, Shanghai, 201508 (China)

    2015-08-07

    In this study, we aimed at assessing a role of Alu-mediated p21 transcriptional regulator (APTR) in hepatofibrogenesis. APTR was upregulated in fibrotic liver samples and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Knockdown of APTR inhibited the activation of HSCs in vitro and mitigated the accumulation of collagen in vivo. Importantly, APTR silencing could abrogate TGF-β{sub 1}-induced upregulation of α-SMA in HSCs. In addition, inhibition of cell cycle and cell proliferation by APTR knockdown was attenuated by p21 siRNA1 in primary HSCs. Finally, serum APTR levels were increased in patients with liver cirrhosis, indicating a potential biomarker for liver cirrhosis. Collectively, evidence is proposed for a new biological role of APTR in hepatofibrogenesis. - Highlights: • APTR is upregulated in fibrotic liver tissues and activated HSCs. • APTR silencing inhibits HSC activation and the progression of liver fibrosis. • Antifibrotic effect of APTR silencing is achieved by increasing p21.

  15. Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Ross; McArthur, John; Burgess, William; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Ravenscroft, Peter; Rahmanñ, Mizanur

    1998-09-01

    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.

  16. Arsenic content of homeopathic medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, H.D.; Saryan, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the widely held assumption that homeopathic medicines contain negligible quantities of their major ingredients, six such medicines labeled in Latin as containing arsenic were purchased over the counter and by mail order and their arsenic contents measured. Values determined were similar to those expected from label information in only two of six and were markedly at variance in the remaining four. Arsenic was present in notable quantities in two preparations. Most sales personnel interviewed could not identify arsenic as being an ingredient in these preparations and were therefore incapable of warning the general public of possible dangers from ingestion. No such warnings appeared on the labels.

  17. Arsenic speciation in Mono Lake, California: Response to seasonal stratification and anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollibaugh, James T.; Carini, Steve; Gürleyük, Hakan; Jellison, Robert; Joye, Samantha B.; LeCleir, Gary; Meile, Christof; Vasquez, Lydia; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2005-04-01

    Mono Lake is a closed-basin, alkaline, hypersaline lake located at the western edge of the Great Basin in eastern California. We studied the distribution of arsenic (As) species in the water column of Mono Lake between February and November, 2002. This period captured the seasonal progression from winter mixing, through summer thermal stratification, to autumn overturn. Arsenic speciation was determined by ion chromatography-inductively coupled-plasma-mass spectrometry of samples preserved in the field by flash-freezing in liquid nitrogen. We found that arsenic speciation was dominated (>90%) by arsenate when oxygen was detectable. Once levels fell below 6 μmol/L O 2, arsenic speciation shifted to dominance by reduced species. Arsenate and arsenite co-occurred in a transition zone immediately below the base of the oxycline and low but significant concentrations of arsenate were occasionally detected in sulfidic hypolimnion samples. Thio-arsenic species were the dominant form of As found in sulfidic waters. Maxima of thio-arsenic species with stoichiometries consistent with mono-, di- and trithio-arsenic occurred in succession as sulfide concentration increased. A compound with a stoichiometry consistent with trithio-arsenic was the dominant As species (˜50% of total As) in high sulfide (2 mmol/L) bottom water. Lower concentrations of total As in bottom water relative to surface water suggest precipitation of As/S mineral phases in response to sulfide accumulation during prolonged anoxia.

  18. Photooxidation of arsenic(III) to arsenic(V) on the surface of kaolinite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Yu, Yingtan; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Li, Jinjun; Wu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    As one of the most toxic heavy metals, the oxidation of inorganic arsenic has drawn great attention among environmental scientists. However, little has been reported on the solar photochemical behavior of arsenic species on top-soil. In the present work, the influencing factors (pH, relative humidity (RH), humic acid (HA), trisodium citrate, and additional iron ions) and the contributions of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mainly HO and HO2/O2(-)) to photooxidation of As(III) to As(V) on kaolinite surfaces under UV irradiation (λ=365nm) were investigated. Results showed that lower pH facilitated photooxidation, and the photooxidation efficiency increased with the increase of RH and trisodium citrate. Promotion or inhibition of As(III) photooxidation by HA was observed at low or high dosages, respectively. Additional iron ions greatly promoted the photooxidation, but excessive amounts of Fe(2+) competed with As(III) for oxidation by ROS. Experiments on scavengers indicated that the HO radical was the predominant oxidant in this system. Experiments on actual soil surfaces proved the occurrence of As(III) photooxidation in real topsoil. This work demonstrates that the photooxidation process of As(III) on the soil surface should be taken into account when studying the fate of arsenic in natural soil newly polluted with acidic wastewater containing As(III). PMID:26456603

  19. Intra- and Extra-Cellular Events Related to Altered Glycosylation of MUC1 Promote Chronic Inflammation, Tumor Progression, Invasion, and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cascio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Altered glycosylation of mucin 1 (MUC1 on tumor cells compared to normal epithelial cells was previously identified as an important antigenic modification recognized by the immune system in the process of tumor immunosurveillance. This tumor form of MUC1 is considered a viable target for cancer immunotherapy. The importance of altered MUC1 glycosylation extends also to its role as a promoter of chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to malignant transformation and cancer progression. We review here what is known about the role of specific cancer-associated glycans on MUC1 in protein-protein interactions and intracellular signaling in cancer cells and in their adhesion to each other and the tumor stroma. The tumor form of MUC1 also creates a different landscape of inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment by controlling the recruitment of inflammatory cells, establishing specific interactions with dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages, and facilitating tumor escape from the immune system. Through multiple types of short glycans simultaneously present in tumors, MUC1 acquires multiple oncogenic properties that control tumor development, progression, and metastasis at different steps of the process of carcinogenesis.

  20. A single nucleotide change in a core promoter is involved in the progressive overexpression of the duplicated CYP9M10 haplotype lineage in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Kentaro; Komagata, Osamu; Kasai, Shinji; Tomita, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of cis-acting mutations on detoxification enzyme genes for insecticide resistance is widely accepted, only a few of them have been determined as concrete mutations present in genomic DNA till date. The overexpression of a cytochrome P450 gene, CYP9M10, is associated with pyrethroid resistance in the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The haplotypes of CYP9M10 exhibiting overexpression (resistant haplotypes) belong to one specific phylogenetic lineage that shares high nucleotide sequence homology and the same insertion of a transposable element. Among the resistant haplotypes, allelic progression involving an additional cis-acting mutation and gene duplication evolved a CYP9M10 haplotype associated with extremely high transcription and strong pyrethroid resistance. Here we show that a single nucleotide substitution G-27A, which is located near the transcription start site of CYP9M10, is involved in the progression of the duplicated haplotype lineage. The deletion of a 7-bp AT-rich sequence that includes nucleotide -27 inhibited the initiation of transcription from the original transcriptional initiation site. The mutation was suspected to reside within a core promoter, TATA-box, of CYP9M10. PMID:26494013

  1. Arginase-1-dependent promotion of TH17 differentiation and disease progression by MDSCs in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhen, Yu; Ma, Zhanchuan; Li, Huimin; Yu, Jinyu; Xu, Zhong-Gao; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Yi, Huanfa; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-03-23

    Expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) has been documented in some murine models and patients with autoimmune diseases, but the exact role of MDSCs in this process remains largely unknown. The current study investigates this question in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with active SLE showed a significant increase in HLA-DR(-)CD11b(+)CD33(+)MDSCs, including both CD14(+)CD66b(-)monocytic and CD14(-)CD66b(+)granulocytic MDSCs, in the peripheral blood compared to healthy controls (HCs). The frequency of MDSCs was positively correlated with the levels of serum arginase-1 (Arg-1) activity, T helper 17 (TH17) responses, and disease severity in SLE patients. Consistently, in comparison with MDSCs from HCs, MDSCs from SLE patients exhibited significantly elevated Arg-1 production and increased potential to promote TH17 differentiation in vitro in an Arg-1-dependent manner. Moreover, in a humanized SLE model, MDSCs were essential for the induction of TH17 responses and the associated renal injuries, and the effect of MDSCs was Arg-1-dependent. Our data provide direct evidence demonstrating a pathogenic role for MDSCs in human SLE. This study also provides a molecular mechanism of the pathogenesis of SLE by demonstrating an Arg-1-dependent effect of MDSCs in the development of TH17 cell-associated autoimmunity, and suggests that targeting MDSCs or Arg-1 may offer potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of SLE and other TH17 cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:27009269

  2. Upregulation of long non-coding RNA PRNCR1 in colorectal cancer promotes cell proliferation and cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Qiu, Mantang; Xu, Youtao; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Yanyan; Li, Ming; Xu, Lin; Yin, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been confirmed to play a critical regulatory role in various biological processes including carcinogenesis, which indicates that lncRNAs are valuable biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The novel lncRNA prostate cancer non-coding RNA 1 (PRNCR1) is located in the susceptible genomic area of CRC, however the functional role of PRNCR1 remains unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of PRNCR1 in CRC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to assess the expression profile of PRNCR1 in CRC tissues and cell lines. An antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) was designed to knock down PRNCR1. In a cohort of 63 patients, PRNCR1 was significantly overexpressed in CRC tissues compared with the expression in adjacent tissues, with an average fold increase of 10.55 (P=0.006). Additionally, a high level of PRNCR1 was associated with large tumor volume (Pline (FHC), PRNCR1 was upregulated in most CRC cell lines (HCT116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29). After knockdown of PRNCR1 by ASO, CRC cell proliferation ability was significantly inhibited. We further found that PRNCR1 knockdown induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in the S phases. In contrast, PRNCR1 knockdown did not affect cell apoptosis or invasive ability. Hence, these data indicate that PRNCR1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells and is a potential oncogene of CRC.

  3. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  4. Variability in the precore and core promoter regions of HBV strains in Morocco: characterization and impact on liver disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Kitab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV is one of the most common human pathogens that cause aggressive hepatitis and advanced liver disease (AdLD, including liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The persistence of active HBV replication and liver damage after the loss of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg has been frequently associated with mutations in the pre-core (pre-C and core promoter (CP regions of HBV genome that abolish or reduce HBeAg expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pre-C and CP mutations and their impact on the subsequent course of liver disease in Morocco. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 186 patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection was studied (81 inactive carriers, 69 with active chronic hepatitis, 36 with AdLD. Pre-C and CP mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. The pre-C stop codon G1896A mutation was the most frequent (83.9% and was associated with a lower risk of AdLD development (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.15-1.04; p = 0.04. HBV-DNA levels in patients with G1896A were not significantly different from the other patients carrying wild-type strains (p = 0.84. CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were associated with higher HBV-DNA level and increased liver disease severity. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that older age (≥ 40 years, male sex, high viral load (>4.3 log(10 IU/mL and CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were independent risk factors for AdLD development. Combination of these mutations was significantly associated with AdLD (OR, 7.52; 95% CI, 4.8-8; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time the association of HBV viral load and CP mutations with the severity of liver disease in Moroccan HBV chronic carriers. The examination of CP mutations alone or in combination could be helpful for prediction of the clinical outcome.

  5. Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Water: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ricci Nicomel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents an overview of the available technologies used nowadays for the removal of arsenic species from water. Conventionally applied techniques to remove arsenic species include oxidation, coagulation-flocculation, and membrane techniques. Besides, progress has recently been made on the utility of various nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated water. A critical analysis of the most widely investigated nanoparticles is presented and promising future research on novel porous materials, such as metal organic frameworks, is suggested.

  6. Elevated Human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression in blood cells associated with chronic and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure is associated with human cancer. Telomerase containing the catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of chromosomes, delay senescence and promoting cell proliferation leading to tumorigenesis. OBJECTIVE:...

  7. ARSENIC - SUSCEPTIBILITY & IN UTERO EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic remains a serious public health problem at many locations worldwide. If has often been noted that prevalences of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning differ among various populations. For example, skin lesions or peripheral vascular dis...

  8. Progress on DMD Gene Promoter in the Role of Gene Therapy%DMD启动子在基因治疗中作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江超; 蔡望伟; 盛文利

    2009-01-01

    假肥大型进行性肌营养不良(DMD)是一类X连锁隐性退行性肌肉萎缩病.目前,关于DMD基因外显子缺失,内含子断裂点以及所编码dystmphin蛋白的结构已经明确,这对DMD的临床诊断有很大价值;但对于基凶治疗来说,明确DMD基因启动子的顺式元件以及反式因子的结构及相互作用关系是十分重要的,这些元件的相互作用对于dystrophin蛋白的转录水平及表达起关键的调节作用;研究表明,人工合成的DMD肌启动子活性比生物体内DMD基因启动子活性高,找出启动子关键元件构建特异性高效启动子,将其应用于基因治疗,这是一条新的途径.%Duchenne muscular dystrophy is X-linked recessive disorders which result in a distinctive pattern and progressive muscle wasting.At present,on the DMD gene deletion in exon containing break-point,as well as the coding of the dystrophin protein has a clear structure.which is of great value to the clinical diagnosis of DMD.Furthermore,for gene therapy,more development is needed for DMD gene promoter Cis-acting elements and the trans-factor structure and the relationship between these components,which play a key role in the regulation protein expression and the transfer rate;Study showed that artificial muscle promoter in vivo biological activity is more than the gene itself promoter,The relevant sub-components will be found to stan building a hish-specific promoter,if applied,it is a new way for gene therapy.

  9. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze

    2002-11-01

    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum. The results of field injection of molasses, nitrate, and low-arsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic, oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations, and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials.

  10. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  11. Growth factor and Th2 cytokine signaling pathways converge at STAT6 to promote arginase expression in progressive experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Yaneth Osorio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Host arginase 1 (arg1 expression is a significant contributor to the pathogenesis of progressive visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a neglected tropical disease caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani. Previously we found that parasite-induced arg1 expression in macrophages was dependent on STAT6 activation. Arg1 expression was amplified by, but did not require, IL-4, and required de novo synthesis of unknown protein(s. To further explore the mechanisms involved in arg1 regulation in VL, we screened a panel of kinase inhibitors and found that inhibitors of growth factor signaling reduced arg1 expression in splenic macrophages from hamsters with VL. Analysis of growth factors and their signaling pathways revealed that the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF-1R and a number of downstream signaling proteins were activated in splenic macrophages isolated from hamsters infected with L. donovani. Recombinant FGF-2 and IGF-1 increased the expression of arg1 in L. donovani infected hamster macrophages, and this induction was augmented by IL-4. Inhibition of FGFR-1 and IGF-1R decreased arg1 expression and restricted L. donovani replication in both in vitro and ex vivo models of infection. Inhibition of the downstream signaling molecules JAK and AKT also reduced the expression of arg1 in infected macrophages. STAT6 was activated in infected macrophages exposed to either FGF-2 or IGF-1, and STAT6 was critical to the FGFR-1- and IGF-1R-mediated expression of arg1. The converse was also true as inhibition of FGFR-1 and IGF-1R reduced the activation of STAT6 in infected macrophages. Collectively, these data indicate that the FGFR/IGF-1R and IL-4 signaling pathways converge at STAT6 to promote pathologic arg1 expression and intracellular parasite survival in VL. Targeted interruption of these pathological processes offers an approach to restrain this relentlessly progressive disease.

  12. A novel role of hematopoietic CCL5 in promoting triple-negative mammary tumor progression by regulating generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhang; Dandan Lv; Ha-Jeong Kim; Robert A Kurt; Wen Bu; Yi Li; Xiaojing Ma

    2013-01-01

    CCL5 is a member of the CC chemokine family expressed in a wide array of immune and non-immune cells in response to stress signals.CCL5 expression correlates with advanced human breast cancer.However,its functional significance and mode of action have not been established.Here,we show that CCL5-deficient mice are resistant to highly aggressive,triple-negative mammary tumor growth.Hematopoietic CCL5 is dominant in this phenotype.The absence of hematopoietic CCL5 causes aberrant generation of CD11b+/Gr-1+,myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the bone marrow in response to tumor growth by accumulating Ly6Chi and Ly6G+ MDSCs with impaired capacity to suppress cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells.These properties of CCL5 are observed in both orthotopic and spontaneous mammary tumors.Antibody-mediated systemic blockade of CCL5 inhibits tumor progression and enhances the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination against non-immunogenic tumors.CCL5 also helps maintain the immunosuppressive capacity of human MDSCs.Our study uncovers a novel,chemokine-independent activity of the hematopoietically derived CCL5 that promotes mammary tumor progression via generating MDSCs in the bone marrow in cooperation with tumor-derived colony-stimulating factors.The study sheds considerable light on the interplay between the hematopoietic compartment and tumor niche.Because of the apparent dispensable nature of this molecule in normal physiology,CCL5 may represent an excellent therapeutic target in immunotherapy for breast cancer as well as a broad range of solid tumors that have significant amounts of MDSC infiltration.

  13. The role of active arsenic species produced by metabolic reduction of dimethylarsinic acid in genotoxicity and tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent research of arsenic carcinogenesis, many researchers have directed their attention to methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenics. Because of its high cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, trivalent dimethylated arsenic, which can be produced by the metabolic reduction of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), has attracted considerable attention from the standpoint of arsenic carcinogenesis. In the present paper, we examined trivalent dimethylated arsenic and its further metabolites for their chemical properties and biological behavior such as genotoxicity and tumorigenicity. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that the formation of cis-thymine glycol in DNA was induced via the production of dimethylated arsenic peroxide by the reaction of trivalent dimethylated arsenic with molecular oxygen, but not via the production of common reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, etc.). Thus, dimethylated arsenic peroxide may be the main species responsible for the tumor promotion in skin tumorigenesis induced by exposure to DMA. Free radical species, such as dimethylarsenic radical [(CH3)2As·] and dimethylarsenic peroxy radical [(CH3)2AsOO·], that are produced by the reaction of molecular oxygen and dimethylarsine [(CH3)2AsH], which is probably a further reductive metabolite of trivalent dimethylated arsenic, may be main agents for initiation in mouse lung tumorigenesis

  14. Selective hyaluronan-CD44 signaling promotes miRNA-21 expression and interacts with vitamin D function during cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas progression following UV irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly YW Bourguignon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA, the major extracellular matrix component, is often anchored to CD44 isoforms, a family of structurally/functionally important cell surface receptors. Our recent results indicate that UV irradiation (UVR-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC overexpress a variety of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v, with different CD44v isoforms appear to confer malignant SCC properties. UVR also stimulates HA degradation in epidermal keratinocytes. Both large HA polymers and their UVR-induced catabolic products (small HA selectively activate CD44 isoform-mediated cellular signaling in normal keratinocytes and SCC cells, with all of the downstream processes being mediated by RhoGTPases (e.g., RhoA and Rac1. Importantly, we found that the hormonally active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH2D3 not only prevents the UVR-induced small HA activation of abnormal keratinocyte behavior and SCC progression, but also enhances large HA stimulation of normal keratinocyte activities and epidermal function(s. Furthermore, we found that HA and its UVR-induced catabolic products (e.g., large and small HA selectively activate CD44-mediated Rac and RhoA signaling. Specifically, large HA-CD44 interaction promotes Rac/PKNγ-dependent normal keratinocyte differentiation, DNA repair and keratinocyte survival. Conversely, small HA-CD44v isoform interaction stimulates RhoA/ROK-dependent NFκB signaling and microRNA-21 (miR-21 production, leading to inflammation, proliferation (following acute UVR response and SCC progression (following chronic UVR exposure. Active vitamin D inhibits small HA-CD44v-mediated RhoA/ROK signaling and SCC progression; and it also enhances large HA-CD44-mediated differentiation, DNA repair and normal epidermal function. Selective applications of large HA and vitamin D will be used to improve the UVR-induced HA (small vs. large HA-CD44 isoform interaction with RhoGTPase signaling and skin inflammation as a potential therapeutic treatment for skin

  15. Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic. -- Highlights: ► High soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth. ► A delayed flowering time was observed in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Total grain arsenic increased in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Percentage organic arsenic in the grain altered in arsenic and organic matter soil. -- The addition of high amounts of organic matter to soils led to an increase in total rice grain arsenic, as well as alteration in the percentage arsenic species in the rice grains

  16. Osteoresorptive arsenic intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa

    2013-04-01

    A 47-year-old woman consulted her dermatologist complaining whole body dermatitis, urticaria and irritating bullous eruptions on the plantar and side surfaces of her feet. She had had multiple hypopigmented spots on her skin since her early adulthood. The patient was treated with topical medication without significant improvement of symptoms. One year later she suffered a myocardial infarction, accompanied by refractory anaemia. At the age of 49, a breast cancer was diagnosed and shortly thereafter her last menstruation occurred. At age 50years, upon complaint of weight loss despite normal food intake, Hashimoto thyroiditis with latent hyperthyroidism, vitamin D insufficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, and poikilocytic anaemia with anisochromia, hypochromia, anisocytosis, elliptocytes, drepanocytes, dacryocytes, acanthocytes, echinocytes, schizocytes, stomatocytes and target cells were diagnosed. The osteodensitometric and laboratory examinations revealed osteoporosis with sustained elevation of urinary Dipyridinolin-crosslinks (u-Dpd), and urinary arsenic (u-As) of 500μg/l (equivalent to 0.5 parts per million-ppm, 2.5μg/mg creatinine/dl, u-As: Phosphate of 26μg/mmol; the estimated bone As:P and As/kg body weight were 500μg/g and 11.3mg/kg, respectively). Thalassemia, immunoglobinopathy and iron deficiency were excluded. Supplementation with oral vitamin D and calcium, and antiresorptive therapy with intravenous zolendronate normalised the u-Dpd, significantly decreased the urinary arsenic concentration, and cured the anemia and the urticaria. A diagnosis of osteoresorptive arsenic intoxication (ORAI) was established. PMID:23337042

  17. Microbial responses to environmental arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Espino, David; Tamames, Javier; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Cánovas, David

    2009-02-01

    Microorganisms have evolved dynamic mechanisms for facing the toxicity of arsenic in the environment. In this sense, arsenic speciation and mobility is also affected by the microbial metabolism that participates in the biogeochemical cycle of the element. The ars operon constitutes the most ubiquitous and important scheme of arsenic tolerance in bacteria. This system mediates the extrusion of arsenite out of the cells. There are also other microbial activities that alter the chemical characteristics of arsenic: some strains are able to oxidize arsenite or reduce arsenate as part of their respiratory processes. These type of microorganisms require membrane associated proteins that transfer electrons from or to arsenic (AoxAB and ArrAB, respectively). Other enzymatic transformations, such as methylation-demethylation reactions, exchange inorganic arsenic into organic forms contributing to its complex environmental turnover. This short review highlights recent studies in ecology, biochemistry and molecular biology of these processes in bacteria, and also provides some examples of genetic engineering for enhanced arsenic accumulation based on phytochelatins or metallothionein-like proteins.

  18. Removing arsenic from drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathaway, S.W.; Rubel, R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Pilot-plant tests of two treatment methods, activated alumina and ion exchange, for removing arsenic from drinking water were evaluated at the Fallon, Nevada, Naval Air Station (NAS). The arsenic concentration was 0.080-0.116 mg/liter, exceeding the 0.05 mg/liter maximum contaminant level. Although the valence of arsenic was not determined, in prechlorination process and test results suggest it was probably arsenic V. Chlorinated drinking water from the NAS was used for evaluating the efficacy of treatment under several different conditions. The activated alumina and ion exchange systems were operated through three different loading and regeneration cycles each. The major water quality factors affecting the removal of arsenic by these methods were pH of feedwater, arsenic concentration, sulfate concentration, and alkalinity. The major operational factors affecting removal were flow rate, down time, and media clogging. Capital and operating costs for arsenic removal are estimated for the activated alumina method at optimum pH (5.5) for each of the three small community systems drawing water from the same aquifer. In addition, several containers of the regeneration waste were used for a special study to characterize, dewater, and render the waste non-toxic for disposal in a sanitary landfill.

  19. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-02-06

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (parsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.40; parsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  20. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-02-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (parsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.40; parsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  1. Arsenic-induced alterations in the contact hypersensitivity response in Balb/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies in our laboratory indicate that arsenic alters secretion of growth promoting and inflammatory cytokines in the skin that can regulate the migration and maturation of Langerhans cells (LC) during allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, we hypothesized that arsenic may modulate hypersensitivity responses to cutaneous sensitizing agents by altering cytokine production, LC migration, and T-cell proliferation. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the induction and elicitation phases of dermal sensitization. Mice exposed to 50 mg/l arsenic in the drinking water for 4 weeks demonstrated a reduction in lymph node cell (LNC) proliferation and ear swelling following sensitization with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), compared to control mice. LC and T-cell populations in the draining lymph nodes of DNFB-sensitized mice were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting; activated LC were reduced in cervical lymph nodes, suggesting that LC migration may be altered following arsenic exposure. Lymphocytes from arsenic-treated animals sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) exhibited reduced proliferative responses following T-cell mitogen stimulation in vitro; however, lymphocyte proliferation from nonsensitized, arsenic-treated mice was comparable to controls. Arsenic exposure also reduced the number of thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophages and circulating neutrophils. These studies demonstrate that repeated, prolonged exposure to nontoxic concentrations of sodium arsenite alters immune cell populations and results in functional changes in immune responses, specifically attenuation of contact hypersensitivity

  2. Arsenic exposure disrupts epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Katharine J. [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia); Holloway, Adele [Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000 (Australia); Cook, Anthony L. [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia); Chin, Suyin P. [Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7000 (Australia); Snow, Elizabeth T., E-mail: elizabeth.snow@utas.edu.au [School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin which increases skin cancer risk for exposed populations worldwide; however the underlying biomolecular mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is complex and poorly defined. Recent investigations show that histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase activity is impaired, and epigenetic patterns of gene regulation are consistently altered in cancers associated with arsenic exposure. Expression of the histone deacetylase SIRT1 is altered in solid tumours and haematological malignancies; however its role in arsenic-induced pathology is unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of arsenic on epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 and its targeting microRNA, miR-34a in primary human keratinocytes. Acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) increased in keratinocytes exposed to 0.5 μM arsenite [As(III)]; and this was associated with chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a promoter. Moreover, although SIRT1 protein initially increased in these As(III)-exposed cells, after 24 days expression was not significantly different from untreated controls. Extended exposure to low-dose As(III) (0.5 μM; > 5 weeks) compromised the pattern of CpG methylation at SIRT1 and miR-34a gene promoters, and this was associated with altered expression for both genes. We have found that arsenic alters epigenetic regulation of SIRT1 expression via structural reorganisation of chromatin at the miR-34a gene promoter in the initial 24 h of exposure; and over time, through shifts in miR-34a and SIRT1 gene methylation. Taken together, this investigation demonstrates that arsenic produces cumulative disruptions to epigenetic regulation of miR-34a expression, and this is associated with impaired coordination of SIRT1 functional activity. - Highlights: • Submicromolar arsenic concentrations disrupt SIRT1 activity and expression in human keratinocytes. • Arsenic-induced chromatin remodelling at the miR-34a gene promoter is associated with hyperacetylation

  3. Discovery of the Arsenic Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, A; Heim, M; Schuh, A; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine arsenic isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Arsenic uptake and metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F J; Ma, J F; Meharg, A A; McGrath, S P

    2009-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is an element that is nonessential for and toxic to plants. Arsenic contamination in the environment occurs in many regions, and, depending on environmental factors, its accumulation in food crops may pose a health risk to humans.Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of As uptake and metabolism in plants is reviewed here. Arsenate is taken up by phosphate transporters. A number of the aquaporin nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) are able to transport arsenite,the predominant form of As in reducing environments. In rice (Oryza sativa), arsenite uptake shares the highly efficient silicon (Si) pathway of entry to root cells and efflux towards the xylem. In root cells arsenate is rapidly reduced to arsenite, which is effluxed to the external medium, complexed by thiol peptides or translocated to shoots. One type of arsenate reductase has been identified, but its in planta functions remain to be investigated. Some fern species in the Pteridaceae family are able to hyperaccumulate As in above-ground tissues. Hyperaccumulation appears to involve enhanced arsenate uptake, decreased arsenite-thiol complexation and arsenite efflux to the external medium, greatly enhanced xylem translocation of arsenite, and vacuolar sequestration of arsenite in fronds. Current knowledge gaps and future research directions are also identified.

  5. Tumor Progression Locus 2 Promotes Induction of IFNλ, Interferon Stimulated Genes and Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protects against Influenza Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teneema Kuriakose

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP cascades are important in antiviral immunity through their regulation of interferon (IFN production as well as virus replication. Although the serine-threonine MAP kinase tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2/MAP3K8 has been implicated as a key regulator of Type I (IFNα/β and Type II (IFNγ IFNs, remarkably little is known about how Tpl2 might contribute to host defense against viruses. Herein, we investigated the role of Tpl2 in antiviral immune responses against influenza virus. We demonstrate that Tpl2 is an integral component of multiple virus sensing pathways, differentially regulating the induction of IFNα/β and IFNλ in a cell-type specific manner. Although Tpl2 is important in the regulation of both IFNα/β and IFNλ, only IFNλ required Tpl2 for its induction during influenza virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. Further studies revealed an unanticipated function for Tpl2 in transducing Type I IFN signals and promoting expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs. Importantly, Tpl2 signaling in nonhematopoietic cells is necessary to limit early virus replication. In addition to early innate alterations, impaired expansion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells accompanied delayed viral clearance in Tpl2-/- mice at late time points. Consistent with its critical role in facilitating both innate and adaptive antiviral responses, Tpl2 is required for restricting morbidity and mortality associated with influenza virus infection. Collectively, these findings establish an essential role for Tpl2 in antiviral host defense mechanisms.

  6. Systemic and local ACTH produced during inflammatory states promotes osteochondrogenic mesenchymal cell differentiation contributing to the pathologic progression of calcified atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jodi F; Ragolia, Louis

    2012-12-01

    There are many well-known roles for the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived peptides and their receptors, the melanocortin receptors (MC-R). The focus here is on the evolving role of the melanocortin system in inflammation. Chronic inflammatory states such as those occurring in diabetes and obesity are associated with both a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as well as increased incidence of atherosclerosis. An inflammation-induced hyperactive HPA axis along with increased leukocyte infiltration can lead to significant exposure to melanocortin peptides, particularly ACTH, in an inflamed vasculature. Mesenchymal progenitor cells are present throughout the vasculature, express receptors for the melanocortin peptides, and respond to ACTH with increased osteochondrogenic differentiation. Coupled to the increased exposure to ACTH during HPA hyperactivity is increased glucocorticoid (GC) exposure. GCs also promote chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors and increase their expression of MC-R as well as their expression of POMC and its cleavage products. It is hypothesized that during inflammatory states systemically produced ACTH and glucocorticoid as well as ACTH produced locally by macrophage and other immune cells, can influence and potentiate mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation along the osteochondrogenic lineages. In turn the increase in osteochondrogenic matrix contributes to the pathophysiological progression of the calcified atherosclerotic plaque. The roles of the melanocortin system in inflammation and its resolution have just begun to be explored. Investigations into the ACTH-induced matrix changes among mesenchymal cell populations are warranted. ACTH signaling through the MC-R represents a new therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of calcified atherosclerosis.

  7. Sox17 promotes cell cycle progression and inhibits TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling to initiate progenitor cell behavior in the respiratory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Lange

    Full Text Available The Sry-related high mobility group box transcription factor Sox17 is required for diverse developmental processes including endoderm formation, vascular development, and fetal hematopoietic stem cell maintenance. Expression of Sox17 in mature respiratory epithelial cells causes proliferation and lineage respecification, suggesting that Sox17 can alter adult lung progenitor cell fate. In this paper, we identify mechanisms by which Sox17 influences lung epithelial progenitor cell behavior and reprograms cell fate in the mature respiratory epithelium. Conditional expression of Sox17 in epithelial cells of the adult mouse lung demonstrated that cell cluster formation and respecification of alveolar progenitor cells toward proximal airway lineages were rapidly reversible processes. Prolonged expression of Sox17 caused the ectopic formation of bronchiolar-like structures with diverse respiratory epithelial cell characteristics in alveolar regions of lung. During initiation of progenitor cell behavior, Sox17 induced proliferation and increased the expression of the progenitor cell marker Sca-1 and genes involved in cell cycle progression. Notably, Sox17 enhanced cyclin D1 expression in vivo and activated cyclin D1 promoter activity in vitro. Sox17 decreased the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta-responsive cell cycle inhibitors in the adult mouse lung, including p15, p21, and p57, and inhibited TGF-beta1-mediated transcriptional responses in vitro. Further, Sox17 interacted with Smad3 and blocked Smad3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Together, these data show that a subset of mature respiratory epithelial cells retains remarkable phenotypic plasticity and that Sox17, a gene required for early endoderm formation, activates the cell cycle and reinitiates multipotent progenitor cell behavior in mature lung cells.

  8. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  9. Arsenic-resistant bacteria solubilized arsenic in the growth media and increased growth of arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Piyasa; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2011-10-01

    The role of arsenic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in arsenic solubilization from growth media and growth enhancement of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. was examined. Seven ARB (tolerant to 10 mM arsenate) were isolated from the P. vittata rhizosphere and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Pseudomonas sp., Comamonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. During 7-d hydroponic experiments, these bacteria effectively solubilized arsenic from the growth media spiked with insoluble FeAsO₄ and AlAsO₄ minerals (from organic C) by P. vittata may be responsible for As solubilization. Increase in P. vittata root biomass from 1.5-2.2 to 3.4-4.2 g/plant dw by ARB and by arsenic was associated with arsenic-induced plant P uptake. Arsenic resistant bacteria may have potential to enhance phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils by P. vittata. PMID:21840210

  10. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  11. Regeneration of Commercial SCR Catalysts: Probing the Existing Forms of Arsenic Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Junhua; Peng, Yue; Si, Wenzhe; He, Xu; Hao, Jiming

    2015-08-18

    To investigate the poisoning and regeneration of SCR catalysts, fresh and arsenic-poisoned commercial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts are researched in the context of deactivation mechanisms and regeneration technology. The results indicate that the forms of arsenic oxide on the poisoned catalyst are related to the proportion of arsenic (As) on the catalyst. When the surface coverage of (V+W+As) is lower than 1, the trivalent arsenic species (As(III)) is the major component, and this species prefers to permeate into the bulk-phase channels. However, at high As concentrations, pentavalent arsenic species (As(IV)) cover the surface of the catalyst. Although both arsenic species lower the NOx conversion, they affect the formation of N2O differently. In particular, N2O production is limited when trivalent arsenic species predominate, which may be related to As2O3 clogging the pores of the catalyst. In contrast, the pentavalent arsenic oxide species (As2O5) possess several As-OH groups. These As-OH groups could not only enhance the ability of the catalyst to become reduced, but also provide several Brønsted acid sites with weak thermal stability that promote the formation of N2O. Finally, although our novel Ca(NO3)2-based regeneration method cannot completely remove As2O3 from the micropores of the catalyst, this approach can effectively wipe off surface arsenic oxides without a significant loss of the catalyst's active components. PMID:26186082

  12. Regeneration of Commercial SCR Catalysts: Probing the Existing Forms of Arsenic Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Junhua; Peng, Yue; Si, Wenzhe; He, Xu; Hao, Jiming

    2015-08-18

    To investigate the poisoning and regeneration of SCR catalysts, fresh and arsenic-poisoned commercial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts are researched in the context of deactivation mechanisms and regeneration technology. The results indicate that the forms of arsenic oxide on the poisoned catalyst are related to the proportion of arsenic (As) on the catalyst. When the surface coverage of (V+W+As) is lower than 1, the trivalent arsenic species (As(III)) is the major component, and this species prefers to permeate into the bulk-phase channels. However, at high As concentrations, pentavalent arsenic species (As(IV)) cover the surface of the catalyst. Although both arsenic species lower the NOx conversion, they affect the formation of N2O differently. In particular, N2O production is limited when trivalent arsenic species predominate, which may be related to As2O3 clogging the pores of the catalyst. In contrast, the pentavalent arsenic oxide species (As2O5) possess several As-OH groups. These As-OH groups could not only enhance the ability of the catalyst to become reduced, but also provide several Brønsted acid sites with weak thermal stability that promote the formation of N2O. Finally, although our novel Ca(NO3)2-based regeneration method cannot completely remove As2O3 from the micropores of the catalyst, this approach can effectively wipe off surface arsenic oxides without a significant loss of the catalyst's active components.

  13. Arsenic bioavailability in soils before and after soil washing: the use of Escherichia coli whole-cell bioreporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Youngdae; Kang, Yerin; Chae, Yooeun; Kim, Sunghoon; Lee, Youngshim; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the quantification of bioavailable arsenic in contaminated soils and evaluation of soil-washing processes in the aspect of bioavailability using a novel bacterial bioreporter developed in present study. The whole-cell bioreporter (WCB) was genetically engineered by fusing the promoter of nik operon from Escherichia coli and green fluorescent protein as a sensing domain and reporter domain. Among eight well-known hazardous heavy metals and metalloid, this system responded specifically to arsenic, thereby inferring association of As(III) with NikR inhibits the repression. Moreover, the response was proportional to the concentration of As(III), thereby it was capable to determine the amount of bioavailable arsenic quantitatively in contaminated soils. The bioavailable portion of arsenic was 5.9 (3.46-10.96) and 0.9 (0.27-1.74) % of total from amended and site soils, respectively, suggesting the bioavailability of arsenic in soils was related to the soil properties and duration of aging. On the other hand, only 1.37 (0.21-2.97) % of total arsenic was extracted into soil solutions and 19.88 (11.86-28.27) % of arsenic in soil solution was bioavailable. This result showed that the soluble arsenic is not all bioavailable and most of bioavailable arsenic in soils is water non-extractable. In addition, the bioavailable arsenic was increased after soil-washing while total amount was decreased, thereby suggesting the soil-washing processes release arsenic associated with soil materials to be bioavailable. Therefore, it would be valuable to have a tool to assess bioavailability and the bioavailability should be taken into consideration for soil remediation plans.

  14. FXR促进肝脏再生作用的研究进展%Progress in understanding the role of FXR in promoting liver regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于昊; 崔云甫

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of the liver is well known, and it can regenerate itself by a compensatory regrowth in response to partial hepa-tectomy or injury. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Bile acids are FXR physiological ligands. As a metabolic regulator, FXR plays key roles in regulating metabolism of bile acids, lipids and glucose. Recently, activation of intercellular signal transduction has been shown to play an important role in liver regeneration by binding of bile acids to their receptor FXR. Bile acid/FXR signaling pathway is required for normal liver regeneration. Furthermore, FXR promotes liver repair after injury, and activation of FXR is able to alleviate age-related defective liver regeneration. These novel findings suggest that FXR-mediated bile acid signaling is an important component of normal liver regeneration and highlight the potential use of FXR ligands to promote liver regeneration after segmental liver transplantation or resection of liver tumors. This review summarizes the recent progress in understanding the role of FXR in promoting liver regeneration.%肝脏具有再生的能力是众所周知的,他在部分切除或损伤后通过代偿增生的方式能够实现自我再生.法尼酯X受体(farnesoid X receptor,FXR)是配体激活转录因子的核激素受体超家族中的一员,胆汁酸是FXR的内源性配体.作为一种代谢调节因子,FXR在调节胆汁酸、脂质和葡萄糖的代谢中起到了至关重要的作用.近来,研究发现胆汁酸与其受体FXR结合激活细胞间的信号转导对肝再生起重要作用,胆汁酸/FXR信号通路是正常肝再生所必需的.此外,FXR能促进肝脏损伤后的修复,且FXR的活化能够减轻年龄相关性的肝脏再生缺陷.这些新的发现提示FXR介导的胆汁酸信号在正常肝再生中是一个不可或缺的组成部分,同时也突出了FXR配体对促进部分

  15. Progress report on the promotion and use of renewable energy sources. 1. report. Implementation of article 22 of European Union Directive 2009/28/EEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared for the European Commission pursuant to article 22 of Directive 2009/28/EEC regarding the promotion and use of energy produced from renewable sources, based on the model provided by the Commission. Contents: 1. Sectoral and overall shares, actual production and consumption of energy from renewable sources for 2009 and 2010; 2. Measures taken during the last 2 years and/or forecast at a national level for promoting renewable energy sources; 2.a Evaluations and improvements for administrative procedures aimed at removing regulatory and other obstacles to the development of renewable energy sources; 2.b Measures aimed at ensuring the transmission and distribution of renewable electricity and improving the regulatory framework concerning the management and sharing of grid connection and consolidation costs; 3. Description of support schemes and promotional measures for renewable energy sources and new elements introduced by the national action plan; 3.1. Information on the mode of distribution between end-users of electricity benefiting from support in accordance with article 3, paragraph 6 of Directive 2003/54/EEC; 4. Information on the manner in which support schemes are structured, where appropriate, for integrating RES applications presenting additional advantages but which can entail higher costs, notably biofuels produced from waste, residue, non-food cellulose material and lignocellulose material; 5. Information on the guarantees of origin mechanism for electricity, heating and cooling from RES, and measures taken to ensure the system's reliability and protection against fraud; 6. Description of changes brought over the 2 previous years on the availability and use of biomass resources for energy purposes; 7. Changes to the prices of basic products and land use for the past 2 years in relation to the increased use of biomass and other forms of renewable energy; 8. Evolution in the share of biofuels produced from waste, residue

  16. Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J; Adomako, Eureka E; Deacon, Claire M; Carey, Anne-Marie; Price, Adam H; Meharg, Andrew A

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic.

  17. Phytoextraction by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. from six arsenic-contaminated soils: Repeated harvests and arsenic redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Maria I.S.; Santos, Jorge A.G. [Department of Soil Chemistry, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, 44380000 (Brazil); Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, 2169 McCarty Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States)], E-mail: lqma@ifas.ufl.edu

    2008-07-15

    This greenhouse experiment evaluated arsenic removal by Pteris vittata and its effects on arsenic redistribution in soils. P. vittata grew in six arsenic-contaminated soils and its fronds were harvested and analyzed for arsenic in October, 2003, April, 2004, and October, 2004. The soil arsenic was separated into five fractions via sequential extraction. The ferns grew well and took up arsenic from all soils. Fern biomass ranged from 24.8 to 33.5 g plant{sup -1} after 4 months of growth but was reduced in the subsequent harvests. The frond arsenic concentrations ranged from 66 to 6,151 mg kg{sup -1}, 110 to 3,056 mg kg{sup -1}, and 162 to 2,139 mg kg{sup -1} from the first, second and third harvest, respectively. P. vittata reduced soil arsenic by 6.4-13% after three harvests. Arsenic in the soils was primarily associated with amorphous hydrous oxides (40-59%), which contributed the most to arsenic taken up by P. vittata (45-72%). It is possible to use P. vittata to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils by repeatedly harvesting its fronds. - Pteris vittata was effective in continuously removing arsenic from contaminated soils after three repeated harvests.

  18. RARE CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING

    OpenAIRE

    Mundle; Neelima; Sushrut; Yogesh; Shukan; Shalik; Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Today, arsenic is primarily used in the produc tion of glass and semiconductors., Arsenic may be found as a water or food contaminant, particularly in shellfish and other seafood, and often contaminates fruits and vegetables, particularly rice

  19. Inorganic arsenic poisoning in pastured feeder lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.A.; Crane, M.R.; Tomson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Clinical signs and necropsy findings in a group of feeder lambs were suggestive of inorganic arsenic poisoning. Source of exposure was established and toxic concentrations of arsenic were detected in the tissues. 13 references, 1 table.

  20. Airborne exposure and estimated bioavailability of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yager, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Madison, WI (United States); Clewell, H.J. III [ICF Consulting, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hicks, J. [Geomatrix, (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A pilot group of workers were used in a study to determine the relationship between exposure to arsenic present in fly ash particles and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during full shift work schedules and daily urine samples were collected to determine the concentration of arsenic and its metabolites. Airborne particle size distribution samples were collected on six-stage personal cascade impactors. Previous studies of airborne exposure to arsenic in copper smelters predict urinary values nearly three times higher than those seen in exposure to arsenic in fly ash. The results suggest that differences in biological uptake of airborne arsenic probably depend on characteristics such as solubility, particle size and distribution and matrix composition of the arsenic compounds.

  1. Arsenic in the aetiology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile; Grosche, Bernd

    2006-06-01

    Arsenic, one of the most significant hazards in the environment affecting millions of people around the world, is associated with several diseases including cancers of skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Groundwater contamination by arsenic is the main route of exposure. Inhalation of airborne arsenic or arsenic-contaminated dust is a common health problem in many ore mines. This review deals with the questions raised in the epidemiological studies such as the dose-response relationship, putative confounders and synergistic effects, and methods evaluating arsenic exposure. Furthermore, it describes the metabolic pathways of arsenic, and its biological modes of action. The role of arsenic in the development of cancer is elucidated in the context of combined epidemiological and biological studies. However, further analyses by means of molecular epidemiology are needed to improve the understanding of cancer aetiology induced by arsenic.

  2. RARE CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, arsenic is primarily used in the produc tion of glass and semiconductors., Arsenic may be found as a water or food contaminant, particularly in shellfish and other seafood, and often contaminates fruits and vegetables, particularly rice

  3. Identification of the third binding site of arsenic in human arsenic (III methyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangli Li

    Full Text Available Arsenic (III methyltransferase (AS3MT catalyzes the process of arsenic methylation. Each arsenite (iAs(3+ binds to three cysteine residues, methylarsenite (MMA(3+ binds to two, and dimethylarsenite (DMA(3+ binds to one. However, only two As-binding sites (Cys156 and Cys206 have been confirmed on human AS3MT (hAS3MT. The third As-binding site is still undefined. Residue Cys72 in Cyanidioschyzon merolae arsenite S-adenosylmethyltransferase (CmArsM may be the third As-binding site. The corresponding residue in hAS3MT is Cys61. Functions of Cys32, Cys61, and Cys85 in hAS3MT are unclear though Cys32, Cys61, and Cys85 in rat AS3MT have no effect on the enzyme activity. This is why the functions of Cys32, Cys61, and Cys85 in hAS3MT merit investigation. Here, three mutants were designed, C32S, C61S, and C85S. Their catalytic activities and conformations were determined, and the catalytic capacities of C156S and C206S were studied. Unlike C85S, mutants C32S and C61S were completely inactive in the methylation of iAs(3+ and active in the methylation of MMA(3+. The catalytic activity of C85S was also less pronounced than that of WT-hAS3MT. All these findings suggest that Cys32 and Cys61 markedly influence the catalytic activity of hAS3MT. Cys32 and Cys61 are necessary to the first step of methylation but not to the second. Cys156 and Cys206 are required for both the first and second steps of methylation. The S(C32 is located far from arsenic in the WT-hAS3MT-SAM-As model. The distances between S(C61 and arsenic in WT-hAS3MT-As and WT-hAS3MT-SAM-As models are 7.5 Å and 4.1 Å, respectively. This indicates that SAM-binding to hAS3MT shortens the distance between S(C61 and arsenic and promotes As-binding to hAS3MT. This is consistent with the fact that SAM is the first substrate to bind to hAS3MT and iAs is the second. Model of WT-hAS3MT-SAM-As and the experimental results indicate that Cys61 is the third As-binding site.

  4. 氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法测定合金钢及合金中痕量元素铅、锡、砷、锑、铋的进展%Determination Progress of Trace Elements (Lead, Tin, Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth)in Staliness Steel Alloys by HF-AFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳兵; 刘爱坤; 戴学谦; 王珺

    2011-01-01

    通过对近年来有关氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法在复杂基体体系中痕量元素检测方面的资料总结,阐述了氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法分析过程中的干扰类型、干扰机理及消除干扰的措施,对其在合金钢及合金中痕量元素铅、锡、砷、锑、铋测定中的应用进展作了评述,并对氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法的发展前景提出了展望。%This paper presented a data summary of determination of trace elements in a complex matrix system by HG-AFS,covering the recent years. The interference type, interference mechanism and measures to eliminate interference of HG-AFS were also described. We reviewed the progress of the determination application of the Staliness Steel Alloys of trace elements, tin, lead, arsenic, antimony bismuth.We also discussed the HG-AFS development prospect.

  5. Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombach, G. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany)); Pierra, A. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany)); Klemm, W. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble arsenic, the several oxidation states (As[sup 3+], As[sup 5+]) and the bonding types have been analyzed. (orig.)

  6. Activity of the AtMRP3 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants is increased by cadmium, nickel, arsenic, cobalt and lead but not by zinc and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zientara, K.; Wawrzynska, A.; Lukomska, J.; Lopez Moya, J.R.; Liszewska, F.; Assuncao, A.G.L.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Sirko, A.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of the function, regulation and metal-specificity of metal transporters is one of the basic steps needed for the understanding of transport and accumulation of toxic metals and metalloids by plants. In this work GUS was used as a reporter for monitoring the activity of the promoter

  7. Arsenic - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Arsenic URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/arsenic.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Arsenic - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. 21 CFR 556.60 - Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic. 556.60 Section 556.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND... New Animal Drugs § 556.60 Arsenic. Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside the container. (vi) The... readily through the skin. Because inorganic arsenic is a poison, you should wash your hands thoroughly... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1910.1018 Section 1910.1018...

  10. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  11. Arsenic intoxication associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G V; Rossi, N F

    1995-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is an often unrecognized cause of renal insufficiency. We report a case of tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with an elevated urinary arsenic concentration. Removal of the putative source of arsenic resulted in symptomatic improvement, resolution of abnormal abdominal radiographs, and stabilization of renal function. This case emphasizes the importance of heavy metal screening in patients with multisystem complaints and tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  12. Arsenic in groundwaters in the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt: A review of patterns and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen C.

    2008-07-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic in the bedrock of the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt was first recognized in the late 19th century. The knowledge of the behavior of arsenic in groundwater in this region has lagged behind nearly a century, with the popular press reporting on local studies in the early 1980s, and most peer-reviewed research articles on regional patterns conducted and written in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research reports have shown that within this high arsenic region, between 6% and 22% of households using private drinking water wells contain arsenic in excess of 10 µg/L, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level. In nearly all reports, arsenic in drinking water was derived from naturally occurring geologic sources, typically arsenopyrite, substituted sulfides such as arsenian pyrite, and nanoscale minerals such as westerveldite. In most studies, arsenic concentrations in groundwater were controlled by pH dependent adsorption to mineral surfaces, most commonly iron oxide minerals. In some cases, reductive dissolution of iron minerals has been shown to increase arsenic concentrations in groundwater, more commonly associated with anthropogenic activities such as landfills. Evidence of nitrate reduction promoting the presence of arsenic(V) and iron(III) minerals in anoxic environments has been shown to occur in surface waters, and in this manuscript we show this process perhaps applies to groundwater. The geologic explanation for the high arsenic region in the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt is most likely the crustal recycling of arsenic as an incompatible element during tectonic activity. Accretion of multiple terranes, in particular Avalonia and the Central Maine Terrane of New England appear to be connected to the presence of high concentrations of arsenic. Continued tectonic activity and recycling of these older terranes may also be responsible for the high arsenic observed in the Triassic rift basins

  13. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  14. Introducing Simple Detection of Bioavailable Arsenic at Rafaela (Santa Fe Province, Argentina Using the ARSOlux Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Siegfried

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of arsenic in drinking water in Argentina, and the resulting health effects in severely affected regions of the country. Arsenic in drinking water in Argentina is largely naturally occurring due to elevated background content of the metalloid in volcanic sediments, although, in some regions, mining can contribute. While the origin of arsenic release has been discussed extensively, the problem of drinking water contamination has not yet been solved. One key step in progress towards mitigation of problems related with the consumption of As-containing water is the availability of simple detection tools. A chemical test kit and the ARSOlux biosensor were evaluated as simple analytical tools for field measurements of arsenic in the groundwater of Rafaela (Santa Fe, Argentina, and the results were compared with ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS measurements. A survey of the groundwater chemistry was performed to evaluate possible interferences with the field tests. The results showed that the ARSOlux biosensor performed better than the chemical field test, that the predominant species of arsenic in the study area was arsenate and that arsenic concentration in the studied samples had a positive correlation with fluoride and vanadium, and a negative one with calcium and iron.

  15. Introducing Simple Detection of Bioavailable Arsenic at Rafaela (Santa Fe Province, Argentina) Using the ARSOlux Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Konrad; Hahn-Tomer, Sonja; Koelsch, Andreas; Osterwalder, Eva; Mattusch, Juergen; Staerk, Hans-Joachim; Meichtry, Jorge M.; De Seta, Graciela E.; Reina, Fernando D.; Panigatti, Cecilia; Litter, Marta I.; Harms, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of arsenic in drinking water in Argentina, and the resulting health effects in severely affected regions of the country. Arsenic in drinking water in Argentina is largely naturally occurring due to elevated background content of the metalloid in volcanic sediments, although, in some regions, mining can contribute. While the origin of arsenic release has been discussed extensively, the problem of drinking water contamination has not yet been solved. One key step in progress towards mitigation of problems related with the consumption of As-containing water is the availability of simple detection tools. A chemical test kit and the ARSOlux biosensor were evaluated as simple analytical tools for field measurements of arsenic in the groundwater of Rafaela (Santa Fe, Argentina), and the results were compared with ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS measurements. A survey of the groundwater chemistry was performed to evaluate possible interferences with the field tests. The results showed that the ARSOlux biosensor performed better than the chemical field test, that the predominant species of arsenic in the study area was arsenate and that arsenic concentration in the studied samples had a positive correlation with fluoride and vanadium, and a negative one with calcium and iron. PMID:26006123

  16. Mechanisms to cope with arsenic or cadmium excess in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Nathalie; Hermans, Christian; Schat, Henk

    2009-06-01

    The metalloid arsenic and the heavy metal cadmium have no demonstrated biological function in plants. Both elements are highly toxic and of major concern with respect to their accumulation in soils, in the food-chain or in drinking water. Arsenate is taken up by phosphate transporters and rapidly reduced to arsenite, As(III). In reducing environments, As(III) is taken up by aquaporin nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins. Cd(2+) enters the root via essential metal uptake systems. As(III) and Cd(2+) share some similarity between their toxicology and sequestration machineries. Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of As and Cd uptake and detoxification is presented, including the elucidation of why rice takes up so much arsenic from soil and of mechanisms of As and Cd hypertolerance.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic has a long and varied history: Although it was not isolated as an element until the 13th century, it was known to the ancient Chinese, Egyptians and Greeks in compound form in the minerals arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment. In the 1400s, “Scheele’s Green” was first used as an arsenic pigment in wallpaper, and leached arsenic from wallpaper may have contributed to Napoleon’s death in 1821. The 1940s play and later movie, Arsenic and Old Lace, dramatizes the metal’s more sinister role. Arsenic continues to be an important mineral commodity with many modern applications.

  18. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  19. Solar oxidation and removal of arsenic--Key parameters for continuous flow applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, L W; O'Farrell, C

    2015-12-01

    Solar oxidation to remove arsenic from water has previously been investigated as a batch process. This research has investigated the kinetic parameters for the design of a continuous flow solar reactor to remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater supplies. Continuous flow recirculated batch experiments were carried out under artificial UV light to investigate the effect of different parameters on arsenic removal efficiency. Inlet water arsenic concentrations of up to 1000 μg/L were reduced to below 10 μg/L requiring 12 mg/L iron after receiving 12 kJUV/L radiation. Citrate however was somewhat surprisingly found to promote a detrimental effect on the removal process in the continuous flow reactor studies which is contrary to results found in batch scale tests. The impact of other typical water groundwater quality parameters (phosphate and silica) on the process due to their competition with arsenic for photooxidation products revealed a much higher sensitivity to phosphate ions compared to silicate. Other results showed no benefit from the addition of TiO2 photocatalyst but enhanced arsenic removal at higher temperatures up to 40 °C. Overall, these results have indicated the kinetic envelope from which a continuous flow SORAS single pass system could be more confidently designed for a full-scale community groundwater application at a village level.

  20. Remediation of arsenic contaminated soil by coupling oxalate washing with subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Menghua; Ye, Yuanyao; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    The application of a novel coupled process with oxalate washing and subsequent zero-valent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil was investigated in the present study. Oxalate is biodegradable and widely present in the environment. With addition of 0.1 mol L(-1) oxalate under circumneutral condition, 83.7% and 52.6% of arsenic could be removed from a spiked kaolin and an actual contaminated soil respectively. Much more oxalate adsorption on the actual soil was attributed to the higher soil organic matter and clay content. Interestingly, oxalate retained in the washing effluent could act as an organic ligand to promote the oxidation efficiency of ZVI/Air at near neutral pH. Compared with the absence of oxalate, much more As(III) was oxidized. Arsenic was effectively adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides as the consumption of oxalate and the increase of pH value. For the actual soil washing effluent, about 94.9% of total arsenic was removed after 120 min's treatment without pH adjustment. It has been demonstrated that As(V) was the dominant arsenic speciation adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides. This study provides a promising alternative for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign.

  1. Remediation of arsenic contaminated soil by coupling oxalate washing with subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Menghua; Ye, Yuanyao; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    The application of a novel coupled process with oxalate washing and subsequent zero-valent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil was investigated in the present study. Oxalate is biodegradable and widely present in the environment. With addition of 0.1 mol L(-1) oxalate under circumneutral condition, 83.7% and 52.6% of arsenic could be removed from a spiked kaolin and an actual contaminated soil respectively. Much more oxalate adsorption on the actual soil was attributed to the higher soil organic matter and clay content. Interestingly, oxalate retained in the washing effluent could act as an organic ligand to promote the oxidation efficiency of ZVI/Air at near neutral pH. Compared with the absence of oxalate, much more As(III) was oxidized. Arsenic was effectively adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides as the consumption of oxalate and the increase of pH value. For the actual soil washing effluent, about 94.9% of total arsenic was removed after 120 min's treatment without pH adjustment. It has been demonstrated that As(V) was the dominant arsenic speciation adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides. This study provides a promising alternative for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign. PMID:26476769

  2. Arsenic-cadmium interaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Llamas, E; Mejía, J J; Carrizales, L; Santoyo, M E; Vega-Vega, L; Yáñez, L

    1990-11-01

    Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and arsenic is highly probable in the urban area of San Luis Potosi, Mexico due to common localization of copper and zinc smelters. Therefore, in this work, rats were intraperitoneally exposed either to cadmium or arsenic alone, or simultaneously to both metals. The effects of these treatments on three different toxicological parameters were studied. Cadmium modified the LD50 of arsenic and conversely arsenic modified the LD50 for cadmium. At the histopathological level, arsenic appeared to protect against the cadmium effects, especially on testes. This protective effect seemed to be related to the glutathione levels found in this tissue: rats exposed to both arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values intermediate to those observed after exposure to either metal alone; arsenic had the highest value and cadmium the lowest. In liver, rats exposed to arsenic, cadmium or arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values below those in the saline group, with the lowest value corresponding to the arsenic and cadmium treatment. The results appear to support the proposed interaction between arsenic and cadmium and coexposure to both metals seems to alter certain effects produced by either metal alone. PMID:2219140

  3. Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Karagas, M.R. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine

    1999-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

  4. Simultaneous detection of bioavailable arsenic and cadmium in contaminated soils using dual-sensing bioreporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Youngdae; Kim, Sunghoon; Chae, Yooeun; Kim, Shin Woong; Kang, Yerin; An, Gyeonghyeon; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-04-01

    Whole-cell bioreporters (WCBs) have attracted increasing attention during the last few decades because they allow fast determination of bioavailable heavy metals in contaminated sites. Various WCBs to monitor specific heavy metals such as arsenic and cadmium in diverse environmental systems are available. However, currently, no study on simultaneous analysis of arsenic and cadmium has been reported, even though soils are contaminated by diverse heavy metals and metalloids. We demonstrated herein the development of dual-sensing WCBs to simultaneously quantify bioavailable arsenic and cadmium in contaminated sites by employing the promoter regions of the ars and znt operons as separate metal-sensing domains, and egfp and mcherry as reporter genes. The dual-sensing WCBs were generated by inserting two sets of genes into E. coli DH5α. The capability of WCBs was successfully proved to simultaneously quantify bioavailable arsenic and cadmium in amended Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs und Forschungsanstalt (LUFA) soils, and then, it was applied to contaminated field soils collected from a smelter area in Korea. As a result, it was noticed that the bioavailable portion of cadmium was higher than that of arsenic while the absolute amount of bioavailable arsenic and cadmium level was opposite. Since both cadmium and arsenic were assessed from the same E. coli cells, the data obtained by using dual-sensing WCBs would be more efficient and convenient than that from comparative WCB assay. In spite of advantageous aspects, to our knowledge, this is the first report on a dual-sensing WCB for rapid and concurrent quantification of bioavailable arsenic and cadmium in contaminated soils.

  5. Plasma-aminothiols status and inverse correlation of total homocysteine with B-vitamins in arsenic exposed population of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashit K; Manna, Sujoy K; Roy, Sanjit K; Chakraborty, Manisha; Das, Surajit; Naskar, Jnan P

    2016-09-18

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a serious environmental health problem across the world. Bangladesh and India (particularly the state of West Bengal) are the worst affected countries with such problem. The present study reports plasma-aminothiols (p-aminothiols) like L-cysteine (L-Cys), cysteinyl glycine (Cys-gly), total homocysteine (t-Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) status, and the inverse relationship of t-Hcy with B-vitamins (B1, B6, B9 and B12) in arsenic exposed population of West Bengal, India. Reverse phase HPLC was used to measure p-aminothiols and serum B-vitamins in different arsenic exposed population. Arsenic in drinking water and urine were measured by flow injection analysis system - Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FIAS-AAS) and Transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA-AAS) techniques, respectively. Water arsenic exposure was >50 µg/L in 50% population, of which majority (33.58%) belong to the range of >50-500 µg/L and more than 8% were even >1000 µg/L. Urine arsenic (µg/g creatinine) levels increased with arsenic exposure. The variability among p-aminothiols was also observed with higher exposure to arsenic in drinking water. A significant difference between exposed and control population was noticed for plasma L-Cys. The difference of B-vitamins between the population exposed to 50 µg/L arsenic in drinking water was also found to be significant. B9 and B12 deficiency with increased consumption of arsenic in water corroborates the anemic conditions commonly observed among arsenic exposed population. The aminothiol status indicated oxidative stress in exposed population. This study demonstrated progressive increase in plasma t-Hcy as well as inverse relationships of serum B-vitamins with increased water arsenic concentration. PMID:27336853

  6. Possible mechanisms for arsenic-induced proliferative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterhahn, K.E.; Dudek, E.J.; Shumilla, J.A. [Dartmouth College and Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Possible mechanisms for cardiovascular diseases and cancers which have been observed on chronic exposure to arsenic have been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that nonlethal levels of arsenic are mitogenic, cause oxidative stress, increase nuclear translocation of trans-acting factors, and increase expression of genes involved in proliferation. Cultured porcine vascular (from aorta) endothelial cells were used as a model cell system to study the effects of arsenic on the target cells for cardiovascular diseases. Treatment of postconfluent cell cultures with nonovertly toxic concentrations of arsenite increased DNA synthesis, similar to the mitogenic response observed with hydrogen peroxide. Within 1 hour of adding noncytotoxic concentrations of arsenite, cellular levels of oxidants increased relative to control levels, indicating that arsenite promotes cellular oxidations. Arsenite treatment increased nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, an oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor, in a manner similar to that observed with hydrogen peroxide. Pretreatment of intact cells with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dimethylfumarate prevented the arsenite-induced increases in cellular oxidant formation and NF-KB translocation. Arsenite had little or no effect on binding of NF-KB to its DNA recognition sequence in vitro, indicating that it is unlikely that arsenite directly affects NF-KB. The steady-state mRNA levels of intracellular adhesion molecule and urokinase-like plasminogen activator, genes associated with the active endothelial phenotype in arteriosclerosis and cancer metastasis, were increased by nontoxic concentrations of arsenite. These data suggest that arsenite promotes proliferative diseases like heart disease and cancer by activating oxidant-sensitive endothelial cell signaling and gene expression. It is possible that antioxidant therapy would be useful in preventing arsenic-induced cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  7. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A

  8. Speciation analysis of arsenic in groundwater from Inner Mongolia with an emphasis on acid-leachable particulate arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Zhilong [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Lu Xiufen [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Watt, Corinna [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Wen Bei [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); He Bin [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Mumford, Judy [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Environmental Protection Agency, Human Studies Division, Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ning Zhixiong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Xia Yajuan [Inner Mongolia Center for Endemic Disease Control and Research, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia (China); Le, X. Chris [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada)]. E-mail: xc.le@ualberta.ca

    2006-01-05

    Arsenic in drinking water affects millions of people around the world. While soluble arsenic is commonly measured, the amount of particulate arsenic in drinking water has often been overlooked. We report here determination of the acid-leachable particulate arsenic and soluble arsenicals in well water from an arsenic-poisoning endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China. Water samples (583) were collected from 120 wells in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia, where well water was the primary drinking water source. Two methods were demonstrated for the determination of soluble arsenic species (primarily inorganic arsenate and arsenite) and total particulate arsenic. The first method used solid phase extraction cartridges and membrane filters to separate arsenic species on-site, followed by analysis of the individual arsenic species eluted from the cartridges and filters. The other method uses liquid chromatography separation with hydride generation atomic fluorescence detection to determine soluble arsenic species. Analysis of acidified water samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry provided the total arsenic concentration. Arsenic concentrations in water samples from the 120 wells ranged from <1 to {approx}1000 {mu}g L{sup -1}. On average, particulate arsenic accounted for 39 {+-} 38% (median 36%) of the total arsenic. In some wells, particulate arsenic was six times higher than the soluble arsenic concentration. Particulate arsenic can be effectively removed using membrane filtration. The information on particulate and soluble arsenic in water is useful for optimizing treatment options and for understanding the geochemical behavior of arsenic in groundwater.

  9. 蜈蚣草砷超富集机制及其在砷污染修复中的应用%Advance of the Mechanisms of Arsenic Hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata L. and Applications for Arsenic-Remediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申红玲; 何振艳; 麻密

    2014-01-01

    The fern Pteris vittata can absorb arsenic from the soil, and most of arsenic is transported to the abo-veground tissues, stored in the vacuole of fronds. P. vittata has an efifcient antioxidant system which can reduce arsenic poisoning. Importantly, the arsenate reduction system and vacuole sequestration are critical for arsenic detoxiifcation and arsenic hyperaccumulation. In this review, the latest research progress about the physiologi-cal and molecular mechanisms of arsenic tolerance and accumulation in P. vittata was summarized, and the fu-ture applications of this fern for remediation of removal arsenic-contaminated soils or water were discussed as well.%蕨类植物蜈蚣草能够从土壤中吸收砷,并储存于地上部分羽叶的液泡中。蜈蚣草具有高效的抗氧化系统,以降低砷的毒害;其砷酸还原系统和液泡区隔化是蜈蚣草进行砷解毒和砷超富集的重要机制。本文综述了目前蜈蚣草砷超富集机制研究的主要进展,并对其在修复砷污染环境的应用中进行了讨论。

  10. 煤中砷的测定方法及其赋存形态的研究进展%Recent Status on Methods of Determination of Arsenic in Coal and Researches of Endowed Species of Arsenic in Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凤海元; 吴晶

    2012-01-01

    A review of the recent status of methods of determination of total arsenic in coal and researches on endowed species of arsenic in coal, covering mainly the years of last decade was presented, relating especially the topics on the pretreatment of coal samples in the determination of total arsenic, various methods used in the determination of arsenic in coal and researches on the endowed species of arsenic in coal, as well as the extraction of various species of arsenic individually from the coal sample. A forecast on the future progress of the related problems mentioned above, especially on the speciation analysis for arsenic in coal was also given (35 ref. cited).%对近10年中国内外煤中砷量的测定方法以及煤中砷的赋存形态方面的研究进展作了综述。内容涉及测定煤中砷时试样的前处理方法,砷的各种测定方法和煤中砷的赋存形态研究以及各种形态砷的提取方法。对上述有关问题的发展前景也提出了期望(引述文献35篇)。

  11. Effects of plant arsenic uptake and heavy metals on arsenic distribution in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayiga, Abioye O. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States); Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States) and Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)]. E-mail: lqma@ifas.ufl.edu; Zhou Qixing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2007-06-15

    This study examined the effects of heavy metals and plant arsenic uptake on soil arsenic distribution. Chemical fractionation of an arsenic-contaminated soil spiked with 50 or 200 mg kg{sup -1} Ni, Zn, Cd or Pb was performed before and after growing the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L for 8 weeks using NH{sub 4}Cl (water-soluble plus exchangeable, WE-As), NH{sub 4}F (Al-As), NaOH (Fe-As), and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (Ca-As). Arsenic in the soil was present primarily as the recalcitrant forms with Ca-As being the dominant fraction (45%). Arsenic taken up by P. vittata was from all fractions though Ca-As contributed the most (51-71% reduction). After 8 weeks of plant growth, the Al-As and Fe-As fractions were significantly (p < 0.01) greater in the metal-spiked soils than the control, with changes in the WE-As fraction being significantly (p = 0.007) correlated with plant arsenic removal. The plant's ability to solubilize soil arsenic from recalcitrant fractions may have enhanced its ability to hyperaccumulate arsenic. - Arsenic taken up by P. vittata was from all fractions with most from the Ca-fraction.

  12. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to arsenic (As poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions, who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China, were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs [arsenite (iAsIII and arsenate (iAsV], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  13. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, B.S.; Aposhian, H.V.; Zhou, Y.S.; Chen, M.L.; Zhang, A.H.; Waalkes, M.P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China was investigated. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such over exposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  14. Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.

  15. Poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroslav, S.

    1962-01-01

    Massive poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. Arsenic emissions from an ore processing plant in Tesin were responsible for massive bee deaths after World War I. Massive death of bees was observed in 1938 in the Krompach region around a copper ore smelting plant which emitted arsenic. Other accidents were reported in 1954 and 1957 in areas around industrial plants and power plants using arsenopyrite-containing low-grade coal or lignite. Arsenic was emitted bound in fly-ash in the form of arsenic trioxide or, in the case of coals containing alkaline chlorides, in the form of arsenic trichloride. The arsenic contamination extended to areas within a radius of 3 to 7 km. Settled fly-ash contained 0.0004 to 0.75 percent arsenic, which was soluble in a citrate-hydrochloric acid solution of pH 3.9, which corresponds to the gastric acid of bees. The arsenic uptake by the bees from pollen was calculated to amount to 1 microgram daily, against a toxic dose of 0.37 microgram. The toxic effect of arsenic on bees can be abated by adding colloidal iron hydroxide to the sugar solution which they are fed.

  16. Poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, J.

    1962-01-01

    Massive poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. Arsenic emissions from an ore processing plant in Tesin were responsible for massive bee deaths after World War I. Massive death of bees was observed in 1938 in the Krompach region around a copper ore smelting plant which emitted arsenic. Other accidents were reported in 1954 and 1957 in areas around industrial plants and power plants using arsenopyrite-containing low-grade coal or lignite. Arsenic was emitted bound in fly-ash in the form of arsenic trioxide or, in the case of coals containing alkaline chlorides, in the form of arsenic trichloride. The arsenic contamination extended to areas within a radius of 3-7 km. Settled fly-ash contained 0.0004-0.75% arsenic, which was soluble in a citrate-hydrochloric acid solution of pH 3.9, which corresponds to the gastric acid of bees. The arsenic uptake by the bees from pollen was calculated to amount to 1 microgram daily, against a toxic dose of 0.37 microgram. The toxic effect of arsenic on bees can be abated by adding colloidal iron hydroxide to the sugar solution which they are fed. 5 references.

  17. Epidemiologic evidence of diabetogenic effect of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chong, Choon-Khim; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2002-07-01

    It is well documented that arsenic can lead to skin lesions, atherosclerotic diseases and cancers. The association between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus is a relatively new finding. Up to now, there are six epidemiologic reports linking diabetes mellitus with arsenic exposure from environmental and occupational sources. Two reports in Taiwan carried out in the blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages, one cross-sectional and one prospective follow-up of the same cohort, indicate that arsenic exposure from drinking artesian well water is associated with prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in a dose-responsive pattern. The observation of the relation between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus is further supported by studies carried out in Sweden and Bangladesh. In Sweden, case-control analyses of death records of copper smelters and glass workers revealed a trend of increasing diabetes mellitus with increasing arsenic exposure from inhalation. In Bangladesh, prevalence of diabetes mellitus among arsenic-exposed subjects with keratosis was about five times higher than unexposed subjects. Increasing trends of diabetes mellitus with indices of arsenic exposure in drinking water seems to be independent of the presence of skin lesions associated with arsenic exposure. Although these studies consistently show an association between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus, the weak study designs of cross-sectional or case-control, the use of glucosuria or diabetes death as diagnostic criteria and the lack of adjustment for possible confounders in some studies, are major limitations that may reduce the strength of the evidence. PMID:12076511

  18. Sequestration of arsenic in ombrotrophic peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, James; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Taylor, Kevin; Polya, David; Evans, Martin; Allott, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Peatlands can be important stores of arsenic but we are lacking spectroscopic evidence of the sequestration pathways of this toxic metalloid in peatland environments. This study reports on the solid-phase speciation of anthropogenically-derived arsenic in atmospherically contaminated peat from the Peak District National Park (UK). Surface and sub-surface peat samples were analysed by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy on B18 beamline at Diamond Light Source (UK). The results suggest that there are contrasting arsenic sequestration mechanisms in the peat. The bulk arsenic speciation results, in combination with strong arsenic-iron correlations at the surface, suggest that iron (hydr)oxides are key phases for the immobilisation of arsenic at the peat surface. In contrast, the deeper peat samples are dominated by arsenic sulphides (arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment). Given that these peats receive inputs solely from the atmosphere, the presence of these sulphide phases suggests an in-situ authigenic formation. Redox oscillations in the peat due to a fluctuating water table and an abundant store of legacy sulphur from historic acid rain inputs may favour the precipitation of arsenic sequestering sulphides in sub-surface horizons. Oxidation-induced loss of these arsenic sequestering sulphur species by water table drawdown has important implications for the mobility of arsenic and the quality of waters draining peatlands.

  19. Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, J.G. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the presence of natural organic matter. The pH range for arsenic(V) removal with alum was more restricted than with ferric chloride. For source waters spiked with 20 {micro}g/L arsenic(V), final dissolved arsenic(V) concentrations in the product water of less than 2 {micro}g/L were achieved with both coagulants at neutral pH. Removal of arsenic(III) from source waters by ferric chloride was both less efficient and more strongly influenced by source water composition than removal of arsenic(V). The presence of sulfate (at pH 4 and 5) and natural organic matter (at pH 4 through 9) adversely affected the efficiency of arsenic(III) removal by ferric chloride. Arsenic(III) could not be removed from source waters by coagulation with alum.

  20. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  1. The microbial genomics of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Jérémy; Bertin, Philippe N

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic, which is a major contaminant of many aquatic ecosystems worldwide, is responsible for serious public health issues. However, life has evolved various strategies for coping with this toxic element. In particular, prokaryotic organisms have developed processes enabling them to resist and metabolize this chemical. Studies based on genome sequencing and transcriptome, proteome and metabolome profiling have greatly improved our knowledge of prokaryotes' metabolic potential and functioning in contaminated environments. The increasing number of genomes available and the development of descriptive and comparative approaches have made it possible not only to identify several genetic determinants of the arsenic metabolism, but also to elucidate their phylogenetic distribution and their modes of regulation. In addition, studies using functional genomic tools have established the pleiotropic character of prokaryotes' responses to arsenic, which can be either common to several species or species-specific. These approaches also provide promising means of deciphering the functioning of microbial communities including uncultured organisms, the genetic transfers involved and the possible occurrence of metabolic interactions as well as the evolution of arsenic resistance and metabolism.

  2. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  3. Bimetallic nanoparticles for arsenic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Nafiseh; Mohapatra, Mamata; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-06-01

    Effective and sensitive monitoring of heavy metal ions, particularly arsenic, in drinking water is very important to risk management of public health. Arsenic is one of the most serious natural pollutants in soil and water in more than 70 countries in the world. The need for very sensitive sensors to detect ultralow amounts of arsenic has attracted great research interest. Here, bimetallic FePt, FeAu, FePd, and AuPt nanoparticles (NPs) are electrochemically deposited on the Si(100) substrate, and their electrochemical properties are studied for As(III) detection. We show that trace amounts of As(III) in neutral pH could be determined by using anodic stripping voltammetry. The synergistic effect of alloying with Fe leads to better performance for Fe-noble metal NPs (Au, Pt, and Pd) than pristine noble metal NPs (without Fe alloying). Limit of detection and linear range are obtained for FePt, FeAu, and FePd NPs. The best performance is found for FePt NPs with a limit of detection of 0.8 ppb and a sensitivity of 0.42 μA ppb(-1). The selectivity of the sensor has also been tested in the presence of a large amount of Cu(II), as the most detrimental interferer ion for As detection. The bimetallic NPs therefore promise to be an effective, high-performance electrochemical sensor for the detection of ultratrace quantities of arsenic. PMID:25938763

  4. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of

  5. Slow recovery from severe inorganic arsenic poisoning despite treatment with DMSA (2.3-dimercaptosuccinic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenehjem, Aud-E; Vahter, Marie; Nermell, Barbro; Aasen, Jorulf; Lierhagen, Syverin; Mørland, Jørg; Jacobsen, Dag

    2007-05-01

    A 39-year-old woman was hospitalized for nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and weakness of unknown etiology. Her condition progressively deteriorated and she developed multiple organ failure and tetraplegia. The diagnosis of inorganic arsenic poisoning was established by measurements of arsenic in urine and serum, showing 2,000 microg/L (normal treatment probably had no significant effect on the total body clearance in our patient. The source of the poisoning was never detected, nor the motivation behind it. Criminal intent was suspected, but no verdict was given.

  6. Interaction of Arsenic with Zinc and Organics in a Rice (Oryza sativa L.)–Cultivated Field in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Kumar Das; T. K. Garai; Sarkar, S; Pintu Sur

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment on an Inceptisol with pH 7.6, organic carbon 6.8 g kg–1, and 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable arsenic 0.4 mg kg–1 was conducted to study the interaction effect of graded levels of arsenic (0, 5, and 10 mg kg–1) with zinc (0, 10, and 20 mg kg–1) and organics (0, 1, and 2% on soil weight basis) separately on the mobilization of arsenic in soils.The results show that the amount of 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable arsenic at pH 8.5 increased with the progress of submergence up to 35 days....

  7. Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Huq, S.M. Imamul; Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibilit...

  8. Arsenic adsorption of lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wuthiphun, L.; Towatana, P.; Arrykul, S.; V. Chongsuvivatwong

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic adsorption efficiency of soil covering materials (lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash) on arsenic-contaminated soil obtained from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province tosolve arsenic air pollution problem was investigated using batch experiments. The four types of the aforementioned soil covering materials were examined to determine their arsenic adsorption efficiency, equilibriumtime as well as adsorption isotherms.The results revealed that among soil cove...

  9. CD44v6 expression in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with chronic arsenic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic is a well-known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various types of human skin lesions, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in arsenic-associated carcinogenesis, we repeatedly exposed the HaCaT cells line to an environmentally relevant level of arsenic (0.05 ppm in vitro for 18 weeks. Following sodium arsenic arsenite administration, cell cycle, colony-forming efficiency (CFE, cell tumorigenicity, and expression of CD44v6, NF-κB and p53, were analyzed at different time points (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 passages. We found that a chronic exposure of HaCaT cells to a low level of arsenic induced a cancer stem- like phenotype. Furthermore, arsenic-treated HaCaT cells also became tumorigenic in nude mice, their growth cycle was predominantly in G2/M and S phases. Relative to nontreated cells, they exhibited a higher growth rate and a significant increase in CFE. Western blot analysis found that arsenic was capable of increasing cell proliferation and sprouting of cancer stem-like phenotype. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that CD44v6 expression was up-regulated in HaCaT cells exposed to a low level of arsenic during early stages of induction. The expression of CD44v6 in arsenic-treated cells was positively correlated with their cloning efficiency in soft agar (r=0.949, P=0.01. Likewise, the expressions of activating transcription factor NF-κB and p53 genes in the arsenic-treated HaCaT cells were significantly higher than that in non-treated cells. Higher expressions of CD44v6, NF-κB and p53 were also observed in tumor tissues isolated from Balb/c nude mice. The present results suggest that CD44v6 may be a biomarker of arsenic-induced neoplastic transformation in human skin cells, and that arsenic promotes malignant transformation in human skin lesions through a NF-κB signaling pathway-stimulated expression of CD44v6.

  10. Outbreak of arsenic and toxaphene poisoning in Kenyan cattle. [Arsenic was detected in cattle dips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitai, C.K.; Kamau, J.A.; Gacuhi, D.M.; Njoroge, S.

    1975-02-15

    In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

  11. Method of arsenic removal from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA)

    2010-10-26

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  12. Arsenic--state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, P J

    1981-01-01

    Approximately 1.5 million workers in the United States are exposed to arsenic. Occupational exposure is primarily by inhalation. NIOSH recommends that time-integrated exposure to arsenic in air not exceed 2 micrograms/m3. Recent exposure is accurately measured by urine assay; urine arsenic concentrations above 50 micrograms/liter indicate increased absorption. Hair assay is a semiquantitative index of past exposure. Toxicity is associated primarily with the trivalent (3+) form of arsenic. Acute poisoning is caused most commonly by contaminated food or drink; it is rarely occupational. Chronic intoxication is characterized by dermatitis, hyperpigmentation, keratoses, peripheral neuropathy (primarily sensory), irritation of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and occasionally by hepatic toxicity and peripheral vasculopathy (blackfoot disease). Arsenic is not carcinogenic in animal species, but is mutagenic in Syrian hamster cells. In man, arsenic is known definitely to cause cancer of skin, lung, and liver (angiosarcoma) and possibly to cause lymphoma.

  13. 55th electric science promotion prize (progress prize). Demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW first in the world; Dai 55 kai denki gakujutsu shinkosho (shinposho) jusho. Seiaihatsu no OPGW ni okeru hikari soriton denso no jissho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-10

    Electric science promotion prize (progress prize) is given to `Person who newly proposed a new concept, theory, material, device, system and method on electrical science and technology, or demonstrated these proposals` by the commendation committee of Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan every year. Eight promotion prizes including that for Kansai Electric Power`s `Demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW first in the world` were given. This research succeeded in development of the transmission/ receiving device suitable for optical soliton transmission, and the prediction method of an optimum transmission condition by computer simulation. In addition, this research succeeded in 10Gbit transmission of 784km and 40Gbit transmission (4-wave multiplex) of 392km by applying the above research result to Okurobe trunk line OPGW (98.2km). This demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW is first in the world. (NEDO)

  14. Clarify Industry Development,Enhance Fundamental Research, Promote Material Progress and Push Industrial Upgrade%厘清行业发展加强基础研究促进技术进步推动产业升级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董书山; 陶强; 乔翠娅

    2016-01-01

    文章简要分析了超硬制品的国内外市场竞争、产业结构、产品发展及技术现状。提出了推动材料进步,加强基础研究,转变设计理念,带动工艺装备发展,促进行业的创新发展与升级转型的发展观念。%The competition in domestic and world market,industrial structure,product de-velopment and technical state of superhard product have been briefly analyzed in this arti-cle.Besides,the development concept of promoting material progress,enhancing funda-mental research,transforming design philosophy,encouraging technological equipment development,promoting innovative development,upgrading and transformation of the in-dustry have been put forward.

  15. Arsenic stress after the Proterozoic glaciations

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Chi Fru; Emma Arvestål; Nolwenn Callac; Abderrazak El Albani; Stephanos Kilias; Ariadne Argyraki; Martin Jakobsson

    2015-01-01

    Protection against arsenic damage in organisms positioned deep in the tree of life points to early evolutionary sensitization. Here, marine sedimentary records reveal a Proterozoic arsenic concentration patterned to glacial-interglacial ages. The low glacial and high interglacial sedimentary arsenic concentrations, suggest deteriorating habitable marine conditions may have coincided with atmospheric oxygen decline after ~2.1 billion years ago. A similar intensification of near continental mar...

  16. Presence of Arsenic in Commercial Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Roberge

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study’s goal was to assess the arsenic concentration of various beverages and broths purchased from a local chain supermarket. A source of chronic arsenic exposure occurs via food and beverage consumption. Groundwater levels of total arsenic are regulated (-1 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA but few studies have examined arsenic concentrations in common beverages. Approach: In the initial analysis of 19 items, total arsenic concentration was assessed from a variety of fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas and broths. Items found to contain levels of total arsenic ≥5.0 µg L-1 were further evaluated. Additional analysis included purchasing multiple brands of items ≥5.0 µg L-1and analyzing them for total arsenic and chemical species of arsenic. Results: Among the beverages in the initial analysis, apple juice (10.79 µg L-1 and grape juice (49.87 µg L-1 contained the highest levels of total arsenic. Upon examination of items with As concentrations above 5.0 µg L-1, varying concentrations of total arsenic were found in apple cider (range: 5.41-15.27 µg L-1, apple juice (range: 10.67-22.35 µg L-1, baby fruit juice (range: 13.91-16.51 µg L-1 and grape juice (range: 17.69-47.59 µg L-1. Conclusion: Many commercially available juices contained concentrations of arsenic that were higher than the standard for total arsenic allowed in groundwater as set forth by the EPA. The concentration of As in these juices varied between and within brands. In general, those consuming apple and grape juices are the young and elderly and it is these populations that may be more vulnerable to over exposure of heavy metals.

  17. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic a...

  18. Urinary Trivalent Methylated Arsenic Species in a Population Chronically Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Cruz-Gonzalez, Martha B.; Garcia-Montalvo, Eliud A.; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S.; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been associated with increased risk of various forms of cancer and of noncancerous diseases. Metabolic conversions of iAs that yield highly toxic and genotoxic methylarsonite (MAsIII) and dimethylarsinite (DMAsIII) may play a significant role in determining the extent and character of toxic and cancer-promoting effects of iAs exposure. In this study we examined the relationship between urinary profiles of MAsIII and DMAsIII and skin lesion markers of iAs toxicity in individuals exposed to iAs in drinking water. The study subjects were recruited among the residents of an endemic region of central Mexico. Drinking-water reservoirs in this region are heavily contaminated with iAs. Previous studies carried out in the local populations have found an increased incidence of pathologies, primarily skin lesions, that are characteristic of arseniasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the urinary profiles for the trivalent and pentavalent As metabolites in both high- and low-iAs–exposed subjects. Notably, methylated trivalent arsenicals were detected in 98% of analyzed urine samples. On average, the major metabolite, DMAsIII, represented 49% of total urinary As, followed by DMAsV (23.7%), iAsV (8.6%), iAsIII (8.5%), MAsIII (7.4%), and MAsV (2.8%). More important, the average MAsIII concentration was significantly higher in the urine of exposed individuals with skin lesions compared with those who drank iAs-contaminated water but had no skin lesions. These data suggest that urinary levels of MAsIII, the most toxic species among identified metabolites of iAs, may serve as an indicator to identify individuals with increased susceptibility to toxic and cancer-promoting effects of arseniasis. PMID:15743710

  19. Polymorphisms in cell cycle regulatory genes, urinary arsenic profile and urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Polymorphisms in p53, p21 and CCND1 could regulate the progression of the cell cycle and might increase the susceptibility to inorganic arsenic-related cancer risk. The goal of our study was to evaluate the roles of cell cycle regulatory gene polymorphisms in the carcinogenesis of arsenic-related urothelial carcinoma (UC). Methods: A hospital-based case-controlled study was conducted to explore the relationships among the urinary arsenic profile, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, p53 codon 72, p21 codon 31 and CCND1 G870A polymorphisms and UC risk. The urinary arsenic profile was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). 8-OHdG levels were measured by high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Genotyping was conducted using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymerase (PCR-RFLP). Results: Subjects carrying the p21 Arg/Arg genotype had an increased UC risk (age and gender adjusted OR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.02-2.29). However, there was no association of p53 or CCND1 polymorphisms with UC risk. Significant effects were observed in terms of a combination of the three gene polymorphisms and a cumulative exposure of cigarette smoking, along with the urinary arsenic profile on the UC risk. The higher total arsenic concentration, monomethylarsonic acid percentage (MMA%) and lower dimethylarsinic acid percentage (DMA%), possessed greater gene variant numbers, had a higher UC risk and revealed significant dose-response relationships. However, effects of urinary 8-OHdG levels combined with three gene polymorphisms did not seem to be important for UC risk. Conclusions: The results showed that the variant genotype of p21 might be a predictor of inorganic arsenic-related UC risk

  20. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P.; Fourcade, J.; Ravoire, J.; Bezenech, C.

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  1. Arsenic-bound excitons in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjon, J.; Jomard, F.; Morata, S.

    2014-01-01

    A set of new excitonic recombinations is observed in arsenic-implanted diamond. It is composed of two groups of emissions at 5.355/5.361 eV and at 5.215/5.220/5.227 eV. They are respectively attributed to the no-phonon and transverse-optical phonon-assisted recombinations of excitons bound to neutral arsenic donors. From the Haynes rule, an ionization energy of 0.41 eV is deduced for arsenic in diamond, which shows that arsenic is a shallower donor than phosphorus (0.6 eV), in agreement with theory.

  2. Industrial contributions of arsenic to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K W

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic is present in all copper, lead, and zinc sulfide ores and is carried along with those metals in the mining, milling and concentrating process. Separation, final concentration and refining of by-product arsenic as the trioxide is achieved at smelters. Arsenic is the essential consistent element of many compounds important and widely used in agriculture and wood preservation. Lesser amounts are used in metal alloys, glass-making, and feed additives. There is no significant recycling. Current levels of arsenic emissions to the atmosphere from smelters and power plants and ambient air concentrations are given as data of greatest environmental interest. PMID:908308

  3. Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

  4. Acute arsenic poisoning in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Melisa W; Boyer, Edward W; Kleinman, Monica E; Rodig, Nancy M; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2005-07-01

    We report a case series of acute arsenic poisoning of 2 siblings, a 4-month-old male infant and his 2-year-old sister. Each child ingested solubilized inorganic arsenic from an outdated pesticide that was misidentified as spring water. The 4-month-old child ingested a dose of arsenic that was lethal despite extraordinary attempts at arsenic removal, including chelation therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, exchange transfusion, and hemodialysis. The 2-year-old fared well with conventional therapy. PMID:15995066

  5. XAS Studies of Arsenic in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is present in low concentrations in much of the Earth's crust and changes in its speciation are vital to understanding its transport and toxicity in the environment. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the coordination sites of arsenic in a wide variety of samples, including soil and earthworm tissues from arsenic-contaminated land, and human hair and nail samples from people exposed to arsenic in Cambodia. Our results confirm the effectiveness of using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to determine speciation changes in environmental samples

  6. Arsenic in the soils of Zimapan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic concentrations of 73 soil samples collected in the semi-arid Zimapan Valley range from 4 to 14 700 mg As kg-1. Soil arsenic concentrations decrease with distance from mines and tailings and slag heaps and exceed 400 mg kg-1 only within 500 m of these arsenic sources. Soil arsenic concentrations correlate positively with Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, suggesting a strong association with ore minerals known to exist in the region. Some As was associated with Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides, this association is less for contaminated than for uncontaminated samples. Very little As was found in the mobile water-soluble or exchangeable fractions. The soils are not arsenic contaminated at depths greater than 100 cm below the surface. Although much of the arsenic in the soils is associated with relatively immobile solid phases, this represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. -- Much of the arsenic is relatively immobile but presents long-term source of arsenic

  7. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal for shallow tube well drinking water supply in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halem, D; Olivero, S; de Vet, W W J M; Verberk, J Q J C; Amy, G L; van Dijk, J C

    2010-11-01

    Subsurface iron and arsenic removal has the potential to be a cost-effective technology to provide safe drinking water in rural decentralized applications, using existing shallow tube wells. A community-scale test facility in Bangladesh was constructed for injection of aerated water (∼1 m(3)) into an anoxic aquifer with elevated iron (0.27 mmolL(-1)) and arsenic (0.27μmolL(-1)) concentrations. The injection (oxidation) and abstraction (adsorption) cycles were monitored at the test facility and simultaneously simulated in the laboratory with anoxic column experiments. Dimensionless retardation factors (R) were determined to represent the delayed arrival of iron or arsenic in the well compared to the original groundwater. At the test facility the iron removal efficacies increased after every injection-abstraction cycle, with retardation factors (R(Fe)) up to 17. These high removal efficacies could not be explained by the theory of adsorptive-catalytic oxidation, and therefore other ((a)biotic or transport) processes have contributed to the system's efficacy. This finding was confirmed in the anoxic column experiments, since the mechanism of adsorptive-catalytic oxidation dominated in the columns and iron removal efficacies did not increase with every cycle (stable at R(Fe)=∼8). R(As) did not increase after multiple cycles, it remained stable around 2, illustrating that the process which is responsible for the effective iron removal did not promote the co-removal of arsenic. The columns showed that subsurface arsenic removal was an adsorptive process and only the freshly oxidized adsorbed iron was available for the co-adsorption of arsenic. This indicates that arsenic adsorption during subsurface treatment is controlled by the amount of adsorbed iron that is oxidized, and not by the amount of removed iron. For operational purposes this is an important finding, since apparently the oxygen concentration of the injection water does not control the subsurface arsenic

  8. Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

    2014-08-01

    In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-1 promotes cell cycle progression via upregulation of cyclin D1 expression through the phosphatidy-linositol 3-kinase/nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway in FRTL thyroid cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng REN; Xia ZHONG; Chun-yan MA; Ying SUN; Qing-bo GUAN; Bin CUI; Jun GUO; Hai WANG; Ling GAO; Jia-jun ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an important hypertrophic and cell cycle progression factor for a number of cell types. It has been proven that IGF-1 is involved in the regulation of thyroid proliferation and cell cycle progression; how-ever, the exact mechanism of this regulation has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IGF-1 on the expression of cyclin D1, an important cell cycle regulatory protein, and a signaling pathway involved in IGF-1's effect on cyclinD1 expression in FRTL thyroid cells. Methods: FRTL thyroid cells were treated with IGF-1 or vector control for 24 h. As appropriate to individual experiments,a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, and/or a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, were added 1 h prior to IGF-1 treatment. Western blotting was used to detect cyclin D1 protein expression. Immunofluorescence was performed to analyze the expression of IκBα, an NF-κB inhibitory protein. Cell cycle analysis was performed by fluo-rescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Results: IGF-1 increased the cyclin D1 expression in thyroid cells. This increase was blocked by pretreatment with LY294002 or BAY11-7082. Further studies showed that IGF-1 specifically induced NF-κB activity. Treatment with IGF-1 could accelerate cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase, whereas this progression was inhibited by the presence of LY294002 or BAY11-7082. Conclusion: In summary, the results of the present study show that in FRTL cells, IGF-1 promotes cell cycle progression via an upregulation of cyclin D1 expression, at least partially through the PI3K/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  10. 药用植物砷污染现状及其对生长和药效成分影响的研究进展%Research Progress of Arsenic Pollution and Its Effects on Medicinal Components and Growth of Medicinal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祖然; 祖艳群

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the arsenic pollution in medicinal plants and its effects on medicinal components and growth of medicinal plants based on recent literature.The limited standard value of arsenic content in medicinal plants was formulated in China and many other counties and regions.It could not be ignored about the status of ar-senic pollution in medicinal plants.The content of arsenic in medicinal plants was influenced by plant species,va-rieties,and parts used as medicine,where the plants grow,soil background,and processing technology.The growth of medicinal plants and the effects of the plants as medicine were affected by arsenic pollution.%我国及世界许多国家和地区均制定了有关药用植物中砷含量的限量标准,药用植物中砷污染的现状不容忽视。药用植物砷污染受到植物种类、品种、入药部位、产地、土壤砷污染和炮制工艺等因素的影响。砷污染对药用植物生长发育及其药效成分产生较大的影响。

  11. [Tracing for arsenic exposure--a differentiation of arsenic compounds is essential for the health assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Ochsmann, Elke; Drexler, Hans; Göen, Thomas; Klotz, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous and harmful to health in occupation and environment. Arsenic exposure is measured through analysis of arsenic compounds in urine. The identification of several arsenic species is necessary to understand the hazardous potential of the arsenic compounds which differ highly in their toxicity. To estimate the extent of an occupational exposure to arsenic, arsenic species were evaluated for the first time by the working group "Setting of Threshold Limit Values in Biological Material" of the DFG Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area and Biologische Arbeitsstoffreferenzwerte (BAR) of 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (III), 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (V), 2 μg / L urine for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and 10 μg / L urine for dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were set. If the reference value for total arsenic is exceeded, a further differentiation of arsenic species now enables to estimate the individual health risks taking into account special influences such as seafood consumption.

  12. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the inorganic arsenic methylation phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may be mediated by these methylated metabolites. If i As methylation is an activation process, then the phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation may determine risk associated with exposure to this metalloid. We examined inorganic arsenic methylation phenotypes and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotypes in four species: three that methylate inorganic arsenic (human (Homo sapiens), rat (Rattus norwegicus), and mouse (Mus musculus)) and one that does not methylate inorganic arsenic (chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes). The predicted protein products from arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase are similar in size for rat (369 amino acid residues), mouse (376 residues), and human (375 residues). By comparison, a 275-nucleotide deletion beginning at nucleotide 612 in the chimpanzee gene sequence causes a frameshift that leads to a nonsense mutation for a premature stop codon after amino acid 205. The null phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation in the chimpanzee is likely due to the deletion in the gene for arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase that yields an inactive truncated protein. This lineage-specific loss of function caused by the deletion event must have occurred in the Pan lineage after Homo-Pan divergence about 5 million years ago

  13. Arsenic species excretion after dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) treatment of an acute arsenic trioxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich-Ramm, R. [Ordinariat fuer Arbeitsmedizin der Universitaet Hamburg und Zentralinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Hamburg (Germany); Schaller, K.H.; Angerer, J. [Institut und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Schillerstr. 25, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Horn, J. [Medizinische Klinik II, Toxikologische-internistische Intensivstation, Klinikum Nuernberg, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    We studied the urinary excretion of the different arsenic species in urine samples from a young man who tried to commit suicide by ingesting about 0.6 g arsenic trioxide. He received immediate therapy with dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) after his delivery into the hospital. We assessed urinary arsenite (inorganic trivalent arsenic), arsenate (inorganic pentavalent arsenic), pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and pentavalent monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine with ion-exchange chromatography and on-line hydride-technique atomic absorption spectrometry. The predominant amount of the excreted arsenic was unchanged trivalent inorganic arsenic (37.4%), followed by pentavalent inorganic arsenic (2.6%), MMA (2.1%), DMA (0.2%) and one unidentified arsenic species (0.7%, if calculated as DMA). In the first urine voiding in the clinic, the total arsenic concentration was 215 mg/l, which fell 1000-fold after 8 days of DMPS therapy. A most striking finding was the almost complete inhibition of the second methylation step in arsenic metabolism. As mechanisms for the reduced methylation efficiency, the saturation of the enzymatic process of arsenic methylation, the high dosage of antidote DMPS, which might inhibit the activity of the methyl transferases, and analytical reasons are discussed. The high dosage of DMPS is the most likely explanation. The patient left the hospital after a 12-day treatment with antidote. (orig.)

  14. ARSENIC INDUCES SUSTAINED IMPAIRMENT OF SKELETAL MUSCLE AND MUSCLE PROGENITOR CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE AND BIOENERGETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrisia, Ambrosio; Elke, Brown; Donna, Stolz; Ricardo, Ferrari; Bret, Goodpaster; Bridget, Deasy; Giovanna, Distefano; Alexandra, Roperti; Amin, Cheikhi; Yesica, Garciafigueroa; Aaron, Barchowsky

    2014-01-01

    Over 4 million individuals in the US, and over 140 million individuals worldwide, are exposed daily to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Human exposures can range from below the current limit of 10 µg/L to over 1 mg/L, with 100 µg/L promoting disease in a large portion of those exposed. Although increased attention has recently been paid to myopathy following arsenic exposure, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying clinical symptoms remain poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that arsenic induces lasting muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and impairs metabolism. When compared to non-exposed controls, mice exposed to drinking water containing 100µg/L arsenite for 5 weeks demonstrated impaired muscle function, mitochondrial myopathy, and altered oxygen consumption that were concomitant with increased mitochondrial fusion gene transcription. There was no difference in levels of inorganic arsenic or its mononomethyl- and dimethyl- metabolites between controls and exposed muscles, confirming that arsenic does not accumulate in muscle. Nevertheless, muscle progenitor cells isolated from exposed mice recapitulated the aberrant myofiber phenotype and were more resistant to oxidative stress, generated more reactive oxygen species, and displayed autophagic mitochondrial morphology, as compared to cells isolated from non-exposed mice. These pathological changes from a possible maladaptive oxidative stress response provide insight into declines in muscle functioning caused by exposure to this common environmental contaminant. PMID:24960579

  15. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  16. Arsenic mobilization and immobilization in paddy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, A.; Hohmann, C.; Zhu, Y. G.; Morin, G.

    2010-05-01

    Arsenic is oftentimes of geogenic origin and in many cases bound to iron(III) minerals. Iron(III)-reducing bacteria can harvest energy by coupling the oxidation of organic or inorganic electron donors to the reduction of Fe(III). This process leads either to dissolution of Fe(III)-containing minerals and thus to a release of the arsenic into the environment or to secondary Fe-mineral formation and immobilisation of arsenic. Additionally, aerobic and anaerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria have the potential to co-precipitate or sorb arsenic during iron(II) oxidation at neutral pH that is usually followed by iron(III) mineral precipitation. We are currently investigating arsenic immobilization by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria and arsenic co-precipitation and immobilization by anaerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria in batch, microcosm and rice pot experiments. Co-precipitation batch experiments with pure cultures of nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are used to quantify the amount of arsenic that can be immobilized during microbial iron mineral precipitation, to identify the minerals formed and to analyze the arsenic binding environment in the precipitates. Microcosm and rice pot experiments are set-up with arsenic-contaminated rice paddy soil. The microorganisms (either the native microbial population or the soil amended with the nitrate-dependent iron(II)-oxidizing Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1) are stimulated either with iron(II), nitrate, or oxygen. Dissolved and solid-phase arsenic and iron are quantified. Iron and arsenic speciation and redox state in batch and microcosm experiments are determined by LC-ICP-MS and synchrotron-based methods (EXAFS, XANES).

  17. Arsenic Adsorption Onto Iron Oxides Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aredes, S.; Klein, B.; Pawlik, M.

    2004-12-01

    The predominant form of arsenic in water is as an inorganic ion. Under different redox conditions arsenic in water is stable in the +5 and +3 oxidation states. Arsenic oxidation state governs its toxicity, chemical form and solubility in natural and disturbed environments. As (III) is found in anoxic environments such as ground water , it is toxic and the common species is the neutral form, H3AsO3. As (V) is found in aerobic conditions such as surface water, it is less toxic and the common species in water are: H2AsO4 - and HAsO4 {- 2}. The water pH determines the predominant arsenate or arsenite species, however, both forms of arsenic can be detected in natural water systems. Iron oxides minerals often form in natural waters and sediments at oxic-anoxic boundaries. Over time they undergo transformation to crystalline forms, such as goethite or hematite. Both As(V) and As(III) sorbs strongly to iron oxides, however the sorption behavior of arsenic is dependent on its oxidation state and the mineralogy of the iron oxides. Competition between arsenic and others ions, such fluoride, sulphate and phosphate also play a role. On the other hand, calcium may increase arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides. Electrokinetic studies and adsorption experiments were carried out in order to determine which conditions favour arsenic adsorption. Hematite, goethite and magnetite as iron based sorbents were used. Test were also conducted with a laterite soil rich in iron minerals. The focus of this study is to evaluate physical and chemical conditions which favour arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides minerals, the results contribute to an understanding of arsenic behaviour in natural and disturbed environments. Furthermore, results could contribute in developing an appropriate remediation technology for arsenic removal in water using iron oxides minerals.

  18. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  19. ARSENIC REMOVAL AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFE CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC-WASTE: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ARSENIC CRISIS IN CAMBODIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An appalling degree of arsenic contamination in groundwater has affected more than a million people in wide region of Mekong delta flood plain in Cambodia. Arsenic is by far the most toxic species of all naturally occurring groundwater contaminants and disposal of removed arse...

  20. Progress on Stress Tolerance Promoters in Plants%植物逆境胁迫耐受性启动子的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶红; 那杰

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic stresses, including drought, extreme temperature, damage and many diseases, seri-ously affected plants growth and yield. Stress-tolerance promoter could accept signals induced by stress condi-tions, and activate the expression of stress responsive gene in plants, enabling plants to perceive and adapt to adversity. In this article, current research on cloning and function of stress-tolerance promoters were reviewed, including drought-resistant, salt-tolerance, high-temperature-resistant, damage-tolerance, cold-resistant, dis-ease-resistant and insect-resistant promoters.%逆境胁迫如干旱、极端温度、损伤等非生物胁迫和病虫害等生物胁迫严重影响植物的生长发育及产量。逆境胁迫耐受性启动子能够接受逆境条件下的诱导信号,激活植物体内胁迫应答基因的表达,使植物感知并适应逆境。本文对逆境胁迫耐受性启动子的克隆及功能研究情况进行综合分析,主要包括抗旱、耐盐、耐高温、抗冻、耐损伤、抗病和抗虫基因启动子。

  1. Tumor-produced versican V1 enhances hCAP18/LL-37 expression in macrophages through activation of TLR2 and vitamin D3 signaling to promote ovarian cancer progression in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages have been shown to promote tumor growth. They may have an obligatory function in angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis through release of inflammatory mediators. Their presence in ovarian cancer has been correlated with poor prognosis in these patients. The human cationic antimicrobial protein-18 (hCAP18/LL-37 was originally identified as an effector molecule of the innate immune system. It is released by innate immune cells, such as macrophages, to combat microorganisms. Previous studies have characterized the hCAP18/LL-37 as a growth factor that has been shown to promote ovarian tumor progression. However, the role hCAP18/LL-37 has in macrophage-promoted ovarian tumor development and how its expression is controlled in this context remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate in co-culture experiments of macrophages and ovarian cancer cells a significant increase in the in vitro proliferation and invasiveness of the tumor cells is observed. These enhanced growth and invasion properties correlated with hCAP18/LL-37 induction. HCAP18/LL-37 expression was diminished by addition of two neutralizing antibodies, TLR2 or TLR6, as well as Cyp27B1 or VDR inhibitors. Furthermore, either the TLR2 or TLR6 antibody reduced vitamin D3 signaling and tumor cell progression in vitro. Addition of Cyp27B1 or VDR inhibitors abrogated TLR2/6 activation-induced expression of hCAP18/LL-37 in macrophages. Knockdown of tumor-produced versican V1 by RNAi in these tumor cells led to a decreased induction of hCAP18/LL-37 in macrophages. Versican V1 knockdown also inhibited TLR2 and vitamin D3 signaling, as well as growth and invasiveness of these tumor cells in the in vitro co-culture. In summary, we have found that versican V1 enhances hCAP18/LL-37 expression in macrophages through activation of TLR2 and subsequent vitamin D-dependent mechanisms which promote ovarian tumor progression in vitro.

  2. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III and As(V from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration.

  3. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-02-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  4. Overexpression of cell cycle regulator CDCA3 promotes oral cancer progression by enhancing cell proliferation with prevention of G1 phase arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell division cycle associated 3 (CDCA3), part of the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase, refers to a trigger of mitotic entry and mediates destruction of the mitosis inhibitory kinase. Little is known about the relevance of CDCA3 to human malignancy including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We aimed to characterize the expression state and function of CDCA3 in OSCC. We evaluated CDCA3 mRNA and protein expression in both OSCC-derived cell lines and primary OSCCs and performed functional analyses of CDCA3 in OSCC-derived cells using the shRNA system. The CDCA3 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels was frequently up-regulated in all cell lines examined and primary tumors (mRNA, 51/69, 74 %; protein, 79/95, 83 %) compared to normal controls (p < 0.001). In contrast, no significant level of CDCA3 protein expression was seen in oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) (n = 20) compared with the expression in OSCCs. Among the clinical variables analyzed, the CDCA3 expression status was closely related to tumor size (p < 0.05). In addition, suppression of CDCA3 expression with shRNA significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited cellular proliferation compared with the control cells by arresting cell-cycle progression at the G1 phase. Further, there was up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21Cip1, p27Kip1, p15INK4B, and p16INK4A) in the knockdown cells. The current results showed that overexpression of CDCA3 occurs frequently during oral carcinogenesis and this overexpression might be associated closely with progression of OSCCs by preventing the arrest of cell-cycle progression at the G1 phase via decreased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors

  5. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola O. Adeyemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Arsenic is a known toxic element and its presence and toxicity in nature is a worldwide environmental problem. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation is a potential method to reduce as concentration in contaminated areas. Approach: In order to explore the possible bioremediation of this element, three filamentous fungi-Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor were investigated for their potential abilities to accumulate (and possibly solubilize arsenic from an agar environment consisting of non buffered mineral salts media amended with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% (w/v arsenopyrite (FeAsS. Growth rates, dry weights, arsenic accumulation and oxalate production by the fungi as well as the pH of the growth media were all assessed during this study. Results: There was no visible solubilization of FeAsS particles underneath any of the growing fungal colonies or elsewhere in the respective agar plates. No specific patterns of growth changes were observed from the growth ratios of the fungi on agar amended with different amounts of FeAsS although growth of all fungi was stimulated by the incorporation of varying amounts of FeAsS into the agar with the exception of A. niger on 0.4% (w/v amended agar and T. versicolor on 0.8% (w/v amended agar. The amounts of dry weights obtained for all three fungi also did not follow any specific patterns with different amounts of FeAsS and the quantities obtained were in the order A. niger > S. himantioides > T. versicolor. All fungi accumulated as in their biomasses with all amounts of FeAsS although to varying levels and T. versicolor was the most effective with all amounts of FeAsS while A. niger was the least effective. Conclusion: The accumulation of arsenic in the biomasses of the test fungi as shown in this study may suggested a role for fungi through their bioaccumulating capabilities as agents in the possible bioremediation of arsenic contaminated environments.

  6. Hijacking membrane transporters for arsenic phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Melissa S; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Meagher, Richard B; Smith, Aaron P

    2013-01-10

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid and recognized carcinogen. Arsenate and arsenite are the most common arsenic species available for uptake by plants. As an inorganic phosphate (Pi) analog, arsenate is acquired by plant roots through endogenous Pi transport systems. Inside the cell, arsenate is reduced to the thiol-reactive form arsenite. Glutathione (GSH)-conjugates of arsenite may be extruded from the cell or sequestered in vacuoles by members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters. In the present study we sought to enhance both plant arsenic uptake through Pi transporter overexpression, and plant arsenic tolerance through ABC transporter overexpression. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the high-affinity Pi transporter family members, AtPht1;1 or AtPht1;7, are hypersensitive to arsenate due to increased arsenate uptake. These plants do not exhibit increased sensitivity to arsenite. Co-overexpression of the yeast ABC transporter YCF1 in combination with AtPht1;1 or AtPht1;7 suppresses the arsenate-sensitive phenotype while further enhancing arsenic uptake. Taken together, our results support an arsenic transport mechanism in which arsenate uptake is increased through Pi transporter overexpression, and arsenic tolerance is enhanced through YCF1-mediated vacuolar sequestration. This work substantiates the viability of coupling enhanced uptake and vacuolar sequestration as a means for developing a prototypical engineered arsenic hyperaccumulator.

  7. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  8. Biotechnology based processes for arsenic removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Olde Weghuis, M.; Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    The regulations for arsenic control have become strict. Therefore, better technologies to remove arsenic from bleeds and effluents are desired. In addition, no single solution is suitable for all cases. The properties of the process streams and the storage facilities are major factors determining th

  9. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  11. Arsenic Consumption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic in drinking water and minimal risk levels (MRLs) for total dietary exposure to arsenic have long been established in the U.S. Multiple studies conducted over the last five years have detected arsenic in foods and beverages including juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and others. Understanding whether or not each of these foods or drinks is a concern to certain groups of individuals requires examining which types of and how much arsenic is ingested. In this article, recent studies are reviewed and placed in the context of consumption patterns. When single sources of food or drink are considered in isolation, heavy rice eaters can be exposed to the most arsenic among adults while infants consuming formula containing contaminated organic brown rice syrup are the most exposed group among children. Most food and drink do not contain sufficient arsenic to exceed MRLs. For individuals consuming more than one source of contaminated water or food, however, adverse health effects are more likely. In total, recent studies on arsenic contamination in food and beverages emphasize the need for individual consumers to understand and manage their total dietary exposure to arsenic. PMID:26591332

  12. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  13. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  14. Tumour-initiating cell-specific miR-1246 and miR-1290 expression converge to promote non-small cell lung cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen Cai; Chin, Tan Min; Yang, Henry; Nga, Min En; Lunny, Declan Patrick; Lim, Edwin Kok Hao; Sun, Li Li; Pang, Yin Huei; Leow, Yi Ning; Malusay, Shanneen Rossellini Y; Lim, Priscilla Xin Hui; Lee, Jeravan Zili; Tan, Benedict Jian Wei; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Lim, Elaine Hsuen; Lim, Wan Teck; Tan, Daniel Shao Weng; Tan, Eng Huat; Tai, Bee Choo; Soo, Ross Andrew; Tam, Wai Leong; Lim, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The tumour-initiating cell (TIC) model accounts for phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among tumour cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules frequently aberrantly expressed in cancers, and may contribute towards tumour heterogeneity and TIC behaviour. More recent efforts have focused on miRNAs as diagnostic or therapeutic targets. Here, we identified the TIC-specific miRNAs, miR-1246 and miR-1290, as crucial drivers for tumour initiation and cancer progression in human non-small cell lung cancer. The loss of either miRNA impacted the tumour-initiating potential of TICs and their ability to metastasize. Longitudinal analyses of serum miR-1246 and miR-1290 levels across time correlate their circulating levels to the clinical response of lung cancer patients who were receiving ongoing anti-neoplastic therapies. Functionally, direct inhibition of either miRNA with locked nucleic acid administered systemically, can arrest the growth of established patient-derived xenograft tumours, thus indicating that these miRNAs are clinically useful as biomarkers for tracking disease progression and as therapeutic targets. PMID:27325363

  15. Research plan for arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The document stresses the implications of recent research findings and emphasizes identification of key strengths and sources of uncertainty and variability in the arsenic risk assessment. This document also explains how information gained through research can: impact the method used in new investigations to assess the risks of arsenic, and support or suggest changes in the assumptiosn and methods used in arsenic risk assessments. This Arsenic Research Plan addresses the protection of human health, especially the research needed to implement the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWAA). It is intended to serve as a blueprint that will be discussed with parties interested in addressing key strengths and uncertainties in the arsenic risk assessment.

  16. Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaofen Wang, Joanna; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global environmental problem affecting a large number of populations, especially in developing countries. The "blackfoot disease"that occurred in Taiwan more than half of a century ago was attributed to drinking arsenic-contaminated water from deep wells containing high concentrations of the trivalent arsenite species. Similar arsenic poisoning cases were reported later in Chinese Inner Mongolia, Bangladesh, and India—all related to drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of arsenic in drinking water has been changed recently by the U.S. EPA from 50 ppb to 10 ppb; the compliance date is January 2006. This article summarizes documented global arsenic contamination problems, the regulatory controversy regarding MCL of arsenic in drinking water, and available technologies for removing arsenic from contaminated waters. Methods for analyzing total arsenic and arsenic species in water are also described.

  17. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels. PMID:27460822

  18. Interleukin 6 Accelerates Mortality by Promoting the Progression of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Like Disease of BXSB.Yaa Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shweta; Park, Giljun; Sproule, Thomas J; Christianson, Gregory J; Leeth, Caroline M; Wang, Hongsheng; Roopenian, Derry C; Morse, Herbert C

    2016-01-01

    IL6 is a multifunctional cytokine that drives terminal B cell differentiation and secretion of immunoglobulins. IL6 also cooperates with IL21 to promote differentiation of CD4+ T follicular helper cells (TFH). Elevated serum levels of IL6 correlate with disease flares in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We previously reported that IL21 produced by TFH plays a critical role in the development of the SLE-like disease of BXSB.Yaa mice. To examine the possible contributions of IL6 to disease, we compared disease parameters in IL6-deficient and IL6-competent BXSB.Yaa mice. We report that survival of IL6-deficient BXSB.Yaa mice was significantly prolonged in association with significant reductions in a variety of autoimmune manifestations. Moreover, B cells stimulated by co-engagement of TLR7 and B cell receptor (BCR) produced high levels of IL6 that was further augmented by stimulation with Type I interferon (IFN1). Importantly, the frequencies of TFH and serum levels of IL21 were significantly reduced in IL6-deficient mice. These findings suggest that high-level production of IL6 by B cells induced by integrated signaling from the IFN1 receptor, TLR7 and BCR promotes the differentiation of IL21-secreting TFH in a signaling sequence that drives the lethal autoimmune disease of BXSB.Yaa mice. PMID:27050763

  19. TERT启动子突变在甲状腺癌中的研究进展%Research progress of TERT promoter mutation in thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷德涛; 余坤

    2015-01-01

    甲状腺癌是内分泌系统最常见的恶性肿瘤,近年来发现端粒酶逆转录酶启动子突变可使细胞端粒不缩短,从而使细胞永生化,在甲状腺癌的发生发展和浸润转移中发挥了重要作用.端粒酶逆转录酶启动子突变对甲状腺癌的诊断和预后判断有重要的价值,术前检测端粒酶逆转录酶启动子突变能有效指导甲状腺癌治疗方案的选择.%Thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent endocrine cancer.Recently, it has been discovered that telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation can prevent cell tolemeres from shortening, leading to cell immortalization and plays an important role in the tumor genesis, invasiveness and metastasis of the thyroid carcinoma.Testing of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation is of great value in diagnosis, which also can be used as a prognostic maker of thyroid carcinoma.

  20. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  1. Downregulation of microRNA-362-3p and microRNA-329 promotes tumor progression in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H; Kim, C; Lee, H; Rho, J G; Seo, J-W; Nam, J-W; Song, W K; Nam, S W; Kim, W; Lee, E K

    2016-03-01

    p130Cas regulates cancer progression by driving tyrosine receptor kinase signaling. Tight regulation of p130Cas expression is necessary for survival, apoptosis, and maintenance of cell motility in various cell types. Several studies revealed that transcriptional and post-translational control of p130Cas are important for maintenance of its expression and activity. To explore novel regulatory mechanisms of p130Cas expression, we studied the effect of microRNAs (miRs) on p130Cas expression in human breast cancer MCF7 cells. Here, we provide experimental evidence that miR-362-3p and miR-329 perform a tumor-suppressive function and their expression is downregulated in human breast cancer. miR-362-3p and miR-329 inhibited cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, thereby suppressing tumor growth, by downregulating p130Cas. Ectopic expression of p130Cas attenuated the inhibitory effects of the two miRs on tumor progression. Relative expression levels of miR-362-3p/329 and p130Cas between normal and breast cancer correlated inversely; miR-362-3p/329 expression was decreased, whereas that of p130Cas increased in breast cancers. Furthermore, we showed that downregulation of miR-362-3p and miR-329 was caused by differential DNA methylation of miR genes. Enhanced DNA methylation (according to methylation-specific PCR) was responsible for downregulation of miR-362-3p and miR-329 in breast cancer. Taken together, these findings point to a novel role for miR-362-3p and miR-329 as tumor suppressors; the miR-362-3p/miR-329-p130Cas axis seemingly has a crucial role in breast cancer progression. Thus, modulation of miR-362-3p/miR-329 may be a novel therapeutic strategy against breast cancer. PMID:26337669

  2. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (p< 0.000001 following arsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethyl arsenic (MMA, dimethyl arsenic (DMA, and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD: 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60–1.40; p< 0.00001 and MMA (SMD: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.21–0.77; p = 0.0006 also increase, while the percentage of DMA (SMD: −0.57; 95% CI: −0.80–−0.31; p< 0.0001, primary methylation index (SMD: −0.57; 95% CI: −0.94–−0.20; p = 0.002, and secondary methylation index (SMD: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.46–−0.90; p = 0.004 decrease. Smoking, drinking, and older age can reduce arsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  3. Both Phosphorus Fertilizers and Indigenous Bacteria Enhance Arsenic Release into Groundwater in Arsenic-Contaminated Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Chun-Han; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-03-23

    Arsenic (As) is a human carcinogen, and arsenic contamination in groundwater is a worldwide public health concern. Arsenic-affected areas are found in many places but are reported mostly in agricultural farmlands, yet the interaction of fertilizers, microorganisms, and arsenic mobilization in arsenic-contaminated aquifers remains uncharacterized. This study investigates the effects of fertilizers and bacteria on the mobilization of arsenic in two arsenic-contaminated aquifers. We performed microcosm experiments using arsenic-contaminated sediments and amended with inorganic nitrogenous or phosphorus fertilizers for 1 and 4 months under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results show that microcosms amended with 100 mg/L phosphorus fertilizers (dipotassium phosphate), but not nitrogenous fertilizers (ammonium sulfate), significantly increase aqueous As(III) release in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. We also show that concentrations of iron, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium are increased in the aqueous phase and that the addition of dipotassium phosphate causes a further increase in aqueous iron, potassium, and sodium, suggesting that multiple metal elements may take part in the arsenic release process. Furthermore, microbial analysis indicates that the dominant microbial phylum is shifted from α-proteobacteria to β- and γ-proteobacteria when the As(III) is increased and phosphate is added in the aquifer. Our results provide evidence that both phosphorus fertilizers and microorganisms can mediate the release of arsenic to groundwater in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. Our study suggests that agricultural activity such as the use of fertilizers and monitoring phosphate concentration in groundwater should be taken into consideration for the management of arsenic in groundwater.

  4. Non-coding RNA LINC00857 is predictive of poor patient survival and promotes tumor progression via cell cycle regulation in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihui; He, Yanli; Liu, Weijun; Bai, Shengbin; Xiao, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M.; Wang, Zhuwen; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Balbin, O. Alejandro; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Lu, Yi; Lin, Jules; Reddy, Rishindra M.; Carrott, Philip W.; Lynch, William R.; Chang, Andrew C.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Beer, David G.; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Guoan

    2016-01-01

    We employed next generation RNA sequencing analysis to reveal dysregulated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in lung cancer utilizing 461 lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD) and 156 normal lung tissues from 3 separate institutions. We identified 281 lncRNAs with significant differential-expression between LUAD and normal lung tissue. LINC00857, a top deregulated lncRNAs, was overexpressed in tumors and significantly associated with poor survival in LUAD. knockdown of LINC00857 with siRNAs decreased tumor cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro, as well as tumor growth in vivo. Overexpression of LINC00857 increased cancer cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. Mechanistic analyses indicated that LINC00857 mediates tumor progression via cell cycle regulation. Our study highlights the diagnostic/prognostic potential of LINC00857 in LUAD besides delineating the functional and mechanistic aspects of its aberrant disease specific expression and potentially using as a new therapeutic target. PMID:26862852

  5. A greenhouse study on arsenic remediation potential of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria Zizanioides) as a function of soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, M. A.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most harmful and toxic metals, being a Group A human carcinogen. Mining activities as well as the use of arsenic-containing pesticides have resulted in the contamination of a wide variety of sites including mine tailings, cattle dip sites, wood treatment sites, pesticide treatment areas, golf courses, etc. Phytoremediation has emerged as a novel and promising technology, which uses plants to clean up contaminated soil and water taking advantage of plant's natural abilities to extract and accumulate various contaminants. This method has distinct advantages, since it maintains the biological properties and physical structure of the soil, is environment friendly, and above all, inexpensive. However, effective remediation of contaminated residential soils using a specific plant species is an immensely complex task whose success depends on a multitude of factors including the ability of the target plant to uptake, translocate, detoxify, and accumulate arsenic in its system. One of the major challenges in phytoremediation lies in identifying a fast- growing, high biomass plant that can accumulate the contaminant in its harvestable parts. vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a fast-growing perennial grass with strong ecological adaptability and large biomass. While this plant is not a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, it has been reported to be able to tolerate and accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Being a high biomass, fast-growing plant, vetiver has the potential to be used for arsenic remediation. The present study investigates the potential of vetiver grass to tolerate and accumulate arsenic in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. A greenhouse study is in progress to study the uptake, tolerance and stress response of vetiver grass to inorganic arsenical pesticide. A column study was set up using 5 soils (Eufaula, Millhopper, Orelia, Orla, and Pahokee Muck) contaminated with sodium arsenite at 4 different concentrations of

  6. Cellular distribution of arsenic and other elements in hyperaccumulator Pteris nervosa and their relations to arsenic accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tongbin; HUANG Zechun; HUANG Yuying; XIE Hua; LIAO Xiaoyong

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescencespectroscopy (SRXRF) was used to study the cellular distri-butions of arsenic and other elements in root, petiole, pinna of a newly discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Pteris nervosa. It was shown that there was a trend in P. nervosa totransport arsenic from cortex tissue to vascular tissue in root, and keep arsenic in vascular during transportation in petiole, and transport arsenic from vascular tissue to adaxial cortex tissues in midrib of pinnae. More arsenic was accumulated in mesophyll than in epidermis in pinnae. The distributions of some elements, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, in petiole, midrib and pinna were similar to that of arsenic, indicating that those cations might cooperate with arsenic in those transportation processes; whereas the distributions of Cl and Br in pinna were the reverse of that of arsenic, indicating that those anions might compete with arsenic in pinna of P. nervosa.

  7. THE PROMOTION OF INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alyabedeva, I.

    2012-01-01

    The article aims to consider the issues of the innovative products promotion. Peculiarities of innovative market and its future progress, key factors connected with the promotion of innovative products success are analyzed. Here are also suggested the successful marketing strategies variants of the innovative products promotion.

  8. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-01

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer.

  9. Arsenic-Induced Antioxidant Depletion, Oxidative DNA Breakage, and Tissue Damages are Prevented by the Combined Action of Folate and Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a grade I human carcinogen. It acts by disrupting one-carbon (1C) metabolism and cellular methyl (-CH3) pool. The -CH3 group helps in arsenic disposition and detoxification of the biological systems. Vitamin B12 and folate, the key promoters of 1C metabolism were tested recently (daily 0.07 and 4.0 μg, respectively/100 g b.w. of rat for 28 days) to evaluate their combined efficacy in the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakage and tissue damages. The selected tissues like intestine (first-pass site), liver (major xenobiotic metabolizer) and lung (major arsenic accumulator) were collected from arsenic-ingested (0.6 ppm/same schedule) female rats. The hemo-toxicity and liver and kidney functions were monitored. Our earlier studies on arsenic-exposed humans can correlate carcinogenesis with DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that the supplementation of physiological/therapeutic dose of vitamin B12 and folate protected the rodents significantly from arsenic-induced DNA damage (DNA fragmentation and comet assay) and hepatic and renal tissue degeneration (histo-architecture, HE staining). The level of arsenic-induced free-radical products (TBARS and conjugated diene) was significantly declined by the restored actions of several antioxidants viz. urate, thiol, catalase, xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the tissues of vitamin-supplemented group. The alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, urea and creatinine (hepatic and kidney toxicity marker), and lactate dehydrogenase (tissue degeneration marker) were significantly impaired in the arsenic-fed group. But a significant protection was evident in the vitamin-supplemented group. In conclusion, the combined action of folate and B12 results in the restitution in the 1C metabolic pathway and cellular methyl pool. The cumulative outcome from the enhanced arsenic methylation and antioxidative capacity was protective against arsenic induced mutagenic DNA breakages and tissue damages.

  10. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-01

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer. PMID:26876684

  11. The Effect of Thiosulphate on Arsenic Bioavailability in a Multi Contaminated Soil. A Novel Contribution to Phytoextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianniantonio Petruzzelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was evaluated on a laboratory scale (microcosm, the possibility of using ammonium thiosulphate in assisted phytoextraction for the simultaneous removal of mercury and arsenic from multi-contaminated industrial soil. The species selected were Brassica juncea and Lupinus albus the addition of thiosulfate to the soil greatly promoted the uptake and translocation of both contaminants in the aerial parts of the plants. Mercury concentration in the aerial parts reached in B. juncea 120 mg/kg approximately 40 times the value of the control. The concentration of arsenic also increased significantly in the shoots of B. juncea (14.3 mg/kg, where the value in the control was negligible. Similar trends were obtained for L. albus The results confirmed the known positive effects of thiosulphate in increasing mercury bioavailability for plants, moreover they showed the ability of thiosulphate to mobilize arsenic and significantly to promote its uptake by plants. The increase of arsenic bioavailability, promoted by thiosulfate addition, could be attributed to the competition between arsenate and sulphate ions for the same active sites in the soil surfaces, with the release of arsenic in the soil solution. The use of thiosulfate appears to have great potential since it is a common fertilizer used to promote plant growth and is able to increase the uptake by plants of mercury and arsenic. The simultaneous increase of both contaminants uptake by plants, using a single additive, will provide new insights into the phytoextraction technology in terms of cost and time reduction.

  12. Effects of exogenous glutathione on arsenic burden and NO metabolism in brain of mice exposed to arsenite through drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of Public Health Management, School of Professional Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Zhao, Fenghong; Jin, Yaping; Zhong, Yuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Li, Gexin; Lv, Xiuqiang; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2011-03-15

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with neurotoxicity. Studies to date have disclosed that methylation of ingested iAs is the main metabolic pathway, and it is a process relying on reduced glutathione (GSH). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of exogenous GSH on arsenic burden and metabolism of nitric oxide (NO) in the brain of mice exposed to arsenite via drinking water. Mice were exposed to sodium arsenite through drinking water contaminated with 50 mg/L arsenic for 4 weeks and treated intraperitoneally with saline solution, 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w), 400 mg/kg b.w, or 800 mg/kg b.w GSH, respectively, at the 4th week. Levels of iAs, monomethylarsenic acid, and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAs) in the liver, blood, and brain were determined by method of hydride generation coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activities of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and contents of NO in the brain were determined by colorimetric method. Compared with mice exposed to arsenite alone, administration of GSH increased dose-dependently the primary and secondary methylation ratio in the liver, which caused the decrease in percent iAs and increase in percent DMAs in the liver, as a consequence, resulted in significant decrease in iAs levels in the blood and total arsenic levels in both blood and brain. NOS activities and NO levels in the brain of mice in iAs group were significantly lower than those in control; however, administration of GSH could increase significantly activities of NOS and contents of NO. Findings from this study suggested that exogenous GSH could promote both primary and secondary arsenic methylation capacity in the liver, which might facilitate excretion of arsenicals, and consequently reduce arsenic burden in both blood and brain and furthermore ameliorate the effects of arsenicals on NO metabolism in the brain. (orig.)

  13. 土壤中植物根际促生菌研究进展%Research Progress of Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海宗; 潘梅

    2014-01-01

    植物根际促生菌(Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria,PGPR)借助其代谢过程或代谢产物来改善植物生长条件及营养环境.如固定空气中的游离氮,参与土壤中养分的转化,增加有效养分,分泌激素,刺激植物根系发育,抑制有害微生物活动,更重要的是有些PGPR能够诱导植物产生系统抗性.本文主要介绍了共生、非共生固氮菌和溶磷菌的功能以及应用,强调应在基础理论研究的基础上加大其产业化进展.

  14. Research progress on intervention method of promoting benefit finding%提升益处发现的干预方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽华

    2015-01-01

    There were many intervention methods that mainly included cognitive behavior management,stress management,peer support,complementary and alternative medicine and positive reflection to promote benefit finding.The intervention obj ects mainly focused on patients with breast cancer or alzheimer’s disease or AIDS. It put forward that the study on benefit finding was still in the stage of exploration.%提高益处发现的干预方法主要有认知行为管理、压力管理、同伴支持、补充和替代疗法、积极反思等方法,干预对象主要集中于乳腺癌、阿尔兹海默病、艾滋病病人等。提出益处发现的研究尚处于探索阶段。

  15. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; FABIANOVA, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic a...

  16. ARSENIC SPECIATION IN CARROT EXTRACTS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON THE DETECTION OF MMA(III) AND MMTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two predominant routes of arsenic exposure are dietary ingestion and drinking water consumption. Dietary arsenic, unlike drinking water arsenic, contains a variety of arsenicals with dramatically different toxicities. The list of arsenicals detected in dietary samples conti...

  17. Systematic identification of arsenic-binding proteins reveals that hexokinase-2 is inhibited by arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Nan; Yang, Lina; Ling, Jian-Ya; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Wang, Jing-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Ge, Feng; Yang, Ming-Kun; Xiong, Qian; Guo, Shu-Juan; Le, Huang-Ying; Wu, Song-Fang; Yan, Wei; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Heng; Chen, Zhu; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is highly effective for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has shown significant promise against many other tumors. However, although its mechanistic effects in APL are established, its broader anticancer mode of action is not understood. In this study, using a human proteome microarray, we identified 360 proteins that specifically bind arsenic. Among the most highly enriched proteins in this set are those in the glycolysis pathway, including the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, hexokinase-1. Detailed biochemical and metabolomics analyses of the highly homologous hexokinase-2 (HK2), which is overexpressed in many cancers, revealed significant inhibition by arsenic. Furthermore, overexpression of HK2 rescued cells from arsenic-induced apoptosis. Our results thus strongly implicate glycolysis, and HK2 in particular, as a key target of arsenic. Moreover, the arsenic-binding proteins identified in this work are expected to serve as a valuable resource for the development of synergistic antitumor therapeutic strategies.

  18. A broad view of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F T

    2007-01-01

    In the mind of the general public, the words "arsenic" and "poison" have become almost synonymous. Yet, As is a natural metallic element found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment, including foods. Mining and smelting activities are closely associated with As, and the largest occurrence of As contamination in the United States is near the gold mines of northern Nevada. Inhabitants of Bangladesh and surrounding areas have been exposed to water that is naturally and heavily contaminated with As, causing what the World Health Organization has described as the worst mass poisoning in history. Although readily absorbed by humans, most inorganic As (>90%) is rapidly cleared from the blood with a half-life of 1 to 2 h, and 40 to 70% of the As intake is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted within 48 h. Arsenic does not appreciably bioaccumulate, nor does it biomagnify in the food chain. The United States has for some time purchased more As than any other country in the world, but As usage is waning, and further reductions appear likely. Arsenic is used in a wide variety of industrial applications, from computers to fireworks. All feed additives used in US poultry feeds must meet the strict requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (Rockville, MD) before use. Although some public health investigators have identified poultry products as a potentially significant source of total As exposure for Americans, studies consistently demonstrate that <1% of samples tested are above the 0.5 ppm limit established by the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated the possibility that As in poultry litter could pollute ground waters, million of tons of litter have been applied to the land, and no link has been established between litter application and As contamination of ground water. Yet, the fact that <2% of the United States population is involved in

  19. Inorganic arsenic in drinking water accelerates N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced bladder tissue damage in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Paul-Yann [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi, Chang Gung University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yung-Lun; Huang, Chin-Chin; Chen, Sin-Syu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yi-Wen, E-mail: ywlss@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-15

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that exposure to an arsenic-contaminated environment correlates with the incidence of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is highly recurrent after intravesical therapy, and most of the deaths from this disease are due to invasive metastasis. In our present study, the role of inorganic arsenic in bladder carcinogenesis is characterized in a mouse model. This work provides the first evidence that inorganic arsenic in drinking water promotes N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder tissue damage, including the urothelium and submucosal layer. This damage to the bladder epithelium induced by BBN includes thickening of the submucosal layer, the loss of the glycosaminoglycan layer and an increase in both the deoxyguanosine oxidation and cytosine methylation levels in the DNA. Further, when 10 ppm inorganic arsenic is combined with BBN, the number of bladder submucosal capillaries is increased. In addition, inorganic arsenic also increases the deoxyguanosine oxidation level, alters the cytosine methylation state, decreases the activities of glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, decreases the protein expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) and increases the protein expression of specific protein 1 (Sp1) in bladder tissues. In summary, our data reveal that inorganic arsenic in drinking water promotes the BBN-induced pre-neoplastic damage of bladder tissue in mice, and that the 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 5-methylcytosine, NQO-1 protein and Sp1 protein levels may be pre-neoplastic markers of bladder tumors. -- Highlights: ► The role of inorganic arsenic in bladder carcinogenesis is characterized in mice. ► We examine the changes in the histology and biochemistry of bladder tissues. ► Inorganic arsenic enhances BBN-induced DNA oxidation while decreases BBN-induced DNA methylation in the mouse bladder. ► Inorganic arsenic alters the activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes in

  20. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E

    2005-11-01

    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  1. Arsenic contamination and arsenicosis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenicosis is a serious environmental chemical disease in China mainly caused by drinking water from pump wells contaminated by high levels of arsenic. Chronic exposure of humans to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water is associated with skin lesions, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, blackfoot disease, and high risk of cancers. Lead by the Ministry of Health of China, we carried out a research about arsenicosis in China recently. Areas contaminated with arsenic from drinking water are determined by 10% pump well water sample method while areas from burning coal are determined by existing data. Two epidemic areas of Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia are investigated for the distribution of pump wells containing high arsenic. Well water in all the investigated villages of Shanxi Province showed polluted by high arsenic, and the average rate of unsafe pump well water is 52%. In Inner Mongolia, the high percentage of pump wells containing elevated arsenic is found only in a few villages. The average rate of unsafe pump well water is 11%. From our research, we find that new endemic areas are continuously emerging in China. Up to now, epidemic areas of arsenicosis mainly involve eight provinces and 37 counties in China. In the affected areas, the discovery of wells and coal with high levels of arsenic is continuing sporadically, and a similar scattered distribution pattern of patients is also being observed

  2. [Competitive Microbial Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Bai, Yao-hui; Liang, Jin-song; Huo, Yang; Wang, Ming-xing; Yuan, Lin-ijang

    2016-02-15

    Filters are widely applied in drinking water treatment plants. Our previous study, which explored the asenic redox in a filter of drinking water plant treating underground water, found that As3+ could be oxidized to As5+ by biogenic manganese oxides, while As5+ could be reduced to As3+ by some microbial arsenic reductases in the biofilter system. This microbial competition could influence the system stability and treatment efficiency. To explore its mechanism, this study selected a manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) and a arsenic-reducing strain (Brevibacterium sp. LSJ-9) to investigate their competitive relationship in nutrient acquisition and arsenic redox in the presence of Mn2+, As3+ or As5+ The results revealed that the concentration and valence of Mn and As varied with different reaction time; biological manganese oxides dominated the arsenic redox by rapidly oxidizing the As3+ in the existing system and the As3+ generated by arsenic reductase into As. PCR and RT-PCR results indicated that the arsenic reductase (arsC) was inhibited by the manganese oxidase (cumA). The expression of 16S rRNA in QJX-1 was two orders of magnitude higher than that in LSJ-9, which implied QJX-1 was dominant in the bacterial growth. Our data revealed that hydraulic retention time was critical to the valence of arsenic in the effluent of filter in drinking water treatment plant.

  3. [Competitive Microbial Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Bai, Yao-hui; Liang, Jin-song; Huo, Yang; Wang, Ming-xing; Yuan, Lin-ijang

    2016-02-15

    Filters are widely applied in drinking water treatment plants. Our previous study, which explored the asenic redox in a filter of drinking water plant treating underground water, found that As3+ could be oxidized to As5+ by biogenic manganese oxides, while As5+ could be reduced to As3+ by some microbial arsenic reductases in the biofilter system. This microbial competition could influence the system stability and treatment efficiency. To explore its mechanism, this study selected a manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) and a arsenic-reducing strain (Brevibacterium sp. LSJ-9) to investigate their competitive relationship in nutrient acquisition and arsenic redox in the presence of Mn2+, As3+ or As5+ The results revealed that the concentration and valence of Mn and As varied with different reaction time; biological manganese oxides dominated the arsenic redox by rapidly oxidizing the As3+ in the existing system and the As3+ generated by arsenic reductase into As. PCR and RT-PCR results indicated that the arsenic reductase (arsC) was inhibited by the manganese oxidase (cumA). The expression of 16S rRNA in QJX-1 was two orders of magnitude higher than that in LSJ-9, which implied QJX-1 was dominant in the bacterial growth. Our data revealed that hydraulic retention time was critical to the valence of arsenic in the effluent of filter in drinking water treatment plant. PMID:27363151

  4. Body composition and -174G/C interleukin-6 promoter gene polymorphism: association with progression of insulin resistance in normal weight obese syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, L; Bertoli, A; Bigioni, M; Del Gobbo, V; Premrov, M G; Calabrese, V; Di Daniele, N; De Lorenzo, A

    2008-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are intimately related to a chronic low grade systemic inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) may influence the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of body's fat mass on the relationships between -174G/C IL-6 promoter gene polymorphism, IL-6 circulating level and insulin resistance. A population of 150 Caucasian women was studied, subdivided according to their body composition in non-obese (NW), Normal Weight Obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (OB). The NWO subjects were found in an intermediate position between the NW and OB subjects in terms of body weight, fat mass percentage (FM%), abdominal FAT%, hs-CRP and plasma triglyceride level. Fasting plasma IL-6 concentration was positively correlated with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in all subjects analyzed (P=0.0014). In NWO and OB women a significantly increased IL-6 mean value was observed compared with NW subjects. In G/G population, the IL-6 plasma level of NWO and OB was significantly higher with respect to NW. No significant differences of IL-6 concentrations were observed in the three groups carrying G/C genotype. NWO and OB women homozygous for the allele C have significantly lower value of IL-6 with respect to NW subjects. IL-6 concentration was positively correlated with FM% in G/G (R(2)=0.397, P<0.001) and was negatively correlated in C/C (R(2)=0.459, P=0.002). No significant correlation was observed in G/C genotype (R(2)=0.041, P=0.173). In conclusion our study confirms that, at least in Italian Caucasian females, the FM% is a major determinant of an increase in IL-6 production and insulin resistance. -174 G/C IL-6 promoter polymorphism represents a marker which could help to identify, time in advance, "vulnerable" individuals at risk of age and obesity related diseases. PMID:18991689

  5. RalA, a GTPase targeted by miR-181a, promotes transformation and progression by activating the Ras-related signaling pathway in chronic myelogenous leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaochuang; Yang, Juhua; Li, Yumin; Li, Tianfu; Wang, Ruirui; Fei, Jia

    2016-01-01

    BCR/ABL is a well-known activator of multiple signaling pathways. RalA, a Ras downstream signaling molecule and a small GTPase, plays an important role in Bcr-Abl-induced leukemogenesis but the exact mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that RalA GTPase activity is commonly high in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell lines and patient samples. Overexpression of RalA results in malignant transformation and progression, and induces resistance to imatinib (IM) in BaF3 and K562 cell lines. RalA reduced survival and led to IM resistance in a xenografted mouse model. Ablation of RalA by either siRNA or miR-181a, a RalA targeting microRNA, attenuated the malignant phenotypes in K562 cells. RBC8, a selective Ral inhibitor, enhanced the inhibitory effects of IM in K562, KCL22 and BaF3-P210 cells. Interestingly, the phospho-specific protein microarray assay revealed that multiple phosphorylation signal proteins were decreased by RalA inhibition, including SAPK, JNK, SRC, VEGFR2, P38 MAPK, c-Kit, JunB, and Keratin18. Among them, P38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK are Ras downstream signaling kinases. Taken together, RalA GTPase might be an important oncogene activating the Ras-related signaling pathway in CML. PMID:26967392

  6. Global Fitness Profiling Identifies Arsenic and Cadmium Tolerance Mechanisms in Fission Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan; Ganguly, Abantika; Sun, Lingling; Suo, Fang; Du, Li-Lin; Russell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals and metalloids such as cadmium [Cd(II)] and arsenic [As(III)] are widespread environmental toxicants responsible for multiple adverse health effects in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metal-induced cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis, as well as the detoxification and tolerance pathways, are incompletely understood. Here, we use global fitness profiling by barcode sequencing to quantitatively survey the Schizosaccharomyces pombe haploid deletome for genes that confer tolerance of cadmium or arsenic. We identified 106 genes required for cadmium resistance and 110 genes required for arsenic resistance, with a highly significant overlap of 36 genes. A subset of these 36 genes account for almost all proteins required for incorporating sulfur into the cysteine-rich glutathione and phytochelatin peptides that chelate cadmium and arsenic. A requirement for Mms19 is explained by its role in directing iron–sulfur cluster assembly into sulfite reductase as opposed to promoting DNA repair, as DNA damage response genes were not enriched among those required for cadmium or arsenic tolerance. Ubiquinone, siroheme, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate biosynthesis were also identified as critical for Cd/As tolerance. Arsenic-specific pathways included prefoldin-mediated assembly of unfolded proteins and protein targeting to the peroxisome, whereas cadmium-specific pathways included plasma membrane and vacuolar transporters, as well as Spt–Ada–Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) transcriptional coactivator that controls expression of key genes required for cadmium tolerance. Notable differences are apparent with corresponding screens in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, underscoring the utility of analyzing toxic metal defense mechanisms in both organisms. PMID:27558664

  7. Global Fitness Profiling Identifies Arsenic and Cadmium Tolerance Mechanisms in Fission Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals and metalloids such as cadmium [Cd(II] and arsenic [As(III] are widespread environmental toxicants responsible for multiple adverse health effects in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metal-induced cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis, as well as the detoxification and tolerance pathways, are incompletely understood. Here, we use global fitness profiling by barcode sequencing to quantitatively survey the Schizosaccharomyces pombe haploid deletome for genes that confer tolerance of cadmium or arsenic. We identified 106 genes required for cadmium resistance and 110 genes required for arsenic resistance, with a highly significant overlap of 36 genes. A subset of these 36 genes account for almost all proteins required for incorporating sulfur into the cysteine-rich glutathione and phytochelatin peptides that chelate cadmium and arsenic. A requirement for Mms19 is explained by its role in directing iron–sulfur cluster assembly into sulfite reductase as opposed to promoting DNA repair, as DNA damage response genes were not enriched among those required for cadmium or arsenic tolerance. Ubiquinone, siroheme, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate biosynthesis were also identified as critical for Cd/As tolerance. Arsenic-specific pathways included prefoldin-mediated assembly of unfolded proteins and protein targeting to the peroxisome, whereas cadmium-specific pathways included plasma membrane and vacuolar transporters, as well as Spt–Ada–Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA transcriptional coactivator that controls expression of key genes required for cadmium tolerance. Notable differences are apparent with corresponding screens in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, underscoring the utility of analyzing toxic metal defense mechanisms in both organisms.

  8. [Attenuation effects of compatible medicines on arsenical and lead toxicity of badu shengji san].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanli; He, Rong; Peng, Bo; Gao, Jie; Li, Jianrong

    2011-08-01

    Badu Shengji San(BDSJS) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for drawing out toxin, eliminating suppuration and promoting granulation. Toxic minerals such as arsenic and lead are the two most important components of BDSJS. Previous hypothesis indicated that according to the compatibility theory of TCM, the toxicity of the entire BDSJS was weaker than that of arsenic and lead, respectively. In the present study, SD rats with injured skin were treated with distilled water and different composition of BDSJS (complete formulations, compatible herbs, mineral medicine containing arsenic and lead, mineral medicine containing arsenic and mineral medicine containing lead) once a day for consecutive 2 weeks. Kidney coefficient and urinary beta-N-acetyl glucosidase (NAG) were used as the indicators of renal toxicity and the content of malondiadehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) in the renal tissue were measured. Our data showed that kidney coefficient, the severity of renal pathological lesion and MT level in the kidney of the entire BDSJS group decreased significantly compared with arsenic and lead group. Additionally, the NAG content of the entire BDSJS group had the decreased trend. The kidney CuZn-SOD level of the entire BDSJS group had the increased trend, but the MDA, GSH-PX, GSH level had no obvious difference. Our results suggested that compatible herbs in BDSJS relieved renal injury induced by arsenic and lead, and the attenuation mechanism may be related to MT and CuZn-SOD, but not to MDA, GSH-PX and GSH directly. PMID:22066453

  9. Role of soil-derived dissolved substances in arsenic transport and transformation in laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangrong; Cai, Yong; Liu, Guangliang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Snyder, George H; Cisar, John L

    2008-11-15

    Dissolved substances derived from soil may interact with both soil surfaces and with arsenic and subsequently influence arsenic mobility and species transformation. The purpose of this study was to investigate arsenic transport and transformation in porous media with a specific focus on the impact of soil-derived dissolved substances, mainly consisting of inorganic colloids and dissolved organic matter (DOM), on these processes. Arsenic transport and transformation through columns, which were packed with uncoated sand (UC) or naturally coated sand (NC) and fed with arsenate (AsV) or monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) spiked influents, were investigated in the presence or absence of soil-derived dissolved substances. The presence of soil-derived inorganic colloids and/or DOM clearly enhanced As transport through the column, with the fraction of As leached out of column (referring to the total amount added) being increased from 23 to 46% (UC) and 21 to 50% (NC) in AsV experiments while 46 to 64% (UC) and 28 to 63% (NC) in MMA experiments. The association of arsenic with DOM and the competitive adsorption between arsenic and DOM could account for, at least partly, the enhanced As movement. Distinct species transformation of As during transport through soil columns was observed. When AsV was the initial species spiked in the influent solutions, only arsenite (AsIII) was detected in the effluents for UC columns; while both AsIII (dominant) and AsV were present for NC columns, with AsIII being the dominant species. When MMA was initially spiked in the influent solutions, all method detectable As species, AsIII, AsV, MMA, and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) were present in the effluents for both soil columns. These results indicate that risk assessment associated with As contamination, particularly due to previous organoarsenical pesticide applications, should take into account the role of soil-derived dissolved substances in promoting As transport and As species transformation.

  10. Arsenic adsorption of lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuthiphun, L.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic adsorption efficiency of soil covering materials (lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil obtained from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province tosolve arsenic air pollution problem was investigated using batch experiments. The four types of the aforementioned soil covering materials were examined to determine their arsenic adsorption efficiency, equilibriumtime as well as adsorption isotherms.The results revealed that among soil covering materials mixed with arsenic-contaminated soil at 10% w/w, the efficiency of arsenic adsorption of fly ash, lateritic soil, lime and limestone powder were 84, 60,38 and 1% respectively. The equilibrium time for lateritic soil at pH 4 was achieved within 4 hrs, whereas pH 7 and 12, the equilibrium time was 6 hrs. For fly ash, 2 hrs were required to reach the equilibrium at pH 12, while the equilibrium time was attained within 6 hrs at pH 4 and 7. Furthermore, lateritic soil possessedhigh arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 7 and 4 and best fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The fly ash showing high arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 12 and 7 fit the Freundlich isotherm at pH 12 and Langmuirisotherm at pH 7.This indicated that lateritic soil was suitable for arsenic adsorption at low pH, whilst at high pH,arsenic was well adsorbed by fly ash. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm could be used to determine quantities of soil covering materials for arsenic adsorption to prevent arsenic air pollution from arseniccontaminated soils.

  11. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnos...

  12. Arsenic in North Carolina: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Messier, Kyle P; Shehee, Mina; Rudo, Kenneth; Serre, Marc L; Fry, Rebecca C

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and relevant environmental contaminant in drinking water systems. We set out to comprehensively examine statewide arsenic trends and identify areas of public health concern. Specifically, arsenic trends in North Carolina private wells were evaluated over an eleven-year period using the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services database for private domestic well waters. We geocoded over 63,000 domestic well measurements by applying a novel geocoding algorithm and error validation scheme. Arsenic measurements and geographical coordinates for database entries were mapped using Geographic Information System techniques. Furthermore, we employed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework, which accounts for geocoding error to better estimate arsenic values across the state and identify trends for unmonitored locations. Of the approximately 63,000 monitored wells, 7712 showed detectable arsenic concentrations that ranged between 1 and 806μg/L. Additionally, 1436 well samples exceeded the EPA drinking water standard. We reveal counties of concern and demonstrate a historical pattern of elevated arsenic in some counties, particularly those located along the Carolina terrane (Carolina slate belt). We analyzed these data in the context of populations using private well water and identify counties for targeted monitoring, such as Stanly and Union Counties. By spatiotemporally mapping these data, our BME estimate revealed arsenic trends at unmonitored locations within counties and better predicted well concentrations when compared to the classical kriging method. This study reveals relevant information on the location of arsenic-contaminated private domestic wells in North Carolina and indicates potential areas at increased risk for adverse health outcomes.

  13. 促进植物生长根圈细菌(PGPR)的研究现状%Review of Research Progress on Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何铁光; 杨雯馨; 林崇宝; 何永群; 张野; 韦彩会; 李婷婷

    2014-01-01

    有机农业提倡与自然共存不破坏平衡,而自然界的土壤中存在许多可促进植物生长的植物根圈微生物(plant growth promoting rhizobacteria,PGPR),此类微生物可分泌促进植物生长的物质,并可诱导植物产生抗性基因,增强植物抗病.PGPR可产生有机物质促进植物生长,改善土壤肥力,增加可溶性磷及铁,诱发植物抗病、克服逆境、增强营养吸收,固氮或防治病害等,在有机农业上有助于植物增产,改善农业对化学肥料的依赖,生产出健康的作物.

  14. NO2 inhalation promotes Alzheimer’s disease-like progression: cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 modulation and monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition-targeted medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Yun, Yang; Ku, Tingting; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution has been reported to be associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative diseases. Because NO2 is a typical primary air pollutant and an important contributor to secondary aerosols, NO2-induced neuronal functional abnormalities have attracted greater attention, but the available experimental evidence, modulating mechanisms, and targeting medications remain ambiguous. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6J and APP/PS1 mice to dynamic NO2 inhalation and found for the first time that NO2 inhalation caused deterioration of spatial learning and memory, aggravated amyloid β42 (Aβ42) accumulation, and promoted pathological abnormalities and cognitive defects related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The microarray and bioinformation data showed that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) played a key role in modulating this aggravation. Furthermore, increasing endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) by inhibiting monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) prevented PGE2 production, neuroinflammation-associated Aβ42 accumulation, and neurodegeneration, indicating a therapeutic target for relieving cognitive impairment caused by NO2 exposure.

  15. Determination of total arsenic, inorganic and organic arsenic species in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herce-Pagliai, C; Moreno, I; González, G; Repetto, M; Cameán, A M

    2002-06-01

    Forty-five wine samples from the south of Spain of different alcoholic strength were analysed for total arsenic and its inorganic [As(III), As(V)] and organic (monomethylarsonic acid [MMAA], dimethylarsinic acid [DMAA]) species. The As levels of the wine samples ranged from 2.1 to 14.6 microg l(-1). The possible effect of the alcoholic fermentation process on the levels of the total arsenic and arsenical species was studied. The average total arsenic levels for the different samples were very similar, without significant differences between all types of wines. In table wines and sherry, the percentages of total inorganic arsenic were 18.6 and 15.6%, with DMAA or MMAA being the predominant species, respectively. In most samples, DMAA was the most abundant species, but the total inorganic aresenic fraction was considerable, representing 25.4% of the total concentration of the element. The estimated daily intakes of total arsenic and total inorganic arsenic for average Spanish consumers were 0.78 and 0.15 microg/person day(-1), respectively. The results suggest that the consumption of these types of wines makes no significant contribution to the total and inorganic arsenic intake for normal drinkers. However, wine consumption contributes a higher arsenic intake than through consumption of beers and sherry brandies.

  16. Insights into arsenic multi-operons expression and arsenic resistance mechanisms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungui eZhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is widespread in the environment and causes numerous health problems. Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been regarded as a good model organism for studying arsenic detoxification since it was first demonstrated to methylate environmental arsenic by conversion to soluble or gaseous methylated species. However, the detailed arsenic resistance mechanisms remain unknown though there are at least three arsenic-resistance operons (ars1, ars2 and ars3 in R. palustris. In this study, we investigated how arsenic multi-operons contributed to arsenic detoxification in R. palustris. The expression of ars2 or ars3 operons increased with increasing environmental arsenite (As(III concentrations (up to 1.0 mM while transcript of ars1 operon was not detected in the middle log-phase (55 h. ars2 operon was actively expressed even at the low concentration of As(III (0.01 μM, whereas the ars3 operon was expressed at 1.0 µM of As(III, indicating that there was a differential regulation mechanism for the three arsenic operons. Furthermore, ars2 and ars3 operons were maximally transcribed in the early log-phase where ars2 operon was 5.4-fold higher than that of ars3 operon. A low level of ars1 transcript was only detected at 43 h (early log-phase. Arsenic speciation analysis demonstrated that R. palustris could reduce As(V to As(III.

  17. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 mu g=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 mu g=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100 - 500 mu g=L) in real Bangladesh tube well water

  18. Environmental arsenic exposure and sputum metalloproteinase concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Josyula, Arun B.; Poplin, Gerald S.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; McClellen, Hannah E.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Stürup, Stefan; Clark Lantz, R.; Jefferey L. Burgess

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: arsenic, creatinin, MMP levelsExposure/effect represented: arsenicStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 73 subjectsAnalytical technique: ELISA, HPLCTissue/biological material/sample size: urine samplesRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response): inorganic arsenic positively correlated with logMMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in sputum (Pearson's r Ό 0:351, P Ό 0:009) and negatively correlated with the log of s...

  19. Health implications of arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, F.W. (American Water Works Association, Denver, CO (United States)); Brown, K.G. (Kenneth G. Brown Inc., Chapel Hill, NC (United States)); Chen, C.J. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Public Health)

    1994-09-01

    The adequacy of the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic is being evaluated by the US Environmental Protection Agency. If recent theoretical estimates of chronic effects and cancer risks prove accurate, the current MCL may not effectively protect health. Knowledge of arsenic pharmacokinetics and mechanisms in humans, however, is not complete enough to provide a definitive answer, and current epidemiologic evidence is too inconsistent and too fraught with uncertainty regarding arsenic exposure to be helpful in assessing low-level risks. 85 refs.

  20. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  1. Urinary arsenic levels in timber treatment operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollop, B R; Glass, W I

    1979-01-10

    An investigation was carried out into arsenic levels in urine of timber treatment operators at six treatment plants in the Waikato-Rotorua area. The mean arsenic level for treatment operators was 222 migrograms/l compared with the normal range of 5-40 micrograms/l. In order to reduce the present significant exposure to treatment chemicals such as arsenic and chromium, it is recommended that the wood preservation industry take engineering measures to reduce the present air emissions and adopt strict work practices in hygiene and protective clothing in similar manner to those handling mercury and lead. PMID:285363

  2. Intraepithelial macrophage infiltration is related to a high number of regulatory T cells and promotes a progressive course of HPV-induced vulvar neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, Edith M G; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E; Trimbos, J Baptist M Z; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2015-02-15

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) is infiltrated by myeloid cells but the type and role of these cells is unclear. We used triple immunofluorescent confocal microscopy to locate, identify and quantify myeloid cells based on their staining pattern for CD14, CD33 and CD163 in a cohort of 43 primary and 20 recurrent uVIN lesions, 21 carcinomas and 26 normal vulvar tissues. The progressive course of uVIN is characterized by an increase in both intraepithelial and stromal mature M1 and M2 macrophages. While the M2 macrophages outnumber M1 macrophages in healthy controls and uVIN, they are matched in number by M1 macrophages in cancer. Importantly, uVIN patients with a dense intraepithelial infiltration with mature CD14+ macrophages (irrespective of M1 or M2 type) displayed approximately a six times higher risk to develop a recurrence and a high number of these cells constituted an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. In addition, a dense intraepithelial CD14+ cell infiltration was associated with high numbers of intraepithelial CD4+ Tregs and low numbers of stromal CD8+TIM3+ T cells. Patients with low numbers of intraepithelial CD14+ cells and high numbers of stromal CD8+TIM3+ cells showed the best recurrence-free survival. These data clearly show the importance of the local immune response in HPV-induced vulvar neoplasia and may be of help in predicting the prognosis of patients or their response to immunotherapy.

  3. NPM-ALK oncogenic kinase promotes cell-cycle progression through activation of JNK/cJun signaling in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventaki, Vasiliki; Drakos, Elias; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S; Claret, Francois X; Rassidakis, George Z

    2007-09-01

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) frequently carries the t(2;5)(p23;q35), resulting in aberrant expression of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK). We show that in 293T and Jurkat cells, forced expression of active NPM-ALK, but not kinase-dead mutant NPM-ALK (210K>R), induced JNK and cJun phosphorylation, and this was linked to a dramatic increase in AP-1 transcriptional activity. Conversely, inhibition of ALK activity in NPM-ALK(+) ALCL cells resulted in a concentration-dependent dephosphorylation of JNK and cJun and decreased AP-1 DNA-binding. In addition, JNK physically binds NPM-ALK and is highly activated in cultured and primary NPM-ALK(+) ALCL cells. cJun phosphorylation in NPM-ALK(+) ALCL cells is mediated by JNKs, as shown by selective knocking down of JNK1 and JNK2 genes using siRNA. Inhibition of JNK activity using SP600125 decreased cJun phosphorylation and AP-1 transcriptional activity and this was associated with decreased cell proliferation and G2/M cell-cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Silencing of the cJun gene by siRNA led to a decreased S-phase cell-cycle fraction associated with upregulation of p21 and downregulation of cyclin D3 and cyclin A. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel function of NPM-ALK, phosphorylation and activation of JNK and cJun, which may contribute to uncontrolled cell-cycle progression and oncogenesis.

  4. Research Progress of Promoting Silage Additives%发酵促进型青贮添加剂的研究进展及其应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭盼; 单贵莲; 薛世明; 杨国荣

    2012-01-01

    Silage additives is one of the important measures to improve silage quality. In recent decades, we have done lots of researches in additive in forage silage, and has made a great progress, and become the focus of silage fermation. The type of silage addition is the hotspot in recent years. This paper reviews some type of the silage addition, like the lactic acid bacteria, cellulase enzymes, previously fermented juice and sugar and so on, and point out the research situation, the exiting problems and the future trends.%青贮添加剂是提高青贮饲料品质的重要措施之一。近几十年来,人们对于添加剂在牧草青贮技术中的应用进行了大量的研究,而且取得了重要进展,并成为目前青贮技术发展的重点,其中发酵促进型添加剂是近年来研究的热点。本文对乳酸茵、纤维素酶、绿汁发酵液和糖类等发酵促进型牧草青贮添加剂的研究进行了综述,阐述了研究的现状,指出了存在的问题,并对未来的趋势进行了展望。

  5. AFAP1L1, a novel associating partner with vinculin, modulates cellular morphology and motility, and promotes the progression of colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously identified actin filament-associated protein 1-like 1 (AFAP1L1) as a metastasis-predicting marker for spindle cell sarcomas by gene expression profiling, and demonstrated that AFAP1L1 is involved in the cell invasion process by in vitro analyses. However, its precise molecular function has not been fully elucidated, and it remains unknown whether AFAP1L1 could be a prognostic marker and/or therapeutic target of other malignancies. In this study, we found a marked elevation of AFAP1L1 gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues as compared to the adjacent normal mucosa. Multivariate analysis revealed that AFAP1L1 was an independent and significant factor for the recurrence of rectal cancers. Moreover, the addition of the AFAP1L1 expression level to the lymph node metastasis status provided more predictive information regarding postoperative recurrence in rectal cancers. AFAP1L1-transduced CRC cells exhibited a rounded shape, increased cell motility on planar substrates, and resistance to anoikis in vitro. AFAP1L1 localized to the ringed structure of the invadopodia, together with vinculin, and AFAP1L1 was identified as a novel associating partner of vinculin by immunoprecipitation assay. AFAP1L1-transduced cells showed accelerated tumor growth in vivo, presumably reflecting the anoikis resistance of these AFAP1L1-expressing cells. Furthermore, the local administration of a siRNA against AFAP1L1 significantly suppressed the in vivo tumor growth of xenografts, suggesting that AFAP1L1 might be a candidate therapeutic target for CRCs. These results suggest that AFAP1L1 plays a role in the progression of CRCs by modulating cell shape and motility and by inhibiting anoikis, presumably through interactions with vinculin-including protein complexes

  6. Arsenic burden of cooked rice: Traditional and modern methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, M K; Hossain, M A; Mukherjee, A; Ahamed, S; Das, B; Nayak, B; Pal, A; Chakraborti, D

    2006-11-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice by irrigation with contaminated groundwater and secondarily increased soil arsenic compounds the arsenic burden of populations dependent on subsistence rice-diets. The arsenic concentration of cooked rice is known to increase with the arsenic concentration of the cooking water but the effects of cooking methods have not been defined. We tested the three major rice cooking procedures followed globally. Using low-arsenic water (As rice: water::1:6; discard excess water) removed up to 57% of the arsenic from rice containing arsenic 203-540 microg/kg. Approximately half of the arsenic was lost in the wash water, half in the discard water. A simple inexpensive rice cooker based on this method has been designed and used for this purpose. Despite the use of low-arsenic water, the contemporary method of cooking unwashed rice at rice:water::1:1.5-2.0 until no discard water remains did not modify the arsenic content. Preliminary washing until clear did remove 28% of the rice arsenic. The results were not influenced by water source (tubewell, dug well, pond or rain); cooking vessel (aluminium, steel, glass or earthenware); or the absolute weight of rice or volume of water. The use of low-As water in the traditional preparation of arsenic contaminated rice can reduce the ingested burden of arsenic. PMID:16876928

  7. Mathematical model insights into arsenic detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijhout H Frederik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic in drinking water, a major health hazard to millions of people in South and East Asia and in other parts of the world, is ingested primarily as trivalent inorganic arsenic (iAs, which then undergoes hepatic methylation to methylarsonic acid (MMAs and a second methylation to dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs. Although MMAs and DMAs are also known to be toxic, DMAs is more easily excreted in the urine and therefore methylation has generally been considered a detoxification pathway. A collaborative modeling project between epidemiologists, biologists, and mathematicians has the purpose of explaining existing data on methylation in human studies in Bangladesh and also testing, by mathematical modeling, effects of nutritional supplements that could increase As methylation. Methods We develop a whole body mathematical model of arsenic metabolism including arsenic absorption, storage, methylation, and excretion. The parameters for arsenic methylation in the liver were taken from the biochemical literature. The transport parameters between compartments are largely unknown, so we adjust them so that the model accurately predicts the urine excretion rates of time for the iAs, MMAs, and DMAs in single dose experiments on human subjects. Results We test the model by showing that, with no changes in parameters, it predicts accurately the time courses of urinary excretion in mutiple dose experiments conducted on human subjects. Our main purpose is to use the model to study and interpret the data on the effects of folate supplementation on arsenic methylation and excretion in clinical trials in Bangladesh. Folate supplementation of folate-deficient individuals resulted in a 14% decrease in arsenicals in the blood. This is confirmed by the model and the model predicts that arsenicals in the liver will decrease by 19% and arsenicals in other body stores by 26% in these same individuals. In addition, the model predicts that arsenic

  8. Body composition and -174G/C interleukin-6 promoter gene polymorphism: association with progression of insulin resistance in normal weight obese syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, L; Bertoli, A; Bigioni, M; Del Gobbo, V; Premrov, M G; Calabrese, V; Di Daniele, N; De Lorenzo, A

    2008-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are intimately related to a chronic low grade systemic inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) may influence the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of body's fat mass on the relationships between -174G/C IL-6 promoter gene polymorphism, IL-6 circulating level and insulin resistance. A population of 150 Caucasian women was studied, subdivided according to their body composition in non-obese (NW), Normal Weight Obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (OB). The NWO subjects were found in an intermediate position between the NW and OB subjects in terms of body weight, fat mass percentage (FM%), abdominal FAT%, hs-CRP and plasma triglyceride level. Fasting plasma IL-6 concentration was positively correlated with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in all subjects analyzed (P=0.0014). In NWO and OB women a significantly increased IL-6 mean value was observed compared with NW subjects. In G/G population, the IL-6 plasma level of NWO and OB was significantly higher with respect to NW. No significant differences of IL-6 concentrations were observed in the three groups carrying G/C genotype. NWO and OB women homozygous for the allele C have significantly lower value of IL-6 with respect to NW subjects. IL-6 concentration was positively correlated with FM% in G/G (R(2)=0.397, Ppolymorphism represents a marker which could help to identify, time in advance, "vulnerable" individuals at risk of age and obesity related diseases.

  9. Ana insect model for assessing arsenic toxicity: Arsenic elevated glutathione content in the musca domestica and trichoplusia ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, K.; Pardini, R.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Throughout history, arsenic has acquired an unparalled reputation as a poison. Arsenic was used as a poison as early as 2000 B.C. The toxicity of arsenic (As) extends to mammals, fish, insects, plants and fungi. According to epidemiological evidence, inorganic arsenic compounds have been strongly suggested as human carcinogens. Human exposure to arsenic through various means is correlated with an increased incidence of skin, lung, and possibly liver cancers. Inorganic trivalent arsenic is systematically more poisonous than the pentavalent form and it is possible that pentavalent arsenic is reduced to the trivalent form before exerting any toxic effects. This study focuses on the potential to use two insect species, the housefly, Musca domestica and the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni, and a model for the study of arsenic toxicity. After 48 hours of exposure to Arsenic, a significant induction of Glutathione level and subsequent decrease in the level of GSSG in both species were observed. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Polymorphism of inflammatory genes and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to arsenic can generate reactive oxidative species, which can induce certain proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of various cancers, including bladder cancer. This study aimed to investigate the joint effect of the polymorphism of TNF-α − 308 G/A, IL-6 − 174 G/C, IL-8 − 251 T/A and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. This study evaluated 300 pathologically-confirmed cases of UC and 594 cancer-free controls. Urinary arsenic species were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphism of TNF-α − 308 G/A, IL-6 − 174 G/C and IL-8 − 251 T/A was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The joint effects on UC risk were estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using unconditional logistic regression. We found that the TNF-α − 308 A/A and IL-8 − 251 T/T polymorphisms were significantly associated with UC. Moreover, significant dose–response joint effect of TNF-α − 308 A/A or IL-8 − 251 T/T genotypes and arsenic methylation indices were seen to affect UC risk. The present results also showed a significant increase in UC risk in subjects with the IL-8 − 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in urinary total arsenic and MMA%. In contrast, a significant decrease in UC risk was found in subjects who carried the IL-8 − 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in DMA%. - Highlights: • Joint effect of the TNF-α -308 A/A genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Joint effect of the IL-8 -251 T/T genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Urinary total arsenic level, TNF-α -308 A/A and IL-8 -251 T/T genotype affected UC

  11. Polymorphism of inflammatory genes and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University—Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lai, Li-An [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shung Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic can generate reactive oxidative species, which can induce certain proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of various cancers, including bladder cancer. This study aimed to investigate the joint effect of the polymorphism of TNF-α − 308 G/A, IL-6 − 174 G/C, IL-8 − 251 T/A and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. This study evaluated 300 pathologically-confirmed cases of UC and 594 cancer-free controls. Urinary arsenic species were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphism of TNF-α − 308 G/A, IL-6 − 174 G/C and IL-8 − 251 T/A was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The joint effects on UC risk were estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using unconditional logistic regression. We found that the TNF-α − 308 A/A and IL-8 − 251 T/T polymorphisms were significantly associated with UC. Moreover, significant dose–response joint effect of TNF-α − 308 A/A or IL-8 − 251 T/T genotypes and arsenic methylation indices were seen to affect UC risk. The present results also showed a significant increase in UC risk in subjects with the IL-8 − 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in urinary total arsenic and MMA%. In contrast, a significant decrease in UC risk was found in subjects who carried the IL-8 − 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in DMA%. - Highlights: • Joint effect of the TNF-α -308 A/A genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Joint effect of the IL-8 -251 T/T genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Urinary total arsenic level, TNF-α -308 A/A and IL-8 -251 T/T genotype affected UC.

  12. Arsenic poisoning of cattle and other domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxham, J.W.; Coup, M.R.

    1968-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-one incidents of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals were recorded at Ruakura Veterinary Diagnostic Station from 1955 to 1967. Cattle was the animal species most subject to arsenic poisoning. Clincal signs, post-mortem findings and sources of arsenic are given. Arsenic poisoning was more prevalent in younger cattle and during the warmer months of the year. With cattle most incidents were associated with carelessly discarded arsenical compounds, although most deaths occurred when these compounds were deliberately used. In other species, losses were generally caused by the deliberate use of arsenical preparations for dipping, drenching and weed spraying. 10 references, 2 tables.

  13. Manufacture of high purity low arsenic anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for manufacturing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity from arsenic contaminated anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is described which comprises: (a) contacting the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the arsenic impurity in the presence of a catalyst which comprises a catalytic amount of (i) molybdenum or an inorganic molybdenum compound and (ii) a phosphate compound, at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to oxidize volatile trivalent arsenic impurities in the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to non-volatile pentavalent arsenic compounds, and (b) distilling the resulting mixture and recovering anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity

  14. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  15. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies. PMID:26231509

  16. Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water, Arsenic Methylation Capacity, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H.; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010–2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: −0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

  17. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes.

  18. Toxicokinetics and Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides an overview of arsenic toxicokinetics and physiologically-basedpharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling with particular emphasis on key 'actors needed fordevelopment of a model useful for dose-response analysis, applications of arsenicmodels, as well research needs.U...

  19. Arsenic stress after the Proterozoic glaciations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fru, Ernest Chi; Arvestål, Emma; Callac, Nolwenn; El Albani, Abderrazak; Kilias, Stephanos; Argyraki, Ariadne; Jakobsson, Martin

    2015-12-04

    Protection against arsenic damage in organisms positioned deep in the tree of life points to early evolutionary sensitization. Here, marine sedimentary records reveal a Proterozoic arsenic concentration patterned to glacial-interglacial ages. The low glacial and high interglacial sedimentary arsenic concentrations, suggest deteriorating habitable marine conditions may have coincided with atmospheric oxygen decline after ~2.1 billion years ago. A similar intensification of near continental margin sedimentary arsenic levels after the Cryogenian glaciations is also associated with amplified continental weathering. However, interpreted atmospheric oxygen increase at this time, suggests that the marine biosphere had widely adapted to the reorganization of global marine elemental cycles by glaciations. Such a glacially induced biogeochemical bridge would have produced physiologically robust communities that enabled increased oxygenation of the ocean-atmosphere system and the radiation of the complex Ediacaran-Cambrian life.

  20. Health effects of arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowle, J.R.; Abernathy, C.O.; Mass, M.J.; McKinney, J.D.; North, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Current knowledge about metabolism, essentiality, and toxicity is summarized in the document. These are placed in a risk assessment context. Research needs are identified with their implications for improving the ability to assess risk from exposure to arsenic.

  1. TELOMERASE AND CHRONIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer in humans. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not well understood. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of eukary...

  2. Study of arsenic injury to rice plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Okahashi, C.; Wada, M.

    1968-01-01

    Growth injury happened to rice plants when waste liquid flowed from a mercury refinery into paddy fields in July 1967. Arsenic turned out to be the main cause of the growth injury. Investigation of the contaminated fields revealed that the injury was the most severe at the water inlet to the field, and was comparatively slight in the middle of it. The quantity of arsenic absorbed in the soil was very large at the inlet and was decreasingly small towards the centre of them. Moreover, excessive quantities of arsenic were often found on the surface of the fields. The constituent was seen permeating the lower layers of the soil. The permeation was deep in proportion to the good drainage of soil. Drastic measures should be taken with a special reference to quantity of arsenic and type of soil.

  3. Arsenic Induced Decreases in the Vascular Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Allison M.; Lantz, R. Clark; Rodgers, Laurel S.; Sollome, James J.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.; Andrew, Angeline S; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic is associated with increased incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the role of arsenic in early events in vascular pathology, C57BL/6 mice ingested drinking water with or without 50 ppb sodium arsenite (AsIII) for four, five or eight weeks. At five and eight weeks, RNA from the lungs of control and AsIII exposed animals was processed for microarray. Sixty-five genes were significantly and differentially expressed. Differential expres...

  4. Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykknes, Annette; Kvittingen, Lise

    2003-05-01

    This article presents parts of the history of the element arsenic in order to illustrate processes behind development of knowledge in chemistry. The particular aspects presented here are the use of arsenic as a stimulant by Styrian peasants, in Fowler's solution, in drugs of the 19th century (e.g., salvarsan), and in current medical treatment, all of which challenge the myth of this element as exclusively poisonous.

  5. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to have an affinity for the toxic element. The arsenic concentrations in the principal edible mushrooms of commerce were found to be very low, i.e. on the average 0.5 mg/kg on dry matter. Among the asc...

  6. Megaloblastic, dyserythropoietic anemia following arsenic ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, B B; Ali, N; Green, D

    1980-01-01

    Following acute arsenic ingestion, a 35 year old woman experienced multiple organ failure, including renal and respiratory insufficiency, toxic hepatitis, peripheral neuropathy, and encephalopathy. In addition, she developed an anemia; the bone marrow showed a striking dyserythropoiesis with megaloblastic features. Her recovery was heralded by normalization of the bone marrow morphology, followed by improvement in all other organ dysfunction except for the peripheral neuropathy. Arsenic poisoning is a cause of megaloblastic anemia; early hematologic recovery suggests favorable prognosis.

  7. A novel arsenic methyltransferase gene of Westerdykella aurantiaca isolated from arsenic contaminated soil: phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical studies and its role in arsenic bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shikha; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Meher, Alok Kumar; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Bansiwal, Amit Kumar; Pande, Veena; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-03-01

    Elevated arsenic concentration in the environment and agricultural soil is a serious concern to crop production and human health. Among different detoxification mechanisms, the methylation of arsenic is a widespread phenomenon in nature. A number of microorganisms are able to methylate arsenic, but less is known about the arsenic metabolism in fungi. We identified a novel arsenic methyltransferase (WaarsM) gene from a soil fungus, Westerdykella aurantiaca. WaarsM showed sequence homology with all known arsenic methyltransferases having three conserved SAM binding motifs. The expression of WaarsM enhanced arsenic resistance in E. coli (Δars) and S. cerevisiae (Δacr2) strains by biomethylation and required endogenous reductants, preferably GSH, for methyltransferase activity. The purified WaarsM catalyzes the production of methylated arsenicals from both AsIII and AsV, and also displays AsV reductase activity. It displayed higher methyltransferase activity and lower KM 0.1945 ± 0.021 mM and KM 0.4034 ± 0.078 mM for AsIII and AsV, respectively. S. cerevisiae (Δacr2) cells expressing WaarsM produced 2.2 ppm volatile arsenic and 0.64 ppm DMA(v) with 0.58 ppm volatile arsenicals when exposed to 20 ppm AsV and 2 ppm AsIII, respectively. Arsenic tolerance in rice after co-culture with genetically engineered yeast suggested its potential role in arsenic bioremediation. Thus, characterization of WaarsM provides a potential strategy to reduce arsenic concentration in soil with reduced arsenic accumulation in crops grown in arsenic contaminated areas, and thereby alleviating human health risks. PMID:26776948

  8. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. PMID:21435676

  9. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Liebeke

    Full Text Available Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  10. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeke, Manuel; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Anderson, Craig J; Lawlor, Alan J; Bennett, Mark H; Morris, Ceri A; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J; Bundy, Jacob G

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species) as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  11. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  12. Gene Analysis of Arsenic Trioxide—induced Apoptosis of Lymphoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZidong; LIWeiyu; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective The effect of arsenic trioxide on apoptosis gene expression of Raji cell was explored when Raji cells were incubated with 0.5μmol/L of arsenic trioxide for 6h。Methods Cell culture,extraction and isolation of mRNA,preparation of probes labeled with fluorescence,hybridization technique of DNA chip(each chip containing 200 apoptosis genes,Chinese Shanghai Biostar,In.)were used.Results Arsenic trioxide induced significant changes in 10%(20/200 genes)of the apoptosis genes:18 genes were downregulated,only two upregulated.In particular,inhibitors of apoptosis protein,such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein,were significantly downregulated.P53 and the other apoptosis genes were also downregulatec.Of the upregulated genes,high expression of heat-shock protein could promote apoptosis of Raji cells.Conclusion The inhibitors of apoptosis protein play an important role in the process of arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis of Raji cells.

  13. Evidence against the nuclear in situ binding of arsenicals-oxidative stress theory of arsenic carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large amount of evidence suggests that arsenicals act via oxidative stress in causing cancer in humans and experimental animals. It is possible that arsenicals could bind in situ close to nuclear DNA followed by Haber-Weiss type oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, we tested this...

  14. Microbial transformations of arsenic: perspectives for biological removal of arsenic from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cavalca; A. Corsini; P. Zaccheo; V. Andreoni; G. Muyzer

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is present in many environments and is released by various natural processes and anthropogenic actions. Although arsenic is recognized to cause a wide range of adverse health effects in humans, diverse bacteria can metabolize it by detoxification and energy conservation reactions. This revie

  15. DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMASIII AND DMASIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMAsIII and DMAsIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC. L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo2, W. R. Cullen3, and D.J. Thomas4. 1Toxicology Section, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico, D.F., 2Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 3Uni...

  16. Effects of arsenic on nitrogen metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ferns

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of arsenic on the in vitro activities of the enzymes (nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in nitrate metabolism in the roots, rhizomes, and fronds of two four-month old fern plants, Pteris vittata, an arsenic-hyperaccumulator, and Pteris ensiformis, ...

  17. Use of arsenic-73 in research supports USEPA's regulatory decisions on inorganic arsenic in drinking water*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic is a natural contaminant of drinking water in the United States and throughout the world. Long term exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water at elevated levels (>100 ug/L) is associated with development of cancer in several organs, cardiovascular disease,...

  18. Improvement of bioreporter bacteria-based test systems for the analysis of arsenic in drinking water and the rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppardt, Anke

    2010-02-05

    Contamination of drinking water with arsenic can be measured in laboratories with atom absorption spectrometry (AAS), mass spectrometry with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS) or atom fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) at the relevant concentrations below 50 {mu}g/L. Field test kits which easily and reliably measure arsenic concentrations are not yet available. Test systems on the basis of bioreporter bacteria offer an alternative. Based on the natural resistance mechanism of bacteria against arsenic compounds toxic for humans, bioreporter bacteria can be constructed that display arsenic concentrations with light emission (luminescence or fluorescence) or colour reactions. This is achieved by coupling the gene for the ArsR-protein and arsenic regulated promoters with suitable reporter genes. The resulting bioreporter bacteria report bioavailable arsenic in a dose dependent manner at the toxicologically relevant level of 2 to 80 {mu}g/L and are therewith suitable both for the guideline levels of the WHO of 10 {mu}g/L and for the national standards in South East Asia of 50 {mu}g/L. This alternative method has the advantage of being independent from sophisticated apparatus as by eye detection is feasible and offers the possibility of measuring directly the bioavailable fraction. Bioreporter bacteria are also suitable for in situ research. Yet, in order to apply such bioreporter bacteria as a low-cost analytical tool in a regular manner, open questions exist regarding the preservation of the specific activity, the vitality of bioreporter bacteria and the improvement of bioreporter test systems for layman. The aim of this thesis hence was to optimize and improve bioreporter based test systems to allow easy conservation, storage and transport, and also an application without the need of a sophisticated infrastructure. For that purpose it was intended (i) to develop and validate a method that allows arsenic detection without external calibration (chapter 2) and (ii) to

  19. Improvement of bioreporter bacteria-based test systems for the analysis of arsenic in drinking water and the rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of drinking water with arsenic can be measured in laboratories with atom absorption spectrometry (AAS), mass spectrometry with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS) or atom fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) at the relevant concentrations below 50 μg/L. Field test kits which easily and reliably measure arsenic concentrations are not yet available. Test systems on the basis of bioreporter bacteria offer an alternative. Based on the natural resistance mechanism of bacteria against arsenic compounds toxic for humans, bioreporter bacteria can be constructed that display arsenic concentrations with light emission (luminescence or fluorescence) or colour reactions. This is achieved by coupling the gene for the ArsR-protein and arsenic regulated promoters with suitable reporter genes. The resulting bioreporter bacteria report bioavailable arsenic in a dose dependent manner at the toxicologically relevant level of 2 to 80 μg/L and are therewith suitable both for the guideline levels of the WHO of 10 μg/L and for the national standards in South East Asia of 50 μg/L. This alternative method has the advantage of being independent from sophisticated apparatus as by eye detection is feasible and offers the possibility of measuring directly the bioavailable fraction. Bioreporter bacteria are also suitable for in situ research. Yet, in order to apply such bioreporter bacteria as a low-cost analytical tool in a regular manner, open questions exist regarding the preservation of the specific activity, the vitality of bioreporter bacteria and the improvement of bioreporter test systems for layman. The aim of this thesis hence was to optimize and improve bioreporter based test systems to allow easy conservation, storage and transport, and also an application without the need of a sophisticated infrastructure. For that purpose it was intended (i) to develop and validate a method that allows arsenic detection without external calibration (chapter 2) and (ii) to improve the

  20. Improvement of bioreporter bacteria-based test systems for the analysis of arsenic in drinking water and the rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppardt, Anke

    2010-02-05

    Contamination of drinking water with arsenic can be measured in laboratories with atom absorption spectrometry (AAS), mass spectrometry with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS) or atom fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) at the relevant concentrations below 50 {mu}g/L. Field test kits which easily and reliably measure arsenic concentrations are not yet available. Test systems on the basis of bioreporter bacteria offer an alternative. Based on the natural resistance mechanism of bacteria against arsenic compounds toxic for humans, bioreporter bacteria can be constructed that display arsenic concentrations with light emission (luminescence or fluorescence) or colour reactions. This is achieved by coupling the gene for the ArsR-protein and arsenic regulated promoters with suitable reporter genes. The resulting bioreporter bacteria report bioavailable arsenic in a dose dependent manner at the toxicologically relevant level of 2 to 80 {mu}g/L and are therewith suitable both for the guideline levels of the WHO of 10 {mu}g/L and for the national standards in South East Asia of 50 {mu}g/L. This alternative method has the advantage of being independent from sophisticated apparatus as by eye detection is feasible and offers the possibility of measuring directly the bioavailable fraction. Bioreporter bacteria are also suitable for in situ research. Yet, in order to apply such bioreporter bacteria as a low-cost analytical tool in a regular manner, open questions exist regarding the preservation of the specific activity, the vitality of bioreporter bacteria and the improvement of bioreporter test systems for layman. The aim of this thesis hence was to optimize and improve bioreporter based test systems to allow easy conservation, storage and transport, and also an application without the need of a sophisticated infrastructure. For that purpose it was intended (i) to develop and validate a method that allows arsenic detection without external calibration (chapter 2) and (ii) to

  1. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  2. Arsenic emission during combustion of high arsenic coals from Southwestern Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of better understanding the distribution of arsenic, 144 coal samples were collected from southwestern Guizhou, and the concentrations of arsenic were determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The content of arsenic varies from 0.3 ppm to 3.2 wt.%. In most coal samples, the arsenic content was lower than 30 ppm, which was close to a representative value of arsenic concentration of coal in China. Arsenic contents in 37 samples, which were from several small coal mines, were more than 30 ppm, among which only 16 samples were more than 100 ppm, and only a few samples contained more than 1000 ppm, which were very restricted and the coal seams were generally unworkable. Combustion of two kinds of high arsenic coal with and without CaO additive was studied in a bench scale drop tube furnace (DTF) to understand the partition and emission of arsenic in the process. The PM was size segregated by low pressure impactor (LPI) into 13 size stages ranging from 9.8 to 0.0281 μm. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was used to determine the chemical composition of the PM, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the arsenic content. A bimodal mode distribution of the PM was formed during coal combustion; the large mode (coarse particle) was formed at 4.0 μm, and the other mode (fine particles) was at about 0.1 μm. A middle mode was gradually obvious in high temperature for both of the two coal combustions, which may have been derived from coagulation and agglomeration of metal elements vapors. More gaseous arsenic was formed in 50% oxygen content than 20% oxygen content. Arsenic in sulfide is easier to vaporize than as arsenate. Along with the increasing temperature from 1100 oC to 1400 oC, the arsenic concentration in PM1 increased from 0.07 mg/N m3 to 0.25 mg/N m3. With the addition of the calcium based sorbent, the arsenic concentration in

  3. Soil arsenic in Armadale, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.H.; Lloyd, O.L.; Hubbard, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    As part of an investigation into the high mortality from lung cancer and the high sex ratios of births in Armadale, central Scotland, concentrations of arsenic were measured in soil cores from 48 sites in Armadale and 6 sites in a comparison town. Concentrations in Armadale were substantially higher than those in the comparison town, and many of the highest range of values were in that part of the town where the epidemiological abnormalities of lung cancer and of birth sex ratios were most pronounced. The study indicated that clues to the etiology of high rates of disease in small areas could be sought most profitably if close links were maintained between epidemiological and environmental investigations.

  4. Solution pH effects on arsenic removal by drinking water treatment residuals in presence of metals and ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Makris, K.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a Group A carcinogen whose presence in soils in higher than background concentrations has become a serious concern with increasing suburban encroachment on former agricultural lands. One of the most promising methods to decrease the mobility of As in soil and water environments is by promoting its adsorption onto amorphous Fe/Al hydroxides. Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) are cost-effective sources of such Fe/Al hydroxides, and generated during the drinking water treatment process as a byproduct. Preliminary work in our laboratory showed that the WTRs are characterized by large specific surface and a net positive charge, ideal for retention of oxyanions such as those of As. However, the overall magnitude of As retention by the WTRs is a function of solution factors such as pH, presence of competing ions and complexing metals. A comprehensive understanding of the aforementioned parameters is, therefore, needed to quantify As mobility and bioaccessibility. The primary objective of the studying progress is to determine the effect of solution pH (range: 3-10) on the amount of As sorbed by the WTRs in the presence of competing ligands such as phosphate, sulfate and silicate as well as complexing metals (e.g., calcium and lead). Experiments are being conducted at 3 solid/solution ratios- 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 and four initial As loads (375, 750, 1500 and 3000 mgAs L-1). Sodium arsenate is used as the As source. Arsenate adsorption is expected to decrease with increasing pH because generally when solution pH is less than pH of the zero point of charge, the positively charged surface on the soil prefers to complex with the negatively charged arsenate oxyanions. Furthermore, phosphate, sulfate and silicate are expected to compete with arsenate for sorption sites because like arsenate, these ions are typically sorbed via formation of inner-sphere complexes with suface functional groups. On the other hand, the presence of metals like lead and calcium

  5. Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity and Genetic Susceptibility to Arsenic-Related Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bianchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic (As exposure represents an important problem in many parts of the World. Indeed, it is estimated that over 100 million individuals are exposed to arsenic, mainly through a contamination of groundwaters. Chronic exposure to As is associated with adverse effects on human health such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases and the rate of morbidity and mortality in populations exposed is alarming. The purpose of this review is to summarize the genotoxic effects of As in the cells as well as to discuss the importance of signaling and repair of arsenic-induced DNA damage. The current knowledge of specific polymorphisms in candidate genes that confer susceptibility to arsenic exposure is also reviewed. We also discuss the perspectives offered by the determination of biological markers of early effect on health, incorporating genetic polymorphisms, with biomarkers for exposure to better evaluate exposure-response clinical relationships as well as to develop novel preventative strategies for arsenic- health effects.

  6. Arsenic neurotoxicity--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, A; van der Voet, G B; de Wolff, F A

    2007-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the oldest poisons known to men. Its applications throughout history are wide and varied: murder, make-up, paint and even as a pesticide. Chronic As toxicity is a global environmental health problem, affecting millions of people in the USA and Germany to Bangladesh and Taiwan. Worldwide, As is released into the environment by smelting of various metals, combustion of fossil fuels, as herbicides and fungicides in agricultural products. The drinking water in many countries, which is tapped from natural geological resources, is also contaminated as a result of the high level of As in groundwater. The environmental fate of As is contamination of surface and groundwater with a contaminant level higher than 10 particle per billion (ppb) as set by World Health Organization (WHO). Arsenic exists in both organic and inorganic species and either form can also exist in a trivalent or pentavalent oxidation state. Long-term health effects of exposure to these As metabolites are severe and highly variable: skin and lung cancer, neurological effects, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Neurological effects of As may develop within a few hours after ingestion, but usually are seen in 2-8 weeks after exposure. It is usually a symmetrical sensorimotor neuropathy, often resembling the Guillain-Barré syndrome. The predominant clinical features of neuropathy are paresthesias, numbness and pain, particularly in the soles of the feet. Electrophysiological studies performed on patients with As neuropathy have revealed a reduced nerve conduction velocity, typical of those seen in axonal degeneration. Most of the adverse effects of As, are caused by inactivated enzymes in the cellular energy pathway, whereby As reacts with the thiol groups of proteins and enzymes and inhibits their catalytic activity. Furthermore, As-induced neurotoxicity, like many other neurodegenerative diseases, causes changes in cytoskeletal protein composition and hyperphosphorylation

  7. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries.

  8. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in soil increases urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations of residents living in old mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2004-03-01

    The short term human exposure studies conducted on populations exposed to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil have been inconsistent in demonstrating a relationship between environmental concentrations and exposure measures. In Australia there are many areas with very high arsenic concentrations in residential soil most typically associated with gold mining activities in rural areas. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental arsenic and urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations in a population living in a gold mining area (soil arsenic concentrations between 9 and 9900 mg kg(-1)), and a control population with low arsenic levels in soil (between 1 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Risk factors for increased urinary arsenic concentrations were also explored. There was a weak but significant relationship between soil arsenic concentrations and inorganic urinary arsenic concentration with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.39. When participants with greater than 100 mg kg(-1) arsenic in residential soil were selected, the coefficient increased to 0.64. The geometric mean urinary inorganic arsenic concentration for the exposed group was 1.64 microg L(-1) (risk factors. These results show that high concentrations of arsenic in soil can make a contribution to urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations.

  9. Arsenic and the Epigenome: Linked by Methylation(SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an environmental toxicant currently poisoning millions of people worldwide, and chronically-exposed individuals are susceptible to arsenic poisoning, or arsenicosis. In some exposed populations arsenicosis susceptibility is dependent in part on the abil...

  10. Map of Arsenic concentrations in groundwater of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map graphic image at http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/arsenic_map.png illustrates arsenic values, in micrograms per liter, for groundwater samples from about...

  11. Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Chandrima; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenic concentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1 arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenic at initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenic concentration.

  12. Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Chandrima; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenic concentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1 arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenic at initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenic concentration. PMID:24933913

  13. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor potentiates differentiation induction by all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide and enhances arsenic uptake in the acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line HT93A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Yuan, Bo; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Horikoshi, Akira; Yoshino, Yuta; Toyoda, Hiroo; Aizawa, Shin; Takeuchi, Jin

    2012-11-01

    The effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO), all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), alone or in combination, were investigated by focusing on differentiation, growth inhibition and arsenic uptake in the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line HT93A. ATO induced differentiation at low concentrations (0.125 µM) and apoptosis at high concentrations (1-2 µM). Furthermore, ATRA induced greater differentiation than ATO. No synergistic effect of ATRA and ATO was found on differentiation. G-CSF promoted differentiation-inducing activities of both ATO and ATRA. The combination of ATRA and G-CSF showed maximum differentiation and ATO addition was not beneficial. Addition of 1 µM ATRA and/or 50 ng/ml G-CSF to ATO did not affect apoptosis compared to ATO treatment alone. ATRA induced expression of aquaporin-9 (AQP9), a transmembrane transporter recognized as a major pathway of arsenic uptake, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with 1 µM ATRA decreased arsenic uptake by 43.7% compared to control subject. Although G-CSF addition did not enhance AQP9 expression in the cells, the reduced arsenic uptake was recovered to the same level as that in controls. ATRA decreased cell viability and addition of 50 ng/ml G-CSF to ATRA significantly increased the number of viable cells compared with that in ATRA alone treated cells. G-CSF not only promotes differentiation-inducing activities of both ATRA and ATO, but also makes APL cells vulnerable to increased arsenic uptake. These observations provide new insights into combination therapy using these three agents for the treatment of APL.

  14. Reduction, methylation, and translocation of arsenic in Panax notoginseng grown under field conditions in arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Mi, Yanhua; Li, Qiwan; Chen, Lu; Du, Lijuan; He, Lizhong; Lei, Mei

    2016-04-15

    Variations in arsenic (As) species in Panax notoginseng grown under field conditions remain understudied compared with those under greenhouse conditions. In the present study, soil and plant samples were collected from Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, which is the main production area of P. notoginseng in China, to identify As species in the soil and plant tissues and further assess effect of As toxic stress on As transformation and translocation in P. notoginseng. The results showed that arsenate (As(V)) was almost exclusively identified in the soil, while arsenite (As(III)) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were detected in high proportions in plant tissues, suggesting that As(V) could be reduced and subsequently methylated in the plant body, mainly in the root. The reduction and methylation of As in the root of P. notoginseng were promoted by low As toxic stress, but were impeded by high As toxic stress. Arsenic(III) and MMA could rapidly translocate upwards in P. notoginseng. In addition, the translocation of total As, As(III), and MMA from the root to the rhizome was a response to As toxic stress, and the translocation rate increased with the increasing As concentration in the taproot. This study provides new insights into the detoxification mechanism of P. notoginseng grown in As-contaminated soils and the control of As during cultivation.

  15. Effects of microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial community on arsenic mobility in arsenic-rich deep aquifer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suvendu; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Elevated concentration of arsenic (As) prevailed in deep aquifers of Chianan Plain, Taiwan. Arsenic release in relation to microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial communities in deep aquifer sediments of Budai, southwestern Taiwan were investigated using microcosm experiments and substrate amendments over 90 days of anaerobic incubation. The results revealed that As reduction was independent of Fe reduction and a modest rate of sedimentary As release into aqueous phase occurred at the expense of the native organic carbon. Addition of lactate resulted in a parallel increase in As(III) (3.7-fold), Fe(II) (6.2-fold) and Mn (3.5 fold) in aqueous phase compared to un-amended slurries and the enrichment of sequences related to mostly Bacillus, Flavisolibacter, and Geobacter spp, suggesting the important role of these bacteria in As enrichment through reductive dissolution of As-bearing Fe and Mn minerals. The increase in phosphate-extractable As in solid phase with concomitant rise in As in aqueous phase over the course of incubation further attested to the importance of reductive dissolution in promoting As release. Furthermore, the increase in arrA gene abundance with addition of labile carbon suggests that dissimilatory As reduction also may contribute to As enrichment in the water of the deep aquifer of Budai.

  16. Reduction, methylation, and translocation of arsenic in Panax notoginseng grown under field conditions in arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Mi, Yanhua; Li, Qiwan; Chen, Lu; Du, Lijuan; He, Lizhong; Lei, Mei

    2016-04-15

    Variations in arsenic (As) species in Panax notoginseng grown under field conditions remain understudied compared with those under greenhouse conditions. In the present study, soil and plant samples were collected from Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, which is the main production area of P. notoginseng in China, to identify As species in the soil and plant tissues and further assess effect of As toxic stress on As transformation and translocation in P. notoginseng. The results showed that arsenate (As(V)) was almost exclusively identified in the soil, while arsenite (As(III)) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were detected in high proportions in plant tissues, suggesting that As(V) could be reduced and subsequently methylated in the plant body, mainly in the root. The reduction and methylation of As in the root of P. notoginseng were promoted by low As toxic stress, but were impeded by high As toxic stress. Arsenic(III) and MMA could rapidly translocate upwards in P. notoginseng. In addition, the translocation of total As, As(III), and MMA from the root to the rhizome was a response to As toxic stress, and the translocation rate increased with the increasing As concentration in the taproot. This study provides new insights into the detoxification mechanism of P. notoginseng grown in As-contaminated soils and the control of As during cultivation. PMID:26851761

  17. Effects of microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial community on arsenic mobility in arsenic-rich deep aquifer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suvendu; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Elevated concentration of arsenic (As) prevailed in deep aquifers of Chianan Plain, Taiwan. Arsenic release in relation to microbially induced transformations and shift in bacterial communities in deep aquifer sediments of Budai, southwestern Taiwan were investigated using microcosm experiments and substrate amendments over 90 days of anaerobic incubation. The results revealed that As reduction was independent of Fe reduction and a modest rate of sedimentary As release into aqueous phase occurred at the expense of the native organic carbon. Addition of lactate resulted in a parallel increase in As(III) (3.7-fold), Fe(II) (6.2-fold) and Mn (3.5 fold) in aqueous phase compared to un-amended slurries and the enrichment of sequences related to mostly Bacillus, Flavisolibacter, and Geobacter spp, suggesting the important role of these bacteria in As enrichment through reductive dissolution of As-bearing Fe and Mn minerals. The increase in phosphate-extractable As in solid phase with concomitant rise in As in aqueous phase over the course of incubation further attested to the importance of reductive dissolution in promoting As release. Furthermore, the increase in arrA gene abundance with addition of labile carbon suggests that dissimilatory As reduction also may contribute to As enrichment in the water of the deep aquifer of Budai. PMID:26897570

  18. Clinical manifestations and arsenic methylation after a rare subacute arsenic poisoning accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Quanmei; Li, Bing; Li, Xin; Jin, Yaping; Lv, Xiuqiang; Qu, Guang; Sun, Guifan

    2008-06-01

    One hundred and four workers ingested excessive levels of arsenic in an accident caused by leakage of pipeline in a copper-smelting factory. Clinical examinations were performed by physicians in a local hospital. Excreted urinary arsenic species were determined by cold trap hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial toxic phase, gastrointestinal symptoms were predominant (83 people, 79.8%). Most patients showed leucopenia (72 people, 69.2%), and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (84 people, 80.8%) and aspartate aminotransferase (58 people, 55.8%). Thirty-five patients (33.6%) had elevated red blood cells in urine. After 17 days of admission, many subjects (45 people, 43.3%) developed peripheral neuropathy and 25 of these 45 patients (24.0%) showed a decrease in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity. In the comparison of urinary arsenic metabolites among subacute arsenic-poisoned, chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects, we found that subacute arsenic-poisoned patients had significantly elevated proportions of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylarsonic acid (MMA) but reduced proportion of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) compared with chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects. Chronic exposed subjects excreted higher proportions of iAs and MMA but lower proportions of DMA in urine compared with control subjects. These results suggest that gastrointestinal symptoms, leucopenia, and hepatic and urinary injury are predominant in the initial phase of subacute arsenic poisoning. Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent manifestation after the initial phase. The biomethylation of arsenic decreases in a dose rate-dependent manner.

  19. Uptake of Arsenic in Rice Plant Varieties Cultivated with Arsenic Rich Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyal Bhattacharya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater of many areas of West Bengal, India is severely contaminated with arsenic. The paddy soil gets con¬taminated from the groundwater and thus there is a probability of bioaccumulation of arsenic in rice plants cultivated with arsenic contaminated groundwater and soil. This study aims at assessing the level of arsenic in irrigation water and soil and to investigate the seasonal bioaccumulation of arsenic in the various parts (straw, husk and grain of the rice plant of differ¬ent varieties in the arsenic affected two blocks (Chakdaha and Ranaghat-I of Nadia district, West Bengal. It was found that the arsenic uptake in rice during the pre-monsoon season is more than that of the post-monsoon season. The accumulation of arsenic found to vary with different rice varieties; the maximum accumulation was in White minikit (0.31±0.005 mg/kg and IR 50 (0.29±0.001 mg/kg rice varieties and minimum was found to be in the Jaya rice variety (0.14±0.002 mg/kg. In rice plant maximum arsenic accumulation occurred in the straw part (0.89±0.019-1.65±0.021 mg/kg compared to the ac¬cumulation in husk (0.31±0.011-0.85±0.016 mg/kg and grain (0.14±0.002-0.31±0.005 mg/kg parts. For any rice sample concentration of arsenic in the grain did not exceed the WHO recommended permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg/kg.

  20. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Sanner, Robert D. (Livermore, CA); Dias, Victoria L. (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2010-09-28

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  1. Arsenic-related Bowen's disease, palmar keratosis, and skin cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cöl, M; Cöl, C; Soran, A; Sayli, B S; Oztürk, S

    1999-01-01

    Chronic arsenical intoxication can still be found in environmental and industrial settings. Symptoms of chronic arsenic intoxication include general pigmentation or focal "raindrop" pigmentation of the skin and the appearance of hyperkeratosis of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. In addition to arsenic-related skin diseases including keratosis, Bowen's disease, basal-cell-carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma, there is also an increased risk of some internal malignancies. Arsenic...

  2. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Sanner, Robert D.; Dias, Victoria L.; Reynolds, John G.

    2008-07-01

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  3. Analytical Strategies for the Determination of Arsenic in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno E. S. Costa; Luciana M. Coelho; Cleide S. T. Araújo; Rezende, Helen C.; Coelho, Nívia M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is an element of concern given its toxicological significance, even at low concentrations. Food is a potential route of exposure to inorganic arsenic and in this regard arsenic in rice is associated with soil contamination, fertilizer application, and the use of arsenic-containing irrigation water. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the regional rice crops with a view to future discussions on the need for possible regulatory measures. Several studies have reported high concentr...

  4. Arsenic on the Hands of Children after Playing in Playgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Elena; Zhang, Hongquan; Wang, Zhongwen; Jhangri, Gian S; Lu, Xiufen; Fok, Nelson; Gabos, Stephan; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X. Chris

    2004-01-01

    Increasing concerns over the use of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in playground structures arise from potential exposure to arsenic of children playing in these playgrounds. Limited data from previous studies analyzing arsenic levels in sand samples collected from CCA playgrounds are inconsistent and cannot be directly translated to the amount of children’s exposure to arsenic. The objective of this study was to determine the quantitative amounts of arsenic on the hands of...

  5. 砷的地球化学特征与研究方向%Geochemical Characteristics and Research Direction of Arsenic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伯英; 罗立强

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity of arsenic has been well known since ancient times for the noxious white arsenic. Furthermore, arsenic has been listed in the first group of carcinogens by the Association for International Cancer Research (AICR). Nowadays, millions of individuals in the world are suffering from by arsenic toxicosis and the arsenic contamination has been reported worldwide. The origin of arsenic in environment is rather complex and originated from natural processes(mainly for geological process), or anthropogenic activities, or combination of both. Moreover, arsenic can transfer and transform through different natural geochemical and biological processes,therefore will directly or indirectly harm to people and animals, etc.. In this paper, a comprehensive discussion on arsenic issue is presented, including its origin and distribution, its mobility and transformation, toxicity and impacts on living things, as well as recent progresses on arsenic research. Arsenic contamination and toxicosis in some regions such as Inner Mongolia in China are very serious now, so the research on arsenic geochemistry and impacts on human health from arsenic are tough and meaningful job.%砷的毒性在古代就因砒霜而广为人知,国际癌症研究会将砷列为第一类致癌物.目前,世界上有数以百万计的人受到砷中毒的威胁,砷污染事件在世界范围都有报道.环境中的砷的来源很复杂,有自然因素引起的砷污染(主要是地质成因砷污染),也有人为活动带来的砷污染,还有二者共同作用形成的砷污染.此外,砷还可以通过各种自然的地球化学过程和生物过程进行迁移转化,直接或间接对人和动物等产生危害.文章从砷的来源与分布、砷的毒性和危害、砷的迁移转化、生物在砷循环中作用的新认识等方面进行论述,并针对目前国内外砷污染研究现状,提出在已有研究基础上,建议在河套地区进一步开展砷元素地球化学及人体健康关系研究.

  6. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also expose normal cells in a lab dish to the substance to see if it causes ... www.cancer.org . Known and Probable Human Carcinogens National organizations and websites Along with the American Cancer ...

  7. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J.; Stamos, Christina L.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 (mu or u)g/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 (mu or u)g/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulicconductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 (mu or u)g/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 (mu or u)g/L over a 20-year period.

  8. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J; Stamos, Christina L; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 microg/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 microg/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulic-conductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 microg/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 microg/L over a 20-year period. PMID:20113363

  9. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santander

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF and dissolved air flotation (DAF. A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic polyacrylamide (NALCO 9808 as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with flotation studies to determine the removal efficiency of adsorbents particles. The results achieved indicate that the adsorption kinetic of arsenic is very rapid and that in range of pH’s from 2 to 7 the adsorption percentages remain constant. The equilibrium conditions were achieved in 60 minutes and about 95% of arsenic was adsorbed when used an adsorbent concentration of 2 g/L and pH 6.3. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent particles was 4.96 mg/g. The mean free energy of adsorption (E was found to be 2.63 kJ/mol, which suggests physisorption. The results of the flotation studies demonstrated that when synthetic effluents with 8.9 mg/L of arsenic were treated under the following experimental conditions; 2 g/L of adsorbent particles, 120 mg/L of Fe(III, 2 mg/L of Nalco 9808, 20 mg/L of sodium oleate, and 40% of recycle ratio in the DAF, it was possible to reach 98% of arsenic removal and 6.3 NTU of residual turbidity in clarified synthetic effluent.

  10. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Madhurima Pandey; Sushma Yadav; Piyush Kant Pandey

    2007-01-01

    The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically ...

  11. Population Based Exposure Assessment of Bioaccessible Arsenic in Carrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two predominant arsenic exposure routes are food and water. Estimating the risk from dietary exposures is complicated, owing to the chemical form dependent toxicity of arsenic and the diversity of arsenicals present in dietary matrices. Two aspects of assessing dietary expo...

  12. Effect of drinking arsenic-contaminated water in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal K Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water has been a major environmental health hazard throughout the world including India. Although a lot of information is available on health effects due to chronic arsenic toxicity in adults, knowledge of such effect on children is scanty. A review of the available literature has been made to highlight the problem in children. Scientific publications on health effects of chronic arsenic toxicity in children with special reference to psychological issues are reviewed. The prevalence of skin abnormalities such as pigmentation change and keratosis, the diagnostic signs of chronic arsenic toxicity, vary in various arsenic-exposed children population in different regions of the world. The occurrence of chronic lung disease including pulmonary interstitial fibrosis has been described in arsenic-exposed children in Chile. Affection of intellectual function has also been reported to occur in arsenic-exposed children studied in Thailand, Bangladesh, and India. Methylation patterns of arsenic in children aggregate in families and are correlated in siblings, providing evidence of a genetic basis for the variation in arsenic methylation. Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water causes significant morbidity in children resulting in skin lesions, lung disease, and defect in intellectual function.

  13. The Arsenic Project: A multidisciplinary Project in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, M.; Couasnon, A.; Huijzenveld, T.; Hutten, R.; Schölvinck, O.; Van Veen, N.

    2015-01-01

    In Nicaragua, active research for arsenic started in 1996, after the first case of arsenic poisoning was reported in a rural community. Arsenic concentrations present in drinking water cause chronic poisoning, which depending on the exposure, lead to several life-threatening long term effects. It i

  14. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and blood. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of arsenic poisoning. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section...