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Sample records for arsenic poisoning

  1. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  2. ArsenicPoison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  3. Acute arsenic poisoning in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Melisa W; Boyer, Edward W; Kleinman, Monica E; Rodig, Nancy M; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2005-07-01

    We report a case series of acute arsenic poisoning of 2 siblings, a 4-month-old male infant and his 2-year-old sister. Each child ingested solubilized inorganic arsenic from an outdated pesticide that was misidentified as spring water. The 4-month-old child ingested a dose of arsenic that was lethal despite extraordinary attempts at arsenic removal, including chelation therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, exchange transfusion, and hemodialysis. The 2-year-old fared well with conventional therapy. PMID:15995066

  4. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnos...

  5. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

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    Madhurima Pandey

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations.

  6. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder

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    Grandjean Philippe

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4–7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 μg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure.

  7. Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot; Francis, James; (Museum Vic.); (U. South Australia); (UWO)

    2009-05-21

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize arsenic in taxidermy specimens. Arsenic was examined to aid in discriminating its use as a preservative from that incorporated by ingestion and hence indicate poisoning (in the case of historical figures). The results are relevant to museum curators, occupational and environmental exposure concerns, toxicological and anthropological investigations. Hair samples were obtained from six taxidermy specimens preserved with arsenic in the late 1800s and early 1900s to investigate the arsenic incorporation. The presence of arsenic poses a potential hazard in museum and private collections. For one sample, arsenic was confirmed to be present on the hair with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and then measured with neutron activation analysis to comprise 176 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The hair cross section was analysed with synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to investigate the transverse distribution of topically applied arsenic. It was found that the arsenic had significantly penetrated all hair samples. Association with melanin clusters and the medulla was observed. Lead and mercury were also identified in one sample. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of the As K-edge indicated that an arsenate species predominantly existed in all samples; however, analysis was hindered by very rapid photoreduction of the arsenic. It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation.

  8. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooki...

  9. History of Arsenic as a Poison and Medicinal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since ancient times, human exposure to the metalloid arsenic has been both intentional and unintentional. The intentional exposure to arsenic has been to inflict harm on others as well as to be a curative agent for those who are ill. The unintentional exposure has either been f...

  10. Microbial arsenic metabolism: New twists on an old poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J.F.; Basu, P.; Oremland, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microorganisms metabolize arsenic despite its toxicity and are part of its robust iogeochemical cycle. Respiratory arsenate reductase is a reversible enzyme, functioning in some microbes as an arsenate reductase but in others as an arsenite oxidase. As(III) can serve as an electron donor for anoxygenic photolithoautotrophy and chemolithoautotrophy. Organoarsenicals, such as the feed additive roxarsone, can be used as a source of energy, releasing inorganic arsenic.

  11. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in the serum and urine of a patient with acute arsine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka K.; Yamano Y.; Yoshimura Y.; Shimoda Y.; Endo Y; Endo G.

    2013-01-01

    Arsine is one of the most potent hemolytic agents. It is important to clarify arsine metabolism as well as its chemical interactions with biological components. The aim of the present study was to clarify arsine metabolism by arsenic speciation analysis in serum and urine from an acute poisoning patient with hematuria, anemia, and renal and liver dysfunction. Speciation analysis of arsenics in serum and urine was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. The total arsenic (T-As) concentration in serum was...

  12. Evaluation of chronic arsenic poisoning due to consumption of contaminated ground water in West Bengal, India

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    Asutosh Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%, followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%], alopecia [8 (10.95%], neuropathy [5 (6.84%], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant.

  13. Lack of effectiveness of D-penicillamine in experimental arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, H; Reichl, F X; Forth, W; Fichtl, B

    1989-02-01

    Based on some anecdotal case reports D-penicillamine (DPA) has been advocated for the treatment of arsenic poisoning. Experimental evidence, however, supporting that recommendation is lacking. In the present experiments the effectiveness of DPA was compared with dimercaprol (British Antilewisite, BAL), dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS), and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) using different controlled experimental settings. In one study mice received As2O3 (9-14 mg/kg sc). Treatment with DMSA after 30 min afforded almost complete protection against the lethal effects of arsenic whereas DPA was not effective. In a second study, mice and guinea pigs were injected sc with 8.4 mg/kg As2O3 (containing a tracer dose of 74As). Thirty min later 0.7 mmol/kg of DPA or one of the other antidotes was injected ip. As determined 4 and 12 h after the arsenic injection, DPA was unable to reduce the 74As content in any of the organs investigated (blood, liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, brain, testes, spleen, skeletal muscle, and skin). On the other hand, BAL, DMPS, and DMSA markedly reduced the tissue content of 74As with respect to controls. Finally, the ability of the antidotes to reverse biochemical effects of arsenic was investigated in vitro using suspensions of incubated renal tubulus cells. The marked inhibition of gluconeogenesis induced by 30 mumol/L As2O3 was almost completely reversed upon addition of 90 mumol of either BAL, DMPS, or DMSA. In this experimental model, too, DPA was ineffective. It was concluded that the use of DPA in arsenic poisoning needs to be reevaluated. PMID:2540587

  14. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi;

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us...

  15. Can Homeopathic Arsenic Remedy Combat Arsenic Poisoning in Humans Exposed to Groundwater Arsenic Contamination?: A Preliminary Report on First Human Trial

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    Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater arsenic (As has affected millions of people globally distributed over 20 countries. In parts of West Bengal (India and Bangladesh alone, over 100 million people are at risk, but supply of As-free water is grossly inadequate. Attempts to remove As by using orthodox medicines have mostly been unsuccessful. A potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album-30, was administered to a group of As affected people and thereafter the As contents in their urine and blood were periodically determined. The activities of various toxicity marker enzymes and compounds in the blood, namely aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione, were also periodically monitored up to 3 months. The results are highly encouraging and suggest that the drug can alleviate As poisoning in humans.

  16. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  17. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  18. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Madhurima Pandey; Sushma Yadav; Piyush Kant Pandey

    2007-01-01

    The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically ...

  19. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    OpenAIRE

    Yongfang Li; Feng Ye; Anwei Wang; Da Wang; Boyi Yang; Quanmei Zheng; Guifan Sun; Xinghua Gao

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking ...

  20. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

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    Yongfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members. Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  1. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that could poison you include the following: Cleaning products Household products, such as nail polish remover and other personal ... Get rid of old or expired medicines and household products. Keep medicines and chemicals in their original containers. ...

  2. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 μg/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R2 = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  3. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, A.H., E-mail: ah_barati@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box-66135-756, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maleki, A. [Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alasvand, M. [Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 {mu}g/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R{sup 2} = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  4. Elemental contents in Napoleon's hairs cut before and after his death: Did Napoleon die from arsenic poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The debate on the cause of Napoleon's death became an interesting subject four decades ago when high concentration of arsenic was found in his hair and the arsenic poisoning was suggested to be responsible accordingly. This work reports INAA results for 19 elements (Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, W, and Zn) in Napoleon's hairs collected at different times and places: two pieces cut the day after his death on Island St. Helena (6 May, 1821) and two pieces cut seven years earlier during his first exile on Island Elba (1814). Elevated As contents were found in all the hairs. Apparently, the finding of high As contents in his hairs collected seven years before his death is not favourable for the As poisoning theory, because the murder was assumed to have been carried out on the Island St. Helena. High content of Sb was found only in his hairs cut on St. Helena, which is apparently a coincidence to a documented event that he was frequently given tatar emetic in two months before his death. Mercury content in all determined hairs was found in the normal range. High concentrations were found also for elements Ag and Au in his hairs. For direct comparison, elemental contents in four hairs collected just before analysis from a man and a woman living in Berlin were presented. (author)

  5. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in the serum and urine of a patient with acute arsine poisoning

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    Yamanaka K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsine is one of the most potent hemolytic agents. It is important to clarify arsine metabolism as well as its chemical interactions with biological components. The aim of the present study was to clarify arsine metabolism by arsenic speciation analysis in serum and urine from an acute poisoning patient with hematuria, anemia, and renal and liver dysfunction. Speciation analysis of arsenics in serum and urine was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. The total arsenic (T-As concentration in serum was 244.8 μg/l at admission and 97.1 μg/l at discharge. In the speciation analysis, four kinds of As compounds derived from arsine metabolism were detected in serum and urine. The concentration of arsenite (AsIII, arsenate (AsV, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA in serum at admission were 45.8, 5.2, 17.9 and 9.3 μg/l, respectively. The concentrations of AsIII, AsV, and MMA decreased with biological half time (BHT of 30.1, 43.0, and 96.3 h, respectively. Only DMA was increased at discharge. The urinary AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA concentrations were 223.0, 12.1, 317.5 and 1053.5 μg/l at discharge, and decreased with BHT of 15.1, 20.8, 14.7, and 16.0 d, respectively. The results indicate that arsine was quickly metabolized to AsIII and subsequently up to DMA, with the result that the toxic effects of inorganic arsenic were added to those of arsine toxicity.

  6. The Role of Chelation in the Treatment of Arsenic and Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnett, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Chelation for heavy metal intoxication began more than 70 years ago with the development of British anti-lewisite (BAL; dimercaprol) in wartime Britain as a potential antidote the arsenical warfare agent lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine). DMPS (unithiol) and DMSA (succimer), dithiol water-soluble analogs of BAL, were developed in the Soviet Union and China in the late 1950s. These three agents have remained the mainstay of chelation treatment of arsenic and mercury intoxication for mor...

  7. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of countries, including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, and the United States of America. Drinking-water, ... ingestion of inorganic arsenic include developmental effects, neurotoxicity, diabetes, pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Arsenic-induced myocardial ...

  8. Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Chronic Arsenic Poisoning among Bangladeshi Patients

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    Laila N. Islam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 40 million people in Bangladesh have been suffering from arsenic toxicity-related diseases because of drinking water contamination with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To evaluate the biochemical changes in chronic arsenic exposure, a total of 115 exposed subjects diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were examined and interviewed, and 120 unexposed volunteers were enrolled in this study. Drinking water, urine and peripheral blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed. The average levels of arsenic in the drinking water and spot urine samples of the arsenicosis patients were 218.18g/L and 234.68g/L, respectively, and duration of exposure was 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs that ranged from 1-25 yrs. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among chronic arsenic-exposed subjects was about 2.8 times higher than the unexposed subjects. The activities of alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated in the patients, 197 U/L compared to 149 U/L in the controls, but alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were mostly normal. The patients had significantly lower levels of serum creatinine, 0.97 mg/dL compared to 1.15 mg/dL in the controls; but had significantly elevated levels of total protein, 84 g/L and 77 g/L respectively. The mean level of inorganic phosphate in the serum of arsenicosis patients was 6.4 mg/dL compared to 4.6 mg/dL in the unexposed subjects and the level was significantly higher, indicating substitution of the pentavalent arsenate for the phosphate ion causing underutilization of the latter. Evaluation of the lipid profiles showed while the levels of triacylglycerol were not much different, the patients had significantly lower levels of cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the unexposed subjects. These findings suggest significant changes in biochemical parameters in human arsenic toxicity.

  9. Investigation into mummies from the Atacama Desert, Chile: Did they suffer from arsenic poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: the foothills of the Andes. Despite its hostility, people have lived here for thousands of years, manifested by the discovery of mummies which are from Pre-Columbian times and can be as old as 1500 years. In addition, the water of the few oasis and rivers of this region can be highly contaminated by arsenic, which originates from geogenic sources. The work presented here aims on the question whether the people that lived in this region were exposed to arsenic in their drinking water. Arsenic is known for its acute toxicity when administered in high doses, but also its carcinogenic impact even in very low doses, and the WHO standard for maximum As concentration in drinking water was recently reduced to 10 μg/L. Arsenic exposure in people can be monitored in keratogenous material like hair, nails and skin. In addition, arsenic speciation in these tissues can be used to determine whether the As was metabolised in the body, enabling the differentiation from ingestion of As versus external contamination by either As present in the soil or any cosmetic/preservative treatment of the body prior or after death. The Atacama people traditionally buried their dead in shallow graves in the high regions of the altiplano, and the dry and cold climate set on a natural mummification, which leads to the fact that a huge amount of well preserved mummified remains can be found in the desert. Here, we investigate hair, skin and fingernail samples of up to 10 Mummies dated to approx. 500 years of age, for arsenic concentration and speciation of As, focusing on the determination whether these people may have suffered from As exposure through drinking water. Water sources around the find spots of the mummies were investigated for As concentration, and significant variations can be found for different water sources. In addition to arsenic speciation analysis using XANES and HPLC-ICPMS, stable isotope analysis was performed for C,N,O and H, revealing the source of food these

  10. 高砷煤烘玉米粉致大鼠砷中毒模型的建立%The establishment of the arsenic poisoning rats model caused by corn flour baked by high-arsenic coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚茂琳; 张爱华; 于春; 徐玉艳; 胡勇; 肖婷婷; 王蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish coal arsenic poisoning rat model by feeding the rats with the corn powder baked by high arsenic coal as the main raw material.Methods Fifty Wistar rats,healthy,were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the figures of their weights,including control group,drinking arsenic poisoning water group,low,medium and high arsenic contaminated grain group,10 rats for each.Rats in control group and drinking arsenic poisoning water group were fed with standard feed without any arsenic containing.Rats in water group would drink 100 mg/L As2O3 solution and the rats in arsenic grain groups would be fed with the arsenic contaminated grain at the dose of 25,50 and 100 mg/kg,respectively.The duration would last for 3 months.General situation and weight were observed.At the same time,the arsenic contents of urine,hair,liver and kidney of the rats in each group were detected,as well as the histopathology changes of liver and kidney,and the ultra structure of liver was observed.Results The arsenic contents of urine (median (min-max)) of the rats in the arsenic water group,low,medium and high arsenic grain groups were separately 3055.59 (722.43-6389.05),635.96 (367.85-1551.31),1453.84 (593.27-5302.94) and 3101.11(666.64-6858.61) μg Cr; while the arsenic contents of hair of the rats in the above groups were separately (23.07 ± 10.38),(8.87 ± 3.31),(12.43 ±6.65) and (25.68 ± 7.16) μg/g; the arsenic contents of liver of the rats in the above groups were separately (5.68 ± 3.13),(2.64 ± 1.52),(3.89 ± 1.76) and (5.34 ± 2.78) μg/g; and the arsenic contents of kidney were separately (6.90 ± 1.94),(3.48 ± 1.96),(5.03 ± 2.08) and (7.02 ± 1.62) μg/g; which were all significantly higher than those in the control group (86.70 (49.71-106.104) μg/g Cr,(1.28 ± 0.37) μg/g,(1.01 ± 0.34) μg/g and (1.82 ± 1.09) μg/g,respectively).The difference showed significance (P < 0.05).Under electron microscope detection,we observed the reduction of mitochondrial

  11. Cryptic exposure to arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Rossy Kathleen; Janusz Christopher; Schwartz Robert

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving ne...

  12. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  13. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Linsheng Yang; Jianwei Gao; Jiangping Yu

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to arsenic (As) poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP) induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions), who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the ...

  14. Analysis of the Characteristics of the Waterborne Arsenic Poisoning Caused by Arsenic-alkali Residue from Antimony Metallurgical Enterprise in Hunan and its Control Countermeasures%湖南锑冶炼业砷碱渣致水源性砷中毒特征分析与控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 肖云龙; 王海鸿; 苏长征

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨湖南锑冶炼砷废渣致水源性砷中毒的流行病学特征,为防治水源性砷中毒提供科学依据.方法 运用回顾性流行病学方法对水源性砷中毒进行调查分析.结果 水源性砷中毒,主要是砷碱渣污染水源所致,主要特征为急性和亚急性中毒,具有突发性、隐匿性、群体性,分布为饮同一水源,其年龄、性别无差异,可累及神经系统、消化系统、心血管系统以及血液、泌尿系统.根据患者的尿样及饮用水源的砷含量显著增高,可以确诊.结论 通过对湖南锑冶炼业砷污染水源致砷中毒调查发现,水源性砷中毒具有一定的特征性,据此可以早期诊断和及时处理.预防砷对水源的污染,砷中毒事故是可以控制的.%Objective To explore the epidemiological characteristics of acute and subacute arsenic poisoning due to drinking water source pollution by arsenic - alkali residue from antimony metallurgical enterprise in Hunan area,so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of waterborne arsenic poisoning. Methods A waterborne arsenic poisoning was investigated and analyzed by retrospective epidemiology. Results The waterborne arsenic poisoning was mainly due to water source pollution by arsenic from arsenic - alkali residue released from the antimony metallurgical enterprise. It mainly manifested acute and subacute poisoning, which was sudden, latent and colonial. The sufferers shared the same drinking water source. The incidence was not different among different age and sexes. Their nervous, digestive, cardiovascular, blood and urinary system could be inflicted. The diagnosis could be confirmed by elevated arsenic levels in the urine and drinking water source. Conclusions The retrospective epidemiological investigation of the arsenic poisoning due to drinking water source pollution by arsenic -alkali residue from antimony metallurgical enterprise in Hunan area indicates that the arsenic

  15. Arsenic and the Epigenome: Linked by Methylation(SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an environmental toxicant currently poisoning millions of people worldwide, and chronically-exposed individuals are susceptible to arsenic poisoning, or arsenicosis. In some exposed populations arsenicosis susceptibility is dependent in part on the abil...

  16. Rural methods to mitigate arsenic contaminated water

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water is one of the burning issues in the rural world. Poor public awareness program about health effects of drinking arsenic contaminated water and the rural methods to mitigate this problem poses a great threat of arsenic poisoning many people of the rural world. In this thesis, arsenic removal efficiency and the working mechanism of four rural and economical arsenic mitigation technologies i.e. solar oxidation and reduction of arsenic (SORAS), Bucket tr...

  17. Study on the variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater and chemical characteristics of arsenic in sediment cores at the areas with endemic arsenic poison disease in Jianghan Plain%江汉平原地方性砷中毒病区地下水砷含量变化及沉积物砷化学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周素华; 叶恒朋; 李明健; 熊培生; 杜冬云; 王靖文

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解江汉平原地方性砷中毒(地砷病)病区地下水砷含量变化,探讨该区域高砷水赋存环境、地下水系统砷的来源.方法 在湖北省仙桃市和洪湖市分别以地砷病患者家为中心点,在3km半径内各采集30份地下水样品和3个地质钻孔沉积物样芯;水砷含量比较采用配对t检验或配对符号秩和检验进行分析.结果 仙桃市南洪村2011-2012年水砷浓度低于2006-2007年(t=4.645 3,P<0.000 1),洪湖市姚河村2011-2012年水砷浓度高于2006-2007年(S=-150,P<0.000 1);高砷水呈弱酸、弱氧化性,水砷浓度与水样C1-、HCO3-、Fe、Mn浓度正相关,与水样SO42-、NO3-浓度负相关;研究区沉积物中砷浓度为1.500~ 17.289mg/kg,砷含量最大值均出现在泥土层,最小值均出现在沙层.结论 江汉平原地砷病病区高砷水砷含量的时空间变化程度较大,与中国山西大同盆地、山阴地区、内蒙古河套平原等原生高砷水地区有明显差异,为典型的高砷水赋存环境;研究区沉积物样品中砷含量与岩性结构有密切关系.%Objective To understand the variation of arsenic concentration in underground water at the endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain so as to better understand the spatial distribution of high arsenic groundwater,hydro-chemical evolution and source of arsenic in this region.Methods Thirty underground water samples were collected respectively around 3 km radius of the two houses where arsenic poisoning patients lived,in Xiantao and Honghu.Sediment cores of three drillings were collected as well.Both paired t-test or paired Wilcoxon Signed Ranking Test were used to compare the arsenic concentration of water.Results The arsenic concentration in 2011-2012 appeared lower than that in 2006-2007 at the Nanhong village of Xiantao (t=4.645 3,P<0.000 1),but was higher(S=-150,P<0.000 1) in the Yaohe village of Honghu.The pH value showed weak acidity with Eh as weak oxidated

  18. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  19. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  20. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  1. The Phenomenon of the Styrian Arsenic Eaters from the Perspective of Literature, Chemistry, Toxicology, and History of Science-"Strong Poison" or "Simple-Minded Reasoning"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallau, W Martin

    2015-12-21

    The arsenic eaters of Styria, who were supposedly immunized against the toxic effects of arsenic (As2 O3 ), appeared increasingly in scientific and popular literature in the second half of the 19th century. This Essay starts with a depiction of this phenomenon from a detective novel and questions whether the observations and scientific knowledge at that time can confirm this legend. Figure from J. H. Pepper, The Boy's Book of Metals, p. 433. PMID:26350301

  2. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Philodendron poisoning

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    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Foxglove poisoning

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    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Yew poisoning

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    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Mistletoe poisoning

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    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Poison Ivy Posted under Health Guides . Updated 2 June ... everyone is sensitive to these plants. What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a plant that can ...

  12. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, call your doctor or the Poison Control Center. Call 911 immediately if the person is unconscious, not breathing or convulsing. The phone number for the Poison Control Center is 1-800-222-1222. This number is ...

  17. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

  18. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  19. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  20. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  1. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  2. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ...

  3. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  4. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 71. Linakis JG, Skarbek-Borowska S. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 18. Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, ...

  5. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containing mercury are poisonous. Methylmercury is a very poisonous form of mercury. It forms when bacteria react with mercury in water, soil, or plants. It has been used to preserve grain that ...

  6. Effects of toxic trace elements on arsenic poisoning caused by coal-burning%具潜在毒性微量元素与燃煤污染型砷中毒关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖婷婷; 张爱华; 王紫嫣; 王胜利

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨砷、铝、铅、镉、汞、锂6种具潜在毒性微量元素与燃煤污染型地方性砷中毒的关系.方法 选择贵州省兴仁交乐病区砷暴露者(包括病区非病人及轻、中、重度患者)139例为暴露组,距病区约13 km非砷污染村34名村民为对照组;电感耦合等离子体发射光潜法测定燃煤、土壤、大米、玉米、辣椒、头发、尿液和血液中上述6种元素含量.结果 病区燃煤、土壤、玉米和辣椒中砷含量分别为4.894、146.551、0.522和1.440 mg/kg,土壤中铝、镉、锂含量分别为4.510、8.895和65.778 mg/kg,均高于对照区(P<0.05或P<0.01);暴露组头发中砷、铝、铅、镉、锂含量分别为1.985、63.201、3.323、0.115和0.201 μg/g,尿砷含量为149.593 μg/g Cr,均高于对照组(P<0.05或P<0.01);尿铅含量为44.039μg/g Cr,低于对照组(P<0.01);发砷、尿砷、发铝、发铅、发镉、发锂、尿铅与病情发展的相关系数分别为0.361、0.340、0.414,0.168、0.332、0.292和-0.279(P<0.05或P<0.01);发铝、发铅、发镉与发砷的相关系数分别为0.229、0.367和0.352(P<0.01).结论 除砷外,病区土壤中铝、镉、锂含量偏高,暴露组发铝、镉、锂变化与环境变化趋势一致,且与病情发展有一定联系;病区环境中铅含量未见改变,但暴露组发铅升高,尿铅降低,砷暴露可能是抑制铅排泄的原因之一.%Objective To investigate the effects of toxic trace elements such as aluminum, lead, cadmium, mercury, and lithium on arsenic poisoning caused by coal-burning. Methods The exposed group included 139 arsenic exposed residents who were diagnosed with or without arsenism in an area polluted by arsenic coal-burning in Xingren county of Guizhou province. Control group included 34 residents who lived in an area 13 kilometers from the polluted area. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to determine the toxic element contents in coal, soil

  7. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  8. Arsenic: The Silent Killer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Andrea (USGS)

    2006-02-28

    Andrea Foster uses x-rays to determine the forms of potentially toxic elements in environmentally-important matrices such as water, sediments, plants, and microorganisms. In this free public lecture, Foster will discuss her research on arsenic, which is called the silent killer because dissolved in water, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, yet consumption of relatively small doses of this element in its most toxic forms can cause rapid and violent death. Arsenic is a well-known poison, and has been used as such since ancient times. Less well known is the fact that much lower doses of the element, consumed over years, can lead to a variety of skin and internal cancers that can also be fatal. Currently, what has been called the largest mass poisoning in history is occurring in Bangladesh, where most people are by necessity drinking ground water that is contaminated with arsenic far in excess of the maximum amounts determined to be safe by the World Health Organization. This presentation will review the long and complicated history with arsenic, describe how x-rays have helped explain the high yet spatially variable arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh, discuss the ways in which land use in Bangladesh may be exacerbating the problem, and summarize the impact of this silent killer on drinking water systems worldwide.

  9. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to arsenic (As poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions, who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China, were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs [arsenite (iAsIII and arsenate (iAsV], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  10. 必需微量元素与燃煤污染型砷中毒关系探讨%Relationship between coal burning type of arsenic poisoning and essential trace elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖婷婷; 张爱华; 王紫嫣; 王胜利

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of essential trace elements selenium, zinc, copper, iron,cobalt, chromium and molybdenum upon arsenic poisoning caused by coal-burning. Methods Stratified random sampling method was used to conduct epidemiological investigation on 139 arsenic exposed residents(including nonpatient, light, moderate and severe patients) in an area polluted by coal-burning arsenic in Xingren county of Guizhou province as exposure group. Control group included 34 residents who lived about 13 km away from the endemic area of arsenic contamination. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used to analyze arsenic, selenium, zinc, copper, iron, cobalt, chromium and molybdenum in coal, soil, rice,corn, chilli, hair, blood and urine. Results Arsenic content in coal, soil, corn and chilli of polluted area were 4.894,146.551,0.522,1.440 mg/kg, respectively. These arsenic content were significantly higher than those in control area which were 1.980,50.167,0.296,0.948 mg/kg, respectively(P < 0.05 or < 0.01) . The content of selenium in soil of the diseased area(5.038 mg/kg) was significantly lower than that in soil of control area(8.948 mg/kg, P <0.05). The content of copper, iron, chromium in soil and iron in corn were 44.114,5731.500,98.323,89.996 mg/kg, respectively. These elements content were significantly higher than those in control area which were 13.473,1298.430,36.839,57.391 mg/kg, respectively (all P < 0.05) . Hair and urine arsenic levels were 1.985mg/kg and 149.593 μg/g Cr in exposed group, respectively. These arsenic levels were significantly higher than those in control group which were 0.670 mg/kg and 49.853 μg/g Cr, respectively(all P < 0.01) . Hair selenium level in exposed group(1.706 mg/kg) was significantly lower than that in control group(2.405 mg/kg, P < 0.01). Hair levels of iron and chromium, blood level of eopper and the ratio between copper and zinc in exposed group were 88.295,8.933 mg

  11. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  12. 慢性砷中毒对小鼠齿状回GFAP表达的影响%Effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on GFAP expression in the dentate gyms of adult mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康朝胜; 孙宝飞; 余资江; 李玉飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate activation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the dentate gyrus of adult mice after chronic arsenic poisoning. Methods 80 healthy adult Kunming mice, weighing 20-22g, were divided into four groups: the normal control group, the low-dose group, the medium-dose group and the high-dose group ( 10 males and 10 females in each group). Mice in the four groups were respectively fed with distilled water, 1/5 LD50, 1/10 LD50 and 1/40 LD50 AS2O3 for 3 months, and the dosage was adjusted according to changes of weight. Then ability of learning and memory was tested by a Y-maze, and expression of the GFAP protein in the dentate gyrus by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Ability of learning and memory in the high-dose group was significantly lower than that in the normal control group ( P < 0.05 ). Immunohistochemical results showed that the number of GFAP-positive cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly more increased in the dose groups compared with the normal control group(P<0.01 ), and the average optical density was also increased (P <0.01 ). Western blot results showed the GFAP protein content increased with the dosage increasing (P <0.01 ). Conclusion Chronic arsenic poisoning might damage ability of learning and memory in mice, which may be related to proliferation of astroeytes and expression of GFAP in the dentate gyrus.%目的 研究砷中毒后小鼠齿状回胶质原纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)的变化.方法 选取健康成年昆明小鼠80只,雌雄各半,分为对照组及慢性砷中毒高、中、低剂量组,每组20只,分别以蒸馏水、1/5 LD50、1/10 LD50、1/40LD50 As2O3连续灌胃3个月,根据其体质量变化随时调整用药剂量,采用Y-电迷宫检测各组小鼠学习记忆行为,采用免疫组织化学和蛋白印迹技术检测不同浓度砷中毒对小鼠齿状回部位GFAP表达的影响.结果 与正常对照组比较,高剂量砷中毒组学习、记忆Y-迷

  13. 2012年山西省饮水型氟、砷中毒病区改水工程监测结果分析%Analysis of monitoring results of fluoride-safe water supply projects in drinking water type of fluorosis and arsenic poisoning areas in Shanxi Province in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 王正辉; 吴赵明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the implementation of prevention and control measures for water quality improvement in drinking water type of fluorosis and arsenic poisoning areas,to investigate the operating condition of fluoride-safe water supply projects,and to comprehensively evaluate the project's quality and its effectiveness on water quality improvement.Methods According to the "Shanxi Province Drinking Water-Borne Fluorosis and Arsenic Poisoning Fluoride-Safe Water Supply Projects Monitoring Programme",in October 2012-June 2013,45 counties in the province were selected to monitor fluorosis and arsenic poisoning.The running condition of fluoridesafe water supply projects was investigated.One factory water sample was collected to determine the water fluoride (arsenic) concentration.Meanwhile,3 tap water samples were collected to determine the water fluoride (arsenic)concentration in each village,using the "Standards for Drinking Water Quality" (GB/T 5750.5-2006).Results Totally 1 804 fluoride-safe water supply projects had been surveyed,and 1 673 were in normal condition,accounting for 92.7%.The number of projects supplying fluoride-safe water was 1 328,accounting for 73.6%,benefiting a population of 2.636 779 million people.A total of 2 277 villages were investigated,and 1 826 villages had fluoride-safe water,accounting for 80.2% of the investigated villagcs.One hundred and forty-five arsenic-safe water supply projects in drinking water type of arsenic poisoning areas were investigated,and 138 were in normal condition,accounting for 95.2%.One hundred and forty-three arsenic-safe water supply projects were qualified,accounting for 98.6%,benefiting a population of 295 240 people.One hundred and fifty-nine villages in drinking water-borne arsenic poisoning areas were investigated,and 156 villages were qualified in water arsenic,accounting for 98.1% of the investigated villages.Conclusions The qualified rate of fluoride-safe water supply projects is relatively

  14. Lanolin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanolin is an oily substance taken from sheep's wool. Lanolin poisoning occurs when someone swallows a product that contains lanolin. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or ...

  15. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used in agriculture to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also ... Mercaptothion poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . ...

  16. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee poisoning is caused by a sting from a bee, wasp , or yellow jacket. This article is for ... Bee, wasp, and yellow jacket stings contain a substance called venom. Africanized bee colonies are very sensitive ...

  17. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  18. Depilatory poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Pfau PR, Hancock SM. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Wax PM, Young A. ...

  19. Aftershave poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 185. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  20. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poisonous ingredient is: Calcium oxalate ... with a cold, wet cloth. Wash off any plant sap from the skin and eyes. ... weight, and condition Name and part of the plant swallowed, if known Time it was swallowed Amount ...

  1. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  2. Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykknes, Annette; Kvittingen, Lise

    2003-05-01

    This article presents parts of the history of the element arsenic in order to illustrate processes behind development of knowledge in chemistry. The particular aspects presented here are the use of arsenic as a stimulant by Styrian peasants, in Fowler's solution, in drugs of the 19th century (e.g., salvarsan), and in current medical treatment, all of which challenge the myth of this element as exclusively poisonous.

  3. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G;

    2016-01-01

    function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...... supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Lithium poisoning has a low mortality rate; however, chronic lithium poisoning can require a prolonged hospital length of stay from impaired mobility and cognition and associated nosocomial complications. Persistent...... or the duration of toxicity in high-risk exposures. There is disagreement in the literature regarding factors that define patients most likely to benefit from treatments that enhance lithium elimination, including specific plasma lithium concentration thresholds. In the case of extracorporeal treatments...

  4. A high-selenium lentil dietary intervention in Bangladesh to counteract arsenic toxicity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Regina M Krohn; Raqib, Rubhana; Akhtar, Evana; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit E. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Millions of people worldwide are exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic (above the WHO water standard of 10 ppb) in drinking water and food. Lack of nutritious foods exacerbates the adverse health effects of arsenic poisoning. The micronutrient selenium is a known antagonist to arsenic, promoting the excretion of arsenic from the body. Studies are in progress examining the potential of using selenium supplement pills to counteract arsenic toxicity. We are planning a clinical trial ...

  5. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in wat...

  6. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  7. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How ... poisoning is still one of the most important health issues in the United States ... in housing built before 1946 have elevated blood lead levels. These ...

  8. Effect of some operational parameters on the arsenic removal by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Berrin Zeliha; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Yilmaz, Alper Erdem; Fil, Baybars Ali

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a global problem that will likely become more apparent in future years as scientists and engineers measure the true extent of the problem. Arsenic poisoning is preventable though as there are several methods for easily removing even trace amounts of arsenic from drinking water. In the present study, electrocoagulation was evaluated as a treatment technology for arsenic removal from aqueous solutions. The effects of parameters such as initial pH, curr...

  9. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose-response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography, impaired microcirculation, prolonged QT interval and increased QT dispersion in electrocardiography, and clinical outcomes such as hypertension, blackfoot disease (a unique peripheral vascular disease endemic in southwestern Taiwan), coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. Chronic arsenic poisoning is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term arsenic exposure may be persistent and/or irreversible. Arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases in human population may result from the interaction among genetic, environment and nutritional factors. The major adverse cardiovascular effect of chronic arsenic poisoning has been established qualitatively and quantitatively in the high arsenic exposure areas, but the low-dose effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases remains to be explored. Cardiovascular death is the major cause of mortality worldwide, and a small increased risk may imply a large quantity of excess mortality

  10. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ciguatera poisoning, the poisonous ingredient is ciguatoxin. This is a poison made in small amounts by certain algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae ...

  13. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  14. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  15. Ciguatera fish poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Crump; McLay, C.; Chambers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is one of a variety of non-bacterial forms of human seafood poisoning. Consuming large predatory fish from tropical reef ecosystems may be hazardous. We describe a case that is typical of the disease, and illustrates the persistence of neurological symptoms that occur in some patients.


Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ichthyosarcotoxaemia; poisoning; biotoxins

  16. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  17. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  18. Arrow poisons in south Asia. Part 1. Arrow poisons in ancient India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, N G; Mazars, G

    1984-10-01

    The use of arrow poisons in ancient India is discussed. While it is possible that Mesolithic hunting communities may have applied poison to their arrows, passages in the Rg Veda and Atharva Veda indicate its use in warfare. The meaning of the word -ala, used in the Rg Veda to denote the poison smeared on the arrowheads, is examined; but the available evidence, while almost certainly excluding a mineral (arsenical) source, does not allow a conclusion to be drawn between an animal and/or plant origin. Certain hymns in the Atharva Veda point to aconite tubers as one source. Later Sanskrit (and Buddhist) literature shows that poisoned arrows continued to be used and that a second source of poison was (putrefying) snakes--a source confirmed by an account in the classical literature of Alexander the Great's campaign in western India. Detailed descriptions of the symptoms and methods of treatment of wounds caused by poisoned arrows are to be found in the Sanskrit medical literature. PMID:6394907

  19. Cancer excess after arsenic exposure from contaminated milk powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki;

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic is related to increased risk of cancer in the lung, skin, bladder, and, possibly, other sites. However, little is known about the consequences of developmental exposures in regard to cancer risk. During early summer in 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of infant...... occurred in the western part of Japan because of contaminated milk powder. Okayama Prefecture was most severely affected. We examined whether the affected birth cohorts in this prefecture experienced increased cancer mortality....

  20. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  1. Licenced to pollute but not to poison: The ineffectiveness of regulatory authorities at protecting public health from atmospheric arsenic, lead and other contaminants resulting from mining and smelting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Davies, Peter J.; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Csavina, Janae Lynn

    2014-09-01

    This article details and examines the impact of significant inconsistencies in pollution licencing, monitoring and reporting from Australia’s leading mining and smelting communities of Mount Isa in Queensland and Port Pirie in South Australia. Although emissions to the environment are regulated according to Australia’s national air quality standards, significant atmospheric point source toxic emissions of arsenic, lead and sulfur dioxide continue to contaminate Mount Isa and Port Pirie communities. Short-term atmospheric contaminant emissions across residential areas from the Mount Isa Mines operations are significant: in 2011, 24-h maximum suspended particulate (TSP) values for lead-in-air and arsenic-in-air were 12.8 μg/m3 and 2973 ng/m3, respectively. The relevant Queensland air quality objectives for lead and arsenic are 0.5 μg/m3 (TSP) and 6 ng/m3 (PM10), respectively, averaged over a year. Mount Isa is also blanketed by elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations, with the Australian and Queensland 1-h air quality standard (0.2 ppm) being exceeded on 27 occasions in 2011. At Port Pirie, contamination of the urban environment is arguably worse with 24-h maximum TSP values for lead-in-air and arsenic-in-air of 22.57 μg/m3 (2011) and 250 ng/m3 (2009), respectively. Port Pirie has an annual average lead-in-air standard of 0.5 μg/m3 (TSP) but there are no set values for arsenic. In 2012, the national 1-h standard for sulfur dioxide was exceeded 50 times in Port Pirie. Despite chronic childhood blood lead exposures in both communities, there is a history of denial and downplaying of the source and impact of the contamination. A contributory factor to this pattern of behaviour is the fragmented and inconsistent delivery of data as well as its interpretation in relation to environmental and health impacts from exposures. This study reviews available data sources and makes inference to the impacts from contamination and in doing so, explains why the current

  2. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair ...

  3. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  4. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  5. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  6. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vicinity. Keep your children informed, too. Remove any poisonous plants. Never eat wild plants, mushrooms, roots, or berries unless you very familiar with them. Teach children about the dangers ... substances are poisonous if taken in large doses. If you are ...

  7. [Poisoning in swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinritzi, K

    1986-01-01

    For clinical interests it is advisable to subdivide cases of swine poisoning in such as caused by food, drugs and environmental poisonings. This division gives pointers to aetiologic connections and special measures necessary for the clearing of the processes. With food poisoning mycotoxicoses play an evermore important role, whereas poisonings by trace elements are on the decrease. Sodium chloride poisoning often results primarily from insufficient water supply. With environmental poisonings carbon monoxide and cyanamide intoxication are presented. Poisonings caused by drugs are mainly the result of an overdose, of segregation in food or of non-licensed drugs. A relatively unknown swine poisoning by a drug against coccidiosis--licensed for poultry--is described. PMID:2943054

  8. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  9. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are dis...

  10. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  11. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  12. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  13. Arsenic levels in soil of a town polluted 35 years ago (Nakajo, Japan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakadaira, H.; Yamamoto, M. Katoh, K. [Niigata Univ., Niigata City (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Endemic arsenic poisoning occurred in Nakajo Town, Prefecture, Japan, in 1950. Of 454 residents who took medical examinations , 93 residents (20.5%) had symptoms of chronic arsenicism. Most of the patients within 500m of the south-west side of the factory. The authors were interested in the current environmental arsenic contamination in Nakajo in terms of assessing the effects of arsenic on human health. To examine the geographical distribution of arsenic, soil was sampled on the assumption that soil is the most directly polluted environmental medium by the contaminated well water. In fact, well water was used for agriculture and livestock husbandry in the town. Once soil is contaminated with toxic substances, such substances are not easily lost or decomposed and remain in soil for a long period of time. Well water is an ideal material for environmental arsenic determination, but wells are now closed. Sampling of agricultural products and human blood were rejected by the town office for fear that they would cause unnecessary public concern. This study was conducted as a part of investigations into health effects of the arsenic poisoning caused 35 years ago by waste water contaminated with arsenic in Nakajo. The purpose of this work is to determine the current soil arsenic levels and assess the possible influence of arsenic on human health. 16 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. ARSENIC AND THE EPIGENOME: LINKED BY METHYLATION(Thailand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an environmental toxicant currently poisoning millions of people worldwide. The most common route of As exposure in humans is through the consumption of drinking water contaminated with iAs from natural, geologic sources. Inorganic As exists in drinking...

  15. Arsenic: it's extent of pollution and toxicosis: An animal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Das

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic poisoning is now considered as one of the biggest environmental disaster and a major public health issue. Incidence of arsenicpoisoning has been reported from many parts of the world. While Bangladesh and West Bengal (India account for the most of the incidence, occasional reports from Mexico, Taiwan and mainland China have also appeared.It is a natural metalloid found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment as it is used in a wide variety of industrial applications, from computers to fireworks. Ground water arsenic is the major source of poisoning in animals and human. About 80% of ingested arsenic is absorbed and metabolized in liver and then excreted through urine and faeces while upon chronic exposure, it is deposited in liver, kidney and skin. Human populations are also being exposed to this poison by consuming the milk of affected animal.Inorganic forms of arsenic are more toxic compared to organic forms. Acute toxicity is rare in nature in comparison to chronic toxicity, which is prevalent in contaminated areas. Most non-ruminants are more susceptible to intoxication than ruminants. Chronic exposure of arsenic in animals and human beings causes severe adverse effects in the form of lowered immunity, diseases and production performances. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 53-58

  16. 髓过氧化物酶和过氧化氢酶基因多态性及其酶活力与燃煤污染型地方性砷中毒关系的探讨%Relationship between myeloperoxidase and catalase genetic polymorphism and their activities with arsenic poisoning caused by coal-burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁冰; 张爱华; 奚绪光; 张碧霞; 黄晓欣

    2009-01-01

    Objective To detect genetic polymorphism of myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene and catalase (CAT) gene and their activities, and to analyze their relationship with arsenic poisoning caused by coal-burning. Methods One hundred and thirty arsenic poisoning patients were chosen as case group in Jiaole Village, Xingren County, Guizhou Province(an endemic area). One hundred and forty healthy residents living in 13 km away were chosen as control group. Their blood was collected. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique(PCR-RFLP) was used to detect polymorphism of MPO-463G/A and CAT-262C/T. Ultraviolet spectmphotometer method was used to detect myeloperoxidase activity. Chromatometry method was used to detect catalase activity. Results The genotype frequency of MPO-463G/A at GG, GA, AA site was 47.24%(60/127), 44.09%(56/127),8.67% (11/127) in case group and 42.34% (58/137),48.17% (66/137)1,9.49% (13/137) in control group, respectively. The difference between the two groups was not significant(χ2 = 0.642, P > 0.05). The genotype frequency of CAT-262C/T, at CC, CT, TT site was 65.60%(82/125),28.80%(36/125),5.60%(7/125) in case group and 76.51%(101/132), 18.94% (25/132) ,4.55% (6/132) in control group, respectively, without significant difference (χ2 =3.845, P>0.05). The relationship between polymorphism of MPO-463G/A and CAT-262C/T and the risk of arsenic poisoning was not found in this study(ORadj= 1.36, 95%CI: 0.74-2.50 for MPO; ORadj=1.35, 95%CI: 0.69-2.63 for CAT). The activities of MPO and CAT were (25.30±8.70)U/L and (2.80± 1.09)×103 U/L in case group, while (22.76±7.59)U/L and (3.90±1.01)×103U/L in control group with a significant difference(F=0.760 for MPO, F=0.855 for CAT, all P 0.05). Conclusions Genetic polymorphism of MPO-463G/A and CAT-262C/T is not found to have relationship with arsenic poisoning. Arsenic can lead to the change of MPO and CAT activity, which, however, may not be affected by MPO-463G/A and CAT-262C

  17. Investigation of Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Controls on Arsenic Mobilization Using Distributed Sensing at a Field Site in Munshiganj, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Nithya; Rothenberg, Sarah; Estrin, D; Harmon, T C; Harvey, Charles; Jay, J A; Kohler, Eddie

    2006-01-01

    The presence of arsenic in the groundwater has led to the largest environmental poisoning in history; tens of millions of people in the Ganges Delta continue to drink groundwater that is dangerously contaminated with arsenic. A current working hypothesis is that arsenic is mobilized in the near surface environment where sediments are weathered by seasonal changes in the redox state that drive a cycle of pyrite oxidation and iron oxide reduction. In order to test the supporting hypothesis th...

  18. The global menace of arsenic and its conventional remediation - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arpan; Paul, Biswajit

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous element found in the earth crust with a varying concentration in the earth soil and water. Arsenic has always been under the scanner due to its toxicity in human beings. Contamination of arsenic in drinking water, which generally finds its source from arsenic-containing aquifers; has severely threatened billions of people all over the world. Arsenic poisoning is worse in Bangladesh where As(III) is abundant in waters of tube wells. Natural occurrence of arsenic in groundwater could result from both, oxidative and reductive dissolution. Geothermally heated water has the potential to liberate arsenic from surrounding rocks. Inorganic arsenic has been found to have more toxicity than the organic forms of arsenic. MMA and DMA are now been considered as the organic arsenic compounds having the potential to impair DNA and that is why MMA and DMA are considered as carcinogens. Endless efforts of researchers have elucidated the source, behavior of arsenic in various parts of the environment, mechanism of toxicity and various remediation processes; although, there are lots of areas still to be addressed. In this article, attempts have been made to lay bare an overview of geochemistry, toxicity and current removal techniques of arsenic together. PMID:27239969

  19. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  20. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  1. Mass carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J.; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

    2000-01-01

    The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised.

  2. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  3. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  4. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology ...

  5. A broad view of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F T

    2007-01-01

    In the mind of the general public, the words "arsenic" and "poison" have become almost synonymous. Yet, As is a natural metallic element found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment, including foods. Mining and smelting activities are closely associated with As, and the largest occurrence of As contamination in the United States is near the gold mines of northern Nevada. Inhabitants of Bangladesh and surrounding areas have been exposed to water that is naturally and heavily contaminated with As, causing what the World Health Organization has described as the worst mass poisoning in history. Although readily absorbed by humans, most inorganic As (>90%) is rapidly cleared from the blood with a half-life of 1 to 2 h, and 40 to 70% of the As intake is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted within 48 h. Arsenic does not appreciably bioaccumulate, nor does it biomagnify in the food chain. The United States has for some time purchased more As than any other country in the world, but As usage is waning, and further reductions appear likely. Arsenic is used in a wide variety of industrial applications, from computers to fireworks. All feed additives used in US poultry feeds must meet the strict requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (Rockville, MD) before use. Although some public health investigators have identified poultry products as a potentially significant source of total As exposure for Americans, studies consistently demonstrate that <1% of samples tested are above the 0.5 ppm limit established by the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated the possibility that As in poultry litter could pollute ground waters, million of tons of litter have been applied to the land, and no link has been established between litter application and As contamination of ground water. Yet, the fact that <2% of the United States population is involved in

  6. Treated bottom ash medium and method of arsenic removal from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2009-06-09

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  7. Determination of arsenic in subcellular fractions of rat liver by ENAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of arsenic in subcellular fractions of rat liver is determined by differential centrifugation combined with epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA). The analytical quality has been verified by analysis of some standard reference materials. The results show that the distribution of As in subcellular fractions of rat liver cells is not homogeneous. The highest concentration of As is found in microsome, while the lowest content is found in nuclei for arsenic poisoned rat. The lowest content of As is noted in mitochondria of contrast rats. The differences of As contents in subcellular fractions of lives cells between arsenic poisoned and normal rats are compared by means of t-test and exceedingly significant differences are found (P<0.001). In As poisoned rat, the As content in microsome is significantly higher than that in other subcellular fractions (P<0.05), except lysosome

  8. Speciation of arsenic by IC-ICP-MS: future standard method and its application on baby food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollander, Barbro; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    of the intended murder. For example the organic compound arsenobetaine, the main arsenic species in marine organisms, is regarded as basically harmless to humans while the inorganic forms of arsenic, arsenite and arsenate found in rice, are toxic. To enable the evaluation of the true toxicity from arsenic in food......, some kind of speciation analysis has to be performed. In this work, the concentration of inorganic arsenic in some baby food samples is evaluated. The applied methodology has recently been tested in a collaborative trial as a candidate standardized method for the determination of inorganic arsenic......Arsenic is known to most people as extremely poisonous and several criminal authors have used this fact to assassinate their characters in novels for decades. However, the authors seldom or never mention which of the species of arsenic they use, although that is elementary for the outcome...

  9. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in water are up to 100 ug/1. According to MCL, present technologies are unadjusted for safely arsenic removal for concentrations below of 10 ug/1. This fact has inspired many companies to solve this problem adequately, by using an alternative technologies and new process able materials. In this paper the observation of conventional and the alternative technologies will be given, bearing in mind complex chemistry and electrochemistry of arsenic, formation of colloidal arsenic, which causes the biggest problems in water purification technologies. In this paper many results will be presented, which are obtained using the alternative technologies, as well as the newest results of original author's investigations. Using new nanomaterials, on Pilot plant "VALETA H2O-92", concentration of arsenic was removed far below MLC value.

  10. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint used to color hair. This article is for ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. ... aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene diamines ...

  11. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe enough to cause ... given through a vein (IV) to reverse severe acidosis Antidotes that slow the formation of the poisonous ...

  12. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  14. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  15. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical products such as cleaning solutions or beauty products. Never mix household products together. For example, mixing bleach and ammonia ... the fan and open windows when using chemical products such as household cleaners. Keep Young Children Safe from Poisoning Be ...

  16. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  17. Medicine Poisoning in Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lígia Montenegro de Albuquerque

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify the main medications responsible for exogenous poisoning of children attended at a referral emergency hospital of Fortaleza, Ceará State,Brazil; to describe the most prevalent age and gender, as well as the main reactions presented by poisoned children. It was a documental retrospective study of 203 records of patients attended in 1997 at the Toxicology Center of Ceará. Our results showed that antidepressants, bronchodilators and vitamins were the most common agents; 77% of poisoned children were between 1 and 4 years of age, and 54% were males; somnolence, psicomotor excitement, tachycardia and vomiting were the most commonly encountered reactions. In conclusion, these medicines represents an important cause of children poisoning, Families must attempt to the safe storing and dealing with these products. It is mandatory that the government determines the utilization of special packages for children protection in our country.

  18. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  20. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Field R, Panter KE, et al. Selected poisonous plants affecting animal and human health. In: Haschek WAM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA, eds. Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 40.

  1. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  2. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... King St., Suite 510 Alexandria, VA 22314 Online http://www.aapcc.org/ Email not for emergency use. ... Poison Center" in the memo line. Donate online: http://bit.ly/1HDxdHb Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http:// ...

  3. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or into their eyes. ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  4. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  5. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  6. Window cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 151. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  7. Ammonium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 97. Harchelroad FP Jr, Rottinghaus ... Textbook of Critical Care . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 187. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  8. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 146. Freedman DO. Protection of ...

  9. Wart remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 48. Nelson LS, Ford MD. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 110. Seger DL, Murray L. ...

  10. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  13. Patient with hepatocellular carcinoma related to prior acute arsenic intoxication and occult HBV: epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic results after 14 years of follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas-Taltavull, Teresa; Ribes, Josepa; Berrozpe, Ana; Jordan, Sara; Casanova, Aurora; Sancho, Concha; Valls, Carles; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term survivors of acute arsenic intoxication. We present here a clinical case report of a man with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who developed hepatocellular carcinoma four years after acute arsenic poisoning. HBsAg was detected in serum in 1990 when he voluntarily donated blood. In 1991, the patient suffered from severe psychological depression that led him to attempt suicide by massive ingestion of an arsenic-containing rodenticide. He survived wit...

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2005-11-01

    CO is an ubiquitous poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms that are often subtle and may be easily misdiagnosed. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and permit continued exposure to a dangerous environment. Treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may also prevent DNS. Absolute indications forHBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most authors would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose or neurologically abnormal, have a history of LOC with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level(>15%-20%) is also widely, considered an indication for treatment.HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOTtreatment protocols. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit may assist the treating physician with decisions regarding therapy. PMID:16227059

  15. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic trioxide is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL; a type of cancer in which there ... worsened following treatment with other types of chemotherapy. Arsenic trioxide is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Regeneration of Commercial SCR Catalysts: Probing the Existing Forms of Arsenic Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Junhua; Peng, Yue; Si, Wenzhe; He, Xu; Hao, Jiming

    2015-08-18

    To investigate the poisoning and regeneration of SCR catalysts, fresh and arsenic-poisoned commercial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts are researched in the context of deactivation mechanisms and regeneration technology. The results indicate that the forms of arsenic oxide on the poisoned catalyst are related to the proportion of arsenic (As) on the catalyst. When the surface coverage of (V+W+As) is lower than 1, the trivalent arsenic species (As(III)) is the major component, and this species prefers to permeate into the bulk-phase channels. However, at high As concentrations, pentavalent arsenic species (As(IV)) cover the surface of the catalyst. Although both arsenic species lower the NOx conversion, they affect the formation of N2O differently. In particular, N2O production is limited when trivalent arsenic species predominate, which may be related to As2O3 clogging the pores of the catalyst. In contrast, the pentavalent arsenic oxide species (As2O5) possess several As-OH groups. These As-OH groups could not only enhance the ability of the catalyst to become reduced, but also provide several Brønsted acid sites with weak thermal stability that promote the formation of N2O. Finally, although our novel Ca(NO3)2-based regeneration method cannot completely remove As2O3 from the micropores of the catalyst, this approach can effectively wipe off surface arsenic oxides without a significant loss of the catalyst's active components. PMID:26186082

  17. Arsenic: it's extent of pollution and toxicosis: An animal perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tapan Kumar Das; Debashis Roy; Shalini Vaswani

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning is now considered as one of the biggest environmental disaster and a major public health issue. Incidence of arsenicpoisoning has been reported from many parts of the world. While Bangladesh and West Bengal (India) account for the most of the incidence, occasional reports from Mexico, Taiwan and mainland China have also appeared.It is a natural metalloid found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment as it is used in a wide variety of industrial appli...

  18. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  19. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  20. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  1. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  2. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly cause an allergic skin reaction. The result is most often ... oils most often enter the skin rapidly. POISON IVY This is one of the most frequent causes ...

  3. Study of Arsenic Presence in Drinking Water Sources: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Kamali

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Conducted studies about arsenic have shown that consumption of water contaminated with arsenic can causes different adverse health effects in consumers. World Health Organization (WHO has enacted 10µg/L arsenic in drinking water as a guideline value. Regarding some reports about arsenic presence in a village of Hashtrood county and related health effects and also considering this fact that determination of arsenic as a poisoning chemical is not included in routine monitoring of water by responsible organizations, in present study all of drinking water sources in Hashtrood county in East Azerbaijan province were studied for arsenic presence."nMaterials and Methods: Water supply and its sanitation situation were studied in all of cities and residential villages (200 villages by field visiting. Arsenic content of water samples were determined using Ez arsenic test kit, a product of Hach Company. For assurance of the kit results, 20 water samples with different concentration of arsenic were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP method and then achieved results was compared together."nResults: Arsenic was present in drinking water of 50 villages that in 9 villages its level was higher than Iranian standard (50µg/L. During the study totally 11087 persons (21.96% of rural areas population in Hashtrood county were exposed to different levels of arsenic via drinking water. Correlation between kit and ICP results was significant (R2 = 0.9715"nConclusion: Studied region in present study is a polluted area to arsenic by geogenic sources. It is necessary to replace water source of villages with higher level than national standard with safe drinking water. Annually measurement of arsenic in drinking water of all villages spatially polluted villages should be considered by responsible organization e.g. Health Network and Rural Water and Wastewater Company. Used kit in our study is recommendable for this purpose.

  4. Arsenic removal from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  5. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S;

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  6. Use of MgO doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation for removing arsenic from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C; Holt-Larese, Kathleen C; Bontchev, Ranko

    2013-08-13

    Systems and methods for use of magnesium hydroxide, either directly or through one or more precursors, doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, for removing arsenic from drinking water, including water distribution systems. In one embodiment, magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH).sub.2 (a strong adsorbent for arsenic) doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is used to adsorb arsenic. The complex consisting of arsenic adsorbed on Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is subsequently removed from the water by conventional means, including filtration, settling, skimming, vortexing, centrifugation, magnetic separation, or other well-known separation systems. In another embodiment, magnesium oxide, MgO, is employed, which reacts with water to form Mg(OH).sub.2. The resulting Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, then adsorbs arsenic, as set forth above. The method can also be used to treat human or animal poisoning with arsenic.

  7. Chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, K.; Straub, P.W.

    1974-02-19

    A detailed description is given of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.

  8. Arsenic release by indigenous bacteria Bacillus cereus from aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zuoming; Wang, Yanxin; Duan, Mengyu; Xie, Xianjun; Su, Chunli

    2011-03-01

    Endemic arsenic poisoning due to long-term drinking of high arsenic groundwater has been reported in Datong Basin, northern China. To investigate the effects of microbial activities on arsenic mobilization in contaminated aquifers, Bacillus cereus ( B. cereus) isolated from high arsenic aquifer sediments of the basin was used in our microcosm experiments. The arsenic concentration in the treatment with both bacteria and sodium citrate or glucose had a rapid increase in the first 18 d, and then, it declined. Supplemented with bacteria only, the concentration could increase on the second day. By contrast, the arsenic concentration in the treatment supplemented with sodium citrate or glucose was kept very low. These results indicate that bacterial activities promoted the release of arsenic in the sediments. Bacterial activities also influenced other geochemical parameters of the aqueous phase, such as pH, Eh, and the concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al that are important controls on arsenic release. The removal of Fe, Mn, and Al from sediment samples was observed with the presence of B. cereus. The effects of microbial activities on Fe, Mn, and Al release were nearly the same as those on As mobilization. The pH values of the treatments inoculated with bacteria were lower than those without bacteria, still at alkaline levels. With the decrease of Eh values in treatments inoculated with bacteria, the microcosms became more reducing and are thus favorable for arsenic release.

  9. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A Text Size The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  10. Hemlock water dropwort poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, M J; Flather, M. L.; Forfar, J C

    1987-01-01

    Severe plant poisoning is relatively uncommon in adults. We report two adults who ingested hemlock water dropwort roots, having mistaken them for wild parsnip. One developed prolonged convulsions, severe metabolic acidosis and respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. The toxin--oenanthotoxin--was detected in the gastric aspirate and measured by high performance liquid chromatography.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute carbon monoxide poisoning with 1-year computed tomographic follow-up is presented. The typical initial bilateral symmetrical low-density areas in the basal ganglia were found to have decreased markedly in size in the latter scan. These appearances coincided with the initial early oedematous phase of infarction ending in the late permanent necrotic stage

  12. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call ... forms that need to be diluted before use. Exposure to concentrated cold wave lotion will cause much more damage than over-the-counter lotion.

  13. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al2O3-B4C and Al2O3-Gd2O3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B4C or Gd2O3 in Al2O3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author)

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the air that people breathe, and the person’s health condition.**** Each year, carbon monoxide poisoning claims approximately 480 lives and sends another ...

  15. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kofronova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 3 (2011), s. 769-772. ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Instrumental neutron activation analysis * Hair * Arsenic poisoning Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  16. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  17. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Robin B; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Maria Mercedes Meza-Montenegro; Luis Enrique Gutiérrez-Millán; Mary Kay O’Rourke; Jason Roberge

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and...

  18. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas - Cambodia and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 μg/L in Cambodia (average 217 μg/L) and 1-845 μg/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 μg/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 μg/L (average 159 μg/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 μg/g (average 7 μg/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels > 50 μg/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (< 50 μg/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority

  19. Assessing the Groundwater Concentrations and Geographical Distribution of Arsenic in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic 33As, one of the major groundwater contaminants, occurs in both natural and anthropogenic forms. Arsenic inhibits cellular respiration and the production of ATP in human body. Prolonged intake of non-lethal quantities of arsenic can cause cancer and diseases in vital organs such as the heart, liver, skin, and kidney. Each year, millions of people in the rural areas of Bangladesh, India, and other developing countries in South Asia are exposed to arsenic-poisoned groundwater. According to the World Health Organization, arsenic levels in drinking water should not exceed 10 parts per billion; however, the levels of arsenic found in groundwater in the heavily contaminated regions are often more than ten times of the recommended limit. Nepal is one of these regions. In most of the rural areas in Nepal, there is no infrastructure to produce clean filtered water, and wells thus became the major source. However, most of these wells were dug without testing for groundwater safety, because the test commands resources that the rural communities do not have access to. This is also limited data published on Nepal's groundwater contaminant levels. The scarcity of information prohibits the international community from recognizing the severity of arsenic poisoning in Nepal and coming up with the most efficient measures to help. With this project, we will present a method to determine groundwater safety by analyzing geologic data and using remote sensing. The original source of arsenic is the arsenic-bearing minerals in the sediments. Some geological formations have higher arsenic levels than others due to their depositional environments. Therefore, by using existing geologic data from Nepal and countries with similar types of arsenic contamination, we hope to determine correlations between areas where there are reports of high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater to the environmental factors that may cause a particular concentration of arsenic. Furthermore, with deeper

  20. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  1. [Poisoning by bee sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

  2. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in over...

  3. Determination of arsenic leaching from glazed and non-glazed Turkish traditional earthenware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazed and non-glazed earthenware is traditionally and widely used in Turkey and most of the Mediterranean and the Middle East countries for cooking and conservation of foodstuff. Acid-leaching tests have been carried out to determine whether the use of glazed and non-glazed earthenware may constitute a human health hazard risk to the consumers. Earthenware was leached with 4% acetic acid and 1% citric acid solutions, and arsenic in the leachates was measured using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic concentrations in the leach solution of non-glazed potteries varied from 30.9 to 800 μg L-1, while the glazed potteries varied generally from below the limit of detection (0.5 μg L-1) to 30.6 μg L-1, but in one poorly glazed series it reached to 110 μg L-1. Therefore, the risk of arsenic poisoning by poorly glazed and non-glazed potteries is high enough to be of concern. It appears that this is the first study reporting arsenic release from earthenware into food. - Research highlights: → Non-glazed and poorly glazed earthenware may cause a serious arsenic release into food, and drinking water. → Good glazing can avoid or greatly reduce arsenic leaching into food. → Leaching of arsenic from earthenware may cause serious health risk. → This is a pioneering work showing arsenic risk due to earthenware.

  4. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  5. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravn, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this manual a review is provided of the chemical and toxicological aspects of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). The document contains information on chemical structure, chemical data, where to obtain standards and reference materials, the origin and occurrence, chemical analysis, mouse bioassay, epidemiology, mechanisms of action, symptoms and therapeutics. The practical use of this document has been highlighted in agreement with the Members of the Task Team on Aquatic Biotoxins. This ...

  6. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Ok

    2014-01-01

    Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral ...

  7. Treatment of acetaminophen poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers, E M; Freedman, F.

    1981-01-01

    Acetaminophen is an analgesic that is frequently used in Canada, and the occurrence of overdoses with this drug seems to be increasing. The most serious complication of acetaminophen overdose is hepatic failure. Because of pathophysiologic effects of acetaminophen poisoning and the mechanisms of its toxic effects are now better understood, a rational approach to treatment is possible. Several precursors of glutathione, acetylcysteine in particular, are effective in preventing liver damage if ...

  8. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  9. Le poison chez les Trastamare

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires, Flora

    2012-01-01

    During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, poison seems to have played an important role in Castilian political life, and many authors of chronicles and medical treatises pay attention to the reality of this phenomenon. The article focuses on the use of poison by the Trastamaras, and on its political consequences. We attempt to show the impact of poison on the imagination of contemporaries and on the reality of this practice by members of the Trastamara dynasty, and to demonstrate that ref...

  10. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  11. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  12. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about arsenic in drinking water. It includes sections about what arsenic is, where it comes from, health concerns from exposure, drinking water standards, how to know if there is arsenic in a water supply and how to reduce arsenic in drinking water.

  13. Arsenic in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants Metals Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... and previous or current use of arsenic-containing pesticides. Are there ... compounds in water, food, air, and soil: organic and inorganic (these together ...

  14. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  15. From forensic toxicology to biological chemistry: Normal arsenic and the hazards of sensitivity during the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertomeu-Sánchez, José Ramón

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the cultural meanings, social uses and circulations of arsenic in different legal, medical and popular settings. The focus is on nineteenth-century France. In the first section, I review the advent of the Marsh test for arsenic, which is commonly regarded as a milestone in the history of toxicology. I claim that the high sensitivity of the Marsh test introduced puzzling problems for forensic doctors, the most disturbing one being the so-called 'normal arsenic.' I reconstruct early research on normal arsenic and the ensuing controversies in courts, academies and salons. A report from the French Academy of Science converted normal arsenic from a big discovery to an experimental mistake. In the next section, I study how these disturbing conclusions were perceived by toxicologists all over Europe and how normal arsenic disappeared from view by the middle of the nineteenth century. Finally, I review the return of normal arsenic thanks to Armand Gautier and Gabriel Bertrand, who introduced an innovative research framework and so prompted the displacement of arsenic from criminal toxicology to pharmacology and nutrition science. The last section will also show that the issue of normal arsenic was recaptured in public debates concerning criminal poisoning at the beginning of the twentieth century. PMID:27143271

  16. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common means of self-poisoning in Europe and North America, often taken as an impulsive act of self-harm in young people. Mortality from paracetamol overdose is now about 0.4%, although without treatment, severe liver damage occurs in at least half of people with blood paracetamol levels above the UK standard treatment line.In adults, ingestion of less than 125 mg/kg is unlikely to lead to hepatotoxicity; even higher doses may be tolerated by children witho...

  17. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral O2 saturation should be measured. At the patients who do not respond cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the first 5 minutes, it is recommended to consider obstetric consultation with bedside cesarean section.

  18. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  19. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  20. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  1. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  2. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  3. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

  4. Arsenic removal via electrocoagulation from heavy metal contaminated groundwater in La Comarca Lagunera Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic contamination is an enormous worldwide problem. A large number of people dwelling in Comarca Lagunera, situated in the central part of northern Mexico, use well water with arsenic in excess of the water standard regulated by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico (SEMARNAT), to be suitable for human health. Individuals with lifetime exposure to arsenic develop the classic symptoms of arsenic poisoning. Among several options available for removal of arsenic from well water, electrocoagulation (EC) is a very promising electrochemical treatment technique that does not require the addition of chemicals or regeneration. First, this study will provide an introduction to the fundamental concepts of the EC method. In this study, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed at iron electrodes during the EC process. The results suggest that magnetite particles and amorphous iron oxyhydroxides present in the EC products remove arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with an efficiency of more than 99% from groundwater in a field pilot scale study

  5. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md.; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  6. Arsenic removal via electrocoagulation from heavy metal contaminated groundwater in La Comarca Lagunera Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parga, Jose R. [Institute Technology of Saltillo, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, V. Carranza 2400, C.P. 25280, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: drjrparga@hotmail.com; Cocke, David L. [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Valenzuela, Jesus L. [University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico (Mexico); Gomes, Jewel A. [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Kesmez, Mehmet [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Irwin, George [Lamar University, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Moreno, Hector [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Weir, Michael [Lamar University, Gill Chair of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States)

    2005-09-30

    Arsenic contamination is an enormous worldwide problem. A large number of people dwelling in Comarca Lagunera, situated in the central part of northern Mexico, use well water with arsenic in excess of the water standard regulated by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico (SEMARNAT), to be suitable for human health. Individuals with lifetime exposure to arsenic develop the classic symptoms of arsenic poisoning. Among several options available for removal of arsenic from well water, electrocoagulation (EC) is a very promising electrochemical treatment technique that does not require the addition of chemicals or regeneration. First, this study will provide an introduction to the fundamental concepts of the EC method. In this study, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the solid products formed at iron electrodes during the EC process. The results suggest that magnetite particles and amorphous iron oxyhydroxides present in the EC products remove arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with an efficiency of more than 99% from groundwater in a field pilot scale study.

  7. USEPA Arsenic Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides background information on the USEPA arsenic removal program. The summary includes information on the history of the program, sites and technology selected, and a summary of the data collected from two completed projects.

  8. EXAFS study on arsenic species and transformation in arsenic hyperaccumulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zechun; CHEN Tongbin; LEI Mei; HU Tiandou; HUANG Qifei

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation extended X-ray absorption fine structure (SR EXAFS) was employed to study the transformation of coordination environment and the redox speciation of arsenic in a newly discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Cretan brake (Pteris cretica L. var nervosa Thunb). It showed that the arsenic in the plant mainly coordinated with oxygen, except that some arsenic coordinated with S as As-GSH in root. The complexation of arsenic with GSH might not be the predominant detoxification mechanism in Cretan brake. Although some arsenic in root presented as As(V) in Na2HAsO4 treatments, most of arsenic in plant presented as As(III)-O in both treatments, indicating that As(V) tended to be reduced to As(III) after it was taken up into the root, and arsenic was kept as As(III) when it was transported to the above-ground tissues. The reduction of As(V) primarily proceeded in the root.

  9. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T;

    2015-01-01

    poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in...

  10. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  11. Carbon Nanotubes Technology for Removal of Arsenic from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naghizadeh

    2012-08-01

    Rule, Federal Register 2001;66(14:6976-7066. 8. Luong TV, Guifan S, Liying W, Dianjun PR. People-centered approaches to water and environmental sanitation: Endemic chronic arsenic poisoning. China 30 th WEDC International Conference; 2004. Vientiane, Lao PDR; 2004. 9. Guo X, Fujino Y, Kaneko S, Wu K, Xia Y, Yoshimura T. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and prevalence of arsenical dermatosis in the Hetao plain area, Inner Mongolia. Chin Mol Cell Biochem 2001;222(1-2:137-40. 10. Hansen HK, Núñez P, Grandon R. Electrocoagulation as a remediation tool for wastewaters containing arsenic. Miner Eng 2006;19(5:521-4. 11. Pande SP, Deshpande LS, Patni PM, Lutade SL. Arsenic removal studies in some ground waters of West Bengal, India. J Environ Sci Health 1997;32(7:1981-7. 12. Kim J, Benjamin MM. Modeling a novel ion exchange process for arsenic and nitrate removal. Water Res 2004;38(8:2053-62. 13. Baciocchi R, Chiavola A, Gavasci R. Ion exchange equilibria of arsenic in the presence of high sulphate and nitrate concentrations. Water Sci Technol: Water Supply 2005;5(5: 67-74. 14. Jegadeesan G, Mondal K, Lalvani SB. Arsenate remediation using nanosized modified zerovalent iron particles. Environ Prog 2005;24(3:289-96. 15. Han B, Runnells T, Zimbron J, Wickramasinghe R. Arsenic removal from drinking water by flocculation and microfiltration. Desalination 2002;145(1-3:293-8. 16. de Lourdes Ballinas M, Rodríguez de San Miguel E, de Jesús Rodríguez MT, Silva O, Muñoz M, de Gyves J. Arsenic(V removal with polymer inclusion membranes from sulfuric acid media using DBBP as carrier. Environ Sci Technol 2004;38(3:886-91. 17. Dambies L, Vincent T, Guibal E. Treatment of arsenic-containing solutions using chitosan derivatives: uptake mechanism and sorption performance. Water Res 2002;36(15:3699-710. 18. Naghizadeh A, Naseri S, Nazmara S. Removal of trichloroethylene from water by adsorption on to multiwall carbon nanotubes. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 2011;8(4:317-24. 19. Savage

  12. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  13. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  14. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if swallowed. ...

  15. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    Guidance for primary�care�on how to deal with�patients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  16. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    Guidance for primarycareon how to deal withpatients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  17. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  18. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method...

  19. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  20. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a resul...

  1. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  2. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  3. Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris Vittata L. and its arsenic accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) was first discovered in China by means of field survey and greenhouse cultivation. Field survey showed that Chinese brake had large accumulating capacity to arsenic; the orders of arsenic content in different parts of the fern were as follows: leaves>leafstalks>roots, which is totally different from that of ordinary plants; bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts of the fern decreased as a power function of soil arsenic contents. In the control of pot trials with normal unpolluted soil containing 9 mg/kg of arsenic, the bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts and rhizoids of Chinese brake were as high as 71 and 80 respectively. Greenhouse cultivation in the contaminated soil from mining areas has shown that more than 1 times greater arsenic can be accumulated in the leaves of the fern than that of field samples with the largest content of 5070 mg/kg As on a dry matter basis. During greenhouse cultivation, arsenic content in the leaves of the fern increased linearly with time prolonging. Not only has Chinese brake extraordinary tolerance and accumulation to arsenic, but it grew rapidly with great biomass, wide distribution and easy adaptation to different environmental conditions as well. Therefore, it has great potential in future remediation of arsenic contamination. It also demonstrates important value for studies of arsenic physiology and biochemistry such as arsenic absorption, translocation and detoxification mechanisms in plants.

  4. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  5. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ((Simon)); ((Royal))

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  6. Genomic analysis of stress response against arsenic in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasri N Sahu

    Full Text Available Arsenic, a known human carcinogen, is widely distributed around the world and found in particularly high concentrations in certain regions including Southwestern US, Eastern Europe, India, China, Taiwan and Mexico. Chronic arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with increased risk of many diseases including arthrosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. In this study, we explored genome level global responses to high and low levels of arsenic exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans using Affymetrix expression microarrays. This experimental design allows us to do microarray analysis of dose-response relationships of global gene expression patterns. High dose (0.03% exposure caused stronger global gene expression changes in comparison with low dose (0.003% exposure, suggesting a positive dose-response correlation. Biological processes such as oxidative stress, and iron metabolism, which were previously reported to be involved in arsenic toxicity studies using cultured cells, experimental animals, and humans, were found to be affected in C. elegans. We performed genome-wide gene expression comparisons between our microarray data and publicly available C. elegans microarray datasets of cadmium, and sediment exposure samples of German rivers Rhine and Elbe. Bioinformatics analysis of arsenic-responsive regulatory networks were done using FastMEDUSA program. FastMEDUSA analysis identified cancer-related genes, particularly genes associated with leukemia, such as dnj-11, which encodes a protein orthologous to the mammalian ZRF1/MIDA1/MPP11/DNAJC2 family of ribosome-associated molecular chaperones. We analyzed the protective functions of several of the identified genes using RNAi. Our study indicates that C. elegans could be a substitute model to study the mechanism of metal toxicity using high-throughput expression data and bioinformatics tools such as FastMEDUSA.

  7. ARSENIC REMOVAL TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR SINGLE FAMILY HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides information on POU and POE arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems. The presentation provides information on the arsenic rule, arsenic chemistry and arsenic treatment. The arsenic treatment options proposed for POU and POE treatment consist prim...

  8. 蜈蚣草砷超富集机制及其在砷污染修复中的应用%Advance of the Mechanisms of Arsenic Hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata L. and Applications for Arsenic-Remediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申红玲; 何振艳; 麻密

    2014-01-01

    The fern Pteris vittata can absorb arsenic from the soil, and most of arsenic is transported to the abo-veground tissues, stored in the vacuole of fronds. P. vittata has an efifcient antioxidant system which can reduce arsenic poisoning. Importantly, the arsenate reduction system and vacuole sequestration are critical for arsenic detoxiifcation and arsenic hyperaccumulation. In this review, the latest research progress about the physiologi-cal and molecular mechanisms of arsenic tolerance and accumulation in P. vittata was summarized, and the fu-ture applications of this fern for remediation of removal arsenic-contaminated soils or water were discussed as well.%蕨类植物蜈蚣草能够从土壤中吸收砷,并储存于地上部分羽叶的液泡中。蜈蚣草具有高效的抗氧化系统,以降低砷的毒害;其砷酸还原系统和液泡区隔化是蜈蚣草进行砷解毒和砷超富集的重要机制。本文综述了目前蜈蚣草砷超富集机制研究的主要进展,并对其在修复砷污染环境的应用中进行了讨论。

  9. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...

  11. More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158837.html More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils' Tennessee poison center reports doubling of dangerous exposures ... HealthDay News) -- Children are increasingly at risk from essential oils that are often used in natural remedies, a ...

  12. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  13. Arsenic in your food: potential health hazards from arsenic found in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munera-Picazo S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Munera-Picazo,1 Marina Cano-Lamadrid,1 María Concepción Castaño-Iglesias,2 Francisco Burló,1 Ángel A Carbonell-Barrachina11Food Quality and Safety Group, Department of Agro-Food Technology, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Orihuela, 2Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital Universitario San Juan de Alicante, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Rice is a staple food for over half of the world population, but there is some concern about the occurrence of arsenic (As in this cereal and the possible overexposure to this metalloid. Recently, the Codex Alimentarius Commission established a maximum limit of 200 µg kg–1 for inorganic arsenic (iAs in rice. Because the maximum content of As in water has been reduced to 10 µg L–1, intoxication through rice and rice-based products can be considered an important source of As poisoning. The chronic effects of this iAs exposure can be lung and bladder cancer, skin lesions, or other noncarcinogenic diseases. There is clear evidence of high levels of iAs in rice and rice-based products. Different solutions for the reduction of As intake are proposed at different levels: 1 during the plant-growing process through agronomic practices, 2 pretreatment of rice before its use in the food industry, 3 optimization of the conditions of unit operations during processing, and 4 by cooking.Keywords: arsenic speciation, food safety, dietary exposure, Oryza sativa

  14. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  15. New technique unveils environmental poisons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the extent of environmental poisons, the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, has for some time been measuring the concentration of environmental poisons in mussels, fountain moss and seaweed. These organisms are 'bio monitors' that accumulate environmental poisons occurring in low concentrations in the water. Similar analyses are performed on fish gills to study poisonous metals in acid water (aluminium, copper, iron etc.)

  16. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    Çapan Konca; Zelal Kahramaner; Mehmet Boşnak; Halil Kocamaz

    2014-01-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a poisonous plant for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of its poisoning is supportive care. A 6-year-old girl who admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock was presented wi...

  17. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p < 0.05) effective to eliminate arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure. PMID:25475613

  18. Molecular basis for arsenic-Induced alteration in nitric oxide production and oxidative stress: implication of endothelial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulated epidemiological studies have suggested that prolonged exposure of humans to arsenic in drinking water is associated with vascular diseases. The exact mechanism of how this occurs currently unknown. Nitric oxide (NO), formed by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), plays a crucial role in the vascular system. Decreased availability of biologically active NO in the endothelium is implicated in the pathophysiology of several vascular diseases and inhibition of eNOS by arsenic is one of the proposed mechanism s for arsenic-induced vascular diseases. In addition, during exposure to arsenic, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can occur, resulting in oxidative stress, which is another major risk factor for vascular dysfunction. The molecular basis for decreased NO levels and increased oxidative stress during arsenic exposure is poorly understood. In this article, evidence for arsenic-mediated alteration in NO production and oxidative stress is reviewed. The results of a cross-sectional study in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning and experimental animal studies to elucidate a potential mechanism for the impairment of NO formation and oxidative stress caused by prolonged exposure to arsenate in the drinking water are also reviewed

  19. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person. A......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...

  20. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  1. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  2. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  3. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  4. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  5. Transplacental Arsenic Carcinogenesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-01-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation,...

  6. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T;

    2014-01-01

    cases of APAP poisoning. However, given that APAP is dialyzable, the workgroup agreed that ECTR is suggested in patients with excessively large overdoses who display features of mitochondrial dysfunction. This is reflected by early development of altered mental status and severe metabolic acidosis prior...

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  8. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  9. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  10. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  11. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  12. Inhibition of self-corrosion in magnesium by poisoning hydrogen recombination on iron impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Arsenate evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor on magnesium. ► Magnesium corrosion followed by measuring evolved hydrogen. ► Arsenate found to profoundly inhibit magnesium corrosion at pH 2. ► Arsenate proposed to act by poisoning hydrogen atom recombination. ► Cathodic sites poisoned by arsenic are iron-rich second phase particles. - Abstract: A volumetric measurement of evolved hydrogen is used to quantify rates of corrosion occurring on unpolarized samples of commercially “pure” magnesium immersed in 5% (w/v) aqueous sodium chloride electrolyte. This approach is used to compare rates of uninhibited corrosion with rates occurring in the presence of arsenate and phosphate corrosion inhibitor species dissolved in the experimental electrolyte at concentrations between 10−4 and 10−2 mol dm−3. The effective cathode in commercially pure magnesium comprises a population of micron and submicron size iron-rich particles widely dispersed in the magnesium matrix. It is shown that arsenate, but not phosphate, acts to poison the hydrogen atom recombination reaction as it occurs on the surface of these cathodic particles. It is shown that because hydrogen evolution is the predominant cathodic process the onset of H-atom recombination poisoning results in greatly reduced rates of magnesium corrosion. Additional mechanistic information regarding the effect of phosphate and arsenate corrosion inhibitors is obtained through systematically investigating the effect of solution pH on inhibitor efficiency.

  13. Concomitant administration of Moringa oleifera seed powder in the remediation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Dubey, D K; Kannan, G M; Flora, S J S

    2007-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by arsenic has become a cause of global public health concern. In West Bengal, India, almost 6 million people are endemically exposed to inorganic arsenic by drinking heavily contaminated groundwater through hand-pumped tube wells. No safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures for treating arsenic poisoning are available. We recently reported that some of the herbal extracts possess properties effective in reducing arsenic concentration and in restoring some of the toxic effects of arsenic in animal models. Moringa oleifera Lamarack (English: Horseradish-tree, Drumstick-tree, Hindi: Saijan, Sanskrit: Shigru) belongs to the Moringaceae family, is generally known in the developing world as a vegetable, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) seed powder could restore arsenic induced oxidative stress and reduce body arsenic burden. Exposure to arsenic (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 6weeks) led to a significant increase in the levels of tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), metallothionein (MT) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) which were accompanied by a decrease in the activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in mice. Arsenic exposed mice also exhibited liver injury as reflected by reduced acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and altered heme synthesis pathway as shown by inhibited blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity. Co-administration of M. oleifera seed powder (250 and 500 mg/kg, orally) with arsenic significantly increased the activities of SOD, catalase, GPx with elevation in reduced GSH level in tissues (liver, kidney and brain). These changes were accompanied by approximately 57%, 64% and 17% decrease in blood ROS, liver

  14. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  15. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER — RESULTS OF PROTOTYPE FIELD TESTS IN BANGLADESH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowolik, K; Addy, S.E.A.; Gadgil, A.

    2009-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 50 million people in Bangladesh drink arsenic-laden water, making it the largest case of mass poisoning in human history. Many methods of arsenic removal (mostly using chemical adsorbents) have been studied, but most of these are too expensive and impractical to be implemented in poor countries such as Bangladesh. This project investigates ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) as an affordable means of removing arsenic. Experiments were performed on site in Bangladesh using a prototype termed “sushi”. This device consists of carbon steel sheets that serve as electrodes wrapped into a cylinder, separated by plastic mesh and surrounded by a tube-like container that serves as a holding cell in which the water is treated electrochemically. During the electrochemical process, current is applied to both electrodes causing iron to oxidize to various forms of iron (hydr)oxides. These species bind to arsenic(V) with very high affi nity. ECAR also has the advantage that As(III), the more toxic form of arsenic, oxidizes to As(V) in situ. Only As(V) is known to complex with iron (hydr)oxides. One of the main objectives of this research is to demonstrate the ability of the new prototype to reduce arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater from >200 ppb to below the WHO limit of 10 ppb. In addition, varying fl ow rate and dosage and the effect on arsenic removal was investigated. Experiments showed that ECAR reduced Bangladeshi water with an initial arsenic concentration as high as 250 ppb to below 10 ppb. ECAR proved to be effective at dosages as high as 810 Coulombs/Liter (C/L) and as low as 386 C/L (current 1 A, voltage 12 V). These results are encouraging and provide great promise that ECAR is an effi cient method in the remediation of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. A preliminary investigation of arsenic removal trends with varying Coulombic dosage, complexation time and fi ltration methods is

  16. A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground

  17. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered. PMID:25417842

  18. Arsenic Is A Genotoxic Carcinogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there is controversy over whether or not it should be considered a genotoxic carcinogen. Many possible modes of action have been proposed on how arsenic induces cancer, including inhibiting DNA repair, altering methylation patter...

  19. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  20. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...... decontamination cannot be administered (2D). ECTR should be continued until clinical improvement is apparent or the [theophylline] is < 15 mg/L (83 μmol/L) (1D). Following the cessation of ECTR, patients should be closely monitored. Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred method of ECTR (1C). If intermittent...

  1. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  2. Drugs prescribed for self poisoners.

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, L F; Highley, M S

    1985-01-01

    Of 230 adults admitted for self poisoning over two months, 153 (67%) had previously been taking a total of 309 prescribed drugs. Of these patients, 119 (78%) had been given psychotropic drugs (usually benzodiazepines), 81 (53%) obtained them on repeat prescription, and 47 (31%) had been prescribed multiple psychotropic drugs, often in seemingly illogical combinations. The use of these drugs increased progressively with age and most patients took the same drugs in overdosage as they had been p...

  3. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  4. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetr...

  5. Efficient Factors for Food Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Fügen DURLU ÖZKAYA; CÖMERT, Menekşe

    2008-01-01

    In today’s world, extreme precautions must be taken for securing food processing and food hygiene issues in order to decrease food poisoning cases. Secure food processing is the process of purification of food from physical, chemical and biological artifacts, with certain controlling steps involved during the production. Food hygiene is defined as the state of afood being clean, or in other words in a condition that is not unhealthy, purified from artifacts that may have caused illness. Provi...

  6. Research progress on toxicity and excretion of arsenic%砷的毒性及排砷研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李羡筠

    2012-01-01

    砷是有毒的类金属元素,通过环境污染和职业性接触进入体内,对人体的皮肤、神经系统、心血管、肝脏及肾脏等有明显的损伤.在砷中毒治疗中,常用临床药物虽然排砷效果好,但具有一定的局限性,寻求一种高效、价廉、无不良反应且能广泛用于患者的排砷药物是当务之急.笔者就近年来国内外学者有关砷对机体的损害及排砷治疗的研究进展进行综述.%Arsenic is a toxic metalloid element, it enter the body through environmental pollution and occupational exposure, and may cause an obvious damage on skin, nervous system, cardiovascular system, liver and kidney. In the treatment of arsenic poisoning, although the common drugs have good effect on excretion of arsenic, there are some limitations. It is the urgent affair to find out an arsenic excretion drug which has good effect, low cost, less adverse reaction and extensive use. This article reviews the research progress on damages caused by arsenic and excretion of arsenic at home and abroad.

  7. A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center

    OpenAIRE

    Travis Austin; Brooks, Daniel E.; Sharyn Welch; Frank LoVecchio

    2012-01-01

    Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone res...

  8. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar; Raghunadh Babu; Ramakrishna; Kathyayini; Surekha

    2015-01-01

    S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD) and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute ...

  9. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  10. Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic. -- Highlights: ► High soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth. ► A delayed flowering time was observed in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Total grain arsenic increased in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Percentage organic arsenic in the grain altered in arsenic and organic matter soil. -- The addition of high amounts of organic matter to soils led to an increase in total rice grain arsenic, as well as alteration in the percentage arsenic species in the rice grains

  11. POISONOUS PLANTS IN GARDENS AND GRAZING LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. AGANGA; M. NSINAMWA; K. OTENG; B. MAULE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of poisonous plants, their toxic agents and the symptoms of poisoning. Poisonous plants are plants, which as a whole or part thereof under all or certain conditions and in amount likely to be taken or into contact with an organism will exert harmful effects or causes death either immediately or by reason of cumulative action of toxic property due to presence of known or unknown chemical action. There are different types of diseases caused by some poisonous plants. Poiso...

  12. Underreporting of fatal cases to a regional poison control center.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, P D; Kearney, T E; Olson, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    We assessed fatal drug overdose and poisoning case surveillance by a regional poison control center, comparing it with medical examiner determinations of death by poisoning over the same 2-year period and from the same catchment area. We studied 358 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a medical examiner and 10 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a poison control center, analyzing demographics and other case-associated factors with with possible successful p...

  13. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    What do Knute Rockne, Notre Dame's famed football coach, and Lewisite, a chemical warfare agent dubbed "the dew of death", have in common? Both owe their discovery to Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland.1 Rockne's legacy lives on in the Fighting Irish and their tradition of excellence on the gridiron. Lewisite, together with other arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents, provide a legacy that lives on, too, but with less cheerful consequences. The book Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions makes clear the challenges faced in dealing with those consequences. This book documents the proceedings of a workshop devoted to arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents and their associated munitions. The workshop, held in Poland in 1996, included nine lectures, eight posters, and three discussion groups; and the contents of all these are presented. Major support for the workshop came from the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO as part of on ongoing series of meetings, cooperative research projects, and related efforts dealing with problems leftover from the Cold War and, in the case of the arsenicals and mustards, from conflicts dating to World War I. These problems can be seen in contemporary accounts, including a January 1999 news report that the U.S. Department of Defense intends to survey Washington, DC, areas near both American University and the Catholic University of America (CUA), site of the original synthesis of Lewisite, for chemical warfare agents and other materials disposed at the end of World War I.2 The first nine chapters of the book present the workshop's lectures. Of these, readers interested in chemical weapon destruction might find especially useful the first chapter, in which Ron Mansley of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons presents a scholarly overview covering historical aspects of the arsenicals and mustards; their production and use; prospective destruction

  14. Determination of arsenic metabolic complex excreted in human urine after administration of sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhilong; Jiang, Guifeng; Cullen, William R; Aposhian, H Vasken; Le, X Chris

    2002-10-01

    Sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS) has been used to treat acute arsenic poisoning. Presumably DMPS functions by chelating some arsenic species to increase the excretion of arsenic from the body. However, the excreted complex of DMPS with arsenic has not been detected. Here we describe a DMPS complex with monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), a key trivalent arsenic in the arsenic methylation process, and show the presence of the DMPS-MMA(III) complex in human urine after the administration of DMPS. The DMPS-MMA(III) complex was characterized using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and determined by using HPLC separation with hydride generation atomic fluorescence detection (HGAFD). The DMPS-MMA(III) complex did not form a volatile hydride with borohydride treatment. On-line digestion with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide following HPLC separation decomposed the DMPS-MMA(III) complex and allowed for the subsequent quantification by hydride generation atomic fluorescence. Arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), MMA(III), and DMPS-MMA(III) complex were analyzed in urine samples from human subjects collected after the ingestion of 300 mg of DMPS. The administration of DMPS resulted in a decrease of the DMA(V) concentration and an increase of the MMA(V) concentration excreted in the urine, confirming the previous results. The finding of the DMPS-MMA(III) complex in human urine after DMPS treatment provides an explanation for the inhibition of arsenic methylation by DMPS. Because MMA(III) is the substrate for the biomethylation of arsenic from MMA(V) to DMA(V), the formation of DMPS-MMA(III) complex would reduce the availability of MMA(III) for the subsequent biomethylation. PMID:12387631

  15. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress

  16. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  17. Discovery of the Arsenic Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    SHORE, A.; A. Fritsch; Heim, M.; Schuh, A.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine arsenic isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  18. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  19. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  20. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  1. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia;

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  2. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  3. A survey of poison control centers worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Maryann Mazer; Justin Wang; Ali Pourmand

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To stem the rising incidence of toxic exposure as well as the associated morbidity and mortality, the past century has seen the establishment and evolution of poison control centers (PCCs) worldwide. Depending on the location, PCCs vary in terms of staffing model, services offered, and funding sources. In this article, we discuss a survey of poison control centers worldwide.

  4. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  5. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  6. Inflammatory Factor Alterations in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cocks Overexposed to Arsenic Trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingwei; Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Guangyang; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Kexin; Tian, Li; He, Ying; Chai, Hongliang; Zhang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Exposure of people and animals to arsenic (As) is a global public health concern because As is widely distributed and associated with numerous adverse effects. As is a poisonous metalloid and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a form of As. Thus far, there have been very few reports on the inflammatory factor alterations of the gastrointestinal tract in birds exposed to As2O3. To investigate the possible correlation of As2O3 with inflammatory injury induced by an arsenic-supplemented diet in birds, 72 1-day-old male Hy-line cocks were selected and randomly divided into four groups. They were fed with either a commercial diet or an arsenic-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and samples of gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum were collected at days 30, 60, and 90 of the experiment period. The inflammation-related genes were determined, including NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, PTGEs, and TNF-α. The connection between arsenic dosage and inflammation-related genes was assessed. The content of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was measured by Western blot of the samples. The results showed that arsenic supplementation increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in the gastrointestinal tract of cocks at different time points (p function regression of the gastrointestinal tract by affecting inflammation-related genes and iNOS in cocks. This study offers some information on the mechanism of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory injury and iNOS expression level alterations induced by arseniasis. PMID:25784090

  7. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves. PMID:26753326

  8. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  9. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  10. Boron Poisoning of Plutonium Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a theoretical investigation into the possible relaxation of criticality concentration limits in wet chemical reprocessing plants, due to the introduction of boron poisoning, are reported. The following systems were considered: 1. 1 in. stainless steel tubes filled with boron carbide at various pitches in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 2. 1 in. and 2 in borosilicate glass Raschig rings in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 3. The concentration of natural boron required for k∞ = 1 in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu-B-H2O. The method of calculation was Monte Carlo using the GEM code with Nuclear Data File cross-sections. The Raschig rings used are those commercially available. The core model consisted of a cubic arrangement of unit cubes of solution within each of which a Raschig ring was centrally placed. The arrangement was such that the rings were regularly stacked with axes parallel, but the side of the unit cube was fixed to preserve the random packing density. Comparison is made with other reported results on boron poisoning. (author)

  11. PARAQUAT POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabade

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat {PQ}, a herbicide available as 20% solution can cause lethal effects due to production of free radicals formed by the cyclic oxidation - reduction reactions of the compound with tissues resulting in multiorgan failure. Symptoms of PQ ingestion are usually do se - dependent, and intoxication can be categorized to mild, moderate, and fulminant. Most common symptoms being vomiting (100% followed by oral ulceration (59%, dysphagia (53% and dyspnea (41%. Diagnosis of PQ poisoning is usually made based on circumst antial evidences. PQ levels can be estimated and is of prognostic significance. Almost always PQ causes morbidty and mortality except in few cases where dose is inadequate. Here we present a case of 25 year old patient with PQ poisoning which resulted in o ral mucosal and upper gastrointestinal ulcerations which subsequently healed with antioxidants, antibiotics and local ap p lications of povidine iodine. As there were no respiratory symptoms cyclophosphamide or steroids was not used. Patient was discharged a fter 1 month of hospital admission with all parameters within normal limits. . In spite of advances in medical care, prompt treatment, and supportive care, mortality still remains high mainly due to multiorgan failure .

  12. Arsenic-resistant bacteria solubilized arsenic in the growth media and increased growth of arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Piyasa; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2011-10-01

    The role of arsenic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in arsenic solubilization from growth media and growth enhancement of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. was examined. Seven ARB (tolerant to 10 mM arsenate) were isolated from the P. vittata rhizosphere and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Pseudomonas sp., Comamonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. During 7-d hydroponic experiments, these bacteria effectively solubilized arsenic from the growth media spiked with insoluble FeAsO₄ and AlAsO₄ minerals (from organic C) by P. vittata may be responsible for As solubilization. Increase in P. vittata root biomass from 1.5-2.2 to 3.4-4.2 g/plant dw by ARB and by arsenic was associated with arsenic-induced plant P uptake. Arsenic resistant bacteria may have potential to enhance phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils by P. vittata. PMID:21840210

  13. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic and cognitive problems. Recent emerging evidences suggest that arsenic exposure affects the reproductive and developmental toxicity. Prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and children's health problems. Some epidemiological studies have reported that arsenic exposure induces premature delivery, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. In animal studies, inorganic arsenic also causes fetal malformation, growth retardation, and fetal death. These toxic effects depend on dose, route and gestation periods of arsenic exposure. In males, inorganic arsenic causes reproductive dysfunctions including reductions of the testis weights, accessory sex organs weights, and epididymal sperm counts. In addition, inorganic arsenic exposure also induces alterations of spermatogenesis, reductions of testosterone and gonadotrophins, and disruptions of steroidogenesis. However, the reproductive and developmental problems following arsenic exposure are poorly understood, and the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity remains unclear. Thus, we further investigated several possible mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26973968

  14. Arsenic risk mapping in Bangladesh: a simulation technique of cokriging estimation from regional count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Risk analysis with spatial interpolation methods from a regional database on to a continuous surface is of contemporary interest. Groundwater arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and its impact on human health has been one of the "biggest environmental health disasters" in current years. It is ironic that so many tubewells have been installed in recent times for pathogen-free drinking water but the water pumped is often contaminated with toxic levels of arsenic. This paper seeks to analyse the spatial pattern of arsenic risk by mapping composite "problem regions" in southwest Bangladesh. It also examines the cokriging interpolation method in analysing the suitability of isopleth maps for different risk areas. GIS-based data processing and spatial analysis were used for this research, along with state-of-the-art decision-making techniques. Apart from the GIS-based buffering and overlay mapping operations, a cokriging interpolation method was adopted because of its exact interpolation capacity. The paper presents an interpolation of regional estimates of arsenic data for spatial risk mapping that overcomes the areal bias problem for administrative boundaries. Moreover, the functionality of the cokriging method demonstrates the suitability of isopleth maps that are easy to read. PMID:17952773

  15. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  16. Arsenic speciation and bioaccessibility in arsenic-contaminated soils: Sequential extraction and mineralogical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a combination of sequential extraction and mineralogical investigation by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed in order to evaluate arsenic solid-state speciation and bioaccessibility in soils highly contaminated with arsenic from mining and smelting. Combination of these techniques indicated that iron oxides and the weathering products of sulfide minerals played an important role in regulating the arsenic retention in the soils. Higher bioaccessibility of arsenic was observed in the following order; i) arsenic bound to amorphous iron oxides (smelter-2), ii) arsenic associated with crystalline iron oxides and arsenic sulfide phase (smelter-1), and iii) arsenic associated with the weathering products of arsenic sulfide minerals, such as scorodite, orpiment, jarosite, and pyrite (mine). Even though the bioaccessibility of arsenic was very low in the mine soil, its environmental impact could be significant due to its high arsenic concentration and mobility. Highlights: • Combination of sequential extraction and mineralogical investigation was employed. • Arsenic was primarily associated with iron oxides and sulfide minerals in soils. • Bioaccessibility of arsenic was affected by arsenic solid-phase speciation. -- We investigated arsenic solid-state speciation in soils, which is crucial for risk assessment and developing suitable remediation strategies in arsenic contaminated sites

  17. Arsenic speciation in saliva of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients undergoing arsenic trioxide treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Baowei; Cao, Fenglin; Yuan, Chungang; Lu, Xiufen; Shen, Shengwen; Zhou, Jin; Le, X Chris

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide has been successfully used as a therapeutic in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Detailed monitoring of the therapeutic arsenic and its metabolites in various accessible specimens of APL patients can contribute to improving treatment efficacy and minimizing arsenic-induced side effects. This article focuses on the determination of arsenic species in saliva samples from APL patients undergoing arsenic treatment. Saliva samples were collected from nine APL pa...

  18. Arsenic Exposure and Toxicology: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael F.; Beck, Barbara D.; Chen, Yu; Lewis, Ari S.; Thomas, David J

    2011-01-01

    The metalloid arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed in food, water, air, and soil. Arsenic has a long history of use as a homicidal agent, but in the past 100 years arsenic, has been used as a pesticide, a chemotherapeutic agent and a constituent of consumer products. In some areas of the world, high levels of arsenic are naturally present in drinking water and are a toxicological concern. There are several structural forms and oxidation states o...

  19. Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombach, G. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany)); Pierra, A. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany)); Klemm, W. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble arsenic, the several oxidation states (As[sup 3+], As[sup 5+]) and the bonding types have been analyzed. (orig.)

  20. Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble arsenic, the several oxidation states (As3+, As5+) and the bonding types have been analyzed. (orig.)

  1. Clinical observation on parathion poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 158 cases of parathion poisoning were clinically observed in Chonnam University Hospital from January, 1968 to June, 1972 with the following results. 1. The males were 133 and the females, 25 (radio, about 5:1) with 93 patients (58.9%) in the age group of 21 to 40 years old and the majority of the patients were farmers. 2. 158 cases could be divided into 38 cases of inhalation group (group I) and 120 cases of ingestion group (group II). The group I entirely occurred by accident during spraying the parathion, whereas the group II mostly developed by ingestion of the parathion for the suicide purpose. 3. During the period from 1968 to 1972, more frequent incidence of parathion poisoning showed up in 1971 and 1972. Inhalation group mostly occurred on July, August, and September, but several cases appeared sporadically in the rest of the months. 4. Most patients came to our Hospital within 4 hours after parathion poisoning and were discharged from the Hospital within one or two days after admission. Mortality was 2 cases (5.3%) out of 38 cases in inhalation group and was 26 cases (21.7%) out of 120 cases in ingestion group. 5. Clinical signs and symptoms showing high incidence were bronchorrhoea (incidence of 38.6%), dyspnea (57.6%), vomiting (62.0%), abdominal cramps (20.0%), sialorrhoea (53.8%), tachycardia (32.2%), miosis (67.7%), fasciculation (19.0%), hypertension (27.9%), drowsiness and confusion (50.0%), leukocytosis (58.3%), elevation of SGOT (23.0%), whereas mydriasis (5.7%), and proteinuria (4.0%) were low in incidence. All the ten cases (6.3%) showing involuntary defecation expired. 6. Roentgenographs of the chest were taken to 39 cases out of a total of 158 cases and revealed 21 cases (54.0%) of normal chest, 11 cases (28.0%) of bilateral pulmonary congestion, 7 cases (18.0%) of pulmonary edema or pneumonic consolidation

  2. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  3. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  4. 21 CFR 556.60 - Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic. 556.60 Section 556.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND... New Animal Drugs § 556.60 Arsenic. Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as...

  5. Arsenic removal from industrial effluent through electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, N. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Dept. of Pollution Control; Madhavan, K. [Coimbatore Inst. of Technology, Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-05-01

    In the present investigation, it is attempted to remove arsenic from smelter industrial wastewater through electro-coagulation. Experiments covering a wide range of operating conditions for removal of the arsenic present in the smelter wastewater are carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor. It has been observed from the present work that arsenic can be removed effectively through electrocoagulation. (orig.)

  6. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  7. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. PMID:26563788

  8. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone was...... compared with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness....

  9. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Cahide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  10. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  11. Whole-house arsenic water treatment provided more effective arsenic exposure reduction than point-of-use water treatment at New Jersey homes with arsenic in well water

    OpenAIRE

    Spayd, Steven E.; Robson, Mark G.; Buckley, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the effectiveness of whole house (point-of-entry) and point-of-use arsenic water treatment systems in reducing arsenic exposure from well water was conducted. The non-randomized observational study recruited 49 subjects having elevated arsenic in their residential home well water in New Jersey. The subjects obtained either point-of-entry or point-of-use arsenic water treatment. Prior ingestion exposure to arsenic in well water was calculated by measuring arsenic concentrations...

  12. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... control centers in the U.S. use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  13. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  14. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the role of alcohol in injuries and deaths. Doctors, nurses, and other providers can Screen all adult patients ... lifethreatening signs of alcohol poisoning. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or other health care provider if you think ...

  16. Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, I. K.; Kennedy, P. G.; Adams, J H; Cunningham, N. E.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

  17. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spend a lot of time there). continue Cleaning Products and Other Household Chemicals Never put cleaning products in old soda ... poison on the floors of your home. Store household cleaning products and aerosol sprays in a high cabinet far ...

  18. More Kids Being Poisoned by Detergent Pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158490.html More Kids Being Poisoned by Detergent Pods: Study Parents of young kids should not ... are getting their hands and mouths on colorful detergent pods, with serious and sometimes fatal consequences, a ...

  19. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning English 鉛毒 - 無形的禍害 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Hmong (Hmoob) Lead Exposure during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding English Raug Lead thaum Cev Xeeb ...

  20. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  1. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  2. Summary of four scientific studies on Arsenicum album high dilution effect against Arsenic intoxication in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Terzan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Groundwater arsenic affects millions of people in about 20 countries. In West Bengal (India and Bangladesh alone over 100 million people are exposed. The arsenic concentration in contaminated groundwater in Bangladesh was above the maximum permissible level of 0.05 mg/l as recommended by WHO for developing countries [1]. Drinking water is not the only source of poisoning. In arsenic contaminated areas, crops, vegetables, cereals, poultry, cattle, etc, also contain traces of arsenic. Chronic arsenic intoxication has been associated with several diseases such as melanosis, leuco-melanosis, hyperkeratosis, oedema, skin cancer… Cazin et al [2], have demonstrated the effect of high dilutions of arsenic compounds. They noted increased arsenic elimination from blood through urine and faeces in intoxicated rats. According to these research, the aim of Khuda Buksh studies [3-4-5] was to investigate whether high dilution Arsenicum album have any effect on arsenic accumulation in different tissues and to understand also how this high dilution could produce a protective effect on all the different organs. Methodology: Firstly, the effect of Arsenicum album 30 cH on the amount of arsenic accumulation was determined by spectrophotometric analysis in four tissues namely liver, kidney and testis in mice intoxicated by arsenic. The protective effect in chronic and acute arsenic intoxicated mice of Arsenicum Album 6cH, 30cH and 200cH has been evaluated using not only the activities of enzymatic and biomarker toxicity (aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, acid phosphatase (AcP, alkaline phosphatase (AlkP, lipid peroxidation (LPO and reduced glutathione (GSH but also the cytogenetical parameters (chromosome aberrations (CA, mitotic index (MI, sperm head anomaly (SHA etc., . Because, it is well demonstrated that these enzymes biomarkers reflect the degree of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress caused by

  3. Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2011-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver sl...

  4. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; BULUT, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactariu...

  5. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy; Yesudas Sooraj

    2009-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  6. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, H

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen.

  8. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan; Atilla Çayır; Haşim Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific...

  9. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  10. Facts and fallacies on industrial poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THIENES, C H

    1957-09-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and "compensation neuroses." It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  11. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  12. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Radenkova-Saeva J.; Atanasov P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves), Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley), Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides...

  13. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Ma; Ronghui Gu; Li Tang; Ze-E Chen; Rong Di; Chunlin Long

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constit...

  14. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  15. Survey of pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jeyaratnam; Seneviratne, R. S. de Alwis; Copplestone, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    This study included a sample survey of the clinical records of patients admitted to the different hospitals in Sri Lanka, and showed that approximately 13 000 patients are admitted to hospital annually for pesticide poisoning and that each year 1000 of them die. Suicidal attempts account for 73% of the total, and occupational and accidental poisoning accounts for 24.9%. It is recommended that urgent action be taken to minimize the extent of the problem.

  16. Unexpected Diagnosis in the Metropolis: Organophosphate Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Işıl Bavunoğlu; Musa Balta; Eda Tanrıkulu; Zeynep Türkmen; İbrahim İkizceli

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to point out that organophosphate poisoning is rarely seen in the metropolis and therefore diagnosis and treatment of these poisonings can be delayed. A 62 year old woman with a history of diabetes type II and ischemic cerebrovascular disease was admitted to the Emergency Department of Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine with diarrhea. During a 24-h follow-up, dysphagia, bronchorrhea and myosis were established. The patient was investigated for cholinergic symptoms due to intoxication. To...

  17. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  18. An unusual presentation of methanol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    TURMEN, Suha; ERYİĞİT, Umut; SAHİN, Aynur; MENTESE, Seda; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is a substance possessing high toxicity even in small quantities. It may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, blindness and death. Methanol poisoning generally takes place as result of oral ingestion, but may rarely occur through inhalation or transdermally. Persons may be exposed to methanol because of illegal alcohol beverage producers or alternative medicine providers. A 55-year-old male with methanol poisoning as a result of rubbing a self-prepared mixture of methylated spirit and a...

  19. Arsenic mobility in contaminated lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arsenic contaminated lake sediment near a landfill in Maine was used to characterize the geochemistry of arsenic and assess the influence of environmental conditions on its mobility. A kinetic model was developed to simulate the leaching ability of arsenic in lake sediments under different environmental conditions. The HM1D chemical transport model was used to model the column experiments and determine the rates of arsenic mobility from the sediment. Laboratory studies provided the information to construct a conceptual model to demonstrate the mobility of arsenic in the lake sediment. The leaching ability of arsenic in lake sediments greatly depends on the flow conditions of ground water and the geochemistry of the sediments. Large amounts of arsenic were tightly bound to the sediments. The amount of arsenic leaching out of the sediment to the water column was substantially decreased due to iron/arsenic co-precipitation at the water-sediment interface. Overall, it was found that arsenic greatly accumulated at the ground water/lake interface and it formed insoluble precipitates. - Arsenic accumulates at the ground water/lake interface, where it forms insoluble precipitates

  20. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is considered a toxic trace element for plant, animal, and human organisms. Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic is emitted in appreciable quantities into the atmosphere by coal combustion and the production of cement. Arsenic enters the aquatic environment through industrial activities such as smelting of metallic ores, metallurgical glassware, and ceramics as well as insecticide production and use. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining arsenic. This paper is a review of research studies of arsenic in the Greek environment by NAA performed at our radioanalytical laboratory. The objectives of these studies were (a) to determine levels of arsenic concentrations in environmental materials, (b) to pinpoint arsenic pollution sources and estimate the extent of arsenic pollution, and (c) to find out whether edible marine organisms from the gulfs of Greece receiving domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes have elevated concentrations of arsenic in their tissues that could render them dangerous for human consumption

  1. Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama A, Katherine; Fletcher, Tim D; Sun, Guangzhi

    2011-08-01

    Arsenic pollution in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its toxicity and chronic effects on human health. This concern has generated increasing interest in the use of different treatment technologies to remove arsenic from contaminated water. Constructed wetlands are a cost-effective natural system successfully used for removing various pollutants, and they have shown capability for removing arsenic. This paper reviews current understanding of the removal processes for arsenic, discusses implications for treatment wetlands, and identifies critical knowledge gaps and areas worthy of future research. The reactivity of arsenic means that different arsenic species may be found in wetlands, influenced by vegetation, supporting medium and microorganisms. Despite the fact that sorption, precipitation and coprecipitation are the principal processes responsible for the removal of arsenic, bacteria can mediate these processes and can play a significant role under favourable environmental conditions. The most important factors affecting the speciation of arsenic are pH, alkalinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, the presence of other chemical species--iron, sulphur, phosphate--,a source of carbon, and the wetland substrate. Studies of the microbial communities and the speciation of arsenic in the solid phase using advanced techniques could provide further insights on the removal of arsenic. Limited data and understanding of the interaction of the different processes involved in the removal of arsenic explain the rudimentary guidelines available for the design of wetlands systems. PMID:21549410

  2. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  3. Arsenic associations in sediments from shallow aquifers of northwestern Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Ma, T.; Yang, H.; He, J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of arsenic mobilization from sediments to groundwater is important for water quality management in areas of endemic arsenic poisoning, such as the Hetao Basin in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Aquifer geochemistry was characterized at three field sites (SH, HF, TYS) in Hangjinhouqi County of northwestern Hetao Basin. The results of bulk geochemistry analysis of sediment samples indicated that total As concentrations have a range of 6. 8-58. 5 mg/kg, with a median of 14. 4 mg/kg. The highest As concentrations were found at 15-25 m depth. In the meanwhile, the range of As concentration in the sediments from background borehole is 3-21. 8 mg/kg, with a median value of 9 mg/kg. The As sediments concentrations with depth from the SH borehole were correlated with the contents of Fe, Sb, B, V, total C and total S. Generally, the abundance of elements varied with grain size, with higher concentrations in finer fractions of the sediments. Distinct lithology profile and different geochemical characteristics of aquifer sediments indicate the sediments are associated with different sources and diverse sedimentary environments. Up to one third of arsenic in the sediments could be extracted by ammonium oxalate, suggesting that Fe oxyhydroxides may be the major sink of As in the aquifer. Sequential extraction results indicate that arsenic occurs as strongly adsorbed on and/or co-precipitated with amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides in sediments accounting for 35 and 20%, respectively, of the total contents of arsenic. The release of As into groundwater may occur by desorption from the mineral surface driven by reductive dissolution of the Fe oxide minerals. Furthermore, small proportions of As associated with iron sulfides occur in the reductive sediments. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. META analysis of arsenic exposure relation with Liver injury%砷暴露与肝损伤关系的 Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊洋; 李静; 吴顺华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨地方性砷中毒尤其是饮水型砷暴露与肝损伤是否有相关性。方法检索纳入了国内外有关地方性砷中毒中砷暴露与肝损伤的文献6篇,采用M eta分析的方法,应用固定效应模型和随机效应模型进行综合的定量分析,计算合并OR值及95%可信区间,利用漏斗图法定性评价发表偏倚。结果异质性检验χ2=8.01,P=0.16,采用固定效应模型进行M eta分析,合并OR=3.72,95% C I为3.08~4.49,表明M eta分析砷暴露组的肝损害发病可能性高于对照组。结论地方性砷中毒病区的砷暴露可能会引起暴露人群的肝脏疾病损伤高发,长期砷暴露会对当地居民的肝功能或器质性损伤存在一定程度的不良影响。%Objective To investigate whether there is correlation between the endemic arsenic poisoning and liver injury ,especially drinking water arsenic exposure .Methods Use Meta-analysis methods analyse 6 literatures which were retrieved about the arsenic exposure with liver injury in domestic and foreign endemic arsenic poisoning . Use fixed effects model and random effects model for comprehensive quantitative analysis and calculate pooled OR and OR values 95% confidence interval .The funnel plot statutory apply to assess the publication bias .Results Het-erogeneity test χ2 =8 .01 ,P=0 .16 ;fixed effects model Meta-analysis revealed the combined OR=3 .72 (95% CI 3.08~4 .49);Meta-analysis showed that arsenic exposure group having higher possibility incidence of liver damage than the control group .Conclusion Arsenic exposure in the endemic arsenic poisoning area may cause high inci-dence of liver disease to exposed populations ,long-term arsenic exposure to local residents also caused damage to liv-er function and physical .

  5. Effects of plant arsenic uptake and heavy metals on arsenic distribution in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayiga, Abioye O. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States); Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States) and Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)]. E-mail: lqma@ifas.ufl.edu; Zhou Qixing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2007-06-15

    This study examined the effects of heavy metals and plant arsenic uptake on soil arsenic distribution. Chemical fractionation of an arsenic-contaminated soil spiked with 50 or 200 mg kg{sup -1} Ni, Zn, Cd or Pb was performed before and after growing the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L for 8 weeks using NH{sub 4}Cl (water-soluble plus exchangeable, WE-As), NH{sub 4}F (Al-As), NaOH (Fe-As), and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (Ca-As). Arsenic in the soil was present primarily as the recalcitrant forms with Ca-As being the dominant fraction (45%). Arsenic taken up by P. vittata was from all fractions though Ca-As contributed the most (51-71% reduction). After 8 weeks of plant growth, the Al-As and Fe-As fractions were significantly (p < 0.01) greater in the metal-spiked soils than the control, with changes in the WE-As fraction being significantly (p = 0.007) correlated with plant arsenic removal. The plant's ability to solubilize soil arsenic from recalcitrant fractions may have enhanced its ability to hyperaccumulate arsenic. - Arsenic taken up by P. vittata was from all fractions with most from the Ca-fraction.

  6. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.

  7. Bimetallic nanoparticles for arsenic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Nafiseh; Mohapatra, Mamata; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-06-01

    Effective and sensitive monitoring of heavy metal ions, particularly arsenic, in drinking water is very important to risk management of public health. Arsenic is one of the most serious natural pollutants in soil and water in more than 70 countries in the world. The need for very sensitive sensors to detect ultralow amounts of arsenic has attracted great research interest. Here, bimetallic FePt, FeAu, FePd, and AuPt nanoparticles (NPs) are electrochemically deposited on the Si(100) substrate, and their electrochemical properties are studied for As(III) detection. We show that trace amounts of As(III) in neutral pH could be determined by using anodic stripping voltammetry. The synergistic effect of alloying with Fe leads to better performance for Fe-noble metal NPs (Au, Pt, and Pd) than pristine noble metal NPs (without Fe alloying). Limit of detection and linear range are obtained for FePt, FeAu, and FePd NPs. The best performance is found for FePt NPs with a limit of detection of 0.8 ppb and a sensitivity of 0.42 μA ppb(-1). The selectivity of the sensor has also been tested in the presence of a large amount of Cu(II), as the most detrimental interferer ion for As detection. The bimetallic NPs therefore promise to be an effective, high-performance electrochemical sensor for the detection of ultratrace quantities of arsenic. PMID:25938763

  8. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  9. Variability in human metabolism of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating the nature and extent of human cancer risks due to arsenic (As) in drinking water is currently of great concern, since millions of persons worldwide are exposed to arsenic, primarily through natural enrichment of drinking water drawn from deep wells. Humans metabolize and eliminate As through oxidative methylation and subsequent urinary excretion. While there is debate as to the role of methylation in activation/detoxification, variations in arsenic metabolism may affect individual risks of toxicity and carcinogenesis. Using data from three populations, from Mexico, China, and Chile, we have analyzed the distribution in urine of total arsenic and arsenic species (inorganic arsenic (InAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), and dimethyl arsenic (DMA). Data were analyzed in terms of the concentration of each species and by evaluating MMA:DMA and (MMA+DMA):InAs ratios. In all persons most urinary As was present as DMA. Male:female differences were discernible in both high- and low-exposure groups from all three populations, but the gender differences varied by populations. The data also indicated bimodal distributions in the ratios of DMA to InAs and to MMA. While the gene or genes responsible for arsenic methylation are still unknown, the results of our studies among the ethnic groups in this study are consistent with the presence of functional genetic polymorphisms in arsenic methylation leading to measurable differences in toxicity. This analysis highlights the need for continuing research on the health effects of As in humans using molecular epidemiologic methods

  10. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  11. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of

  12. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Quantitative Risk and Hazard Level of Arsenic Exposure in Groundwater, case Study of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touraj Nasrabadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional distribution of quantitative risk and hazard levels due to arsenic poisoning in some parts of Iran’s Kurdistan province is considered. To investigate the potential risk and hazard level regarding arsenic-contaminated drinking water and further carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers, thirteen wells in rural areas of Qorveh County were considered for evaluation of arsenic concentration in water. Sampling campaign was performed in August 2010 and arsenic concentration was measured via the Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate method. The highest and lowest arsenic concentration are reported in Guilaklu and Qezeljakand villages with 420 and 67 μg/L, respectively. None of thirteen water samples met the maximum contaminant level issued by USEPA and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (10 ppb. The highest arsenic concentration and consequently risk and hazard levels belong to villages situated alongside the eastern frontiers of the county. Existence of volcanic activities within the upper Miocene and Pleistocene in this part of the study area may be addressed as the main geopogenic source of arsenic pollution. Quantitative risk values are varying from 1.49E-03 in Qezeljakand to 8.92E-03 in Guilaklu and may be interpreted as very high when compared by similar studies in Iran. Regarding non-carcinogenic effects, all thirteen water samples are considered hazardous while all calculated chronic daily intakes are greater than arsenic reference dose. Such drinking water source has the potential to impose adverse carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers. Accordingly, an urgent decision must be made to substitute the current drinking water source with a safer one.

  13. Breast-feeding Protects against Arsenic Exposure in Bangladeshi Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Fängström, Britta; Moore, Sophie; Nermell, Barbro; Kuenstl, Linda; Goessler, Walter; Grandér, Margaretha; Kabir, Iqbal; Palm, Brita; Arifeen, Shams El; Vahter, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure causes a wide range of health effects, but little is known about critical windows of exposure. Arsenic readily crosses the placenta, but the few available data on postnatal exposure to arsenic via breast milk are not conclusive. Aim Our goal was to assess the arsenic exposure through breast milk in Bangladeshi infants, living in an area with high prevalence of arsenic-rich tube-well water. Methods We analyzed metabolites of inorganic arsenic in breast milk ...

  14. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (p< 0.000001)...

  15. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; ISLAM, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from baseline to follow-up 4 to 6 months after the household received the intervention. This was assessed through a pre- and postintervention quiz concerning kn...

  16. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  17. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety. PMID:25876709

  18. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  19. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to increase arsenic mobilization in the aqueous phase, raising concerns with this approach.

  20. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  1. Effect of water hyacinth root extract on arsenic level in different organs of arsenic-treated rat

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen Lipika Quayum

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the administration of the ethanol extract of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) ameliorates arsenic from arsenic-treated rats. To induce arsenic accumulation in different organs, arsenic trioxide was administered orally by gavage at a dose of 500 µg/rat/day for 7 days. In search of an effective therapeutic agent to counteract arsenic accumulation and arsenic-induced oxidative stress, different concentrations of ethanol extract of root of water hyacint...

  2. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Hermann M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwate...

  3. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    OpenAIRE

    Santander, M.; Valderrama, L.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF) and dissolved air flotation (DAF). A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic polyacrylamide (NALCO 9808) as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with fl...

  4. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic a...

  5. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  6. Tips on Protecting Your Family from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk of exposure to carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is an odorless, invisible gas produced when ... room and tell the physician you suspect carbon monoxide poisoning. If carbon monoxide poisoning has occurred, it often can be ...

  7. [The most popular poisons from Graeco-Roman world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Bartlomiej; Rys, Anna; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the most popular antique poisons. Information from encyclopaedic literature and literary texts of the Roman Empire period has been compared with the etymology of the names of some poisons of plant and animal origin. PMID:24466710

  8. E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158738.html E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids: Study Swallowing ... poison control centers about young children's exposure to e-cigarettes have skyrocketed in recent years, new research ...

  9. E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158738.html E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids: Study Swallowing ... poison control centers about young children's exposure to e-cigarettes have skyrocketed in recent years, new research ...

  10. Contents of arsenic, mercury and other trace elements in Napoleon's hair determined by INAA using the k0 method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work an INAA procedure is applied to determine the contents of arsenic and mercury in two samples of Napoleon's hair. Three additional elements - chromium, antimony and zinc - are determined simultaneously and are reported as well. Mercury is a component of calomel, of which a great deal was consumed by Napoleon and which is considered to play an important role in the arsenic poisoning theory. Antimony is interesting because it was a component of many medications, particularly tartar emetic, which Napoleon frequently received during his last year. Chromium and zinc are essential elements. Two pieces of Napoleon's hair, hereafter referred to as hair 1 and hair 2, were sent by post by R. Maury, a professor at the University of Montpellier, France, in a special parcel sealed by G. Kaendel, the Curator of the Museum of History in Lausanne, Switzerland. These two samples were taken from a strand of hair cut the day after Napoleon's death. The weights were 0.1722 and 0.2151 mg, respectively. Arsenic and other trace elements in Napoleon's hair The arsenic contents found in this work are 1.85 ± 0.11 and 3.05 ± 0.18 ppm for the two hairs. These values are higher than the normal level nowadays

  11. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment mainly supportive, emergency tracheostomy will help the patient to relieve the airway obstruction and reduce mortality. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that was presented with cervico - fascial oedema later developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure managed with emergency tracheostomy, systemic management and dialysis.

  12. XAS Studies of Arsenic in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is present in low concentrations in much of the Earth's crust and changes in its speciation are vital to understanding its transport and toxicity in the environment. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the coordination sites of arsenic in a wide variety of samples, including soil and earthworm tissues from arsenic-contaminated land, and human hair and nail samples from people exposed to arsenic in Cambodia. Our results confirm the effectiveness of using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to determine speciation changes in environmental samples

  13. Arsenic in the soils of Zimapan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic concentrations of 73 soil samples collected in the semi-arid Zimapan Valley range from 4 to 14 700 mg As kg-1. Soil arsenic concentrations decrease with distance from mines and tailings and slag heaps and exceed 400 mg kg-1 only within 500 m of these arsenic sources. Soil arsenic concentrations correlate positively with Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, suggesting a strong association with ore minerals known to exist in the region. Some As was associated with Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides, this association is less for contaminated than for uncontaminated samples. Very little As was found in the mobile water-soluble or exchangeable fractions. The soils are not arsenic contaminated at depths greater than 100 cm below the surface. Although much of the arsenic in the soils is associated with relatively immobile solid phases, this represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. -- Much of the arsenic is relatively immobile but presents long-term source of arsenic

  14. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Dadpour; Zohre Oghabian

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  15. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  16. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. S.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied ...

  17. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Çiftçi; Murat Günday; Mustafa Çaliskan; Hakan Güllü; Rafi Dogan; Aytekin Güven; Haldun Müderrisoglu

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Ec...

  18. Animal poisonings in Belgium: a review of the past decade

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Van Pelt, Henk; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on poisonings in companion animals, including horses, farm animals and wildlife, investigated and recorded during the past ten years at the Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Ghent University) and the National Poison Centre in Belgium. The causative agents of poisoning incidents vary among the different species. The Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine reports that the majority of poisoning incidents in companion anima...

  19. Acute poisoning in northern Vietnam: epidemiologic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Tran Hung

    2010-01-01

    Poisoning is a major health problem in northern Vietnam. The aims of these studies were to improve prevention, differential diagnosis and treatment of this threat to the public. A hospital-based retrospective study of poisoning emergencies admitted to the first Poison Control Center (PCC) in Vietnam during the years 1999 and 2003 (Paper I) revealed that a vast majority of the poisoning emergencies occurred at home. Pesticides, hypnotic pharmaceuticals and heroin were among t...

  20. The Profile of Acute Poisonings in South East of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Davut Akın; Yekta Tüzün; Timuçin Çil

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the rate characteristics of acute poisonning adults admitted to Departments emergency and hospitalized in Department of internal medicineAll cases of acute poisoning admitted to Dicle University Hospital, between, 2005 and 2006, were included in study. Clinical, laboratory, and demographic characteristics, type of poison and patient’s outcomes were recorded.Eighty poisoning cases included in the study. The mean age was 23±8 years and the majori...

  1. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS, heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning.

  2. The Management of Food Poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiTai-ran

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the characteristics of food poisoning management in China.Food borne diseases are managed in two separate parts by the Ministry of Health in China,Based on different but related laws.Sporadic occurrence of food-borne diseases such as diarrhea,typhoid and dysentery are managed by the "Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control Law" ,while food poisoning outbreaks are managed by the "Food Hygiene Law".Some advantages and disadvantages of this management system will be discussed in the presentation.

  3. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hurley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:378-381.

  4. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D;

    2015-01-01

    search, extracted the data, summarized the key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement......BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature...

  5. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  6. Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  7. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  8. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  9. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-6222 Filed 3-18-10...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8484 of March 15, 2010 National Poison... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings...

  10. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  11. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700... PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging..., using, or ingesting household substances, the Commission has determined that packaging designed...

  12. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDHOOD POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Accidents including poisoning are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the west. Poisoning, while never accounting for a large number of accidental deaths, have acquired prominence now because they have not decreased at the same rate as the infectious diseases. METHODS An observational study was done in Department of Paediatrics KIMS Bangalore to know the incidence and pattern of childhood poisoning, to know the morbidity and mortality resulting from childhood poisoning. 86 children aged between 0-18 years were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with history of poisoning during the 2-year period of the study (Nov 13-Nov 15 were included. Diagnosis of poisoning was made on the basis of history and examination findings, Relevant investigations were done and Profile of patients with poisoning, their symptoms, type of poisoning and outcome were analysed. RESULTS The average duration of stay in the hospital was 2.7 days. Poisoning was accidental in 80 (93% patients whereas suicidal intent was present in only 6 (7% patients. Total 5 (5.8% patients died of which 4 were due to insecticide and pesticide poisoning and one was due to kerosene poisoning. CONCLUSION In the present study the probable reason for higher incidence of poisoning by insecticides & pesticides could be the involvement of higher age group and more involvement of adolescent children.

  13. A Myoclonus Case Related to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Özışık, Handan Işın; Kızkın, Sibel; Cemal ÖZCAN; Bölük, Ayhan; Çalışkan, Özden

    2005-01-01

    Delayed neurological findings due to carbon monoxide poisoning are changes in cognition and personality, psychotic behavior and parkinsonism. Rarely, these patients have movement disorders such dystonia, chorea and myoclonus. In this case study, we reported a case in which myoclonus appeared in the late stage of CO poisoning. Key words: Carbon monoxide poisoning, Movement disorders, Myoclonus.

  14. Infrared spectrum of arsenic pentafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a literature review about arsenic fluorides, we give several methods of obtaining very pure AsF5 in order to ascertain the right spectrum of this compound. Our spectra fit well with Akers's observations, and we note that AsF5 structure can be explained in terms of C3v molecular symmetry, with the As-F bond stretching lying at 786 cm-1 and 811 cm-1. (author)

  15. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the inorganic arsenic methylation phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may be mediated by these methylated metabolites. If i As methylation is an activation process, then the phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation may determine risk associated with exposure to this metalloid. We examined inorganic arsenic methylation phenotypes and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotypes in four species: three that methylate inorganic arsenic (human (Homo sapiens), rat (Rattus norwegicus), and mouse (Mus musculus)) and one that does not methylate inorganic arsenic (chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes). The predicted protein products from arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase are similar in size for rat (369 amino acid residues), mouse (376 residues), and human (375 residues). By comparison, a 275-nucleotide deletion beginning at nucleotide 612 in the chimpanzee gene sequence causes a frameshift that leads to a nonsense mutation for a premature stop codon after amino acid 205. The null phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation in the chimpanzee is likely due to the deletion in the gene for arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase that yields an inactive truncated protein. This lineage-specific loss of function caused by the deletion event must have occurred in the Pan lineage after Homo-Pan divergence about 5 million years ago

  16. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III and As(V from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration.

  17. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  18. Arsenic Adsorption Onto Iron Oxides Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aredes, S.; Klein, B.; Pawlik, M.

    2004-12-01

    The predominant form of arsenic in water is as an inorganic ion. Under different redox conditions arsenic in water is stable in the +5 and +3 oxidation states. Arsenic oxidation state governs its toxicity, chemical form and solubility in natural and disturbed environments. As (III) is found in anoxic environments such as ground water , it is toxic and the common species is the neutral form, H3AsO3. As (V) is found in aerobic conditions such as surface water, it is less toxic and the common species in water are: H2AsO4 - and HAsO4 {- 2}. The water pH determines the predominant arsenate or arsenite species, however, both forms of arsenic can be detected in natural water systems. Iron oxides minerals often form in natural waters and sediments at oxic-anoxic boundaries. Over time they undergo transformation to crystalline forms, such as goethite or hematite. Both As(V) and As(III) sorbs strongly to iron oxides, however the sorption behavior of arsenic is dependent on its oxidation state and the mineralogy of the iron oxides. Competition between arsenic and others ions, such fluoride, sulphate and phosphate also play a role. On the other hand, calcium may increase arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides. Electrokinetic studies and adsorption experiments were carried out in order to determine which conditions favour arsenic adsorption. Hematite, goethite and magnetite as iron based sorbents were used. Test were also conducted with a laterite soil rich in iron minerals. The focus of this study is to evaluate physical and chemical conditions which favour arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides minerals, the results contribute to an understanding of arsenic behaviour in natural and disturbed environments. Furthermore, results could contribute in developing an appropriate remediation technology for arsenic removal in water using iron oxides minerals.

  19. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  20. Impaired arsenic metabolism in children during weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 μg/L, range 2.4-940 μg/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFE CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC-WASTE: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ARSENIC CRISIS IN CAMBODIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An appalling degree of arsenic contamination in groundwater has affected more than a million people in wide region of Mekong delta flood plain in Cambodia. Arsenic is by far the most toxic species of all naturally occurring groundwater contaminants and disposal of removed arse...

  2. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Churi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.

  3. Potassium permanganate poisoning--a rare cause of fatal self poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    K L Ong; Tan, T H; Cheung, W L

    1997-01-01

    Attempted suicide by self poisoning is common because of the ready availability of drugs, whether prescribed or bought over the counter. In some cases, the ingestion of seemingly innocuous household products or chemicals can result in death. Potassium permanganate is an example. Poisoning with potassium permanganate can be fatal when a significant amount is ingested, as shown by a patient who suffered both the corrosive and systemic toxic effects of this chemical.

  4. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. PMID:27266642

  5. A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

  6. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  7. Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Davous, P; Rondot, P; Marion, M H; Gueguen, B

    1986-01-01

    Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

  8. Intestinal infarction following carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M.; Cacciottolo, J. M.; Casha, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 65 year old patient admitted with carbon monoxide poisoning developed acute pulmonary oedema during treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. After initial recovery he developed extensive intestinal ischaemia which rapidly led to death. It is suggested that intestinal vasoconstriction due to left ventricular failure made the gut much more vulnerable to the hypoxic effects of carbon monoxide than the brain and heart.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  10. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  11. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  12. Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Moretto, A; M. Lotti

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients afte...

  13. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Díaz Mesa; Eddy Pereira Valdés; Alba Enseñat Álvarez; Carlos Alberto Rodríguez Armada

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning. Medical emergencies determined by the exposure to different substances (drugs, medicines, physical or chemical corrosive agents, etc). It includes the classification of toxic substances, clinical diagnosis (main syndromes), and description of therapeutic variations (vital support, antidotes, absorption measurements and increase of elimination and depuration of the toxic substance). It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most impo...

  14. Meningism following Salmonella virchow food poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty six patients were admitted to hospital as a result of Salmonella virchow infection during an outbreak of food poisoning in Essex in 1984. Out of 12 patients with evidence of bloodstream invasion, one third presented primarily with meningism and attention is drawn to this unusual clinical picture.

  15. Protect the Ones You Love From Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  16. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  17. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  18. Poisonous Plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  19. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves, Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley, Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides - oleandrin, nerin, digitoxigenin, and olinerin of which oleandrin is the principal toxin. The bark contains the toxic substances of rosagenin which causes strychnine-like effects. Signs of poisoning appear a few hours after the adoption of the parts of the plant. Two cases of Nerium Oleander poisoning were presented. Clinical picture included gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. The clinical symptoms were characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, colic, diarrhoea, ventricular tachycardia, dysrhythmia, heart block, ataxia, drowsiness, muscular tremor. Treatment included administration of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive care.

  20. Important poisonous plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

  1. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  2. Unexpected Diagnosis in the Metropolis: Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Bavunoğlu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to point out that organophosphate poisoning is rarely seen in the metropolis and therefore diagnosis and treatment of these poisonings can be delayed. A 62 year old woman with a history of diabetes type II and ischemic cerebrovascular disease was admitted to the Emergency Department of Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine with diarrhea. During a 24-h follow-up, dysphagia, bronchorrhea and myosis were established. The patient was investigated for cholinergic symptoms due to intoxication. Toxicologic analysis was made and atropine treatment begun in the emergency room, and the patient was followed up for 10 days at the intensive care unit (ICU without intubation. After the muscarinic symptoms improved, atropine treatment was terminated. The patient was discharged from the ICU and followed up in the service because of continual hypoxia. At the service follow-up, intermediated syndrome manifested as paralysis and respiratory distress. Hence the patient was intubated and mechanical ventilation was begun at the ICU. After the treatment, she was discharged without any sequel. In unintentional organophosphate poisoning cases, diagnosis and the treatment can be delayed because it is rare in large cities, so that the patient and their relatives are not aware of the poisoning.

  3. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  4. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured b...

  5. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola O. Adeyemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Arsenic is a known toxic element and its presence and toxicity in nature is a worldwide environmental problem. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation is a potential method to reduce as concentration in contaminated areas. Approach: In order to explore the possible bioremediation of this element, three filamentous fungi-Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor were investigated for their potential abilities to accumulate (and possibly solubilize arsenic from an agar environment consisting of non buffered mineral salts media amended with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% (w/v arsenopyrite (FeAsS. Growth rates, dry weights, arsenic accumulation and oxalate production by the fungi as well as the pH of the growth media were all assessed during this study. Results: There was no visible solubilization of FeAsS particles underneath any of the growing fungal colonies or elsewhere in the respective agar plates. No specific patterns of growth changes were observed from the growth ratios of the fungi on agar amended with different amounts of FeAsS although growth of all fungi was stimulated by the incorporation of varying amounts of FeAsS into the agar with the exception of A. niger on 0.4% (w/v amended agar and T. versicolor on 0.8% (w/v amended agar. The amounts of dry weights obtained for all three fungi also did not follow any specific patterns with different amounts of FeAsS and the quantities obtained were in the order A. niger > S. himantioides > T. versicolor. All fungi accumulated as in their biomasses with all amounts of FeAsS although to varying levels and T. versicolor was the most effective with all amounts of FeAsS while A. niger was the least effective. Conclusion: The accumulation of arsenic in the biomasses of the test fungi as shown in this study may suggested a role for fungi through their bioaccumulating capabilities as agents in the possible bioremediation of arsenic contaminated environments.

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  8. The Chemistry and Metabolism of Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. IntrodctionA century of study of the process by which many organisms convert inorganic arsenic into an array of methylated metabolites has answered many questions and has posed some new ones. The capacity of microorganisms to. form volatile arsenic compounds was first recogniz...

  9. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  10. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed. PMID:26476885

  11. Arsenic Consumption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic in drinking water and minimal risk levels (MRLs) for total dietary exposure to arsenic have long been established in the U.S. Multiple studies conducted over the last five years have detected arsenic in foods and beverages including juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and others. Understanding whether or not each of these foods or drinks is a concern to certain groups of individuals requires examining which types of and how much arsenic is ingested. In this article, recent studies are reviewed and placed in the context of consumption patterns. When single sources of food or drink are considered in isolation, heavy rice eaters can be exposed to the most arsenic among adults while infants consuming formula containing contaminated organic brown rice syrup are the most exposed group among children. Most food and drink do not contain sufficient arsenic to exceed MRLs. For individuals consuming more than one source of contaminated water or food, however, adverse health effects are more likely. In total, recent studies on arsenic contamination in food and beverages emphasize the need for individual consumers to understand and manage their total dietary exposure to arsenic. PMID:26591332

  12. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Kianoush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  13. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels. PMID:27460822

  14. Methylation of inorganic arsenic by murine fetal tissue explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broka, Derrick; Ditzel, Eric; Quach, Stephanie; Camenisch, Todd D

    2016-07-01

    Although it is generally believed that the developing fetus is principally exposed to inorganic arsenic and the methylated metabolites from the maternal metabolism of arsenic, little is known about whether the developing embryo can autonomously metabolize arsenic. This study investigates inorganic arsenic methylation by murine embryonic organ cultures of the heart, lung, and liver. mRNA for AS3mt, the gene responsible for methylation of arsenic, was detected in all embryonic tissue types studied. In addition, methylated arsenic metabolites were generated by all three tissue types. The fetal liver explants yielded the most methylated arsenic metabolites (∼7% of total arsenic/48 h incubation) while the heart, and lung preparations produced slightly greater than 2% methylated metabolites. With all tissues the methylation proceeded mostly to the dimethylated arsenic species. This has profound implications for understanding arsenic-induced fetal toxicity, particularly if the methylated metabolites are produced autonomously by embryonic tissues. PMID:26446802

  15. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacquart, Thomas [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Frisbie, Seth [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Mitchell, Erika [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Grigg, Laurie [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Cole, Christopher [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Small, Colleen [Vermont Department of Health Laboratory, Burlington, VT (United States); Sarkar, Bibudhendra, E-mail: bsarkar@sickkids.ca [Department of Molecular Structure and Function, The Research Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  16. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  17. Elucidating the pathway for arsenic methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although biomethylation of arsenic has been studied for more than a century, unequivocal demonstration of the methylation of inorganic arsenic by humans occurred only about 30 years ago. Because methylation of inorganic arsenic activates it to more reactive and toxic forms, elucidating the pathway for the methylation of this metalloid is a topic of considerable importance. Understanding arsenic metabolism is of public health concern as millions of people chronically consume drinking water that contains high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Hence, the focus of our research has been to elucidate the molecular basis of the steps in the pathway that leads from inorganic arsenic to methylated and dimethylated arsenicals. Here we describe a new S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferase from rat liver cytosol that catalyzes the conversion of arsenite to methylated and dimethylated species. This 42-kDa protein has sequence motifs common to many non-nucleic acid methyltransferases and is closely related to methyltransferases of previously unknown function that have been identified by conceptual translations of cyt19 genes of mouse and human genomes. Hence, we designate rat liver arsenic methyltransferase as cyt19 and suggest that orthologous cyt19 genes encode an arsenic methyltransferase in the mouse and human genomes. Our studies with recombinant rat cyt19 find that, in the presence of an exogenous or a physiological reductant, this protein can catalyze the entire sequence of reactions that convert arsenite to methylated metabolites. A scheme linking cyt19 and thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase in the methylation and reduction of arsenicals is proposed

  18. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  19. Arsenic Geochemistry in Source Waters of the Los Angeles Aqueduct

    OpenAIRE

    Hering, Janet G; Wilkie, Jennifer A; Chiu, Van Q

    1997-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely distributed constituent of geologic materials, with an average crustal abundance of 1.8 ppm. The natural processes of weathering of arsenic-containing minerals and volcanism contribute arsenic to groundwaters, surface freshwaters, and seawater. Recently, increased attention has focused on arsenic geochemistry in natural waters. This attention has been motivated by concern over the human health effects of arsenic exposure; consumption of drinking water can be a significant,...

  20. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers

  1. An Overview on Bongkrekic Acid Food Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiu-mei

    2001-01-01

    Bongkrekic acid(BA) is a fatal bacterial toxin which was found in poisonous fermented cocnut product in indonesia in 1934 and the molecular structure was identified as C28H33O7 in 1960,In the 1950s,food poisoning outbreak of undnown cause occurred cause in the northeast part of China.A new toxin-producing bacterium,pseudomonas cocovenans subsp.Farinofermentans.was identified as the causal pathioge,and its metabolite BA was isolated.purfied and identified in 1979 and 1984.After that ,deteriorated tremella poisoning and viegar jelly poisoning were identified as being caused by the consumption of BA-contaminated foods.About 103 food poisoning outbreaks occurred in 16 provinces in China from 1985 to 1994,A total of 301 (out of 667) patients died.The overall fatality rate(45.13%) was the highest among all microbiological food poisonings in China.Various fermented cereal foods,deteriorated fresh tremella,potato products,sticky rice flur,polished glutious rice,sweet potato starch,noodles and vinegar jelly were in volved in the outbreaks,BA Was detected form leftover fermented corn flour,deteriorated tremella and the P.Cocovenenans subsp.farinofermentans was identifed as the source bascteria.The toxigenic strains have been found not only from the leftover food samples collected from the outbreaks.but also from normal fresh cultivated tremella in Henan and corn flour products from supermarkets in Beijing,TLC,HPLC,and MaAb-ELISA were used to detect BA in the food samples,The minimum detected levels were 0.25,0.1 and 0.2mg/kg,respectively,Further studies showed that Ba could be producted at 26 C for 5 days in potato dextrose agar(PDA) medium.Exposure to ultravioled ligh significantly reduced the level of BA in fresh tremella(96.7%-97.3%) as well as the toxin-producing ability of toxigenic stains in culture medium.

  2. ARSENIC SPECIATION IN CARROT EXTRACTS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON THE DETECTION OF MMA(III) AND MMTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two predominant routes of arsenic exposure are dietary ingestion and drinking water consumption. Dietary arsenic, unlike drinking water arsenic, contains a variety of arsenicals with dramatically different toxicities. The list of arsenicals detected in dietary samples conti...

  3. Arsenic contamination and arsenicosis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenicosis is a serious environmental chemical disease in China mainly caused by drinking water from pump wells contaminated by high levels of arsenic. Chronic exposure of humans to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water is associated with skin lesions, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, blackfoot disease, and high risk of cancers. Lead by the Ministry of Health of China, we carried out a research about arsenicosis in China recently. Areas contaminated with arsenic from drinking water are determined by 10% pump well water sample method while areas from burning coal are determined by existing data. Two epidemic areas of Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia are investigated for the distribution of pump wells containing high arsenic. Well water in all the investigated villages of Shanxi Province showed polluted by high arsenic, and the average rate of unsafe pump well water is 52%. In Inner Mongolia, the high percentage of pump wells containing elevated arsenic is found only in a few villages. The average rate of unsafe pump well water is 11%. From our research, we find that new endemic areas are continuously emerging in China. Up to now, epidemic areas of arsenicosis mainly involve eight provinces and 37 counties in China. In the affected areas, the discovery of wells and coal with high levels of arsenic is continuing sporadically, and a similar scattered distribution pattern of patients is also being observed

  4. [Competitive Microbial Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Bai, Yao-hui; Liang, Jin-song; Huo, Yang; Wang, Ming-xing; Yuan, Lin-ijang

    2016-02-15

    Filters are widely applied in drinking water treatment plants. Our previous study, which explored the asenic redox in a filter of drinking water plant treating underground water, found that As3+ could be oxidized to As5+ by biogenic manganese oxides, while As5+ could be reduced to As3+ by some microbial arsenic reductases in the biofilter system. This microbial competition could influence the system stability and treatment efficiency. To explore its mechanism, this study selected a manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) and a arsenic-reducing strain (Brevibacterium sp. LSJ-9) to investigate their competitive relationship in nutrient acquisition and arsenic redox in the presence of Mn2+, As3+ or As5+ The results revealed that the concentration and valence of Mn and As varied with different reaction time; biological manganese oxides dominated the arsenic redox by rapidly oxidizing the As3+ in the existing system and the As3+ generated by arsenic reductase into As. PCR and RT-PCR results indicated that the arsenic reductase (arsC) was inhibited by the manganese oxidase (cumA). The expression of 16S rRNA in QJX-1 was two orders of magnitude higher than that in LSJ-9, which implied QJX-1 was dominant in the bacterial growth. Our data revealed that hydraulic retention time was critical to the valence of arsenic in the effluent of filter in drinking water treatment plant. PMID:27363151

  5. The Poisoning Information Database Covers a Large Proportion of Real Poisoning Cases in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Chung, Sung Phil; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Kyung Woo; Cho, Junho; Yoon, Jae Chol; Cho, Soohyung; Choe, Michael Sung Pil; Hwang, Tae Sik; Hong, Dae Young; Lim, Hoon; Kim, Yang-Weon; Kim, Seung Whan; Kang, Hyunggoo; Kim, Woo Jeong

    2016-07-01

    The poisoning information database (PIDB) provides clinical toxicological information on commonly encountered toxic substances in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate the coverage rate of the PIDB by comparing the database with the distribution of toxic substances that real poisoning patients presented to 20 emergency departments. Development of the PIDB started in 2007, and the number of toxic substances increased annually from 50 to 470 substances in 2014. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with toxic exposure who visited 20 emergency departments in Korea from January to December 2013. Identified toxic substances were classified as prescription drug, agricultural chemical, household product, animal or plant, herbal drug, or other. We calculated the coverage rate of the PIDB for both the number of poisoning cases and the kinds of toxic substances. A total of 10,887 cases of intoxication among 8,145 patients was collected. The 470 substances registered in the PIDB covered 89.3% of 8,891 identified cases related to poisoning, while the same substances only covered 45.3% of the 671 kinds of identified toxic substances. According to category, 211 prescription drugs, 58 agricultural chemicals, 28 household products, and 32 animals or plants were not covered by the PIDB. This study suggested that the PIDB covered a large proportion of real poisoning cases in Korea. However, the database should be continuously extended to provide information for even rare toxic substances. PMID:27365999

  6. Brain MRI findings of carbon disulfide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results

  7. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  8. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol, the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  9. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  10. A Clinical Study of aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Gupta,Annil Mahajan,Ajay Gupta

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thc present prospectiYe study 01'56 cases ofAlwniniwn Phosphide (ALP poisoning in Gov!. MedicalCollcge Hospital Jammu. found out the prevalence of Deliberate self-poisoning self (DSP andaccidental ingestion in young population in age group of 16-30 years. Male-female ratio ",as 1.03: 1.00;ha' ing marital discord and family quarrels as prominent predisposing factors. The majority of patientshad gastrointestinal (GIT symptoms (73.2%, cardiac arrthymias (62.5% and shock (53.3%. Thccommoncst clectrocardiographic (ECG abnormalities were tachycardia (96%, atrial fibrillation(58% and venticular-ectopic (VE beats (59%. The management was supportive in the fonn ofstomach wash, intra"enous (IN fluids. dopamine, hydrocortisone, sodabicarbonate and assisted"entilation in intensiYe care unit (lCU setting

  11. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  12. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  13. Arsenic adsorption of lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuthiphun, L.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic adsorption efficiency of soil covering materials (lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil obtained from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province tosolve arsenic air pollution problem was investigated using batch experiments. The four types of the aforementioned soil covering materials were examined to determine their arsenic adsorption efficiency, equilibriumtime as well as adsorption isotherms.The results revealed that among soil covering materials mixed with arsenic-contaminated soil at 10% w/w, the efficiency of arsenic adsorption of fly ash, lateritic soil, lime and limestone powder were 84, 60,38 and 1% respectively. The equilibrium time for lateritic soil at pH 4 was achieved within 4 hrs, whereas pH 7 and 12, the equilibrium time was 6 hrs. For fly ash, 2 hrs were required to reach the equilibrium at pH 12, while the equilibrium time was attained within 6 hrs at pH 4 and 7. Furthermore, lateritic soil possessedhigh arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 7 and 4 and best fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The fly ash showing high arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 12 and 7 fit the Freundlich isotherm at pH 12 and Langmuirisotherm at pH 7.This indicated that lateritic soil was suitable for arsenic adsorption at low pH, whilst at high pH,arsenic was well adsorbed by fly ash. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm could be used to determine quantities of soil covering materials for arsenic adsorption to prevent arsenic air pollution from arseniccontaminated soils.

  14. A literature study on lacquer poison

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung-Min, Lee; Ki-Rok, Kwon; Sung-Mo, Choi; Tae-Hee, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Objective: It will be examined in this research whether Lacquer poison can be used as an distinguished treatment to cure incurable diseases by considering literature existing and various papers. Method: I studies origin, alias, species, toxicity, effect, treatment, component, medical action and contraindication of Rhus vemiciflua stokes through various kinds literatures. Results: Sap of Rhus vemiciflua stokes that is used for medical purposes, has an effect on anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, ...

  15. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Hossein Davari; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Mohammad Reza Vahidi; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Maryam Bahaloo; Pedram Shokouh

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months...

  16. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Pillion, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  17. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Shruti; Gupta Rahul; Paul Barinder; Puri Sandeep; Garg Shuchita

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign...

  18. [Identification and prevention of meat poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Logtestijn, J G; Koolmees, P A; Mossel, D A

    1987-09-15

    In this contribution to a series 'Papers of Yesterday and Today' a retrospective review of developments in the identification and control of meat 'poisoning' defined as infections and intoxications following the ingestion of bacteriologically unsound meat and meat products is presented. Starting from two classical Dutch papers, viz. by H. J. H. Stempel (1891) and K. Hoefnagel (1899) illustrating the knowledge of meat 'poisoning' acquired in the nineties of the 19th century, developments in the field of bacteriological research on meats and the resulting efforts to manage meat 'poisoning' are summarised. Attention is paid to the role of Dutch veterinarians in investigations on the aetiology of meat infections resulting in the adoption of legal meat inspection in 1922 and the ensuing reduction in the occurrence of mass outbreaks of meat poisoning. However, despite marked improvement of the standard of hygiene in the food industry in general and expert monitoring of meat production lines by veterinarians in particular, infections and intoxications transmitted by meat and meat products are still quite prevalent. Essentially, their management can only be achieved by strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) throughout animal husbandry, slaughter, distribution and storage, termed longitudinally integrated safety assurance. Professional monitoring by an up-to-date meat inspection system, however, continues to be indispensable in the prevention of food-borne infections and intoxications. Some recommendations are made for effective intervention in the infection cycle of food-transmitted pathogens originating from the high infection pressure on slaughter lines, resulting from contamination acquired at previous stages of the animal production chain. PMID:3672466

  19. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  20. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi GA; Astaraki P; Mohtashami AZ; Ahadi M

    2015-01-01

    Ghafar Ali Mahmoudi,1 Peyman Astaraki,1 Azita Zafar Mohtashami,1 Maryam Ahadi2 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 2Legal Medicine Research Center of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and des...

  1. Changes in plasma osmolality in food poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Čanović Predrag; Nešić Ljiljana; Gajović Olgica; Mijailović Željko

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Changes in plasma osmolality may occur during acute intestinal infections due to dehydration (loss of water and/or electrolytes). Depending on whether the water and electrolyte deficit is primary, or a proportional loss of water and electrolytes, dehydration can be classified into three categories: hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic. Material and methods. Thirty (30) patients with food poisoning were included in this research. All patients were hospitalized because of frequent v...

  2. Grayanotoxin (Mad Honey) - Ongoing Consumption After Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    EROĞLU, Serkan Emre; Urgan, Oğuz; Onur, Özge Ecmel; Denizbaşı, Arzu; Akoğlu, Haldun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as “mad honey” in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Aims: Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis. Stud...

  3. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  4. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION POISONING PATIENTS IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Yeşil; Haldun Akoğlu; Özge Onur; Özlem Güneysel

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Purpose of this study was to determine the clinical properties and demographics of the patients admitting to the emergency department with intoxication.Patient and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with poisoning patients admitted to our ED 1st of June 2005 and 31st of December 2006. Data regarding the age, sex, reason for the intoxication, and presence of psychiatric evaluation were obtained from the patient files.Results: 147 intoxication was admitted to ED. Mean time...

  5. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Ahmad A. Al-Omari; Rania A. Al-Asaad; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and m...

  6. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance

  7. Environmental arsenic exposure and sputum metalloproteinase concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Josyula, Arun B.; Poplin, Gerald S.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; McClellen, Hannah E.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Stürup, Stefan; Clark Lantz, R.; Jefferey L. Burgess

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: arsenic, creatinin, MMP levelsExposure/effect represented: arsenicStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 73 subjectsAnalytical technique: ELISA, HPLCTissue/biological material/sample size: urine samplesRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response): inorganic arsenic positively correlated with logMMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in sputum (Pearson's r Ό 0:351, P Ό 0:009) and negatively correlated with the log of s...

  8. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  9. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 mu g=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 mu g=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100 - 500 mu g=L) in real Bangladesh tube well water

  10. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri;

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, strict...... regulation should be enforced regarding arsenic content. Moreover, infants and young children should consume a balanced diet including a variety of grains as carbohydrate sources. While rice protein based infant formulas are an option for infants with cows' milk protein allergy, the inorganic arsenic content...

  11. Arsenic(III) Immobilization on Rice Husk

    OpenAIRE

    Malay Chaudhuri; Mohammed Ali Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    A number of large aquifers in various parts of the world have been identified with contamination by arsenic. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer of the skin, lungs, urinary bladder and kidney, as well as skin pigmentation and hyperkeratosis. Arsenic occurs in groundwater in two valence states, as trivalent arsenite [As(III)] and pentavalent arsenate [As(V)]. As(III) is more toxic and more difficult to remove from water by adsorption on activated alumina. In this stud...

  12. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized. PMID:26632018

  13. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance. PMID:25964144

  14. [Poisoning by spiders of Loxosceles genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Lloveras, Susana C; Orduna, Tomás A

    2002-01-01

    Despite the great number of spiders in the world, only a small group of them is capable of producing death in humans. In Argentina, there are only three of the four genera of spiders considered of high risk to humans: Latrodectus is present in rural areas, Phoneutria is restricted to small regions while Loxosceles is distributed throughout the country. Accidents by Loxosceles represent around 4% of the total number produced by venomous animals in Argentina. The bite is accidental and may produce considerable local necrosis with scar formation and ulcers of slow and difficult healing that may require surgical repair. Some bitten people may suffer from intravascular hemolysis, disseminated coagulation and acute renal insufficiency leading to death. Despite the great number of studies performed on Loxosceles venoms, at present, the physiopathological course of poisoning is not clear and there is not common criteria for its treatment. In this review, biological and epidemiological data of this spider are described as well as the venom composition and the possible participation of its components in the poisoning. These data provide biological and biochemical tools to understand the course of poisoning and to have better criteria for the treatment and prevention of these accidents and their complications. PMID:11965857

  15. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  16. [Advance on oxidative stress mechanism of arsenic toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; An, Yan

    2009-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic is one of proven human carcinogens, which there are so far no sound laboratory-based evidences and there are very few reports in the literature regarding arsenic carcinogenic effects in in vivo animal experiment. Because of this lack of adequate evidences, the mechanism for understanding arsenic toxicology remains vague. Recently, many modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesis have been proposed, oxidative stress is one of the stronger theories of arsenic action modes which have a substantial mass of supporting data. Further more, many researchers have pointed out that induction of oxidative stress by methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenics plays an important role in the toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenics. The role of oxidative stress induced by arsenic in arsenic toxicology was reviewed. PMID:19877531

  17. Global Atmospheric Transport and Source-Receptor Relationships for Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Wu, Shiliang; Li, Xueling; Jaffe, Daniel A; Perry, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic and many of its compounds are toxic pollutants in the global environment. They can be transported long distances in the atmosphere before depositing to the surface, but the global source-receptor relationships between various regions have not yet been assessed. We develop the first global model for atmospheric arsenic to better understand and quantify its intercontinental transport. Our model reproduces the observed arsenic concentrations in surface air over various sites around the world. Arsenic emissions from Asia and South America are found to be the dominant sources for atmospheric arsenic in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. Asian emissions are found to contribute 39% and 38% of the total arsenic deposition over the Arctic and Northern America, respectively. Another 14% of the arsenic deposition to the Arctic region is attributed to European emissions. Our results indicate that the reduction of anthropogenic arsenic emissions in Asia and South America can significantly reduce arsenic pollution not only locally but also globally. PMID:26906891

  18. Mathematical model insights into arsenic detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijhout H Frederik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic in drinking water, a major health hazard to millions of people in South and East Asia and in other parts of the world, is ingested primarily as trivalent inorganic arsenic (iAs, which then undergoes hepatic methylation to methylarsonic acid (MMAs and a second methylation to dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs. Although MMAs and DMAs are also known to be toxic, DMAs is more easily excreted in the urine and therefore methylation has generally been considered a detoxification pathway. A collaborative modeling project between epidemiologists, biologists, and mathematicians has the purpose of explaining existing data on methylation in human studies in Bangladesh and also testing, by mathematical modeling, effects of nutritional supplements that could increase As methylation. Methods We develop a whole body mathematical model of arsenic metabolism including arsenic absorption, storage, methylation, and excretion. The parameters for arsenic methylation in the liver were taken from the biochemical literature. The transport parameters between compartments are largely unknown, so we adjust them so that the model accurately predicts the urine excretion rates of time for the iAs, MMAs, and DMAs in single dose experiments on human subjects. Results We test the model by showing that, with no changes in parameters, it predicts accurately the time courses of urinary excretion in mutiple dose experiments conducted on human subjects. Our main purpose is to use the model to study and interpret the data on the effects of folate supplementation on arsenic methylation and excretion in clinical trials in Bangladesh. Folate supplementation of folate-deficient individuals resulted in a 14% decrease in arsenicals in the blood. This is confirmed by the model and the model predicts that arsenicals in the liver will decrease by 19% and arsenicals in other body stores by 26% in these same individuals. In addition, the model predicts that arsenic

  19. Status and trends in poisonings in Denmark 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgevig, Søren; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Dalhoff, Kim Peder;

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) provides information to the public and health care professionals on acute poisonings. The DPIC received 41,000 enquiries during the first three years of its existence as an open 24h telephone service. The aim of this data register study was to classify...... all substance exposures, to gain knowledge of the status and trends in poisonings (toxico-surveillance) and to evaluate the development in the number of contacts....

  20. Finding of CT and clinical in paraquat poisoning pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of pulmonary injury in paraquat poisoning. Methods: The chest CT image of lung injury in 6 cases of paraquat poisoning were analyzed retrospectively. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 types:the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), the late stage of poisoning (>14 d). A comparison between CT signs and the pathological features of patients was made. Results: Among this 6 cases, 3 cases died, 2 cases pulmonary fibrosis was noted, 1 cases recovered. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 stages: in the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), 3 cases of all patients showed nothing remarkable, 2 cases showed ground-glass opacity, 1 case showed fuzzy lung-marking.In the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), all 6 cases showed ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation; 6 cases showed pulmonary consolidation; 4 cases showed subpleural lines; 4 cases showed bronchiectasis; 2 cases showed mid-lower pleural effusion. In the late stage of poisoning (>14 d), 4 cases showed pulmonary consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis, 3 cases showed ground-glass opacity and mosaic attenuation, 1 case showed mid-lower pleural effusion; 1 case showed mediastinal emphysema. Conclusion: The clinical pathology process of paraquat poisoning was in line with CT finding which was related with clinical stage and was helpful for clinical assessment of paraquat poisoning promptly and to guide the clinical treatment. (authors)

  1. Use of erbium as burnable poison for VVER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems related to use of Erbium as burnable poison for VVER are discussed. Comparison is made between neutronics characteristics of Uranium-Gadolinium and Uranium-Erbium fuel cycles. The study shows that use of Erbium as burnable poison allows decreasing the peaking factor in the core. Meanwhile residual Erbium at the end of the fuel cycle makes it necessary to increase fuel enrichment. There is made the conclusion of prospects of using Erbium as burnable poison for VVER. (orig.)

  2. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  3. Ivory poachers and poison : drivers of Africa's declining vulture populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ogada, Darcy; Botha, André; Shaw, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Four species of African vultures have been recategorized as Critically Endangered, and two as Endangered, on the IUCN Red List. Their declining status is attributed partly to the impacts of widespread poisoning. Prior to 2012 poisoning of vultures was mostly associated with illegal predator control by livestock farmers, in which vultures were typically unintended victims. More recently, ivory poachers have been using poisons to kill elephants Loxodonta africana or to contaminate their carcass...

  4. Evaluation Of Methadone Poisoning in Hospitalized Children: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Maamouri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upload poisoning is one of the most dangerous and common poisoning in Iranian children. Depression of the respiratory and central nervous systems may lead to significant toxicity. Even low doses of uploads are dangerous in pediatrics under 6 years old. Methadone is the most toxic of the uploads; small doses as low as a single tablet can lead to death. According to this information we decided to evaluate methadone poisoning in Hospitalized Children

  5. Successful treatment of polymedicamentous poisoning with metoprolol, diltiazem and cilazapril

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović Milan R.; Miletić Goran M.; Radovanović Mirjana S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Poisoning caused by drugs with cardiodepressive effects is an urgent condition in medicine which is associated with high mortality rate regardless of modern therapeutic methods. Accidental or intentional poisoning whit these drugs produces heart activity depression and cardiovascular collapse as consequences. Current therapy for severe poisoning caused by beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers includes both unspecific and specific antidote therapy whit glucagon, as well as a...

  6. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J T

    1987-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales was reviewed, based on the records of the New South Wales Department of Agriculture's Regional Veterinary Laboratories. The plant species causing significant mortalities were Echium plantagineum and Heliotropium europaeum. The syndrome of hepatogenous chronic copper poisoning was more frequently diagnosed than primary pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, particularly when grazing E. plantagineum. The data indicated that adult crossbred ewes were the most commonly affected class of sheep. PMID:3632498

  7. Poison Pills : A management-shareholder benefits comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xin; Alija, Teuta; Ochoche, Owoicho

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Problem: The problem of this thesis involves the controversy that the implementation of poison pills generates. The conflict amongst various stakeholders that are affected directly or indirectly by the implementation of the poison pill also contributes significantly to the problem of this thesis. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and compare the benefits of the poison pill adoption on shareholder and management interests. We also seek to evaluate arguments for and...

  8. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Nore Anne K; Bjornaas Mari A; Hovda Knut E; Heyerdahl Fridtjof; Figueiredo Jose CP; Ekeberg Oivind; Jacobsen Dag

    2008-01-01

    Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. ...

  9. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Gonullu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  10. Intravascular Neutrophil Activation Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Stephen R.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Han, Shih-Tsung; Clark, James M.; HARDY, KEVIN R.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: We hypothesized that platelet–neutrophil interactions occur as a result of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and subsequent neutrophil activation triggers events that cause neurologic sequelae.

  11. Accidental plant poisoning with Colchicum autumnale: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brncić, N; Visković, I; Perić, R; Dirlić, A; Vitezić, D; Cuculić, D

    2001-12-01

    Colchicine poisoning is a rare but serious and potentially fatal event, which results from food poisoning or overdose with drugs containing colchicine, with no currently available antidote. We report two cases of plant poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, in which the patients had identical initial symptoms but developed extremely different clinical courses. One patient recovered after only moderate gastroenteritis and liver injury, whereas the other died of rapid progressive multiple organ failure 52 h after the plant ingestion. We recommend that all patients suspected of colchicine intoxication due to its unpredictable outcome should be managed according to the principles of intensive care, irrespective of the actual degree of poisoning. PMID:11740853

  12. Manufacture of high purity low arsenic anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for manufacturing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity from arsenic contaminated anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is described which comprises: (a) contacting the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the arsenic impurity in the presence of a catalyst which comprises a catalytic amount of (i) molybdenum or an inorganic molybdenum compound and (ii) a phosphate compound, at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to oxidize volatile trivalent arsenic impurities in the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to non-volatile pentavalent arsenic compounds, and (b) distilling the resulting mixture and recovering anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity

  13. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies. PMID:26231509

  14. Arsenic stress after the Proterozoic glaciations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Arvestål, Emma; Callac, Nolwenn; El Albani, Abderrazak; Kilias, Stephanos; Argyraki, Ariadne; Jakobsson, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Protection against arsenic damage in organisms positioned deep in the tree of life points to early evolutionary sensitization. Here, marine sedimentary records reveal a Proterozoic arsenic concentration patterned to glacial-interglacial ages. The low glacial and high interglacial sedimentary arsenic concentrations, suggest deteriorating habitable marine conditions may have coincided with atmospheric oxygen decline after ~2.1 billion years ago. A similar intensification of near continental margin sedimentary arsenic levels after the Cryogenian glaciations is also associated with amplified continental weathering. However, interpreted atmospheric oxygen increase at this time, suggests that the marine biosphere had widely adapted to the reorganization of global marine elemental cycles by glaciations. Such a glacially induced biogeochemical bridge would have produced physiologically robust communities that enabled increased oxygenation of the ocean-atmosphere system and the radiation of the complex Ediacaran-Cambrian life.

  15. TELOMERASE AND CHRONIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer in humans. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not well understood. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of eukary...

  16. Toxicokinetics and Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides an overview of arsenic toxicokinetics and physiologically-basedpharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling with particular emphasis on key 'actors needed fordevelopment of a model useful for dose-response analysis, applications of arsenicmodels, as well research needs.U...

  17. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY SOFTENING AND COAGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water regulations for arsenic (As) and disinfection by-product precursor materials (measured as TOC) are becoming increasingly stringent. Among the modifications to conventional treatment that can improve removal of As and TOC, precipitative softening and coagulation are...

  18. Development of poison injection code-COPJET for high pressure liquid poison injection in pressure tube type heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shut Down System-2 (SDS-2) in advanced vertical pressure tube type reactor, provides rapid reactor shutdown by high pressure injection of a neutron absorbing liquid called poison, into the moderator in the calandria. Poison inside the calandria is distributed by poison jets issued from holes provided in the injection tubes. Effectiveness of the system depends on the rate and spread of the poison in the moderator. In this study, a transient one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulic code, COPJET is developed, to predict the performance of system by predicting poison jet length with time. Validation of the COPJET is done with the data available in literature. Thereafter, it is applied for poison jet length prediction of advanced vertical pressure type reactor. (author)

  19. Speciation of arsenic in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods are presented in this report for the determination of inorganic species of arsenic. For both methods, the parameters influencing the separations have been investigated using radiotracers. Following optimization of the methods; the applicability was tested by determining As(III) and As(V) in real water samples. The detection limit of these arsenic species in both fresh and sea water was about 0.02 μg/L. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Arsenic Induced Decreases in the Vascular Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Allison M.; Lantz, R. Clark; Rodgers, Laurel S.; Sollome, James J.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.; Andrew, Angeline S; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic is associated with increased incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the role of arsenic in early events in vascular pathology, C57BL/6 mice ingested drinking water with or without 50 ppb sodium arsenite (AsIII) for four, five or eight weeks. At five and eight weeks, RNA from the lungs of control and AsIII exposed animals was processed for microarray. Sixty-five genes were significantly and differentially expressed. Differential expres...