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Sample records for arsenic beryllium cadmium

  1. Assessment of soil contamination. Measuring devices for arsenic, berryllium, lead, cadmium, mercury and selenium. Wirkung von Bodenkontaminationen. Messlatten fuer Arsen, Beryllium, Blei, Cadmium, Quecksilber und Selen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenbach, D.; Kloke, A.; Luehr, H.P.

    1991-12-01

    To assess soil contamination with respect to the suitability of the site concerned, it is essential to obtain knowledge of the relationship between soil contamination levels and the effect of the contaminants on a targets meriting protection (e.g. human beings, plants, soil organisms). In this final report, data obtained from literature on the inorganic pollutants arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium and beryllium are compiled, and for selected targets an overview is given of the damage occurring at the various concentration levels studies. The present data, together with information on the envisaged use of the site and on soil properties influencing the pollutant's transport to the protected target, can be used to assess soil quality. Threshold values for use in decision-making cannot be derived directly from the presented data, as such data can only convey a picture of the range of the harmful concentrations given in the literature. (orig.).

  2. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zhi SHI; Jian-yun RUAN; Lifeng MA; Wen-yan HAN; Fang WANG

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field inves- tigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above- ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosyn- thetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants.

  3. OCCURRENCE OF ARSENIC, LEAD, THALLIUM AND BERYLLIUM IN GROUNDWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul A.J. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of carcinogenic and heavy metals in groundwater sources in Urban-west region of Zanzibar Island is an issue that is not very well known. This could be also coupled with the absence of drinking water treatment plants. This study for the first time reports on the occurrence and the levels of three carcinogenic metals-Arsenic (As, Beryllium (Be and lead (Pb in thirty groundwater samples collected from Zanzibar’s Urban/West region. The levels of alkalinity, Magnesium (Mg and Thallium (Tl were also determined. The concentrations of As, Be, TI and Pb in the water samples were determined by the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. Palintest photometry procedures were used to determine the levels of total alkalinity and magnesium. Be, As, Tl and Pb were not detected (nd in some water samples. The ranges of concentrations of Be, As, TI and Pb in the samples were; nd to 6100 ng L-1, nd to 6600 ng L-1, nd to 11600 ng L-1 and nd to 31400 ng L-1 respectively. The levels of total alkalinity varied from 38 to 380 (mg L-1 as CaCO3. The proportions of water samples contaminated with Be, Tl, As and Pb were 43.3, 66.7, 70 and 96.7% respectively. About 23% of the water samples had Pb concentrations beyond WHO limits for safe drinking water, while 30 and 56.67% of the samples had Be and Tl concentrations beyond the US EPA’s maximum limits. The concentration of arsenic in each water sample was within WHO limits. The occurrence and the levels of carcinogenic metals in water sources could be a potential cause of cancer cases in Zanzibar. Therefore, prompt action is required to control the levels of these hazardous metals, and other possible contaminants in Zanzibar’s domestic water systems.

  4. Biomarkers of cadmium and arsenic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in proteomics have led to the identification of sensitive urinary biomarkers of renal dysfunction that are increasingly used in toxicology and epidemiology. Recent animal data show that combined exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) gives rise to more pronounced renal toxicity than exposure to each of the agents alone. In order to examine if similar interaction occurs in humans, renal dysfunction was studied in population groups (619 persons in total) residing in two metal contaminated areas in China: mainly a Cd contaminated area in Zhejiang province (Z-area) and mainly a As contaminated area in Guizhou province (G-area). Nearby control areas without excessive metal exposure were also included. Measurements of urinary β2-microglobulin (UB2MG), N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (UNAG), retinol binding protein (URBP) and albumin (UALB) were used as markers of renal dysfunction. Urinary Cd (UCd) and total As (UTAs) were analyzed by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Urinary inorganic As and its mono- and di-methylated metabolites (UIAs) were determined by Hydride generation. Results. As expected, the highest UCd values occurred in Z-area (Geometric mean, GM 11.6 μg/g crea) while the highest UTAs values occurred in G-area (GM = 288 μg/g crea). Statistically significant increases compared to the respective control area were present both for UTAs, UCd and for UB2MG, UNAG and UALB in Z-area as well as in G-area. UIAs was determined only in Z area. In G-area, there was a clear dose-response pattern both in relation to UTAs and UCd for each of the biomarkers of renal dysfunction. An interaction effect between As and Cd was demonstrated at higher levels of a combined exposure to As and Cd enhancing the effect on the kidney. In Z-area an increased prevalence of B2MG-uria, NAG-uria and ALB-uria was found in relation to UCd, but no relationship to UTAs was found. A statistically significant relationship between UIAs and UB2MG was found among

  5. Occupational and Community Exposures to Toxic Metals: Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    1982-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely dispersed in the environment. Adults are primarily exposed to these contaminants in the workplace. Children may be exposed to toxic metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food.

  6. Arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury in and on food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigert, P.; Mueller, J.; Klein, H.; Zufelde, K.P.; Hillebrand, J.

    1984-01-01

    To update the information of ZEBS report 1/1979 the new essentially enlarged data available to ZEBS were subjected to statistical evaluation. Only data referring to the sampling period between 1978 and 1982 were included in this evaluation. Only routine samples have been included in the calculation. The data determined from these samples cannot be regarded as representative in the strict statistical sense. The contents of arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury have been calculated by arithmetic means, median values and defined percentiles for specific foods and/or groups of foods. Using consumption data of Ernaehrungsbericht '80 (Nutrition Report 80) intakes were calculated. Since the amounts consumed by male persons considerably differ from those consumed by female persons, intake calculations were differentiated by sex. The health of the intake amounts determined was based on the provisional weekly tolerable intake proposed by FAO/WHO. In the case of arsenic, such evaluation could not be made. As a result it was seen that on the basis of the median values for these elements which are closest to the real exposure situation in the case of foods, not even one half of the FAO/WHO values was reached. It can thus be assumed that the health of the average consumer in the Federal Republic of Germany is neither at risk nor impaired.

  7. Relation between occupational exposure to lead, cadmium, arsenic and concentration of cystatin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead, cadmium and arsenic represent well recognized toxic agents which in a specific manner disturb function of cardiovascular system. Cystatin C has been accepted to be a significant prognostic factor for cardiovascular diseases. The study aimed at defining relationship between occupational exposure to lead, cadmium and arsenic on one hand and concentration of cystatin C on the other. The studies were performed on 282 men occupationally exposed to lead, cadmium and arsenic. Among the tested individuals several groups of persons were distinguished: exposed exclusively to lead (Pb group), cadmium (Cd group), arsenic (As group), to lead and cadmium (Pb/Cd group), to lead and arsenic (Pb/As group) or to cadmium and arsenic (Cd/As group). In all the individuals serum concentration of cystatin C was estimated. Concentration of cystatin C was found to be significantly higher in Pb group than in Cd and As groups, also in Pb/Cd group higher than in Cd group and in Pb/As group than in As group. Positive linear correlations were established between Pb concentration in blood (Pb-B) and serum concentration of cystatin C (r = 0.59; p < 0.05) as well as between urinary concentration of As (As-U) and serum concentration of cystatin C (r = 0.41; p < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated that higher blood level of lead, higher urinary level of arsenic, more advanced age and higher body mass index represented independent risk factors of an increased serum concentration of cystatin C in the group of persons exposed to lead, cadmium and arsenic. Conclusions: Higher blood level of lead and higher urinary level of arsenic represented independent risk factors of an increased serum concentration of cystatin C in the group of persons occupationally exposed to lead, cadmium and arsenic. Concentration of lead in blood was significantly influencing serum concentration of cystatin C. The highest mean serum concentration of cystatin C was detected in the group of foundry workers exposed

  8. Canadian soil quality criteria for lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium and mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudet, C.; Milne, D.; Teed, S.; Lin, J.; Raju, G.S.; Ouellet, S. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    National soil quality criteria for the protection of ecological receptors, including livestock and wildlife, are currently under development in Canada. Based on an evaluation of direct soil contact and soil and food ingestion pathways for sensitive species, soil quality criteria for lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium and mercury for three land use categories have been derived. The draft values, in mg/kg soil, for agricultural, residential/parkland, commercial/industrial land uses are: mercury, 4, 4, 30; copper, 62, 62, 100; cadmium, 10, 10, 27; lead, 70, 250, 400; arsenic, 17, 17, 26. Critical data requirements in developing soil quality criteria are also reviewed.

  9. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  10. Maternal exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and neural tube defects in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are neurotoxins, and some studies suggest that these elements might also be teratogens. Using a case-control study design, we investigated the relation between exposure to these heavy metals and neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring of Mexican-American women living in 1 of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico. A total of 184 case-women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 225 control-women with normal live births were interviewed about their environmental and occupational exposures during the periconceptional period. Biologic samples for blood lead and urinary arsenic, cadmium, and mercury were also obtained for a subset of these women. Overall, the median levels of these biomarkers for heavy metal exposure did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between case- and control-women. However, among women in the highest income group, case-women were nine times more likely (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-57) than control-women to have a urinary mercury >=5.62μg/L. Case-women were 4.2 times more likely (95% CI 1.1-16) to report burning treated wood during the periconceptional period than control-women. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for maternal and paternal occupational exposures to arsenic and mercury, but the 95% CIs were consistent with unity. The 95% CIs of the ORs were also consistent with unity for higher levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in drinking water and among women who lived within 2 miles at the time of conception to industrial facilities with reported emissions of any of these heavy metals. Our findings suggest that maternal exposures to arsenic, cadmium, or lead are probably not significant risk factors for NTDs in offspring. However, the elevated urinary mercury levels found in this population and exposures to the combustion of treated wood may warrant further investigation

  11. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  12. Competitive biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper, and arsenic ions using algae

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas H. Sulaymon; Mohammed, Ahmed A.; Al-Musawi, Tariq J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the competitive biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper, and arsenic ions by using native algae. A series of experiments were carried out in a batch reactor to obtain equilibrium data for adsorption of single, binary, ternary, and quaternary metal solutions. The biosorption of these metals is based on ion exchange mechanism accompanied by the release of light metals such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Experimental parameters such as pH, initial metal concen...

  13. Long-distance transport, vacuolar sequestration and transcriptional responses induced by cadmium and arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Hauser, Felix; Schroeder, Julian I

    2011-01-01

    Iron, zinc, copper and manganese are essential metals for cellular enzyme functions while cadmium, mercury and the metalloid arsenic lack any biological function. Both, essential and non-essential metals and metalloids are extremely reactive and toxic. Therefore, plants have acquired specialized mechanisms to sense, transport and maintain essential metals within physiological concentrations and to detoxify non-essential metals and metalloids. This review focuses on the recent identification o...

  14. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shekoohiyan Sakine; Ghoochani Mahboobeh; Mohagheghian Azita; Mahvi Amir Hossein; Yunesian Masoud; Nazmara Shahrokh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods. In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were determined in 105 black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions. The amount of heavy metals in black tea infusions were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atom...

  15. Sequential Determination of Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Concentrated Cadmium Sulphate Solutions by Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry after Online Cation Exchanger Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Cacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9 μg dm-3 and 2.7 μg dm-3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300 μg dm-3 for sample volumes of 4 mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60 g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant.

  16. Determination of arsenic and cadmium in crude oil by direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Alexandre de; Zmozinski, Ariane Vanessa [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Damin, Isabel Cristina Ferreira [Faculdade Dom Bosco de Porto Alegre, 90520-280, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marcia Messias, E-mail: mmsilva@iq.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti Rodrigues [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    In this work, a direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of arsenic and cadmium in crude oil samples. The samples were weighed directly on the solid sampling platforms and introduced into the graphite tube for analysis. The chemical modifier used for both analytes was a mixture of 0.1% Pd + 0.06% Mg + 0.06% Triton X-100. Pyrolysis and atomization curves were obtained for both analytes using standards and samples. Calibration curves with aqueous standards could be used for both analytes. The limits of detection obtained were 5.1 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for arsenic and 0.2 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for cadmium, calculated for the maximum amount of sample that can be analyzed (8 mg and 10 mg) for arsenic and cadmium, respectively. Relative standard deviations lower than 20% were obtained. For validation purposes, a calibration curve was constructed with the SRM 1634c and aqueous standards for arsenic and the results obtained for several crude oil samples were in agreement according to paired t-test. The result obtained for the determination of arsenic in the SRM against aqueous standards was also in agreement with the certificate value. As there is no crude oil or similar reference material available with a certified value for cadmium, a digestion in an open vessel under reflux using a 'cold finger' was adopted for validation purposes. The use of paired t-test showed that the results obtained by direct sampling and digestion were in agreement at a 95% confidence level. Recovery tests were carried out with inorganic and organic standards and the results were between 88% and 109%. The proposed method is simple, fast and reliable, being appropriated for routine analysis. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct sampling GF AAS method to determine As and Cd in crude oil was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conventional chemical modifier Pd/Mg has been used to stabilize As and Cd. Black

  17. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  18. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Branchial plate and muscle tissue from mobulid rays were analysed for certain metals. • Mean concentrations of cadmium in Mobula japanica were above the EC ML. • Mean inorganic arsenic concentration in Mobula japanica muscle equalled the FSANZ ML. • Mean concentration of lead in Manta alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. • There were significant correlations between the types of tissues for some metals. - Abstract: Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead

  19. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Santos, M A; Mejía, J J; Batres, L; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Vera, E; del Razo, L M; Cebrián, M E

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosí City, México) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues. PMID:8344231

  20. Embryotoxicity hazard assessment of cadmium and arsenic compounds using embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) has been successfully validated as an in vitro method for detecting embryotoxicity, showing a good overall test accuracy of 78% [Genschow, E., Spielmann, H., Scholz, G., Seiler, A., Brown, N., Piersma, A., Brady, M., Clemann, N., Huuskonen, H., Paillard, F., Bremer, S., Becker, K., 2002. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro embryotoxicity tests: results of the definitive phase and evaluation of prediction models. European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. Altern. Lab. Anim. 30, 151-176]. Methylmercury was the only strong in vivo embryotoxicant falsely predicted as non-embryotoxic making the metal the most significant outlayer [Genschow, E., Spielmann, H., Scholz, G., Pohl, I., Seiler, A., Clemann, N., Bremer, S., Becker, K., 2004. Validation of the Embryonic Stem Cell Test in the international ECVAM validation study on three in vitro embryotoxicity tests. Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 209-244]. The misclassification of methylmercury and the potential environmental exposure to developmental toxic heavy metals promoted our investigation of whether the EST applicability domain covers cadmium and arsenic compounds. The EST misclassified cadmium, arsenite and arsenate compounds as non-embryotoxic, even when including arsenic metabolites (methylarsonate, methylarsonous and dimethylarsinic). The reasons were the lack of higher cytotoxicity towards embryonic stem cells as compared to more mature cells (3T3 fibroblasts) or the absence of inhibition of cardiac differentiation by specific mechanisms rather than general cytotoxicity. Including EST data on heavy metals from the literature (lithium, methylmercury, trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium) revealed that the test correctly predicted the embryotoxic potential of three out of the seven heavy metals, indicating an insufficient predictivity for such metals. Refinement of the EST prediction model and inclusion of additional toxicological endpoints could

  1. Accumulation of Arsenic and Cadmium in Foods of Animal Origin Collected from the Local Markets in Northeastern Region Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    P. Saipan; B. Tengjaroenkul; K. Prahkarnkaeo

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and cadmium were determined in broiler chickens, cattle and swine collected from the local markets of the northeastern Thailand. Average concentrations of arsenic based on a wet weight basis in muscle, liver and kidney were 0.022±0.008, 0.068±0.025, 0.286±0.073 &mug/g cattle; 0.045±0.022, 0.402±0.096, 0.812±0.335 &mug/g chickens; and 0.116±0.044, 0.479±0.142, 1.012±0.500 g/g swine, respectively. Cadmium levels in meat of cattle, chickens and swine samples were 0.024±...

  2. Analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium in wines from the Canary Islands, Spain, by ICP/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaste, M; Medina, B; Perez-Trujillo, J-P

    2003-02-01

    Because of their high toxicity, arsenic, lead and cadmium need to be quantified in food and beverages. For the first time, in this study the content of arsenic, lead and cadmium was investigated in 152 wine samples from the Canary Islands, Spain, belonging to eight Denominations of Origin (DO) and four islands by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of concentration found were 0.58-8.45 microg l(-1) for arsenic, 0.20-1.73 microg l(-1) for cadmium and 3.89-159.5 microg l(-1) for lead, and the mean content was 3.13, 0.63 and 28.74 microg l(-1), respectively. None of the wines contained levels above the limits set by the International Office of Vine and Wine (OIV), and thus did not pose a health hazard. Significant differences in mean content of those elements between harvest, type of wine, islands and DO were observed. PMID:12623662

  3. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report

  4. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R. H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report.

  5. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg-1) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg-1) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg-1), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg-1 (SD 0.02 mg kg-1). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg-1) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg-1), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  6. Arsenic- and cadmium-induced toxicogenomic response in mouse embryos undergoing neurulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are well-characterized teratogens in animal models inducing embryotoxicity and neural tube defects (NTDs) when exposed during neurulation. Toxicological research is needed to resolve the specific biological processes and associated molecular pathways underlying metal-induced toxicity during this timeframe in gestational development. In this study, we investigated the dose-dependent effects of As and Cd on gene expression in C57BL/6J mouse embryos exposed in utero during neurulation (GD8) to identify significantly altered genes and corresponding biological processes associated with embryotoxicity. We quantitatively examined the toxicogenomic dose-response relationship at the gene level. Our results suggest that As and Cd induce dose-dependent gene expression alterations representing shared (cell cycle, response to UV, glutathione metabolism, RNA processing) and unique (alcohol/sugar metabolism) biological processes, which serve as robust indicators of metal-induced developmental toxicity and indicate underlying embryotoxic effects. Our observations also correlate well with previously identified impacts of As and Cd on specific genes associated with metal-induced toxicity (Cdkn1a, Mt1). In summary, we have identified in a quantitative manner As and Cd induced dose-dependent effects on gene expression in mouse embryos during a peak window of sensitivity to embryotoxicity and NTDs in the sensitive C57BL/6J strain.

  7. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Smeester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR, some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology.

  8. Water Management Practices Affect Arsenic and Cadmium Accumulation in Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As accumulation in rice grains is a great threat to its productivity, grain quality, and thus human health. Pot and field studies were carried out to unravel the effect of different water management practices (aerobic, aerobic-flooded, and flooded on Cd and As accumulation in rice grains of two different varieties. In pot experiment, Cd or As was also added into the soil as treatment. Pots without Cd or As addition were maintained as control. Results indicated that water management practices significantly influenced the Cd and As concentration in rice grains and aerobic cultivation of rice furnished less As concentration in its grains. Nonetheless, Cd concentration in this treatment was higher than the grains of flooded rice. Likewise, in field study, aerobic and flooded rice cultivation recorded higher Cd and As concentration, respectively. However, growing of rice in aerobic-flooded conditions decreased the Cd concentration by 9.38 times on average basis as compared to aerobic rice. Furthermore, this treatment showed 28% less As concentration than that recorded in flooded rice cultivation. The results suggested that aerobic-flooded cultivation may be a promising strategy to reduce the Cd and As accumulations in rice grains simultaneously.

  9. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I., E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg{sup -1}) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg{sup -1}) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg{sup -1}), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg{sup -1} (SD 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  10. Bioaccumulation of arsenic and cadmium in birch and lime from the Bor region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Šerbula, Snežana S; Tošić, Snežana B; Pavlović, Aleksandra N; Petrović, Jelena V

    2013-11-01

    Copper production in the Bor region (east Serbia) during the last 100 years has influenced the quality of soil, water, and air. This pollution has endangered not only the biotope but all living organisms, including humans. Contents of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) were analyzed in Betula sp. (birch) and Tillia sp. (lime) within the Bor region with the aim to investigate the bioaccumulation of these highly toxic, nonessential trace elements in selected plants, which may be important for biomonitoring and bioremediation purposes. The results of statistical data analysis showed that several factors influenced the bioaccumulation of trace elements in the examined plants, of which soil pH, soil content, and mechanism of accumulation were the main factors. The greatest As and Cd concentrations were found in plant material from the Bor center sampling site in the urban/industrial zone, which is in close proximity to the pollution source, due to the greatest metal concentrations in soil and the lowest soil pH. The low values of biological accumulation coefficients (bioconcentration factor mobility ratio <1) pointed to a low rate of uptake and accumulation of As and Cd in lime and birch. Trace elements showed different patterns of behavior and accumulation in the trees. Lime showed a high ability of assimilation through leaves, whereas birch showed a better potential to express a linear correlation between concentrations in plant parts and soil. PMID:23963120

  11. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of countries, including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, and the United States of America. Drinking-water, ... ingestion of inorganic arsenic include developmental effects, neurotoxicity, diabetes, pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Arsenic-induced myocardial ...

  12. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skröder, Helena [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hawkesworth, Sophie [Medical Research Council (MRC), International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. (United Kingdom); Kippler, Maria [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Arifeen, Shams [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Wagatsuma, Yukiko [Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. (Japan); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  13. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m2, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  14. Arsenic, cadmium, mercury and nickel stimulate cell growth via NADPH oxidase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Bardbori, Afshin; Rannug, Agneta

    2014-11-10

    Exposure to metals and metalloids including arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and nickel has been a worldwide health problem for several decades. The aim of this study was to learn how metal-induced oxidative stress triggers cell proliferation, a process of great significance for cancer. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity and cell proliferation were measured as endpoints in both NOX-deficient and NOX-proficient cells. The X chromosome linked CGD (X-CGD) human promyelocytic leukemia PLB-985 cells lacking gp91phox and the X-CGD cells re-transfected with gp91phox (X-CGD-gp91(phox)) were used together with immortalized human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). The cells were exposed to different concentrations of the metals alone or together with the NOX inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI). We found that the studied metals increased NOX activity. They stimulated cell proliferation in HaCaT and X-CGD-gp91(phox) cells at concentrations below 1μM but not in the X-CGD cells that lack functional NOX. Addition of DPI attenuated the metal-induced cell proliferation. At concentrations above 1μM these metals inhibited cell proliferation. Based on these findings, we propose that many environmental pollutants, including metals and also endogenous NOX-activators such as oxidants and growth factors, interfere with cell growth kinetics by increasing the levels of the diffusible molecule H2O2. Here, we provide evidence that NOXs is central to the mechanism of metal-mediated reactive oxygen species production and stimulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25446860

  15. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values - those to be compared with the limit/target values - fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. PMID:26950629

  16. In vivo xenoestrogenic actions of cadmium and arsenic in anterior pituitary and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Novack, Gisela V; Bianchi, María S; Crocco, Melisa C; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (iAs) are toxic metals ubiquitously present in the environment. Both pollutants exert nonmonotonic dose responses, being mostly cytotoxic at high concentrations but mimicking estrogen (E2) effects at low doses. Xenoestrogenic activity of Cd and iAs has been demonstrated in different hormone-dependent tumor cell lines; however, their actions in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether in vivo administration of low doses of Cd and iAs through drinking water would display xenoestrogenic effects in the anterior pituitary gland and uterus of ovariectomized rats. Cd (1ppm) and iAs (0.1ppm) exposure increased the wet weight of anterior pituitary gland and uterus and induced proestrus- and estrus-like vaginal smears. Both metals stimulate cell proliferation of these tissues as they increased the expression of proliferation markers. More importantly, they augmented soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 subunit expression, which has been linked to hormone-dependent tumor progression. Also, Cd and iAs modified protein levels of full-length estrogen receptor α and its truncated variants in an E2-like manner. Anterior pituitary hormone secretion was differentially affected by both metals. Luteinizing hormone synthesis and release were strongly diminished after Cd exposure and only mildly reduced by iAs. Both metals were able to increase prolactin synthesis, although only iAs augmented serum prolactin levels. This study shows for the first time that Cd and iAs exert strong xenoestrogenic effects on anterior pituitary gland at low doses. The differences between Cd and iAs E2-like behavior indicate that other Cd- and iAs-specific mechanisms could be involved. Altogether, these results contribute to the knowledge of reproductive disorders associated with Cd and iAs environmental contamination. PMID:27256631

  17. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengjie Hu; Younan Ouyang; Longhua Wu; Libo Shen; Yongming Luo; Peter Christie

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water regimes on the speciation and accumulation of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Brazilian upland rice growing in soils polluted with both As and Cd.In the pot experiment constant and intermittent flooding treatments gave 3-16 times higher As concentrations in soil solution than did aerobic conditions but Cd showed the opposite trend.Compared to arsenate,there were more marked changes in the arsenite concentrations in the soil solution as water management shifted,and therefore arsenite concentrations dominated the As speciation and bioavailability in the soil.In the field experiment As concentrations in the rice grains increased from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg while Cd concentrations decreased from 0.21 to 0.02 mg/kg with increasing irrigation ranging from aerobic to constantly flooding conditions.Among the various water regimes the conventional irrigation treatment produced the highest rice grain yield of 6.29 tons/ha.The As speciation analysis reveals that the accumulation of dimethylarsinic acid (from 11.3% to 61.7%) made a greater contribution to the increase in total As in brown rice in the intermittent and constant flooding treatments compared to the intermittent-aerobic treatment.Thus,water management exerted opposite effects on Cd and As speciation and bioavailability in the soil and consequently on their accumulation in the upland rice.Special care is required when irrigation regime methods are employed to mitigate the accumulation of metal(loid)s in the grain of rice grown in soils polluted with both As and Cd.

  18. Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in canned sardines commercially available in eastern Kentucky, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Total As, Cd, Pb and Hg in canned sardines within ranges of other studies. → As highest in samples from Norway (1.87 μg/g) and Thailand (1.63 μg/g). → Cd highest in Moroccan (0.07 μg/g), Pb in Canadian (0.27 μg/g); Hg not detected. → Lack of established limits for As and Cd in fish restricts interpretation of results. → Rise of small pelagics in human diet warrants more scrutiny on their metal content. - Abstract: Seventeen samples of canned sardines, originating from six countries and sold in eastern Kentucky, USA, were analyzed in composites of 3-4 fish each for total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and for mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition amalgamation and AAS. Results in μg/g wet: As 0.49-1.87 (mean: 1.06), Cd < 0.01-0.07 (0.03), Pb < 0.06-0.27 (0.11), Hg ND < 0.09. Values fall generally within readings reported by others, but no internationally agreed upon guidelines have yet been set for As or Cd in canned or fresh fish. The incidence of cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with As ingestion is extraordinarily high here. With the role of food-borne As in human illness presently under scrutiny and its maximum allowable limits in fish being reviewed, more studies of this nature are recommended, especially considering the potential importance of small pelagic fishes as future seafood of choice.

  19. Roles of biomarkers in evaluating interactions among mixtures of lead, cadmium and arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human exposure to environmental chemicals is most correctly characterized as exposure to mixtures of these agents. The metals/metalloids, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), are among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. Exposure to these elements, particularly at chronic low dose levels, is still a major public health concern. Concurrent exposure to Pb, Cd, or As may produce additive or synergistic interactions or even new effects that are not seen in single component exposures. Evaluating these interactions on a mechanistic basis is essential for risk assessment and management of metal/metalloid mixtures. This paper will review a number of individual studies that addressed interactions of these metals/metalloids in both experimental and human exposure studies with particular emphasis on biomarkers. In general, co-exposure to metal/metalloid mixtures produced more severe effects at both relatively high dose and low dose levels in a biomarker-specific manner. These effects were found to be mediated by dose, duration of exposure and genetic factors. While traditional endpoints, such as morphological changes and biochemical parameters for target organ toxicity, were effective measures for evaluating the toxicity of high dose metal/metalloid mixtures, biomarkers for oxidative stress, altered heme biosynthesis parameters, and stress proteins showed clear responses in evaluating toxicity of low dose metal/metalloid mixtures. Metallothionein, heat shock proteins, and glutathione are involved in regulating interactive effects of metal/metalloid mixtures at low dose levels. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these metal/metalloid mixtures utilizing biomarker endpoints are highly warranted

  20. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoohiyan Sakine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods. In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As were determined in 105 black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions. The amount of heavy metals in black tea infusions were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP - AES. The mean ± SD level of Pb in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.802 ± 0.633, 0.993 ± 0.667 and 1.367 ± 1.06 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of Cd in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.135 ± 0.274, 0.244 ± 0.46 and 0.343 ± 0.473 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of As in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.277 ± 0.272, 0.426 ± 0.402 and 0.563 ± 0.454 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. Also, the results showed that the locations and the infusion times influenced upon the amount of these metals (P 

  1. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Emerging Market Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Horton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  2. Removal of arsenic and cadmium with sequential soil washing techniques using Na2EDTA, oxalic and phosphoric acid: Optimization conditions, removal effectiveness and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meng; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-08-01

    Testing of sequential soil washing in triplicate using typical chelating agent (Na2EDTA), organic acid (oxalic acid) and inorganic weak acid (phosphoric acid) was conducted to remediate soil contaminated by heavy metals close to a mining area. The aim of the testing was to improve removal efficiency and reduce mobility of heavy metals. The sequential extraction procedure and further speciation analysis of heavy metals demonstrated that the primary components of arsenic and cadmium in the soil were residual As (O-As) and exchangeable fraction, which accounted for 60% and 70% of total arsenic and cadmium, respectively. It was determined that soil washing agents and their washing order were critical to removal efficiencies of metal fractions, metal bioavailability and potential mobility due to different levels of dissolution of residual fractions and inter-transformation of metal fractions. The optimal soil washing option for arsenic and cadmium was identified as phosphoric-oxalic acid-Na2EDTA sequence (POE) based on the high removal efficiency (41.9% for arsenic and 89.6% for cadmium) and the minimal harmful effects of the mobility and bioavailability of the remaining heavy metals. PMID:27179243

  3. Sorption–bioavailability nexus of arsenic and cadmium in variable-charge soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Demonstrates the nexus between sorption and bioavailability of As and Cd in variable-charge soils. ► Liming variable-charge soils increase negative charge, thereby decreasing Cd bioavailability. ► Ageing of As and Cd increases their immobilization, thereby decreasing bioavailability. ► Phosphate enhances desorption and phytoavailability of As from sheep dip soil. ► Metal(loid)s transfer to food chain can be managed by controlling sorption reactions. -- Abstract: In this work, the nexus between sorption and bioavailability of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) as affected by soil type, soil pH, ageing, and mobilizing agents were examined. The adsorption of As and Cd was examined using a number of allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their charge components. The effect of pH and ageing on the bioavailability of As and Cd was examined using spiked soils in a plant growth experiment. The effect of phosphate (P)-induced mobility of As on its bioavailability was examined using a naturally contaminated sheep dip soil. The results indicated that the adsorption of both As and Cd varied amongst the soils, and the difference in Cd adsorption is attributed to the difference in surface charge. An increase in soil pH increased net negative charge by an average of 45.7 mmol/kg/pH thereby increasing cation (Cd) adsorption; whereas, the effect of pH on anion (As) adsorption was inconsistent. The bioavailability of As and Cd decreased by 3.31- and 2.30-fold, respectively, with ageing which may be attributed to increased immobilization. Phosphate addition increased the mobility and bioavailability of As by 4.34- and 3.35-fold, respectively, in the sheep dip soil. However, the net effect of P on As phytoavailability depends on the extent of P-induced As mobilization in soils and P-induced competition for As uptake by roots. The results demonstrate the nexus between sorption and bioavailability of As and Cd in soils, indicating that the effects of

  4. Sorption–bioavailability nexus of arsenic and cadmium in variable-charge soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolan, Nanthi, E-mail: Nanthi.Bolan@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation in the Environment, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA (Australia); Mahimairaja, Santiago [Department of Environmental Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India); Kunhikrishnan, Anitha [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation in the Environment, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Demonstrates the nexus between sorption and bioavailability of As and Cd in variable-charge soils. ► Liming variable-charge soils increase negative charge, thereby decreasing Cd bioavailability. ► Ageing of As and Cd increases their immobilization, thereby decreasing bioavailability. ► Phosphate enhances desorption and phytoavailability of As from sheep dip soil. ► Metal(loid)s transfer to food chain can be managed by controlling sorption reactions. -- Abstract: In this work, the nexus between sorption and bioavailability of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) as affected by soil type, soil pH, ageing, and mobilizing agents were examined. The adsorption of As and Cd was examined using a number of allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their charge components. The effect of pH and ageing on the bioavailability of As and Cd was examined using spiked soils in a plant growth experiment. The effect of phosphate (P)-induced mobility of As on its bioavailability was examined using a naturally contaminated sheep dip soil. The results indicated that the adsorption of both As and Cd varied amongst the soils, and the difference in Cd adsorption is attributed to the difference in surface charge. An increase in soil pH increased net negative charge by an average of 45.7 mmol/kg/pH thereby increasing cation (Cd) adsorption; whereas, the effect of pH on anion (As) adsorption was inconsistent. The bioavailability of As and Cd decreased by 3.31- and 2.30-fold, respectively, with ageing which may be attributed to increased immobilization. Phosphate addition increased the mobility and bioavailability of As by 4.34- and 3.35-fold, respectively, in the sheep dip soil. However, the net effect of P on As phytoavailability depends on the extent of P-induced As mobilization in soils and P-induced competition for As uptake by roots. The results demonstrate the nexus between sorption and bioavailability of As and Cd in soils, indicating that the effects of

  5. A 1500-year record of lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium, zinc level in Antarctic seal hairs and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reconstruct the profiles of heavy metal levels in the South Ocean ecosystem of Antarctica, the concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in seal hairs and lake sediments spanning the past 1500 years from Fildes Peninsula of King George Island and in weathering lake sediments from Nelson Island of West Antarctica were determined. The lead contents in the seal hairs and the weathering sediments show a sharp increase since the late 1800s, very likely due to anthropogenic contamination from modern industries. After the 1980s, the Pb content in seal hairs dropped by one-third, apparently due to the reduced usage of leaded gasoline in the Southern Hemisphere. Copper arises mainly from the weathering process, and its level may be substantially affected by climatic conditions. The concentrations of Cd, As, and Zn do not show any clear temporal trends

  6. A 1500-year record of lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium, zinc level in Antarctic seal hairs and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Xuebin [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008 (China); Liu Xiaodong [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun Liguang [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) and CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: slg@ustc.edu.cn; Zhu Renbin [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xie Zhouqing [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang Yuhong [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    To reconstruct the profiles of heavy metal levels in the South Ocean ecosystem of Antarctica, the concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in seal hairs and lake sediments spanning the past 1500 years from Fildes Peninsula of King George Island and in weathering lake sediments from Nelson Island of West Antarctica were determined. The lead contents in the seal hairs and the weathering sediments show a sharp increase since the late 1800s, very likely due to anthropogenic contamination from modern industries. After the 1980s, the Pb content in seal hairs dropped by one-third, apparently due to the reduced usage of leaded gasoline in the Southern Hemisphere. Copper arises mainly from the weathering process, and its level may be substantially affected by climatic conditions. The concentrations of Cd, As, and Zn do not show any clear temporal trends.

  7. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5–15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6–13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. - Highlights: • We evaluated the association between As, Cd and Mn with neurodevelopment in

  8. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); Lacasaña, Marina, E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre Superior d' Investigació en Salut Pública, Conselleria de Sanitat, Valencia (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Biology and Public Health, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); González-Alzaga, Beatriz [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); Rojas-García, Antonio [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5–15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6–13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. - Highlights: • We evaluated the association between As, Cd and Mn with neurodevelopment in

  9. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1-4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m(2)) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m(2)) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m(2)) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. PMID:25462679

  10. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  11. Geochemical Fractionations and Mobility of Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in Sediments of the Kanto Plain, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sushmita; Oguchi, Chiaki T.; Hachinohe, Shoichi; Ishiyama, Takashi; Hamamoto, Hideki

    2014-05-01

    Lowland alluvial and floodplain sediment play a major role in transferring heavy metals and other elements to groundwater through sediment water interaction in changing environmental conditions. However identification of geochemical forms of toxic elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) requires risk assessment of sediment and subsequent groundwater pollution. A four steps sequential extraction procedure was applied to characterize the geochemical fractionations of As, Pb and Cd for 44 sediment samples including one peat sample from middle basin area of the Nakagawa river in the central Kanto plain. The studied sediment profile extended from the bottom of the river to 44 m depth; sediment samples were collected at 1m intervals from a bored core. The existing sedimentary facies in vertical profile are continental, transitional and marine. There are two aquifers in vertical profile; the upper aquifer (15-20m) contains fine to medium sand whereas medium to coarse sand and gravelly sand contain in lower aquifer (37-44m). The total As and Pb contents were measured by the X-Ray Fluorescence analysis which ranged from 4 to 23 mg/kg of As and 10 to 27 mg/kg of Pb in sediment profile. The three trace elements and major heavy metals were determined by ICP/MS and ICP/AES, and major ions were measured by an ion chromatograph. The marine sediment is mainly Ca-SO4 type. The Geochemical analysis showed the order of mobility trends to be As > Pb > Cd for all the steps. The geochemical fractionations order was determined to be Fe-Mn oxide bound > carbonate bound > ion exchangeable > water soluble for As and Pb whereas the order for Cd is carbonate bound > Fe-Mn oxide bound > ion exchangeable > water soluble. The mobility tendency of Pb and Cd showed high in fine silty sediment of marine environment than for those from continental and transitional environments. In the case of As, the potential mobility is very high (>60%) in the riverbed sediments and clayey silt

  12. Potential of Pteris vittata L. for phytoremediation of sites co-contaminated with cadmium and arsenic: The tolerance and accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Field investigation and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the tolerance of Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) to cadmium (Cd) and its feasibility for remediating sites co-contaminated with Cd and arsenic (As). The results showed that P. vittata could survive in pot soils spiked with 80 mg/kg of Cd and tolerated as great as 301 mg/kg of total Cd and 26.8 mg/kg of diethyltriaminepenta acetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd under field conditions. The highest concentration of Cd in fronds was 186 mg/kg under a total soil concentration of 920 mg As/kg and 98.6 mg Cd/kg in the field, whereas just 2.6 mg/kg under greenhouse conditions. Ecotypes of P. vittata were differentiated in tolerance and accumulation of Cd, and some of them could not only tolerate high concentrations of soil Cd, but also accumulated high concentrations of Cd in their fronds. Arsenic uptake and transportation by P. vittata was not inhibited at lower levels (( 20 mg/kg) of Cd addition. Compared to the treatment without addition of Cd, the frond As concentration was increased by 103.8% at 20 mg Cd/kg, with the highest level of 6434 mg/kg. The results suggested that the Cd-tolerant ecotype of P. vittata extracted effectively As and Cd from the site co-contaminated with Cd and As, and might be used to remediate and revegetate this type of site.

  13. Comparative investigations of sodium arsenite, arsenic trioxide and cadmium sulphate in combination with gamma-radiation on apoptosis, micronuclei induction and DNA damage in a human lymphoblastoid cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of radiation protection the combined exposure to radiation and other toxic agents is recognised as an important research area. To elucidate the basic mechanisms of simultaneous exposure, the interaction of the carcinogens and environmental toxicants cadmium and two arsenic compounds, arsenite and arsenic trioxide, in combination with gamma-radiation in human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6) were investigated. Gamma-radiation induced significant genotoxic effects such as micronuclei formation, DNA damage and apoptosis, whereas arsenic and cadmium had no significant effect on these indicators of cellular damage at non-toxic concentrations. However, in combination with gamma-radiation arsenic trioxide induced a more than additive apoptotic rate compared to the sum of the single effects. Here, the level of apoptotic cells was increased, in a dose-dependent way, up to two-fold compared to the irradiated control cells. Arsenite did not induce a significant additive effect at any of the concentrations or radiation doses tested. On the other hand, arsenic trioxide was less effective than arsenite in the induction of DNA protein cross-links. These data indicate that the two arsenic compounds interact through different pathways in the cell. Cadmium sulphate, like arsenite, had no significant effect on apoptosis in combination with gamma-radiation at low concentrations and, at high concentrations, even reduced the radiation-induced apoptosis. An additive effect on micronuclei induction was observed with 1 μM cadmium sulphate with an increase of up to 80% compared to the irradiated control cells. Toxic concentrations of cadmium and arsenic trioxide seemed to reduce micronuclei induction. The results presented here indicate that relatively low concentrations of arsenic and cadmium, close to those occurring in nature, may interfere with radiation effects. Differences in action of the two arsenic compounds were identified

  14. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30 μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  15. Evaluation of Cadmium Ratio and Foil Activation Measurements for a Beryllium-Reflected Assembly of U(93.15)O2 Fuel Rods (1.506-cm Triangular Pitch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were completed from 1962 to 1965 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiments (MPRE) program. Initial experiments, performed in November and December of 1962, consisted of a core of un-moderated stainless-steel tubes, each containing 26 UOIdaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States) fuel pellets, surrounded by a graphite reflector. Measurements were performed to determine critical reflector arrangements, fission-rate distributions, and cadmium ratio distributions. The graphite reflectors were then changed to beryllium reflectors. For the beryllium reflected assemblies, the fuel was in 1.506-cm-triangular and 7-tube clusters leading to two critical configurations. Once the critical configurations had been achieved, various measurements of reactivity, relative axial and radial activation rates of 235U, and cadmium ratios were performed. The cadmium ratio, reactivity, and activation rate measurements, performed on the 1.506-cm-array critical configuration, have been evaluated and are described in this paper

  16. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beesley, Luke, E-mail: l.beesley@2007.ljmu.ac.u [Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas [Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  17. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m2) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m2) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m2) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions (206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust

  18. Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Accumulation in Water, Sediments and Fish Species of Oueme River in Bonou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guedenon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the level of contamination of Oueme river with heavy metals and raise awareness of the local population regarding heavy metals pollution and its risks for health, assessment of toxic metals (cadmium, lead, copper and arsenic was carried out in water, sediments and fish species samples of Oueme River in Bonou municipality located in the south of Benin. The study was carried out in 2011. Except for water, sediments and fish samples were mineralized before the analysis with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mean concentrations of heavy metals in water rose from ND to 1.0 mg/L in the case of lead and 4.41 to 10.23 mg/L for arsenic. In water, copper showed low concentrations in all locations and most of the values of cadmium were below the detectable limits. The mean concentrations in the sediments were: Cd (0.01 to 22.07 mg/Kg; Pb (2.73 to 20.12 mg/Kg; Cu (7.84 to 58.96 mg/Kg and As (0.01 to 870.03 mg/Kg. In fish, the concentrations were expressed in mg/Kg. Clarias gariepinus is the most polluted species with high levels in Cd, Pb, Cu and As (2.31±1.44; 2.09±1.29; 15.10±6.34; 13.90±7.88, respectively. The mean concentrations of heavy metals recorded in Parachanna obstura are 1.34±0.65; 1.17±0.79; 2.72±2.19; 4.11±3.56, respectively for Cd, Pb, Cu and As, respectively. In Tilapia guineensis were recorded Cd: 1.53±0.97; Pb: 1.56±1.27; Cu: 0.91±0.58 and As: 7.56±2.41. The implication of this finding is that the consumption of water and fishes of Oueme River by man could lead to health hazards induced by heavy metals.

  19. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  20. The assembly of metals chelation by thiols and vacuolar compartmentalization conferred increased tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium and arsenic in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous transformation of AsPCS1 and ScYCF1 into Arabidopsis thaliana which is sensitive to heavy metals, leads to transgenic plants tolerant to Arsenic and cadmium. ► Dual-gene transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher accumulation of Arsenic and cadmium than single and non-transgenic plants. ► Our results proved that improved thiol peptides synthesis and vacuolar compartmentation in plant dramatically boosted the survival rates of plants when exposed to heavy metals. ► A new strategy for efficient phytoremediation of heavy metals by stacking genes transformation in plants was developed in this article. - Abstract: Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to increase tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids by simultaneous overexpression of AsPCS1 and YCF1 (derived from garlic and baker's yeast) based on the fact that chelation of metals and vacuolar compartmentalization are the main strategies for heavy metals/metalloids detoxification and tolerance in plants. Dual-gene transgenic lines had the longest roots and the highest accumulation of Cd and As than single-gene transgenic lines and wildtype. When grown on cadmium or arsenic (arsenite/arsenate), Dual-gene transgenic lines accumulated over 2–10 folds cadmium/arsenite and 2–3 folds arsenate than wild type or plants expressing AsPCS1 or YCF1 alone. Such stacking modified genes involved in chelation of toxic metals and vacuolar compartmentalization represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts.

  1. The assembly of metals chelation by thiols and vacuolar compartmentalization conferred increased tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium and arsenic in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiangbo [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Biomass-Energy Conversion, The Institute of Bioengineering and Technology, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 040100 (China); Xu, Wenzhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Ma, Mi, E-mail: mami@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous transformation of AsPCS1 and ScYCF1 into Arabidopsis thaliana which is sensitive to heavy metals, leads to transgenic plants tolerant to Arsenic and cadmium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dual-gene transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher accumulation of Arsenic and cadmium than single and non-transgenic plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results proved that improved thiol peptides synthesis and vacuolar compartmentation in plant dramatically boosted the survival rates of plants when exposed to heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new strategy for efficient phytoremediation of heavy metals by stacking genes transformation in plants was developed in this article. - Abstract: Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to increase tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids by simultaneous overexpression of AsPCS1 and YCF1 (derived from garlic and baker's yeast) based on the fact that chelation of metals and vacuolar compartmentalization are the main strategies for heavy metals/metalloids detoxification and tolerance in plants. Dual-gene transgenic lines had the longest roots and the highest accumulation of Cd and As than single-gene transgenic lines and wildtype. When grown on cadmium or arsenic (arsenite/arsenate), Dual-gene transgenic lines accumulated over 2-10 folds cadmium/arsenite and 2-3 folds arsenate than wild type or plants expressing AsPCS1 or YCF1 alone. Such stacking modified genes involved in chelation of toxic metals and vacuolar compartmentalization represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts.

  2. Environmental availability and profile characteristics of arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated vegetable soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jie; GUO Zhao-hui; XIAO Xi-yuan; MIAO Xu-feng; WANG Feng-yong

    2009-01-01

    Environmental availability and profile characteristics of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were studied in contaminated vegetable soils from the Pb/Zn mining and smelting areas in Hunan Province of China, and the potential environmental risks of these metals were also assessed. The results show that the concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Zn in vegetable soils are higher than the levels of Soil Environmental Quality of China (GB15618-1995). The mobility of metals in soil profiles is mainly characterized by the low pH and organic matter content of soil. The major part of As, Cd, Pb and Zn is restricted to the upper soils and the contamination of these metals in soils is significantly influenced by the long-term Pb/Zn mining and smelting activities. Based on the results from the BCR sequential extraction, the fraction of Cd in the soil profiles is predominantly existed in the acid-extractable form and the large amount of Pb is closely associated with reducible fraction. The environmental availability of Cd and Pb is predominantly higher than that of As and Zn in the soil profiles, suggesting Cd and Pb have more huge potential risk for human health and surrounding environment.

  3. Accumulation and potential health risks of cadmium, lead and arsenic in vegetables grown near mining sites in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Anh T K; Nguyen, Ha T H; Nguyen, Minh N; Tran, Tuyet-Hanh T; Vu, Toan V; Nguyen, Chuyen H; Reynolds, Heather L

    2016-09-01

    The effect of environmental pollution on the safety of vegetable crops is a serious global public health issue. This study was conducted to assess heavy metal concentrations in soil, irrigation water, and 21 local vegetable species collected from four sites near mining activities and one control site in Northern Vietnam. Soils from vegetable fields in the mining areas were contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As), while irrigation water was contaminated with Pb. Average concentrations of Pb and As in fresh vegetable samples collected at the four mining sites exceeded maximum levels (MLs) set by international food standards for Pb (70.6 % of vegetable samples) and As (44.1 % of vegetable samples), while average Cd concentrations in vegetables at all sites were below the MLs of 0.2. The average total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) across all vegetable species sampled was higher than the safety threshold of 1.0, indicating a health risk. Based on the weight of evidence, we find that cultivation of vegetables in the studied mining sites is an important risk contributor for local residents' health. PMID:27542667

  4. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of two toxic elements, arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC50) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC50 for As was 0.97 μM in hydroponics and 196 mg kg-1 in soil, and 4.32 μM and 449 mg kg-1 for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC50mix = 0.36TUmix and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC50mix = 1.49TUmix and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd cannot explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments

  5. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Qing [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Hu Qinhong [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Khan, Sardan [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Peshawar, 25120 Peshawar (Pakistan); Wang Zijian [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Lin Aijun [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Du Xin [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn

    2007-09-05

    The toxicity of two toxic elements, arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC{sub 50} for As was 0.97 {mu}M in hydroponics and 196 mg kg{sup -1} in soil, and 4.32 {mu}M and 449 mg kg{sup -1} for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC{sub 50mix} = 0.36TU{sub mix} and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC{sub 50mix} = 1.49TU{sub mix} and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd cannot explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments.

  6. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Q; Hu, Q; Khan, S; Wang, Z; Lin, A; Du, X; Zhu, Y

    2007-03-05

    The toxicity effect of two deleterious elements of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC{sub 50} for As was 0.97 {mu}M in hydroponics and 196 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} in soil, and 4.32 {mu}M and 449 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC{sub 50mix} = 0.36 TU{sub mix} and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC{sub 50mix} = 1.49 TU{sub mix} and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd can not explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments.

  7. Beryllium allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is not only a high potent allergen, but also a fotoallergen and can provoke contact allergic reactions, fotoallergic reactions, granulomatous skin reactions, pulmonary granulomatous diseases and sometimes even systemic diseases. The authors present 9 own cases of a patch test positive beryllium allergy, 7 patients with relevant allergy and 5 patients with an allergic contact stomatitis. (author)

  8. A baseline study of levels of mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Highest concentration of Hg was found in the western part of the Barents Sea. ► The Hg concentrations were well below the maximum level of 0.5 mg kg−1 ► Arsenic concentrations varied greatly ranging from 0.3 to 170 mg kg−1 ww. ► Shrimp seems to be the most important prey for cod with high concentration of As. - Abstract: This study is one of several baseline studies that will provide basic and reliable information about the content of undesirable substances in important species of fish caught in Norwegian waters. Concentrations of metals in the muscle and liver of more than 800 Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 sites in the Barents Sea are reported. The highest concentration of both mercury in the muscle and cadmium in the liver was found in cod caught in the western part of the Barents Sea, while the highest concentration of total arsenic was found in cod from the eastern part. The arsenic concentrations varied greatly among individual fish, ranging from 0.3 to 170 mg kg−1 wet weight in the muscle. Such high levels of total arsenic have never previously been reported in any fish, and the primary factor for these high concentrations is likely to be the shrimp in the cod diet

  9. Concentrations of Mercury, Lead, Chromium, Cadmium, Arsenic and Aluminum in Irrigation Water Wells and Wastewaters Used for Agriculture in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadeghi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water by toxic chemicals has become commonly recognized as an environmental concern. Based on our clinical observation in Mashhad, northeastern Iran, many people might be at risk of exposure to high concentrations of toxic heavy metals in water. Because wastewater effluents as well as water wells have been commonly used for irrigation over the past decades, there has been some concern on the toxic metal exposure of crops and vegetables irrigated with the contaminated water.Objective: To measure the concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium in irrigation water wells and wastewaters used for agriculture in Mashhad, northeastern Iran.Methods: 36 samples were taken from irrigation water wells and a wastewater refinery in North of Mashhad at four times—May 2008, March 2009, and June and July 2010. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of toxic metals. Graphite furnace was used for the measurement of lead, chromium, cadmium and aluminum. Mercury and arsenic concentrations were measured by mercury/hydride system.Results: Chromium, cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations in the samples were within the standard range. The mean±SD concentration of mercury in irrigation wells (1.02±0.40 μg/L exceeded the FAO maximum permissible levels. The aluminum concentration in irrigation water varied significantly from month to month (p=0.03. All wastewater samples contained high mercury concentrations (6.64±2.53 μg/L.Conclusion: For high mercury and aluminum concentrations, the water sources studied should not be used for agricultural use. Regular monitoring of the level of heavy metals in water and employing the necessary environmental interventions in this area are strongly recommended.

  10. Effects of arsenic and cadmium on bioaccessibility of lead in spiked soils assessed by Unified BARGE Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Peng, Cheng; Lamb, Dane; Kader, Mohammed; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi; Ng, Jack C

    2016-07-01

    The bioaccessibility of lead (Pb) in contaminated soils has been extensively studied, including the influence of soil properties on Pb bioaccessibility. However, little is known about the effects of other metals/metalloid, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) on the bioaccessibility of Pb, i.e. whether As or Cd could increase or decrease the solubility of Pb in human gastrointestinal tract when Pb-contaminated soil and As-contaminated (or Cd-contaminated) soil are ingested simultaneously. Furthermore, it is far from clear that if soil property could make a difference to these effects. In this study, seven types of soils were collected in Australia and spiked with As, Cd or Pb. Gastric bioaccessibility of Pb ranged from 44 ± 0.9% to 100 ± 6.7% whilst intestinal bioaccessibility dropped to 1 ± 0.2% to 36 ± 1.7%. Statistical analysis shows total Pb in soil was the most significant controller for bioaccessible Pb. Effects of As and Cd on the bioaccessibility of Pb in simulated human digestive system were studied by mixing As-spiked soil (or Cd-spiked soil) with Pb-spiked soil of the same type during bioaccessibility test. Results reveal that neither As nor Cd had impact on Pb bioaccessibility, which indicates when As, Cd and Pb aged in soils separately, they may behave independently in the bioaccessibility measuring system. This finding can be part of evidence to assume additive effect when it comes to estimate the bioaccessibility of mixtures of independently-aged As and Pb (or Cd and Pb) in soils. PMID:27062001

  11. A preliminary evaluation of some soil and plant parameters that influence root uptake of arsenic, cadmium, cooper, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of site-specific data, the concentration of metals in plants is typically estimated by multiplying the total concentration of metal in soil by a metal-specific soil-to-root bioconcentration factor (BCF). However, this approach does not account for various soil properties, such as pH, organic matter content, and cation exchange capacity, that are known to influence root uptake of some metals. For risk assessment purposes, a simple, predictive method for estimating root uptake of metals that is based on site-specific soil and crop data is needed so that the importance of the produce ingestion pathway and subsequent influence on human exposure can be quantitatively assessed. An easy-to-use method is necessary since collecting site-specific data on the concentration of metals in home-grown produce is often time-consuming and costly. Ideally, it should be possible to develop a statistically-reliable relationship between plant and soil metals levels that includes appropriate weighing factors for various soil properties. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop simple, predictive models for estimating the concentration of metals in plants via root uptake using site-specific soil data. This paper presents preliminary predictive equations for estimating root uptake of arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc in fruiting, root, and all vegetables combined (i.e., fruiting and root crop data were combined). Results show that by using data on additional soil parameters (other than relying solely on the concentration of metals in soil), the concentration of metals in fruiting and root vegetables can be more confidently predicted

  12. A preliminary evaluation of some soil and plant parameters that influence root uptake of arsenic, cadmium, cooper, and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Krieger, G.R.; Lau, V. [Dames & Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In the absence of site-specific data, the concentration of metals in plants is typically estimated by multiplying the total concentration of metal in soil by a metal-specific soil-to-root bioconcentration factor (BCF). However, this approach does not account for various soil properties, such as pH, organic matter content, and cation exchange capacity, that are known to influence root uptake of some metals. For risk assessment purposes, a simple, predictive method for estimating root uptake of metals that is based on site-specific soil and crop data is needed so that the importance of the produce ingestion pathway and subsequent influence on human exposure can be quantitatively assessed. An easy-to-use method is necessary since collecting site-specific data on the concentration of metals in home-grown produce is often time-consuming and costly. Ideally, it should be possible to develop a statistically-reliable relationship between plant and soil metals levels that includes appropriate weighing factors for various soil properties. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop simple, predictive models for estimating the concentration of metals in plants via root uptake using site-specific soil data. This paper presents preliminary predictive equations for estimating root uptake of arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc in fruiting, root, and all vegetables combined (i.e., fruiting and root crop data were combined). Results show that by using data on additional soil parameters (other than relying solely on the concentration of metals in soil), the concentration of metals in fruiting and root vegetables can be more confidently predicted.

  13. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Tokar, Erik J. [National Toxicology Program Laboratory, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Merrick, B. Alex [Molecular Toxicology and Informatics Group, Biomolecular Screening Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Morrisville, NC 27560 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P., E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov [National Toxicology Program Laboratory, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  14. Contents and mass balances of cadmium and arsenic in a wastewater-fed fish pond of Hoang Mai, Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Helle; Ha, Le Thai; Polprasert, Chongrak; Holm, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater-fed aquatic production has been practiced since the 1960s in peri-urban Hanoi. Wastewater is used as a cheap and reliable source of both water and nutrients but there is a risk that it may lead to accumulation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the production systems and produce and thereby constitute a food safety risk. This study investigates the cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) concentrations in water, sediment, plant and fish of a wastewater fed-fish pond in Hoang Mai district, Hanoi, Vietnam. Cd concentrations in the water were lower than the Vietnamese quality guidelines (0.8-1.8 μg Cd/L) for protection of aquatic life but As concentrations in inlet and outlet water of 44.3 and 21.3 μg/L, respectively both were higher that the guidelines (20 μg As/L) and may cause toxicity to fish in the pond and the surrounding vegetable farms using the outlet water for irrigation. The concentrations of Cd and As in fish and Cd in water spinach did not constitute a food safety risk. However, As concentrations in water spinach may be of concern. A mass balance estimate for the fish pond showed that about 12% of the incoming As accumulate in suspended particular matters, 40% settle down to the sediment, less than 0.1% accumulate in the fish and water spinach and 48% overflow with the pond effluent. The concentrations of Cd were too low to make a mass balance for the fish pond. PMID:22934996

  15. Efficiency evaluation for remediating paddy soil contaminated with cadmium and arsenic using water management, variety screening and foliage dressing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guojian; Wu, Qianhua; Feng, Renwei; Guo, Junkang; Wang, Ruigang; Xu, Yingming; Ding, Yongzhen; Fan, Zhilian; Mo, Liangyu

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soils in many regions of China have been seriously polluted by multiple heavy metals or metalloids, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In order to ensure the safety of food and take full advantage of the limited farmland resources of China, exploring an effective technology to repair contaminated soils is urgent and necessary. In this study, three technologies were employed, including variety screening, water management and foliage dressing, to assess their abilities to reduce the accumulation of Cd and As in the grains of different rice varieties, and meanwhile monitor the related yields. The results of variety screening under insufficient field drying condition showed that the As and Cd contents in the grains of only four varieties [Fengliangyouxiang 1 (P6), Zhongzheyou 8 (P7), Guangliangyou 1128 (P10), Y-liangyou 696 (P11)] did not exceed their individual national standard. P6 gained a relatively high grain yield but accumulated less As and Cd in the grains despite of the relatively high As and Cd concentrations in the rhizosphere soil. However, long-playing field drying in water management trial significantly increased Cd but decreased As content in the grains of all tested three varieties including P6, suggesting an important role of water supply in controlling the accumulation of grain As and Cd. Selenium (Se) showed a stronger ability than silicon (Si) to reduce As and Cd accumulation in the grains of Fengliangyou 4 (P2) and Teyou 524 (P13), and keep the yields. The results of this study suggest that combined application of water management and foliage dressing may be an efficient way to control As and Cd accumulation in the grains of paddy rice exposing to As- and Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:26807822

  16. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  17. A rapid method for simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium and lead in drinking water by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rey P. Torres

    Full Text Available The raw water source of drinking water in most areas in the Philippines is typically river water and in some cases groundwater. These sources are prone to elevated levels of metals and metalloids that may cause exposure of the general population when the treatment of the water is inadequate. This work presents a simple method based on EPA Method 200.8 for the determination of total concentrations of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in drinking water using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS as the element-selective detector. This was applied in the determination of these elements in the water supply in Metro Manila, Philippines. The method detection limits were 0.095 μg L-1, 0.043 μg L-1, and 0.114 μg L-1 for total As, Cd and Pb, respectively.The method was validated using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 1643e certified reference material for trace elements in water and determined values were 60.4 ± 0.5 μg L-1, 6.7 ± 0.1 μg L-1, and 19.6 ± 0.5 μg L-1 for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. These determined values were in good agreement with the certified values in the reference material. Analysis of actual drinking water samples showed that most samples did not exceed the limit of the Philippine drinking water standard for the elements.

  18. Redox effects on release kinetics of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, and vanadium in Wax Lake Deltaic freshwater marsh soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg; Frohne, Tina; White, John R; DeLaune, Ron D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of redox potential (EH), pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chloride (Cl(-)), aliphatic and aromatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and sulfate ( [Formula: see text] ) on the release of dissolved arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and vanadium (V) were studied in Louisiana freshwater marsh Wax Lake Delta soil (Mississippi River) using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The experiment was conducted from reducing (-60 mV) to stepwise oxidizing (+491 mV) conditions. The initial pH was 7.4 and decreased under reducing conditions to 4.9, and remained constant during the increase of EH. Concentrations of As (1.3-120.5 μg L(-1)), V (0.9-48.6 μg L(-1)), Fe, DOC, and the specific UV absorbance increased under reducing conditions and decreased with rising EH. Release of As and V appeared to be related to changes of EH/pH, co-precipitation with Fe oxides, and the release of dissolved aromatic carbon compounds. Concentrations of soluble Cd (4.8-11.2 μg L(-1)), Mn, [Formula: see text] , and Cl(-) increased under oxidizing conditions. Release of Co (166.6-258.2 μg L(-1)) was related to the chemistry of Fe, Mn and DOC. Phospholipid fatty acids analysis indicated the potential for the microbial community to be involved in biogeochemical processes such as the formation of sulfides, oxidation and reduction of compounds, and the bio-methylation of elements such as As. Overall, we measured a release of As and V under anoxic conditions, while oxic conditions favored the release of Cd. These results outline concern on the potential risk of mobilization of toxic elements in temporary waterlogged soils for agricultural purposes in deltaic ecosystems. PMID:26746419

  19. Beryllium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction in the determination of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and silver in contaminated soil samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeisaenen, A.; Suontamo, R.; Silvonen, J. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Dept. of Chemistry, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rintala, J. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Dept. of Biological and Environmental Science, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2002-05-01

    An extraction method was developed for the determination of toxic elements in contaminated soil samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The determination of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and silver in ultrasound-assisted extracts of SRM 2710 and SRM 2711 by ICP-AES was carried out with high accuracy and precision (RSD<3.7%). The certified concentrations of the SRMs were obtained for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and silver by using an ultrasound-assisted extraction method with a digestion solution of (1+1)-diluted aqua regia. The determination of copper in SRMs by the ultrasound-assisted extraction method and analysis by ICP-AES failed to obtain the certified concentrations at the 95% level of confidence using ({+-}2 s) as confidence limits of the mean. However, the same results were observed with the use of the microwave digestion method and reflux, which is the ISO 11466 standard method. The analysis of the SRMs showed that the ultrasound-assisted extraction method is highly comparable with the other methods used for such purposes. The major advantages of the ultrasound-assisted extraction method compared to the microwave and reflux methods are the high treatment rate (50 samples simultaneously in nine minutes) and low reagent usage, the main benefit of which are the low chloride and nitrate concentrations in the extracts. (orig.)

  1. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Arsenic, Lead, Chromium, and Cadmium in a Metal-contaminated Histosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, X.; Schulze, D

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and mineralogical forms of As, Pb, Cr, and Cd were studied in a metal-contaminated organic soil (Histosol) that received runoff and seepage water from a site that was once occupied by a lead smelter. Soil samples were collected from different depth intervals during both wet and dry seasons and analyzed using bulk powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based micro X-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD), and micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) spectroscopy. There was a clear pattern of mineral distribution with depth that indicated the presence of an intense redox gradient. The oxidized reddish brown surface layer (0-10 cm) was dominated by goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and poorly crystalline akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH). Lead and arsenic were highly associated with these Fe oxides, possibly by forming inner-sphere surface complexes. Gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O) was abundant in the layer as well, particularly for samples collected during dry periods. Fe(II)-containing minerals, such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), were identified in the intermediate layers (10-30 cm) where the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides occurred. A number of high-temperature minerals, such as mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 2Si{sub 2}O), corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and wustite (FeO) were identified in the subsurface and they probably formed as a result of a burning event. Several sulfide minerals were identified in the most reduced layers at depths > 30 cm. They included realgar (AsS), alacranite (As{sub 4}S{sub 4}), galena (PbS), and sphalerite (Zn, Fe{sup 2+})S, and a series of Fe sulfides, including greigite (Fe{sup 2+}Fe{sub 2}{sup 3+} S{sub 4}), pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S), mackinawite (FeS), marcasite (FeS{sub 2}), and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Most of these minerals occurred as almost pure phases in sub-millimeter aggregates and appeared to be secondary phases that had precipitated from

  2. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  3. 锌铟冶炼过程中镉砷的流向及在废渣中的分布%Flow Direction and Distribution in Waste Residue of Cadmium and Arsenic in Zinc and Indium Smelting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦岩松; 吕雪丽; 王振峰; 高军

    2014-01-01

    研究了锌铟冶炼过程中镉和砷的流向及在废渣中的分布规律和富集机制。结果表明:在锌、铟冶炼过程中,镉的主要流向为氧粉→中性浸出液→一段铜镉渣→二段铜镉渣→净化渣,砷的主要流向为氧粉→中性浸出渣→酸性浸出液→铟萃取液→反萃取液→中和渣;镉主要集中在一段铜镉渣和二段铜镉渣中,砷则更多集中于中和渣中。锌、铟冶炼过程中,一段铜镉渣和中和渣应重点监测。%The flow direction ,distribution and enrichment mechanism in waste residue of cadmium and arsenic in zinc and indium smelting process were studied .The results showed that in the process of zinc and indium smelting ,the main flow direction of cadmium is oxide flue dust →neutral leaching liquid→first stage copper and cadmium residue→second stage copper and cadmium residue→purification slag . T he main flow direction of the arsenic is oxide flue dust →neutral leaching residue→acid leaching liquid→ indium extraction liquid → back-extraction solution → neutralize residue .Cadmium is mainly concentrated in first stage copper-cadmium residue ,second stage copper-cadmium residue ,arsenic is more enriched in neutralize residue .For all kinds of waste residue in zinc and indium smelting process , the first stage copper-cadmium residue and neutralize residue should be monitored .

  4. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.

  5. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators

  6. Relating the sediment phase speciation of arsenic, cadmium, and chromium with their bioavailability for the deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis succinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2011-03-01

    We studied the influence of sediment geochemistry on bioavailability of As, Cd, and Cr in deposit-feeding polychaetes. Metal phase speciation in sediments was determined with a sequential extraction scheme, and assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals were determined by pulse-chase feeding experiments using γ-emitting isotopes. Worms were fed sediments collected from geochemically diverse estuaries that were labeled by sorbing dissolved radiotracers or mixing with radiolabeled algae. Uptake of sediment-bound metals was compared with that from labeled algae or goethite. Metal AEs showed a positive relationship with the exchangeable and carbonate sedimentary fractions, whereas metals in iron and manganese oxides and acid-volatile sulfides, or in pyrite and other refractory material, were inversely correlated with AEs. Arsenic was most bioavailable from algae (72%), less from sediments mixed with algae (24-70%) and least from sediments labeled directly (1-12%). Arsenic AEs in sediments labeled directly showed a positive correlation with sedimentary Mn and Al and negative correlation with Fe. Cadmium AEs were positively correlated with salinity and negatively correlated with sedimentary organic C. The AEs of Cr from sediments or algae were less than 5%, but they were 34% from pure goethite. By quantifying the relationship of metal speciation in sediments with their bioavailability for deposit-feeding polychaetes, the present study provides new insight into understanding metal bioaccumulation in benthic invertebrates. PMID:21154840

  7. Method for welding beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

  8. Method for welding beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  9. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an immune response or “allergy” to beryllium metal, ceramic or alloy, termed beryllium sensitization (BeS). Beryllium sensitization occurs after ... Mroz MM, Newman LS. Beryllium disease screening in ceramics industry: Blood test ... at a metal, alloy and oxide production plant. Occup Environ Med 1997; ...

  10. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in feathers of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); McKnight, Aly [P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Shoup Bay in Prince William Sound, Alaska to determine if there were age-related differences in metal levels, and in Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani)) from the same region to determine if there were differences in oiled and unoiled birds. Except for mercury, there were no age-related differences in metals levels in the feathers of kittiwakes. Kittiwakes over 13 years of age had the highest levels of mercury. There were no differences in levels of metals in the feathers of oystercatchers from oiled and unoiled regions of Prince William Sound. Except for mercury, the feathers of oystercatchers had significantly higher levels of all metals than those of kittiwakes. Levels of mercury in kittiwake feathers (mean of 2910 ng/g [ppb]) were within the range of many species of seabirds reported for other studies, and were generally below adverse effects levels.

  11. Phytofiltration of arsenic and cadmium from the water environment using Micranthemum umbrosum (J.F. Gmel) S.F Blake as a hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shariful; Ueno, Yasuyuki; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) pollution in water is an important global issue. Phytofiltration is an eco-friendly technology that helps clean up pollutants using ornamental plants, such as Micranthemum umbrosum (J.F. Gmel) S.F. Blake. After a seven-day hydroponic experiment, M. umbrosum removed 79.3-89.5% As and 60-73.1% Cd from 0 to 1.0 microg As mL(-1) and 0.3 to 30.0 microg Cd mL(-1) solutions, respectively. For As treatment, root to stem and stem to leaf translocation factors greater than 1.0 indicated that accumulation of As in leaves was large compared to that in stem and roots. However, the accumulation of Cd in roots was higher than that in the leaves and stem. In addition, M. umbrosum completely removed Cd within three days from 0.38 to around 0 microg mL(-1) Cd in the solution when the plant was exchanged daily. Bio-concentration factors (2350 for As and 3027 for Cd) for M. umbrosum were higher than for other As and Cd phytoremediators. The results show that M. umbrosum can be an effective accumulator of Cd and a hyper-accumulator of As, as it can lower As toxicity to a level close to the limit recommended by the World Health Organization (0.01 microg As mL(-1)). PMID:23819292

  12. Beryllium facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its unique combination of physical, mechanical, thermal and nuclear properties, beryllium is indispensable for many applications in the fields of nuclear and space sciences. Beryllia and copper beryllium alloys have also found extensive applications in the electrical and electronic industries. Beryllium facilities at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) have been set up to meet indigenous requirements for these materials. Besides developing beryllium technology, the project team has also designed and developed a number of special purpose equipment. (Author)

  13. Cadmium and arsenic override NF-κB developmental regulation of the intestinal UGT1A1 gene and control of hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Chen, Shujuan; Yueh, Mei-Fei; Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Konopnicki, Camille; Hao, Haiping; Tukey, Robert H

    2016-06-15

    Humanized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-1 (hUGT1) mice encode the UGT1 locus including the UGT1A1 gene. During neonatal development, delayed expression of the UGT1A1 gene leads to hyperbilirubinemia as determined by elevated levels of total serum bilirubin (TSB). We show in this report that the redox-sensitive NF-κB pathway is crucial for intestinal expression of the UGT1A1 gene and control of TSB levels. Targeted deletion of IKKβ in intestinal epithelial cells (hUGT1/Ikkβ(ΔIEC) mice) leads to greater neonatal accumulation of TSB than observed in control hUGT1/Ikkβ(F/F) mice. The elevation in TSB levels in hUGT1/Ikkβ(ΔIEC) mice correlates with a reduction in intestinal UGT1A1 expression. As TSB levels accumulate in hUGT1/Ikkβ(ΔIEC) mice during the neonatal period, the increase over that observed in hUGT1/Ikkβ(F/F) mice leads to weight loss, seizures and eventually death. Bilirubin accumulates in brain tissue from hUGT1/Ikkβ(ΔIEC) mice inducing an inflammatory state as shown by elevated TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, all of which can be prevented by neonatal induction of hepatic or intestinal UGT1A1 and lowering of TSB levels. Altering the redox state of the intestines by oral administration of cadmium or arsenic to neonatal hUGT1/Ikkβ(F/F) and hUGT1/Ikkβ(ΔIEC) mice leads to induction of UGT1A1 and a dramatic reduction in TSB levels. Microarray analysis following arsenic treatment confirms upregulation of oxidation-reduction processes and lipid metabolism, indicative of membrane repair or synthesis. Our findings indicate that the redox state in intestinal epithelial cells during development is important in maintaining UGT1A1 gene expression and control of TSB levels. PMID:27060662

  14. Reference values of cadmium, arsenic and manganese in blood and factors associated with exposure levels among adult population of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution and factors influencing blood levels of Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), and Manganese (Mn), and to determine their reference values in a sample of blood donors residing in Rio Branco, capital city of Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from all blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco between 2010 and 2011. Among these, 1183 donors (98.9%) answered to a questionnaire on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood metal concentrations were determined by atomic spectrometry. Association between Cd, As and Mn levels and donors' characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values were estimated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile of metal levels. References values were 0.87 μg L(-1) for Cd, 9.87 μg L(-1) for As, and 29.32 μg L(-1) for Mn. Reference values of Cd and As in smokers were 2.66 and 10.86 μg L(-1), respectively. Factors contributing to increase Cd levels were smoking, ethnicity (non-white), and lower education, whereas drinking tea and non-bottled water were associated with lower Cd. Lower levels of As were associated with higher household income, living near industrial facilities, working in a glass factory, a compost plant or in metal mining activities. Risk factors for Mn exposure were not identified. In general, blood Cd concentrations were in the range of exposure levels reported for other people from the general population, whereas levels of As and Mn were higher than in other non-occupationally exposed populations elsewhere. PMID:25655821

  15. Bioaccessibility of arsenic and cadmium assessed for in vitro bioaccessibility in spiked soils and their interaction during the Unified BARGE Method (UBM) extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Peng, Cheng; Lamb, Dane; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi; Ng, Jack C

    2016-03-01

    Recent decades have seen a growing popularity of in vitro bioaccessibility being utilised as a screening tool in human health risk assessment. However the existing bioaccessibility studies only focus on single contaminant. Considering human are likely to ingest multi-contaminants, these contaminants could interact within human gastrointestinal tract which may lead to an increase or decrease in bioaccessibility. In this study, seven different types of soil were spiked with arsenic (As) or cadmium (Cd) and aged for one year. The effects of soil properties on the bioaccessibility were examined. Moreover, the interaction between As and Cd in simulated human digestive system was studied by mixing As-spiked soil with Cd-spiked soil of the same type during bioaccessibility test. Results shows the bioaccessibility of As ranged from 40 ± 2.8 to 95 ± 1.3% in the gastric phase and 16 ± 2.0 to 96 ± 0.8% in the intestinal phase whilst a significant difference was observed between Cd gastric bioaccessibility (72 ± 4.3 to 99 ± 0.8%) and intestinal bioaccessibility (6.2 ± 0.3 to 45 ± 2.7%). Organic carbon, iron oxide and aluminium oxide were key parameters influencing the bioaccessibility of As (gastric and intestinal phases) and Cd (intestinal phase). No interactions between As and Cd during bioaccessibility test were observed in any soils, which indicates As and Cd may age independently and did not interact while being solubilised during bioaccessibility test. Thus additive effect may be proposed when estimating the bioaccessibility of mixtures of independently-aged As and Cd in soils. PMID:26774311

  16. Interlaboratory comparison survey of the determination of chromium, manganese, iron, titanium in dust and arsenic, cadmium, cobalt and chromium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an intercomparison survey based on the Danish External Quality Assessment Scheme (DEQAS). The study was carried out in 1998 for 10 laboratories in a research project on assessment of levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The project was co-ordinated by the IAEA. Eight laboratories measured chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and titanium (Ti) in welding fume dust loaded on filters. Six laboratories measured arsenic (As), four laboratories measured cadmium (Cd), five laboratories measured cobalt (Co) and four laboratories measured chromium (Cr) in urine. The target values of the quality control materials were traceable to certified reference materials with respect to Cr in welding fume and As, Cd, Co and Cr in urine. For Mn, Fe and Ti in welding fume the target values were established based on values from reference laboratories and consensus values from several DEQAS rounds. For evaluating the analytical performance the z-score and En number were calculated as recommended in ISO 45. The judgement of laboratories according to the performance scores revealed that few laboratories could maintain an ideal z-score below 3 and an ideal En number below 1. Nearly all participants had a high precision in the reported results. This is a good basis for improvements. The deviations from the target values appear to be systematic, because the deviations for Mn, Fe, Ti in welding dust as well as for As, Cd, Co and Cr in urine were a linear function of the target values (ISO 5725 evaluation). The cause for this bias is unknown at present and might not be the same for all participants. It is necessary to look further into the cause for this bias. Therefore, validation of the methodologies and regularly use of certified reference materials are highly recommended. (author)

  17. The availabilities of arsenic and cadmium in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The role of soil extractable and plant silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Ding, Xiaodong; Li, Fangbai; Wang, Xiangqin; Zhang, Shirong; Yi, Jicai; Liu, Chuanping; Xu, Xianghua; Wang, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Adequate silicon (Si) can greatly boost rice yield and improve grain quality through alleviating stresses associated with heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd). The soil plant-available Si is relatively low in South China due to severe desilicification and allitization of the soils in this region. Conversely, pollution of heavy metals and metalloids in the soils of this region occurs widely, especially As and Cd pollution in paddy soil. Therefore, evaluating the plant availability of Si in paddy soil of South China and examining its correlation with the availability of heavy metals and metalloids are of great significance. Accordingly, in our study, 107 pairs of soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields contaminated by As and Cd in South China. Significantly positive correlations between Si in rice plants and Si fractions in soils extracted with citric acid, NaOAc-HOAc buffer, and oxalate-ammonium oxalate buffer suggest that these extractants are more suitable for use in extracting plant-available Si in the soils of our present study. Significantly negative correlations between different Si fractions and As or Cd in rice plant tissues and negative exponential correlations between the molar ratios of Si to As/Cd in rice roots, straws, husks or grains and As/Cd in rice grains indicate that Si can significantly alleviate the accumulation of As/Cd from soils to the rice plants. Finally, a contribution assessment of soil properties to As/Cd accumulation in rice grains based on random forest showed that in addition to Si concentrations in soil or rice plants, other factors such as Fe fractions and total phosphorus also contributed largely to As/Cd accumulation in rice grains. Overall, Si exhibited its unique role in mitigating As or Cd stress in rice, and our study results provide strong field evidence for this role. PMID:27209244

  18. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  19. Beryllium. Evaluation of beryllium hydroxide industrial processes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work continues the 'Beryllium' series. It is a historical review of different industrial processes of beryllium hydroxide obtention from beryllium ores. Flowsheats and operative parameters of five plants are provided. These plants (Degussa, Brush Beryllium Co., Beryllium Corp., Murex Ltd., SAPPI) were selected as representative samples of diverse commercial processes in different countries. (Author)

  20. 三氯化铁除砷和镉的机理%Mechanism of removing arsenic and cadmium with ferric chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉; 赵燕鹏; 杜冬云

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of arsenic and cadmium removal withferric chloride was studied by analysis of residue samples with CD-MUSIC, XPS, FTIR and Zeta potential. There was interference between As and Cd by competing the active site on iron oxide in the range of pH at 3-7. Nevertheless, in the range of pH at 7-10, Cd(Ⅱ)was mainly removed by precipitation as Cd(OH)2, which could increase As removal by co-precipitation. According to the results simulated with CD-MUSIC, As(Ⅴ) was mainly removed by forming monodentate uninuclear surface complexes (FeOAsO3H1.5- and FeOAsO(H2O)20.5-), with binding constants of 63.04 and 66.50 respectively. Besides, Cd(Ⅱ) was combined on the surface of ferriferrous oxide with the formation of FeOHCd1.5+ with binding constant of 31.05 and the amount of this complex decreased with rising pH.%采用电荷分布多位络合模型模拟(CD-MUSIC)、XPS、FTIR和Zeta电位分析的方法研究了三氯化铁去除As(Ⅴ)、Cd(Ⅱ)的机理。结果表明:在pH 3~7范围内,砷、镉通过竞争铁氧化物表面的有效作用位点而相互抑制;而在pH 7~10范围内,Cd(Ⅱ)主要以Cd(OH)2沉淀的方式得以去除,并通过共沉淀作用促进砷的去除。根据CD-MUSIC 模拟结果,As(Ⅴ)主要形成单齿单核质子化( FeOAsO3H1.5-、FeOAsO(H2O)20.5-)的表面配合物,结合常数分别为63.04、66.50;而 Cd(Ⅱ)则以 FeOHCd1.5+形态结合在铁氧化物的表面,结合常数为31.05,其含量随着pH的升高逐渐减少。

  1. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: A potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yuebing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: Zhouqx@iae.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu Weitao; An Jing; Xu Zhiqiang; Wang Lin [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd ({<=}25 mg kg{sup -1}) and As ({<=}50 mg kg{sup -1}) treatments could promote the growth of B. pilosa, resulting in 34.5-104.4% and 21.0-43.0%, respectively, increase in the dry biomass of shoots while compared with that under the control conditions. However, under the co-contamination of As and Cd, there was an antagonistic effect on the growth of the plant. The concentrations of As and Cd accumulated in tissues of the plant increased with an increase of As and Cd in soils. In particular, the levels of Cd in stems and leaves reached 103.0 and 110.0 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, when soil Cd was 10 mg kg{sup -1}. Furthermore, the BF and TF values of Cd were greater than 1.0. However, the highest content of As in roots of the plant was only 13.5 mg kg{sup -1} when soil As was at a high level, i.e. 125 mg kg{sup -1}, and the TF values of As were less than 0.1, indicating that B. pilosa can be considered as a potential Cd hyperaccumulator and As excluder. The presence of As had inhibitory effects on Cd absorption by the plant, in particular, the accumulation of Cd in stems, leaves and shoots decreased significantly, with 42.8-53.1, 49.3-66.4 and 37.6-59.5%, respectively, reduction when the level of soil As was up to 125 mg kg{sup -1} compared with that under no addition of As. Whereas, when Cd was added to soils, it could facilitate As accumulation in tissues of the plants and the As concentrations in shoots increased with increasing Cd spiked in soils. The interactive effects of Cd and As may be potential for phytoremediation of Cd and/or As contamination soils.

  2. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue-bing; Zhou, Qi-xing; Liu, Wei-tao; An, Jing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Lin

    2009-06-15

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd (

  3. Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Pat E. [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Levesque, Christine [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H. David [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Jones-Otazo, Heather [Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada, 180 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 3L7 (Canada); Petrovic, Sanya [Contaminated Sites Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g{sup −1}) and metal loadings (μg m{sup −2}) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for dust and μg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 580) were significantly lower (p < .001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p < .003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29 ≥ p ≤ .97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005 ≥ p ≤ .038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15 ≥ p ≤ .97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p < .001) but not for the other four metals (.14 ≥ p ≤ .87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p < .001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p < .001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust – concentration, load, and loading rate – in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates

  4. A simple method based on ICP-MS for estimation of background levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and selenium in blood of the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Juliana A; Batista, Bruno L; Rodrigues, Jairo L; Caldas, Naise M; Neto, Jose A G; Barbosa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, biomonitoring has become the standard for assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements as well as for responding to serious environmental public health problems. However, extensive biomonitoring surveys require rapid and simple analytical methods. Thus, a simple and high-throughput method is proposed for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in blood samples by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, 200 microl of blood samples was mixed with 500 microl of 10% v/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution, incubated for 10 min, and subsequently diluted to 10 ml with a solution containing 0.05% w/v ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) + 0.005% v/v Triton X-100. After that, samples were directly analyzed by ICP-MS (ELAN DRC II). Rhodium was selected as an internal standard with matrix-matching calibration. Method detection limits were 0.08, 0.04, 0.5, 0.09, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.1 microg//L for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se, respectively. Validation data are provided based on the analysis of blood samples from the trace elements inter-\\comparison program operated by the Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Canada. Additional validation was provided by the analysis of human blood samples by the proposed method and by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method was subsequently applied for the estimation of background metal blood values in the Brazilian population. In general, the mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se in blood were 1.1, 0.4, 890, 9.6, 2.1, 65.4, and 89.3 microg/L, respectively, and are in agreement with other global populations. Influences of age, gender, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and geographical variation on the values were also considered. Smoking habits influenced the levels of Cd in blood. The levels of Cu, Mn, and Pb were

  5. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: A potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd (≤25 mg kg-1) and As (≤50 mg kg-1) treatments could promote the growth of B. pilosa, resulting in 34.5-104.4% and 21.0-43.0%, respectively, increase in the dry biomass of shoots while compared with that under the control conditions. However, under the co-contamination of As and Cd, there was an antagonistic effect on the growth of the plant. The concentrations of As and Cd accumulated in tissues of the plant increased with an increase of As and Cd in soils. In particular, the levels of Cd in stems and leaves reached 103.0 and 110.0 mg kg-1, respectively, when soil Cd was 10 mg kg-1. Furthermore, the BF and TF values of Cd were greater than 1.0. However, the highest content of As in roots of the plant was only 13.5 mg kg-1 when soil As was at a high level, i.e. 125 mg kg-1, and the TF values of As were less than 0.1, indicating that B. pilosa can be considered as a potential Cd hyperaccumulator and As excluder. The presence of As had inhibitory effects on Cd absorption by the plant, in particular, the accumulation of Cd in stems, leaves and shoots decreased significantly, with 42.8-53.1, 49.3-66.4 and 37.6-59.5%, respectively, reduction when the level of soil As was up to 125 mg kg-1 compared with that under no addition of As. Whereas, when Cd was added to soils, it could facilitate As accumulation in tissues of the plants and the As concentrations in shoots increased with increasing Cd spiked in soils. The interactive effects of Cd and As may be potential for phytoremediation of Cd and/or As contamination soils.

  6. Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium (Be) has physical-chemical properties, including low density and high tensile strength, which make it useful in the manufacture of products ranging from space shuttles to golf clubs. Despite its utility, a number of standard setting agencies have determined that beryllium is a carcinogen. Only a limited number of studies, however, have addressed the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of beryllium. Importantly, mutation and chromosomal aberration assays have yielded somewhat contradictory results for beryllium compounds and whereas bacterial tests were largely negative, mammalian test systems showed evidence of beryllium-induced mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell transformation. Although inter-laboratory differences may play a role in the variability observed in genotoxicity assays, it is more likely that the different chemical forms of beryllium have a significant effect on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because workers are predominantly exposed to airborne particles which are generated during the machining of beryllium metal, ceramics, or alloys, testing of the mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of beryllium should be performed with relevant chemical forms of beryllium

  7. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  8. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  9. Beryllium development programme in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has fairly large deposits of beryl. The requirement of beryllium and copper-beryllium alloys in space and electronic industries has provided the incentive for the setting up of an indigenous base for the development of beryllium process metallurgy. The paper presents the developmental work carried out, in the Metallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, on the preparation of beryllium metal and its alloys starting from Indian beryl. A laboratory facility incorporating essential precautionary measures has been set up for the safe handling of beryllium and its compounds. Based on the laboratory investigations a flow-sheet suitable to Indian conditions has been developed. The flow-sheet involves preparation of anhydrous beryllium fluoride from beryl through the silico-fluoride route, magnesiothermic reduction of beryllium fluoride for the production of beryllium metal or its master alloy with copper or aluminium, and fabrication of beryllium metal. (author)

  10. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacquart, Thomas [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Frisbie, Seth [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Mitchell, Erika [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Grigg, Laurie [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Cole, Christopher [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Small, Colleen [Vermont Department of Health Laboratory, Burlington, VT (United States); Sarkar, Bibudhendra, E-mail: bsarkar@sickkids.ca [Department of Molecular Structure and Function, The Research Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  11. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  12. The natural history of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, L. S.; Lloyd, J.; Daniloff, E.

    1996-01-01

    With the advent of in vitro immunologic testing, we can now detect exposed individuals who are sensitized to beryllium and those who have chronic beryllium disease (CBD) with lung pathology and impairment. Earlier detection and more accurate diagnostic tools raise new questions about the natural history of sensitization and granulomatous disease. Preliminary data suggest that early detection identifies people who are sensitized to beryllium and that these individuals are at risk for progressi...

  13. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tatenuma, K. [KAKEN Co., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  14. Beryllium. Its minerals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With this work a series of reports begins, under the generic name 'Beryllium', related to several aspects of beryllium technology. The target is to update, with critical sense, current bibliographic material in order to be used in further applications. Some of the most important beryllium ores, the Argentine emplacement of their deposits and world occurrence are described. Argentine and world production, resources and reserves are indicated here as well. (Author)

  15. Joining of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    A handbook dealing with the many aspects of beryllium that would be important for the users of this metal is currently being prepared. With an introduction on the applications, advantages and limitations in the use of this metal the following topics will be discussed in this handbook: physical, thermal, and nuclear properties; extraction from the ores; purification and casting of ingots; production and types of beryllium powders; consolidation methods, grades, and properties; mechanical properties with emphasis on the various factors affecting these properties; forming and mechanical working; welding, brazing, bonding, and fastening; machining; powder deposition; corrosion; health aspects; and examples of production of components. This report consists of ''Section X--Joining'' from the handbook. The prefix X is maintained here for the figures, tables and references. In this section the different methods used for joining beryllium and the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each are presented. The methods discussed are fusion welding, brazing, solid state bonding (diffusion bonding and deformation bonding), soldering, and mechanical fastening. Since beryllium has a high affinity for oxygen and nitrogen with the formation of oxides and nitrides, considerable care must be taken on heating the metal, to protect it from the ambient atmosphere. In addition, mating surfaces must be cleaned and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses as well as locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part is subjected to moisture or to any type of corroding environment. This becomes a problem if the less noble (anodic) metal has a significantly smaller area than the more noble (cathodic) metal since the ions (positive charges) from the anodic (corroding) metal must correspond to the number of electrons (negative charges) involved at the cathode. Beryllium

  16. Beryllium. Beryllium oxide, obtention and properties. Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of the 'Beryllium' series this work reviews several methods of high purity beryllia production. Diverse methods of obtention and purification from different beryllium compounds are described. Some chemical, mechanical and electrical properties related with beryllia obtention methods are summarized. (Author)

  17. Plasma spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary investigation on plasma-spraying of beryllium and a beryllium-aluminum 4% silver alloy was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility (BATSF). Spherical Be and Be-Al-4%Ag powders, which were produced by centrifugal atomization, were used as feedstock material for plasma-spraying. The spherical morphology of the powders allowed for better feeding of fine (<38 μm) powders into the plasma-spray torch. The difference in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the two plasma-sprayed powders will be discussed along with the effect of processing parameters on the as-deposited microstructure of the Be-Al-4%Ag. This investigation represents ongoing research to develop and characterize plasma-spraying of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum alloys for magnetic fusion and aerospace applications

  18. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  19. Beryllium coprecipitation with iron hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coprecipitation and sorption are studied of beryllium with hydroxide of Fe(3) in solutions of NH4NO3, KNO3, NH4HCO3, and H2O2 over a wide range of pH of the medium. The conditions are found for concentrating and separating beryllium from the carrier within definite ranges of pH of the medium

  20. A baseline study of metals in cod (Gadus morhua) from the North Sea and coastal Norwegian waters, with focus on mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Highest concentration of Hg was not found in the central part but in the northern part of the North Sea. • The Hg concentrations in coastal and fjord cod increased southward along the coast. • Only three samples out of some 1200 cod muscle showed Hg concentration higher than 0.5 mg kg−1, the EU limit for foodstuffs. • Cd concentrations in liver of coastal and fjord cod increased northward along the coast. -- Abstract: This study is one of several baseline studies that will provide basic and reliable information about the content of undesirable substances in important species of fish caught in Norwegian waters. Concentrations of metals in the muscle and livers of 516 cod caught at 22 positions in the North Sea were analysed. An additional 687 cod were caught from 13 fjords and coastal areas along the coast of Norway. Three out of 1203 samples of muscle exceeded the maximum limit of 0.5 mg Hg kg−1 wet weight set by the EU for foodstuffs. The mercury concentration in cod muscle was higher and the cadmium concentration in the liver was lower in the North Sea and coastal areas in the southern part of Norway than in the Barents Sea and coastal areas in the northern part of Norway. These differences are perhaps caused by differences in the cod diet

  1. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H. [JET Joint undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m{sup 2} to 5 MW/m{sup 2} and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m{sup 2}. These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures {le} 600{degrees}C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T{sub max} {le} 750{degrees}C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with {Phi} = 25 MW/m{sup 2} and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed.

  2. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  3. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  4. Evaluation of heavy metals in soils of agglomerations: arsenic, lead, and cadmium. Contributions by international experts and result of the work of the DECHEMA task force `Evaluation of hazard potentials in soil protection`; Beurteilung von Schwermetallen in Boeden von Ballungsgebieten: Arsen, Blei und Cadmium. Internationale Expertenbeitraege und Resuemee der DECHEMA-Arbeitsgruppe `Bewertung von Gefaehrdungspotentialen im Bodenschutz`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloke, A. [ed.; Kreysa, G. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    The contents of the book provide decision aids for evaluating metal contamination of soils. As a means of restricting the discussion, it focuses on the elements arsenic, lead and cadmium as examples and on contaminations in agglomerations. But within these closely defined boundaries the various aspects to be considered in deriving evaluation criteria were studied in detail. Starting with an introduction into the soils of agglomerations, the transfer and enrichment of contaminants, sampling and analytics, bonding forms and mobility of metals in soils are dealt with. The transfer of the metals to the objects of protection is described for the pathways plant/productive livestock/man, groundwater and direct ingestion of soil by children. The study of the effect of soil contaminants on objects of protection comprises both the uptake by man and the effect on flora, fauna, and microflora. In the sector of ``administrative measures``, estate-specific forms of land use, the criteria for deriving soil standards, and the state of soil normalization in Germany, the Netherlands and Great Britain are dealt with. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Es werden Entscheidungshilfen fuer die Beurteilung von Metallbelastungen in Boeden erarbeitet. Um die Thematik einzugrenzen, wurde die Diskussion exemplarisch auf die Elemente Arsen, Blei und Cadmium sowie auf Belastungen in Ballungsraeumen beschraenkt. Innerhalb dieses eng gesteckten Rahmens sollten jedoch die unterschiedlichsten Aspekte, die zur Ableitung von Beurteilungskriterien beruecksichtigt werden muessen, detailliert behandelt werden. Ausgehend von einer Einfuehrung in die Boeden von Ballungsraeumen wurden Eintrag und Anreicherung, Probennahme und Analytik, Bindungsformen und Mobilitaet der Metalle in Boeden behandelt. Der Transfer der Metalle zu den Schutzguetern wurde fuer die Pfade Pflanze/Nutztier/Mensch, Grundwasser und Direktaufnahme von Boden durch Kinder beschrieben. Bei den Wirkungen von Bodenkontaminationen auf Schutzgueter wurde

  5. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Liebeke

    Full Text Available Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  6. Beryllium usage in fusion blankets and beryllium data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing numbers of designers are choosing beryllium for fusion reactor blankets because it, among all nonfissile materials, produces the highest number (2.5 neutron in an infinite media) of neutrons per 14-MeV incident neutron. In amounts of about 20 cm of equivalent solid density, it can be used to produce fissile material, to breed all the tritium consumed in ITER from outboard blankets only, and in designs to produce Co-60. The problem is that predictions of neutron multiplication in beryllium are off by some 10 to 20% and appear to be on the high side, which means that better multiplication measurements and numerical methods are needed. The n,2n reactions result in two helium atoms, which cause radiation damage in the form of hardening at low temperatures (300/degree/C). The usual way beryllium parts are made is by hot pressing the powder. A lower cost method is to cold press and then sinter. There is no radiation damage data on this form of beryllium. The issues of corrosion, safety relative to the release of the tritium built-up inside beryllium, and recycle of used beryllium are also discussed. 10 figs

  7. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explosively driven arrested beryllium experiments were performed with post mortem characterization to evaluate the failure behaviors. The test samples were encapsulated in an aluminum assembly that was large relative to the sample, and the assembly features both axial and radial momentum traps. The sample carrier was inserted from the explosively-loaded end and has features to lock the carrier to the surrounding cylinder using the induced plastic flow. Calculations with Lagrangian codes showed that the tensile stresses experienced by the Be sample were below the spall stress. Metallographic characterization of the arrested Be showed radial cracks present in the samples may have been caused by bending moments. Fractography showed the fractures propagated from the side of the sample closest to the explosives, the side with the highest tensile stress. There was evidence that the fractures may have propagated from the circumferential crack outward and downward radially.

  8. Direct sample introduction of wines in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, copper and lead content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajtony, Zsolt; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Suskó, Emoke Klaudia; Mezei, Pál; György, Krisztina; Bencs, László

    2008-07-30

    A multi-element graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method was elaborated for the simultaneous determination of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb in wine samples of various sugar contents using the transversally heated graphite atomizer (THGA) with end-capped tubes and integrated graphite platforms (IGPs). For comparative GFAAS analyses, direct injection (i.e., dispensing the sample onto the IGP) and digestion-based (i.e., adding oxidizing agents, such as HNO(3) and/or H(2)O(2) to the sample solutions) methods were optimized with the application of chemical modifiers. The mixture of 5 microg Pd (applied as nitrate) plus 3 microg Mg(NO(3))(2) chemical modifier was proven to be optimal for the present set of analytes and matrix, it allowing the optimal 600 degrees C pyrolysis and 2200 degrees C atomization temperatures, respectively. The IGP of the THGA was pre-heated at 70 degrees C to prevent the sputtering and/or foaming of sample solutions with a high organic content, dispensed together with the modifier solution, which method also improved the reproducibility of the determinations. With the digestion-based method, the recovery ranged between 87 and 122%, while with the direct injection method it was between 96 and 102% for Cd, Cu, and Pb, whereas a lower, compromise recovery of 45-85% was realized for As. The detection limits (LODs) were found to be 5.0, 0.03, 1.2, and 0.8 microg l(-1) for As, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. The characteristic mass (m(0)) data were 24 pg As, 1.3 pg Cd, 13 pg Cu, and 35 pg Pb. The upper limits of the linear calibration range were 100, 2, 100, and 200 microg l(-1) for As, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. The precisions were not worse than 4.8, 3.1, 3.7, and 2.3% for As, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. For arsenic, a higher amount of the modifier (e.g., 20 microg Pd plus 12 microg Mg(NO(3))(2)) could be recommended to overcome the interference from the presence of sulphate and phosphate in wines. Although this method increased the

  9. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET

  10. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  11. Status of beryllium materials for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible use of beryllium as a material for fusion reactors is discussed. Based on the results of recent Russian elaborations, which were not covered previously in the scientific literature, an attempt of complex analysis of the techniques of using beryllium is made. The specific requirements on beryllium as a protective material for first wall and divertor are considered. Also the possibility of creating a fusion grade of beryllium is discussed and an optimum strategy is suggested. (orig.)

  12. Spectrographic measurement of beryllium in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here a method for the spectrographic determination of beryllium on filters which is valid for amounts varying between 0,01 and 30 μg of beryllium and which is independent of the nature of the beryllium compound involved. This is a flux method (graphite-lithium carbonate mixture), the excitation being by a direct current arc. (author)

  13. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  14. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is

  15. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and (-252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMetl62 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions." O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMetl62 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  16. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum-Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum- beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-32O F) and (- 252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMet162 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE- AMs7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions". O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMet162 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O-30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  17. Removal of Beryllium Material during Decommissioning of a Slowpoke Reactor, Toronto, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Slowpoke (acronym for Safe LOW-POwer Kritical Experiment) is a low energy, tank-in-pool type nuclear research reactor designed by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in the late 1960s. The fuel cage is surrounded by a beryllium assembly at the bottom of a water pool about 6 m deep. The beryllium reflects neutrons back into the core. Basically, the reactor is a subcritical mass of fuel, which the surrounding beryllium makes critical. The rate of reaction is controlled by inserting a neutron absorbing cadmium rod. Slowpokes have a maximum power of 100 kW and normally operate at about 20 kW. The University of Toronto SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor research services ended in December 1998, and the reactor was finally defuelled in June 2000. On 10 November 2000, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) issued the decommissioning licence to the University of Toronto for its SLOWPOKE-2 Nuclear Reactor Facility. The reactor decommissioning was completed in January 2001. The beryllium material was to have been shipped under the operating licence, but actually it was shipped under the decommissioning licence. The CNSC revoked the decommissioning licence for the University of Toronto SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor Facility on 24 February 2012, and the site was returned to the university for unrestricted site use. The following is a description of the incident involving the beryllium material management

  18. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kato, M. [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Aichi-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700{degrees}C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper).

  19. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, 'Minnema Report.'

  20. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  1. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  2. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a ''window'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in ''windows'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed

  3. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  4. Compatibility problems with beryllium in ceramic blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compatibility of beryllium with structural materials (316L austenitic steel and 1.4914 martensitic steel) and with tritium breeding ceramics (lithium aluminate or silicate) has been studied in contact tests between 550 C and 700 C and for durations reaching 3000 hours. Beryllium-ceramic interaction is negligeable in all the temperature range with aluminate and up to 600 C with silicates. On the other hand, noticeable interaction is observed between beryllium and 316L steel at 580 C and above. Beryllium interaction with 1.4914 steel is visible only at 650 C and above and its amplitude is lower than 316L steel one. In these two cases, the superficial layer is brittle, and adherent to the steel. Comparison between beryllium - 0.4 wt% calcium alloy and beryllium at 700 C shows that interaction with steels or ceramics is qualitatively the same but slightly weaker. (author). 6 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  5. Belgian research on fusion beryllium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future fusion power plants will generate important quantities of neutron irradiated beryllium. Although recycling is the preferred management option for this waste, this may not be technically feasible for all of the beryllium, because of its radiological characteristics. Therefore, at SCK·CEN, we initiated a research programme aimed at studying aspects of the disposal of fusion beryllium, including waste characterisation, waste acceptance criteria, conditioning methods, and performance assessment. One of the main issues to be resolved is the development of fusion-specific waste acceptance criteria for surface or deep geological disposal, in particular with regard to the tritium content. In case disposal is the only solution, critical nuclides can be immobilised by conditioning the waste. As a first approach to immobilising beryllium waste, we investigated the vitrification of beryllium. Corrosion tests were performed on both metallic and vitrified beryllium to provide source data for performance assessment. Finally, a first step in performance assessment was undertaken. (author)

  6. Advances in Identifying Beryllium Sensitization and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kowalski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and l940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT, was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of beryllium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the hydro-thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide has made it possible to determine the free energy of formation and the entropy. The results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from the solubility product of this substance. They give furthermore the possibility of acquiring a better understanding of the BeO-H2O-Be (OH)2 system between 20 and 1500 C. (authors)

  8. Current Treatment of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    The current mainstay of management of chronic beryllium disease involves cessation of beryllium exposure and use of systemic corticosteroids. However, there are no randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of these interventions on the natural history of this disease. Despite this limitation, it is prudent to remove patients with chronic beryllium disease from further exposure and consider treating progressive disease early with long-term corticosteroids. The effect of treatment shoul...

  9. MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature

  10. New audio applications of beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major applications of beryllium metal in the field of audio appliances are for the vibrating cones for the two types of speakers 'TWITTER' for high range sound and 'SQUAWKER' for mid range sound, and also for beryllium cantilever tube assembled in stereo cartridge. These new applications are based on the characteristic property of beryllium having high ratio of modulus of elasticity to specific gravity. The production of these audio parts is described, and the audio response is shown. (author)

  11. The beryllium "double standard" standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilman, David S; Bagley, Sarah; Biklen, Molly; Golub, Alison Stern; Bohme, Susanna Rankin

    2003-01-01

    Brush Wellman, the world's leading producer and supplier of beryllium products, has systematically hidden cases of beryllium disease that occurred below the threshold limit value (TLV) and lied about the efficacy of the TLV in published papers, lectures, reports to government agencies, and instructional materials prepared for customers and workers. Hypocritically, Brush Wellman instituted a zero exposure standard for corporate executives while workers and customers were told the 2 microgram standard was "safe." Brush intentionally used its workers as "canaries for the plant," and referred to them as such. Internal documents and corporate depositions indicate that these actions were intentional and that the motive was money. Despite knowledge of the inadequacy of the TLV, Brush has successfully used it as a defense against lawsuits brought by injured workers and as a sales device to provide reassurance to customers. Brush's policy has reaped an untold number of victims and resulted in mass distribution of beryllium in consumer products. Such corporate malfeasance is perpetuated by the current market system, which is controlled by an organized oligopoly that creates an incentive for the neglect of worker health and safety in favor of externalizing costs to victimized workers, their families, and society at large. PMID:14758859

  12. A non-chemical spectroscopic determination of atmospheric beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium in the atmosphere is determined by emission spectroscopy using a non-chemical method of analysis. Long term effects of beryllium poisoning result in respiratory and skin disease, and this is partly reflected by the low threshold limits (0.002 mg/m3). In comparison the threshhold values for lead and cadmium are 0.2 and 0.16 mg/m3 respectively. Air samples are collected at 2 litres/ minute using cellulose filters, and sampling time is dependent on the individual process being monitored, but can be as short as five minutes, eg. dental laboratories. The filters are initially divided in two parts, and one portion is carefully pelletised using a steel press. The pellet is placed in an electrode cup and 'wetted' using isopropanol and ethylene glycol. Wetting is necessary because the pellets tended to explode out of the arcing zone. Calibration graphs were produced using an internal cobalt standard, and the 234.8 nm, 313.0 nm emission lines were used. No spectral and inter-element effects were observed, and the minimum detection limit was one nanogram. Under normal working conditions a 25% precision was obtained. (author)

  13. Determination of cadmium in aluminium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct method for the determination of cadmium in elemental aluminium is described. Metal samples are dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid and cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in an air-acetylene flame. Interference by non-specific absorption observed at the analytical wavelength incorrected for by means of a non-absorbing line emitted by the hollow-cathode lamp. Relatively large amounts of arsenic do not interfere. The minimun determinable concentration of cadmium for this procedure is 2-3 ppm, expressed on aluminium basis. (author)

  14. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined form the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing(HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  15. (Beryllium). Internal Report No. 137, Jan. 15, 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief summary of the physical and chemical properties of beryllium, the various chemical treatments which can be applied to beryllium minerals either directly or after a physical enrichment are discussed. These various treatments give either the hydroxide or beryllium salts, from which either beryllium oxide or metallic beryllium can easily be obtained. The purification, analysis and uses of beryllium are also briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  17. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology ...

  18. Cryptic exposure to arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Rossy Kathleen; Janusz Christopher; Schwartz Robert

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving ne...

  19. ICT diagnostic method of beryllium welding quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To avoid the interference of high density material for the quality assay of beryllium welding line, a slice by slice scanning method was proposed based upon the research results of the Industrial Computerized Tomography (ICT) diagnostics for weld penetration, weld width, off-centered deviation and weld defects of beryllium-ring welding seam with high density material inside

  20. Some aspects of beryllium disposal in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically in Kazakhstan all disposals of used beryllium and beryllium wasted materials were stored and recycled at JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant''. Since Ulba Metallurgical Plant (beside beryllium and tantalum production) is one of the world largest complex producers of fuel for nuclear power plants as well it has possibilities, technologies and experience in processing toxic and radioactive wastes related with those productions. At present time only one operating Kazakhstan research reactors (EWG1M in Kurchatov) contains beryllium made core. The results of current examination of that core allow using it without replacement long time yet (at least for next five-ten years). Nevertheless the problem how to utilize such irradiated beryllium becomes actual issue for Kazakhstan even today. Since Kazakhstan is the member of ITER/DEMO Reactors Projects and is permanently considered as possible provider of huge amount of beryllium for those reactors so that is the reason for starting studies of possibilities of large scale processing/recycling of such disposed irradiated beryllium. It is clear that the Ulba Metallurgical Plant is considered as the best site for it in Kazakhstan. The draft plan how to organize experimental studies of irradiated beryllium disposals in Kazakhstan involving National Nuclear Center, National University (Almaty), JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant'' (Ust-Kamenogorsk) would be presented in this paper as well as proposals to arrange international collaboration in that field through ISTC (International Science Technology Center, Moscow). (author)

  1. Metastable defects in beryllium oxide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metastable luminescence centers of regular lattice are investigated in binary beryllium oxide crystals. Beryllium oxide hexagonal crystals are the simplest among low-symmetry oxide scintillators and serve as a model system. The anisotropy of energy transformation and transfer is analyzed

  2. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  3. Modeling of hydrogen interactions with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, improved mathematical models are developed for hydrogen interactions with beryllium. This includes the saturation effect observed for high-flux implantation of ions from plasmas and retention of tritium produced from neutronic transmutations in beryllium. Use of the models developed is justified by showing how they can replicated experimental data using the TMAP4 tritium transport code. (author)

  4. Assessment of LANL beryllium waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to determine present status of the preparation and implementation of the various high priority documents required to properly manage the beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory. The documents being assessed are: Waste Acceptance Criteria, Waste Characterization Plan, Waste Certification Plan, Waste Acceptance Procedures, Waste Characterization Procedures, Waste Certification Procedures, Waste Training Procedures and Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Beryllium is regulated (as a dust) under 40 CFR 261.33 as ''Discarded commercial chemical products, off specification species, container residues and spill residues thereof.'' Beryllium is also identified in the 3rd thirds ruling of June 1, 1990 as being restricted from land disposal (as a dust). The beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory is handled separately because beryllium has been identified as a highly toxic carcinogenic material

  5. Beryllium for fusion application - recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chakin, V.; Chernov, V.; Davydov, D.; Gorokhov, V.; Kawamura, H.; Kolbasov, B.; Kupriyanov, I.; Longhurst, G.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Shestakov, V.

    2002-12-01

    The main issues for the application of beryllium in fusion reactors are analyzed taking into account the latest results since the ICFRM-9 (Colorado, USA, October 1999) and presented at 5th IEA Be Workshop (10-12 October 2001, Moscow Russia). Considerable progress has been made recently in understanding the problems connected with the selection of the beryllium grades for different applications, characterization of the beryllium at relevant operational conditions (irradiation effects, thermal fatigue, etc.), and development of required manufacturing technologies. The key remaining problems related to the application of beryllium as an armour in near-term fusion reactors (e.g. ITER) are discussed. The features of the application of beryllium and beryllides as a neutron multiplier in the breeder blanket for power reactors (e.g. DEMO) in pebble-bed form are described.

  6. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  7. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  8. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented

  9. Gas retention in irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium (an inert gas) with low solubility in beryllium is trapped in irradiated beryllium at low temperatures (22 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV). In these samples the calculated helium generated was ∼ 14,000 appm. They are described in terms of swelling, annealing, microstructure, and helium bubble behavior (size, density and mobility). A second sample was irradiated to ∼5 x 1022 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV). In that one the calculated helium and tritium generated were ∼24,000 appm He and ∼3720 appm, and tritium content was examined in a dissolution experiment. Most of the tritium was released as gas to the glovebox indicating the generated tritium was retained in the helium bubbles. In a third set of experiments a specimen was examined by annealing at a succession of temperatures to more than 600 degree C for tritium release. In the temperature range of 300--500 degree C little release (0.01--0.4%) occurred, but there was a massive release at just over 600 degree C. Theories of swelling appear to adequately describe bubble behavior with breakaway release occurring at high helium contents and at large bubble diameters. 8 refs., 6 figs

  10. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  11. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals. PMID:25051614

  12. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure

  13. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified

  14. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

  15. Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)

  16. Preliminary proposal for a beryllium technology program for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program was designed to provide the answers to the critical issues of beryllium technology needed in fusion blanket designs. The four tasks are as follows: (1) Beryllium property measurements needed for fusion data base. (2) Beryllium stress relaxation and creep measurements for lifetime modelling calculations. (3) Simplified recycle technique development for irradiated beryllium. (4) Beryllium neutron multiplier measurements using manganese bath absolute calibration techniques

  17. Arsenic pollution in the Yellowknife area from gold smelter activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold mined at Yelloknife in the North West Territories of Canada is associated with arsenopyrite ores which necessitates the oxidation of the arsenic and sulphur by roasting at two Yellowknife smelters. As2O3 and SO2 are emitted into the atmosphere, and despite improvements in emission control, significant emissions still occur. In order to asses the arsenic contamination in the local environment and the potential exposures to man, soil samples and samples of the native vegetation were collected in and around Yellowknife and the two smelters. Arsenic and antimony analyses were done by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the SLOWPOKE facility at University of Toronto. Zinc, copper, lead and cadmium analyses were done by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. Arsenic was found to be accumulated in the soils in the vicinity of the two smelters to levels of several thousand ppm. Antimony levels were about 10% of arsenic and were highly correlated with arsenic. Zinc occured to 500 ppm around the smelters. Soil arsenic levels are sufficiently high to inhibit root growth in soils over a very extensive area. (author)

  18. Iron-containing phases in commercial beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hot and cold rolling with subsequent heat treatment on the interrelation of iron-containing phases and texture in commercial beryllium is considered. Using the Moessbauer microscopy it has been established that iron impurities are present both in solid solution and in the composition of intermetallide AlFeBe4 the texture for iron solid solution in beryllium is determined. Beryllium quenching results in nearly complete disappearance of intermetallic phase and iron transfers into substitutional solid solution. Further cold rolling does not result in any phase transformation

  19. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic trioxide is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL; a type of cancer in which there ... worsened following treatment with other types of chemotherapy. Arsenic trioxide is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  1. Nitrogen reactivity toward beryllium: surface reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, A

    2013-06-01

    Recent experiments with nitrogen as a seeding gas in fusion plasma devices together with the option of using beryllium as an armor material in the future ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have raised new interest in the interactions of beryllium surfaces with nitrogen (atomic or molecular). The strong reactivity of nitrogen implies the formation of beryllium nitrite and, in conjunction with oxygen and other possible impurities, experimentalists have to consider the probability of generating various complex moieties such as imine, amine or oxyamine, and amide radicals. This chemistry would obviously dramatically perturb the plasma, and quantum investigations can be of great predictive help. Nitrogen adsorption on beryllium basal surfaces is investigated through quantum density functional theory. Different situations are examined: molecular or atomic nitrogen reactions; nitride radical adsorption or formation on surfaces; hydrogen retention on surfaces; combined nitrogen/oxygen reactivity and hydrogen retention. A tentative comparison with experiment is also proposed. PMID:23594802

  2. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth; Casse, Michel; Audouze, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to...

  3. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children’s pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2–17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02–0.04 µg/g.

  4. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  5. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  6. Arsenic removal from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  7. Beryllium colorimetric detection for high speed monitoring of laboratory environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tammy P; Sauer, Nancy N

    2002-08-01

    The health consequences of beryllium (Be2+) exposure can be severe. Beryllium is responsible for a debilitating and potentially fatal lung disease, chronic beryllium disease (CBD) resulting from inhalation of beryllium particles. The US Code of Federal Register (CFR), 10 CFR 850, has established a limit of 0.2 microg beryllium/100 cm(2) as the maximum amount of beryllium allowable on surfaces to be released from beryllium work areas in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The analytical technique described herein reduces the time and cost of detecting beryllium on laboratory working surfaces substantially. The technique provides a positive colorimetric response to the presence of beryllium on a 30.5 cm x 30.5 cm (1 ft(2)) surface at a minimum detection of 0.2 microg/100 cm(2). The method has been validated to provide positive results for beryllium in the presence of excess iron, calcium, magnesium, copper, nickel, chromium and lead at concentrations 100 times that of beryllium and aluminum and uranium (UO2(2+)) at lesser concentrations. The colorimetric detection technique has also been validated to effectively detect solid forms of beryllium including Be(OH)2, BeCl2, BeSO4, beryllium metal and BeO. PMID:12137989

  8. Beryllium. Health hazards and their control. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work (continuation of 'Beryllium' series) health hazards, toxic effects, limits of permissible atmospheric contamination and safe exposure to beryllium are described. Guidelines to the design, control operations and hygienic precautions of the working facilities are given. (Author)

  9. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  10. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  11. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) (63 FR 66940). After considering the comments received, DOE... CFR Part 850 RIN 1992-AA39 Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program AGENCY: Office of Health... beryllium disease prevention program. The Department solicits comment and information on the...

  12. Spectrographic determination of impurities in beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the spectrographic determination of Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, NaNi, Si and Zn in nuclear grade beryllium oxide has been developed. The determination of Co, Al, Na and Zn is besed upon a carrier distillation technique. Better results were obtained with 2% Ga2O3 as carrier in beryllium oxide. For the elements B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mg, Ni and Si the sample is loaded in a Scribner-Mullin shallow cup electrode, covered with graphite powder and excited in DC arc. The relative standard deviation values for different elements are in the range of 10 to 20%. The method fulfills requirements of precision and sensitivity for specification analysis of nuclear grade beryllium oxide.(Author)

  13. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Robin B; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Maria Mercedes Meza-Montenegro; Luis Enrique Gutiérrez-Millán; Mary Kay O’Rourke; Jason Roberge

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and...

  14. Low-temperature solubility of copper in beryllium, in beryllium--aluminum, and in beryllium--silicon using ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation and ion backscattering analysis have been used to measure the solubility of copper in beryllium over the temperature range 593 to 1023 K, and to determine the effect on the copper solubility of aluminum and silicon impurities. The binary data extend 280 K lower in temperature than previous results, while the ternary measurements are unique. The information is pertinent to the use of copper for solution strengthening of beryllium. Diffusion couples were formed by ion implantation of copper into single-crystal beryllium at room temperature, followed where appropriate by implantation of aluminum or silicon. The samples were then annealed isothermally, and the time-evolution of the composition-vs-depth profile, determined by ion backscattering analysis, yielded the solubility of copper. Measurements at exceptionally low temperatures were facilitated by the short diffusion distances, approximately equal to 0.1 mu m, and the use of neon irradiation to accelerate diffusion. The resulting binary data for the solubility C0 of copper in beryllium merge smoothly into previous results at higher temperatures. The combined data, covering the temperature range 593 to 1373 K, are well described by C0 = (12.6 at. pct) . exp (-842 K/T). In the ternary regime, the effects of aluminum and silicon on the solubility of copper were found to be small

  15. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques.

  16. Geochemistry, geochronology, mineralogy, and geology suggest sources of and controls on mineral systems in the southern Toquima Range, Nye County, Nevada; with geochemistry maps of gold, silver, mercury, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, lead, molybdenum, bismuth, iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and sulfur; and with a section on lead associations, mineralogy and paragenesis, and isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Hoffman, James D.; Doe, Bruce R.; Foord, Eugene E.; Stein, Holly J.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Geochemistry maps showing the distribution and abundance of 18 elements in about 1,400 rock samples, both mineralized and unmineralized, from the southern Toquima Range, Nev., indicate major structural and lithologic controls on mineralization, and suggest sources of the elements. Radiometric age data, lead mineralogy and paragenesis data, and lead-isotope data supplement the geochemical and geologic data, providing further insight into timing, sources, and controls on mineralization. Major zones of mineralization are centered on structural margins of calderas and principal northwest-striking fault zones, as at Round Mountain, Manhattan, and Jefferson mining districts, and on intersections of low-angle and steep structures, as at Belmont mining district. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly limestones (at Manhattan, Jefferson, and Belmont districts), and porous Oligocene ash-flow tuffs (at Round Mountain district) host the major deposits, although all rock types have been mineralized as evidenced by numerous prospects throughout the area. Principal mineral systems are gold-silver at Round Mountain where about 7 million ounces of gold and more than 4 million ounces of silver has been produced; gold at Gold Hill in the west part of the Manhattan district where about a half million ounces of gold has been produced; gold-mercury-arsenic-antimony in the east (White Caps) part of the Manhattan district where a few hundred thousand ounces of gold has been produced; and silver-lead-antimony at Belmont where more than 150,000 ounces of silver has been produced. Lesser amounts of gold and silver have been produced from the Jefferson district and from scattered mines elsewhere in the southern Toquima Range. A small amount of tungsten was produced from mines in the granite of the Round Mountain pluton exposed east of Round Mountain, and small amounts of arsenic, antimony, and mercury have been produced elsewhere in the southern Toquima Range. All elements show unique

  17. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

    2002-10-01

    Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern. PMID:12442995

  18. Magnesium Cermets and Magnesium-Beryllium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes some results of work on the development of magnesium-magnesium oxide cermets and of super heat-resistant magnesiumberyllium alloys produced by powder metallurgical methods. The introduction of even a minute quantity of finely dispersed magnesium oxide into magnesium results in a strengthening of the material, the degree of which increases with increased magnesium oxide concentration, although variation of this concentration within the limits of 0.3 to 5 wt.% has a comparatively slight effect on the corresponding variation in the short-term strength over the whole range of temperatures investigated. At 20oC, in the case of the cermets, σβ = 28 to 31 kg/mm2 and δ = 3 .5 to 4.5%; at 500oC σβ = 2.6 to 3.2 kg/mm2 and δ =30 to 40%. The positive effect of the finely dispersed oxide phase is particularly evident in protracted tests. For magnesium cermets, σ (300)/100 = 2.2 kg/mm2. Characteristic of the mixtures is the high thermal stability of the strength properties, linked chiefly with the thermodynamic stability of the strength-giving oxide phase in the metal matrix. The use of powder metallurgical methods has yielded super heat-resistant magnesium-beryllium alloys containing heightened concentrations of beryllium (PMB alloys). In their strength characteristics PMB alloys are close to Mg-MgO cermets, but the magnesium-beryllium alloys have a degree and duration of resistance to high temperature oxidation which exceeds the corresponding qualities of the magnesium alloys at present known. Thus, in air of 580oC, PMB alloys with 2 to 5% beryllium maintain a high resistance to oxidation for a period of over 12000 to 14000 h. This long-term heat resistance is chiefly a result of the amount of beryllium in the alloy, and increases with increasing beryllium content. PMB alloys are also marked by high resistance to short bursts of overheating. Magnesium cermets and magnesium-beryllium alloys, with their enhanced high-temperature stability, are capable

  19. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about arsenic in drinking water. It includes sections about what arsenic is, where it comes from, health concerns from exposure, drinking water standards, how to know if there is arsenic in a water supply and how to reduce arsenic in drinking water.

  20. Arsenic in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants Metals Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... and previous or current use of arsenic-containing pesticides. Are there ... compounds in water, food, air, and soil: organic and inorganic (these together ...

  1. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma-facing component of first-wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold-isostatic-pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well as its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.In this current work, the range of anticipated fusion operating conditions is reviewed. The thermal, mechanical, chemical compatibility, tritium retention/release, and helium retention/swelling databases are then reviewed for fabrication methods and fusion operating conditions of interest. Properties correlations and uncertainty ranges are also discussed. In the case of the more complex phenomena of tritium retention/release and helium-induced swelling, fundamental mechanisms and models are reviewed in more detail. Areas in which additional data are needed are highlighted, along with some trends which suggest ways of optimizing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications. (orig.)

  2. Safety handling of beryllium for fusion technology R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility of beryllium use as a blanket neutron multiplier, first wall and plasma facing material has been studied for the D-T burning experiment reactors such as ITER. Various experimental work of beryllium and its compounds will be performed under the conditions of high temperature and high energy particle exposure simulating fusion reactor conditions. Beryllium is known as a hazardous substance and its handling has been carefully controlled by various health and safe guidances and/or regulations in many countries. Japanese regulations for hazardous substance provide various guidelines on beryllium for the protection of industrial workers and environment. This report was prepared for the safe handling of beryllium in a laboratory scale experiments for fusion technology R and D such as blanket development. Major items in this report are; (1) Brief review of guidances and regulations in USA, UK and Japan. (2) Safe handling and administration manuals at beryllium facilities in INEL, LANL and JET. (3) Conceptual design study of beryllium handling facility for small to mid-scale blanket R and D. (4) Data on beryllium toxicity, example of clinical diagnosis of beryllium disease, and environmental occurence of beryllium. (5) Personnel protection tools of Japanese Industrial Standard for hazardous substance. (author) 61 refs

  3. Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium

  4. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  5. Study on neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as neutron multiplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    More than 300 tons beryllium is expected to be used as a neutron multiplier in ITER, and study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) were performed to get the engineering data for fusion blanket design. This study started as the study on the tritium behavior in beryllium neutron reflector in order to make clear the generation mechanism on tritium of JMTR primary coolant since 1985. These experiences were handed over to beryllium studies for fusion study, and overall studies such as production technology of beryllium pebbles, irradiation behavior evaluation and reprocessing technology have been started since 1990. In this presentation, study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with JMTR was reviewed from the point of tritium release, thermal properties, mechanical properties and reprocessing technology. (author)

  6. Status of material development for lifetime expansion of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been used as the reflector element material in the reactor, specifically S-200F structural grade beryllium manufactured by Materion Brush Beryllium and Composites (former, Brush Wellman Inc.). As a part of the reactor upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) also has carried out the cooperation experiments to extend the operating lifetime of the beryllium reflector elements. It will first be necessary to determine which of the material's physical, mechanical and chemical properties will be the most influential on that choice. The irradiation testing plans to evaluate the various beryllium grades are also briefly considered and prepared. In this paper, material selection, irradiation test plan and PEI development for lifetime expansion of beryllium are described for material testing reactors. (author)

  7. Characterization of plasma sprayed beryllium ITER first wall mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Material Science and Technology Div.

    1998-01-01

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/m{sup 2} without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface. (author)

  8. Mechanisms of hydrogen retention in metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide and properties of ion-induced beryllium nitride; Rueckhaltemechanismen fuer Wasserstoff in metallischem Beryllium und Berylliumoxid sowie Eigenschaften von ioneninduziertem Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkofler, Martin

    2011-09-22

    In the framework of this thesis laboratory experiments on atomically clean beryllium surfaces were performed. They aim at a basic understanding of the mechanisms occurring upon interaction of a fusion plasma with a beryllium first wall. The retention and the temperature dependent release of implanted deuterium ions are investigated. An atomistic description is developed through simulations and through the comparison with calculations based on density functional theory. The results of these investigations are compared to the behaviour of hydrogen upon implantation into thermally grown beryllium oxide layers. Furthermore, beryllium nitride is produced by implantation of nitrogen into metallic beryllium and its properties are investigated. The results are interpreted with regard to the use of beryllium in a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  9. Epidemiological methods for assessing dose-response and dose-effect relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellström, Tord; Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Toxic Effects of Metals Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Bismuth Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Gallium and Semiconductor Compounds Germanium Indium Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Palladium Platinum Selenium Silver Tellurium Thallium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Zinc...

  10. Principles for prevention of toxic effects from metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Kotelchuk, David; Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Toxic Effects of Metals Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Bismuth Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Gallium and Semiconductor Compounds Germanium Indium Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Palladium Platinum Selenium Silver Tellurium Thallium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Zinc...

  11. Plasma cleaning of beryllium coated mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Marot, L.; Steiner, R.; Newman, M.; Widdowson, A.; Ivanova, D.; Likonen, J.; Petersson, P.; Pintsuk, G.; Rubel, M.; Meyer, E.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Cleaning systems of metallic first mirrors are needed in more than 20 optical diagnostic systems from ITER to avoid reflectivity losses. Currently, plasma sputtering is considered as one of the most promising techniques to remove deposits coming from the main wall (mainly beryllium and tungsten). This work presents the results of plasma cleaning of rhodium and molybdenum mirrors exposed in JET-ILW and contaminated with typical tokamak elements (including beryllium and tungsten). Using radio frequency (13.56 MHz) argon or helium plasma, the removal of mixed layers was demonstrated and mirror reflectivity improved towards initial values. The cleaning was evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis.

  12. Computer simulation of electronic excitations in beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, A V

    2016-01-01

    An effective method for the quantitative description of the electronic excited states of polyatomic systems is developed by using computer technology. The proposed method allows calculating various properties of matter at the atomic level within the uniform scheme. A special attention is paid to the description of beryllium atoms interactions with the external fields, comparable by power to the fields in atoms, molecules and clusters.

  13. Low cycle thermal fatigue testing of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium, which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter and divertor components. The 30 kW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ''spike'' of 750 C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stresses in excess of the yield strength are generated, due to very high spot heat flux, 25 MWm-2. Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S200F-H, SR-200, I-400, extruded high purity, HIP'd spherical powder, porous beryllium (94 and 98% dense), Be/30%, BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe12. Russian grades included: TPG-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TSHG-56. Both thenumber of cycles tocrack initiation and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be (SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis. (orig.)

  14. Dynamic behaviour of S200F beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compression tests have been made on a large scale of strain, strain rate (up to 2000 s-1) and temperature (between 20 C and 300 C). From these experiences, we have calculated a constitutive model for beryllium S200F, which can be used by computer codes. Its formulation is not far from Steinberg, Cochran and Guinan's. But in our case, the influences of temperature and strain rate appear clearly within the expression. To validate our equation, we have used it in a computer code. Its extrapolation for higher strain rates is in good agreement with experiments such as Taylor impact tests or plate impact tests (strain rates greater than 104 s-1). With micrography, we could settle a link between the main strain mode within the material, and the variation of one parameter of the model. Beside the constitutive model, we have shown that shock loaded beryllium behaves in two different ways. If the strain rate is lower than 5.106 s-1, then it is proportional to the squared shock pressure. Beyond, it is a linear function of shock pressure to the power of four. By a spall study on beryllium, we have confirmed that it is excessively fragile. Its fracture is sudden, at a strength near 1 GPa. (author)

  15. Permeation behavior of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on Implantation Driven Permeation (IDP) behavior of deuterium through pure beryllium was investigated as a part of the research to predict the tritium permeation through the first wall components ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The permeation experiments were carried out with two beryllium specimens, one was an unannealed specimen and the other was that annealed at 1173 K. The permeation flux was measured as a function of specimen temperature and incident ion flux. Surface analysis of specimen was also carried out after the permeation experiment. Permeation was observed only with the annealed specimen and no significant permeation was observed with unannealed specimen under the present experimental condition (maximum temperature: 685 K, detection limit: 1x1013 D atoms/m2s). It could be attributed that the intrinsic lattice defects, which act as diffusion preventing site, decreased with the specimen annealing. Based on the result of steady and transient permeation behavior and surface analysis, it was estimated that the deuterium permeation implanted into annealed beryllium was controlled by surface recombination due to the oxide layer on the surface of the permeated side. (author)

  16. Interaction of nitrogen ions with beryllium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobes, Katharina [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Association EURATOM ÖAW, Vienna (Austria); Köppen, Martin [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oberkofler, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lungu, Cristian P.; Porosnicu, Corneliu [National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Höschen, Till; Meisl, Gerd [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Linsmeier, Christian [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Aumayr, Friedrich, E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Association EURATOM ÖAW, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of energetic nitrogen projectiles with a beryllium surface is studied using a highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance technique. The overall mass change rate of the beryllium sample under N{sub 2}{sup +} ion impact at an ion energy of 5000 eV (i.e. 2500 eV per N) is investigated in situ and in real-time. A strong dependency of the observed mass change rate on the nitrogen fluence (at constant flux) is found and can be attributed to the formation of a nitrogen-containing mixed material layer within the ion penetration depth. The presented data elucidate the dynamics of the interaction process and the surface saturation with increasing nitrogen fluence in a unique way. Basically, distinct interaction regimes can be discriminated, which can be linked to the evolution of the surface composition upon nitrogen impact. Steady state surface conditions are obtained at a total cumulative nitrogen fluence of ∼80 × 10{sup 16} N atoms per cm{sup 2}. In dynamic equilibrium, the interaction is marked by continuous surface erosion. In this case, the observed total sputtering yield becomes independent from the applied nitrogen fluence and is of the order of 0.4 beryllium atoms per impinging nitrogen atom.

  17. Behavior of beryllium pebbles under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik; Baldwin, D.L.; Gelles, D.S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Kawamura, H.; Oliver, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium pebbles are being considered in fusion reactor blanket designs as neutron multiplier. An example is the European `Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket.` Several forms of beryllium pebbles are commercially available but little is known about these forms in response to fast neutron irradiation. Commercially available beryllium pebbles have been irradiated to approximately 1.3 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 390degC. Pebbles 1-mm in diameter manufactured by Brush Wellman, USA and by Nippon Gaishi Company, Japan, and 3-mm pebbles manufactured by Brush Wellman were included. All were irradiated in the below-core area of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho Falls, USA, in molybdenum alloy capsules containing helium. Post-irradiation results are presented on density change measurements, tritium release by assay, stepped-temperature anneal, and thermal ramp desorption tests, and helium release by assay and stepped-temperature anneal measurements, for Be pebbles from two manufacturing methods, and with two specimen diameters. The experimental results on density change and tritium and helium release are compared with the predictions of the code ANFIBE. (author)

  18. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  19. USEPA Arsenic Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides background information on the USEPA arsenic removal program. The summary includes information on the history of the program, sites and technology selected, and a summary of the data collected from two completed projects.

  20. EXAFS study on arsenic species and transformation in arsenic hyperaccumulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zechun; CHEN Tongbin; LEI Mei; HU Tiandou; HUANG Qifei

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation extended X-ray absorption fine structure (SR EXAFS) was employed to study the transformation of coordination environment and the redox speciation of arsenic in a newly discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Cretan brake (Pteris cretica L. var nervosa Thunb). It showed that the arsenic in the plant mainly coordinated with oxygen, except that some arsenic coordinated with S as As-GSH in root. The complexation of arsenic with GSH might not be the predominant detoxification mechanism in Cretan brake. Although some arsenic in root presented as As(V) in Na2HAsO4 treatments, most of arsenic in plant presented as As(III)-O in both treatments, indicating that As(V) tended to be reduced to As(III) after it was taken up into the root, and arsenic was kept as As(III) when it was transported to the above-ground tissues. The reduction of As(V) primarily proceeded in the root.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN AN ARSENIC CONTAMINATED VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud C. Saikia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of ground water has occurred in various parts of the world, becoming a menace in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra basin (West Bengal and Assam in India and Bangladesh. Recently arsenic has been detected in Cachar and Karimganj districts of barak valley, Assam, bordering Bangladesh. In this area coli form contamination comprises the major constraint towards utilization of its otherwise ample surface water resources. The local water management exploited ground water sources using a centralized piped water delivery scheme without taking into account the geologically arsenic-prone nature of the sediments and aquifers in this area. Thus surface water was the suggestive alternative for drinking water in this area. The present study investigated surface water quality and availability in a village of Karimganj district, Assam, India contaminated with arsenic for identifying the potential problems of surface water quality maintenance so that with effective management safe drinking water could be provided. The study revealed that the area was rich in freshwater ecosystems which had all physico-chemical variables such as water temperature, pH, DO, total alkalinity, free CO2, heavy metals like lead, chromium and cadmium within WHO standards. In contrast, coli form bacteria count was found far beyond permissible limit in all the sources. Around 60% people of the village preferred ground water for drinking and only 6% were aware of arsenic related problems. The problem of bacterial contamination could be controlled by implementing some ameliorative measures so that people can safely use surface water. Inhabitants of the two districts should be given proper education regarding arsenic contamination and associated health risk. Effluents should be treated to acceptable levels and standards before discharging them into natural streams.

  2. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  3. Experiments on studying beryllium - steam interaction, determination of oxidated beryllium emissivity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of beryllium emissivity factor measurements within 700-1300 K temperature range. The tests were conducted at Institute of Atomic Energy of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan to receive experimental data for verification of calculation programs describing an accident involving water coolant discharge into ITER reactor vacuum cavity. (author)

  4. Ionization energies of beryllium in strong magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANXiao-xu; ZHANGYue-xia

    2004-01-01

    We have develop an effective frozen core approximation to calculate energy levels and ionization enegies of the beryllium atom in magnetic field strengths up to 2.35 × 105T. Systematic improvement over the Hartree-Fock results for the beryllium low-lying states has been accomplished.

  5. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  6. Joining of beryllium by braze welding technique: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaim, P.; Abramov, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Zalkind, S.; Eden, S.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of some applications, there is a need to join beryllium parts to each other. Gas Tungsten Arc Braze Welds were made in beryllium using 0.3 mm commercially Aluminum (1100) shim preplaced at the joint. The welds exhibited a tendency to form microcracks in the Fusion Zone and Heat Affected Zone. All the microcracks were backfilled with Aluminum. (author)

  7. The Determination and Pollution Evaluation Analysis of the Content of the Heavy Metals-Lead,Cadmium,Chromium and Arsenic,in Tobacco Planting Soil of Nange Township Huili County%会理南阁乡植烟土壤中铅、镉、铬、砷含量测定及污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 易晓鑫; 李桂霞; 邬伟锋; 尹鹏嘉; 黄亮

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco planting soil of Nange township Huili county is collected as a standard sample. After the sample digested,the ICP atom absorption spectrum apparatus in used to determine the heavy metal content of lead, cadmium,arsenic and chromium in the sample,and the single factor index method is used to evaluate and analyse the pollution status. The results of the study show that the average percentage of this 4 kinds of heavy metals in the tobacco planting soil of Nange township is:Pb 289.17 mg/kg,Cd 6.25 mg/kg,Cr 73.92 mg/kg,As 16.08 mg/kg. Compared with the soil environmental quality standard values,Cd belongs to severe pollution grade,Pbbelongs to moderate pollution grade,while the rest is free from contamination or belongs to light pollution grade. In the evaluation of the health risks and ecological risks of tobacco planting soil,Pb health values are in a low risk level, and Pb ecological risks are in a medium risk level. Cd is in a high risk level because of exceeding badly. We can see from this,the status of the heavy metal content of the tobacco planting soil of Nange township of Huili county is not optimistic,and it is worth our long-term attention.%  以会理县南阁乡植烟土壤为标准农化样研究对象,农化样消解后用ICP原子吸收光谱仪进行Pb、Cd、Cr、As四种重金属含量测定,并采用单因子指数法对污染状况进行评价研究。研究结果表明,南阁乡植烟土壤中四种重金属的百分含量平均值分别为:Pb 289.17mg/kg,Cd 6.25mg/kg,Cr 73.92mg/kg,As 16.08mg/kg,与土壤环境质量标准值相较后得知Cd 属于重度污染、Pb属于中度污染、Cr为无污染、As为轻微污染。在对植烟土壤健康风险、生态风险的污染评价中,Pb健康风险值处于低风险等级,生态上的风险评估Pb是具有中等风险等级的;Cd由于严重超标为高风险等级。由此可以看出,会理县南阁乡植烟土壤重金属中Pb、Cd含量并不容乐观

  8. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  9. Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 μm hr-1 were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates

  10. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  11. Effectiveness of amendments on the spread and phytotoxicity of contaminants in metal-arsenic polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, V., E-mail: vga220@ual.es [Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, ESI CITE IIB, Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04129 Almeria (Spain); Garcia, I.; Del Moral, F.; Simon, M. [Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, ESI CITE IIB, Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04129 Almeria (Spain)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of soil amendments was studied in lixiviates and in pore water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metals and arsenic showed different partitioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amendment which was effective against arsenic was not effective against metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amendment that fixed metals increased the arsenic concentration in lixiviates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using amendments in combination did not improve the effectiveness. - Abstract: A metal-arsenic polluted soil from sulphide-mine waste was treated, in all possible combinations, with two different amounts of marble sludge (98% CaCO{sub 3}), compost (41% organic carbon), and Byferrox (70% Fe). Lixiviate and pore water from each treated and untreated soil were analysed, and lettuce-seed bioassays were performed. None of the treatments decreased the electrical conductivity of lixiviates or the concentrations of all pollutants found in both solutions. Marble sludge and compost increased the pH values and decreased the zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead concentrations in both solutions while increasing the arsenic concentrations in the lixiviates. Byferrox did not alter the physicochemical parameters or the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, or lead in either solution but significantly decreased the arsenic concentrations in pore water. Compared with the Byferrox treatment, the mixture of marble sludge and Byferrox decreased redox potential values, increasing the arsenic concentrations in both solutions and the electrical conductivity of the pore water. All lixiviates were highly phytotoxic and seeds did not germinate. Pore-water phytotoxicity was related to electrical conductivity values and heavy-metal concentrations. The combination of marble sludge and compost was most effective at diminishing toxicity in lettuce. The soils treated with Byferrox, alone or mixed with marble sludge or compost, were the most

  12. Effectiveness of amendments on the spread and phytotoxicity of contaminants in metal–arsenic polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The effectiveness of soil amendments was studied in lixiviates and in pore water. ► Heavy metals and arsenic showed different partitioning. ► The amendment which was effective against arsenic was not effective against metals. ► The amendment that fixed metals increased the arsenic concentration in lixiviates. ► Using amendments in combination did not improve the effectiveness. - Abstract: A metal–arsenic polluted soil from sulphide-mine waste was treated, in all possible combinations, with two different amounts of marble sludge (98% CaCO3), compost (41% organic carbon), and Byferrox (70% Fe). Lixiviate and pore water from each treated and untreated soil were analysed, and lettuce-seed bioassays were performed. None of the treatments decreased the electrical conductivity of lixiviates or the concentrations of all pollutants found in both solutions. Marble sludge and compost increased the pH values and decreased the zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead concentrations in both solutions while increasing the arsenic concentrations in the lixiviates. Byferrox did not alter the physicochemical parameters or the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, or lead in either solution but significantly decreased the arsenic concentrations in pore water. Compared with the Byferrox treatment, the mixture of marble sludge and Byferrox decreased redox potential values, increasing the arsenic concentrations in both solutions and the electrical conductivity of the pore water. All lixiviates were highly phytotoxic and seeds did not germinate. Pore-water phytotoxicity was related to electrical conductivity values and heavy-metal concentrations. The combination of marble sludge and compost was most effective at diminishing toxicity in lettuce. The soils treated with Byferrox, alone or mixed with marble sludge or compost, were the most phytotoxic.

  13. Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s21Se ground state (37.73a03) and the 2s2p 3P0o metastable state (39.04a03) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s21Se-2s2p 3P0o clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

  14. Arsenic: The Silent Killer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Andrea (USGS)

    2006-02-28

    Andrea Foster uses x-rays to determine the forms of potentially toxic elements in environmentally-important matrices such as water, sediments, plants, and microorganisms. In this free public lecture, Foster will discuss her research on arsenic, which is called the silent killer because dissolved in water, it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, yet consumption of relatively small doses of this element in its most toxic forms can cause rapid and violent death. Arsenic is a well-known poison, and has been used as such since ancient times. Less well known is the fact that much lower doses of the element, consumed over years, can lead to a variety of skin and internal cancers that can also be fatal. Currently, what has been called the largest mass poisoning in history is occurring in Bangladesh, where most people are by necessity drinking ground water that is contaminated with arsenic far in excess of the maximum amounts determined to be safe by the World Health Organization. This presentation will review the long and complicated history with arsenic, describe how x-rays have helped explain the high yet spatially variable arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh, discuss the ways in which land use in Bangladesh may be exacerbating the problem, and summarize the impact of this silent killer on drinking water systems worldwide.

  15. Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris Vittata L. and its arsenic accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) was first discovered in China by means of field survey and greenhouse cultivation. Field survey showed that Chinese brake had large accumulating capacity to arsenic; the orders of arsenic content in different parts of the fern were as follows: leaves>leafstalks>roots, which is totally different from that of ordinary plants; bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts of the fern decreased as a power function of soil arsenic contents. In the control of pot trials with normal unpolluted soil containing 9 mg/kg of arsenic, the bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts and rhizoids of Chinese brake were as high as 71 and 80 respectively. Greenhouse cultivation in the contaminated soil from mining areas has shown that more than 1 times greater arsenic can be accumulated in the leaves of the fern than that of field samples with the largest content of 5070 mg/kg As on a dry matter basis. During greenhouse cultivation, arsenic content in the leaves of the fern increased linearly with time prolonging. Not only has Chinese brake extraordinary tolerance and accumulation to arsenic, but it grew rapidly with great biomass, wide distribution and easy adaptation to different environmental conditions as well. Therefore, it has great potential in future remediation of arsenic contamination. It also demonstrates important value for studies of arsenic physiology and biochemistry such as arsenic absorption, translocation and detoxification mechanisms in plants.

  16. Cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel in wild edible mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelkonen, R.; Alfthan, G.; Jaervinen, O.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the study was to study the geographical and temporal variation of Cd, Pb, As and Ni in wild edible mushrooms and to evaluate possible toxicological risks resulting from their consumption. The research focused on 12 mushroom species commonly collected in Finland. The samples were collected at common collection sites in Southern Finland between the years 1977 and 1999 and analysed using ICP-MS. The median dry weight concentrations ranged between 0.22-29.70 mg kg d.w. for Cd, 0.36-6.05 mg kg d.w. for Pb, 0.14-5.11 mg kg d.w. for As and 0.41-9.08 mg kg d.w. for Ni. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb and As were found in Agaricus abruptibulbus and the highest level of Ni in Albatrellus ovinus. The Pb concentrations in A. abruptibulbus and Cd levels in Lactarius species were found to be signifi cantly higher at polluted than at unpolluted sites. The Pb contents of A. ovinus, Boletus species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Lactarius species as well as Cd levels of A. abruptibulbus and Leccinum species were signifi cantly higher for samples collected in 1977-1983 than for ones collected in 1992-1999. Decomposer species had generally higher concentrations of Cd, Pb and As than mycorrhizal fungi. Apart from the high element concentrations of A. abruptibulbus, the consumption of mushrooms was generally not considered to pose a toxicological risk in the light of the safety limits set by WHO. However, the Cd and Pb contents in A. abruptibulbus and Cd levels of Gyromitra esculenta and Boletus species exceeded the EU maximum permitted concentrations for cultivated mushrooms. (orig.)

  17. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  18. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  19. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ((Simon)); ((Royal))

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  20. Status of beryllium study for fusion in RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main directions of research activities in the field of beryllium application science and technology carried out in Russia during 2001-2003 have been reviewed. The main results of these investigations have been highlighted. First wall and port-limier. The investigation on the actively cooled components with beryllium cladding is under progress objecting on the clarification of their ultimate thermo cycling capabilities. The study of behavior of bulk beryllium and the boundary region of the contact with the cooling structure under the intensive thermo cycling loading and neutron irradiation have been the object of consideration in particular. The works on the optimization and modification of industrial fabrication processes for commercial scaled production of beryllium tile were also under way. The influence of neutron irradiation. The new experimental data on the nuclear properties of several Russian beryllium grades has been obtained. The samples have been subjected to the high neutron dozes. The influence of low temperature (70-200degree C) neutron irradiation on the thermal conductivity has been examined in particular. The interrelations of the helium inventory and temperature of neutron irradiation with tritium release out of irradiated beryllium samples have been analyzed. The beryllium associated safety questions. The experiments on the modeling of normal working conditions and conditions imitating the plasma disruption events in ITER performance scenario have been continued. The new experimental information on the coefficient of pulverization of beryllium and the accumulation of deuterium in beryllium under the action of proton beam has been collected. The dependence of the reaction rate constant for the beryllium oxidation by the water vapor for different conditions has been analyzed. The compact, porous and powder beryllium samples have been tested at the wide range of temperature, pressure and duration of reaction with water vapor. The calculating

  1. Assessment of the feasibility and advantages of beryllium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a generic route for the recycling of beryllium from fusion reactors, based on critical issues associated with beryllium pebbles after their service life in the HCPB breeding blanket. These critical issues are the high tritium inventory, the presence of long-lived radionuclides (among which transuranics due to traces of uranium in the base metal), and the chemical toxicity of beryllium. On the basis of the chemical and radiochemical characteristics of the neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles, we describe a possible recycling route. The first step is the detritiation of the material. This can be achieved by heating the pebbles to 800 oC under an argon flow. The argon gas avoids oxidation of the beryllium, and at the proposed temperature the tritium inventory is readily released from the pebbles. In a second step, the released tritium can be oxidised on a copper oxide bed to produce tritiated water, which is consistent with the current international strategy to convert all kinds of tritiated waste into tritiated water, which can subsequently be treated in a water detritiation plant. Removal of radionuclides from the beryllium pebbles may be achieved by several types of chloride processes. The first step is to pass chlorine gas (in an argon flow) over the pebbles, thus yielding volatile BeCl2. This beryllium chloride can then be purified by fractional distillation. As a small fraction of the beryllium chloride contains the long-lived 10Be isotope, 10BeCl2 has to be separated from 9BeCl2, which could be achieved by centrifugal techniques. The product can then be reduced to obtain high-purity metallic beryllium. Two candidate reduction methods were identified: fused salt electrolysis and thermal decomposition. Both these methods require laboratory parametric studies to maximise the yield and achieve a high purity metal, before either process can be upgraded to a larger scale. The eventual product of the chloride reduction process must be a high purity

  2. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author)

  3. Beryllium containing plasma interactions with ITER materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beryllium-seeded deuterium plasma is used in PISCES-B to investigate mixed-material erosion and redeposition properties of ITER relevant divertor materials. The beryllium containing plasma simulates the erosion of first wall material into the ITER sol plasma and its subsequent flow toward the carbon divertor plates. The experiments are designed to quantify the behavior of plasma created mixed Be/C and Be/W surfaces. Developing an understanding of the mixed material surface behavior is crucial to accurately predicting the tritium accumulation rate within the ITER vacuum vessel. The temporal evolution of the plasma interactions with the various mixed surfaces are examined to better understand the fundamental mechanisms in play at the surface and to allow scaling of these results to the conditions expected in the ITER divertor. A new periodic heat pulse deposition system is also installed on PISCES-B to simulate the transient temperature excursions of surfaces expected to occur in the ITER divertor during ELMs and other off-normal events. These periodically applied heat pulses allow us to study the effects of transient power loading on the formation, stability and tritium content of mixed-material surfaces that are created during the experiments. (author)

  4. ARSENIC REMOVAL TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR SINGLE FAMILY HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides information on POU and POE arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems. The presentation provides information on the arsenic rule, arsenic chemistry and arsenic treatment. The arsenic treatment options proposed for POU and POE treatment consist prim...

  5. Geographical variation in inorganic arsenic in paddy field samples and commercial rice from the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Carey, Manus; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Green, Andy J; Meharg, Andrew A

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated total arsenic and arsenic speciation in rice using ion chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (IC-ICP-MS), covering the main rice-growing regions of the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. The main arsenic species found were inorganic and dimethylarsinic acid. Samples surveyed were soil, shoots and field-collected rice grain. From this information soil to plant arsenic transfer was investigated plus the distribution of arsenic in rice across the geographical regions of Spain and Portugal. Commercial polished rice was also obtained from each region and tested for arsenic speciation, showing a positive correlation with field-obtained rice grain. Commercial polished rice had the lowest i-As content in Andalucia, Murcia and Valencia while Extremadura had the highest concentrations. About 26% of commercial rice samples exceeded the permissible concentration for infant food production as governed by the European Commission. Some cadmium data is also presented, available with ICP-MS analyses, and show low concentration in rice samples. PMID:26920305

  6. Potential of some aquatic plants for removal of arsenic from wastewater by green technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Barznji Dana A.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation or green technology is counted among the successful and effective biological contaminated water treatment techniques. Basically, the concept of this green, cost-effective, simple, environmentally nondisruptive method consists in using plants and microbiological processes to reduce contaminants in the ecosystem. Different species from aquatic plants (emerged, free-floating, and submerged) have been studied to mitigate toxic contaminants such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copp...

  7. Fluorimetric method for determination of Beryllium; Determinazione fluorimetrica del berillio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparacino, N.; Sabbioneda, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-10-01

    The old fluorimetric method for the determination of Beryllium, based essentially on the fluorescence of the Beryllium-Morine complex in a strongly alkaline solution, is still competitive and stands the comparison with more modern methods or at least three reasons: in the presence of solid or gaseous samples (powders), the times necessary to finalize an analytic determination are comparable since the stage of the process which lasts the longest is the mineralization of the solid particles containing Beryllium, the cost of a good fluorimeter is by far Inferior to the cost, e. g., of an Emission Spectrophotometer provided with ICP torch and magnets for exploiting the Zeeman effect and of an Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer provided with Graphite furnace; it is possible to determine, fluorimetrically, rather small Beryllium levels (about 30 ng of Beryllium/sample), this potentiality is more than sufficient to guarantee the respect of all the work safety and hygiene rules now in force. The study which is the subject of this publication is designed to the analysis procedure which allows one to reach good results in the determination of Beryllium, chiefly through the control and measurement of the interference effect due to the presence of some metals which might accompany the environmental samples of workshops and laboratories where Beryllium is handled, either at the pure state or in its alloys. The results obtained satisfactorily point out the merits and limits of this analytic procedure.

  8. Cadmium status in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is inferred from these studies that releases of Cd are still increasing and it is recommended that measures must be taken to reduce emissions of cadmium. Any cadmium discharged into the Egyptian environment may move from one compartment to another at varying rates,resulting in an accumulation in compartments such as soils and biota. Such accumulation can be expected to increase with continued emissions,and attention should be given to all sources of cadmium, natural as well as anthropogenic especially in the industrial cities in Egypt. Cadmium present in sewage, as well as industrial effluent (also, other liquid and solid wastes) and sewage sludge will increase levels in soils and is xpected to contribute to dietary levels and body burdens. The current information indicates that such effects may have to be evaluated over long periods of time, possibly as long as 50 - 100 years.

  9. Estimation of the tritium production and inventory in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been proposed as a candidate material for the neutron multiplier in fusion blanket designs. Tritium will be produced and will accumulate in beryllium under neutron irradiation. The tritium production and inventories under 1.5 and 3.0GW fusion power operation were calculated for a layered pebble bed blanket with lithium oxide (Li2O) breeder and beryllium (Be) multiplier. Neutronics calculations were carried out using the one-dimensional transport code ANISN, and the tritium production due to direct reaction of 9Be(n,T)7Li and the two-step reactions 9Be(n,α)6Li(n,α)Twas taken into account. The tritium production due to the two-step reaction was calculated to be 50% of the total tritium production after 1 year full power operation (FPY). The tritium inventory was estimated by considering three kinetic parameters, the permeability from the breeder region, diffusivity in a beryllium matrix, and solubility. Tritium permeation from the breeder region to the beryllium region through a 316SS wall was as much as 3gh-1, which is 30% of the tritium production (9.6gh-1) in the breeder region. Using the diffusion coefficient of beryllium with no oxide layer on its surface, the total tritium inventory was calculated to be 7gFPY-1, mainly owing to solubility. The content of beryllium oxide significantly affects the effective diffusion coefficient. Using a diffusion coefficient for beryllium with beryllium oxide layer on its surface, the tritium inventory was found to be equal to the amount produced. (orig.)

  10. Genomic analysis of stress response against arsenic in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasri N Sahu

    Full Text Available Arsenic, a known human carcinogen, is widely distributed around the world and found in particularly high concentrations in certain regions including Southwestern US, Eastern Europe, India, China, Taiwan and Mexico. Chronic arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with increased risk of many diseases including arthrosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. In this study, we explored genome level global responses to high and low levels of arsenic exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans using Affymetrix expression microarrays. This experimental design allows us to do microarray analysis of dose-response relationships of global gene expression patterns. High dose (0.03% exposure caused stronger global gene expression changes in comparison with low dose (0.003% exposure, suggesting a positive dose-response correlation. Biological processes such as oxidative stress, and iron metabolism, which were previously reported to be involved in arsenic toxicity studies using cultured cells, experimental animals, and humans, were found to be affected in C. elegans. We performed genome-wide gene expression comparisons between our microarray data and publicly available C. elegans microarray datasets of cadmium, and sediment exposure samples of German rivers Rhine and Elbe. Bioinformatics analysis of arsenic-responsive regulatory networks were done using FastMEDUSA program. FastMEDUSA analysis identified cancer-related genes, particularly genes associated with leukemia, such as dnj-11, which encodes a protein orthologous to the mammalian ZRF1/MIDA1/MPP11/DNAJC2 family of ribosome-associated molecular chaperones. We analyzed the protective functions of several of the identified genes using RNAi. Our study indicates that C. elegans could be a substitute model to study the mechanism of metal toxicity using high-throughput expression data and bioinformatics tools such as FastMEDUSA.

  11. Development of Beryllium Vacuum Chamber Technology for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R; Dorn, C

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is the material of choice for the beam vacuum chambers around collision points in particle colliders due to a combination of transparency to particles, high specific stiffness and compatibility with ultra-high vacuum. New requirements for these chambers in the LHC experiments have driven the development of new methods for the manufacture of beryllium chambers. This paper reviews the requirements for experimental vacuum chambers. It describes the new beryllium technology adopted for the LHC and experience gained in the manufacture and installation.

  12. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium windows surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined. (orig.)

  13. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  14. Cosmis Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangioni-Flam, E.; Cassé, M.

    Light element nucleosynthesis is an important chapter of nuclear astrophysics. Specifically, the rare and fragile light nuclei Lithium, Beryllium and Boron (LiBeB) are not generated in the normal course of stellar nucleosynthesis (except Lithium-7) and are, in fact, destroyed in stellar interiors. This characteristic is reflected in the low abundance of these simple species. Up to recently, the most plausible interpretation was that galactic cosmic rays (GCR) interact with interstellar CNO to form LiBeB. Other origins have been also identified, primordial and stellar (Lithium-7) and supernova neutrino spallation (Lithium-7 and Boron-11). In contrast, Beryllium-9, Boron-10 and Lithium-6 are pure spallative products. This last isotope presents a special interest since the Lithium-7/Lithium-6 ratio has been measured in a few halo stars offering a new constraint on the early galactic evolution. However, in the nineties, new observations prompted astrophysicists to reassess the question. Optical measurements of the beryllium and boron abundances in halo stars have been achieved by the 10 meters KECK telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. These observations indicate a quasi linear correlation between Be and B vs Fe, at least at low metallicity, unexpected on the basis of GCR scenario, predicting a quadratic relationship. As a consequence, the origin and the evolution of the LiBeB nuclei has been revisited. This linearity implies the acceleration of C and O nuclei freshly synthesized and their fragmentation on the the interstellar Hydrogen and Helium. Wolf-Rayet stars and supernovae via the shock waves induced, are the best candidates to the acceleration of their own material enriched into C and O; so LiBeB is produced independently of the Interstellar Medium chemical composition. Moreover, neutrinos emitted by the newly born neutron stars interacting with the C layer of the supernova could produce specifically Lithium-7 and Boron-11. This process is supported by the

  15. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched. PMID:26515534

  16. Rural methods to mitigate arsenic contaminated water

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water is one of the burning issues in the rural world. Poor public awareness program about health effects of drinking arsenic contaminated water and the rural methods to mitigate this problem poses a great threat of arsenic poisoning many people of the rural world. In this thesis, arsenic removal efficiency and the working mechanism of four rural and economical arsenic mitigation technologies i.e. solar oxidation and reduction of arsenic (SORAS), Bucket tr...

  17. Effectiveness of amendments on the spread and phytotoxicity of contaminants in metal-arsenic polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, V; García, I; Del Moral, F; Simón, M

    2012-02-29

    A metal-arsenic polluted soil from sulphide-mine waste was treated, in all possible combinations, with two different amounts of marble sludge (98% CaCO3), compost (41% organic carbon), and Byferrox (70% Fe). Lixiviate and pore water from each treated and untreated soil were analysed, and lettuce-seed bioassays were performed. None of the treatments decreased the electrical conductivity of lixiviates or the concentrations of all pollutants found in both solutions. Marble sludge and compost increased the pH values and decreased the zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead concentrations in both solutions while increasing the arsenic concentrations in the lixiviates. Byferrox did not alter the physicochemical parameters or the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, or lead in either solution but significantly decreased the arsenic concentrations in pore water. Compared with the Byferrox treatment, the mixture of marble sludge and Byferrox decreased redox potential values, increasing the arsenic concentrations in both solutions and the electrical conductivity of the pore water. All lixiviates were highly phytotoxic and seeds did not germinate. Pore-water phytotoxicity was related to electrical conductivity values and heavy-metal concentrations. The combination of marble sludge and compost was most effective at diminishing toxicity in lettuce. The soils treated with Byferrox, alone or mixed with marble sludge or compost, were the most phytotoxic. PMID:22226638

  18. Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R

    2014-01-01

    Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

  19. Beryllium reflector elements for PARR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LEU fuel of PARR-1 was designed for a discharge burnup of 35% of initial /sup 235/U loading. Recently some of the fuel elements have been discharged from the PARR-1 core after attaining the burnup closed to the design value. These fuel elements were discharged due to diminished excess reactivity although they were physically intact. After satisfactory performance of these fuel elements there has been a desire to explore the possibility of enhancing the discharge burnup by boosting up the core reactivity. Use of better reflector elements is one of the methods to obtain this goal. In this report properties of various reflector elements have been compared and it is found that use of Beryllium metal reflector elements may be a promising choice for this purpose. (author)

  20. Investigation of the ion beryllium surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Birukov, A.Yu.; Gureev, V.M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The self -sputtering yield of the Be was measured. The energy dependence of the Be self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by W. Eckstein et. al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yield is temperature independent; at T{sub irr}.> 870 K it increases sharply. Hot-pressed samples at 370 K were implanted with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary plasma (flux power {approximately} 5 MW/m{sup 2}). The investigation of hydrogen behavior in beryllium shows that at low doses hydrogen is solved, but at doses {ge} 5x10{sup 22} m{sup -2} the bubbles and channels are formed. It results in hydrogen profile shift to the surface and decrease of its concentration. The sputtering results in further concentration decrease at doses > 10{sup 25}m{sup -2}.

  1. Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter

  2. Geochemistry of beryllium in Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazy, Greta M. [Geology Department, University of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' , Tzar Osvoboditel 15, Sofia 1504 (Bulgaria)

    2006-04-03

    The beryllium content of about 3000 samples (coal, coaly shales, partings, coal lithotypes, and isolated coalified woods) from 16 Bulgarian coal deposits was determined by atomic emission spectrography. Mean Be concentrations in coal show great variability: from 0.9 to 35 ppm for the deposits studied. There was no clear-cut relationship between Be content and rank. The following mean and confidence interval Be values were measured: lignites, 2.6+/-0.8 ppm; sub-bituminous coals, 8.2+/-3.3 ppm; bituminous coals, 3.0+/-1.2 ppm; and anthracites, 19+/-9.0 ppm. The Be contents in coal and coaly shales for all deposits correlated positively suggesting a common source of the element. Many samples of the coal lithotypes vitrain and xylain proved to be richer in Be than the hosting whole coal samples as compared on ash basis. Up to tenfold increase in Be levels was routinely recorded in fusain. The ash of all isolated coalified woods was found to contain 1.1 to 50 times higher Be content relative to its global median value for coal inclusions. Indirect evidence shows that Be occurs in both organic and inorganic forms. Beryllium is predominantly organically bound in deposits with enhanced Be content, whereas the inorganic form prevails in deposits whose Be concentration approximates Clarke values. The enrichment in Be exceeding the coal Clarke value 2.4 to 14.5 times in some of the Bulgarian deposits is attributed to subsynchronous at the time of coal deposition hydrothermal and volcanic activity. (author)

  3. Electron microscope study of irradiated beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beryllium oxide is studied first by fractography, before and after irradiation, using sintered samples. The fractures are examined under different aspects. The higher density sintered samples, with transgranular fractures are the most interesting for a microscopic study. It is possible to mark the difference between the 'pores' left by the sintering process and the 'bubbles' of gases that can be produced by former thermal treatments. After irradiation, the grain boundaries are very much weakened. By annealing, it is possible to observe the evolution of the gases produced by the reaction (n, 2n) and (n. α) and gathered on the grain boundaries. The irradiated beryllium oxide is afterwards studied by transmission. For that, a simple method has been used: little chips of the crushed material are examined. Clusters of point defects produced by neutrons are thus detected in crystals irradiated at the three following doses: 6 x 1019, 9 x 1019 and 2 x 1020 nf cm-2 at a temperature below 100 deg. C. For the irradiation at 6 x 1019 nf cm-2, the defects are merely visible, but at 2 x l020 nf cm-2 the crystals an crowded with clusters and the Kikuchi lines have disappeared from the micro-diffraction diagrams. The evolution of the clusters into dislocation loops is studied by a series of annealings. The activation energy (0,37 eV) calculated from the annealing curves suggests that it must be interstitials that condense into dislocation loops. Samples irradiated at high temperatures (650, 900 and 1100 deg. C) are also studied. In those specimens the size of the loops is not the same as the equilibrium size obtained after out of pile annealing at the same temperature. Those former loops are more specifically studied and their Burgers vector is determined by micro-diffraction. (author)

  4. Arsenic residues in meat and organ samples from farm animals, water fowl and game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J.

    1978-09-01

    There are still gaps in our knowledge of the extent to which animal foods are contaminated with arsenic. An examination was therefore made of the meat, livers and kidneys of 65 pigs, 40 bulls including some heifers, 35 calves, 50 cows and 30 horses from north-eastern area of Lower Saxony. Arsenic contents were also determined in 269 geese and 27 ducks and in 29 deer and 11 hares. The samples were treated with a nitric acid/perchloric acid mixture until dry, absorbed into 25 ml of 3.2% nitric acid and determined by means of the arsenic hydride system and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer 300 made by Perkin Elmer with ED-lamp. The results show that food of animal origin is only very slightly contaminated with arsenic. The guide values for arsenic contents in meat and organ samples taken from pigs and bovines were not exceeded in any case. 7 bovines from an immission area however had undesirably high arsenic values with maximum quantities of 0.16 ppM in the meat, 0.14 ppM in the liver and 0.22 ppM in the kidneys. Unlike the situation with cadmium and lead there was no build-up of arsenic in the organs. Results so far would suggest that arsenic only plays a subordinate role as a ''problem element'' in the contamination of animal foods with harmful metals. Continual supervision of this harmful metal would therefore not appear to be absolutely essential and random sampling of and control tests on animal foods from immission areas would seem more appropriate. 11 references, 1 table.

  5. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooki...

  6. Age hardening in beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different alloys of beryllium-aluminum-silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight percent, Be-47.5Al-2.5Ag, Be-47Al-3Ag, and Be-46Al-4Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which separates from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum microstructure was formed, which did not significantly change after hot isostatic pressing. Samples of hot isostatically pressed material were solution treated at 550 C for 1 h, followed by a water quench. Aging temperatures were 150, 175, 200, and 225 C for times ranging from half an hour to 65 h. Results indicate that peak hardness was reached in 36--40 h at 175 C and 12--16 h at 200 C aging temperature, relatively independent of alloy composition

  7. Design alternatives for cryogenic beryllium windows in an ICF cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose three backup design options for the cryogenic beryllium windows in a cryostat. The first, a beryllium flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/3 of that in the original design. The second, a fiberglass flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/2 of that in the original design and is also low cost. A third option, replacing the beryllium windows with spherical Mylar caps, would require a development program. Even though Mylar has been used previously at cryogenic temperature, this option is still considered unreliable. The near-zero ductility of beryllium at cryogenic temperature makes the reduction of peak tensile stresses particularly desirable. The orginal window design did function satisfactorily and the backup options were not needed. However, these options remain open for possible incorporation in future cryostat designs

  8. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  9. Transplacental Arsenic Carcinogenesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-01-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation,...

  10. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Terry

    2013-01-25

    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify

  11. Beryllium nitride thin film grown by reactive laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    G. Soto; Diaz, J.A.; Machorro, R.; Reyes-Serrato, A.; de la Cruz, W.

    2001-01-01

    Beryllium nitride thin films were grown on silicon substrates by laser ablating a beryllium foil in molecular nitrogen ambient. The composition and chemical state were determined with Auger (AES), X-Ray photoelectron (XPS) and energy loss (EELS) spectroscopies. A low absorption coefficient in the visible region, and an optical bandgap of 3.8 eV, determined by reflectance ellipsometry, were obtained for films grown at nitrogen pressures higher than 25 mTorr. The results show that the reaction ...

  12. Beryllium foils for windows in counter of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the optimization of the main structural characteristics (grain structure, texture, dislocation substructure) are defined modes of deformation and heat treatment of beryllium foils (purity > 99.95%), providing their excellent mechanical properties and optimized modes of deformation and heat treatment. Analyzed various technological methods rolling foils to their rational use for the practical implementation of the results of the study. It is shown that the strength and plastic properties of the foils beryllium higher than that of similar foils foreign manufacture

  13. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  14. Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available

  15. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found.

  16. A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground

  17. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered. PMID:25417842

  18. Beryllium data base for in-pile mockup test on blanket of fusion reactor, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been used in the fusion blanket designs with ceramic breeder as a neutron multiplier to increase the net tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The properties of beryllium, that is physical properties, chemical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, nuclear properties, radiation effects, etc. are necessary for the fusion blanket design. However, the properties of beryllium have not been arranged for the fusion blanket design. Therefore, it is indispensable to check and examine the material data of beryllium reported previously. This paper is the first one of the series of papers on beryllium data base, which summarizes the reported material data of beryllium. (author)

  19. Arsenic Is A Genotoxic Carcinogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen; however, there is controversy over whether or not it should be considered a genotoxic carcinogen. Many possible modes of action have been proposed on how arsenic induces cancer, including inhibiting DNA repair, altering methylation patter...

  20. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql (EPA); (Bangladesh); (UCopenhagen); (Aberdeen); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  1. The unusual properties of beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be is a ''marginal metal.'' The stable phase, hcp-Be, has a low Fermi-level density of states and very anisotropic structural and elastic properties, similar to a semiconductor's. At the Be(0001) surface, surface states drastically increase the Fermi-level density of states. The different nature of bonding in bulk-Be and at the Be(0001) surface explains the large outward relaxation. The presence of surface states causes large surface core-level shifts by inducing a higher electrostatic potential in the surface layers and by improving the screening at the surface. The authors experimental and theoretical investigations of atomic vibrations at the Be(0001) surface demonstrate clearly that Be screening of atomic motion by the surface states makes the surface phonon dispersion fundamentally different from that of the bulk. Properties of Be(0001) are so different from those of the bulk that the surface can be considered a new ''phase'' of beryllium with unique electronic and structural characteristics. For comparison they also study Be(11 bar 20), a very open surface without important surface states. Be(11 bar 20) is the only clean s-p metal surface known to reconstruct (1 x 3 missing row reconstruction)

  2. Beryllium Abundances of Solar-Analog Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Ando, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    An extensive beryllium abundance analysis was conducted for 118 solar analogs (along with 87 FGK standard stars) by applying the spectrum synthesis technique to the near-UV region comprising the Be II line at 3131.066 A, in an attempt to investigate whether Be suffers any depletion such as the case of Li showing a large diversity. We found that, while most of these Sun-like stars are superficially similar in terms of their A(Be) (Be abundances) around the solar value within ~ +/- 0.2dex, 4 out of 118 samples turned out strikingly Be-deficient (by more than ~2 dex) and these 4 stars belong to the group of lowest v_e sin i (projected rotation velocity). Moreover, even for the other majority showing an apparent similarity in Be, we can recognize a tendency that A(Be) gradually increases with an increase in v_e sin i. These observational facts suggest that any solar analog star (including the Sun) generally suffers some kind of Be depletion during their lives, where the rotational velocity (or the angular momentu...

  3. Interaction of beryllium and hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been considered that in the plasma nuclear fusion experimental devices of magnetic field confinement type, in order to reduce the energy loss due to bremsstrahlung, the use of the plasma-facing materials (PFM) of low atomic number like carbon is indispensable at present. Attention is paid to beryllium which is one of the PFMs, and its effectiveness was rocognized by the practical use in JET. When Be is considered as a PFM, it is necessary to accumulate many data on the diffusion, dissolution, permeation and surface recoupling of hydrogen isotopes, which regulate the recycling and inventory of deuterium and tritium fuel, and the relation of these factors with the physical and chemical states of Be. In this research, as the first phase of understanding the characteristics of Be as a PFM, the change of the surface condition by heating Be was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the chemical form of the Be-related substances emitted from the surface by argon or deuterium ion sputtering and their thermal behavior were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The sample, the measurement and the results are reported. The diversified secondary ions of Be, Be cluster, Be oxide, hydroxide, hydride and deuteride were observed by the measurement, and their features are shown. (K.I.)

  4. Electronic band structure of beryllium oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Sashin, V A; Kheifets, A S; Ford, M J

    2003-01-01

    The energy-momentum resolved valence band structure of beryllium oxide has been measured by electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). Band dispersions, bandwidths and intervalence bandgap, electron momentum density (EMD) and density of occupied states have been extracted from the EMS data. The experimental results are compared with band structure calculations performed within the full potential linear muffin-tin orbital approximation. Our experimental bandwidths of 2.1 +- 0.2 and 4.8 +- 0.3 eV for the oxygen s and p bands, respectively, are in accord with theoretical predictions, as is the s-band EMD after background subtraction. Contrary to the calculations, however, the measured p-band EMD shows large intensity at the GAMMA point. The measured full valence bandwidth of 19.4 +- 0.3 eV is at least 1.4 eV larger than the theory. The experiment also finds a significantly higher value for the p-to-s-band EMD ratio in a broad momentum range compared to the theory.

  5. Development of Interatomic Potentials for Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: To be able to benefit from fusion as a clean and safe power source, we need a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic region of a fusion reactor. Knowing the interplay between the fuel plasma and the reactor components, such as the first wall and the divertor, one can minimize the resulting degradation. The atom-level mechanisms behind the reactions, (e.g. erosion and redeposition) are, however, not accessible to experiments. Hence, computational methods, including molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, are needed. The interactions in a system of particles are within MD described by an interatomic potential. The study of reactor processes requires models for the mixed interaction between the first wall and divertor materials beryllium, carbon and tungsten, as well as for the interaction of these with hydrogen. The absence of proper models for the Be system motivated us to develop potentials for pure Be, Be-C, Be-W and Be-H. We present a Tersoff-like bond order potential for pure Be and the same formalism applied to Be-C and Be-H. The performance of the potentials is discussed and an outlook for the remaining potential is also given. (authors)

  6. Lightweight beryllium wins wings as real heavyweight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Be materials with improved strength and ductility levels is possible by exploitation of new consolidation techniques, such as cold and hot isostatic pressing and plasma spraying followed by sintering. Working the vacuum hot pressed billet by cross-rolling or extruding and by forging improves the mechanical properties. The valuable contributions of Be in aerospace and nuclear applications are considered. SNAP-8 and SNAP-10A applications, replacement of an Al alloy on the Minuteman spacer ring by Be, aircraft (flight testing of F-4 Phantom with a Be rudder and actual structural application of Be wrought mill product in F-14 Tomcat) and communication satellite (despin platforms, spinning arms, russ structures) applications are discussed together with instrument applications (guidance systems for Saturn V, Minuteman and the Boeing 747, proportional counters for space-oriented x-ray experiments), Be applications in lunar explorations, expanding use of Be in space applications as a mirror blank material and Be disks for the brakes of giant aircraft. Beryllium has the highest specific heat of all structural metals and it shows chemical inertness to many of the common ocket propellants and their combustion products. Its handicaps are high cost and poor impact behavior. (U.S.)

  7. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  8. Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N C; Israelian, G; Mayor, M; Rebolo, R; García-Gíl, A; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Randich, S

    2002-01-01

    We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be deple...

  9. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  10. Nephrotoxicity of cadmium & lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonick, H C

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium and lead are divalent cations with a propensity to settle in the proximal tubule of the nephron, leading to nephrotoxicity. The pathophysiological results, however, tend to diverge. Cadmium in sufficient cumulative dosage leads to the production of the Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular reabsorptive defect thought to be related to inhibition of both ATP production and Na-K-ATPase activity. On the other hand, lead accumulation in the proximal tubule leads to hyperuricaemia and gout, presumably by inhibiting uric acid secretion, and diminished glomerular filteration rate (GFR). Fanconi syndrome is seen unusually only in children and experimental animals. Cadmium nephrotoxicity is heralded by increased excretion of beta2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein and alpha1-microglobulin, indicative of decreased proximal tubule function. Beta2-microglobulinuria is not found in lead nephropathy. In lead nephropathy albuminuria is absent or minimal whereas in cadmium nephropathy albuminuria is variable. From the standpoint of pathology, both entities are characterized by tubulointerstitial disease and fibrosis, but only early lead nephropathy is characterized by the presence of proximal tubule nuclear inclusion bodies, due to the combination of lead with a lead binding-protein. PMID:19106433

  11. Arsenic and Antimony Content in Soil and Plants from Baia Mare Area, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oprea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the degree of soil contamination with arsenic and antimony in Baia Mare, a nonferrous mining and metallurgical center located in the North West region of Romania. The soil in the area is affected by the emissions of powders containing metals from metallurgical factories. Previous studies indicated the soil contamination with copper, zinc, cadmium and lead, but there is few data about the actual level of soil pollution with arsenic and antimony. Approach: The soil samples were collected from 2 districts of Baia Mare: Ferneziu, which is located in the proximity of a lead smelter and Săsar district which is located along the Sasar River in the preferential direction of the wind over a metallurgical factory producing lead. As reference was considered Dura area located in a less polluted hilly area, in the west part of the town. Samples of soil and plants from the residential area of Ferneziu, Săsar and Dura districts were collected. The arsenic determination was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and the antimony determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: In Ferneziu area, the concentration of arsenic in soil ranged between 0.25 and 255 mg kg-1. In Săsar district the arsenic concentration in the soil ranged between 5.5 and 295 mg kg-1. Regarding antimony, in Ferneziu area the concentration ranged between 5.3 and 40.6 mg kg-1; while in Săsar, antimony soils concentrations vary in the range: 0.9-18.4. Arsenic and antimony concentrations in plants were low for almost of the samples, both in Ferneziu and Săsar area indicating a low mobility of these elements in the studied soils. Conclusion: This study indicated the soil pollution with arsenic both in Ferneziu district and in Săsar district. The soil pollution with antimony was found especially in Ferneziu district.

  12. A Report on the Validation of Beryllium Strength Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Derek Elswick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This report discusses work on validating beryllium strength models with flyer plate and Taylor rod experimental data. Strength models are calibrated with Hopkinson bar and quasi-static data. The Hopkinson bar data for beryllium provides strain rates up to about 4000 per second. A limitation of the Hopkinson bar data for beryllium is that it only provides information on strain up to about 0.15. The lack of high strain data at high strain rates makes it difficult to distinguish between various strength model settings. The PTW model has been calibrated many different times over the last 12 years. The lack of high strain data for high strain rates has resulted in these calibrated PTW models for beryllium exhibiting significantly different behavior when extrapolated to high strain. For beryllium, the α parameter of PTW has recently been calibrated to high precision shear modulus data. In the past the α value for beryllium was set based on expert judgment. The new α value for beryllium was used in a calibration of the beryllium PTW model by Sky Sjue. The calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Also, the calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the density changes of the beryllium sample during the Hopkinson bar and quasi-static experiments. In this paper, the calibrated PTW model by Sjue is compared against experimental data and other strength models. The other strength models being considered are a PTW model calibrated by Shuh- Rong Chen and a Steinberg-Guinan type model by John Pedicini. The three strength models are used in a comparison against flyer plate and Taylor rod data. The results show that the Chen PTW model provides better agreement to this data. The Chen PTW model settings have been previously adjusted to provide a better fit to flyer plate data, whereas the Sjue PTW model has not been changed based on flyer plate data. However, the Sjue model provides a reasonable fit to

  13. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  14. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  15. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  16. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included

  17. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H2 gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m2

  18. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  19. The results of medical surveillance of beryllium production personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of surveillance of 1836 workers of beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant JSC with the acute and chronic forms of occupation diseases for 52 years of its operation. The dependence of acute and chronic occupation lesions on the protection degree is shown. It has been found out that, the risk of getting an occupation disease increases sharply at the moments of experimental works and at the time of reconstruction and some other extreme conditions in the production, that is supported by fixed lesions of eye mucous coat, skin and lung lesions. In this case, the readiness of people for their work in deleterious conditions and their personal responsibility for following the regulations of safety occupational standards plays a definite role. Therefore, the issues of protection are of paramount importance in prophylaxis both of acute and chronic exposure to beryllium. An influence of duration of service and occupation on chronic beryllium diseases is shown. A parallel between the lung beryllium disease and skin lesions by insoluble beryllium compounds is drawn for the first time. (author)

  20. Preparation of copper-beryllium alloys from Indian beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of laboratory scale investigations on the preparation of copper-beryllium and aluminium-beryllium master alloys starting from Indian beryl and adopting the fluoride process. The flow-sheet involves : (1) conversion of the Be-values in beryl into water soluble sodium beryllium fluoride (2) preparation of beryllium hydroxide by alkali treatment of aqueous Na2BeF4 (3) conversion of Be(OH)2 to (NH4)2BeF4 by treatment with NH4HF2 (4) thermal decomposition of (NH4)2BeF4 to BeF2 and (5) magnesium reduction of BeF2 (with the addition of copper/aluminium) to obtain beryllium alloys. The method has been successfully employed for the preparation of Cu-Be master alloys containing about 8% Be and free of Mg on a 200 gm scale. An overall Be-recovery of about 80% has been achieved. Al-8% Be master alloys have also been prepared by this method. Toxicity and health hazards associated with Be are discussed and the steps taken to ensure safe handling of Be are described. (author)

  1. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Linsheng Yang; Jianwei Gao; Jiangping Yu

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to arsenic (As) poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP) induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions), who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the ...

  2. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers

  3. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manly, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  4. Experimental studies and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes interaction with beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kulsartov, T.V. [Science Research Inst. of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was to clarify the surface beryllium oxide influence on hydrogen-beryllium interaction characteristics. Analysis of experimental data and modeling of processes of hydrogen isotopes accumulation, diffusion and release from neutron irradiated beryllium was used to achieve this purpose as well as the investigations of the changes of beryllium surface element composition being treated by H{sup +} and Ar{sup +} plasma glowing discharge. (author)

  5. Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic. -- Highlights: ► High soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth. ► A delayed flowering time was observed in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Total grain arsenic increased in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Percentage organic arsenic in the grain altered in arsenic and organic matter soil. -- The addition of high amounts of organic matter to soils led to an increase in total rice grain arsenic, as well as alteration in the percentage arsenic species in the rice grains

  6. Contacting cadmium deposition from spent industrial solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium metal deposition from spent industrial solutions by cadmium (2) reduction with dispersed aluminium is studied. The influence of temperature, reagent concentration and the presence of complexing agents on the yield and purity of isolated cadmium metal is examined

  7. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  8. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data

  9. Ab Initio Simulation Beryllium in Solid Molecular Hydrogen: Elastic Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlo L.; Perlado, Jose M.

    2016-03-01

    In systems of inertial confinement fusion targets Deuterium-Tritium are manufactured with a solid layer, it must have specific properties to increase the efficiency of ignition. Currently there have been some proposals to model the phases of hydrogen isotopes and hence their high pressure, but these works do not allow explaining some of the structures present at the solid phase change effect of increased pressure. By means of simulation with first principles methods and Quantum Molecular Dynamics, we compare the structural difference of solid molecular hydrogen pure and solid molecular hydrogen with beryllium, watching beryllium inclusion in solid hydrogen matrix, we obtain several differences in mechanical properties, in particular elastic constants. For C11 the difference between hydrogen and hydrogen with beryllium is 37.56%. This may produce a non-uniform initial compression and decreased efficiency of ignition.

  10. Measurement of the ultracold neutron loss coefficient in beryllium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultracold neutron (UCN) reflection from beryllium powder at different slab thicknesses and different packing densities is measured. The reduced UCN loss coefficient η=(1.75±0.35)x10-4 for thermally untreated beryllium is extracted from experimental data. The formerly obtained experimental results on UCN reflection from beryllium after high temperature annealing are reconsidered. The loss coefficient η at room temperature in this case is obtained to be (6.4±2.5)x10-5, which is an order of magnitude higher than the theoretical one. The extraction of the loss coefficient from the experimental data is based on the modified diffusion theory where albedo reflection depends on packing density

  11. Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful [Department of Physical Sciences, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) Dhaka (Bangladesh); Halder, Amal [Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-05-15

    Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.

  12. Elemental composition in sealed plutonium–beryllium neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five sealed plutonium–beryllium (PuBe) neutron sources from various manufacturers were disassembled. Destructive chemical analyses for recovered PuBe materials were conducted for disposition purposes. A dissolution method for PuBe alloys was developed for quantitative plutonium (Pu) and beryllium (Be) assay. Quantitation of Be and trace elements was performed using plasma based spectroscopic instruments, namely inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Pu assay was accomplished by an electrochemical method. Variations in trace elemental contents among the five PuBe sources are discussed. - Highlights: • A destructive chemical analysis of the PuBe neutron sources includes the solubilization and digestion of the PuBe alloy material. • Plutonium was assayed by an electrochemical method. • Beryllium assay and trace elemental contents were determined by ICP instruments. • A large variation in trace elemental composition was observed among the five PuBe source materials

  13. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author)

  14. Photochemical Behavior of Beryllium Complexes with Subporphyrazines and Subphthalocyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2016-07-14

    Structures of beryllium subphthalocyanines and beryllium subporphyrazines complexes with different substituents are explored for the first time. Their photochemical properties are studied using time-dependent density functional theory calculations and compared to boron-related compounds for which their photochemical activity is already known. These beryllium compounds were found to be thermodynamically stable in a vacuum and present features similar to those of boron-containing analogues, although the nature of bonding between the cation and the macrocycle presents subtle differences. Most important contributions to the main peak in the Q-band region arise from HOMO to LUMO transitions in the case of subphthalocyanines and alkyl subporphyrazine complexes, whereas a mixture of that contribution and a HOMO-2 to LUMO contribution are present in the case of thioalkyl subporphyrazines. The absorption in the visible region could make these candidates suitable for photochemical devices if combined with appropriate donor groups. PMID:26812068

  15. Beryllium Abundances in Solar Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugler, J. A.; Boesgaard, A. M.

    2008-08-01

    Light element abundance analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the chemical composition of a star beneath its surface. Beryllium provides a probe down to 3.5×106 K, where it fuses with protons. In this study, Be abundances were determined for 52 F and G dwarfs selected from a sample of local thin disc stars. These stars were selected by mass to range from 0.9 to 1.1 M⊙. They have effective temperatures from 5600 to 6400 K, and their metallicities [Fe/H]=-0.65 to +0.11. The data were taken with the Keck HIRES instrument and the Gecko spectrograph on the Canada France Hawaii Telescope. The abundances were calculated via spectral synthesis and were analyzed to investigate the Be abundance as a function of age, temperature, metallicity, and its relation to the lithium abundance for this narrow mass range. Be is found to decrease linearly with metallicity down to [Fe/H]˜-4.0 with slope 0.86 ± 0.02. The relation of the Be abundance to effective temperature is dependent upon metallicity, but when metallicity effects are taken into account, there is a spread ˜1.2 dex. We find a 1.5 dex spread in A(Be) when plotted against age, with the largest spread occurring from 6-8 Gyr. The relation with Li is found to be linear with slope 0.36 ± 0.06 for the temperature regime of 5900-6300 K.

  16. Neutron irradiation behavior of ITER candidate beryllium grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Melder, R.R.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the main candidate materials both for the neutron multiplier in a solid breeding blanket and for the plasma facing components. That is why its behaviour under the typical for fusion reactor loading, in particular, under the neutron irradiation is of a great importance. This paper presents mechanical properties, swelling and microstructure of six beryllium grades (DshG-200, TR-30, TshG-56, TRR, TE-30, TIP-30) fabricated by VNIINM, Russia and also one - (S-65) fabricated by Brush Wellman, USA. The average grain size of the beryllium grades varied from 8 to 25 {mu}m, beryllium oxide content was 0.8-3.2 wt. %, initial tensile strength was 250-680 MPa. All the samples were irradiated in active zone of SM-3 reactor up to the fast neutron fluence (5.5-6.2) {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (2.7-3.0 dpa, helium content up to 1150 appm), E > 0.1 MeV at two temperature ranges: T{sub 1} = 130-180degC and T{sub 2} = 650-700degC. After irradiation at 130-180degC no changes in samples dimensions were revealed. After irradiation at 650-700degC swelling of the materials was found to be in the range 0.1-2.1 %. Beryllium grades TR-30 and TRR, having the smallest grain size and highest beryllium oxide content, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was no more than 0.1 % at 650-700degC and fluence 5.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Tensile and compression test results and microstructure parameters measured before and after irradiation are also presented. (author)

  17. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  18. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  19. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized...... articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element...

  20. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  1. Radiation Damage of Beryllium Reflector for Research Reactor Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Beryllium is considered as a reflector material for the research reactor. The neutron fluence results in significant damage of material structure and corresponding degradation of physical.mechanical properties. In this study, the proton radiation damage of the beryllium grade manufactured by hot extrusion was investigated to emulate the effect of neutron radiation. The samples were irradiated by protons at room temperature; the acceleration voltage, and the proton amounts were 120keV, and 2.0 Χ 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The neutron irradiation experiment also have been conducted in HANARO, their results will be discussed in terms of swelling, and microstructure evolution.

  2. Benchmark Evaluation of Fuel Effect and Material Worth Measurements for a Beryllium-Reflected Space Reactor Mockup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The critical configuration of the small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in 1962-1965 have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The initial intent of these experiments was to support the design of the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program, whose purpose was to study ''power plants for the production of electrical power in space vehicles''. The third configuration in this series of experiments was a beryllium-reflected assembly of stainless-steel-clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel mockup of a potassium-cooled space power reactor. Reactivity measurements cadmium ratio spectral measurements and fission rate measurements were measured through the core and top reflector. Fuel effect worth measurements and neutron moderating and absorbing material worths were also measured in the assembly fuel region. The cadmium ratios, fission rate, and worth measurements were evaluated for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The fuel tube effect and neutron moderating and absorbing material worth measurements are the focus of this paper. Additionally, a measurement of the worth of potassium filling the core region was performed but has not yet been evaluated Pellets of 93.15 wt.% enriched uranium dioxide (UO2) were stacked in 30.48 cm tall stainless steel fuel tubes (0.3 cm tall end caps). Each fuel tube had 26 pellets with a total mass of 295.8 g UO2 per tube. 253 tubes were arranged in 1.506-cm triangular lattice. An additional 7-tube cluster critical configuration was also measured but not used for any physics measurements. The core was surrounded on all side by a beryllium reflector. The fuel effect worths were measured by removing fuel tubes at various radius. An accident scenario was also

  3. Benchmark Evaluation of Fuel Effect and Material Worth Measurements for a Beryllium-Reflected Space Reactor Mockup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Margaret A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Space Nuclear Research; Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The critical configuration of the small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in 1962-1965 have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The initial intent of these experiments was to support the design of the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program, whose purpose was to study “power plants for the production of electrical power in space vehicles.” The third configuration in this series of experiments was a beryllium-reflected assembly of stainless-steel-clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel mockup of a potassium-cooled space power reactor. Reactivity measurements cadmium ratio spectral measurements and fission rate measurements were measured through the core and top reflector. Fuel effect worth measurements and neutron moderating and absorbing material worths were also measured in the assembly fuel region. The cadmium ratios, fission rate, and worth measurements were evaluated for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The fuel tube effect and neutron moderating and absorbing material worth measurements are the focus of this paper. Additionally, a measurement of the worth of potassium filling the core region was performed but has not yet been evaluated Pellets of 93.15 wt.% enriched uranium dioxide (UO2) were stacked in 30.48 cm tall stainless steel fuel tubes (0.3 cm tall end caps). Each fuel tube had 26 pellets with a total mass of 295.8 g UO2 per tube. 253 tubes were arranged in 1.506-cm triangular lattice. An additional 7-tube cluster critical configuration was also measured but not used for any physics measurements. The core was surrounded on all side by a beryllium reflector. The fuel effect worths were measured by removing fuel tubes at various radius. An accident scenario

  4. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress

  5. Comparison of arsenate and cadmium toxicity in a freshwater amphipod (Gammarus pulex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is largely documented on freshwater organisms while arsenic, especially arsenate, is rarely studied. The kinetic of the LC50s values for both metals was realized on Gammarus pulex. Physiological [i.e. metal concentration in body tissues, bioconcentration factor (BCF)] effects and behavioural responses (via pleopods beats) were investigated after 240-h exposure. Arsenate LC50 value was 100 fold higher than Cd-LC50 value after 240-h exposure, while concentrations in gammarids were similar for both metals at their respective LC50s. BCF decreased with increasing cadmium concentration while BCF remained stable with increasing arsenate concentration. Moreover, BCF was between 148 and 344 times lower for arsenate than cadmium. A significant hypoventilation was observed for cadmium concentrations exceeding or close to the 240h-LC50Cd, while gammarids hyperventilated for the lowest arsenate concentrations and hypoventilated for the highest arsenate concentrations. We discussed the relationships between potential action mechanisms of these two metals and observed results. - Highlights: ► First study of arsenate toxicity in a Crustacean gammarid. ► Specific toxicological and behavioural responses to AsV and Cd contamination. ► Each metal led to specific-action mechanisms. ► Different energetic reallocation could explain specific behavioural responses. - This study brings to light the potential relationship between toxicological effects and behavioural responses of G. pulex exposed at both Cadmium and Arsenate.

  6. Cadmium sulfite hexahydrate revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baggio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present structural revision of the title compound, tetracadmium tetrasulfite hexahydrate, [Cd4(SO34(H2O5]·H2O, is a low-temperature upgrade (T = 100 K and R = 0.017 of the original room-temperature structure reported by Kiers & Vos [Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1978. 7, 399–403; T = 293 K and R = 0.080. The compound is a three-dimensional polymer with four independent cadmium centres, four sulfite anions and six water molecules, five of them coordinated to two cadmium centres and the remaining one an unbound solvent molecule which completes the asymmetric unit. There are two types of cadmium environment: CdO8 (through four chelating sulfite ligands and CdO6 (by way of six monocoordinated ligands. The former groups form planar arrays [parallel to (001 and separated by half a unit cell translation along c], made up of chains running along [110] and [overline{1}10], respectively. These chains are, in turn, interconnected both in an intraplanar as well as in an interplanar fashion by the latter CdO6 polyhedra into a tight three-dimensional framework. There is, in addition, an extensive network of hydrogen bonds, in which all 12 water H atoms act as donors and eight O atoms from all four sulfite groups and two water molecules act as acceptors.

  7. Discovery of the Arsenic Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    SHORE, A.; A. Fritsch; Heim, M.; Schuh, A.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine arsenic isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Status of the beryllium replacement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, beryllium (Be) is used as the filler metal for brazing appendages on the sheaths of CANDU® fuel elements. Because of its toxicity, occupational exposure limits for Be are being reduced to very low levels, resulting in significant challenges to CANDU® fuel fabricators. The CANDU® Owners Group (COG) initiated a test program to identify a filler material to replace Be and confirm that the brazed joints meet the established technical requirements for CANDU® fuel. Together with eliminating health risks associated with the use of Be, the industry needs to be assured that continuation of fuel supply remains unaffected and that fuel fabrication processes continue to comply with health and safety standards. A literature survey of studies on brazing and joining of Zircaloy identified potential filler materials that can meet or exceed existing design requirements of the brazed joint, including the required mechanical, microstructural, corrosion resistance, and irradiation properties equivalent to those obtained with Be as braze material. Candidate materials were evaluated against several criteria, including manufacturability, melting point, wettability, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, effect on neutron economy, potential activation products, and interaction with fuel channels and other related disciplines. This exercise resulted in a list of promising candidate materials that were recommended for the first phase of testing. These materials include stainless steel (304 or 316), Al-Si, Ni-P, and Zr-Mn alloys. To allow a CANDU® utility have sufficient confidence in considering implementation of a different braze filler material, a Be Replacement Test Program, involving out-reactor and in-reactor tests, is being undertaken as a collaborative endeavour by the Canadian nuclear industry. The out-reactor tests consist of: a constructability assessment to determine the material’s suitability with current fuel manufacturing methods; evaluation of

  9. Irradiation effects on aluminium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .6%. Besides, due to the effects of embrittlement and swelling induced by irradiation, the HFR beryllium reflector elements had to be replaced after more than 25 years of operation. Operational and practical experiences with these reflector elements are commented, as well as main engineering features of the new reflector elements: upper-end fittings of both filler element and insert in stainless steel, no radially drilled holes and no roll pins

  10. Tritium release from beryllium discs and lithium ceramics irradiated in the SIBELIUS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SIBELIUS experiment was designed to obtain information on the compatibility between beryllium and ceramics, as well as beryllium and steel, in a neutron environment. This experiment comprised irradiation of eight capsules, seven of which were independently purged with a He/0.1% H2 gas mixture. Four capsules were used to examine beryllium/ceramic (Li2O, LiAlO2, Li4SiO4, and Li2ZrO3) and beryllium/steel (Types 316L and 1.4914) compacts. Isothermal anneal experiments have been run on representative beryllium and ceramic disks from each of the four capsules at 550 degrees C to 850 degrees C in steps of 100 degrees C. The results indicate that tritium release from the beryllium did not exhibit burst release behavior, as previously reported, but rather a progressive release with increasing temperature. Generally, ∼99% of the tritium was released by 850 degrees C. Tritium release from the ceramic discs was quite similar to the behavior shown in other dynamic tritium release experiments on lithium ceramics. The tritium content in beryllium discs adjacent to a steel sample was found to be significantly lower than that found in a beryllium disc adjacent to a ceramic sample. Recoil of tritium from the ceramic into the beryllium appears to be the source of tritium entering the beryllium, probably residing in the beryllium oxide layer

  11. Beryllium solubility in occupational airborne particles: Sequential extraction procedure and workplace application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Davy; Durand, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Modification of an existing sequential extraction procedure for inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and in working areas is described. The speciation protocol was adapted to carry out beryllium extraction in closed-face cassette sampler to take wall deposits into account. This four-step sequential extraction procedure aims to separate beryllium salts, metal, and oxides from airborne particles for individual quantification. Characterization of the beryllium species according to their solubility in air samples may provide information relative to toxicity, which is potentially related to the different beryllium chemical forms. Beryllium salts (BeF(2), BeSO(4)), metallic beryllium (Bemet), and beryllium oxide (BeO) were first individually tested, and then tested in mixtures. Cassettes were spiked with these species and recovery rates were calculated. Quantitative analyses with matched matrix were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method Detection Limits (MDLs) were calculated for the four matrices used in the different extraction steps. In all cases, the MDL was below 4.2 ng/sample. This method is appropriate for assessing occupational exposure to beryllium as the lowest recommended threshold limit values are 0.01 µg.m(-3) in France([) (1) (]) and 0.05 µg.m(-3) in the USA.([ 2 ]) The protocol was then tested on samples from French factories where occupational beryllium exposure was suspected. Beryllium solubility was variable between factories and among the same workplace between different tasks. PMID:26327570

  12. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  13. Comparison of elevated temperature properties of HIP'd impact ground beryllium (S-65-H) and HIP'd gas atomized (GA) beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion designers have been limited to simple tensile properties and physical properties for modern beryllium grades. The work reported here expands the elevated temperature database to more complicated mechanical tests. The elevated temperature (ambient to 648 C) thermomechanical properties of two beryllium grades made by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) are compared: S-65H (made from impact ground powder) and GA (made from gas atomized powder). Successful measurements of elevated temperature smooth and notched fatigue were made for the first time on modern beryllium grades. Valid beryllium KIC fracture toughness results were obtained for the first time at temperatures above room temperature. Elevated temperature creep, and tensile are also presented. (orig.)

  14. Reducing the cost of S-65C grade beryllium for ITER first wall applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is the current material of choice for plasma-facing components in ITER. The present design is for 10 mm thick beryllium tiles bonded to an actively cooled copper substrate. Brush Wellman grade S65C beryllium is preferred grade off beryllium for these tiles. S65C has the best resistance to low-cycle thermal fatigue than any other beryllium grad in the world. S65C grade beryllium has been successfully deployed in fusion reactors for more than two decades, most recently in the JET reactor. This paper will detail a supply chain to produce the most cost-effective S65C plasma facing components for ITER. This paper will also propose some future work too demonstrate the best technology for bonding beryllium to copper. (author)

  15. Arsenic-resistant bacteria solubilized arsenic in the growth media and increased growth of arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Piyasa; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2011-10-01

    The role of arsenic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in arsenic solubilization from growth media and growth enhancement of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. was examined. Seven ARB (tolerant to 10 mM arsenate) were isolated from the P. vittata rhizosphere and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Pseudomonas sp., Comamonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. During 7-d hydroponic experiments, these bacteria effectively solubilized arsenic from the growth media spiked with insoluble FeAsO₄ and AlAsO₄ minerals (from organic C) by P. vittata may be responsible for As solubilization. Increase in P. vittata root biomass from 1.5-2.2 to 3.4-4.2 g/plant dw by ARB and by arsenic was associated with arsenic-induced plant P uptake. Arsenic resistant bacteria may have potential to enhance phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils by P. vittata. PMID:21840210

  16. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic and cognitive problems. Recent emerging evidences suggest that arsenic exposure affects the reproductive and developmental toxicity. Prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and children's health problems. Some epidemiological studies have reported that arsenic exposure induces premature delivery, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. In animal studies, inorganic arsenic also causes fetal malformation, growth retardation, and fetal death. These toxic effects depend on dose, route and gestation periods of arsenic exposure. In males, inorganic arsenic causes reproductive dysfunctions including reductions of the testis weights, accessory sex organs weights, and epididymal sperm counts. In addition, inorganic arsenic exposure also induces alterations of spermatogenesis, reductions of testosterone and gonadotrophins, and disruptions of steroidogenesis. However, the reproductive and developmental problems following arsenic exposure are poorly understood, and the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity remains unclear. Thus, we further investigated several possible mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26973968

  17. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  18. Arsenic speciation and bioaccessibility in arsenic-contaminated soils: Sequential extraction and mineralogical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a combination of sequential extraction and mineralogical investigation by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed in order to evaluate arsenic solid-state speciation and bioaccessibility in soils highly contaminated with arsenic from mining and smelting. Combination of these techniques indicated that iron oxides and the weathering products of sulfide minerals played an important role in regulating the arsenic retention in the soils. Higher bioaccessibility of arsenic was observed in the following order; i) arsenic bound to amorphous iron oxides (smelter-2), ii) arsenic associated with crystalline iron oxides and arsenic sulfide phase (smelter-1), and iii) arsenic associated with the weathering products of arsenic sulfide minerals, such as scorodite, orpiment, jarosite, and pyrite (mine). Even though the bioaccessibility of arsenic was very low in the mine soil, its environmental impact could be significant due to its high arsenic concentration and mobility. Highlights: • Combination of sequential extraction and mineralogical investigation was employed. • Arsenic was primarily associated with iron oxides and sulfide minerals in soils. • Bioaccessibility of arsenic was affected by arsenic solid-phase speciation. -- We investigated arsenic solid-state speciation in soils, which is crucial for risk assessment and developing suitable remediation strategies in arsenic contaminated sites

  19. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: michael.klimenkov@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  20. Estimation on tritium production and inventory in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been proposed as a candidate material for neutron multiplier on fusion blanket design, tritium will be produced and accumulated in beryllium during neutron irradiation. It is very important to estimate the tritium inventory on blanket design. Tritium production and inventory under 3.0 GW fusion power were calculated for the layered pebble bed blanket, with Li2O breeder and beryllium multiplier. Neutronics calculations were carried out by one-dimensional transport code, ANISN and tritium production was calculated by direct reaction of 9Be(n,T)7Li and two-step reactions of 9Be(n,α)6Li(n,α)T. At the position near first wall, the direct reaction occupied the majority of tritium production. However, at the position of the mid-depth, contribution of the two-step reaction was included the production from neutron slow down by beryllium itself. The ratio accounting for 50% of total tritium production of two-step reaction production over whole blanket for one year full power operation (FPY) was resulted

  1. Beryllium abundances in stars with planets:Extending the sample

    CERN Document Server

    Gálvez-Ortiz, M C; Hernández, J I González; Israelian, G; Santos, N C; Rebolo, R; Ecuvillon, A

    2011-01-01

    Context: Chemical abundances of light elements as beryllium in planet-host stars allow us to study the planet formation scenarios and/or investigate possible surface pollution processes. Aims: We present here an extension of previous beryllium abundance studies. The complete sample consists of 70 stars hosting planets and 30 stars without known planetary companions. The aim of this paper is to further assess the trends found in previous studies with less number of objects. This will provide more information on the processes of depletion and mixing of light elements in the interior of late type stars, and will provide possible explanations for the abundance differences between stars that host planets and "single" stars. Methods: Using high resolution UVES spectra, we measure beryllium abundances of 26 stars that host planets and 1 "single" star mainly using the \\lambda 3131.065 A Be II line, by fitting synthetic spectra to the observational data. We also compile beryllium abundance measurements of 44 stars hos...

  2. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenkov, M.; Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A.; Rolli, R.

    2014-12-01

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  3. Influence of impurities in Beryllium on tritium breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several neutronics experiments simulating fusion blankets have been conducted with 14 MeV neutron source to assess the reliability of nuclear analysis codes. However, the analyses have not always presented good agreements so far between calculated and measured tritium production rates. One of the reasons was considered as impurities in beryllium which has negligibly small neutron absorption cross section in low energy range. Chemical compositions of beryllium were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method, and a pulsed neutron decay experiment discovered that the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section for beryllium medium may be about 30% larger than the value calculated by the data specified by manufacturing company. The influence of the impurities on the calculations was studied on the basis of the fusion DEMO-reactor blanket design. As a result of the study, it was made clear that the impurities affect the local tritium production rates when the size of beryllium medium is more than 20-30 mean free paths (30-40 cm) in thickness. In case of some blanket designs that meet the above condition, the effect on tritium breeding ratio may become as large as about 4%. (author)

  4. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  5. Extraction of lead and beryllium from a firing site soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) program is being implemented at LANL to conduct tests for evaluating the stability of the nation's aging nuclear stockpile. In order to reduce impact on the environment, containment of the non-fissile explosives tests is being phased in. The resulting shot debris can contain a mix of depleted uranium, lead, and beryllium. We are developing a treatment scheme to separate the radioactive and RCRA-hazardous components in order to recover the uranium, re-use some materials in future shots, and minimize waste for disposal. Our experience using a proprietary water soluble polymer to extract lead from contaminated soil to below TCLP levels has been extended to a surrogate soil from an open-air firing site that contains both lead and beryllium. Results for lead removal from this soil by dendrimers and molecular chelators will also be shown. Because of the potentially severe inhalation hazard associated with beryllium, the fate of this metal in our treatment scheme has been investigated, as well as extraction of beryllium using a variety of chemical agents

  6. Correlation of acoustic emission and dislocation damping in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study of the acoustic emission generated in beryllium during tensile deformation, there is substantial evidence showing that the burst rate peak at yield is due to the generation of new dislocations and the burst rate peak at higher strains is due to the breakaway of dislocation line segments from deformation produce pins

  7. Biogeochemistry of beryllium in a forested catchment, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Skřivan, Petr; Vach, Marek; Filippi, Michal

    Edinburg : University of Edinburg, 2003. s. 94. [International Symposium on Environmental Geochemistry.. 07.09.2003-11.09.2003, Edinburg] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB3013203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : biogeochemistry * experimental catchment * beryllium Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  8. Thermal cycling tests of actively cooled beryllium copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.; Schuster, A.; Wiechers, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Screening tests (steady state heating) and thermal fatigue tests with several kinds of beryllium-copper joints have been performed in an electron beam facility. Joining techniques under investigation were brazing with silver containing and silver-free braze materials, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and diffusion bonding (hot pressing). Best thermal fatigue performance was found for the brazed samples. (author)

  9. Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent

    2005-03-09

    This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

  10. Identification of an abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential hazards from exposure to beryllium or beryllium compounds in the workplace were first reported in the 1930s. The tritiated thymidine beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro blood test that is widely used to screen beryllium exposed workers in the nuclear industry for sensitivity to beryllium. The clinical significance of the BeLPT was described and a standard protocol was developed in the late 1980s. Cell proliferation is measured by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into dividing cells on two culture dates and using three concentrations of beryllium sulfate. Results are expressed as a 'stimulation index' (SI) which is the ratio of the amount of tritiated thymidine (measured by beta counts) in the simulated cells divided by the counts for the unstimulated cells on the same culture day. Several statistical methods for use in the routine analysis of the BeLPT were proposed in the early 1990s. The least absolute values (LAV) method was recommended for routine analysis of the BeLPT. This report further evaluates the LAV method using new data, and proposes a new method for identification of an abnormal or borderline test. This new statistical-biological positive (SBP) method reflects the clinical judgment that: (i) at least two SIs show a 'positive' response to beryllium; and (ii) that the maximum of the six SIs must exceed a cut-point that is determined from a reference data set of normal individuals whose blood has been tested by the same method in the same serum. The new data is from the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge (Y-12) and consists of 1080 workers and 33 non-exposed control BeLPTs (all tested in the same serum). Graphical results are presented to explain the statistical method, and the new SBP method is applied to the Y-12 group. The true positive rate and specificity of the new method were estimated to be 86% and 97%, respectively. An electronic notebook that is accessible via the Internet was used in

  11. State and prospects of using extraction and sorption in the production of zinc and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As applicable to the hydrometallurgy of zinc and cadmium, some extractive agents and sorbent are considered, as well as the appropriate extraction and sorption equipment, which may be used in separate modifications of the following branches of industry: rare-earth metal production, purification of solutions from copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, antimony, and arsenic, purification of sulphuric acid and industrial gases, as well as of washing and drainage waters. It is noted that for an extensive inculcation of the processes of extraction and sorption into the hydrometallurgy of zinc and cadmium it is necessary to organize and expand the production of inexpensive, high-selectivity ionites to extract small amounts of indium, gallium, germanium, nickel, copper, and cobalt from highly-concentrated solutions of zinc sulphate and also to extract these and other elements (such as mercury, arsenic, antimony, chlorine, and selenium) from solutions of sulphuric acid and sulphatic drainage waters. It is also necessary that the industry turns out high-efficiency extraction and sorption apparatus. The development of methods of automatic control over the industrial processes and the production of suitable instruments for control and measurement and automatic equipment are required as well

  12. Some features of beryllium corrosion behavior in Be-liquid Li-V-4Ti-4Cr alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental results on beryllium corrosion behavior in a V-4Ti-4Cr alloy, liquid lithium static system during testing for 200-500 h at temperatures from 600 to 800 deg. C are presented. The influence of test conditions (temperature, duration and lithium purity) and beryllium characteristics (microstructure, grain size and chemical composition) on weight loss of beryllium and penetration of lithium into beryllium are discussed. Results of compressive tests for beryllium specimens before and after corrosion testing are also introduced

  13. Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism for

  14. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  15. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  16. Projectbeschrijving Cadmium-informatiepunt (CIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer PJ

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the use of cadmium the Central Government has decided to perform the purchase of products and materials within the Central Government as much as possible within the Draft Cadmium Decree. The activities to achieve this are as far as could be seen at the start of the project in june 1989, mentioned in this report.

  17. Multiple sclerosis incidence associated with the soil lead and arsenic concentrations in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Piao Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. METHODS: There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 1997-2008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. RESULTS: The lead (Pb concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As in soil predominated in females. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females.

  18. Potential of some aquatic plants for removal of arsenic from wastewater by green technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Barznji Dana A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation or green technology is counted among the successful and effective biological contaminated water treatment techniques. Basically, the concept of this green, cost-effective, simple, environmentally nondisruptive method consists in using plants and microbiological processes to reduce contaminants in the ecosystem. Different species from aquatic plants (emerged, free-floating, and submerged have been studied to mitigate toxic contaminants such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, etc. Arsenic is one of the most severe toxic elements; it is widely distributed in the environment, usually found in combination with chloride, oxygen, sulphur and metal ions as a result of mineral dissolution from sedimentary or volcanic rocks and the dilution of geothermal water. The effluents from both industrial and agricultural sectors are also regarded as sources to contaminate water. From the accumulation point of view, several aquatic plants have been mentioned as good arsenic accumulators and their performance is evaluated using the green technology method. These include Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolffia globosa, Lemna gibba, L. minor, Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, Azolla pinnata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Pistia stratiotes. The up-to-date information illustrated in this review paper generates knowledge about the ability of some common aquatic plants around the globe to remediate arsenic from contaminated water.

  19. Genomic responses to arsenic in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez-Riego

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant and a toxic metalloid which presents two main redox states in nature: arsenite [As(III] and arsenate [As(V]. Arsenic resistance in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is mediated by the arsBHC operon and two additional arsenate reductases encoded by the arsI1 and arsI2 genes. Here we describe the genome-wide responses to the presence of arsenate and arsenite in wild type and mutants in the arsenic resistance system. Both forms of arsenic produced similar responses in the wild type strain, including induction of several stress related genes and repression of energy generation processes. These responses were transient in the wild type strain but maintained in time in an arsB mutant strain, which lacks the arsenite transporter. In contrast, the responses observed in a strain lacking all arsenate reductases were somewhat different and included lower induction of genes involved in metal homeostasis and Fe-S cluster biogenesis, suggesting that these two processes are targeted by arsenite in the wild type strain. Finally, analysis of the arsR mutant strain revealed that ArsR seems to only control 5 genes in the genome. Furthermore, the arsR mutant strain exhibited hypersentivity to nickel, copper and cadmium and this phenotype was suppressed by mutation in arsB but not in arsC gene suggesting that overexpression of arsB is detrimental in the presence of these metals in the media.

  20. Natural arsenic contaminated diets perturb reproduction in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David; Brix, Kevin V; Amlund, Heidi; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nic R

    2008-07-15

    The toxicological effect of natural diets elevated in metals on reproduction in fish is poorly understood. The reproductive output of zebrafish fed the polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from a metal-impacted estuary, Restronguet Creek, Cornwall, UK, was compared to fish fed N. diversicolor collected from a nonmetal impacted estuary, Blackwater, Essex, UK. Fish fed the metal laden N. diversicolorfor 68 days showed reduced reproductive output, characterized by reduced cumulative egg production (47%), cumulative number of spawns (30%), as well as reduced average number of eggs produced per spawn and % hatch rate. The mRNA transcript levels of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin was also reduced 1.5 fold in the livers of female fish fed metal-laden N. diversicolor. No difference was seen between the lipid, protein, or moisture content of the two diets and no difference in growth was seen between the two fish populations. The Restronguet Creek polychaetes have elevated arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and silver body burdens, but the only element found to accumulate in the tissues of zebrafish fed this diet was As. The As in these N. diversicolor was found to be predominantly potentially toxic inorganic As species, 58% of total As content, which is unusual for aquatic organisms where arsenic is typically biotransformed into less toxic organoarsenical compounds. These results demonstrate that reproduction in fish is a sensitive target of exposure to a natural diet contaminated with As and this exposure route could be of significance to the health of fish populations. PMID:18754393

  1. Arsenic speciation in saliva of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients undergoing arsenic trioxide treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Baowei; Cao, Fenglin; Yuan, Chungang; Lu, Xiufen; Shen, Shengwen; Zhou, Jin; Le, X Chris

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide has been successfully used as a therapeutic in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Detailed monitoring of the therapeutic arsenic and its metabolites in various accessible specimens of APL patients can contribute to improving treatment efficacy and minimizing arsenic-induced side effects. This article focuses on the determination of arsenic species in saliva samples from APL patients undergoing arsenic treatment. Saliva samples were collected from nine APL pa...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... containment of cadmium or materials containing cadmium on the site or location at which construction...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1127 Cadmium. (a... forms, in all construction work where an employee may potentially be exposed to cadmium....

  3. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  4. Arsenic Exposure and Toxicology: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael F.; Beck, Barbara D.; Chen, Yu; Lewis, Ari S.; Thomas, David J

    2011-01-01

    The metalloid arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed in food, water, air, and soil. Arsenic has a long history of use as a homicidal agent, but in the past 100 years arsenic, has been used as a pesticide, a chemotherapeutic agent and a constituent of consumer products. In some areas of the world, high levels of arsenic are naturally present in drinking water and are a toxicological concern. There are several structural forms and oxidation states o...

  5. Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombach, G. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany)); Pierra, A. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany)); Klemm, W. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble arsenic, the several oxidation states (As[sup 3+], As[sup 5+]) and the bonding types have been analyzed. (orig.)

  6. Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble arsenic, the several oxidation states (As3+, As5+) and the bonding types have been analyzed. (orig.)

  7. 21 CFR 556.60 - Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic. 556.60 Section 556.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND... New Animal Drugs § 556.60 Arsenic. Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as...

  8. Arsenic removal from industrial effluent through electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, N. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Dept. of Pollution Control; Madhavan, K. [Coimbatore Inst. of Technology, Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-05-01

    In the present investigation, it is attempted to remove arsenic from smelter industrial wastewater through electro-coagulation. Experiments covering a wide range of operating conditions for removal of the arsenic present in the smelter wastewater are carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor. It has been observed from the present work that arsenic can be removed effectively through electrocoagulation. (orig.)

  9. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  10. Cadmium in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxic environmental contaminant but there are indications that the developing nervous system might be even more sensitive to Cd than the kidneys in adults. Infants are exposed to Cd from various formulas and infant diets and the gastrointestinal Cd uptake is believed to be higher in newborns than in adults. Cd levels monitored in infant foods ranged between 0.74 and 27.0 µg/kg. Cow's milk formulas had the lowest levels and cereal-based formulas had up to 21 ...

  11. Cadmium sulfite hexahydrate revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Baggio; Andrés Ibáñez; Ricardo Baggio

    2008-01-01

    The present structural revision of the title compound, tetracadmium tetrasulfite hexahydrate, [Cd4(SO3)4(H2O)5]·H2O, is a low-temperature upgrade (T = 100 K and R = 0.017) of the original room-temperature structure reported by Kiers & Vos [Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1978). 7, 399–403; T = 293 K and R = 0.080). The compound is a three-dimensional polymer with four independent cadmium centres, four sulfite anions and six water molecules, five of them coordinated to two c...

  12. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  13. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces; Untersuchung des ternaeren Systems Beryllium-Kohlenstoff-Wolfram und Betrachtungen von Beryllium auf Kohlenstoffoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-05-25

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be{sub 2}C island formation for T{>=}770 K. At high temperatures (T{>=}1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be{sub 2}W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be{sub 2}W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be{sub 2}C, W{sub 2}C, WC and Be{sub 2}W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be{sub 2}C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures

  14. Fallout beryllium-7 as a soil and sediment tracer in river basins: current status and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex; Blake, Will H.; Smith, Hugh G.; Mabit, Lionel; Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2013-04-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic radionuclide formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of nitrogen and oxygen. Its constant natural production and fallout via precipitation coupled with its ability to bind to soil particles have underpinned its application as a sediment tracer. The short half-life of beryllium-7 (53.3 days) lends itself to tracing sediment dynamics over short time periods, thus, enabling assessment of the effect of land use change upon soil redistribution. Although beryllium-7 has been widely applied as a tracer to date, there remain crucial gaps in understanding relating to the assumptions for its use. To further support the application of beryllium-7 as a tracer across a range of environments requires consideration of both the current strengths and shortcomings of the technique to direct research needs. Here we review research surrounding the assumptions underpinning beryllium-7 use as a tracer and identify key knowledge gaps relating to i) the effects of rain shadowing and vegetation interception upon beryllium-7 fallout uniformity at the hillslope-scale; ii) the effect of preferential flow pathways upon beryllium-7 depth distribution in soil and overland flow upon beryllium-7 inventory uniformity and iii) the potential for beryllium-7 desorption in saline and reducing environments. To provide continued support for the use of beryllium-7 as a hillslope and catchment-scale tracer, there is an urgent need to undertake further research to quantify the effect of these factors upon tracer estimates.

  15. Biomonitoring of cadmium in pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is a nephrotoxic metal with increasing levels in arable soils. The non-smoking population is exposed to cadmium mainly from vegetable food, especially cereal products. The major part of pig feed is cereals, and accumulated cadmium in pig kidney could reflect cadmium in the local agricultural environment. In this thesis, the possibility to use pig kidney as a bioindicator of the availability of cadmium in the agricultural environment was evaluated. There were significant correlations b...

  16. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  17. Determination of total inorganic arsenic in potable water through spectroscopy of atomic absorption with generation of hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study developed a method for the cuantitative analysis of arsenic in potable water , through the spectrophotometric technique of atomic absorption. It used an automatic system of injection of flux for the generation of hydrides. It studied the effect produced by reducer agents, in the prereduction of arsenic in water, obtaining the best result with the use of potasium iodide 1.5% and ascorbic acid 0.25% in hydrochloric acid 3.7%, for the direct determination of total inorganic arsenic. It observed the effect produced by cadmium and selenium to the half of the concentration of arsenic, chromium, lead and silver at the same concentration, and barium at a ten times higher concentration, in the recuperation of total inorganic arsenic. It also used sodium borohydride 0.3% in sodium hydroxide 0.05% (5mL/min), for the formation of the volatile hydrides. It used hydrochloric acid 3.7% (12 mL/min) as disolution of transport; argon as inert gas, and a flame air-acetylene, for the atomization of the hydrides. This method was applied to 19 samples of potable water, and the result was no detectable for all of them. (S. Grainger)

  18. Whole-house arsenic water treatment provided more effective arsenic exposure reduction than point-of-use water treatment at New Jersey homes with arsenic in well water

    OpenAIRE

    Spayd, Steven E.; Robson, Mark G.; Buckley, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the effectiveness of whole house (point-of-entry) and point-of-use arsenic water treatment systems in reducing arsenic exposure from well water was conducted. The non-randomized observational study recruited 49 subjects having elevated arsenic in their residential home well water in New Jersey. The subjects obtained either point-of-entry or point-of-use arsenic water treatment. Prior ingestion exposure to arsenic in well water was calculated by measuring arsenic concentrations...

  19. Arsenic mobility in contaminated lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arsenic contaminated lake sediment near a landfill in Maine was used to characterize the geochemistry of arsenic and assess the influence of environmental conditions on its mobility. A kinetic model was developed to simulate the leaching ability of arsenic in lake sediments under different environmental conditions. The HM1D chemical transport model was used to model the column experiments and determine the rates of arsenic mobility from the sediment. Laboratory studies provided the information to construct a conceptual model to demonstrate the mobility of arsenic in the lake sediment. The leaching ability of arsenic in lake sediments greatly depends on the flow conditions of ground water and the geochemistry of the sediments. Large amounts of arsenic were tightly bound to the sediments. The amount of arsenic leaching out of the sediment to the water column was substantially decreased due to iron/arsenic co-precipitation at the water-sediment interface. Overall, it was found that arsenic greatly accumulated at the ground water/lake interface and it formed insoluble precipitates. - Arsenic accumulates at the ground water/lake interface, where it forms insoluble precipitates

  20. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is considered a toxic trace element for plant, animal, and human organisms. Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic is emitted in appreciable quantities into the atmosphere by coal combustion and the production of cement. Arsenic enters the aquatic environment through industrial activities such as smelting of metallic ores, metallurgical glassware, and ceramics as well as insecticide production and use. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining arsenic. This paper is a review of research studies of arsenic in the Greek environment by NAA performed at our radioanalytical laboratory. The objectives of these studies were (a) to determine levels of arsenic concentrations in environmental materials, (b) to pinpoint arsenic pollution sources and estimate the extent of arsenic pollution, and (c) to find out whether edible marine organisms from the gulfs of Greece receiving domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes have elevated concentrations of arsenic in their tissues that could render them dangerous for human consumption

  1. Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama A, Katherine; Fletcher, Tim D; Sun, Guangzhi

    2011-08-01

    Arsenic pollution in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its toxicity and chronic effects on human health. This concern has generated increasing interest in the use of different treatment technologies to remove arsenic from contaminated water. Constructed wetlands are a cost-effective natural system successfully used for removing various pollutants, and they have shown capability for removing arsenic. This paper reviews current understanding of the removal processes for arsenic, discusses implications for treatment wetlands, and identifies critical knowledge gaps and areas worthy of future research. The reactivity of arsenic means that different arsenic species may be found in wetlands, influenced by vegetation, supporting medium and microorganisms. Despite the fact that sorption, precipitation and coprecipitation are the principal processes responsible for the removal of arsenic, bacteria can mediate these processes and can play a significant role under favourable environmental conditions. The most important factors affecting the speciation of arsenic are pH, alkalinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, the presence of other chemical species--iron, sulphur, phosphate--,a source of carbon, and the wetland substrate. Studies of the microbial communities and the speciation of arsenic in the solid phase using advanced techniques could provide further insights on the removal of arsenic. Limited data and understanding of the interaction of the different processes involved in the removal of arsenic explain the rudimentary guidelines available for the design of wetlands systems. PMID:21549410

  2. Potentiometric titration of excess cadmium in cadmium selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and rapid potentiometric technique for determining excess cadmium in CdSe has been developed. Reaction with AgNO3 is used for sample treatment. Silver, formed in the AgNO3 reaction with excess Cd is determined with the help of KI. When using the given method of analysis the relative standard deviation is equal to 0.08-0.21. The real detection limit of excess cadmium is 9x10-7 g

  3. Proceedings of the 8th specialist meeting on recycling of irradiated Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the documents presented in the 8th Specialist Meeting on Recycling of Irradiated Beryllium, which was held on October 28, 2013, in Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina, hosted by INVAP and CNEA (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica). The objective of the meeting is to exchange the information of current status and future plan for beryllium study in the Research/Testing reactors, and to make a discussion of “How to cooperate”. There were 20 participants from USA, Japan, Korea, Austria and Argentina. In this meeting, information exchange of current status and future plan for beryllium study was carried out for the Research/Testing reactor fields, and evaluation results of beryllium materials were discussed based on new irradiated beryllium data such as swelling, deformation, gas release and so on. The subject of the used beryllium recycling was also discussed for the enforcement of demonstration recycling tests. (author)

  4. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (1022 atoms/cm2) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project

  5. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  6. 5. IEA International workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection includes the abstracts of reports presented to the 5-th IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion. The themes of reports are as follows: status of beryllium technology for fusion in Russia; manufacturing and testing of Be armoured first wall mock-up for ITER; development of the process of diffusion welding of metals stainless steel-copper-beryllium into a single composite; some features of beryllium-laser beam interaction; the effect of irradiation dose on tritium and helium release from neutron irradiated beryllium; thermal properties of neutron irradiated Be12Ti. The results of investigating the mechanical properties variation and swelling of beryllium under high temperature neutron irradiation are presented

  7. Quantum-chemical approach to cohesive properties of metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations based upon the incremental approach, i.e. an expansion of the correlation energy in terms of one-body, two-body, and higher-order contributions from localized orbital groups, have been performed for metallic beryllium. We apply an embedding scheme which has been successfully applied recently to ground-state properties of magnesium and group 12 elements. This scheme forces localization in metallic-like model systems and allows for a gradual delocalization within the incremental approach. Quantum-chemical methods of the coupled-cluster and multi-reference configuration interaction type are used for evaluating individual increments. Results are given for the cohesive energy and lattice constants of beryllium, and it is shown that further development of the approach is needed for this difficult case

  8. Effects of beryllium-compounds on the hen. 2. Comm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After oral application of 7Be2+ this cation is relative slowly absorbed from the intestine. The highest proportion of 7Be appeared in the feces. The absorbed 7Be has been found in the feathers, the bones and in the muscles as well as in the mucosa of the stomach and the intestine. Relative low is the accumulation in the liver and the kidneys as well as in the brain and the spinal cord. After i.v. application a high proportion of 7Be has been observed in the eggs. The rest of the applied radio-beryllium has been accumulated 7Be in the metabolically active tissues is removed very slowly. In contrast to this observation radio-beryllium disappeared relatively rapidly from the blood. (orig.)

  9. A charge-density study of crystalline beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray structure factors for crystalline beryllium measured by Brown [Phil. Mag. (1972), 26, 1377] have been analyzed with multipole deformation functions for charge-density information. Single exponential radial functions were used for the valence charge density. A valence monopole plus the three harmonics, P35(cos theta) sin 3phi, P6(cos theta) and P37(cos theta) sin 3phi, provide a least-squares fit to the data with Rsub(w)=0.0081. The superposition of these density functions describes a bonding charge density between Be atoms along the c axis through the tetrahedral vacancy. The results reported here are in qualitative agreement with a recent pseudo-potential calculation of metallic beryllium. The final residuals in the analysis are largest at high sin theta/lambda values. This suggests that core charge deformation is present and/or anharmonic motion of the nuclei is appreciable. (Auth.)

  10. Fabrication methods for beryllium spacecraft components (Series 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this paper are to conserve and yet promote the use of one of the most versatile metal elements available to the practising engineer. The scope of the work described involves the selection of candidate components suitable for manufacture in beryllium. Evaluation by mathematical modelling using finite element techniques is used as an aid in determining the principal load paths in a structural component. Cost effective techniques which are objectively analysed suggest that the conservation of raw beryllia can best be achieved using recently developed plasma spray methods. The British Aircraft Corporation have been investigating methods of plasma spraying beryllium with A.W.R.E. and current developments are giving clear indications that for certain future space applications plasma spray is the technique which most nearly meets the conservation objective. (author)

  11. Fabrication of beryllium spheres and its validation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sphere-pack blanket concept using small size spheres of beryllium is one of the promising design concept of the ITER blanket, because the sphere-pack can accommodate the size deformation due to neutron irradiation damage, helium swelling and cyclic temperature changes. Preliminary R and D for an industrial fabrication technology of beryllium spheres (1.0 ± 0.3 mm in diameter) has been started as part of feasibility study of Japanese blanket concept of layered sphere-pack configuration. The following tests were performed in the several demo-fabrications; feasibility of size distribution control, material characterization such as macroscopic and microscopic structure analysis, impurity analysis, and attainable packing density, mechanical integrity under various thermal cycling conditions. (author)

  12. Low-energy electronic stopping for boron in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range distribution for 50-keV boron bombarding beryllium was measured by an energetic ion-beam backscattering technique using helium ions. This distribution was compared with the range calculated with computer code EDEP1, with the result k 0.101 ± 0.013 for the electronic-stopping k-value. This value is compared with the results of recent interpolations from measurements of other elements. (author)

  13. Thermal fatigue behavior of US and Russian grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 KW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ''spike'' of 750 degrees C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stress in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m2. Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S-300F-H, Sr-200, I-400, extruded high purity. HIP'd sperical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe12. Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be(SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis

  14. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  15. Analysis of features of the deformation of auxetic beryllium

    OpenAIRE

    Гунько, Михаил Николаевич; Олейнич-Лысюк, Алла Васильевна; Раранский, Николай Дмитриевич; Тащук, Александр Юрьевич

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the linear elasticity theory using the experimentally obtained elastic stiffness modules, temperature dependences of the elastic compliance modules and tensor components of Poisson's ratios    of beryllium in a wide range of temperatures and directions in the crystal lattice were calculated, and it was shown that with increasing temperature, the value and signs of Poisson's ratios  change differently in various temperature intervals. In the interval 0-300K,  become negativ...

  16. Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results of that study

  17. Elastic, micro- and macroplastic properties of polycrystalline beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardashev, B. K.; Kupriyanov, I. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Young's modulus and the internal friction of beryllium polycrystals (size grain from 6 to 60 μm) prepared by the powder metallurgy method have been studied as functions of the amplitude and temperature in the range from 100 to 873 K. The measurements have been performed using the composite piezoelectric vibrator method for longitudinal vibrations at frequencies about 100 kHz. Based on the acoustic measurements, the data have been obtained on the elastic and inelastic (microplastic) properties as functions of vibration stress amplitudes within the limits from 0.2 to 30-60 MPa. The microplastic deformation diagram is shown to become nonlinear at the amplitudes higher than 5 MPa. The beryllium mechanical characteristics (the yield strength σ 0.2, the ultimate strength σ u , and the conventional microscopic yield strength σ y ) obtained with various grain sizes are compared. At room temperature, all the parameters satisfactorily obey the Hall-Petch relationship, although there is no complete similarity. The temperature dependences are quite different, namely: σ 0.2( T) and σ u ( T) decrease monotonically during heating from room temperature to higher temperatures; however, σ y ( T) behaves unusually, and it has a minimum near 400 K. The different levels of stresses and the absence of similarity indicate that the scattering of the ultrasound energy and the formation of a level of the macroscopic flow stresses in beryllium occur on dislocation motion obstacles of different origins.

  18. Electron microscope study of thin beryllium lamellae (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin SR beryllium lamellae are examined by electron microscopy after various treatments, together with other samples made up of Be - Fe at 1 per cent and 0.2 per cent iron. The SR beryllium is examined after annealing at 750 deg C and 900 deg C, strongly cold-worked and quenched at 900 deg C. At 950 deg C the metal is perfectly annealed; at 750 deg C the polygonisation is almost complete, the dislocations are arranged either is dislocation walls in the prismatic planes, or in hexagonal lattices with non-dissociated nodes suggesting a high stacking defect energy. The cold-worked structure has a high dislocation density and already existing crystal walls. In the quenched state, the few dislocations are very straight and are aligned in the crystallographic directions. Iron-precipitation is studied in two alloys during tempering at 660 deg after quenching in salt water. The precipitate appears at the grain boundaries and then spreads through the matrix leaving a depleted zone in the neighbourhood of the joints. These precipitates, in the form of platelets parallel to the base planes of the beryllium lattice have been identified as the inter metallic phase Be11 Fe oriented in relation to the matrix (0 0 0 1)//(0 0 0 1) (1 0 1-bar 0)//(1 1 2-bar 0). (authors)

  19. Cadmium(2) complexes of cytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of cadmium(2) with cytosine obtained from aqueous or physiological solutions at room temperature are reported. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic, conductometric, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR measurements and also by thermogravimetry. (Authors)

  20. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  1. Effects of plant arsenic uptake and heavy metals on arsenic distribution in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayiga, Abioye O. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States); Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States) and Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)]. E-mail: lqma@ifas.ufl.edu; Zhou Qixing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2007-06-15

    This study examined the effects of heavy metals and plant arsenic uptake on soil arsenic distribution. Chemical fractionation of an arsenic-contaminated soil spiked with 50 or 200 mg kg{sup -1} Ni, Zn, Cd or Pb was performed before and after growing the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L for 8 weeks using NH{sub 4}Cl (water-soluble plus exchangeable, WE-As), NH{sub 4}F (Al-As), NaOH (Fe-As), and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (Ca-As). Arsenic in the soil was present primarily as the recalcitrant forms with Ca-As being the dominant fraction (45%). Arsenic taken up by P. vittata was from all fractions though Ca-As contributed the most (51-71% reduction). After 8 weeks of plant growth, the Al-As and Fe-As fractions were significantly (p < 0.01) greater in the metal-spiked soils than the control, with changes in the WE-As fraction being significantly (p = 0.007) correlated with plant arsenic removal. The plant's ability to solubilize soil arsenic from recalcitrant fractions may have enhanced its ability to hyperaccumulate arsenic. - Arsenic taken up by P. vittata was from all fractions with most from the Ca-fraction.

  2. Cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and performance of undoped high resistivity cadmium telluride detectors are compared to chlorine lifted counters. It is shown, in particular, that Undodep CdTe is in fact aluminium doped and that compensation occurs, as an silicon or germanium, by pair and triplet formation between the group III donor and the doubly charged cadmium vacancy acceptor. Furthermore, in chlorine doped samples, the polarization effect results from the unpaired level at Esub(c)-0,6eV

  3. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE......) method separates dissolved Cd into free divalent Cd (Cd 2+) and complexed Cd and furthermore separates the latter into the operationally defined forms: labile, slowly labile and stable complexes. The dialysis (ED) method determines high molecular weight Cd complexes (above 1000mol. wt). For both methods...... the reproducibility was good. By combining the results of the GEOCHEM calculations in terms of the inorganic complexes, and the IE results, the fractions of free and inorganically complexed Cd were estimated. The IE and ED results furthermore provided information about the organic complexes. Selected...

  4. Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanafee, J.E. (ed.)

    1988-02-19

    Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (DLC)

  5. The impact of beryllium chloride and oxide on sexual function and offspring development in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative study of the action of soluble chloride and difficultly soluble beryllium oxide on sexual cycle in female rats and their conception capability, revealing of embryotoxic and teratogenic effect of these compounds and determination of significance of terms of their impact on pregnant female as well as beryllium capability to penetrate through the placenta and accumulate in the offspring organism have been performed. A great potential danger of impact on animal reproductive function of soluble (chloride) beryllium compounds as compared with low soluble ones (oxide). In the genesis of embryotoxic teratonic effect probably along with beryllium impact on progeny through the maternal organism there occurs its direct impact on the offspring

  6. Vacuum Brazing of Beryllium Copper Components for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for vacuum brazing beryllium copper anode assemblies was required for the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell System, or PEPC, a component for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Initial problems with the joint design and wettability of the beryllium copper drove some minor design changes. Brazing was facilitated by plating the joint surface of the beryllium copper rod with silver 0.0006 inch thick. Individual air sampling during processing and swipe tests of the furnace interior after brazing revealed no traceable levels of beryllium

  7. Beryllium Science: US-UK agreement on the use of Atomic Energy for mutual defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven papers are presented on beryllium supply, production, fabrication, safe handling, analysis, powder technology, and coatings. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers

  8. Problems and future plan on material development of beryllium in materials testing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been utilized as a moderator and/or reflector in a number of material testing reactors. The attractive nuclear properties of beryllium are its low atomic number, low atomic weight, low parasitic capture cross section for thermal neutrons, readiness to part with one of its own neutrons, and good neutron elastic scattering characteristics. However, it is difficult to reprocess irradiated beryllium because of high induced radioactivity. Disposal has also been difficult because of toxicity issues and special nuclear material controls. In this paper, problems and future plans of beryllium technology are introduced for nuclear reactors. (author)

  9. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to arsenic (As poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions, who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China, were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs [arsenite (iAsIII and arsenate (iAsV], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  10. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents. PMID:27431456

  11. Phase equilibria, compatibility studies and thermal properties of beryllium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality control of commercial beryllium, the examinations of the phase equilibria in beryllium systems as well as the broad field of incompatibility and the reaction kinetics of beryllium with other materials necessitate a sophisticated method for the analysis of this element in micrometer areas. A powerful tool is the wavelength dispersive X-ray microanalyser. Therefore, a commercial synthetic Mo-B4C multilayer X-ray diffracting device with 2 d = 22.2 nm periodicity was used to extend X-ray microanalysis to the ultra-light elements Be and B in an existing instrument. The spectrometer covers a wavelength range between 5.2 and 13 nm. The wavelength of the Be Kα emission line from elemental Be is λ = 11.35 nm and the full width at half maximum is ΔE = 7.2 eV. The optimum working voltage Uo is 10 kV for moderate X-ray mass absorption of the targets. The determination of Be in oxides is less favourable owing to the high mass absorption. Uo has to be reduced to 5 kV. The chemical shift of the Be Kα line in BeO is Δλ = + 0.3 nm relative to pure Be. Beryllium pebbles are foreseen as neutron multipliers in future fusion reactor blanket concepts. Industrial intermediate Be products which had been produced by a modified Kroll process and subsequent reduction of BeF2 using Mg were investigated by X-ray microanalysis. The following precipitates in the Be matrix of 2 mm pebbles partially annealed up to 790 C could be detected: (Mg, Zr, U) Be13, MgBe13, Mg2Si, Al2Mg3 and (Fe, Cr) alloys. The maximum solubility of selected metallic impurities in beryllium annealed at 800 C is: 0.06 mass % Fe, 0.03 mass % Al, 0.02 mass % Si, 5Fe2, Be2C and Cr-Fe-Si were observed in specimens annealed between 870 and 690 C. It is interesting that Al5Fe2 precipitates were observed; however, the phase AlFeBe4 that would have been expected according to the phase diagram of the ternary Al-Be-Fe system was not found. Probably the Fe/Al ratio is too low for AlFeBe4 formation. The high annealing

  12. Beryllium Project: developing in CDTN of uranium dioxide fuel pellets with addition of beryllium oxide to increase the thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Miranda, Odair; Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Andrade, Antonio Santos; Queiroz, Carolinne Mol; Gonzaga, Mariana de Carvalho Leal, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.br, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.br, E-mail: odairm@cdtn.br, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br, E-mail: antdrade@gmail.com, E-mail: carolmol@gmail.com, E-mail: mari_clgonzaga@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Pampulha, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Although the nuclear fuel currently based on pellets of uranium dioxide be very safe and stable, the biggest problem is that this material is not a good conductor of heat. This results in an elevated temperature gradient between the center and its lateral surface, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel, which restricts the performance of the reactor, being necessary to change the fuel before its full utilization. An increase of only 5 to 10 percent in its thermal conductivity, would be a significant increase. An increase of 50 percent would be a great improvement. A project entitled 'Beryllium Project' was developed in CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, which aimed to develop fuel pellets made from a mixture of uranium dioxide microspheres and beryllium oxide powder to obtain a better heat conductor phase, filling the voids between the microspheres to increase the thermal conductivity of the pellet. Increases in the thermal conductivity in the range of 8.6% to 125%, depending on the level of addition employed in the range of 1% to 14% by weight of beryllium oxide, were obtained. This type of fuel promises to be safer than current fuels, improving the performance of the reactor, in addition to last longer, resulting in great savings. (author)

  13. Bimetallic nanoparticles for arsenic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Nafiseh; Mohapatra, Mamata; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-06-01

    Effective and sensitive monitoring of heavy metal ions, particularly arsenic, in drinking water is very important to risk management of public health. Arsenic is one of the most serious natural pollutants in soil and water in more than 70 countries in the world. The need for very sensitive sensors to detect ultralow amounts of arsenic has attracted great research interest. Here, bimetallic FePt, FeAu, FePd, and AuPt nanoparticles (NPs) are electrochemically deposited on the Si(100) substrate, and their electrochemical properties are studied for As(III) detection. We show that trace amounts of As(III) in neutral pH could be determined by using anodic stripping voltammetry. The synergistic effect of alloying with Fe leads to better performance for Fe-noble metal NPs (Au, Pt, and Pd) than pristine noble metal NPs (without Fe alloying). Limit of detection and linear range are obtained for FePt, FeAu, and FePd NPs. The best performance is found for FePt NPs with a limit of detection of 0.8 ppb and a sensitivity of 0.42 μA ppb(-1). The selectivity of the sensor has also been tested in the presence of a large amount of Cu(II), as the most detrimental interferer ion for As detection. The bimetallic NPs therefore promise to be an effective, high-performance electrochemical sensor for the detection of ultratrace quantities of arsenic. PMID:25938763

  14. Cadmium accumulation and depuration in Anodonta anatina exposed to cadmium chloride or cadmium-EDTA complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holwerda, D.A.; Hemelraad, J.; Veenhof, P.R.; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-03-01

    The authors have previously reported on the uptake and distribution of cadmium in unionids, experimentally exposed to cadmium chloride. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of metal chelation on cadmium kinetics, including metal elimination in the post-exposure phase. Generally, chelation of ionic metal by natural substances like humic acids or by synthetic compounds like EDTA decreases its environmental toxicity through a diminished rate of uptake, as compared with the free ion. The influences of metal chelation on bioconcentration and on toxicity do not always run parallel. To their knowledge, there are no data on the effect of chelation on metal kinetics in freshwater clams. Data on rates of cadmium elimination from aquatic invertebrates are highly divergent, but Cd excretion is invariably found to be smaller than uptake.

  15. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  16. Variability in human metabolism of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating the nature and extent of human cancer risks due to arsenic (As) in drinking water is currently of great concern, since millions of persons worldwide are exposed to arsenic, primarily through natural enrichment of drinking water drawn from deep wells. Humans metabolize and eliminate As through oxidative methylation and subsequent urinary excretion. While there is debate as to the role of methylation in activation/detoxification, variations in arsenic metabolism may affect individual risks of toxicity and carcinogenesis. Using data from three populations, from Mexico, China, and Chile, we have analyzed the distribution in urine of total arsenic and arsenic species (inorganic arsenic (InAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), and dimethyl arsenic (DMA). Data were analyzed in terms of the concentration of each species and by evaluating MMA:DMA and (MMA+DMA):InAs ratios. In all persons most urinary As was present as DMA. Male:female differences were discernible in both high- and low-exposure groups from all three populations, but the gender differences varied by populations. The data also indicated bimodal distributions in the ratios of DMA to InAs and to MMA. While the gene or genes responsible for arsenic methylation are still unknown, the results of our studies among the ethnic groups in this study are consistent with the presence of functional genetic polymorphisms in arsenic methylation leading to measurable differences in toxicity. This analysis highlights the need for continuing research on the health effects of As in humans using molecular epidemiologic methods

  17. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of

  18. Breast-feeding Protects against Arsenic Exposure in Bangladeshi Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Fängström, Britta; Moore, Sophie; Nermell, Barbro; Kuenstl, Linda; Goessler, Walter; Grandér, Margaretha; Kabir, Iqbal; Palm, Brita; Arifeen, Shams El; Vahter, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure causes a wide range of health effects, but little is known about critical windows of exposure. Arsenic readily crosses the placenta, but the few available data on postnatal exposure to arsenic via breast milk are not conclusive. Aim Our goal was to assess the arsenic exposure through breast milk in Bangladeshi infants, living in an area with high prevalence of arsenic-rich tube-well water. Methods We analyzed metabolites of inorganic arsenic in breast milk ...

  19. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (p< 0.000001)...

  20. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; ISLAM, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from baseline to follow-up 4 to 6 months after the household received the intervention. This was assessed through a pre- and postintervention quiz concerning kn...

  1. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  2. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to increase arsenic mobilization in the aqueous phase, raising concerns with this approach.

  3. Effect of water hyacinth root extract on arsenic level in different organs of arsenic-treated rat

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen Lipika Quayum

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the administration of the ethanol extract of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) ameliorates arsenic from arsenic-treated rats. To induce arsenic accumulation in different organs, arsenic trioxide was administered orally by gavage at a dose of 500 µg/rat/day for 7 days. In search of an effective therapeutic agent to counteract arsenic accumulation and arsenic-induced oxidative stress, different concentrations of ethanol extract of root of water hyacint...

  4. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Hermann M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwate...

  5. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    OpenAIRE

    Santander, M.; Valderrama, L.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF) and dissolved air flotation (DAF). A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic polyacrylamide (NALCO 9808) as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with fl...

  6. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic a...

  7. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Theoretical Chemistry to assess the risk from the Beryllium in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bestair project was recently awarded the IRSN prize for creativity in exploratory research. The objective of this study was to assess the potential release of beryllium, an extremely toxic element, into the environment in the event of an accident through improved knowledge of the beryllium-based chemical forms present inside the ITER containment. (author)

  9. Tritium release from highly neutron irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu; Rolli, R.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • For the irradiated constrained beryllium pebbles, the tritium release occurs easier than for the unconstrained ones. • Tritium retention in the irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. • Formation of sub-grains in the constrained beryllium pebbles facilitate the open porosity network formation. - Abstract: Beryllium is the reference neutron multiplier material in the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket of fusion power plants. Significant tritium inventory accumulated in beryllium as a result of neutron-induced transmutations could become a safety issue for the operation of such blankets as well as for the nuclear waste utilization. To provide a related materials database, a neutron irradiation campaign of beryllium pebbles with diameters of 0.5 and 1 mm at 686–1006 K, the HIDOBE-01 experiment, has been performed in the HFR in Petten, the Netherlands, producing up to 3020 appm helium and 298 appm tritium. Thermal desorption tests of irradiated unconstrained and constrained beryllium pebbles were performed in a purge gas flow using a quadrupole mass-spectrometer (QMS) and an ionization chamber. Compared to unconstrained pebbles, constrained beryllium pebbles have an enhanced tritium release at all temperatures investigated. Small elongated sub-grains formed under irradiation in the constrained pebbles promote formation of numerous channels for facilitated tritium release.

  10. Reduction evaporation of BeO to provide a beryllium metal sample for accelerator radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described for preparing beryllium metal samples from beryllium oxide for use in accelerator ion sources. These samples are used to measure minute 10Be/9Be ratios for radiometric dating at the University of Washington tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of the KANT experiment on beryllium using TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is an important material in fusion technology for multiplying neutrons in blankets. However, beryllium nuclear data are differently presented in modern nuclear data evaluations. Recent investigations with the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo simulation of the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) demonstrated that beryllium reaction data are the main source of the calculation uncertainties between ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1. To clarify the calculation uncertainties from data libraries on beryllium, in this study TRIPOLI-4 calculations of the Karlsruhe Neutron Transmission (KANT) experiment have been performed by using ENDF/B-VII.0 and new JEFF-3.1.1 data libraries. The KANT Experiment on beryllium has been used to validate neutron transport codes and nuclear data libraries. An elaborated KANT experiment benchmark has been compiled and published in the NEA/SINBAD database and it has been used as reference in the present work. The neutron multiplication in bulk beryllium assemblies was considered with a central D-T neutron source. Neutron leakage spectra through the 5, 10, and 17 cm thick spherical beryllium shells were calculated and five-group partial leakage multiplications were reported and discussed. In general, improved C/E ratios on neutron leakage multiplications have been obtained. Both ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1.1 beryllium data libraries of TRIPOLI-4 are acceptable now for fusion neutronics calculations.

  12. Proceedings of the third IEA international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Makoto [eds.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the Proceedings of the Third International Energy Agency International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion. The workshop was held on October 22-24, 1997, at the Sangyou Kaikan in Mito City with 68 participants who attended from the Europe, the Russian Federation, the Kazakstan, the United States and Japan. The topics for papers were arranged into 9 sessions; beryllium applications for ITER, production and characterization, chemical compatibility and corrosion, forming and joining, plasma/tritium interactions, beryllium coating, first wall applications, neutron irradiation effects, health and safety. To utilize beryllium in the pebble type blanket, a series of discussions were intensified in multiple view points such as the swelling, He/T release from beryllium pebble irradiated up to high He content, effective thermal conductivity, tritium permeation and coating, and fabrication cost, and so on. As the plasma facing material, life time of beryllium and coated beryllium, dust and particle production, joining, waste treatment, mechanical properties and deformation by swelling were discussed as important issues. Especially, it was recognized throughout the discussions that the comparative study by the different researchers should be carried out to establish the reliability of the data reported in the workshop and in others. To enhance the comparative study, the world wide collaboration for the relative evaluation of the beryllium was proposed by the International Organization Committee and the proposal was approved by all of the participants. The 45 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Tritium release from highly neutron irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • For the irradiated constrained beryllium pebbles, the tritium release occurs easier than for the unconstrained ones. • Tritium retention in the irradiated constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. • Formation of sub-grains in the constrained beryllium pebbles facilitate the open porosity network formation. - Abstract: Beryllium is the reference neutron multiplier material in the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket of fusion power plants. Significant tritium inventory accumulated in beryllium as a result of neutron-induced transmutations could become a safety issue for the operation of such blankets as well as for the nuclear waste utilization. To provide a related materials database, a neutron irradiation campaign of beryllium pebbles with diameters of 0.5 and 1 mm at 686–1006 K, the HIDOBE-01 experiment, has been performed in the HFR in Petten, the Netherlands, producing up to 3020 appm helium and 298 appm tritium. Thermal desorption tests of irradiated unconstrained and constrained beryllium pebbles were performed in a purge gas flow using a quadrupole mass-spectrometer (QMS) and an ionization chamber. Compared to unconstrained pebbles, constrained beryllium pebbles have an enhanced tritium release at all temperatures investigated. Small elongated sub-grains formed under irradiation in the constrained pebbles promote formation of numerous channels for facilitated tritium release

  14. Protection of beryllium metal against microbial influenced corrosion using silane self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Deshpande, Alina; Hersman, Larry; Brozik, Susan M.; Butt, Darryl

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of a self-assembled silane monolayer as protection for beryllium against microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was demonstrated. Four-point bend tests on coated and uncoated beryllium samples were conducted after microbiological exposures, and the effectiveness of these coatings as MIC protection was reported through mechanical property evaluations. Application of the silane monolayer to the beryllium surfaces was found to prevent degradation of the failure strength and displacement-to-failure of beryllium in bending. In contrast, the uncoated beryllium samples exhibited a severe reduction in these mechanical properties in the presence of the marine Pseudomonas bacteria. The potentiodynamic measurements showed that both the uncoated and coated samples pitted at the open-circuit potential. However, the size and distribution of the corrosion pits formed on the surface of the beryllium samples were significantly different for the various cases (coated vs uncoated samples exposed to control vs inoculated medium). This study demonstrates the following: (1) the deleterious effects of MIC on the mechanical properties of beryllium and (2) the potential for developing fast, easy, and cost-effective MIC protection for beryllium metal using silane self-assemblies.

  15. Reduction of surface erosion caused by helium blistering in sintered beryllium and sintered aluminum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been conducted to find materials with microstructures which minimize the formation of blisters. A promising class of materials appears to be sintered metal powder with small average grain sizes and low atomic number Z. Studies of the surface erosion of sintered aluminum powder (SAP 895) and of aluminum held at 4000C due to blistering by 100 keV helium ions have been conducted and the results are compared to those obtained earlier for room temperature irradiation. A significant reduction of the erosion rate in SAP 895 in comparison to annealed aluminum and SAP 930 is observed. In addition results on the blistering of sintered beryllium powder (type I) irradiated at room temperature and 6000C by 100 keV helium ions are given. These results will be compared with those reported recently for vacuum cast beryllium foil and a foil of sintered beryllium powder (type II) which was fabricated differently, than type I. For room temperature irradiation only a few blisters could be observed in sintered beryllium powder type I and type II and they are smaller in size and in number than in vacuum cast beryllium. For irradiation at 6000C large scale exfoliation of blisters was observed for vacuum cast beryllium but much less exfoliation was seen for sintered beryllium powder, type I, and type II. The results show a reduction in erosion rate cast beryllium, for both room temperature and 6000C

  16. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  17. Cadmium purification and quantification using immunochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Yongvongsoontorn, Nunnarpas; Tawarada, Kei; Ohnishi, Yoshikazu; Arakane, Tamami; Kayama, Fujio; Abe, Kaoru; Oguma, Shinichi; Ohmura, Naoya

    2009-06-10

    One of the pathways by which cadmium enters human beings is through the consumption of agricultural products. The monitoring of cadmium has a significant role in the management of cadmium intake. Cadmium purification and quantification using immunochromatography were conducted in this study as an alternative means of cadmium analysis. The samples used in this study were rice, tomato, lettuce, garden pea, Arabidopsis thaliana (a widely used model organism for studying plants), soil, and fertilizer. The cadmium immunochromatography has been produced from the monoclonal antibody Nx2C3, which recognize the chelate form of cadmium, Cd.EDTA. The immunochromatography can be used for quantification of cadmium in a range from 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L at 20% mean coefficient of variance. A chelate column employing quaternary ammonium salts was used for the purification of cadmium from HCl extracts of samples. Recoveries of cadmium were near 100%, and the lowest recovery was 76.6% from rice leaves. The estimated cadmium concentrations from the immunochromatography procedure were evaluated by comparison with the results of instrumental analysis (ICP-AES or ICP-MS). By comparison of HCl extracts analyzed by ICP-MS and column eluates analyzed by immunochromatography of the samples, the estimated cadmium concentrations were closely similar, and their recoveries were from 98 to 116%. PMID:19489614

  18. Acute arsenic poisoning in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Melisa W; Boyer, Edward W; Kleinman, Monica E; Rodig, Nancy M; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2005-07-01

    We report a case series of acute arsenic poisoning of 2 siblings, a 4-month-old male infant and his 2-year-old sister. Each child ingested solubilized inorganic arsenic from an outdated pesticide that was misidentified as spring water. The 4-month-old child ingested a dose of arsenic that was lethal despite extraordinary attempts at arsenic removal, including chelation therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, exchange transfusion, and hemodialysis. The 2-year-old fared well with conventional therapy. PMID:15995066

  19. XAS Studies of Arsenic in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is present in low concentrations in much of the Earth's crust and changes in its speciation are vital to understanding its transport and toxicity in the environment. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the coordination sites of arsenic in a wide variety of samples, including soil and earthworm tissues from arsenic-contaminated land, and human hair and nail samples from people exposed to arsenic in Cambodia. Our results confirm the effectiveness of using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to determine speciation changes in environmental samples

  20. Arsenic in the soils of Zimapan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic concentrations of 73 soil samples collected in the semi-arid Zimapan Valley range from 4 to 14 700 mg As kg-1. Soil arsenic concentrations decrease with distance from mines and tailings and slag heaps and exceed 400 mg kg-1 only within 500 m of these arsenic sources. Soil arsenic concentrations correlate positively with Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, suggesting a strong association with ore minerals known to exist in the region. Some As was associated with Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides, this association is less for contaminated than for uncontaminated samples. Very little As was found in the mobile water-soluble or exchangeable fractions. The soils are not arsenic contaminated at depths greater than 100 cm below the surface. Although much of the arsenic in the soils is associated with relatively immobile solid phases, this represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. -- Much of the arsenic is relatively immobile but presents long-term source of arsenic

  1. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this section), together with lung pathology consistent with chronic beryllium disease, including the...) Occupational or environmental history, or epidemiologic evidence of beryllium exposure; and (ii) Any three of...) Lung pathology consistent with chronic beryllium disease. (D) Clinical course consistent with a...

  2. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern, has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The carcinogenic potential of Cd as well as the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis following exposure to Cd has been studied using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. Exposure of cells to Cd results in their transformation. Administration of Cd in animals results in tumors of multiple organs/tissues. Also, a causal relationship has been noticed between exposure to Cd and the incidence of lung cancer in human. It has been demonstrated that Cd induces cancer by multiple mechanisms and the most important among them are aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, induction of oxidative stress, and inhibition of apoptosis. The available evidence indicates that, perhaps, oxidative stress plays a central role in Cd carcinogenesis because of its involvement in Cd-induced aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.

  3. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  4. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.e [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France C2RMF, CNRS-UMR171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of {mu}g/g of beryllium in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-{mu}m diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction {sup 9}Be({alpha}, n{gamma}){sup 12}C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt {gamma}-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt {gamma}-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the {sup 27}Al({alpha}, p{gamma}){sup 30}Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required {mu}g/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 {mu}C, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 {mu}g/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 {mu}g/g.

  5. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, P. C.; Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A.; Calligaro, T.

    2010-06-01

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al 2O 3 crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of μg/g of beryllium in Al 2O 3 crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-μm diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ) 12C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt γ-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt γ-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the 27Al(α, pγ) 30Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required μg/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 μC, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 μg/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 μg/g.

  6. Preliminary irradiation test for new material selection on lifetime extension of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been utilized as a moderator and/or reflector in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), because of nuclear properties of beryllium, low neutron capture and high neutron scattering cross sections. At present, the amount of irradiated beryllium frames in JMTR is about 2 tons in the JMTR canal. In this study, preliminary irradiation test was performed from 162nd to 165th operation cycles of JMTR as irradiation and PIE technique development for lifetime expansion of beryllium frames. The design study of irradiation capsule, development of dismount device of irradiation capsule and the high accuracy size measurement device were carried out. The PIEs such as tensile tests, metallurgical observation, and size change measurement were carried out with two kinds of irradiated beryllium metals (S-200F and S-65C)

  7. Preliminary irradiation test for new material selection on lifetime extension of beryllium reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium has been utilized as a moderator and/or reflector in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), because of nuclear properties of beryllium, low neutron capture and high neutron scattering cross sections. At present, the amount of irradiated beryllium frames in JMTR is about 2 tons in the JMTR canal. In this study, preliminary irradiation test was performed from 162nd to 165th operation cycles of JMTR as irradiation and PIE technique development for lifetime expansion of beryllium frames. The design study of irradiation capsule, development of dismount device of irradiation capsule and the high accuracy size measurement device were carried out. The PIEs such as tensile tests, metallurgical observation, and size change measurement were also carried out with two kinds of irradiated beryllium metals (S-200F and S-65C). (author)

  8. HEINBE; the calculation program for helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEINBE is a program on personal computer for calculating helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation. The program can also calculate the tritium production in beryllium. Considering many nuclear reactions and their multi-step reactions, helium and tritium productions in beryllium materials irradiated at fusion reactor or fission reactor may be calculated with high accuracy. The calculation method, user's manual, calculated examples and comparison with experimental data were described. This report also describes a neutronics simulation method to generate additional data on swelling of beryllium, 3,000-15,000 appm helium range, for end-of-life of the proposed design for fusion blanket of the ITER. The calculation results indicate that helium production for beryllium sample doped lithium by 50 days irradiation in the fission reactor, such as the JMTR, could be achieved to 2,000-8,000 appm. (author)

  9. Deformation behaviour of fine grained high purity beryllium - influence of fabrication parameters, temperature and copper additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deformation behaviour of high-purity beryllium was tested on hot isostatically pressed samples of different initial grain size and compared with material manufactured commercially from pure beryllium and with beryllium-copper alloys containing 0.44, 1.1 and 2.1 at.% copper. Initial grain size of these high purity material was 0C. Grain structure of the samples was subsequently analysed by light, rastor and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of copper additions on deformation of high-purity beryllium was analysed. A further aim of this study was to investigate, by suitable methods, the mode of action of relevant impurities and to throw light on their influence on grain formation. This should enable reliable information to be provided for the manufacture of high-purity beryllium which, in turn, will lead to an improvement in ductility. (orig./IHOE)

  10. Use of notched beams to establish fracture criteria for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fracture of an improved form of pure beryllium was studied under triaxial tensile stresses. This state of stress was produced by testing notched beams, which were thick enough to be in a state of plane strain at the center. A plane strain, elastic-incremental plasticity finite element program was then used to determine the stress and strain distributions at fracture. A four-point bend fixture was used to load the specimens. It was carefully designed and manufactured to eliminate virtually all of the shear stresses at the reduced section of the notched beams. The unixial properties were obtained

  11. Technique of beryllium determination using an (α,n) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of detecting small amounts of 9Be using the (α, n) reaction has been investigated. It is shown that at a 210Po α-particle source intensity of 3x108 s-1 for limit of the detectable amount of beryllium is equal to 0.1 μg in the case of recording neutron-gamma (>= 3.6 MeV) coincidences. Other light elements (B, F, Al, Mg, Si etc.) do not produce a noticeable background under such conditions

  12. Accumulation of tritium in beryllium material under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the programming code is created on the basis of which the accumulation kinetics of tritium and isotope of He4 in the Be9 sample is analyzed depending on the time. The program is written in C++ programming language and for the calculations Monte Carlo method was applied. This program scoped on the calculation of concentration of helium and tritium in beryllium samples depending on the spectrum of the neutron flux in different experimental reactors such as JMTR, JOYO and IPEN/MB. The processes of accumulation of helium and tritium for each neutron energy spectrum of these reactors were analyzed. (author)

  13. Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and Other Properties of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    This report is part of a series of documents that provide a background to those involved in the construction of beryllium components and their applications. This report is divided into five sub-sections: Atomic/Crystal Structure, Elastic Properties, Thermal Properties, Nuclear Properties, and Miscellaneous Properties. In searching through different sources for the various properties to be included in this report, inconsistencies were at times observed between these sources. In such cases, the values reported by the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics was usually used. In equations, except where indicated otherwise, temperature (T) is in degrees Kelvin.

  14. Double K-shell photoionization of atomic beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, F. L. [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martin, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrilen(tilde sign)o de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); McCurdy, C. W. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences, and Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rescigno, T. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences, and Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Double photoionization of the core 1s electrons in atomic beryllium is theoretically studied using a hybrid approach that combines orbital and grid-based representations of the Hamiltonian. The {sup 1} S ground state and {sup 1} P final state contain a double occupancy of the 2s valence shell in all configurations used to represent the correlated wave function. Triply differential cross sections are evaluated, with particular attention focused on a comparison of the effects of scattering the ejected electrons through the spherically symmetric valence shell with similar cross sections for helium, representing a purely two-electron target with an analogous initial-state configuration.

  15. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer H.-W.; Phillips D.R.

    2010-01-01

    We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1) strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accurac...

  16. Portable Beryllium Prospecting Instrument With Large Sensitive Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrument described was designed on the basis of the photoneutron method of determining beryllium in rock surfaces and developed with a view to prospecting beryllium minerals in the Ilímaussaq intrusion, south Greenland. These minerals occur,mainly in hydrothermal veins which are from 1 mm to about 2 m wide. Of the ten beryllium minerals found until now, chkalovite (12% BeO) is the most common. The distinctive feature of the prospecting instrument is a comparatively large effective measuring area (∼500 cm2). Since the instrument is intended for use in a difficult terrain without roads, it has been necessary to limit its weight and size as much as possible. The instrument consists of a detector unit and a control unit. The detector unit has the dimensions 46 x 21 x 10 cm, weighs 20 kg, and contains a 30 cm long gamma-activation device, a biological radiation shield, and two 30-cm long 3He-filled neutron proportional detectors embedded in paraffin wax. The gamma- activation device consists of 31 identical 12Sb-sources placed in a steel tube with spacings decreasing towards the ends of the tube and with a total activity of 20 mCi. During transport of the instrument the gamma-activation device is placed at the centre of the radiation shield, when the maximum dose-rate on the surface of the detector unit is 200 mR/h. When the instrument is in use, the activation device is turned to a position just above the bottom of the detector unit. The sensitivity per cm2 of the bottom surface to a 5-cm thick layer of beryllium is 20% of its value at the centre of the bottom surface along a curve which is roughly an ellipse with axes 34 and 18 cm The total sensitivity of the instrument is about 35 counts/min per % BeO per mCi 124Sb, and the background count-rate is 12-20 counts/mm. The corresponding theoretical detection limit for a single measurement of 8-min duration is 35-50 ppm BeO. (author)

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, E.; Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the neutron irradiated beryllium with total fast neutron fluences of 1.3 - 4.3 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 327 - 616degC were studied. Swelling increased by high irradiation temperature, high fluence, and by the small grain size and high impurity. Obvious decreasing of the fracture stress was observed in the bending test and in small grain specimens which had many helium bubbles on the grain boundary. Decreasing of the fracture stress for small grain specimens was presumably caused by crack propagation on the grain boundaries which weekend by helium bubbles. (author)

  18. On solid-phase interaction of beryllium oxide with mullite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of beryllium oxide with mullite has been analyzed thermodynamically. It is shown that the reaction between the above substances must proceed with separation of chrysoberyl but without yielding phenacite, which is inconsistent with some data published. It has been found experimentally that the interaction of pure BeO and mullite is described by equation 3Al2Ox2SiO2+3BeO→3BeAl2O4+2SiO2

  19. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.)

  20. Tritium analyses of COBRA-1A2 beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Selected tritium measurements have been completed for the COBRA-1A2 experiment C03 and D03 beryllium pebbles. The completed results, shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, include the tritium assay results for the 1-mm and 3-mm C03 pebbles, and the 1-mm D03 pebbles, stepped anneal test results for both types of 1-mm pebbles, and the residual analyses for the stepped-anneal specimens. All results have been reported with date-of-count and are not corrected for decay. Stepped-anneal tritium release response is provided in addenda.

  1. Mineralogical Study of a Biologically-Based Treatment System That Removes Arsenic, Zinc and Copper from Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoshnoodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD and a high throughput automated quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN was conducted on samples from a sulphate-reducing biochemical reactor (BCR treating high concentrations of metals (As, Zn, Cu in smelter waste landfill seepage. The samples were also subjected to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis of specific particles. The bulk analysis results revealed that the samples consisted mainly of silicate and carbonate minerals. More detailed phase analysis indicated four different classes: zinc-arsenic sulphosalts/sulphates, zinc-arsenic oxides, zinc phosphates and zinc-lead sulphosalts/sulphates. This suggests that sulphates and sulphides are the predominant types of Zn and As minerals formed in the BCR. Sphalerite (ZnS was a common mineral observed in many of the samples. In addition, X-ray point analysis showed evidence of As and Zn coating around feldspar and amphibole particles. The presence of arsenic-zinc-iron, with or without cadmium particles, indicated arsenopyrite minerals. Copper-iron-sulphide particles suggested chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 and tennantite (Cu,Fe12As4S13. Microbial communities found in each sample were correlated with metal content to describe taxonomic groups associated with high-metal samples. The research results highlight mineral grains that were present or formed at the site that might be the predominant forms of immobilized arsenic, zinc and copper.

  2. Infrared spectrum of arsenic pentafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a literature review about arsenic fluorides, we give several methods of obtaining very pure AsF5 in order to ascertain the right spectrum of this compound. Our spectra fit well with Akers's observations, and we note that AsF5 structure can be explained in terms of C3v molecular symmetry, with the As-F bond stretching lying at 786 cm-1 and 811 cm-1. (author)

  3. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the inorganic arsenic methylation phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may be mediated by these methylated metabolites. If i As methylation is an activation process, then the phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation may determine risk associated with exposure to this metalloid. We examined inorganic arsenic methylation phenotypes and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotypes in four species: three that methylate inorganic arsenic (human (Homo sapiens), rat (Rattus norwegicus), and mouse (Mus musculus)) and one that does not methylate inorganic arsenic (chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes). The predicted protein products from arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase are similar in size for rat (369 amino acid residues), mouse (376 residues), and human (375 residues). By comparison, a 275-nucleotide deletion beginning at nucleotide 612 in the chimpanzee gene sequence causes a frameshift that leads to a nonsense mutation for a premature stop codon after amino acid 205. The null phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation in the chimpanzee is likely due to the deletion in the gene for arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase that yields an inactive truncated protein. This lineage-specific loss of function caused by the deletion event must have occurred in the Pan lineage after Homo-Pan divergence about 5 million years ago

  4. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to CBD. In comparison to high-CBD risk exposures where the chemical nature of aerosol

  5. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III and As(V from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration.

  6. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  7. Arsenic Adsorption Onto Iron Oxides Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aredes, S.; Klein, B.; Pawlik, M.

    2004-12-01

    The predominant form of arsenic in water is as an inorganic ion. Under different redox conditions arsenic in water is stable in the +5 and +3 oxidation states. Arsenic oxidation state governs its toxicity, chemical form and solubility in natural and disturbed environments. As (III) is found in anoxic environments such as ground water , it is toxic and the common species is the neutral form, H3AsO3. As (V) is found in aerobic conditions such as surface water, it is less toxic and the common species in water are: H2AsO4 - and HAsO4 {- 2}. The water pH determines the predominant arsenate or arsenite species, however, both forms of arsenic can be detected in natural water systems. Iron oxides minerals often form in natural waters and sediments at oxic-anoxic boundaries. Over time they undergo transformation to crystalline forms, such as goethite or hematite. Both As(V) and As(III) sorbs strongly to iron oxides, however the sorption behavior of arsenic is dependent on its oxidation state and the mineralogy of the iron oxides. Competition between arsenic and others ions, such fluoride, sulphate and phosphate also play a role. On the other hand, calcium may increase arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides. Electrokinetic studies and adsorption experiments were carried out in order to determine which conditions favour arsenic adsorption. Hematite, goethite and magnetite as iron based sorbents were used. Test were also conducted with a laterite soil rich in iron minerals. The focus of this study is to evaluate physical and chemical conditions which favour arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides minerals, the results contribute to an understanding of arsenic behaviour in natural and disturbed environments. Furthermore, results could contribute in developing an appropriate remediation technology for arsenic removal in water using iron oxides minerals.

  8. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  9. Impaired arsenic metabolism in children during weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 μg/L, range 2.4-940 μg/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFE CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC-WASTE: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ARSENIC CRISIS IN CAMBODIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An appalling degree of arsenic contamination in groundwater has affected more than a million people in wide region of Mekong delta flood plain in Cambodia. Arsenic is by far the most toxic species of all naturally occurring groundwater contaminants and disposal of removed arse...

  11. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  12. Insulin Expression in Rats Exposed to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of cadmium exposure on insulin expression in rats. Methods Eighteen adult SD assessed. The levels of cadmium and zinc in pancreas, blood and urine glucose, serum insulin and urine NAG (N-acyetyl-β-glucosaminidase) were determined. The gene expressions of metallothionein (MT) and insulin were also measured,and the oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were carried out. Results The contents of cadmium in pancreas in cadmium-treated rats were higher than that in the control group, which was associated with slight increase of zinc in pancreas.not change significantly after cadmium administration, and the UNAG had no change in Cd-treated group. The gene expression the change of the expression of insulin, MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ genes. Cadmium can influence the biosynthesis of insulin, but does not induce the release of insulin. The dysfunction of pancreas occurs earlier than that of kidney after administration of cadmium.

  13. Effect of copper on crack propagation in beryllium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of copper additives on the fracture energy and the development of cracks parallel to the basal plane was studied in zone-refined single crystalline beryllium. At 770K the cleavage planes are very smooth, so the crack propagation energy, which is independent of copper content (less than 2 at. percent Cu) in the range of measurement accuracy, is only a little higher than the surface energy of the basal plane. At room temperature, due to intense plastic processes taking place in front of the crack tip, the fracture energy is an order of magnitude higher than at low temperatures. The effect of copper on the plastic processes can be divided into two regions. In region I (less than 1.2 at. percent Cu), in which the crack propagation energy increases sharply with increasing copper content, crack propagation is controlled by prism slips. The decrease in crack propagation energy in region II (greater than 1.2 at. percent Cu) can be attributed to a reduction of beryllium twinning energy with increasing copper content. (auth)

  14. Steam chemical reactivity of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Castro, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Plasma-spraying with the potential for in-situ repair makes beryllium a primary candidate for plasma facing and structural components in experimental magnetic fusion machines. Deposits with good thermal conductivity and resistance to thermal cycling have been produced with low pressure plasma-spraying (LPPS). A concern during a potential accident with steam ingress is the amount of hydrogen produced by the reactions of steam with hot components. In this study the authors measure the reaction rates of various deposits produced by LPPS with steam from 350 C to above 1,000 C. They correlate these reaction rates with measurements of density, open porosity and BET surface areas. They find the reactivity to be largely dependent upon effective surface area. Promising results were obtained below 600 C from a 94% theoretical dense (TD) deposit with a BET specific surface area of 0.085 m{sup 2}/g. Although reaction rates were higher than those for dense consolidated beryllium they were substantially lower, i.e., about two orders of magnitude, than those obtained from previously tested lower density plasma-sprayed deposits.

  15. Calculations for electron-impact excitation and ionization of beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Fursa, Dmitry V; Bray, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix and the convergent close-coupling methods are used to study electron collisions with neutral beryllium over an energy range from threshold to 100 eV. Coupling to the target continuum significantly affects the results for transitions from the ground state, but to a lesser extent the strong transitions between excited states. Cross sections are presented for selected transitions between low-lying physical bound states of beryllium, as well as for elastic scattering, momentum transfer, and ionization. The present cross sections for transitions from the ground state from the two methods are in excellent agreement with each other, and also with other available results based on nonperturbative convergent pseudo-state and time-dependent close-coupling models. The elastic cross section at low energies is dominated by a prominent shape resonance. The ionization from the $(2s2p)^3P$ and $(2s2p)^1P$ states strongly depends on the respective term. The current predictions represent an extensive set o...

  16. Influence of neutron irradiation on the tritium retention in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolli, R.; Ruebel, S.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wu, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and beryllium are the candidates for protective layers on the components of fusion reactors facing plasma. In contact with D-T plasma, these materials absorb tritium, and it is anticipated that tritium retention increases with the neutron damage due to neutron-induced traps. Because of the poor data base for beryllium, the work was concentrated on it. Tritium was loaded into the samples from stagnant T{sub 2}/H{sub 2} atmosphere, and afterwards, the quantity of the loaded tritium was determined by purged thermal annealing. The specification of the samples is shown. The samples were analyzed by SEM before and after irradiation. The loading and the annealing equipments are contained in two different glove boxes with N{sub 2} inert atmosphere. The methods of loading and annealing are explained. The separation of neutron-produced and loaded tritium and the determination of loaded tritium in irradiated samples are reported. Also the determination of loaded tritium in unirradiated samples is reported. It is evident that irradiated samples contained much more loaded tritium than unirradiated samples. The main results of this investigation are summarized in the table. (K.I.)

  17. Remarkable Hydrogen Storage on Beryllium Oxide Clusters: First Principles Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Since the current transportation sector is the largest consumer of oil, and subsequently responsible for major air pollutants, it is inevitable to use alternative renewable sources of energies for vehicular applications. The hydrogen energy seems to be a promising candidate. To explore the possibility of achieving a solid-state high-capacity storage of hydrogen for onboard applications, we have performed first principles density functional theoretical calculations of hydrogen storage properties of beryllium oxide clusters (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8). We observed that polar BeO bond is responsible for H$_{2}$ adsorption. The problem of cohesion of beryllium atoms does not arise, as they are an integral part of BeO clusters. The (BeO)$_{n}$ (n=2 -- 8) adsorbs 8--12 H$_{2}$ molecules with an adsorption energy in the desirable range of reversible hydrogen storage. The gravimetric density of H$_{2}$ adsorbed on BeO clusters meets the ultimate 7.5 wt% limit, recommended for onboard practical applications. In conclusion,...

  18. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola O. Adeyemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Arsenic is a known toxic element and its presence and toxicity in nature is a worldwide environmental problem. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation is a potential method to reduce as concentration in contaminated areas. Approach: In order to explore the possible bioremediation of this element, three filamentous fungi-Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor were investigated for their potential abilities to accumulate (and possibly solubilize arsenic from an agar environment consisting of non buffered mineral salts media amended with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% (w/v arsenopyrite (FeAsS. Growth rates, dry weights, arsenic accumulation and oxalate production by the fungi as well as the pH of the growth media were all assessed during this study. Results: There was no visible solubilization of FeAsS particles underneath any of the growing fungal colonies or elsewhere in the respective agar plates. No specific patterns of growth changes were observed from the growth ratios of the fungi on agar amended with different amounts of FeAsS although growth of all fungi was stimulated by the incorporation of varying amounts of FeAsS into the agar with the exception of A. niger on 0.4% (w/v amended agar and T. versicolor on 0.8% (w/v amended agar. The amounts of dry weights obtained for all three fungi also did not follow any specific patterns with different amounts of FeAsS and the quantities obtained were in the order A. niger > S. himantioides > T. versicolor. All fungi accumulated as in their biomasses with all amounts of FeAsS although to varying levels and T. versicolor was the most effective with all amounts of FeAsS while A. niger was the least effective. Conclusion: The accumulation of arsenic in the biomasses of the test fungi as shown in this study may suggested a role for fungi through their bioaccumulating capabilities as agents in the possible bioremediation of arsenic contaminated environments.

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  1. The Chemistry and Metabolism of Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. IntrodctionA century of study of the process by which many organisms convert inorganic arsenic into an array of methylated metabolites has answered many questions and has posed some new ones. The capacity of microorganisms to. form volatile arsenic compounds was first recogniz...

  2. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  3. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed. PMID:26476885

  4. Arsenic Consumption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic in drinking water and minimal risk levels (MRLs) for total dietary exposure to arsenic have long been established in the U.S. Multiple studies conducted over the last five years have detected arsenic in foods and beverages including juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and others. Understanding whether or not each of these foods or drinks is a concern to certain groups of individuals requires examining which types of and how much arsenic is ingested. In this article, recent studies are reviewed and placed in the context of consumption patterns. When single sources of food or drink are considered in isolation, heavy rice eaters can be exposed to the most arsenic among adults while infants consuming formula containing contaminated organic brown rice syrup are the most exposed group among children. Most food and drink do not contain sufficient arsenic to exceed MRLs. For individuals consuming more than one source of contaminated water or food, however, adverse health effects are more likely. In total, recent studies on arsenic contamination in food and beverages emphasize the need for individual consumers to understand and manage their total dietary exposure to arsenic. PMID:26591332

  5. Reduction of surface erosion caused by helium blistering: comparison between vacuum-cast and sintered-beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blister formation and the erosion associated with blistering in a vacuum cast beryllium foil and in a foil of sintered beryllium powder have been investigated for irradiation at room temperature and at 6000C with 100 keV 4He+ ions for total doses of 0.5 to 1.0 C cm-2. For room temperature irradiation the blisters in sintered beryllium powder are smaller in size than in vacuum cast beryllium. For irradiation at 6000C large scale exfoliation of blisters was observed for vacuum cast beryllium but only small amount of exfoliation was seen for sintered beryllium powder. The results show a reduction in erosion rate in sintered beryllium as compared to the erosion rate in vacuum cast beryllium. For room temperature irradiation no erosion rate could be determined for the sintered beryllium foil since no blister exfoliation was observed. For 6000C irradiation the erosion rate for sintered beryllium foil is more than an order of magnitude smaller than for vacuum cast beryllium

  6. Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  7. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels. PMID:27460822

  8. Methylation of inorganic arsenic by murine fetal tissue explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broka, Derrick; Ditzel, Eric; Quach, Stephanie; Camenisch, Todd D

    2016-07-01

    Although it is generally believed that the developing fetus is principally exposed to inorganic arsenic and the methylated metabolites from the maternal metabolism of arsenic, little is known about whether the developing embryo can autonomously metabolize arsenic. This study investigates inorganic arsenic methylation by murine embryonic organ cultures of the heart, lung, and liver. mRNA for AS3mt, the gene responsible for methylation of arsenic, was detected in all embryonic tissue types studied. In addition, methylated arsenic metabolites were generated by all three tissue types. The fetal liver explants yielded the most methylated arsenic metabolites (∼7% of total arsenic/48 h incubation) while the heart, and lung preparations produced slightly greater than 2% methylated metabolites. With all tissues the methylation proceeded mostly to the dimethylated arsenic species. This has profound implications for understanding arsenic-induced fetal toxicity, particularly if the methylated metabolites are produced autonomously by embryonic tissues. PMID:26446802

  9. Compatibility test between beryllium and ferritic stainless steel(F82H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a fusion blanket, beryllium has been identified for use as neutron multiplier, where it will be in contact with the structural material. Austenitic stainless steel, 316SS has been considered as the structural material. However, from some studies, it is reported that beryllium reacts with 316SS above 600 C. In our investigations, we found that the reaction product between beryllium and nickel, BeNi was formed on 316SS side at 600 C. Therefore, the compatibility between beryllium and ferritic stainless steel without nickel, F82H(Fe - 8%Cr - 2%W - 0.2%V) as the new structural material in JAERI was investigated to determine if it was more compatible with beryllium. In this study, for clarifying the chemical interaction between beryllium and F82H, the out-of-pile compatibility test has been carried out with diffusion couples of beryllium and F82H which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas. Annealing temperatures was 400, 600 and 800 C, and annealing periods was 100, 300 and 1000 h, respectively. From the results of this test, it is obvious that the thickness of reaction layer in F82H is 2/3 of that in 316SS in the case of annealing at 800 C for 1000 h. (orig.)

  10. Immobilisation of beryllium in solid waste (red-mud) by fixation and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, P N; Ghosh, D K; Desai, M V M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on the immobilization of beryllium (Be) in solid waste generated in the extraction process of beryllium from its ore, Beryl. This solid waste, termed red-mud, contains oxides of iron, aluminium, calcium, magnesium and beryllium. The red-mud waste contains beryllium at levels above the permissible limit, which prevents its disposal as solid waste. The total beryllium content in the red-mud analysed showed value ranging from 0.39 to 0.59% Be The studies showed that 50% of the total beryllium in red-mud can be extracted by water by repeated leaching over a period of 45 days. The cement mix, casting into cement blocks, was subjected to leachability studies over a period of 105 days and immobilization factor (IF factor) was determined. These IF values, of the order of 102, were compared with those obtained by performing leachability study on vitrified red-mud masses produced at different temperature conditions. Direct heating of the red-mud gave the gray coloured, non-transparent vitreous mass (as 'bad glass') showed effective immobilisation factor for beryllium in red-mud of the order of 10(4). PMID:12092765

  11. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features

  12. Development of radiation resistant grades of beryllium for nuclear and fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    R&D results on beryllium with high radiation resistance obtained recently are described in this report. The data are presented on nine different grades of isotropic beryllium manufactured by VNIINM and distinguished by both initial powder characteristics and properties of billets, made of these powders. The average grain size of the investigated beryllium grades varied from 8 to 26 {mu}m, the content of beryllium oxide was 0.9 - 3.9 wt.%, the dispersity of beryllium oxide - 0.04 - 0.5 {mu}m, tensile strength -- 250 - 650 MPa. All materials were irradiated in SM - 2 reactor over the temperature range 550 - 780{degrees}C. The results of the investigation showed, that HIP beryllium grades are less susceptible to swelling at higher temperatures in comparison with hot pressed and extruded grades. Beryllium samples, having the smallest grain size, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was less than 0.8 % at 750{degrees}C and Fs = 3.7 {center_dot}10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (E>0.1 MeV). The mechanical properties, creep and microstructure parameters, measured before and after irradiation, are presented.

  13. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  14. The development and advantages of beryllium capsules for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsules with beryllium ablators have long been considered as alternatives to plastic for the National Ignition Facility laser; now the superior performance of beryllium is becoming well substantiated. Beryllium capsules have the advantages of relative insensitivity to instability growth, low opacity, high tensile strength, and high thermal conductivity. 3-D calculation with the HYDRA code NTIS Document No. DE-96004569 (M. M. Marinak et.al. in UCRL-LR-105821-95-3) confirm 2-D LASNEX U. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasmas Phys. Controlled Thermonucl. Fusion, 2, 51(2975) results that particular beryllium capsule designs are several times less sensitive than the CH point design to instability growth from DT ice roughness. These capsule designs contain more ablator mass and leave some beryllium unablated at ignition. By adjusting the level of copper dopant, the unablated mass can increase or decrease, with a corresponding decrease or increase in sensitivity to perturbations. A plastic capsule with the same ablator mass as the beryllium and leaving the same unablated mass also shows this reduced perturbation sensitivity. Beryllium's low opacity permits the creation of 250 eV capsule designs. Its high tensile strength allows it to contain DT fuel at room temperature. Its high thermal conductivity simplifies cryogenic fielding

  15. Mechanical compression tests of beryllium pebbles after neutron irradiation up to 3000 appm helium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institite for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R.; Moeslang, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institite for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Compression tests of highly neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles have been performed. • Irradiation hardening of beryllium pebbles decreases the steady-state strain-rates. • The steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles exceed their swelling rates. - Abstract: Results: of mechanical compression tests of irradiated and non-irradiated beryllium pebbles with diameters of 1 and 2 mm are presented. The neutron irradiation was performed in the HFR in Petten, The Netherlands at 686–968 K up to 1890–2950 appm helium production. The irradiation at 686 and 753 K cause irradiation hardening due to the gas bubble formation in beryllium. The irradiation-induced hardening leads to decrease of steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles compared to non-irradiated ones. In contrary, after irradiation at higher temperatures of 861 and 968 K, the steady-state strain-rates of the pebbles increase because annealing of irradiation defects and softening of the material take place. It was shown that the steady-state strain-rates of irradiated beryllium pebbles always exceed their swelling rates.

  16. Elucidating the pathway for arsenic methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although biomethylation of arsenic has been studied for more than a century, unequivocal demonstration of the methylation of inorganic arsenic by humans occurred only about 30 years ago. Because methylation of inorganic arsenic activates it to more reactive and toxic forms, elucidating the pathway for the methylation of this metalloid is a topic of considerable importance. Understanding arsenic metabolism is of public health concern as millions of people chronically consume drinking water that contains high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Hence, the focus of our research has been to elucidate the molecular basis of the steps in the pathway that leads from inorganic arsenic to methylated and dimethylated arsenicals. Here we describe a new S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferase from rat liver cytosol that catalyzes the conversion of arsenite to methylated and dimethylated species. This 42-kDa protein has sequence motifs common to many non-nucleic acid methyltransferases and is closely related to methyltransferases of previously unknown function that have been identified by conceptual translations of cyt19 genes of mouse and human genomes. Hence, we designate rat liver arsenic methyltransferase as cyt19 and suggest that orthologous cyt19 genes encode an arsenic methyltransferase in the mouse and human genomes. Our studies with recombinant rat cyt19 find that, in the presence of an exogenous or a physiological reductant, this protein can catalyze the entire sequence of reactions that convert arsenite to methylated metabolites. A scheme linking cyt19 and thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase in the methylation and reduction of arsenicals is proposed

  17. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  18. Analysis of impurities in beryllium, affecting evaluation of the tritium breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most conceptual fusion power reactor designs, it is proposed to use beryllium as a neutron multiplier in the blanket. Detailed chemical composition of beryllium is necessary for evaluation of the tritium breeding ratio, and estimating the activation and transmutation of beryllium in the fusion reactor. In the present report, special attention was paid to a detailed analysis of impurities in beryllium, relevant to the tritium breeding ratio evaluation. Two different methods were used for the study of impurities: an analysis of the local sample by the ICP-MS method, and an integral analysis of the beryllium assembly, using the pulsed neutron method. The latter method was proposed as the most effective way of analyzing the integral effect to impurities in beryllium on production of the tritium on the lithium-6. The evaluation of the integral effect was based on time behaviour observations of the thermal neutron flux, following the injection of a burst of D-T neutrons into the beryllium assembly. Structural beryllium grade (S-200-F, Brush Wellman Inc.) was used in the study. The influence of the impurities has resulted in a smaller experimental reaction rate for production of the tritium on lithium-6, due to an increase in the parasitic neutron absorption. Experimental data was compared with the reference data and the MCNP Monte Carlo calculations using the JENDL-3.2 data set. Results indicate, that the measured absorption cross section of thermal neutrons in beryllium blocks is approximately 30% larger than the calculated value, based on the data, specified by the manufacturing company. ICP-MS analysis indicated that the impurities include elements such as Li, B, Cd and others. These elements affect the absorption cross section even if the content of impurities is less than 10 ppm. (author)

  19. Isotopic Transmutations in Irradiated Beryllium and Their Implications on MARIA Reactor Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium irradiated by neutrons with energies above 0.7 MeV undergoes (n,α) and (n,2n) reactions. The Be(n,α) reaction results in subsequent buildup of 6Li and 3He isotopes with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections causing poisoning of irradiated beryllium. The amount of the poison isotopes depends on the neutron flux level and spectrum. The high-flux MARIA reactor operated in Poland since 1975 consists of a beryllium matrix with fuel channels in cutouts of beryllium blocks. As the experimental determination of 6Li, 3H, and 3He content in the operational reactor is impossible, a systematic computational study of the effect of 3He and 6Li presence in beryllium blocks on MARIA reactor reactivity and power density distribution has been undertaken. The analysis of equations governing the transmutation has been done for neutron flux parameters typical for MARIA beryllium blocks. Study of the mutual influence of reactor operational parameters and the buildup of 6Li, 3H, and 3He in beryllium blocks has shown the necessity of a detailed spatial solution of transmutation equations in the reactor, taking into account the whole history of its operation. Therefore, fuel management calculations using the REBUS code with included chains for Be(n,α)-initiated reactions have been done for the whole reactor lifetime. The calculated poisoning of beryllium blocks has been verified against the critical experiment of 1993. Finally, the current 6Li, 3H, and 3He contents, averaged for each beryllium block, have been calculated. The reactivity drop caused by this poisoning is ∼7%

  20. Device for continuous control of beryllium content in atmosphere and on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As known, beryllium and its compounds are characterized by high toxicity, therefore it is necessary to control constantly the content of beryllium and its compounds in the air and also on the surfaces of production areas and equipment to provide safety. The device for a quick measuring of beryllium content in the air, surface deposits and precipitations is described in the report. The mode of functioning of the device is based on nuclear reaction 9Be(αnγ)12C with the use of alpha-source based on plutonium-238, i.e. beryllium can be in any chemical state - metal, oxide, salt, etc. Gamma-quantums with energies 7,65 MeV (10%) and 4,43 MeV (90%), typical for beryllium, are generated as a result of interaction between alpha-particles and beryllium nuclei. The mentioned reaction with beryllium gives maximum release if comparing with another nuclides and along with high energy of gamma-quantums provides maximum sensibility of analysis without any disturbance from another elements. The number of generated gamma-quantums is in proportion to beryllium content in a probe. The device consists of the probe-preparation unit, control unit and two-way communication line. The unit of probe extraction can be placed in different points of an area, at a large distance - up to 30 meters. This device is compact and easy to transport by one person. The device control can be realized by operator via the remote control unit or automatically by the given program. The time of the probe data processing is 10-15 min. The use of the device allows to carry out beryllium content measuring in the mode of current time. (author)