WorldWideScience

Sample records for arsenic 73

  1. Use of arsenic-73 in research supports USEPA's regulatory decisions on inorganic arsenic in drinking water*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic is a natural contaminant of drinking water in the United States and throughout the world. Long term exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water at elevated levels (>100 ug/L) is associated with development of cancer in several organs, cardiovascular disease,...

  2. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of countries, including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, and the United States of America. Drinking-water, ... ingestion of inorganic arsenic include developmental effects, neurotoxicity, diabetes, pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Arsenic-induced myocardial ...

  3. Arsenic ototoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulin Gokçen Kesici

    2016-01-01

    High levels of arsenic are found in many parts of the world and more than 100 million people may have been exposed to it. There is growing evidence to indicate that arsenic has a deleterious effect on the auditory system. This paper provides the general information of arsenic and its ototoxic effects.

  4. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  5. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  6. Arsenic in the soils of Zimapan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic concentrations of 73 soil samples collected in the semi-arid Zimapan Valley range from 4 to 14 700 mg As kg-1. Soil arsenic concentrations decrease with distance from mines and tailings and slag heaps and exceed 400 mg kg-1 only within 500 m of these arsenic sources. Soil arsenic concentrations correlate positively with Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, suggesting a strong association with ore minerals known to exist in the region. Some As was associated with Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides, this association is less for contaminated than for uncontaminated samples. Very little As was found in the mobile water-soluble or exchangeable fractions. The soils are not arsenic contaminated at depths greater than 100 cm below the surface. Although much of the arsenic in the soils is associated with relatively immobile solid phases, this represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. -- Much of the arsenic is relatively immobile but presents long-term source of arsenic

  7. Environmental arsenic exposure and sputum metalloproteinase concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Josyula, Arun B.; Poplin, Gerald S.; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; McClellen, Hannah E.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Stürup, Stefan; Clark Lantz, R.; Jefferey L. Burgess

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: arsenic, creatinin, MMP levelsExposure/effect represented: arsenicStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 73 subjectsAnalytical technique: ELISA, HPLCTissue/biological material/sample size: urine samplesRelationship with exposure or effect of interest (including dose-response): inorganic arsenic positively correlated with logMMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in sputum (Pearson's r Ό 0:351, P Ό 0:009) and negatively correlated with the log of s...

  8. Arsenic in the soils of Zimapán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongley, Lois K; Sherman, Leslie; Armienta, Aurora; Concilio, Amy; Salinas, Carrie Ferguson

    2007-02-01

    Arsenic concentrations of 73 soil samples collected in the semi-arid Zimapán Valley range from 4 to 14 700 mg As kg(-1). Soil arsenic concentrations decrease with distance from mines and tailings and slag heaps and exceed 400 mg kg(-1) only within 500 m of these arsenic sources. Soil arsenic concentrations correlate positively with Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, suggesting a strong association with ore minerals known to exist in the region. Some As was associated with Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides, this association is less for contaminated than for uncontaminated samples. Very little As was found in the mobile water-soluble or exchangeable fractions. The soils are not arsenic contaminated at depths greater than 100 cm below the surface. Although much of the arsenic in the soils is associated with relatively immobile solid phases, this represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment.

  9. Arsenic species and chemistry in groundwater of southeast Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater samples, taken from 73 wells in 10 counties of southeast Michigan in 1997 had arsenic concentrations in the range of 0.5 to 278 ??g/l, the average being 29 ??g/l. About 12% of these wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded the current USEPA's maximum contaminant level of 50 ??g/l. Most (53-98%) of the arsenic detected was arsenite [As(III)] and other observations supported the arsenic species distribution (low redox potential and DO). In shallow groundwater (15 m), the concentration of arsenic is possibly controlled by reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron hydroxide/oxyhydroxide and dissolution of arsenic sulfide minerals. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lu [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan Xiulan [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Liao Xiaoyong, E-mail: liaoxy@igsnrr.ac.cn [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Wen Yi; Chong Zhongyi; Liang Tao [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on plant uptake and antioxidative response of Pteris vitatta L. were studied hydroponically. The combination of arsenic and phenanthrene decreased arsenic contents in fronds by 30-51%, whereas increased arsenic concentrations 1.2-1.6 times in roots, demonstrating the suppression of arsenic translocation compared to the corresponding treatment without phenanthrene. Under the co-exposure, As(III) concentrations in fronds deceased by 12-73%, and at higher arsenic exposure level ({>=}10 mg/L), As(V) in fronds and As(III) in roots increased compared to the single arsenic treatment. Arsenic exposure elevated phenanthrene concentrations in root by 39-164%. The co-existence of arsenic and phenanthrene had little impact on plant arsenic accumulation, although synergistic effect on antioxidants was observed, suggesting the special physiological process of P. vitatta in the co-exposure and application potential of P. vitatta in phytoremediation of arsenic and PAHs co-contamination. - Highlights: > Pteris vitatta L. show tolerance to the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure. > P. vitatta efficiently accumulate arsenic and simultaneously enhance phenanthrene dissipation. > Phenanthrene suppresses arsenic translocation from roots to fronds. > Phenanthrene causes As(III) elevation in roots while reduction in fronds. > Synergistic effect potentiates the toxicity and antioxidants in plant. - Pteris vitatta L. not only efficiently accumulate arsenic but also enhance phenanthrene dissipation under the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure.

  11. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furr, A.

    1977-01-01

    The route of arsenic exposure is usually by ingestion, thus the veterinarian is concerned with treating either an acute or a peracute condition. The arsenic compounds are considered to be highly toxic with a rapid onset of clinical signs. The toxicity and rapidity of onset are variable, depending upon the age and the species of animal. The chemical form and solubility of the toxicant also play a role in the course of the clinical syndrome. Inorganic arsenicals inhibit the sulfhydryl enzyme systems which are essential for normal cellular respiration and for metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Therapeutic measures are intended to either remove or inactivate the unabsorbed material in the intestine, protect the alimentary tract, reverse the toxic syndrome and restore the homeostatic equilibrium of the animal. 5 references.

  12. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  13. Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Joyce S.; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Kaetzel, Rhonda; Scrafford, Carolyn; Mink, Pamela; Barraj, Leila M.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Goodman, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between children (geometric mean, geometric SD, and range: 4.0, 2.2, and 0.89?17.7 ?g/L, respectively) and older participants (3.8, 1.9, 0.91?19.9 ?g/L) and consistent with unexposed populations. Toenail samples were < 1 mg/kg. Correlations between speciated urinary arsenic and arsenic in soil (r = 0.137, p = 0.39; n = 41) or house dust (r = 0.049, p = 0.73; n = 52) were not significant for children. Similarly, questionnaire responses indicating soil exposure were not associated with increased urinary arsenic levels. Relatively low soil arsenic exposure likely precluded quantification of arsenic exposure above background.

  14. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  15. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  16. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic trioxide is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL; a type of cancer in which there ... worsened following treatment with other types of chemotherapy. Arsenic trioxide is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Cryptic exposure to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossy, Kathleen M; Janusz, Christopher A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  18. Cryptic exposure to arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossy Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  19. Arsenic: the forgotten poison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E N; Gilbert, D T; Raju, K; Morgan, O S

    1992-03-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is an uncommon cause of peripheral neuropathy in Jamaica. A patient with this disorder is described. The insidious nature of chronic arsenic poisoning, with its disabling complications, is emphasised.

  20. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  1. Arsenic compounds toxic to rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epps, E.A.; Sturgis, M.B.

    1939-01-01

    A study has been made of the kinds of arsenic compounds that may be toxic to rice and of means for correcting the toxicity. Some of the arsenic compounds in flooded soils are reduced, with consequent increase in soluble arsenic content of the soil and decrease in total arsenic content due to liberation of gaseous compounds of arsenic. It was demonstrated that some of the arsenic was lost as arsine. Many of the naturally-occurring compounds of arsenic are not attacked by the micro-organisms and do not become more soluble. Additions of sulfur to soils containing toxic amounts of arsenic decreased the amount of soluble arsenic in the soil.

  2. Arsenic cardiotoxicity: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamolhodaei, Nafiseh Sadat; Shirani, Kobra; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic, a naturally ubiquitous element, is found in foods and environment. Cardiac dysfunction is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Arsenic exposure is associated with various cardiopathologic effects including ischemia, arrhythmia and heart failure. Possible mechanisms of arsenic cardiotoxicity include oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, apoptosis and functional changes of ion channels. Several evidences have shown that mitochondrial disruption, caspase activation, MAPK signaling and p53 are the pathways for arsenic induced apoptosis. Arsenic trioxide is an effective and potent antitumor agent used in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and produces dramatic remissions. As2O3 administration has major limitations such as T wave changes, QT prolongation and sudden death in humans. In this review, we discuss the underlying pathobiology of arsenic cardiotoxicity and provide information about cardiac health effects associated with some medicinal plants in arsenic toxicity.

  3. Arsenic removal from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  4. Arsenic evolution in fractured bedrock wells in central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Zheng, Y.; Culbertson, C.; Schalk, C.; Nielsen, M. G.; Marvinney, R.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated arsenic concentration in fractured bedrock wells has emerged as an important and challenging health problem, especially in rural areas without public water supply and mandatory monitoring of private wells. This has posed risks of skin, bladder, prostate diseases and cancers to private well users. In central Maine, including the study site, 31% of bedrock wells in meta-sedimentary formations have been reported of elevated arsenic concentrations of > 10 µg/L. Geophysical logging and fracture specific water sampling in high arsenic wells have been conducted to understand how water flowing through the aquifers enters the boreholes and how arsenic evolves in the fracture bedrock wells. Two domestic wells in Manchester, Maine, located 50 meter apart with 38 µg/L and 73 µg/L of arsenic in unfiltered water, were investigated to characterize fractures by geophysical logging and to determine flow rates by pumping test. Water samples, representing the bore hole and the fractures, were collected and analyzed for arsenic under ambient and pumping conditions. Transmissivity of the fractures was estimated at 0.23-10.6 m2/day. Water with high dissolved arsenic was supplied primarily by high yielding fractures near the bottom of the borehole. Dissolved arsenic concentrations in borehole water increased as fracture water with high arsenic was replacing borehole water with initially low dissolved arsenic in response to pumping. The precipitation of iron particulates enriched in arsenic was common during and after pumping. Laboratory experiment on well water samples over a period of 16 days suggested that in the borehole arsenic was mainly settled with iron enriched particles, likely amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides, with possibly minor adsorption on the iron minerals. Another bedrock well in Litchfield, Maine, with 478 µg/L of arsenic in the unfiltered well water, is being investigated to quantify and reconstruct of the groundwater flow under ambient and pumping conditions

  5. Behavior, distribution and environmental influence of arsenic in a typical lead smelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴立元; 史美清; 梁彦杰; 汤景文; 李青竹

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the behavior and distribution of arsenic during the pyrometallurgy process in a typical SKS (Shuikoushan) lead smelter in Hunan province, China. Environmental influences of arsenic in selected samples were evaluated. Arsenic contents in all input and output samples vary from 0.11%in raw lead to 6.66%in collected dust-2. More arsenic is volatilized in blast furnace and fuming furnace (73.02% of arsenic input) than bottom blowing furnace (10.29%of arsenic input). There are 78.97%, 13.69%, 7.31% of total arsenic distributed in intermediate materials, stockpiled materials and unorganized emissions, respectively. Matte slag-2, collected dust-1 and secondary zinc oxide are hazardous based on the arsenic concentrations of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. According to risk assessment code (RAC) guideline, arsenic in collected dust-1 poses a very serious risk to the surrounding environment, arsenic in speiss, matte slag-2, water-quenched slag and secondary zinc oxide show low risk, while arsenic in matte slag-1, collected dust-2 and post dust has no risk to the environment.

  6. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  7. Arsenic exposure, urinary arsenic speciation, and peripheral vascular disease in blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term exposure to ingested inorganic arsenic is associated with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in the blackfoot disease (BFD)-hyperendemic area in Taiwan. This study further examined the interaction between arsenic exposure and urinary arsenic speciation on the risk of PVD. A total of 479 (220 men and 259 women) adults residing in the BFD-hyperendemic area were studied. Doppler ultrasound was used to diagnose PVD. Arsenic exposure was estimated by an index of cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE). Urinary levels of total arsenic, inorganic arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) were determined. Primary methylation index [PMI = MMAV/(AsIII + AsV)] and secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV) were calculated. The association between PVD and urinary arsenic parameters was evaluated with consideration of the interaction with CAE and the confounding effects of age, sex, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results showed that aging was associated with a diminishing capacity to methylate inorganic arsenic and women possessed a more efficient arsenic methylation capacity than men did. PVD risk increased with a higher CAE and a lower capacity to methylate arsenic to DMAV. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for CAE of 0, 0.1-15.4, and >15.4 mg/L x year were 1.00, 3.41 (0.74-15.78), and 4.62 (0.96-22.21), respectively (P 6.93, PMI > 1.77 and SMI > 6.93, PMI > 1.77 and SMI ≤ 6.93, and PMI ≤ 1.77 and SMI ≤ 6.93 were 1.00, 2.93 (0.90-9.52), 2.85 (1.05-7.73), and 3.60 (1.12-11.56), respectively (P V have a higher risk of developing PVD in the BFD-hyperendemic area in Taiwan

  8. Arsenic compounds and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, O

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic compounds has been epidemiologically associated with various types of cancers, particularly cancer of the lung among copper smelters and pesticide workers, whereas skin cancers and liver angiosarcomas have been associated with ingestion of arsenic for treatment of skin disorders, especially psoriasis. Attempts to reproduce cancer in animals have been mainly unsuccessful, however. Experimental evidence suggests that arsenic inhibits DNA repair; this might help to explain the somewhat conflicting observations from epidemiologic studies and animal experiments with regard to carcinogenicity, and perhaps also cardiovascular morbidity related to arsenic exposure. PMID:7463514

  9. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagor, J.C.

    Reports of heavy metal intoxication submitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory indicate that arsenic is the most common heavy metal intoxicant in Texas. The most frequent sources of arsenic are compounds used as herbicides and cotton defoliants. The misuse of these compounds and subsequent intoxication of cattle is discussed in this paper. 8 references, 1 table.

  10. Arsenic in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants Metals Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... and previous or current use of arsenic-containing pesticides. Are there ... compounds in water, food, air, and soil: organic and inorganic (these together ...

  11. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  12. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  13. Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and QT-Interval Prolongation: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Eunus, Mahbub; McClintock, Tyler R.; Patwary, Tazul Islam; Islam, Tariqul; Ghosal, Anajan Kumar; Islam, Shahidul; Hasan, Rabiul; Levy, Diane; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arsenic exposure from drinking water has been associated with heart disease; however, underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Objective: We evaluated the association between a history of arsenic exposure from drinking water and the prolongation of heart rate–corrected QT (QTc), PR, and QRS intervals. Method: We conducted a study of 1,715 participants enrolled at baseline from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study. We assessed the relationship of arsenic exposure in well water and urine samples at baseline with parameters of electrocardiogram (ECG) performed during 2005–2010, 5.9 years on average since baseline. Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for QTc prolongation, defined as a QTc ≥ 450 msec in men and ≥ 460 msec in women, was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) for a 1-SD increase in well-water arsenic (108.7 µg/L). The positive association appeared to be limited to women, with adjusted ORs of 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.53) for a 1-SD increase in baseline well-water and urinary arsenic, respectively, compared with 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.33) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.49, 1.51) in men. There were no apparent associations of baseline well-water arsenic or urinary arsenic with PR or QRS prolongation in women or men. Conclusions: Long-term arsenic exposure from drinking water (average 95 µg/L; range, 0.1–790 µg/L) was associated with subsequent QT-interval prolongation in women. Future longitudinal studies with repeated ECG measurements would be valuable in assessing the influence of changes in exposure. PMID:23384555

  14. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., transfer 73.3578 Matter of right 73.3522 Procedures 73.3513 Ammeters, antenna and common point, Remote... Allotments, Table of (FM) 73.202 AM antenna systems 73.45 AM broadcast channels, Classes of 73.21, 73.23, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.29 AM definitions 73.14 AM directional antenna field measurements 73.61...

  15. Indian Inuit Pottery '73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A unique exhibit of Canadian Native Ceramics which began touring various art galleries in September 1973 is described both verbally and photographically. The Indian Inuit Pottery '73 display, part of the 1973 International Ceramics Exhibition, includes 110 samples of craftsmanship from Indian and Inuit artists across Canada. (KM)

  16. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jason; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

  17. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  18. USEPA Arsenic Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides background information on the USEPA arsenic removal program. The summary includes information on the history of the program, sites and technology selected, and a summary of the data collected from two completed projects.

  19. Determination of arsenic in geological materials by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry after solvent extraction and deposition on a filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Rock, soil, or sediment samples are decomposed with a mixture of nitric and sulphuric adds. After reduction from arsenic(V) with ammonium thiosulphate, arsenic(III) is extracted as the chlorocomplex into benzene from a sulphuric-hydrochloric acid medium. The benzene solution is transferred onto a filter-paper disc impregnated with a solution of sodium bicarbonate and potassium sodium tartrate, and the benzene allowed to evaporate. The arsenic present is determined by X-ray fluorescence. In a 0.5-g sample, 1-1000 ppm of arsenic can be determined. The close proximity of the lead L?? peak (2?? 48.73??), to the arsenic K?? peak (2?? 48.83??) does not cause any interference, because lead is not extracted under the experimental conditions. Arsenic values obtained are in agreement with those reported for various reference samples. ?? 1983.

  20. EXAFS study on arsenic species and transformation in arsenic hyperaccumulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Zechun; CHEN; Tongbin; LEI; Mei; HU; Tiandou; HUANG

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation extended X-ray absorption fine structure (SR EXAFS) was employed to study the transformation of coordination environment and the redox speciation of arsenic in a newly discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Cretan brake (Pteris cretica L. var nervosa Thunb). It showed that the arsenic in the plant mainly coordinated with oxygen, except that some arsenic coordinated with S as As-GSH in root. The complexation of arsenic with GSH might not be the predominant detoxification mechanism in Cretan brake. Although some arsenic in root presented as As(V) in Na2HAsO4 treatments, most of arsenic in plant presented as As(III)-O in both treatments, indicating that As(V) tended to be reduced to As(III) after it was taken up into the root, and arsenic was kept as As(III) when it was transported to the above-ground tissues. The reduction of As(V) primarily proceeded in the root.

  1. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  2. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the methylation of arsenicals in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) involves methylation catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt), yielding mono- , di- , and trimethylated arsenicals. To investigate the evolution of molecular mechanisms that mediate arsenic biotransformation,...

  3. Characteristics of high arsenic groundwater in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangChun Zhu; XueYong Zhao; Min Chen; YongQing Luo; Xin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the Hetao Basin is one of the most seriously arsenic-affected groundwater areas in China. In order to understand the characteristics of high arsenic (As) groundwater in the Basin, a brief overview of arsenic in groundwater follows. High arsenic in the Basin commonly occurs in shallow groundwater and the total arsenic concentrations range from 0.58 to 572 µg/L (average 99.73 µg/L), exceeding the maximum mandated value of 10 µg/L for drinking water in China;As(Ш) is the predominant species. The regional distribution pattern of arsenic in the groundwater increases from south/southeast to north/northwest. Hangjinhouqi and Wuyuan counties are considered as the most seriously affected areas, with high incidences of endemic arsenicosic diseases in the Hetao Basin. High groundwater arsenic correlates with the increase of well depth. Previous studies proposed that groundwater arsenic in the Basin is mainly originated from desorption of some natural solid materials in the sediments, under reducing condition. Generally, reducing condition is believed to be the primary factor for arsenic releasing from the sediment to groundwater in the region. Under inorganic or bacterial processes, Fe2O3 changes to FeS and arsenic adsorbed to Fe(OH)3 dissolves into groundwater, and As(V) is re-duced to As(Ш). Besides, reducing environments, groundwater hydraulic gradients, organic matter, pH, evapotranspiration, and soil texture are presumed to be the predominant factors that control arsenic mobilization.

  4. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  5. Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris Vittata L. and its arsenic accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) was first discovered in China by means of field survey and greenhouse cultivation. Field survey showed that Chinese brake had large accumulating capacity to arsenic; the orders of arsenic content in different parts of the fern were as follows: leaves>leafstalks>roots, which is totally different from that of ordinary plants; bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts of the fern decreased as a power function of soil arsenic contents. In the control of pot trials with normal unpolluted soil containing 9 mg/kg of arsenic, the bioaccumulation coefficients of the above ground parts and rhizoids of Chinese brake were as high as 71 and 80 respectively. Greenhouse cultivation in the contaminated soil from mining areas has shown that more than 1 times greater arsenic can be accumulated in the leaves of the fern than that of field samples with the largest content of 5070 mg/kg As on a dry matter basis. During greenhouse cultivation, arsenic content in the leaves of the fern increased linearly with time prolonging. Not only has Chinese brake extraordinary tolerance and accumulation to arsenic, but it grew rapidly with great biomass, wide distribution and easy adaptation to different environmental conditions as well. Therefore, it has great potential in future remediation of arsenic contamination. It also demonstrates important value for studies of arsenic physiology and biochemistry such as arsenic absorption, translocation and detoxification mechanisms in plants.

  6. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  7. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  8. Inorganic arsenic toxicosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, J E; Boosinger, T R; Everson, R J

    1981-03-01

    In 4 occurrences of arsenic poisoning in cattle, the principal clinical sign was acute hemorrhagic diarrhea attributable to hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Arsenic concentrations in the liver, kidney and rumen contents varied. In one occurrence, arsenic in the hair of affected survivors was assayed at 0.8-3.40 ppm, vs 0.09-0.10 ppm in randomly selected control samples of hair. Sudden death was the only clinical sign in another occurrence in which gastric contents contained arsenic at 671 ppm. In another occurrence, arsenic poisoning caused lesions similar to those of salmonellosis.

  9. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  10. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  11. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  12. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  13. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaike, R N

    2003-07-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water.

  14. Arsenic and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of epidemiologic, experimental and clinical evidence shows that arsenic may exert relevant cardiovascular effects with early damage such as endothelial dysfunction. Early biomarkers of cardiovascular damage together with markers of exposure, genetic and epigenetic effects, DNA damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress remain unexplored and a study is ongoing in Italy.

  15. Rural methods to mitigate arsenic contaminated water

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water is one of the burning issues in the rural world. Poor public awareness program about health effects of drinking arsenic contaminated water and the rural methods to mitigate this problem poses a great threat of arsenic poisoning many people of the rural world. In this thesis, arsenic removal efficiency and the working mechanism of four rural and economical arsenic mitigation technologies i.e. solar oxidation and reduction of arsenic (SORAS), Bucket tr...

  16. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooki...

  17. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Urinary 8-OHdG in Arizona and Sonora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Meza, María M; Josyula, Arun B; Poplin, Gerald S; Kopplin, Michael J; McClellen, Hannah E; Stürup, Stefan; Lantz, R Clark

    2007-01-01

    Although at high levels arsenic exposure is associated with increased cancer incidence, information on the health effects of lower exposure levels is limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic at concentrations below 40 microg/L in drinking water is associated with increased urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage and repair. Urine samples were collected from 73 nonsmoking adults residing in two communities in Arizona (mean tap water arsenic (microg/L) 4.0 +/- 2.3 and 20.3 +/- 3.7), and 51 subjects in four communities in Sonora, Mexico (mean tap water arsenic (microg/L) ranging from 4.8 +/- 0.1 to 33.3 +/- 0.6). Although urinary arsenic concentration increased with higher exposure in tap water, urinary 8-OHdG concentration did not differ by community within Arizona or Sonora, and was not associated with urinary arsenic concentration. At the exposure levels evaluated in this study, drinking water arsenic was not associated with increased DNA oxidation as measured by urinary 8-OHdG.

  18. Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B

    1980-02-01

    Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country.

  19. Antidotal efficacy of newly synthesized dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) monoesters in experimental arsenic poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, H; Reichl, F X; Kleine, A; Szinicz, L; Singh, P K; Jones, M M

    1995-07-01

    The efficacy of four newly synthesized monoesters of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), mono-i-amyl- (Mi-ADMS), mono-n-amyl- (Mn-ADMS), mono-i-butyl- (Mi-BDMS), and mono-n-butyl-meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate (Mn-BDMS) in increasing survival and arsenic elimination in experimental arsenic poisoning was investigated. Male mice (strain NMRI) received arsenite sc (survival study: 130 mumol/kg, 7 mice/group; elimination study: 85 mumol/kg (LD5) together with a tracer dose of 73As(III), 6 mice/group). After 30 min mice were treated with 0.7 mmol/kg of DMSA or a monoester ip or via gastric tube (ig). Control animals received saline ip. In the survival study mice were observed for 30 days. In the elimination study, the 73-arsenic content of several organs (blood, liver, heart, lung, kidneys, spleen, testes, brain, small intestine, large intestine, muscle, and skin) was measured 0.5, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hr after the arsenic injection using a gamma counter. Survival increased correspondingly well with the increase of arsenic elimination. DMSA, Mi-ADMS, Mn-ADMS, Mi-BDMS, and Mn-BDMS markedly decreased arsenic content in most organs as soon as 1.5 hr after treatment. Only in small and large intestine were higher arsenic amounts found, indicating a shift in arsenic elimination from the renal to the fecal route, and thereby suggesting a protective effect for the kidneys. Given ip, the monoesters turned out to be similarly as effective as the parent drug DMSA. Following ig treatment, the DMSA monoesters Mi-ADMS and Mn-ADMS seemed to be superior to DMSA with regard to survival.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Ross; McArthur, John; Burgess, William; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Ravenscroft, Peter; Rahmanñ, Mizanur

    1998-09-01

    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.

  1. Arsenic content of homeopathic medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, H.D.; Saryan, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the widely held assumption that homeopathic medicines contain negligible quantities of their major ingredients, six such medicines labeled in Latin as containing arsenic were purchased over the counter and by mail order and their arsenic contents measured. Values determined were similar to those expected from label information in only two of six and were markedly at variance in the remaining four. Arsenic was present in notable quantities in two preparations. Most sales personnel interviewed could not identify arsenic as being an ingredient in these preparations and were therefore incapable of warning the general public of possible dangers from ingestion. No such warnings appeared on the labels.

  2. Amphoteric arsenic in GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Araújo, J P; Rita, E; Soares, JC

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the lattice location of implanted arsenic in GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive $^{73}$As. We give direct evidence that As is an amphoteric impurity, thus settling the long-standing question as to whether it prefers cation or anion sites in GaN. The amphoteric character of As and the fact that As$\\scriptstyle_{Ga}\\,$ " anti-sites ” are not minority defects provide additional aspects to be taken into account for an explanantion of the so-called “ miscibility gap ” in ternary GaAs$\\scriptstyle_{1-x}$N$\\scriptstyle_{x}$ compounds, which cannot be grown with a single phase for values of $x$ in the range 0.1<${x}$< 0.99.

  3. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  4. A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground

  5. No Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ahsan, Habibul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Peltier, Gretchen Loeffler; Gluskin, Rebecca T.; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Xinhua; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water at levels < 300 μg/L and the risk of diabetes mellitus remains a controversial topic. Method We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using baseline data from 11,319 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to evaluate the associations of well water arsenic and total urinary arsenic concentration and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucosuria. We also assessed the concentrations of well water arsenic, total urinary arsenic, and urinary arsenic metabolites in relation to blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in subsets of the study population. Results More than 90% of the cohort members were exposed to drinking water with arsenic concentration < 300 μg/L. We found no association between arsenic exposure and the prevalence of diabetes. The adjusted odds ratios for diabetes were 1.00 (referent), 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90–2.02], 1.24 (0.82–1.87), 0.96 (0.62–1.49), and 1.11 (0.73–1.69) in relation to quintiles of time-weighted water arsenic concentrations of 0.1–8, 8–41, 41–91, 92–176, and ≥ 177 μg/L, respectively, and 1.00 (referent), 1.29 (0.87–1.91), 1.05 (0.69–1.59), 0.94 (0.61–1.44), and 0.93 (0.59–1.45) in relation to quintiles of urinary arsenic concentrations of 1–36, 37–66, 67–114, 115–204, and ≥ 205 μg/L, respectively. We observed no association between arsenic exposure and prevalence of glucosuria and no evidence of an association between well water arsenic, total urinary arsenic, or the composition of urinary arsenic metabolites and HbA1c level. Conclusions Our findings do not support an association of arsenic exposure from drinking water and a significantly increased risk of diabetes mellitus in the range of levels observed. Further prospective studies would be valuable in confirming the findings. PMID:20813654

  6. ARSENIC - SUSCEPTIBILITY & IN UTERO EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic remains a serious public health problem at many locations worldwide. If has often been noted that prevalences of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning differ among various populations. For example, skin lesions or peripheral vascular dis...

  7. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze

    2002-11-01

    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum. The results of field injection of molasses, nitrate, and low-arsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic, oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations, and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials.

  8. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  9. Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic. -- Highlights: ► High soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth. ► A delayed flowering time was observed in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Total grain arsenic increased in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Percentage organic arsenic in the grain altered in arsenic and organic matter soil. -- The addition of high amounts of organic matter to soils led to an increase in total rice grain arsenic, as well as alteration in the percentage arsenic species in the rice grains

  10. Water consumption patterns in rural Bangladesh: are we underestimating total arsenic load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Habibur; Smith, Wayne; Shrestha, Rupendra; Dear, Keith

    2006-12-01

    Risk related to the ingestion of any water contaminants depends on many factors, including the daily per capita amount of consumed water relative to body weight. This study explored the water consumption pattern of a rural arsenic-affected population in Bangladesh. The study findings are likely to contribute to the risk estimation attributable to ingestion of arsenic and other drinking water contaminants. A total of 640 individuals participated in this cross-sectional study carried out in an arsenic-affected rural population in Bangladesh. In this study daily per capita water consumption for drinking purposes was found to be 73.04 ml/kg/d (range = 71.24-74.84 ml/kg/d), which is higher than for both the US and Taiwan populations. This difference in per capita drinking water consumption might contribute to much higher lifetime cancer mortality and other morbidity risks from arsenic among the Bangladesh population compared to either the US or Taiwan populations. Arsenic is also ingested through cooking water which, if considered, might increase the risk further. The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for a holistic water supply programme for Bangladesh, with special emphasis on the arsenic-affected population.

  11. Osteoresorptive arsenic intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa

    2013-04-01

    A 47-year-old woman consulted her dermatologist complaining whole body dermatitis, urticaria and irritating bullous eruptions on the plantar and side surfaces of her feet. She had had multiple hypopigmented spots on her skin since her early adulthood. The patient was treated with topical medication without significant improvement of symptoms. One year later she suffered a myocardial infarction, accompanied by refractory anaemia. At the age of 49, a breast cancer was diagnosed and shortly thereafter her last menstruation occurred. At age 50years, upon complaint of weight loss despite normal food intake, Hashimoto thyroiditis with latent hyperthyroidism, vitamin D insufficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, and poikilocytic anaemia with anisochromia, hypochromia, anisocytosis, elliptocytes, drepanocytes, dacryocytes, acanthocytes, echinocytes, schizocytes, stomatocytes and target cells were diagnosed. The osteodensitometric and laboratory examinations revealed osteoporosis with sustained elevation of urinary Dipyridinolin-crosslinks (u-Dpd), and urinary arsenic (u-As) of 500μg/l (equivalent to 0.5 parts per million-ppm, 2.5μg/mg creatinine/dl, u-As: Phosphate of 26μg/mmol; the estimated bone As:P and As/kg body weight were 500μg/g and 11.3mg/kg, respectively). Thalassemia, immunoglobinopathy and iron deficiency were excluded. Supplementation with oral vitamin D and calcium, and antiresorptive therapy with intravenous zolendronate normalised the u-Dpd, significantly decreased the urinary arsenic concentration, and cured the anemia and the urticaria. A diagnosis of osteoresorptive arsenic intoxication (ORAI) was established. PMID:23337042

  12. Microbial responses to environmental arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Espino, David; Tamames, Javier; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Cánovas, David

    2009-02-01

    Microorganisms have evolved dynamic mechanisms for facing the toxicity of arsenic in the environment. In this sense, arsenic speciation and mobility is also affected by the microbial metabolism that participates in the biogeochemical cycle of the element. The ars operon constitutes the most ubiquitous and important scheme of arsenic tolerance in bacteria. This system mediates the extrusion of arsenite out of the cells. There are also other microbial activities that alter the chemical characteristics of arsenic: some strains are able to oxidize arsenite or reduce arsenate as part of their respiratory processes. These type of microorganisms require membrane associated proteins that transfer electrons from or to arsenic (AoxAB and ArrAB, respectively). Other enzymatic transformations, such as methylation-demethylation reactions, exchange inorganic arsenic into organic forms contributing to its complex environmental turnover. This short review highlights recent studies in ecology, biochemistry and molecular biology of these processes in bacteria, and also provides some examples of genetic engineering for enhanced arsenic accumulation based on phytochelatins or metallothionein-like proteins.

  13. Removing arsenic from drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathaway, S.W.; Rubel, R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Pilot-plant tests of two treatment methods, activated alumina and ion exchange, for removing arsenic from drinking water were evaluated at the Fallon, Nevada, Naval Air Station (NAS). The arsenic concentration was 0.080-0.116 mg/liter, exceeding the 0.05 mg/liter maximum contaminant level. Although the valence of arsenic was not determined, in prechlorination process and test results suggest it was probably arsenic V. Chlorinated drinking water from the NAS was used for evaluating the efficacy of treatment under several different conditions. The activated alumina and ion exchange systems were operated through three different loading and regeneration cycles each. The major water quality factors affecting the removal of arsenic by these methods were pH of feedwater, arsenic concentration, sulfate concentration, and alkalinity. The major operational factors affecting removal were flow rate, down time, and media clogging. Capital and operating costs for arsenic removal are estimated for the activated alumina method at optimum pH (5.5) for each of the three small community systems drawing water from the same aquifer. In addition, several containers of the regeneration waste were used for a special study to characterize, dewater, and render the waste non-toxic for disposal in a sanitary landfill.

  14. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-02-06

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (parsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.40; parsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  15. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Niu, Qiang; Xu, Mengchuan; Rui, Dongsheng; Xu, Shangzhi; Feng, Gangling; Ding, Yusong; Li, Shugang; Jing, Mingxia

    2016-02-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (parsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.40; parsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  16. 47 CFR 73.9009 - Manufacture for exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., transfer 73.3578 Matter of right 73.3522 Procedures 73.3513 Ammeters, antenna and common point, Remote... Allotments, Table of (FM) 73.202 AM antenna systems 73.45 AM broadcast channels, Classes of 73.21, 73.23, 73.25, 73.26, 73.27, 73.29 AM definitions 73.14 AM directional antenna field measurements 73.61...

  17. Discovery of the Arsenic Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, A; Heim, M; Schuh, A; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine arsenic isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  18. Removal of iron and arsenic (III) from drinking water using iron oxide-coated sand and limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Rashmi R.; Umlong, Iohborlang M.; Das, Bodhaditya; Borah, Kusum; Thakur, Ashim J.; Raul, Prasanta K.; Banerjee, Saumen; Singh, Lokendra

    2014-06-01

    A method for removal of iron and arsenic (III) from contaminated water using iron oxide-coated sand and limestone has been developed for drinking water. For the intended use, sand was coated with ferric chloride and used as filtering media. Limestone was added onto the coated sand and the effect of limestone addition on removal efficiency of iron and arsenic was monitored. Both batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the efficiency of coated sand and limestone as filtering media. Maximum removal of iron (99.8 %) was obtained with coated sand at a dose of 5 g/100 ml and by adding 0.2 g/100 ml of limestone at pH 7.3. Arsenic (III) removal efficiency increased with the increased dose of coated sand and was best removed at pH 7.12. The maximum adsorption capacity for arsenic (III) obtained from Langmuir model was found to be 0.075 mg/g and the kinetics data followed pseudo-first order better than pseudo-second order. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and FT-IR study proved the removal of iron and arsenic. Column experiment showed removal of iron and arsenic (III) to <0.3 mg/l and 10 μg/l, respectively, from an initial concentration of 20 mg/l (iron) and 200 μg/l (arsenic).

  19. 21 CFR 73.2496 - Mica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica. 73.2496 Section 73.2496 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2496 Mica. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive mica shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1496(a)(1) and (b)....

  20. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 73.69 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have...

  1. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  2. Arsenic-resistant bacteria solubilized arsenic in the growth media and increased growth of arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Piyasa; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2011-10-01

    The role of arsenic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in arsenic solubilization from growth media and growth enhancement of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. was examined. Seven ARB (tolerant to 10 mM arsenate) were isolated from the P. vittata rhizosphere and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Pseudomonas sp., Comamonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. During 7-d hydroponic experiments, these bacteria effectively solubilized arsenic from the growth media spiked with insoluble FeAsO₄ and AlAsO₄ minerals (from organic C) by P. vittata may be responsible for As solubilization. Increase in P. vittata root biomass from 1.5-2.2 to 3.4-4.2 g/plant dw by ARB and by arsenic was associated with arsenic-induced plant P uptake. Arsenic resistant bacteria may have potential to enhance phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils by P. vittata. PMID:21840210

  3. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  4. Arsenic, Prokaryotes, and Closed Basin Soda Lakes of the Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    A number of saline, alkaline soda lakes in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert of the United States have unusually high concentrations of inorganic arsenic dissolved in their brine-waters. The arsenic originates from natural rather than anthropogenic sources, namely volcanic hydrothermal inputs. When this influx is coupled with evapo-concentration and the unique chemical behavior of arsenic oxyanions in alkaline waters, it results in extremely elevated As concentrations. For example, the salinity and arsenate levels of 3 comparable soda lakes (pH 9.8) are: Big Soda Lake, NV (27 g/L; 20 uM), Mono Lake, CA (90 g/L; 200 uM), and Searles Lake, CA (340 g/L; 3,900 uM). The arsenic oxidation state changes from As5+ (arsenate) to As3+ (arsenite) with vertical transition from their oxygenated surface water to their anoxic bottom water. Similar phenomena occur in their littoral sediments. These lakes also harbor active populations of prokaryotes that achieve these As redox changes either by using arsenate as an electron acceptor for respiration, or by employing arsenite as a chemoautotrophic electron donor. Diverse microorganisms have been identified in these systems that are involved in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic therein, and in situ studies made with radiotracer (73As) and other means showed that these redox reactions occur at rapid rates. However, other than their use for waterfowl hunting (Big Soda Lake), as a region of scenic beauty (Mono Lake), or as a resource for the chemical industry (Searles Lake), there is little concern about the arsenic in these systems because the waters are not potable and their chemistry is too extreme to allow for the presence of fish. Nonetheless, microbial processes that govern arsenic biogeochemistry can greatly influence the hydrologic mobility and toxicity of this element in freshwater systems, such as drinking water aquifers. Moreover, anthropogenic inputs of arsenic can also occur in closed basin lakes in this region, such as

  5. Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J; Adomako, Eureka E; Deacon, Claire M; Carey, Anne-Marie; Price, Adam H; Meharg, Andrew A

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic.

  6. Phytoextraction by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. from six arsenic-contaminated soils: Repeated harvests and arsenic redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Maria I.S.; Santos, Jorge A.G. [Department of Soil Chemistry, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, 44380000 (Brazil); Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, 2169 McCarty Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States)], E-mail: lqma@ifas.ufl.edu

    2008-07-15

    This greenhouse experiment evaluated arsenic removal by Pteris vittata and its effects on arsenic redistribution in soils. P. vittata grew in six arsenic-contaminated soils and its fronds were harvested and analyzed for arsenic in October, 2003, April, 2004, and October, 2004. The soil arsenic was separated into five fractions via sequential extraction. The ferns grew well and took up arsenic from all soils. Fern biomass ranged from 24.8 to 33.5 g plant{sup -1} after 4 months of growth but was reduced in the subsequent harvests. The frond arsenic concentrations ranged from 66 to 6,151 mg kg{sup -1}, 110 to 3,056 mg kg{sup -1}, and 162 to 2,139 mg kg{sup -1} from the first, second and third harvest, respectively. P. vittata reduced soil arsenic by 6.4-13% after three harvests. Arsenic in the soils was primarily associated with amorphous hydrous oxides (40-59%), which contributed the most to arsenic taken up by P. vittata (45-72%). It is possible to use P. vittata to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils by repeatedly harvesting its fronds. - Pteris vittata was effective in continuously removing arsenic from contaminated soils after three repeated harvests.

  7. RARE CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING

    OpenAIRE

    Mundle; Neelima; Sushrut; Yogesh; Shukan; Shalik; Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Today, arsenic is primarily used in the produc tion of glass and semiconductors., Arsenic may be found as a water or food contaminant, particularly in shellfish and other seafood, and often contaminates fruits and vegetables, particularly rice

  8. Inorganic arsenic poisoning in pastured feeder lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.A.; Crane, M.R.; Tomson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Clinical signs and necropsy findings in a group of feeder lambs were suggestive of inorganic arsenic poisoning. Source of exposure was established and toxic concentrations of arsenic were detected in the tissues. 13 references, 1 table.

  9. Airborne exposure and estimated bioavailability of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yager, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Madison, WI (United States); Clewell, H.J. III [ICF Consulting, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hicks, J. [Geomatrix, (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A pilot group of workers were used in a study to determine the relationship between exposure to arsenic present in fly ash particles and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during full shift work schedules and daily urine samples were collected to determine the concentration of arsenic and its metabolites. Airborne particle size distribution samples were collected on six-stage personal cascade impactors. Previous studies of airborne exposure to arsenic in copper smelters predict urinary values nearly three times higher than those seen in exposure to arsenic in fly ash. The results suggest that differences in biological uptake of airborne arsenic probably depend on characteristics such as solubility, particle size and distribution and matrix composition of the arsenic compounds.

  10. Arsenic in the aetiology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile; Grosche, Bernd

    2006-06-01

    Arsenic, one of the most significant hazards in the environment affecting millions of people around the world, is associated with several diseases including cancers of skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Groundwater contamination by arsenic is the main route of exposure. Inhalation of airborne arsenic or arsenic-contaminated dust is a common health problem in many ore mines. This review deals with the questions raised in the epidemiological studies such as the dose-response relationship, putative confounders and synergistic effects, and methods evaluating arsenic exposure. Furthermore, it describes the metabolic pathways of arsenic, and its biological modes of action. The role of arsenic in the development of cancer is elucidated in the context of combined epidemiological and biological studies. However, further analyses by means of molecular epidemiology are needed to improve the understanding of cancer aetiology induced by arsenic.

  11. RARE CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, arsenic is primarily used in the produc tion of glass and semiconductors., Arsenic may be found as a water or food contaminant, particularly in shellfish and other seafood, and often contaminates fruits and vegetables, particularly rice

  12. Evaluation of chronic arsenic poisoning due to consumption of contaminated ground water in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asutosh Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%, followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%], alopecia [8 (10.95%], neuropathy [5 (6.84%], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant.

  13. Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombach, G. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany)); Pierra, A. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany)); Klemm, W. (Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Inst. of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Ore Deposits, Freiberg (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble arsenic, the several oxidation states (As[sup 3+], As[sup 5+]) and the bonding types have been analyzed. (orig.)

  14. Arsenic - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Arsenic URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/arsenic.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Arsenic - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. 21 CFR 556.60 - Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic. 556.60 Section 556.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND... New Animal Drugs § 556.60 Arsenic. Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside the container. (vi) The... readily through the skin. Because inorganic arsenic is a poison, you should wash your hands thoroughly... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1910.1018 Section 1910.1018...

  17. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  18. Arsenic intoxication associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G V; Rossi, N F

    1995-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is an often unrecognized cause of renal insufficiency. We report a case of tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with an elevated urinary arsenic concentration. Removal of the putative source of arsenic resulted in symptomatic improvement, resolution of abnormal abdominal radiographs, and stabilization of renal function. This case emphasizes the importance of heavy metal screening in patients with multisystem complaints and tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  19. The correlation of arsenic levels in drinking water with the biological samples of skin disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Arain, Muhammad Balal [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com; Baig, Jameel Ahmed [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com; Jamali, Muhammad Khan [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com; Afridi, Hassan Imran [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com; Jalbani, Nusrat [Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, University Road Karachi-75280 (Pakistan)], E-mail: nusratjalbani_21@yahoo.com; Sarfraz, Raja Adil [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: rajaadilsarfraz@gmail.com; Shah, Abdul Qadir [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com; Niaz, Abdul [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)], E-mail: niazchemist2k6@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15

    Arsenic (As) poisoning has become a worldwide public health concern. The skin is quite sensitive to As and skin lesions are the most common and earliest nonmalignant effects associated to chronic As exposure. In 2005-2007, a survey was carried out on surface and groundwater arsenic contamination and relationships between As exposure via the drinking water and related adverse health effects (melanosis and keratosis) on villagers resides on the banks of Manchar lake, southern part of Sindh, Pakistan. We screened the population from arsenic-affected villages, 61 to 73% population were identified patients suffering from chronic arsenic toxicity. The effects of As toxicity via drinking water were estimated by biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of adults (males and females), have or have not skin problem (n = 187). The referent samples of both genders were also collected from the areas having low level of As (< 10 {mu}g/L) in drinking water (n = 121). Arsenic concentration in drinking water and biological samples were analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The range of arsenic concentrations in lake surface water was 35.2-158 {mu}g/L, which is 3-15 folds higher than World Health Organization [WHO, 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality third ed., WHO Geneva Switzerland.]. It was observed that As concentration in the scalp hair and blood samples were above the range of permissible values 0.034-0.319 {mu}g As/g for hair and < 0.5-4.2 {mu}g/L for blood. The linear regressions showed good correlations between arsenic concentrations in water versus hair and blood samples of exposed skin diseased subjects (R{sup 2} = 0.852 and 0.718) as compared to non-diseased subjects (R{sup 2} = 0.573 and 0.351), respectively.

  20. Association between Multi-level Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Skin Lesions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takesumi Yoshimura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most important toxicants in the environment. In Inner Mongolia of China, 300,000 residents are believed to be drinking water containing >50μg/liter. Skin lesions have been known as the most common consequences resulting from chronic exposure to arsenic. To clarify the prevalence of arsenic-induced skin lesions, it is important to assess the impact of this problem among the target population, and to make future planning. We evaluated the association between multi-levels inorganic arsenic exposure from drinking water and skin lesions in an arsenic-affected area in Inner Mongolia, China. One hundred nine and 32 subjects in high (>50μg/liter and low (150μg/liter were 33.3% (OR =15.50, 95% CI: 1.53-248.70, 46.7% (OR =16.10, 95% CI: 3.73-69.63 and 55.7% (OR= 25.70, 95% CI: 6.43-102.87, respectively. Duration of using well was not associated with increased risk of skin lesions in this population; (OR =1.68, 95% CI: 0.40-6.91 for 6-15 years, OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 0.58-9.14 for over 15 years compared with the duration of less than 5 years.

  1. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  2. Mineral resource of the month: arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic has a long and varied history: Although it was not isolated as an element until the 13th century, it was known to the ancient Chinese, Egyptians and Greeks in compound form in the minerals arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment. In the 1400s, “Scheele’s Green” was first used as an arsenic pigment in wallpaper, and leached arsenic from wallpaper may have contributed to Napoleon’s death in 1821. The 1940s play and later movie, Arsenic and Old Lace, dramatizes the metal’s more sinister role. Arsenic continues to be an important mineral commodity with many modern applications.

  3. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  4. Arsenic-cadmium interaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Llamas, E; Mejía, J J; Carrizales, L; Santoyo, M E; Vega-Vega, L; Yáñez, L

    1990-11-01

    Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and arsenic is highly probable in the urban area of San Luis Potosi, Mexico due to common localization of copper and zinc smelters. Therefore, in this work, rats were intraperitoneally exposed either to cadmium or arsenic alone, or simultaneously to both metals. The effects of these treatments on three different toxicological parameters were studied. Cadmium modified the LD50 of arsenic and conversely arsenic modified the LD50 for cadmium. At the histopathological level, arsenic appeared to protect against the cadmium effects, especially on testes. This protective effect seemed to be related to the glutathione levels found in this tissue: rats exposed to both arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values intermediate to those observed after exposure to either metal alone; arsenic had the highest value and cadmium the lowest. In liver, rats exposed to arsenic, cadmium or arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values below those in the saline group, with the lowest value corresponding to the arsenic and cadmium treatment. The results appear to support the proposed interaction between arsenic and cadmium and coexposure to both metals seems to alter certain effects produced by either metal alone. PMID:2219140

  5. Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Karagas, M.R. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine

    1999-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

  6. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (arsenic present in soils or rice paddies is released via volatilization. Additionally, past studies often have not monitored arsenic release in the aqueous phase. Two main pathways for microbial arsenic volatilization are known and include methylation of arsenic during methanogenesis and methylation by arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase. In this study, we compare the roles of these two pathways in arsenic volatilization and aqueous mobilization through mesocosm experiments with cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to

  7. p73: A Multifunctional Protein in Neurobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Killick, Richard; Niklison-Chirou, Maria; Tomasini, Richard; Bano, Daniele; Rufini, Alessandro; Grespi, Francesca; Velletri, Tania; Tucci, Paola; Sayan, Berna S.; Conforti, Franco; Gallagher, Ewen; Nicotera, Pierluigi; Mak, Tak W; Melino, Gerry; Knight, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    p73, a transcription factor of the p53 family, plays a key role in many biological processes including neuronal development. Indeed, mice deficient for both TAp73 and ΔNp73 isoforms display neuronal pathologies, including hydrocephalus and hippocampal dysgenesis, with defects in the CA1-CA3 pyramidal cell layers and the dentate gyrus. TAp73 expression increases in parallel with neuronal differentiation and its ectopic expression induces neurite outgrowth and expression of neuronal markers in ...

  8. 42 CFR 73.13 - Restricted experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted experiments. 73.13 Section 73.13 Public... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.13 Restricted experiments. (a) An individual or entity may not conduct a restricted experiment with a HHS select agent or toxin unless approved by and conducted in accordance...

  9. 21 CFR 26.73 - Joint Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint Committee. 26.73 Section 26.73 Food and... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS...Frameworkâ Provisions § 26.73 Joint Committee. (a) A Joint Committee consisting of representatives of...

  10. 47 CFR 73.4165 - Obscene language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obscene language. 73.4165 Section 73.4165 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4165 Obscene language. (a) See FCC v....

  11. 21 CFR 73.575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.575 Section 73.575 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide is synthetically...

  12. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide...

  15. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phaffia yeast. 73.355 Section 73.355 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  16. 31 CFR 10.73 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 10.73 Section 10.73 Money... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.73 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings or proceedings...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1496 - Mica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica. 73.1496 Section 73.1496 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1496 Mica. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive mica is a white powder obtained from the naturally occurring mineral, muscovite mica, consisting predominantly of...

  18. 7 CFR 319.73-4 - Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs. 319.73-4 Section 319.73-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-4 Costs. All costs of...

  19. 47 CFR 73.751 - Operating power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating power. 73.751 Section 73.751... International Broadcast Stations § 73.751 Operating power. No international broadcast station shall be authorized to install, or be licensed for operation of, transmitter equipment with: (a) A rated carrier...

  20. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  1. 10 CFR 73.75 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting. 73.75 Section 73.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Records and Reports § 73.75 Posting. (a... criminal penalties, and associated posting requirements, under section 229 of the Atomic Energy Act...

  2. 21 CFR 73.615 - Turmeric oleoresin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Turmeric oleoresin. 73.615 Section 73.615 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.615 Turmeric oleoresin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive turmeric oleoresin is the combination of flavor and color principles obtained from turmeric (Curcuma...

  3. 21 CFR 73.600 - Turmeric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Turmeric. 73.600 Section 73.600 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.600 Turmeric. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive turmeric is the ground rhizome of Curcuma longa L. The definition of turmeric in this paragraph is for...

  4. 42 CFR 73.15 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1030. (b) Refresher training... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training. 73.15 Section 73.15 Public Health PUBLIC... AND TOXINS § 73.15 Training. (a) An individual or entity required to register under this part...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  6. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization. 96.73 Section 96.73 Public...

  7. 15 CFR 930.73 - OCS plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OCS plan. 930.73 Section 930.73...) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.73 OCS plan. (a) The term “OCS plan” means any plan... described in detail in OCS plans approved by the Secretary of the Interior or designee prior to...

  8. 42 CFR 73.20 - Administrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative review. 73.20 Section 73.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.20 Administrative review. An individual or entity may appeal a...

  9. 42 CFR 73.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Overlap select agent and/or toxin means a biological agent or toxin listed in § 73.4 and 9 CFR part 121.4... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 73.1 Section 73.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT...

  10. 42 CFR 73.18 - Inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspections. 73.18 Section 73.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.18 Inspections. (a) Without prior notification, the HHS Secretary, shall...

  11. 47 CFR 73.1725 - Limited time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited time. 73.1725 Section 73.1725... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1725 Limited time. (a) Operation is applicable only to... stations on the channel. (b) No authorization will be granted for: (1) A new limited time station; (2)...

  12. 47 CFR 73.1715 - Share time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Share time. 73.1715 Section 73.1715... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1715 Share time. Operation is permitted by two or more... considered part of their licenses. (a) If the licenses of stations authorized to share time do not...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1710 - Unlimited time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unlimited time. 73.1710 Section 73.1710 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1710 Unlimited time. Operation is permitted 24 hours...

  14. 7 CFR 1735.73 - Loan design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Funds § 1735.73 Loan design. When loan funds are requested for an acquisition, details of the proposed acquisition shall be included in the Loan Design. See 7 CFR part 1737. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan design. 1735.73 Section 1735.73...

  15. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  18. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrot oil. 73.300 Section 73.300 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.300 Carrot oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive carrot oil is the liquid or the solid portion of the mixture or the mixture itself obtained by the...

  19. 21 CFR 73.160 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous gluconate. 73.160 Section 73.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.160 Ferrous gluconate. (a) Identity. The color...

  20. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  1. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained...

  2. 21 CFR 73.450 - Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin. 73.450 Section 73.450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.450 Riboflavin. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  3. 21 CFR 73.340 - Paprika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paprika. 73.340 Section 73.340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.340 Paprika. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paprika is...

  4. 21 CFR 73.345 - Paprika oleoresin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paprika oleoresin. 73.345 Section 73.345 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.345 Paprika oleoresin. (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  5. 21 CFR 73.500 - Saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Saffron. 73.500 Section 73.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.500 Saffron. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive saffron is the dried stigma of Crocus sativus L....

  6. 5 CFR 7.3 - Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citizenship. 7.3 Section 7.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES GENERAL PROVISIONS (RULE VII) § 7.3 Citizenship. (a) No person shall be admitted to competitive examination unless such person is a citizen...

  7. 10 CFR 55.73 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 55.73 Section 55.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Enforcement § 55.73 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful...

  8. 45 CFR 73.735-601 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 73.735-601 Section 73.735-601 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Political Activity § 73.735-601 Applicability. (a) All employees in the Executive Branch of the...

  9. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  10. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  11. 22 CFR 62.73 - Academic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Academic training. 62.73 Section 62.73 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.73 Academic training. (a) Students meeting the definition...

  12. 14 CFR 21.73 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility. 21.73 Section 21.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Type Certificates § 21.73 Eligibility. (a) Any manufacturer...

  13. 47 CFR 73.6002 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements. 73.6002 Section 73.6002 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6002 Licensing requirements. (a) A Class A...

  14. 47 CFR 73.731 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements. 73.731 Section 73.731 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.731 Licensing requirements. (a) A license for an...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1943 - Political file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political file. 73.1943 Section 73.1943... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1943 Political file. (a) Every licensee shall keep and permit public inspection of a complete and orderly record (political file) of all requests for...

  16. 47 CFR 73.4250 - Subliminal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subliminal perception. 73.4250 Section 73.4250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4250 Subliminal perception. (a) See Public Notice,...

  17. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational stations operating with more than...

  18. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate with directional antennas....

  19. 47 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 7.3 Section 7.3 Telecommunication... BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Definitions § 7.3 Definitions. (a) The term accessible shall mean that... might induce seizures in people with photosensitive epilepsy. (vii) Availability of audio cutoff....

  20. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc... indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and then...

  2. 40 CFR 73.36 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 73.36 Section 73.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.36 Banking. (a) Compliance accounts. Any allowance in...

  3. 7 CFR 15.73 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 15.73 Section 15.73 Agriculture Office of the... Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Form, Execution, Filing and Service of Documents § 15.73 Service. Service shall be made by the Hearing Clerk by personal delivery of one copy to each person to...

  4. 40 CFR 405.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 405.73 Section 405.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.73...

  5. 47 CFR 73.312 - Topographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Broadcast Stations § 73.312 Topographic data. (a) In the preparation of the profile graphs previously... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Topographic data. 73.312 Section 73.312... elevation or contour intervals shall be taken from United States Geological Survey Topographic...

  6. 42 CFR 73.11 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security. 73.11 Section 73.11 Public Health PUBLIC... AND TOXINS § 73.11 Security. (a) An individual or entity required to register under this part must develop and implement a written security plan. The security plan must be sufficient to safeguard...

  7. 47 CFR 73.333 - Engineering charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineering charts. 73.333 Section 73.333 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.333 Engineering charts. This section consists of the following Figures 1, 1a, 2,...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  9. 7 CFR 930.73 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 930.73 Section 930.73... Handling Reports and Records § 930.73 Confidential information. All reports and records furnished or submitted by handlers to the Board and its authorized agents which include data or information...

  10. 47 CFR 73.1941 - Equal opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal opportunities. 73.1941 Section 73.1941... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1941 Equal opportunities. (a) General requirements...-spot coverage of bona fide news events (including, but not limited to political conventions...

  11. 10 CFR 1040.73 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) (appendix A to 41 CFR subpart 101-19.6) shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of this section with... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New construction. 1040.73 Section 1040.73 Energy... § 1040.73 New construction. (a) Design and construction. Each facility or part of a facility...

  12. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A

  13. Speciation analysis of arsenic in groundwater from Inner Mongolia with an emphasis on acid-leachable particulate arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Zhilong [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Lu Xiufen [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Watt, Corinna [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Wen Bei [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); He Bin [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada); Mumford, Judy [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Environmental Protection Agency, Human Studies Division, Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ning Zhixiong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Xia Yajuan [Inner Mongolia Center for Endemic Disease Control and Research, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia (China); Le, X. Chris [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2G3 (Canada)]. E-mail: xc.le@ualberta.ca

    2006-01-05

    Arsenic in drinking water affects millions of people around the world. While soluble arsenic is commonly measured, the amount of particulate arsenic in drinking water has often been overlooked. We report here determination of the acid-leachable particulate arsenic and soluble arsenicals in well water from an arsenic-poisoning endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China. Water samples (583) were collected from 120 wells in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia, where well water was the primary drinking water source. Two methods were demonstrated for the determination of soluble arsenic species (primarily inorganic arsenate and arsenite) and total particulate arsenic. The first method used solid phase extraction cartridges and membrane filters to separate arsenic species on-site, followed by analysis of the individual arsenic species eluted from the cartridges and filters. The other method uses liquid chromatography separation with hydride generation atomic fluorescence detection to determine soluble arsenic species. Analysis of acidified water samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry provided the total arsenic concentration. Arsenic concentrations in water samples from the 120 wells ranged from <1 to {approx}1000 {mu}g L{sup -1}. On average, particulate arsenic accounted for 39 {+-} 38% (median 36%) of the total arsenic. In some wells, particulate arsenic was six times higher than the soluble arsenic concentration. Particulate arsenic can be effectively removed using membrane filtration. The information on particulate and soluble arsenic in water is useful for optimizing treatment options and for understanding the geochemical behavior of arsenic in groundwater.

  14. Effects of plant arsenic uptake and heavy metals on arsenic distribution in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayiga, Abioye O. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States); Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States) and Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)]. E-mail: lqma@ifas.ufl.edu; Zhou Qixing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2007-06-15

    This study examined the effects of heavy metals and plant arsenic uptake on soil arsenic distribution. Chemical fractionation of an arsenic-contaminated soil spiked with 50 or 200 mg kg{sup -1} Ni, Zn, Cd or Pb was performed before and after growing the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L for 8 weeks using NH{sub 4}Cl (water-soluble plus exchangeable, WE-As), NH{sub 4}F (Al-As), NaOH (Fe-As), and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (Ca-As). Arsenic in the soil was present primarily as the recalcitrant forms with Ca-As being the dominant fraction (45%). Arsenic taken up by P. vittata was from all fractions though Ca-As contributed the most (51-71% reduction). After 8 weeks of plant growth, the Al-As and Fe-As fractions were significantly (p < 0.01) greater in the metal-spiked soils than the control, with changes in the WE-As fraction being significantly (p = 0.007) correlated with plant arsenic removal. The plant's ability to solubilize soil arsenic from recalcitrant fractions may have enhanced its ability to hyperaccumulate arsenic. - Arsenic taken up by P. vittata was from all fractions with most from the Ca-fraction.

  15. Urinary Arsenic Metabolites of Subjects Exposed to Elevated Arsenic Present in Coal in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to arsenic (As poisoning caused by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption, coal arsenic poisoning (CAP induced by elevated arsenic exposure from coal combustion has rarely been reported. In this study, the concentrations and distributions of urinary arsenic metabolites in 57 volunteers (36 subjects with skin lesions and 21 subjects without skin lesions, who had been exposed to elevated levels of arsenic present in coal in Changshapu village in the south of Shaanxi Province (China, were reported. The urinary arsenic species, including inorganic arsenic (iAs [arsenite (iAsIII and arsenate (iAsV], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The relative distributions of arsenic species, the primary methylation index (PMI = MMAV/iAs and the secondary methylation index (SMI = DMAV/MMAV were calculated to assess the metabolism of arsenic. Subjects with skin lesions had a higher concentration of urinary arsenic and a lower arsenic methylation capability than subjects without skin lesions. Women had a significantly higher methylation capability of arsenic than men, as defined by a higher percent DMAV and SMI in urine among women, which was the one possible interpretation of women with a higher concentration of urinary arsenic but lower susceptibility to skin lesions. The findings suggested that not only the dose of arsenic exposure but also the arsenic methylation capability have an impact on the individual susceptibility to skin lesions induced by coal arsenic exposure.

  16. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, B.S.; Aposhian, H.V.; Zhou, Y.S.; Chen, M.L.; Zhang, A.H.; Waalkes, M.P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China was investigated. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such over exposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  17. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization but rather appears to increase arsenic mobilization in the aqueous phase, raising concerns with this approach.

  18. Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.

  19. Poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroslav, S.

    1962-01-01

    Massive poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. Arsenic emissions from an ore processing plant in Tesin were responsible for massive bee deaths after World War I. Massive death of bees was observed in 1938 in the Krompach region around a copper ore smelting plant which emitted arsenic. Other accidents were reported in 1954 and 1957 in areas around industrial plants and power plants using arsenopyrite-containing low-grade coal or lignite. Arsenic was emitted bound in fly-ash in the form of arsenic trioxide or, in the case of coals containing alkaline chlorides, in the form of arsenic trichloride. The arsenic contamination extended to areas within a radius of 3 to 7 km. Settled fly-ash contained 0.0004 to 0.75 percent arsenic, which was soluble in a citrate-hydrochloric acid solution of pH 3.9, which corresponds to the gastric acid of bees. The arsenic uptake by the bees from pollen was calculated to amount to 1 microgram daily, against a toxic dose of 0.37 microgram. The toxic effect of arsenic on bees can be abated by adding colloidal iron hydroxide to the sugar solution which they are fed.

  20. Poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, J.

    1962-01-01

    Massive poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. Arsenic emissions from an ore processing plant in Tesin were responsible for massive bee deaths after World War I. Massive death of bees was observed in 1938 in the Krompach region around a copper ore smelting plant which emitted arsenic. Other accidents were reported in 1954 and 1957 in areas around industrial plants and power plants using arsenopyrite-containing low-grade coal or lignite. Arsenic was emitted bound in fly-ash in the form of arsenic trioxide or, in the case of coals containing alkaline chlorides, in the form of arsenic trichloride. The arsenic contamination extended to areas within a radius of 3-7 km. Settled fly-ash contained 0.0004-0.75% arsenic, which was soluble in a citrate-hydrochloric acid solution of pH 3.9, which corresponds to the gastric acid of bees. The arsenic uptake by the bees from pollen was calculated to amount to 1 microgram daily, against a toxic dose of 0.37 microgram. The toxic effect of arsenic on bees can be abated by adding colloidal iron hydroxide to the sugar solution which they are fed. 5 references.

  1. Epidemiologic evidence of diabetogenic effect of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chong, Choon-Khim; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2002-07-01

    It is well documented that arsenic can lead to skin lesions, atherosclerotic diseases and cancers. The association between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus is a relatively new finding. Up to now, there are six epidemiologic reports linking diabetes mellitus with arsenic exposure from environmental and occupational sources. Two reports in Taiwan carried out in the blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages, one cross-sectional and one prospective follow-up of the same cohort, indicate that arsenic exposure from drinking artesian well water is associated with prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in a dose-responsive pattern. The observation of the relation between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus is further supported by studies carried out in Sweden and Bangladesh. In Sweden, case-control analyses of death records of copper smelters and glass workers revealed a trend of increasing diabetes mellitus with increasing arsenic exposure from inhalation. In Bangladesh, prevalence of diabetes mellitus among arsenic-exposed subjects with keratosis was about five times higher than unexposed subjects. Increasing trends of diabetes mellitus with indices of arsenic exposure in drinking water seems to be independent of the presence of skin lesions associated with arsenic exposure. Although these studies consistently show an association between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus, the weak study designs of cross-sectional or case-control, the use of glucosuria or diabetes death as diagnostic criteria and the lack of adjustment for possible confounders in some studies, are major limitations that may reduce the strength of the evidence. PMID:12076511

  2. Sequestration of arsenic in ombrotrophic peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, James; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Taylor, Kevin; Polya, David; Evans, Martin; Allott, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Peatlands can be important stores of arsenic but we are lacking spectroscopic evidence of the sequestration pathways of this toxic metalloid in peatland environments. This study reports on the solid-phase speciation of anthropogenically-derived arsenic in atmospherically contaminated peat from the Peak District National Park (UK). Surface and sub-surface peat samples were analysed by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy on B18 beamline at Diamond Light Source (UK). The results suggest that there are contrasting arsenic sequestration mechanisms in the peat. The bulk arsenic speciation results, in combination with strong arsenic-iron correlations at the surface, suggest that iron (hydr)oxides are key phases for the immobilisation of arsenic at the peat surface. In contrast, the deeper peat samples are dominated by arsenic sulphides (arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment). Given that these peats receive inputs solely from the atmosphere, the presence of these sulphide phases suggests an in-situ authigenic formation. Redox oscillations in the peat due to a fluctuating water table and an abundant store of legacy sulphur from historic acid rain inputs may favour the precipitation of arsenic sequestering sulphides in sub-surface horizons. Oxidation-induced loss of these arsenic sequestering sulphur species by water table drawdown has important implications for the mobility of arsenic and the quality of waters draining peatlands.

  3. Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, J.G. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the presence of natural organic matter. The pH range for arsenic(V) removal with alum was more restricted than with ferric chloride. For source waters spiked with 20 {micro}g/L arsenic(V), final dissolved arsenic(V) concentrations in the product water of less than 2 {micro}g/L were achieved with both coagulants at neutral pH. Removal of arsenic(III) from source waters by ferric chloride was both less efficient and more strongly influenced by source water composition than removal of arsenic(V). The presence of sulfate (at pH 4 and 5) and natural organic matter (at pH 4 through 9) adversely affected the efficiency of arsenic(III) removal by ferric chloride. Arsenic(III) could not be removed from source waters by coagulation with alum.

  4. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  5. The microbial genomics of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Jérémy; Bertin, Philippe N

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic, which is a major contaminant of many aquatic ecosystems worldwide, is responsible for serious public health issues. However, life has evolved various strategies for coping with this toxic element. In particular, prokaryotic organisms have developed processes enabling them to resist and metabolize this chemical. Studies based on genome sequencing and transcriptome, proteome and metabolome profiling have greatly improved our knowledge of prokaryotes' metabolic potential and functioning in contaminated environments. The increasing number of genomes available and the development of descriptive and comparative approaches have made it possible not only to identify several genetic determinants of the arsenic metabolism, but also to elucidate their phylogenetic distribution and their modes of regulation. In addition, studies using functional genomic tools have established the pleiotropic character of prokaryotes' responses to arsenic, which can be either common to several species or species-specific. These approaches also provide promising means of deciphering the functioning of microbial communities including uncultured organisms, the genetic transfers involved and the possible occurrence of metabolic interactions as well as the evolution of arsenic resistance and metabolism.

  6. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  7. Bimetallic nanoparticles for arsenic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Nafiseh; Mohapatra, Mamata; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-06-01

    Effective and sensitive monitoring of heavy metal ions, particularly arsenic, in drinking water is very important to risk management of public health. Arsenic is one of the most serious natural pollutants in soil and water in more than 70 countries in the world. The need for very sensitive sensors to detect ultralow amounts of arsenic has attracted great research interest. Here, bimetallic FePt, FeAu, FePd, and AuPt nanoparticles (NPs) are electrochemically deposited on the Si(100) substrate, and their electrochemical properties are studied for As(III) detection. We show that trace amounts of As(III) in neutral pH could be determined by using anodic stripping voltammetry. The synergistic effect of alloying with Fe leads to better performance for Fe-noble metal NPs (Au, Pt, and Pd) than pristine noble metal NPs (without Fe alloying). Limit of detection and linear range are obtained for FePt, FeAu, and FePd NPs. The best performance is found for FePt NPs with a limit of detection of 0.8 ppb and a sensitivity of 0.42 μA ppb(-1). The selectivity of the sensor has also been tested in the presence of a large amount of Cu(II), as the most detrimental interferer ion for As detection. The bimetallic NPs therefore promise to be an effective, high-performance electrochemical sensor for the detection of ultratrace quantities of arsenic. PMID:25938763

  8. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of

  9. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiang

    Full Text Available Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86. Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation, Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation, Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation. Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  10. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86). Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation), Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation), Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation). Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  11. 21 CFR 73.2180 - Guaiazulene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). Saponification No., 60 to 70. Hydroxyl No., 63 to 78. Acid No., 2. Specific gravity, 1.05 to 1.07. (b... practice. Melting point, 30.5 °C to 31.5 °C. Lead (as Pb), not more than 20 parts per million. Arsenic...

  12. Overexpressed TP73 induces apoptosis in medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlaky Laszlo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Children who relapse usually die of their disease, which reflects resistance to radiation and/or chemotherapy. Improvements in outcome require a better understanding of the molecular basis of medulloblastoma growth and treatment response. TP73 is a member of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene family that has been found to be overexpressed in a variety of tumors and mediates apoptotic responses to genotoxic stress. In this study, we assessed expression of TP73 RNA species in patient tumor specimens and in medulloblastoma cell lines, and manipulated expression of full-length TAp73 and amino-terminal truncated ΔNp73 to assess their effects on growth. Methods We analyzed medulloblastoma samples from thirty-four pediatric patients and the established medulloblastoma cell lines, Daoy and D283MED, for expression of TP73 RNA including the full-length transcript and the 5'-terminal variants that encode the ΔNp73 isoform, as well as TP53 RNA using quantitative real time-RTPCR. Protein expression of TAp73 and ΔNp73 was quantitated with immunoblotting methods. Clinical outcome was analyzed based on TP73 RNA and p53 protein expression. To determine effects of overexpression or knock-down of TAp73 and ΔNp73 on cell cycle and apoptosis, we analyzed transiently transfected medulloblastoma cell lines with flow cytometric and TUNEL methods. Results Patient medulloblastoma samples and cell lines expressed full-length and 5'-terminal variant TP73 RNA species in 100-fold excess compared to non-neoplastic brain controls. Western immunoblot analysis confirmed their elevated levels of TAp73 and amino-terminal truncated ΔNp73 proteins. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed trends toward favorable overall and progression-free survival of patients whose tumors display TAp73 RNA overexpression. Overexpression of TAp73 or ΔNp73 induced apoptosis under basal growth conditions in vitro and

  13. Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Huq, S.M. Imamul; Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibilit...

  14. Arsenic adsorption of lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wuthiphun, L.; Towatana, P.; Arrykul, S.; V. Chongsuvivatwong

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic adsorption efficiency of soil covering materials (lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash) on arsenic-contaminated soil obtained from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province tosolve arsenic air pollution problem was investigated using batch experiments. The four types of the aforementioned soil covering materials were examined to determine their arsenic adsorption efficiency, equilibriumtime as well as adsorption isotherms.The results revealed that among soil cove...

  15. Blood pressure hyperreactivity: an early cardiovascular risk in normotensive men exposed to low-to-moderate inorganic arsenic in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunrath, Julie; Gurzau, Eugen; Gurzau, Anca; Goessler, Walter; Gelmann, Elyssa R.; Thach, Thu-Trang; Mccarty, Kathleen M.; Yeckel, Catherine W.

    2012-01-01

    Essential hypertension is associated with chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic in drinking water. However, early signs of risk for developing hypertension remain unclear in people exposed to chronic low-to-moderate inorganic arsenic. Objective We evaluated cardiovascular stress reactivity and recovery in healthy, normotensive, middle-aged men living in an arsenic-endemic region of Romania. Methods Unexposed (n=16) and exposed (n=19) participants were sampled from communities based on WHO limits for inorganic arsenic in drinking water (20 mmHg) and DBP (>15 mmHg). Drinking water inorganic arsenic averaged 40.2±30.4 and 1.0±0.2 μg/l for the exposed and unexposed groups, respectively (P<0.001). Compared to the unexposed group, the exposed group expressed a greater probability of blood pressure hyperreactivity to both anticipatory stress (47.4 vs. 12.5%; P=0.035) and cold stress (73.7 vs. 37.5%; P=0.044). Moreover, the exposed group exhibited attenuated blood pressure recovery from stress and a greater probability of persistent hypertensive responses (47.4 vs. 12.5%; P=0.035). Conclusions Inorganic arsenic exposure increased stress-induced blood pressure hyperreactivity and poor blood pressure recovery, including persistent hypertensive responses in otherwise healthy, clinically normotensive men. Drinking water containing even low-to-moderate inorganic arsenic may act as a sympathetic nervous system trigger for hypertension risk. PMID:23203141

  16. Outbreak of arsenic and toxaphene poisoning in Kenyan cattle. [Arsenic was detected in cattle dips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitai, C.K.; Kamau, J.A.; Gacuhi, D.M.; Njoroge, S.

    1975-02-15

    In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

  17. Method of arsenic removal from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA)

    2010-10-26

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  18. Arsenic--state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, P J

    1981-01-01

    Approximately 1.5 million workers in the United States are exposed to arsenic. Occupational exposure is primarily by inhalation. NIOSH recommends that time-integrated exposure to arsenic in air not exceed 2 micrograms/m3. Recent exposure is accurately measured by urine assay; urine arsenic concentrations above 50 micrograms/liter indicate increased absorption. Hair assay is a semiquantitative index of past exposure. Toxicity is associated primarily with the trivalent (3+) form of arsenic. Acute poisoning is caused most commonly by contaminated food or drink; it is rarely occupational. Chronic intoxication is characterized by dermatitis, hyperpigmentation, keratoses, peripheral neuropathy (primarily sensory), irritation of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and occasionally by hepatic toxicity and peripheral vasculopathy (blackfoot disease). Arsenic is not carcinogenic in animal species, but is mutagenic in Syrian hamster cells. In man, arsenic is known definitely to cause cancer of skin, lung, and liver (angiosarcoma) and possibly to cause lymphoma.

  19. Arsenic stress after the Proterozoic glaciations

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Chi Fru; Emma Arvestål; Nolwenn Callac; Abderrazak El Albani; Stephanos Kilias; Ariadne Argyraki; Martin Jakobsson

    2015-01-01

    Protection against arsenic damage in organisms positioned deep in the tree of life points to early evolutionary sensitization. Here, marine sedimentary records reveal a Proterozoic arsenic concentration patterned to glacial-interglacial ages. The low glacial and high interglacial sedimentary arsenic concentrations, suggest deteriorating habitable marine conditions may have coincided with atmospheric oxygen decline after ~2.1 billion years ago. A similar intensification of near continental mar...

  20. Presence of Arsenic in Commercial Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Roberge

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study’s goal was to assess the arsenic concentration of various beverages and broths purchased from a local chain supermarket. A source of chronic arsenic exposure occurs via food and beverage consumption. Groundwater levels of total arsenic are regulated (-1 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA but few studies have examined arsenic concentrations in common beverages. Approach: In the initial analysis of 19 items, total arsenic concentration was assessed from a variety of fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas and broths. Items found to contain levels of total arsenic ≥5.0 µg L-1 were further evaluated. Additional analysis included purchasing multiple brands of items ≥5.0 µg L-1and analyzing them for total arsenic and chemical species of arsenic. Results: Among the beverages in the initial analysis, apple juice (10.79 µg L-1 and grape juice (49.87 µg L-1 contained the highest levels of total arsenic. Upon examination of items with As concentrations above 5.0 µg L-1, varying concentrations of total arsenic were found in apple cider (range: 5.41-15.27 µg L-1, apple juice (range: 10.67-22.35 µg L-1, baby fruit juice (range: 13.91-16.51 µg L-1 and grape juice (range: 17.69-47.59 µg L-1. Conclusion: Many commercially available juices contained concentrations of arsenic that were higher than the standard for total arsenic allowed in groundwater as set forth by the EPA. The concentration of As in these juices varied between and within brands. In general, those consuming apple and grape juices are the young and elderly and it is these populations that may be more vulnerable to over exposure of heavy metals.

  1. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic a...

  2. 21 CFR 73.35 - Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Astaxanthin. 73.35 Section 73.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.35 Astaxanthin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive astaxanthin is 3, 3′-dihydroxy-β, β-carotene-4,...

  3. Role of p73 Dinucleotide Polymorphism in Prostate Cancer and p73 Protein Isoform Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Michael Carastro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Molecular markers for prostate cancer (PCa risks are currently lacking. Here we address the potential association of a dinucleotide polymorphism (DNP in exon 2 of the p73 gene with PCa risk/progression and discern any disruption of p73 protein isoforms levels in cells harboring a p73 DNP allele. Methods. We investigated the association between p73 DNP genotype and PCa risk/aggressiveness and survival by fitting logistic regression models in 1,292 incident cases and 682 controls. Results. Although we detected no association between p73 DNP and PCa risk, a significant inverse relationship between p73 DNP and PCa aggressiveness (AT/AT + GC/AT versus GC/GC, OR = 0.55, 95%Cl = 0.31–0.99 was detected. Also, p73 DNP is marginally associated with overall death (dominant model, HR = 0.76, 95%Cl = 0.57–1.00, P=0.053 as well as PCa specific death (HR = 0.69, 95%Cl = 0.45–1.06, P=0.09. Western blot analyses for p73 protein isoforms indicate that cells heterozygous for the p73 DNP have lower levels of ∆Np73 relative to TAp73 (P<0.001. Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with an association between p73 DNP and low risk for PCa aggressiveness by increasing the expressed TAp73/∆Np73 protein isoform ratio.

  4. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P.; Fourcade, J.; Ravoire, J.; Bezenech, C.

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  5. Arsenic-bound excitons in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjon, J.; Jomard, F.; Morata, S.

    2014-01-01

    A set of new excitonic recombinations is observed in arsenic-implanted diamond. It is composed of two groups of emissions at 5.355/5.361 eV and at 5.215/5.220/5.227 eV. They are respectively attributed to the no-phonon and transverse-optical phonon-assisted recombinations of excitons bound to neutral arsenic donors. From the Haynes rule, an ionization energy of 0.41 eV is deduced for arsenic in diamond, which shows that arsenic is a shallower donor than phosphorus (0.6 eV), in agreement with theory.

  6. Industrial contributions of arsenic to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K W

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic is present in all copper, lead, and zinc sulfide ores and is carried along with those metals in the mining, milling and concentrating process. Separation, final concentration and refining of by-product arsenic as the trioxide is achieved at smelters. Arsenic is the essential consistent element of many compounds important and widely used in agriculture and wood preservation. Lesser amounts are used in metal alloys, glass-making, and feed additives. There is no significant recycling. Current levels of arsenic emissions to the atmosphere from smelters and power plants and ambient air concentrations are given as data of greatest environmental interest. PMID:908308

  7. Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

  8. Acute arsenic poisoning in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Melisa W; Boyer, Edward W; Kleinman, Monica E; Rodig, Nancy M; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2005-07-01

    We report a case series of acute arsenic poisoning of 2 siblings, a 4-month-old male infant and his 2-year-old sister. Each child ingested solubilized inorganic arsenic from an outdated pesticide that was misidentified as spring water. The 4-month-old child ingested a dose of arsenic that was lethal despite extraordinary attempts at arsenic removal, including chelation therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, exchange transfusion, and hemodialysis. The 2-year-old fared well with conventional therapy. PMID:15995066

  9. XAS Studies of Arsenic in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is present in low concentrations in much of the Earth's crust and changes in its speciation are vital to understanding its transport and toxicity in the environment. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the coordination sites of arsenic in a wide variety of samples, including soil and earthworm tissues from arsenic-contaminated land, and human hair and nail samples from people exposed to arsenic in Cambodia. Our results confirm the effectiveness of using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to determine speciation changes in environmental samples

  10. Binding of Industrial Deposits of Heavy Metals and Arsenic in the Soil by 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzesiak Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the research studies concerning binding of heavy metals and arsenic (HM+As, occurring in soils affected by emissions from Głogów Copper Smelter and Refinery, by silane nanomaterial have been described. The content of heavy metals and arsenic was determined by AAS and the effectiveness of heavy metals and arsenic binding by 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane was examined. The total leaching level of impurities in those fractions was 73.26% Cu, 74.7% – Pb, 79.5% Zn, 65.81% – Cd and 55.55% As. The studies demonstrated that the total binding of heavy metals and arsenic with nanomaterial in all fractions was about as follows: 20.5% Cu, 9.5% Pb, 7.1% Zn, 25.3% Cd and 10.89% As. The results presented how the safety of food can be cultivated around industrial area, as the currently used soil stabilization technique of HM by soil pH does not guarantee their stable blocking in a sorptive complex.

  11. [Tracing for arsenic exposure--a differentiation of arsenic compounds is essential for the health assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Ochsmann, Elke; Drexler, Hans; Göen, Thomas; Klotz, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous and harmful to health in occupation and environment. Arsenic exposure is measured through analysis of arsenic compounds in urine. The identification of several arsenic species is necessary to understand the hazardous potential of the arsenic compounds which differ highly in their toxicity. To estimate the extent of an occupational exposure to arsenic, arsenic species were evaluated for the first time by the working group "Setting of Threshold Limit Values in Biological Material" of the DFG Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area and Biologische Arbeitsstoffreferenzwerte (BAR) of 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (III), 0.5 μg / L urine for arsenic (V), 2 μg / L urine for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and 10 μg / L urine for dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were set. If the reference value for total arsenic is exceeded, a further differentiation of arsenic species now enables to estimate the individual health risks taking into account special influences such as seafood consumption.

  12. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the inorganic arsenic methylation phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may be mediated by these methylated metabolites. If i As methylation is an activation process, then the phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation may determine risk associated with exposure to this metalloid. We examined inorganic arsenic methylation phenotypes and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotypes in four species: three that methylate inorganic arsenic (human (Homo sapiens), rat (Rattus norwegicus), and mouse (Mus musculus)) and one that does not methylate inorganic arsenic (chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes). The predicted protein products from arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase are similar in size for rat (369 amino acid residues), mouse (376 residues), and human (375 residues). By comparison, a 275-nucleotide deletion beginning at nucleotide 612 in the chimpanzee gene sequence causes a frameshift that leads to a nonsense mutation for a premature stop codon after amino acid 205. The null phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation in the chimpanzee is likely due to the deletion in the gene for arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase that yields an inactive truncated protein. This lineage-specific loss of function caused by the deletion event must have occurred in the Pan lineage after Homo-Pan divergence about 5 million years ago

  13. Arsenic species excretion after dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) treatment of an acute arsenic trioxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich-Ramm, R. [Ordinariat fuer Arbeitsmedizin der Universitaet Hamburg und Zentralinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Hamburg (Germany); Schaller, K.H.; Angerer, J. [Institut und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Schillerstr. 25, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Horn, J. [Medizinische Klinik II, Toxikologische-internistische Intensivstation, Klinikum Nuernberg, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    We studied the urinary excretion of the different arsenic species in urine samples from a young man who tried to commit suicide by ingesting about 0.6 g arsenic trioxide. He received immediate therapy with dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) after his delivery into the hospital. We assessed urinary arsenite (inorganic trivalent arsenic), arsenate (inorganic pentavalent arsenic), pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and pentavalent monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine with ion-exchange chromatography and on-line hydride-technique atomic absorption spectrometry. The predominant amount of the excreted arsenic was unchanged trivalent inorganic arsenic (37.4%), followed by pentavalent inorganic arsenic (2.6%), MMA (2.1%), DMA (0.2%) and one unidentified arsenic species (0.7%, if calculated as DMA). In the first urine voiding in the clinic, the total arsenic concentration was 215 mg/l, which fell 1000-fold after 8 days of DMPS therapy. A most striking finding was the almost complete inhibition of the second methylation step in arsenic metabolism. As mechanisms for the reduced methylation efficiency, the saturation of the enzymatic process of arsenic methylation, the high dosage of antidote DMPS, which might inhibit the activity of the methyl transferases, and analytical reasons are discussed. The high dosage of DMPS is the most likely explanation. The patient left the hospital after a 12-day treatment with antidote. (orig.)

  14. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  15. Arsenic mobilization and immobilization in paddy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, A.; Hohmann, C.; Zhu, Y. G.; Morin, G.

    2010-05-01

    Arsenic is oftentimes of geogenic origin and in many cases bound to iron(III) minerals. Iron(III)-reducing bacteria can harvest energy by coupling the oxidation of organic or inorganic electron donors to the reduction of Fe(III). This process leads either to dissolution of Fe(III)-containing minerals and thus to a release of the arsenic into the environment or to secondary Fe-mineral formation and immobilisation of arsenic. Additionally, aerobic and anaerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria have the potential to co-precipitate or sorb arsenic during iron(II) oxidation at neutral pH that is usually followed by iron(III) mineral precipitation. We are currently investigating arsenic immobilization by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria and arsenic co-precipitation and immobilization by anaerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria in batch, microcosm and rice pot experiments. Co-precipitation batch experiments with pure cultures of nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are used to quantify the amount of arsenic that can be immobilized during microbial iron mineral precipitation, to identify the minerals formed and to analyze the arsenic binding environment in the precipitates. Microcosm and rice pot experiments are set-up with arsenic-contaminated rice paddy soil. The microorganisms (either the native microbial population or the soil amended with the nitrate-dependent iron(II)-oxidizing Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1) are stimulated either with iron(II), nitrate, or oxygen. Dissolved and solid-phase arsenic and iron are quantified. Iron and arsenic speciation and redox state in batch and microcosm experiments are determined by LC-ICP-MS and synchrotron-based methods (EXAFS, XANES).

  16. Arsenic Adsorption Onto Iron Oxides Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aredes, S.; Klein, B.; Pawlik, M.

    2004-12-01

    The predominant form of arsenic in water is as an inorganic ion. Under different redox conditions arsenic in water is stable in the +5 and +3 oxidation states. Arsenic oxidation state governs its toxicity, chemical form and solubility in natural and disturbed environments. As (III) is found in anoxic environments such as ground water , it is toxic and the common species is the neutral form, H3AsO3. As (V) is found in aerobic conditions such as surface water, it is less toxic and the common species in water are: H2AsO4 - and HAsO4 {- 2}. The water pH determines the predominant arsenate or arsenite species, however, both forms of arsenic can be detected in natural water systems. Iron oxides minerals often form in natural waters and sediments at oxic-anoxic boundaries. Over time they undergo transformation to crystalline forms, such as goethite or hematite. Both As(V) and As(III) sorbs strongly to iron oxides, however the sorption behavior of arsenic is dependent on its oxidation state and the mineralogy of the iron oxides. Competition between arsenic and others ions, such fluoride, sulphate and phosphate also play a role. On the other hand, calcium may increase arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides. Electrokinetic studies and adsorption experiments were carried out in order to determine which conditions favour arsenic adsorption. Hematite, goethite and magnetite as iron based sorbents were used. Test were also conducted with a laterite soil rich in iron minerals. The focus of this study is to evaluate physical and chemical conditions which favour arsenic adsorption onto iron oxides minerals, the results contribute to an understanding of arsenic behaviour in natural and disturbed environments. Furthermore, results could contribute in developing an appropriate remediation technology for arsenic removal in water using iron oxides minerals.

  17. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  18. ARSENIC REMOVAL AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFE CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC-WASTE: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ARSENIC CRISIS IN CAMBODIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An appalling degree of arsenic contamination in groundwater has affected more than a million people in wide region of Mekong delta flood plain in Cambodia. Arsenic is by far the most toxic species of all naturally occurring groundwater contaminants and disposal of removed arse...

  19. 28 CFR 544.73 - Program participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program participation. 544.73 Section 544.73 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT...) shall be deemed to be making satisfactory progress toward earning a GED credential or high...

  20. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfers. 73.16 Section 73.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS... select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use,...

  1. 42 CFR 73.12 - Biosafety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (OSHA) regulations in 29 CFR parts 1910.1200 and 1910.1450. (3) The “NIH Guidelines for Research... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Biosafety. 73.12 Section 73.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT...

  2. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incident response. 73.14 Section 73.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING... response procedures for the theft, loss, or release of a select agent or toxin, inventory...

  3. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies...

  4. 50 CFR 27.73 - Artificial lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lights. 27.73 Section 27.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... Artificial lights. No unauthorized person shall use or direct the rays of a spotlight or other...

  5. 34 CFR 101.73 - Testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officer, in his discretion, may require or permit that the direct testimony of any witness be prepared in writing and served on all parties in advance of the hearing. Such testimony may be adopted by the witness... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testimony. 101.73 Section 101.73 Education...

  6. 45 CFR 81.73 - Testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that the direct testimony of any witness be prepared in writing and served on all parties in advance of the hearing. Such testimony may be adopted by the witness at the hearing, and filed as part of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testimony. 81.73 Section 81.73 Public...

  7. How Does p73 Cause Neuronal Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklison-Chirou, Maria Victoria; Killick, Richard; Knight, Richard A; Nicotera, Pierluigi; Melino, Gerry; Agostini, Massimiliano

    2016-09-01

    The p53-family member, p73, plays a key role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS), in senescence, and in tumor formation. The role of p73 in neuronal differentiation is complex and involves several downstream pathways. Indeed, in the last few years, we have learnt that TAp73 directly or indirectly regulates several genes involved in neural biology. In particular, TAp73 is involved in the maintenance of neural stem/progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation throughout the regulation of SOX-2, Hey-2, TRIM32 and Notch. In addition, TAp73 is also implicated in the regulation of the differentiation and function of postmitotic neurons by regulating the expression of p75NTR and GLS2 (glutamine metabolism). Further still, the regulation of miR-34a by TAp73 indicates that microRNAs can also participate in this multifunctional role of p73 in adult brain physiology. However, contradictory results still exist in the relationship between p73 and brain disorders, and this remains an important area for further investigation. PMID:26266644

  8. 7 CFR 993.73 - Other reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other reports. 993.73 Section 993.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN...

  9. 24 CFR 200.73 - Property development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property development. 200.73 Section 200.73 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment,...

  10. 36 CFR 73.5 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority. 73.5 Section 73.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE... Heritage, approved by the U.S. Senate on October 26, 1973, in cooperation with the Secretary of State,...

  11. 36 CFR 73.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 73.1 Section 73.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE.... participation in the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, which...

  12. 10 CFR 73.4 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 73.4 Section 73.4 Energy NUCLEAR... Communications. Except where otherwise specified, all communications and reports concerning the regulations in... treatment of nonpublic information. (d) Classified communications shall be transmitted to the...

  13. 36 CFR 72.73 - Residency requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 72.73 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR URBAN PARK AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Post-Completion Compliance Responsibilities § 72.73 Residency... assistance. This prohibition applies to both regularly scheduled and special events. The general...

  14. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III and As(V from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration.

  15. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-02-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  16. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola O. Adeyemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Arsenic is a known toxic element and its presence and toxicity in nature is a worldwide environmental problem. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation is a potential method to reduce as concentration in contaminated areas. Approach: In order to explore the possible bioremediation of this element, three filamentous fungi-Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor were investigated for their potential abilities to accumulate (and possibly solubilize arsenic from an agar environment consisting of non buffered mineral salts media amended with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% (w/v arsenopyrite (FeAsS. Growth rates, dry weights, arsenic accumulation and oxalate production by the fungi as well as the pH of the growth media were all assessed during this study. Results: There was no visible solubilization of FeAsS particles underneath any of the growing fungal colonies or elsewhere in the respective agar plates. No specific patterns of growth changes were observed from the growth ratios of the fungi on agar amended with different amounts of FeAsS although growth of all fungi was stimulated by the incorporation of varying amounts of FeAsS into the agar with the exception of A. niger on 0.4% (w/v amended agar and T. versicolor on 0.8% (w/v amended agar. The amounts of dry weights obtained for all three fungi also did not follow any specific patterns with different amounts of FeAsS and the quantities obtained were in the order A. niger > S. himantioides > T. versicolor. All fungi accumulated as in their biomasses with all amounts of FeAsS although to varying levels and T. versicolor was the most effective with all amounts of FeAsS while A. niger was the least effective. Conclusion: The accumulation of arsenic in the biomasses of the test fungi as shown in this study may suggested a role for fungi through their bioaccumulating capabilities as agents in the possible bioremediation of arsenic contaminated environments.

  17. Hijacking membrane transporters for arsenic phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Melissa S; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Meagher, Richard B; Smith, Aaron P

    2013-01-10

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid and recognized carcinogen. Arsenate and arsenite are the most common arsenic species available for uptake by plants. As an inorganic phosphate (Pi) analog, arsenate is acquired by plant roots through endogenous Pi transport systems. Inside the cell, arsenate is reduced to the thiol-reactive form arsenite. Glutathione (GSH)-conjugates of arsenite may be extruded from the cell or sequestered in vacuoles by members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters. In the present study we sought to enhance both plant arsenic uptake through Pi transporter overexpression, and plant arsenic tolerance through ABC transporter overexpression. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the high-affinity Pi transporter family members, AtPht1;1 or AtPht1;7, are hypersensitive to arsenate due to increased arsenate uptake. These plants do not exhibit increased sensitivity to arsenite. Co-overexpression of the yeast ABC transporter YCF1 in combination with AtPht1;1 or AtPht1;7 suppresses the arsenate-sensitive phenotype while further enhancing arsenic uptake. Taken together, our results support an arsenic transport mechanism in which arsenate uptake is increased through Pi transporter overexpression, and arsenic tolerance is enhanced through YCF1-mediated vacuolar sequestration. This work substantiates the viability of coupling enhanced uptake and vacuolar sequestration as a means for developing a prototypical engineered arsenic hyperaccumulator.

  18. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  19. Biotechnology based processes for arsenic removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Olde Weghuis, M.; Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    The regulations for arsenic control have become strict. Therefore, better technologies to remove arsenic from bleeds and effluents are desired. In addition, no single solution is suitable for all cases. The properties of the process streams and the storage facilities are major factors determining th

  20. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  2. Arsenic Consumption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic in drinking water and minimal risk levels (MRLs) for total dietary exposure to arsenic have long been established in the U.S. Multiple studies conducted over the last five years have detected arsenic in foods and beverages including juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and others. Understanding whether or not each of these foods or drinks is a concern to certain groups of individuals requires examining which types of and how much arsenic is ingested. In this article, recent studies are reviewed and placed in the context of consumption patterns. When single sources of food or drink are considered in isolation, heavy rice eaters can be exposed to the most arsenic among adults while infants consuming formula containing contaminated organic brown rice syrup are the most exposed group among children. Most food and drink do not contain sufficient arsenic to exceed MRLs. For individuals consuming more than one source of contaminated water or food, however, adverse health effects are more likely. In total, recent studies on arsenic contamination in food and beverages emphasize the need for individual consumers to understand and manage their total dietary exposure to arsenic. PMID:26591332

  3. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  4. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  5. Research plan for arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The document stresses the implications of recent research findings and emphasizes identification of key strengths and sources of uncertainty and variability in the arsenic risk assessment. This document also explains how information gained through research can: impact the method used in new investigations to assess the risks of arsenic, and support or suggest changes in the assumptiosn and methods used in arsenic risk assessments. This Arsenic Research Plan addresses the protection of human health, especially the research needed to implement the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWAA). It is intended to serve as a blueprint that will be discussed with parties interested in addressing key strengths and uncertainties in the arsenic risk assessment.

  6. Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaofen Wang, Joanna; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global environmental problem affecting a large number of populations, especially in developing countries. The "blackfoot disease"that occurred in Taiwan more than half of a century ago was attributed to drinking arsenic-contaminated water from deep wells containing high concentrations of the trivalent arsenite species. Similar arsenic poisoning cases were reported later in Chinese Inner Mongolia, Bangladesh, and India—all related to drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of arsenic in drinking water has been changed recently by the U.S. EPA from 50 ppb to 10 ppb; the compliance date is January 2006. This article summarizes documented global arsenic contamination problems, the regulatory controversy regarding MCL of arsenic in drinking water, and available technologies for removing arsenic from contaminated waters. Methods for analyzing total arsenic and arsenic species in water are also described.

  7. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels. PMID:27460822

  8. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  9. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (p< 0.000001 following arsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethyl arsenic (MMA, dimethyl arsenic (DMA, and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD: 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60–1.40; p< 0.00001 and MMA (SMD: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.21–0.77; p = 0.0006 also increase, while the percentage of DMA (SMD: −0.57; 95% CI: −0.80–−0.31; p< 0.0001, primary methylation index (SMD: −0.57; 95% CI: −0.94–−0.20; p = 0.002, and secondary methylation index (SMD: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.46–−0.90; p = 0.004 decrease. Smoking, drinking, and older age can reduce arsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process.

  10. Both Phosphorus Fertilizers and Indigenous Bacteria Enhance Arsenic Release into Groundwater in Arsenic-Contaminated Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Chun-Han; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-03-23

    Arsenic (As) is a human carcinogen, and arsenic contamination in groundwater is a worldwide public health concern. Arsenic-affected areas are found in many places but are reported mostly in agricultural farmlands, yet the interaction of fertilizers, microorganisms, and arsenic mobilization in arsenic-contaminated aquifers remains uncharacterized. This study investigates the effects of fertilizers and bacteria on the mobilization of arsenic in two arsenic-contaminated aquifers. We performed microcosm experiments using arsenic-contaminated sediments and amended with inorganic nitrogenous or phosphorus fertilizers for 1 and 4 months under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results show that microcosms amended with 100 mg/L phosphorus fertilizers (dipotassium phosphate), but not nitrogenous fertilizers (ammonium sulfate), significantly increase aqueous As(III) release in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. We also show that concentrations of iron, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium are increased in the aqueous phase and that the addition of dipotassium phosphate causes a further increase in aqueous iron, potassium, and sodium, suggesting that multiple metal elements may take part in the arsenic release process. Furthermore, microbial analysis indicates that the dominant microbial phylum is shifted from α-proteobacteria to β- and γ-proteobacteria when the As(III) is increased and phosphate is added in the aquifer. Our results provide evidence that both phosphorus fertilizers and microorganisms can mediate the release of arsenic to groundwater in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. Our study suggests that agricultural activity such as the use of fertilizers and monitoring phosphate concentration in groundwater should be taken into consideration for the management of arsenic in groundwater.

  11. Cellular distribution of arsenic and other elements in hyperaccumulator Pteris nervosa and their relations to arsenic accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tongbin; HUANG Zechun; HUANG Yuying; XIE Hua; LIAO Xiaoyong

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescencespectroscopy (SRXRF) was used to study the cellular distri-butions of arsenic and other elements in root, petiole, pinna of a newly discovered arsenic hyperaccumulator, Pteris nervosa. It was shown that there was a trend in P. nervosa totransport arsenic from cortex tissue to vascular tissue in root, and keep arsenic in vascular during transportation in petiole, and transport arsenic from vascular tissue to adaxial cortex tissues in midrib of pinnae. More arsenic was accumulated in mesophyll than in epidermis in pinnae. The distributions of some elements, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, in petiole, midrib and pinna were similar to that of arsenic, indicating that those cations might cooperate with arsenic in those transportation processes; whereas the distributions of Cl and Br in pinna were the reverse of that of arsenic, indicating that those anions might compete with arsenic in pinna of P. nervosa.

  12. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; FABIANOVA, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic a...

  13. Chromosome Aberrations of East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus around a Gold Mine Area with Arsenic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atidtaya Suttichaiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the chromosome aberrations of the East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus in the gold mine area compared to an unaffected area. Three H. rugulosus were collected, and chromosome aberrations were studied using bone marrow. The level of arsenic was measured in water, sediment and H. rugulosus samples. The average concentrations of arsenic in the water and sediment samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.03 ± 0.003 mg/l and not detected in water as well as 351.59 ± 5.73 and 1.37 ± 1.07 mg/kg in sediment, respectively. The gold mine values were higher than the permissible limit of the water and soil quality standards, but the arsenic concentrations in the samples from the unaffected area were within prescribed limit. The average concentrations of arsenic in H. rugulosus samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.39 ± 0.30 and 0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively, which were both lower than the standard of arsenic contamination in food. The diploid chromosome number of H. rugulosus in both areas was 2n=26, and the percentage of chromosome breakages of H. rugulosus in the gold mine area were higher than the unaffected area. There were eight types of chromosome aberrations, including a single chromatid gap, isochromatid gap, single chromatid break, isochromatid break, centric fragmentation, deletion, fragmentation and translocation. The most common chromosome aberration in the samples from the affected area was deletion. The difference in the percentage of chromosome breakages in H. rugulosus from both areas was statistically significant (p<0.05.

  14. Current status of arsenic exposure and social implication in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kongkea; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Huoy, Laingshun; Phan, Samrach; Se, Soknim; Capon, Anthony Guy; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the current status of arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia, field interview along with urine sample collection was conducted in the arsenic-affected area of Kandal Province, Cambodia. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As a result, arsenicosis patients (n = 127) had As in urine (UAs) ranging from 3.76 to 373 µg L(-1) (mean = 78.7 ± 69.8 µg L(-1); median = 60.2 µg L(-1)). Asymptomatic villagers (n = 108) had UAs ranging from 5.93 to 312 µg L(-1) (mean = 73.0 ± 52.2 µg L(-1); median = 60.5 µg L(-1)). About 24.7 % of all participants had UAs greater than 100 µg L(-1) which indicated a recent arsenic exposure. A survey found that females and adults were more likely to be diagnosed with skin sign of arsenicosis than males and children, respectively. Education level, age, gender, groundwater drinking period, residence time in the village and amount of water drunk per day may influence the incidence of skin signs of arsenicosis. This study suggests that residents in Kandal study area are currently at risk of arsenic although some mitigation has been implemented. More commitment should be made to address this public health concern in rural Cambodia. PMID:26298061

  15. ARSENIC SPECIATION IN CARROT EXTRACTS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON THE DETECTION OF MMA(III) AND MMTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two predominant routes of arsenic exposure are dietary ingestion and drinking water consumption. Dietary arsenic, unlike drinking water arsenic, contains a variety of arsenicals with dramatically different toxicities. The list of arsenicals detected in dietary samples conti...

  16. Systematic identification of arsenic-binding proteins reveals that hexokinase-2 is inhibited by arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Nan; Yang, Lina; Ling, Jian-Ya; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Wang, Jing-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Ge, Feng; Yang, Ming-Kun; Xiong, Qian; Guo, Shu-Juan; Le, Huang-Ying; Wu, Song-Fang; Yan, Wei; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Heng; Chen, Zhu; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is highly effective for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has shown significant promise against many other tumors. However, although its mechanistic effects in APL are established, its broader anticancer mode of action is not understood. In this study, using a human proteome microarray, we identified 360 proteins that specifically bind arsenic. Among the most highly enriched proteins in this set are those in the glycolysis pathway, including the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, hexokinase-1. Detailed biochemical and metabolomics analyses of the highly homologous hexokinase-2 (HK2), which is overexpressed in many cancers, revealed significant inhibition by arsenic. Furthermore, overexpression of HK2 rescued cells from arsenic-induced apoptosis. Our results thus strongly implicate glycolysis, and HK2 in particular, as a key target of arsenic. Moreover, the arsenic-binding proteins identified in this work are expected to serve as a valuable resource for the development of synergistic antitumor therapeutic strategies.

  17. A broad view of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F T

    2007-01-01

    In the mind of the general public, the words "arsenic" and "poison" have become almost synonymous. Yet, As is a natural metallic element found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment, including foods. Mining and smelting activities are closely associated with As, and the largest occurrence of As contamination in the United States is near the gold mines of northern Nevada. Inhabitants of Bangladesh and surrounding areas have been exposed to water that is naturally and heavily contaminated with As, causing what the World Health Organization has described as the worst mass poisoning in history. Although readily absorbed by humans, most inorganic As (>90%) is rapidly cleared from the blood with a half-life of 1 to 2 h, and 40 to 70% of the As intake is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted within 48 h. Arsenic does not appreciably bioaccumulate, nor does it biomagnify in the food chain. The United States has for some time purchased more As than any other country in the world, but As usage is waning, and further reductions appear likely. Arsenic is used in a wide variety of industrial applications, from computers to fireworks. All feed additives used in US poultry feeds must meet the strict requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (Rockville, MD) before use. Although some public health investigators have identified poultry products as a potentially significant source of total As exposure for Americans, studies consistently demonstrate that <1% of samples tested are above the 0.5 ppm limit established by the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated the possibility that As in poultry litter could pollute ground waters, million of tons of litter have been applied to the land, and no link has been established between litter application and As contamination of ground water. Yet, the fact that <2% of the United States population is involved in

  18. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E

    2005-11-01

    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  19. Arsenic contamination and arsenicosis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenicosis is a serious environmental chemical disease in China mainly caused by drinking water from pump wells contaminated by high levels of arsenic. Chronic exposure of humans to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water is associated with skin lesions, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, blackfoot disease, and high risk of cancers. Lead by the Ministry of Health of China, we carried out a research about arsenicosis in China recently. Areas contaminated with arsenic from drinking water are determined by 10% pump well water sample method while areas from burning coal are determined by existing data. Two epidemic areas of Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia are investigated for the distribution of pump wells containing high arsenic. Well water in all the investigated villages of Shanxi Province showed polluted by high arsenic, and the average rate of unsafe pump well water is 52%. In Inner Mongolia, the high percentage of pump wells containing elevated arsenic is found only in a few villages. The average rate of unsafe pump well water is 11%. From our research, we find that new endemic areas are continuously emerging in China. Up to now, epidemic areas of arsenicosis mainly involve eight provinces and 37 counties in China. In the affected areas, the discovery of wells and coal with high levels of arsenic is continuing sporadically, and a similar scattered distribution pattern of patients is also being observed

  20. [Competitive Microbial Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Bai, Yao-hui; Liang, Jin-song; Huo, Yang; Wang, Ming-xing; Yuan, Lin-ijang

    2016-02-15

    Filters are widely applied in drinking water treatment plants. Our previous study, which explored the asenic redox in a filter of drinking water plant treating underground water, found that As3+ could be oxidized to As5+ by biogenic manganese oxides, while As5+ could be reduced to As3+ by some microbial arsenic reductases in the biofilter system. This microbial competition could influence the system stability and treatment efficiency. To explore its mechanism, this study selected a manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) and a arsenic-reducing strain (Brevibacterium sp. LSJ-9) to investigate their competitive relationship in nutrient acquisition and arsenic redox in the presence of Mn2+, As3+ or As5+ The results revealed that the concentration and valence of Mn and As varied with different reaction time; biological manganese oxides dominated the arsenic redox by rapidly oxidizing the As3+ in the existing system and the As3+ generated by arsenic reductase into As. PCR and RT-PCR results indicated that the arsenic reductase (arsC) was inhibited by the manganese oxidase (cumA). The expression of 16S rRNA in QJX-1 was two orders of magnitude higher than that in LSJ-9, which implied QJX-1 was dominant in the bacterial growth. Our data revealed that hydraulic retention time was critical to the valence of arsenic in the effluent of filter in drinking water treatment plant.

  1. [Competitive Microbial Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Bai, Yao-hui; Liang, Jin-song; Huo, Yang; Wang, Ming-xing; Yuan, Lin-ijang

    2016-02-15

    Filters are widely applied in drinking water treatment plants. Our previous study, which explored the asenic redox in a filter of drinking water plant treating underground water, found that As3+ could be oxidized to As5+ by biogenic manganese oxides, while As5+ could be reduced to As3+ by some microbial arsenic reductases in the biofilter system. This microbial competition could influence the system stability and treatment efficiency. To explore its mechanism, this study selected a manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) and a arsenic-reducing strain (Brevibacterium sp. LSJ-9) to investigate their competitive relationship in nutrient acquisition and arsenic redox in the presence of Mn2+, As3+ or As5+ The results revealed that the concentration and valence of Mn and As varied with different reaction time; biological manganese oxides dominated the arsenic redox by rapidly oxidizing the As3+ in the existing system and the As3+ generated by arsenic reductase into As. PCR and RT-PCR results indicated that the arsenic reductase (arsC) was inhibited by the manganese oxidase (cumA). The expression of 16S rRNA in QJX-1 was two orders of magnitude higher than that in LSJ-9, which implied QJX-1 was dominant in the bacterial growth. Our data revealed that hydraulic retention time was critical to the valence of arsenic in the effluent of filter in drinking water treatment plant. PMID:27363151

  2. Arsenic adsorption of lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuthiphun, L.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic adsorption efficiency of soil covering materials (lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil obtained from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province tosolve arsenic air pollution problem was investigated using batch experiments. The four types of the aforementioned soil covering materials were examined to determine their arsenic adsorption efficiency, equilibriumtime as well as adsorption isotherms.The results revealed that among soil covering materials mixed with arsenic-contaminated soil at 10% w/w, the efficiency of arsenic adsorption of fly ash, lateritic soil, lime and limestone powder were 84, 60,38 and 1% respectively. The equilibrium time for lateritic soil at pH 4 was achieved within 4 hrs, whereas pH 7 and 12, the equilibrium time was 6 hrs. For fly ash, 2 hrs were required to reach the equilibrium at pH 12, while the equilibrium time was attained within 6 hrs at pH 4 and 7. Furthermore, lateritic soil possessedhigh arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 7 and 4 and best fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The fly ash showing high arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 12 and 7 fit the Freundlich isotherm at pH 12 and Langmuirisotherm at pH 7.This indicated that lateritic soil was suitable for arsenic adsorption at low pH, whilst at high pH,arsenic was well adsorbed by fly ash. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm could be used to determine quantities of soil covering materials for arsenic adsorption to prevent arsenic air pollution from arseniccontaminated soils.

  3. Current Status and Prevention Strategy for Coal-arsenic Poisoning in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dasheng; An, Dong; Zhou, Yunsu; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from burning coal with high arsenic contents occurs in southwest Guizhou, China. Coal in this region contains extremely high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic exposure from coal-burning is much higher than exposure from arsenic-contaminated water in other areas of China. The current status and prevention strategies for arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic coal in southwest Guizhou, China, is reported here. Over 3,000 arsenic-intoxicated patients were diagnos...

  4. Arsenic in North Carolina: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Messier, Kyle P; Shehee, Mina; Rudo, Kenneth; Serre, Marc L; Fry, Rebecca C

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and relevant environmental contaminant in drinking water systems. We set out to comprehensively examine statewide arsenic trends and identify areas of public health concern. Specifically, arsenic trends in North Carolina private wells were evaluated over an eleven-year period using the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services database for private domestic well waters. We geocoded over 63,000 domestic well measurements by applying a novel geocoding algorithm and error validation scheme. Arsenic measurements and geographical coordinates for database entries were mapped using Geographic Information System techniques. Furthermore, we employed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework, which accounts for geocoding error to better estimate arsenic values across the state and identify trends for unmonitored locations. Of the approximately 63,000 monitored wells, 7712 showed detectable arsenic concentrations that ranged between 1 and 806μg/L. Additionally, 1436 well samples exceeded the EPA drinking water standard. We reveal counties of concern and demonstrate a historical pattern of elevated arsenic in some counties, particularly those located along the Carolina terrane (Carolina slate belt). We analyzed these data in the context of populations using private well water and identify counties for targeted monitoring, such as Stanly and Union Counties. By spatiotemporally mapping these data, our BME estimate revealed arsenic trends at unmonitored locations within counties and better predicted well concentrations when compared to the classical kriging method. This study reveals relevant information on the location of arsenic-contaminated private domestic wells in North Carolina and indicates potential areas at increased risk for adverse health outcomes.

  5. Determination of total arsenic, inorganic and organic arsenic species in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herce-Pagliai, C; Moreno, I; González, G; Repetto, M; Cameán, A M

    2002-06-01

    Forty-five wine samples from the south of Spain of different alcoholic strength were analysed for total arsenic and its inorganic [As(III), As(V)] and organic (monomethylarsonic acid [MMAA], dimethylarsinic acid [DMAA]) species. The As levels of the wine samples ranged from 2.1 to 14.6 microg l(-1). The possible effect of the alcoholic fermentation process on the levels of the total arsenic and arsenical species was studied. The average total arsenic levels for the different samples were very similar, without significant differences between all types of wines. In table wines and sherry, the percentages of total inorganic arsenic were 18.6 and 15.6%, with DMAA or MMAA being the predominant species, respectively. In most samples, DMAA was the most abundant species, but the total inorganic aresenic fraction was considerable, representing 25.4% of the total concentration of the element. The estimated daily intakes of total arsenic and total inorganic arsenic for average Spanish consumers were 0.78 and 0.15 microg/person day(-1), respectively. The results suggest that the consumption of these types of wines makes no significant contribution to the total and inorganic arsenic intake for normal drinkers. However, wine consumption contributes a higher arsenic intake than through consumption of beers and sherry brandies.

  6. Insights into arsenic multi-operons expression and arsenic resistance mechanisms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungui eZhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is widespread in the environment and causes numerous health problems. Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been regarded as a good model organism for studying arsenic detoxification since it was first demonstrated to methylate environmental arsenic by conversion to soluble or gaseous methylated species. However, the detailed arsenic resistance mechanisms remain unknown though there are at least three arsenic-resistance operons (ars1, ars2 and ars3 in R. palustris. In this study, we investigated how arsenic multi-operons contributed to arsenic detoxification in R. palustris. The expression of ars2 or ars3 operons increased with increasing environmental arsenite (As(III concentrations (up to 1.0 mM while transcript of ars1 operon was not detected in the middle log-phase (55 h. ars2 operon was actively expressed even at the low concentration of As(III (0.01 μM, whereas the ars3 operon was expressed at 1.0 µM of As(III, indicating that there was a differential regulation mechanism for the three arsenic operons. Furthermore, ars2 and ars3 operons were maximally transcribed in the early log-phase where ars2 operon was 5.4-fold higher than that of ars3 operon. A low level of ars1 transcript was only detected at 43 h (early log-phase. Arsenic speciation analysis demonstrated that R. palustris could reduce As(V to As(III.

  7. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 mu g=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 mu g=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100 - 500 mu g=L) in real Bangladesh tube well water

  8. Health implications of arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, F.W. (American Water Works Association, Denver, CO (United States)); Brown, K.G. (Kenneth G. Brown Inc., Chapel Hill, NC (United States)); Chen, C.J. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Public Health)

    1994-09-01

    The adequacy of the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic is being evaluated by the US Environmental Protection Agency. If recent theoretical estimates of chronic effects and cancer risks prove accurate, the current MCL may not effectively protect health. Knowledge of arsenic pharmacokinetics and mechanisms in humans, however, is not complete enough to provide a definitive answer, and current epidemiologic evidence is too inconsistent and too fraught with uncertainty regarding arsenic exposure to be helpful in assessing low-level risks. 85 refs.

  9. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  10. Urinary arsenic levels in timber treatment operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollop, B R; Glass, W I

    1979-01-10

    An investigation was carried out into arsenic levels in urine of timber treatment operators at six treatment plants in the Waikato-Rotorua area. The mean arsenic level for treatment operators was 222 migrograms/l compared with the normal range of 5-40 micrograms/l. In order to reduce the present significant exposure to treatment chemicals such as arsenic and chromium, it is recommended that the wood preservation industry take engineering measures to reduce the present air emissions and adopt strict work practices in hygiene and protective clothing in similar manner to those handling mercury and lead. PMID:285363

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of new dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) analogues in acute arsenic trioxide poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, H; Paepcke, U; Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Reichl, F X; Singh, P K; Jones, M M

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of six newly synthesized analogues of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was investigated in acute arsenic trioxide poisoning in mice. Meso-2,3-di(acetylthio)succinic acid (DATSA) and meso-2,3- di(benzoylthio)succinic acid (DBTSA) are analogues of DMSA with protected thiol groups ("prodrugs"), and DMDMS, DEDMS, DnPDMS, and DiPDMS are various di-esters of DMSA with methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and isopropyl alcohols, respectively. Thirty minutes after s.c. injection of an LD80 of arsenic trioxide (65 mumol/kg) male NMRI mice were treated with a single equimolar dose (0.7 mmol/kg) of DMSA i.p. or one of the analogues i.p. or via gastric tube (i.g.). Control animals received arsenic trioxide and saline 30 min later. The survival rate was recorded for 30 days. All of the animals treated with DMSA i.p. survived and all controls died within 2 days. Administered i.g., DATSA and DBTSA increased the survival rate to 29% and 43%, and injected i.p. to 86%. Treatment with DMDMS i.p. and i.g., and with DEDMS, DnPDMS, and DiPDMS i.g. did not reduce lethality. Given i.p., DnPDMS increased the survival rate to 72%, and DEDMS and DiPDMS to 86%, respectively. To investigate the efficacy of the DMSA analogues in reducing the tissue content of arsenic, male NMRI mice received an s.c. injection of an LD5 of arsenic trioxide containing a tracer dose of 73-As(III) (42.5 mumol/kg body wt). Thirty minutes later, saline (controls) or a single equimolar dose (0.7 mmol/kg) of DMSA i.p., or one of the analogues i.p. or i.g. was administered. The arsenic content of various organs (blood, liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, brain, testes, skeletal muscle, and skin) at 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h after the arsenic injection was measured using a gamma counter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Arsenic burden of cooked rice: Traditional and modern methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, M K; Hossain, M A; Mukherjee, A; Ahamed, S; Das, B; Nayak, B; Pal, A; Chakraborti, D

    2006-11-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice by irrigation with contaminated groundwater and secondarily increased soil arsenic compounds the arsenic burden of populations dependent on subsistence rice-diets. The arsenic concentration of cooked rice is known to increase with the arsenic concentration of the cooking water but the effects of cooking methods have not been defined. We tested the three major rice cooking procedures followed globally. Using low-arsenic water (As rice: water::1:6; discard excess water) removed up to 57% of the arsenic from rice containing arsenic 203-540 microg/kg. Approximately half of the arsenic was lost in the wash water, half in the discard water. A simple inexpensive rice cooker based on this method has been designed and used for this purpose. Despite the use of low-arsenic water, the contemporary method of cooking unwashed rice at rice:water::1:1.5-2.0 until no discard water remains did not modify the arsenic content. Preliminary washing until clear did remove 28% of the rice arsenic. The results were not influenced by water source (tubewell, dug well, pond or rain); cooking vessel (aluminium, steel, glass or earthenware); or the absolute weight of rice or volume of water. The use of low-As water in the traditional preparation of arsenic contaminated rice can reduce the ingested burden of arsenic. PMID:16876928

  13. Mathematical model insights into arsenic detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijhout H Frederik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic in drinking water, a major health hazard to millions of people in South and East Asia and in other parts of the world, is ingested primarily as trivalent inorganic arsenic (iAs, which then undergoes hepatic methylation to methylarsonic acid (MMAs and a second methylation to dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs. Although MMAs and DMAs are also known to be toxic, DMAs is more easily excreted in the urine and therefore methylation has generally been considered a detoxification pathway. A collaborative modeling project between epidemiologists, biologists, and mathematicians has the purpose of explaining existing data on methylation in human studies in Bangladesh and also testing, by mathematical modeling, effects of nutritional supplements that could increase As methylation. Methods We develop a whole body mathematical model of arsenic metabolism including arsenic absorption, storage, methylation, and excretion. The parameters for arsenic methylation in the liver were taken from the biochemical literature. The transport parameters between compartments are largely unknown, so we adjust them so that the model accurately predicts the urine excretion rates of time for the iAs, MMAs, and DMAs in single dose experiments on human subjects. Results We test the model by showing that, with no changes in parameters, it predicts accurately the time courses of urinary excretion in mutiple dose experiments conducted on human subjects. Our main purpose is to use the model to study and interpret the data on the effects of folate supplementation on arsenic methylation and excretion in clinical trials in Bangladesh. Folate supplementation of folate-deficient individuals resulted in a 14% decrease in arsenicals in the blood. This is confirmed by the model and the model predicts that arsenicals in the liver will decrease by 19% and arsenicals in other body stores by 26% in these same individuals. In addition, the model predicts that arsenic

  14. MDM2 Suppresses p73 Function without Promoting p73 Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xiaoya; Chen, Lihong; Jost, Christine A.; Maya, Ruth; Keller, David; Wang, Xinjiang; Kaelin, William G.; Oren, Moshe; Chen, Jiandong; Lu, Hua

    1999-01-01

    The newly identified p53 homolog p73 can mimic the transcriptional activation function of p53. We investigated whether p73, like p53, participates in an autoregulatory feedback loop with MDM2. p73 bound to MDM2 both in vivo and in vitro. Wild-type but not mutant MDM2, expressed in human p53 null osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells, inhibited p73- and p53-dependent transcription driven by the MDM2 promoter-derived p53RE motif as measured in transient-transfection and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase as...

  15. Ana insect model for assessing arsenic toxicity: Arsenic elevated glutathione content in the musca domestica and trichoplusia ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, K.; Pardini, R.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Throughout history, arsenic has acquired an unparalled reputation as a poison. Arsenic was used as a poison as early as 2000 B.C. The toxicity of arsenic (As) extends to mammals, fish, insects, plants and fungi. According to epidemiological evidence, inorganic arsenic compounds have been strongly suggested as human carcinogens. Human exposure to arsenic through various means is correlated with an increased incidence of skin, lung, and possibly liver cancers. Inorganic trivalent arsenic is systematically more poisonous than the pentavalent form and it is possible that pentavalent arsenic is reduced to the trivalent form before exerting any toxic effects. This study focuses on the potential to use two insect species, the housefly, Musca domestica and the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni, and a model for the study of arsenic toxicity. After 48 hours of exposure to Arsenic, a significant induction of Glutathione level and subsequent decrease in the level of GSSG in both species were observed. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. [Effects of organic fertilization on arsenic absorption of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) on arsenic-contaminated red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Fang; Geng, Zhi-Xi; Zeng, Xi-Bai; Bai, Ling-Yu; Su, Shi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment with arsenic-contaminated red soil was conducted to study the effects of applying pig dung and chicken manure on the growth and arsenic absorption of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis), and on soil available arsenic. Applying pig dung and chicken manure to the arsenic-contaminated red soil increased the biomass of pakchoi to some extent. Comparing with the control, applying pig dung increased the pakchoi biomass significantly (P Organic fertilization promoted the arsenic absorption of pakchoi, with the arsenic uptake after applying pig dung increased by 20.7%-53.9%. The application of pig dung and chicken manure to arsenic-contaminated red soil could somewhat increase the soil available arsenic content and the arsenic uptake by crops, and thus, increase the risks of agricultural product quality and environment.

  17. Arsenic poisoning of cattle and other domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxham, J.W.; Coup, M.R.

    1968-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-one incidents of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals were recorded at Ruakura Veterinary Diagnostic Station from 1955 to 1967. Cattle was the animal species most subject to arsenic poisoning. Clincal signs, post-mortem findings and sources of arsenic are given. Arsenic poisoning was more prevalent in younger cattle and during the warmer months of the year. With cattle most incidents were associated with carelessly discarded arsenical compounds, although most deaths occurred when these compounds were deliberately used. In other species, losses were generally caused by the deliberate use of arsenical preparations for dipping, drenching and weed spraying. 10 references, 2 tables.

  18. Manufacture of high purity low arsenic anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for manufacturing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity from arsenic contaminated anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is described which comprises: (a) contacting the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the arsenic impurity in the presence of a catalyst which comprises a catalytic amount of (i) molybdenum or an inorganic molybdenum compound and (ii) a phosphate compound, at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to oxidize volatile trivalent arsenic impurities in the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to non-volatile pentavalent arsenic compounds, and (b) distilling the resulting mixture and recovering anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity

  19. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  20. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies. PMID:26231509

  1. Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water, Arsenic Methylation Capacity, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H.; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010–2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: −0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

  2. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes.

  3. Toxicokinetics and Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides an overview of arsenic toxicokinetics and physiologically-basedpharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling with particular emphasis on key 'actors needed fordevelopment of a model useful for dose-response analysis, applications of arsenicmodels, as well research needs.U...

  4. Arsenic stress after the Proterozoic glaciations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fru, Ernest Chi; Arvestål, Emma; Callac, Nolwenn; El Albani, Abderrazak; Kilias, Stephanos; Argyraki, Ariadne; Jakobsson, Martin

    2015-12-04

    Protection against arsenic damage in organisms positioned deep in the tree of life points to early evolutionary sensitization. Here, marine sedimentary records reveal a Proterozoic arsenic concentration patterned to glacial-interglacial ages. The low glacial and high interglacial sedimentary arsenic concentrations, suggest deteriorating habitable marine conditions may have coincided with atmospheric oxygen decline after ~2.1 billion years ago. A similar intensification of near continental margin sedimentary arsenic levels after the Cryogenian glaciations is also associated with amplified continental weathering. However, interpreted atmospheric oxygen increase at this time, suggests that the marine biosphere had widely adapted to the reorganization of global marine elemental cycles by glaciations. Such a glacially induced biogeochemical bridge would have produced physiologically robust communities that enabled increased oxygenation of the ocean-atmosphere system and the radiation of the complex Ediacaran-Cambrian life.

  5. Health effects of arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowle, J.R.; Abernathy, C.O.; Mass, M.J.; McKinney, J.D.; North, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Current knowledge about metabolism, essentiality, and toxicity is summarized in the document. These are placed in a risk assessment context. Research needs are identified with their implications for improving the ability to assess risk from exposure to arsenic.

  6. TELOMERASE AND CHRONIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer in humans. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not well understood. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of eukary...

  7. Study of arsenic injury to rice plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Okahashi, C.; Wada, M.

    1968-01-01

    Growth injury happened to rice plants when waste liquid flowed from a mercury refinery into paddy fields in July 1967. Arsenic turned out to be the main cause of the growth injury. Investigation of the contaminated fields revealed that the injury was the most severe at the water inlet to the field, and was comparatively slight in the middle of it. The quantity of arsenic absorbed in the soil was very large at the inlet and was decreasingly small towards the centre of them. Moreover, excessive quantities of arsenic were often found on the surface of the fields. The constituent was seen permeating the lower layers of the soil. The permeation was deep in proportion to the good drainage of soil. Drastic measures should be taken with a special reference to quantity of arsenic and type of soil.

  8. Arsenic Induced Decreases in the Vascular Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Allison M.; Lantz, R. Clark; Rodgers, Laurel S.; Sollome, James J.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.; Andrew, Angeline S; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic is associated with increased incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the role of arsenic in early events in vascular pathology, C57BL/6 mice ingested drinking water with or without 50 ppb sodium arsenite (AsIII) for four, five or eight weeks. At five and eight weeks, RNA from the lungs of control and AsIII exposed animals was processed for microarray. Sixty-five genes were significantly and differentially expressed. Differential expres...

  9. Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykknes, Annette; Kvittingen, Lise

    2003-05-01

    This article presents parts of the history of the element arsenic in order to illustrate processes behind development of knowledge in chemistry. The particular aspects presented here are the use of arsenic as a stimulant by Styrian peasants, in Fowler's solution, in drugs of the 19th century (e.g., salvarsan), and in current medical treatment, all of which challenge the myth of this element as exclusively poisonous.

  10. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to have an affinity for the toxic element. The arsenic concentrations in the principal edible mushrooms of commerce were found to be very low, i.e. on the average 0.5 mg/kg on dry matter. Among the asc...

  11. Megaloblastic, dyserythropoietic anemia following arsenic ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, B B; Ali, N; Green, D

    1980-01-01

    Following acute arsenic ingestion, a 35 year old woman experienced multiple organ failure, including renal and respiratory insufficiency, toxic hepatitis, peripheral neuropathy, and encephalopathy. In addition, she developed an anemia; the bone marrow showed a striking dyserythropoiesis with megaloblastic features. Her recovery was heralded by normalization of the bone marrow morphology, followed by improvement in all other organ dysfunction except for the peripheral neuropathy. Arsenic poisoning is a cause of megaloblastic anemia; early hematologic recovery suggests favorable prognosis.

  12. A novel arsenic methyltransferase gene of Westerdykella aurantiaca isolated from arsenic contaminated soil: phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical studies and its role in arsenic bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shikha; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Meher, Alok Kumar; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Bansiwal, Amit Kumar; Pande, Veena; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-03-01

    Elevated arsenic concentration in the environment and agricultural soil is a serious concern to crop production and human health. Among different detoxification mechanisms, the methylation of arsenic is a widespread phenomenon in nature. A number of microorganisms are able to methylate arsenic, but less is known about the arsenic metabolism in fungi. We identified a novel arsenic methyltransferase (WaarsM) gene from a soil fungus, Westerdykella aurantiaca. WaarsM showed sequence homology with all known arsenic methyltransferases having three conserved SAM binding motifs. The expression of WaarsM enhanced arsenic resistance in E. coli (Δars) and S. cerevisiae (Δacr2) strains by biomethylation and required endogenous reductants, preferably GSH, for methyltransferase activity. The purified WaarsM catalyzes the production of methylated arsenicals from both AsIII and AsV, and also displays AsV reductase activity. It displayed higher methyltransferase activity and lower KM 0.1945 ± 0.021 mM and KM 0.4034 ± 0.078 mM for AsIII and AsV, respectively. S. cerevisiae (Δacr2) cells expressing WaarsM produced 2.2 ppm volatile arsenic and 0.64 ppm DMA(v) with 0.58 ppm volatile arsenicals when exposed to 20 ppm AsV and 2 ppm AsIII, respectively. Arsenic tolerance in rice after co-culture with genetically engineered yeast suggested its potential role in arsenic bioremediation. Thus, characterization of WaarsM provides a potential strategy to reduce arsenic concentration in soil with reduced arsenic accumulation in crops grown in arsenic contaminated areas, and thereby alleviating human health risks. PMID:26776948

  13. Disruption of Mitotic Progression by Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    States, J Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Arsenic is an enigmatic xenobiotic that causes a multitude of chronic diseases including cancer and also is a therapeutic with promise in cancer treatment. Arsenic causes mitotic delay and induces aneuploidy in diploid human cells. In contrast, arsenic causes mitotic arrest followed by an apoptotic death in a multitude of virally transformed cells and cancer cells. We have explored the hypothesis that these differential effects of arsenic exposure are related by arsenic disruption of mitosis and are differentiated by the target cell's ability to regulate or modify cell cycle checkpoints. Functional p53/CDKN1A axis has been shown to mitigate the mitotic block and to be essential to induction of aneuploidy. More recent preliminary data suggest that microRNA modulation of chromatid cohesion also may play a role in escape from mitotic block and in generation of chromosomal instability. Other recent studies suggest that arsenic may be useful in treatment of solid tumors when used in combination with other cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin.

  14. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. PMID:21435676

  15. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Liebeke

    Full Text Available Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  16. Earthworms produce phytochelatins in response to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeke, Manuel; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Anderson, Craig J; Lawlor, Alan J; Bennett, Mark H; Morris, Ceri A; Kille, Peter; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J; Bundy, Jacob G

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatins are small cysteine-rich non-ribosomal peptides that chelate soft metal and metalloid ions, such as cadmium and arsenic. They are widely produced by plants and microbes; phytochelatin synthase genes are also present in animal species from several different phyla, but there is still little known about whether these genes are functional in animals, and if so, whether they are metal-responsive. We analysed phytochelatin production by direct chemical analysis in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms exposed to arsenic for a 28 day period, and found that arsenic clearly induced phytochelatin production in a dose-dependent manner. It was necessary to measure the phytochelatin metabolite concentrations directly, as there was no upregulation of phytochelatin synthase gene expression after 28 days: phytochelatin synthesis appears not to be transcriptionally regulated in animals. A further untargetted metabolomic analysis also found changes in metabolites associated with the transsulfuration pathway, which channels sulfur flux from methionine for phytochelatin synthesis. There was no evidence of biological transformation of arsenic (e.g. into methylated species) as a result of laboratory arsenic exposure. Finally, we compared wild populations of earthworms sampled from the field, and found that both arsenic-contaminated and cadmium-contaminated mine site worms had elevated phytochelatin concentrations.

  17. Evidence against the nuclear in situ binding of arsenicals-oxidative stress theory of arsenic carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large amount of evidence suggests that arsenicals act via oxidative stress in causing cancer in humans and experimental animals. It is possible that arsenicals could bind in situ close to nuclear DNA followed by Haber-Weiss type oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, we tested this...

  18. Microbial transformations of arsenic: perspectives for biological removal of arsenic from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cavalca; A. Corsini; P. Zaccheo; V. Andreoni; G. Muyzer

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is present in many environments and is released by various natural processes and anthropogenic actions. Although arsenic is recognized to cause a wide range of adverse health effects in humans, diverse bacteria can metabolize it by detoxification and energy conservation reactions. This revie

  19. DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMASIII AND DMASIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMAsIII and DMAsIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC. L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo2, W. R. Cullen3, and D.J. Thomas4. 1Toxicology Section, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico, D.F., 2Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 3Uni...

  20. Effects of arsenic on nitrogen metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ferns

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of arsenic on the in vitro activities of the enzymes (nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in nitrate metabolism in the roots, rhizomes, and fronds of two four-month old fern plants, Pteris vittata, an arsenic-hyperaccumulator, and Pteris ensiformis, ...

  1. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America.

  2. p73 Gene and Leukemia%p73基因与白血病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜均祥

    2001-01-01

    p73基因与经典的抑瘤基因p53高度同源.p73基因的过表达可诱导肿瘤细胞的生长阻滞并诱导其调亡.约1/3的急性淋巴细胞白血病和Burkitt淋巴瘤病人的p73基因由于高甲基化而表达缺失,但急性髓系白血病病人的p73表达水平高于正常白细胞.p73基因在白血病中的作用需要进一步的阐明.

  3. Arsenic emission during combustion of high arsenic coals from Southwestern Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of better understanding the distribution of arsenic, 144 coal samples were collected from southwestern Guizhou, and the concentrations of arsenic were determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The content of arsenic varies from 0.3 ppm to 3.2 wt.%. In most coal samples, the arsenic content was lower than 30 ppm, which was close to a representative value of arsenic concentration of coal in China. Arsenic contents in 37 samples, which were from several small coal mines, were more than 30 ppm, among which only 16 samples were more than 100 ppm, and only a few samples contained more than 1000 ppm, which were very restricted and the coal seams were generally unworkable. Combustion of two kinds of high arsenic coal with and without CaO additive was studied in a bench scale drop tube furnace (DTF) to understand the partition and emission of arsenic in the process. The PM was size segregated by low pressure impactor (LPI) into 13 size stages ranging from 9.8 to 0.0281 μm. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was used to determine the chemical composition of the PM, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the arsenic content. A bimodal mode distribution of the PM was formed during coal combustion; the large mode (coarse particle) was formed at 4.0 μm, and the other mode (fine particles) was at about 0.1 μm. A middle mode was gradually obvious in high temperature for both of the two coal combustions, which may have been derived from coagulation and agglomeration of metal elements vapors. More gaseous arsenic was formed in 50% oxygen content than 20% oxygen content. Arsenic in sulfide is easier to vaporize than as arsenate. Along with the increasing temperature from 1100 oC to 1400 oC, the arsenic concentration in PM1 increased from 0.07 mg/N m3 to 0.25 mg/N m3. With the addition of the calcium based sorbent, the arsenic concentration in

  4. Soil arsenic in Armadale, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.H.; Lloyd, O.L.; Hubbard, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    As part of an investigation into the high mortality from lung cancer and the high sex ratios of births in Armadale, central Scotland, concentrations of arsenic were measured in soil cores from 48 sites in Armadale and 6 sites in a comparison town. Concentrations in Armadale were substantially higher than those in the comparison town, and many of the highest range of values were in that part of the town where the epidemiological abnormalities of lung cancer and of birth sex ratios were most pronounced. The study indicated that clues to the etiology of high rates of disease in small areas could be sought most profitably if close links were maintained between epidemiological and environmental investigations.

  5. Modelling phytoremediation by the hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata, of soils historically contaminated with arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelmerdine, Paula A.; Black, Colin R. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); McGrath, Steve P. [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Young, Scott D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.u [School of Biosciences, Biology Building, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Pteris vittata plants were grown on twenty-one UK soils contaminated with arsenic (As) from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic concentration was measured in fern fronds, soil and soil pore water collected with Rhizon samplers. Isotopically exchangeable soil arsenate was determined by equilibration with {sup 73}As{sup V}. Removal of As from the 21 soils by three sequential crops of P. vittata ranged between 0.1 and 13% of total soil As. Ferns grown on a soil subjected to long-term sewage sludge application showed reduced uptake of As because of high available phosphate concentrations. A combined solubility-uptake model was parameterised to enable prediction of phytoremediation success from estimates of soil As, 'As-lability' and soil pH. The model was used to demonstrate the remediation potential of P. vittata under different soil conditions and with contrasting assumptions regarding re-supply of the labile As pool from unavailable forms. - This paper presents a predictive model for phytoremediation of soils, historically contaminated with arsenic, by the hyperaccumulator P. vittata.

  6. Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity and Genetic Susceptibility to Arsenic-Related Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bianchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic (As exposure represents an important problem in many parts of the World. Indeed, it is estimated that over 100 million individuals are exposed to arsenic, mainly through a contamination of groundwaters. Chronic exposure to As is associated with adverse effects on human health such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases and the rate of morbidity and mortality in populations exposed is alarming. The purpose of this review is to summarize the genotoxic effects of As in the cells as well as to discuss the importance of signaling and repair of arsenic-induced DNA damage. The current knowledge of specific polymorphisms in candidate genes that confer susceptibility to arsenic exposure is also reviewed. We also discuss the perspectives offered by the determination of biological markers of early effect on health, incorporating genetic polymorphisms, with biomarkers for exposure to better evaluate exposure-response clinical relationships as well as to develop novel preventative strategies for arsenic- health effects.

  7. Arsenic neurotoxicity--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, A; van der Voet, G B; de Wolff, F A

    2007-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the oldest poisons known to men. Its applications throughout history are wide and varied: murder, make-up, paint and even as a pesticide. Chronic As toxicity is a global environmental health problem, affecting millions of people in the USA and Germany to Bangladesh and Taiwan. Worldwide, As is released into the environment by smelting of various metals, combustion of fossil fuels, as herbicides and fungicides in agricultural products. The drinking water in many countries, which is tapped from natural geological resources, is also contaminated as a result of the high level of As in groundwater. The environmental fate of As is contamination of surface and groundwater with a contaminant level higher than 10 particle per billion (ppb) as set by World Health Organization (WHO). Arsenic exists in both organic and inorganic species and either form can also exist in a trivalent or pentavalent oxidation state. Long-term health effects of exposure to these As metabolites are severe and highly variable: skin and lung cancer, neurological effects, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Neurological effects of As may develop within a few hours after ingestion, but usually are seen in 2-8 weeks after exposure. It is usually a symmetrical sensorimotor neuropathy, often resembling the Guillain-Barré syndrome. The predominant clinical features of neuropathy are paresthesias, numbness and pain, particularly in the soles of the feet. Electrophysiological studies performed on patients with As neuropathy have revealed a reduced nerve conduction velocity, typical of those seen in axonal degeneration. Most of the adverse effects of As, are caused by inactivated enzymes in the cellular energy pathway, whereby As reacts with the thiol groups of proteins and enzymes and inhibits their catalytic activity. Furthermore, As-induced neurotoxicity, like many other neurodegenerative diseases, causes changes in cytoskeletal protein composition and hyperphosphorylation

  8. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries.

  9. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in soil increases urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations of residents living in old mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2004-03-01

    The short term human exposure studies conducted on populations exposed to high concentrations of inorganic arsenic in soil have been inconsistent in demonstrating a relationship between environmental concentrations and exposure measures. In Australia there are many areas with very high arsenic concentrations in residential soil most typically associated with gold mining activities in rural areas. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental arsenic and urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations in a population living in a gold mining area (soil arsenic concentrations between 9 and 9900 mg kg(-1)), and a control population with low arsenic levels in soil (between 1 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Risk factors for increased urinary arsenic concentrations were also explored. There was a weak but significant relationship between soil arsenic concentrations and inorganic urinary arsenic concentration with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.39. When participants with greater than 100 mg kg(-1) arsenic in residential soil were selected, the coefficient increased to 0.64. The geometric mean urinary inorganic arsenic concentration for the exposed group was 1.64 microg L(-1) (risk factors. These results show that high concentrations of arsenic in soil can make a contribution to urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations.

  10. Arsenic and the Epigenome: Linked by Methylation(SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an environmental toxicant currently poisoning millions of people worldwide, and chronically-exposed individuals are susceptible to arsenic poisoning, or arsenicosis. In some exposed populations arsenicosis susceptibility is dependent in part on the abil...

  11. Map of Arsenic concentrations in groundwater of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map graphic image at http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/arsenic_map.png illustrates arsenic values, in micrograms per liter, for groundwater samples from about...

  12. Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Chandrima; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenic concentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1 arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenic at initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenic concentration.

  13. Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Chandrima; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenic concentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1 arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenic at initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenic concentration. PMID:24933913

  14. 7 CFR 319.73-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Virgin Islands of the United States. Unroasted coffee. The raw or unroasted seeds or beans of..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-1 Definitions. Administrator. The.... Any individual authorized by the Administrator to enforce this subpart. Sample. Unroasted coffee...

  15. 47 CFR 73.681 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Television Broadcast Stations § 73.681 Definitions. Amplitude modulation (AM). A system of modulation in... to be transmitted. Antenna electrical beam tilt. The shaping of the radiation pattern in the vertical plane of a transmitting antenna by electrical means so that maximum radiation occurs at an angle...

  16. 40 CFR 279.73 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Fuel Marketers § 279.73 Notification. (a) Identification numbers. A used oil fuel marketer subject to the requirements of this subpart who has not... requirements and obtain an EPA identification number. (b) A marketer who has not received an EPA...

  17. 21 CFR 73.85 - Caramel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended effect. (4) Color additive mixtures for food use made with caramel may contain only diluents that are suitable and that are listed in this subpart as safe in color additive mixtures for coloring foods... EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.85 Caramel. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive caramel is the...

  18. 47 CFR 73.401 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.401 Scope. This subpart contains those rules which apply exclusively to the digital audio broadcasting (DAB) service, and are in addition to those rules in Subparts A, B, C, G and...

  19. 47 CFR 73.402 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.402 Definitions. (a) DAB. Digital audio broadcast stations are those radio stations licensed by the Commission and use the In-band On-channel (“IBOC”) system for broadcasting... into multiple channels for additional audio programming uses. (g) Datacasting. Subdividing the...

  20. Clinical manifestations and arsenic methylation after a rare subacute arsenic poisoning accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Quanmei; Li, Bing; Li, Xin; Jin, Yaping; Lv, Xiuqiang; Qu, Guang; Sun, Guifan

    2008-06-01

    One hundred and four workers ingested excessive levels of arsenic in an accident caused by leakage of pipeline in a copper-smelting factory. Clinical examinations were performed by physicians in a local hospital. Excreted urinary arsenic species were determined by cold trap hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial toxic phase, gastrointestinal symptoms were predominant (83 people, 79.8%). Most patients showed leucopenia (72 people, 69.2%), and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (84 people, 80.8%) and aspartate aminotransferase (58 people, 55.8%). Thirty-five patients (33.6%) had elevated red blood cells in urine. After 17 days of admission, many subjects (45 people, 43.3%) developed peripheral neuropathy and 25 of these 45 patients (24.0%) showed a decrease in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity. In the comparison of urinary arsenic metabolites among subacute arsenic-poisoned, chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects, we found that subacute arsenic-poisoned patients had significantly elevated proportions of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylarsonic acid (MMA) but reduced proportion of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) compared with chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects. Chronic exposed subjects excreted higher proportions of iAs and MMA but lower proportions of DMA in urine compared with control subjects. These results suggest that gastrointestinal symptoms, leucopenia, and hepatic and urinary injury are predominant in the initial phase of subacute arsenic poisoning. Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent manifestation after the initial phase. The biomethylation of arsenic decreases in a dose rate-dependent manner.

  1. Uptake of Arsenic in Rice Plant Varieties Cultivated with Arsenic Rich Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyal Bhattacharya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater of many areas of West Bengal, India is severely contaminated with arsenic. The paddy soil gets con¬taminated from the groundwater and thus there is a probability of bioaccumulation of arsenic in rice plants cultivated with arsenic contaminated groundwater and soil. This study aims at assessing the level of arsenic in irrigation water and soil and to investigate the seasonal bioaccumulation of arsenic in the various parts (straw, husk and grain of the rice plant of differ¬ent varieties in the arsenic affected two blocks (Chakdaha and Ranaghat-I of Nadia district, West Bengal. It was found that the arsenic uptake in rice during the pre-monsoon season is more than that of the post-monsoon season. The accumulation of arsenic found to vary with different rice varieties; the maximum accumulation was in White minikit (0.31±0.005 mg/kg and IR 50 (0.29±0.001 mg/kg rice varieties and minimum was found to be in the Jaya rice variety (0.14±0.002 mg/kg. In rice plant maximum arsenic accumulation occurred in the straw part (0.89±0.019-1.65±0.021 mg/kg compared to the ac¬cumulation in husk (0.31±0.011-0.85±0.016 mg/kg and grain (0.14±0.002-0.31±0.005 mg/kg parts. For any rice sample concentration of arsenic in the grain did not exceed the WHO recommended permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg/kg.

  2. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and proteinuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Pesola, Gene R; Gamble, Mary V; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteinuria has been recognized as a marker for an increased risk of chronic renal disease. It is unclear whether arsenic (As) exposure from drinking water is associated with proteinuria. Methods We evaluated the association between As exposure from drinking water and proteinuria in 11 122 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Proteinuria was detected by urinary dipstick tests at baseline and at 2-year intervals. As exposure variables included baseline well As and changes in urinary As during follow-up modelled as time-dependent variables in the analyses. Results At baseline, well As was positively related to prevalence of proteinuria; prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for proteinuria in increasing quintiles of well As (≤7, 8–39, 40–91, 92–179 and 180–864 µg/l) were 1.00 (ref), POR 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–1.27], POR 1.23 (95% CI 0.97–1.57), POR 1.50 (95% CI 1.18–1.89) and POR 1.59 (95% CI 1.26–2.00) (P for trend 70 and 17–70 µg/l in urinary As over time, respectively, and were POR 1.17 (95% CI 0.97–1.42) and POR 1.42 (95% CI 1.16–1.73) for participants with an increasing level of 16–68 and >68 µg/l in urinary As over time, respectively, compared with the group with relatively little changes in urinary As as the reference group (urinary As −16 to 15 µg/l). Conclusion The findings suggest that there are adverse effects of As exposure on the risk of proteinuria and the effects are modifiable by recent changes in As exposure. PMID:21343184

  3. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Sanner, Robert D. (Livermore, CA); Dias, Victoria L. (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2010-09-28

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  4. Arsenic-related Bowen's disease, palmar keratosis, and skin cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cöl, M; Cöl, C; Soran, A; Sayli, B S; Oztürk, S

    1999-01-01

    Chronic arsenical intoxication can still be found in environmental and industrial settings. Symptoms of chronic arsenic intoxication include general pigmentation or focal "raindrop" pigmentation of the skin and the appearance of hyperkeratosis of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. In addition to arsenic-related skin diseases including keratosis, Bowen's disease, basal-cell-carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma, there is also an increased risk of some internal malignancies. Arsenic...

  5. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Sanner, Robert D.; Dias, Victoria L.; Reynolds, John G.

    2008-07-01

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  6. Analytical Strategies for the Determination of Arsenic in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno E. S. Costa; Luciana M. Coelho; Cleide S. T. Araújo; Rezende, Helen C.; Coelho, Nívia M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is an element of concern given its toxicological significance, even at low concentrations. Food is a potential route of exposure to inorganic arsenic and in this regard arsenic in rice is associated with soil contamination, fertilizer application, and the use of arsenic-containing irrigation water. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the regional rice crops with a view to future discussions on the need for possible regulatory measures. Several studies have reported high concentr...

  7. Arsenic on the Hands of Children after Playing in Playgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Elena; Zhang, Hongquan; Wang, Zhongwen; Jhangri, Gian S; Lu, Xiufen; Fok, Nelson; Gabos, Stephan; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X. Chris

    2004-01-01

    Increasing concerns over the use of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in playground structures arise from potential exposure to arsenic of children playing in these playgrounds. Limited data from previous studies analyzing arsenic levels in sand samples collected from CCA playgrounds are inconsistent and cannot be directly translated to the amount of children’s exposure to arsenic. The objective of this study was to determine the quantitative amounts of arsenic on the hands of...

  8. Impact of arsenic in foodstuffs on the people living in the arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Badal K; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Anzai, Kazunori

    2007-10-01

    Although the accumulation of arsenic (As) in human blood is linked with some diseases and with occupational exposure, there are few reports on speciation of As in blood. On the basis of our earlier article, elevated level of arsenicals in human urine and blood were found in the ex-exposed population via As-containing drinking water. The aim of the present study was to get an insight on impact of As in foodstuffs on the people living in the As-affected areas. Moreover, speciation of arsenicals in urine, and water-samples found in arsenobetaine (AsB). Since sampling population (n=25) was not taking any seafood, As in foodstuffs was thought to be the prime source for this discrepancy. So, speciation of methanol extract of freeze-dried red blood cells (RBCs) and foodstuffs, and trichloro acetic acid (TCA) treated plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-ICP MS) collected from the study population (n=33) was carried out to support our hypothesis. Results showed that urine contained AsB (1.7%), arsenite (iAs(III)) (14.3), arsenate (iAs(V)) (4.9), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) (0.64), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) (13.6), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) (7.7), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) (65.4). Blood contained 21.3 microg L(- 1) (mean) As and of which 27.3% was in plasma and 72.7% in RBCs. RBCs contained AsB (21.6%) and DMA(V) (78.4) and blood plasma contained AsB (12.4%), iAs(III) (25.9), MMA(V) (30.3), and DMA(V) (31.4). Furthermore, speciation of As in foodstuffs showed that most of them contained AsB (3.54-25.81 microg kg(- 1)) (25.81-312.44 microg kg(- 1)) along with iAs(III) (9.62-194.93), iAs(V) (17.63-78.33), MMA(V) (9.47-73.22) and DMA(V) (13.43-101.15) that supported the presence of AsB and elevated As in urine and blood samples of the present study group. Inorganic As (iAs) predominates in rice (67.17-86.62%) and in spices (40-90.35%), respectively over organic As. So, As in the

  9. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also expose normal cells in a lab dish to the substance to see if it causes ... www.cancer.org . Known and Probable Human Carcinogens National organizations and websites Along with the American Cancer ...

  10. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J.; Stamos, Christina L.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 (mu or u)g/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 (mu or u)g/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulicconductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 (mu or u)g/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 (mu or u)g/L over a 20-year period.

  11. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J; Stamos, Christina L; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 microg/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 microg/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulic-conductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 microg/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 microg/L over a 20-year period. PMID:20113363

  12. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santander

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF and dissolved air flotation (DAF. A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic polyacrylamide (NALCO 9808 as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with flotation studies to determine the removal efficiency of adsorbents particles. The results achieved indicate that the adsorption kinetic of arsenic is very rapid and that in range of pH’s from 2 to 7 the adsorption percentages remain constant. The equilibrium conditions were achieved in 60 minutes and about 95% of arsenic was adsorbed when used an adsorbent concentration of 2 g/L and pH 6.3. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent particles was 4.96 mg/g. The mean free energy of adsorption (E was found to be 2.63 kJ/mol, which suggests physisorption. The results of the flotation studies demonstrated that when synthetic effluents with 8.9 mg/L of arsenic were treated under the following experimental conditions; 2 g/L of adsorbent particles, 120 mg/L of Fe(III, 2 mg/L of Nalco 9808, 20 mg/L of sodium oleate, and 40% of recycle ratio in the DAF, it was possible to reach 98% of arsenic removal and 6.3 NTU of residual turbidity in clarified synthetic effluent.

  13. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Madhurima Pandey; Sushma Yadav; Piyush Kant Pandey

    2007-01-01

    The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically ...

  14. Population Based Exposure Assessment of Bioaccessible Arsenic in Carrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two predominant arsenic exposure routes are food and water. Estimating the risk from dietary exposures is complicated, owing to the chemical form dependent toxicity of arsenic and the diversity of arsenicals present in dietary matrices. Two aspects of assessing dietary expo...

  15. Effect of drinking arsenic-contaminated water in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal K Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water has been a major environmental health hazard throughout the world including India. Although a lot of information is available on health effects due to chronic arsenic toxicity in adults, knowledge of such effect on children is scanty. A review of the available literature has been made to highlight the problem in children. Scientific publications on health effects of chronic arsenic toxicity in children with special reference to psychological issues are reviewed. The prevalence of skin abnormalities such as pigmentation change and keratosis, the diagnostic signs of chronic arsenic toxicity, vary in various arsenic-exposed children population in different regions of the world. The occurrence of chronic lung disease including pulmonary interstitial fibrosis has been described in arsenic-exposed children in Chile. Affection of intellectual function has also been reported to occur in arsenic-exposed children studied in Thailand, Bangladesh, and India. Methylation patterns of arsenic in children aggregate in families and are correlated in siblings, providing evidence of a genetic basis for the variation in arsenic methylation. Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water causes significant morbidity in children resulting in skin lesions, lung disease, and defect in intellectual function.

  16. The Arsenic Project: A multidisciplinary Project in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, M.; Couasnon, A.; Huijzenveld, T.; Hutten, R.; Schölvinck, O.; Van Veen, N.

    2015-01-01

    In Nicaragua, active research for arsenic started in 1996, after the first case of arsenic poisoning was reported in a rural community. Arsenic concentrations present in drinking water cause chronic poisoning, which depending on the exposure, lead to several life-threatening long term effects. It i

  17. 21 CFR 862.3120 - Arsenic test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arsenic, a poisonous heavy metal, in urine, vomitus, stomach contents, nails, hair, and blood. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of arsenic poisoning. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsenic test system. 862.3120 Section...

  18. TRACE ANALYSIS OF ARSENIC BY COLORIMETRY, ATOMIC ABSORPTION, AND POLAROGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A differential pulse polarographic method was developed for determining total arsenic concentrations in water samples from ash ponds at steam-electric generating plants. After digestion of the sample and isolation of arsenic by solvent extraction, the peak current for arsenic is ...

  19. DIVERSITY OF ARSENIC METABOLISM IN CULTURED HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversity of arsenic metabolism in cultured human cancer cell lines. Arsenic has been known to cause a variety of malignancies in human. Pentavalent As (As 5+) is reduced to trivalent As (As3+) which is further methylated by arsenic methyltransferase(s) to monomethylarson...

  20. Arsenophilic Bacterial Processes in Searles Lake: A Salt-saturated, Arsenic-rich, Alkaline Soda Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.; Kulp, T. R.; Hoeft, S. E.; Miller, L. G.; Swizer Blum, J.; Stolz, J. F.

    2005-12-01

    Searles Lake, located in the Mojave Desert of California, is essentially a chemically-similar, concentrated version of Mono Lake, but having a much higher salinity (e.g., 340 vs. 90 g/L) and a greater dissolved inorganic arsenic content in its brine (e.g., 3.9 vs. 0.2 mM). The source of all this arsenic ultimately comes from hydrothermal spring inputs, thereby underscoring the importance of volcanic and fluvial processes in transporting this toxic element into these closed basin lakes. Nonetheless, the presence of microbial activities with regard to respiration of arsenate oxyanions under anaerobic conditions and the oxidation of arsenite oxyanions under aerobic conditions can be inferred from porewater profiles taken from handcores retrieved beneath Searles Lake's salt crust. Sediment slurry incubations confirmed biological arsenate respiration and arsenite oxidation, with the former processes notably enhanced by provision of the inorganic electron donor sulfide or H2. Hence, arsenic-linked chemo-autotrophy appears to be an important means of carbon fixation in this system. Subsequent efforts using 73As-arsenate as radiotracer detected dissimilatory arsenate reduction activity down the length of the core, but we were unable to detect any evidence for sulfate-reduction using 35S-sulfate. An extremely halophilic anaerobic bacterium of the order Haloanaerobiales [strain SLAS-1] was isolated from the sediments that grew via arsenate respiration using lactate or sulfide as its electron donors. These results show that, unlike sulfate-reduction, arsenic metabolism (i.e., both oxidation of arsenite and dissimilatory reduction of arsenate) is operative and even vigorous under the extreme conditions of salt-saturation and high pH. The occurrence of arsenophilic microbial processes in Searles Lake is relevant to the search for extant or extinct microbial life on Mars. It is evident from surface imagery that Mars had past episodes of volcanism, fluvial transport, and most

  1. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearing, Michelle M., E-mail: michelle.nearing@rmc.ca; Koch, Iris, E-mail: koch-i@rmc.ca; Reimer, Kenneth J., E-mail: reimer-k@rmc.ca

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC–ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC–ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenic-sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC–ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) with HPLC–ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC–ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC–ICP-MS and ESI–MS, HPLC–ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI–MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC–ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches. - Highlights: • HPLC–ICP-MS is the most common method used for arsenic speciation. • HPLC limitations include

  2. Purification and characterization of thiols in an arsenic hyperaccumulator under arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Cai, Yong

    2003-12-15

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) is the first reported arsenic hyperaccumulator. To investigate the arsenic tolerance mechanism in this plant, reversed-phase HPLC with postcolumn derivatization was used to analyze the thiols induced under arsenic exposure. A major thiol in the plant leaflets was found to be responsive to arsenic exposure. The arsenic-induced compound was purified on a large scale by combining covalent chromatography and preparative reversed-phase HPLC. About 2 mg of this compound was isolated from 1 kg of fresh leaflets. The purified arsenic-induced compound was characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A molecular ion (M + 1) of 540 and fragments were obtained, which indicated that the arsenic-induced thiol was a phytochelatin with two subunits (PC(2)). Compared to the classical methods for purification of phytochelatins, this new method is more specific, simple, and rapid and is suitable for purification of PCs in a large scale as well as sample preparation for mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:14670068

  3. Purification and characterization of thiols in an arsenic hyperaccumulator under arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Cai, Yong

    2003-12-15

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) is the first reported arsenic hyperaccumulator. To investigate the arsenic tolerance mechanism in this plant, reversed-phase HPLC with postcolumn derivatization was used to analyze the thiols induced under arsenic exposure. A major thiol in the plant leaflets was found to be responsive to arsenic exposure. The arsenic-induced compound was purified on a large scale by combining covalent chromatography and preparative reversed-phase HPLC. About 2 mg of this compound was isolated from 1 kg of fresh leaflets. The purified arsenic-induced compound was characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A molecular ion (M + 1) of 540 and fragments were obtained, which indicated that the arsenic-induced thiol was a phytochelatin with two subunits (PC(2)). Compared to the classical methods for purification of phytochelatins, this new method is more specific, simple, and rapid and is suitable for purification of PCs in a large scale as well as sample preparation for mass spectrometry analysis.

  4. Arsenic speciation in rice and risk assessment of inorganic arsenic in Taiwan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Ching-Chang; Huang, Winn-Jung; Huang, Han-Ting; Wu, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Yi-Ting

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the total arsenic content and arsenic speciation in rice to determine the health risks associated with rice consumption in various age-gender subgroups in Taiwan. The average total arsenic levels in white rice and brown rice were 116.6 ± 39.2 and 215.5 ± 63.5 ng/g weight (n = 51 and 13), respectively. The cumulative cancer risk among males was 10.4/100,000. The highest fraction of inorganic/total arsenic content in white rice ranged from 76.9 to 88.2 % and from 81.0 to 96.5 % in brown rice. The current study found different arsenic speciation of rice in southern Taiwan, where the famous blackfoot disease has been reported compared with arsenic speciation from other Taiwan areas. Therefore, rice and other grains should be further monitored in southern Taiwan to evaluate whether arsenic contamination is well controlled in this area.

  5. Metallothionein does not sequester arsenic(III) ions in condition of acute arsenic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garla, Roobee; Ganger, Renuka; Mohanty, Biraja P; Verma, Shivcharan; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2016-07-29

    The major cause of toxicity of trivalent arsenicals is due to their interaction with the sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Because of its high content, Metallothionein (MT) provides one of the most favorable conditions for the binding of As(III) ions to it. MT has long been anticipated for providing resistance in case of arsenic (As) toxicity with similar mechanism as in case of cadmium toxicity. The present study investigates whether the sequestration of As ions by MT is one of the mechanisms in providing protection against acute arsenic toxicity. A rat model study on the metal stoichiometric analysis of MT1 isoform isolated from the liver of arsenic treated, untreated and zinc treated animals has been carried out using the combination of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed the absence of arsenic bound MT1 in the samples isolated from arsenic treated animals. Although, both Cu and Zn ions were present in MT1 samples isolated from all the treatment groups. Moreover, only partially metallated MT1 with varying number of Zn ions were observed in all the groups. These results suggest that the role of MT during acute arsenic toxicity is different from its already established role in case of cadmium toxicity.

  6. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-16

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family's residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  7. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure. PMID:26784217

  8. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family's residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  9. Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Pi, J.B.; Li, B.; Xu, Y.Y.; Jin, Y.P.; Sun, G.F. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China). Dept. for Occupational & Environmental Health

    2008-10-15

    In contrast to arsenicosis caused by consumption of water contaminated by naturally occurring inorganic arsenic, human exposure to this metalloid through coal burning has been rarely reported. In this study, arsenic speciation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in urine were determined in the Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning in Guizhou, China, an epidemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by coal burning. The urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and total arsenic (tAs) of high-arsenic exposed subjects were significantly higher than those of low-arsenic exposed residents. A biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly higher in high-arsenic exposed subjects than that of low exposed. Significant positive correlations were found between 8-OHdG levels and concentrations of iAs, MMA, DMA and tAs, respectively. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between 8-OHdG levels and the secondary methylation ratio (DMA/(MMA + DMA)). The results suggest that chronic arsenic exposure through burning coal rich in arsenic is associated with oxidative DNA damages, and that secondary methylation capacity is potentially related to the susceptibility of individuals to oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic exposure through coal burning in domestic living.

  10. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members. Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  11. Arsenic biotransformation and volatilization in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Yan; Qin, Jie; Wang, Li-Hong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Hui-Lan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Ling, Hong-Qing; Rosen, Barry P; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-07-01

    • Biotransformation of arsenic includes oxidation, reduction, methylation, and conversion to more complex organic arsenicals. Members of the class of arsenite (As(III)) S-adenosylmethyltransferase enzymes catalyze As(III) methylation to a variety of mono-, di-, and trimethylated species, some of which are less toxic than As(III) itself. However, no methyltransferase gene has been identified in plants. • Here, an arsM gene from the soil bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was expressed in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cv Nipponbare, and the transgenic rice produced methylated arsenic species, which were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). • Both monomethylarsenate (MAs(V)) and dimethylarsenate (DMAs(V)) were detected in the roots and shoots of transgenic rice. After 12 d exposure to As(III), the transgenic rice gave off 10-fold greater volatile arsenicals. • The present study demonstrates that expression of an arsM gene in rice induces arsenic methylation and volatilization, theoretically providing a potential stratagem for phytoremediation. PMID:21517874

  12. Occurrence of arsenic contamination in Canada: sources, behavior and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suiling; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2006-08-01

    Recently there has been increasing anxieties concerning arsenic related problems. Occurrence of arsenic contamination has been reported worldwide. In Canada, the main natural arsenic sources are weathering and erosion of arsenic-containing rocks and soil, while tailings from historic and recent gold mine operations and wood preservative facilities are the principal anthropogenic sources. Across Canada, the 24-h average concentration of arsenic in the atmosphere is generally less than 0.3 microg/m3. Arsenic concentrations in natural uncontaminated soil and sediments range from 4 to 150 mg/kg. In uncontaminated surface and ground waters, the arsenic concentration ranges from 0.001 to 0.005 mg/L. As a result of anthropogenic inputs, elevated arsenic levels, above ten to thousand times the Interim Maximum Acceptable Concentration (IMAC), have been reported in air, soil and sediment, surface water and groundwater, and biota in several regions. Most arsenic is of toxic inorganic forms. It is critical to recognize that such contamination imposes serious harmful effects on various aquatic and terrestrial organisms and human health ultimately. Serious incidences of acute and chronic arsenic poisonings have been revealed. Through examination of the available literature, screening and selecting existing data, this paper provides an analysis of the currently available information on recognized problem areas, and an overview of current knowledge of the principal hydrogeochemical processes of arsenic transportation and transformation. However, a more detailed understanding of local sources of arsenic and mechanisms of arsenic release is required. More extensive studies will be required for building practical guidance on avoiding and reducing arsenic contamination. Bioremediation and hyperaccumulation are emerging innovative technologies for the remediation of arsenic contaminated sites. Natural attenuation may be utilized as a potential in situ remedial option. Further

  13. Arsenic Speciation in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Along a Highly Contaminated Arsenic Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whaley-Martin, K.J.; Koch, I.; Moriarty, M.; Reimer, K.J. (Royal)

    2012-11-01

    Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R{sup 2} = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R{sup 2} = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte.

  14. DEC1 coordinates with HDAC8 to differentially regulate TAp73 and ΔNp73 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjuan Qian

    Full Text Available P73, a member of the p53 family, plays a critical role in neural development and tumorigenesis. Due to the usage of two different promoters, p73 is expressed as two major isoforms, TAp73 and ΔNp73, often with opposing functions. Here, we reported that transcriptional factor DEC1, a target of the p53 family, exerts a distinct control of TAp73 and ΔNp73 expression. In particular, we showed that DEC1 was able to increase TAp73 expression via transcriptional activation of the TAp73 promoter. By contrast, Np73 transcription was inhibited by DEC1 via transcriptional repression of the ΔNp73 promoter. To further explore the underlying mechanism, we showed that DEC1 was unable to increase TAp73 expression in the absence of HDAC8, suggesting that HDAC8 is required for DEC1 to enhance TAp73 expression. Furthermore, we found that DEC1 was able to interact with HDAC8 and recruit HDAC8 to the TAp73, but not the ΔNp73, promoter. Together, our data provide evidence that DEC1 and HDAC8 in differentially regulate TAp73 and ΔNp73 expression, suggesting that this regulation may lay a foundation for a therapeutic strategy to enhance the chemosensitivity of tumor cells.

  15. Overexpressed TP73 induces apoptosis in medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Perlaky Laszlo; Adesina Adekunle M; Rajan Jessen A; Skapura Darlene G; Lin Linda L; De Bortoli Massimiliano; Castellino Robert C; Irwin Meredith S; Kim John YH

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Children who relapse usually die of their disease, which reflects resistance to radiation and/or chemotherapy. Improvements in outcome require a better understanding of the molecular basis of medulloblastoma growth and treatment response. TP73 is a member of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene family that has been found to be overexpressed in a variety of tumors and mediates apoptotic responses to genotoxic ...

  16. ARSENIC DEGRADATION BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa FOR WATER BIOREMEDIATION. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther E. Pellizzari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the arsenic resistance in pure cultivations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña groundwater (Chaco province, and evaluate the possibility of its use to remove arsenic from groundwater. Strains were immobilized in natural stone and cultivated in salts broth and 1 mgAs/L. The arsenic resistance and biofilm formation were observed, obtaining interaction between cells, rock and arsenic. Arsenic removal was evaluated during 3 months and its final percentage of the experiment was 60%.

  17. Arsenic Exposure and the Induction of Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a metalloid, that is, considered to be a human carcinogen. Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed through drinking water, with consequences ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies, such as skin and lung cancer. Despite well-known arsenic-related health effects, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood; however, the arsenic biotransformation process, which includes methylation changes, is thought to play a key role. This paper explores the relationship of arsenic exposure with cancer development and summarizes current knowledge of the potential mechanisms that may contribute to the neoplastic processes observed in arsenic exposed human populations.

  18. Determination of total arsenic in soil and arsenic-resistant bacteria from selected ground water in Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambodia has geological environments conducive to generation of high-arsenic groundwater and people are at high risk of chronic arsenic exposure. The aims of this study are to investigate the concentration of total arsenic and to isolate and identify arsenic-resistant bacteria from selected locations in Kandal Province, Cambodia. The INAA technique was used to measure the concentration of total arsenic in soils. The arsenic concentrations in soils were above permissible 5 mg/kg, ranging from 5.34 to 27.81 mg/kg. Bacteria resistant to arsenic from two arsenic-contaminated wells in Preak Russey were isolated by enrichment method in nutrient broth (NB). Colonies isolated from NB was then grown on minimal salt media (MSM) added with arsenic at increasing concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 and 250 ppm. Two isolates that can tolerate 750 ppm of arsenic were identified as Enterobacter agglomerans and Acinetobacter lwoffii based on a series of biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis. Optimum growth of both isolates ranged from pH 6.6 to 7.0 and 30-35 deg C. E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii were able to remove 66.4 and 64.1 % of arsenic, respectively at the initial concentration of 750 ppm, within 72 h of incubation. Using energy dispersive X-ray technique, the percentage of arsenic absorbed by E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii was 0.09 and 0.15 %, respectively. This study suggested that arsenic-resistant E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii removed arsenic from media due to their ability to absorb arsenic. (author)

  19. Speciation of arsenic in sulfidic waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Robert G

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation constants for thioarsenite species have been determined in dilute solutions at 25°C, ΣH2S from 10-7.5 to 10-3.0 M, ΣAs from 10-5.6 to 10-4.8 M, and pH 7 and 10. The principal inorganic arsenic species in anoxic aquatic systems are arsenite, As(OH30, and a mononuclear thioarsenite with an S/As ratio of 3:1. Thioarsenic species with S/As ratios of 1 : 1,2 : 1, and 4 : 1 are lesser components in sulfidic solutions that might be encountered in natural aquatic environments. Thioarsenites dominate arsenic speciation at sulfide concentrations > 10-4.3 M at neutral pH. Conversion from neutral As(OH30 to anionic thioarsenite species may regulate the transport and fate of arsenic in sulfate-reducing environments by governing sorption and mineral precipitation reactions.

  20. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries.

  1. [Noncirrhotic liver fibrosis after chronic arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, M; Hengels, K J; Borchard, F; Strohmeyer, G

    1989-10-27

    A 67-year-old woman with portal hypertension, splenomegaly without portal vein thrombosis, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia of splenic origin had repeated episodes of life-threatening haemorrhage from esophageal varices. Since childhood she had suffered from psoriasis and had been treated over a period of 15 years with Fowler's solution (in all about 25 g of arsenic trioxide). She had the characteristic skin lesions of arsenical poisoning-palmar hyperkeratoses and two basal cell carcinomas on the trunk. Histological examination of a wedge biopsy from the liver showed definite structural changes with fibrosis around the central veins and in the portal tracts. There was no evidence of cirrhotic alteration. The hepatocytes were normal by light microscopy and electron microscopy. This case of noncirrhotic hepatic fibrosis is considered to have been caused by chronic arsenical poisoning.

  2. Emissions of arsenic in Sweden and their reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, L

    1977-08-01

    The role of arsenic in Sweden is generally described, including raw materials, exports/imports, products, consumption, etc. An attempt was also made to estimate the transport of arsenic in Sweden. The quantities of arsenic in raw materials, the emissions of arsenic from such processes as copper smelters and chemical industries, and the amounts of products containing arsenic were calculated. The studies show that a copper smelter is the main user of arsenical materials, the very largest emitting source and also the plant which manufacturers most arsenic products. A summary of measurements of arsenic in air, water and soil in Sweden has also been made. The concentrations near a smelter, in the Baltic, in cities and in "clean-air areas" are given. The efforts made to date to reduce the emissions of arsenic and the measures planned for the next few years are described. A reduction has already been achieved and a further rather large decrease will come, especially in arsenic levels in water. The possibilities of minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic is also discussed. PMID:908306

  3. Establishment of Groundwater Arsenic Potential Distribution and Discrimination in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo Sheng; Chen, Yu Ying; Chung Liu, Chih; Lin, Chien Wen

    2016-04-01

    According to the last 10 years groundwater monitoring data in Taiwan, Arsenic concentration increase rapidly in some areas, similar to Bengal and India, the main source of Arsenic-polluted groundwater is geological sediments, through reducing reactions. There are many researches indicate that high concentration of Arsenic in groundwater poses the risk to water safety, for example, the farm lands irrigation water contains Arsenic cause the concentration of Arsenic increase in soil and crops. Based on the management of water usage instead of remediation in the situation of insufficient water. Taiwan EPA has been developed the procedures of Arsenic contamination potential area establishment and source discriminated process. Taiwan EPA use the procedures to determine the management of using groundwater, and the proposing usage of Arsenic groundwater accordance with different objects. Agencies could cooperate with the water quality standard or water needs, studying appropriate water purification methods and the groundwater depth, water consumption, thus achieve the goal of water safety and environmental protection, as a reference of policy to control total Arsenic concentration in groundwater. Keywords: Arsenic; Distribution; Discrimination; Pollution potential area of Arsenic; Origin evaluation of groundwater Arsenic

  4. Arsenic in the environment: enrichments in the Slovenian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, a toxic element with metalloid properties, is found in detectable concentrations in environmental samples. In nature it is enriched in metal (sulphide ore deposits, mainly as arsenides of Cu, Ni and Fe. Arsenic compounds are used mainly in agricultureand forestry as pesticides and herbicides. The ecosystem can be contaminated with arsenic via both natural and anthropogenic sources. Uses of arsenic contaminated water present so far the greatest health hazard. Occurrences of mining related arsenic problems havealso been recorded in many parts of the world.The impact of mining and metallurgic industry with regard to arsenic contents in soils in some potentially contaminated areas in Slovenia is discussed. Enriched contents of arsenic were found in Mežica. Arsenic correlates very well with lead, zinc and other heavymetals which are enriched as a result of long lasting lead production in the area. Also in Celje and Jesenice arsenic has the same distribution pattern as other anthropogenically introduced pollutants. In Idrija there are some slightly arsenic enriched areas, but there is no correlation with mercury, so the origin of arsenic in not clear yet.

  5. The Case for Visual Analytics of Arsenic Concentrations in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo R. Awofolu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the body. Visual Analytics is a multidisciplinary field that is defined as the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. The concentrations of arsenic vary in foods making it impractical and impossible to provide regulatory limit for each food. This review article presents a case for the use of visual analytics approaches to provide comparative assessment of arsenic in various foods. The topics covered include (i metabolism of arsenic in the human body; (ii arsenic concentrations in various foods; (ii factors affecting arsenic uptake in plants; (ii introduction to visual analytics; and (iv benefits of visual analytics for comparative assessment of arsenic concentration in foods. Visual analytics can provide an information superstructure of arsenic in various foods to permit insightful comparative risk assessment of the diverse and continually expanding data on arsenic in food groups in the context of country of study or origin, year of study, method of analysis and arsenic species.

  6. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as μg/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe

  7. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.meharg@abdn.ac.uk; Sun, Guoxin [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Williams, Paul N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Zhu, Yong-Guan [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea [Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as {mu}g/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe.

  8. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN DRINKING WATER: AN ASSESSMENT FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem BİLİCİ ÇALIŞKAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust and classified as a non-metal or a metalloid. Arsenic is toxic and carcinogen and in the environment occurs from both natural and anthropogenic sources. In the aqueous environment inorganic arsenic appears commonly in forms of arsenite (As(III and arsenate (As(V. pH, redox potential, and the presence of complexing ions such as ions of sulfur, iron, and calcium determine the arsenic valence and speciation. Because of the naturally occurring arsenic contamination in groundwater in many parts of the world many people have faced with risk of arsenic poisoning. In Turkey especially in the west regions, natural water sources contained much higher levels of arsenic than maximum contaminated level (MCL set (10 ?g/L were determined. In this study, arsenic problem and its reasons in Turkey were investigated. For this purpose, arsenic analyses were carried out and higher levels of arsenic than MCL was detected in some regions of Izmir. High levels of arsenic in these natural waters were considered to be associated with the dissolution of some minerals and rock formation.

  9. Trivalent arsenic inhibits the functions of chaperonin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuewen; Reissman, Stefanie; Douglas, Nick R; Huang, Zhiwei; Yuan, Daniel S; Wang, Xiaoling; McCaffery, J Michael; Frydman, Judith; Boeke, Jef D

    2010-10-01

    The exact molecular mechanisms by which the environmental pollutant arsenic works in biological systems are not completely understood. Using an unbiased chemogenomics approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that mutants of the chaperonin complex TRiC and the functionally related prefoldin complex are all hypersensitive to arsenic compared to a wild-type strain. In contrast, mutants with impaired ribosome functions were highly arsenic resistant. These observations led us to hypothesize that arsenic might inhibit TRiC function, required for folding of actin, tubulin, and other proteins postsynthesis. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that arsenic treatment distorted morphology of both actin and microtubule filaments. Moreover, arsenic impaired substrate folding by both bovine and archaeal TRiC complexes in vitro. These results together indicate that TRiC is a conserved target of arsenic inhibition in various biological systems. PMID:20660648

  10. Method development for arsenic analysis by modification in spectrophotometric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a non-metallic constituent, present naturally in groundwater due to some minerals and rocks. Arsenic is not geologically uncommon and occurs in natural water as arsenate and arsenite. Additionally, arsenic may occur from industrial discharges or insecticide application. World Health Organization (WHO and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority have recommended a permissible limit of 10 ppb for arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic at lower concentrations can be determined in water by using high tech instruments like the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (hydride generation. Because arsenic concentration at low limits of 1 ppb can not be determined easily with simple spectrophotometric technique, the spectrophotometric technique using silver diethyldithiocarbamate was modified to achieve better results, up to the extent of 1 ppb arsenic concentration.

  11. A global health problem caused by arsenic from natural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Shraim, A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology

    2003-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen to both humans and animals. Arsenicals have been associated with cancers of the skin, lung, and bladder. Clinical manifestations of chronic arsenic poisoning include non-cancer end point of hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, keratosis, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Epidemiological evidence indicates that arsenic concentration exceeding 50 {mu}g l{sup -1} in the drinking water is not public health protective. The current WHO recommended guideline value for arsenic in drinking water is 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}, whereas many developing countries are still having a value of 50 {mu}g 1{sup -1}. It has been estimated that tens of millions of people are at risk exposing to excessive levels of arsenic from both contaminated water and arsenic-bearing coal from natural sources. The global health implication and possible intervention strategies were also discussed in this review article.

  12. Coping with arsenic-based pesticides on Dine (Navajo) textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jae R.

    Arsenic-based pesticide residues have been detected on Arizona State Museum's (ASM) Dine (Navajo) textile collection using a handheld portable X-ray (pXRF) spectrometer. The removal of this toxic pesticide from historic textiles in museums collections is necessary to reduce potential health risks to Native American communities, museum professionals, and visitors. The research objective was divided into three interconnected stages: (1) empirically calibrate the pXRF instrument for arsenic contaminated cotton and wool textiles; (2) engineer an aqueous washing treatment exploring the effects of time, temperature, agitation, and pH conditions to efficiently remove arsenic from wool textiles while minimizing damage to the structure and properties of the textile; (3) demonstrate the devised aqueous washing treatment method on three historic Navajo textiles known to have arsenic-based pesticide residues. The preliminary results removed 96% of arsenic from a high arsenic concentration (~1000 ppm) textile opposed to minimal change for low arsenic concentration textiles (<100 ppm).

  13. Phytoremediation of arsenic in submerged soil by wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomjun, Nateewattana; Siripen, Trichaiyaporn; Maliwan, Saeouy; Jintapat, Nateewattana; Prasak, Thavornyutikarn; Somporn, Choonluchanon; Petch, Pengchai

    2011-01-01

    Wetland aquatic plants including Canna glauca L., Colocasia esculenta L. Schott, Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were used in the phytoremediation of submerged soil polluted by arsenic (As). Cyperus papyrus L. was noticed as the largest biomass producer which has arsenic accumulation capacity of 130-172 mg As/kg plant. In terms of arsenic removal rate, however, Colocasia esculenta L. was recognized as the largest and fastest arsenic remover in this study. Its arsenic removal rate was 68 mg As/m2/day while those rates of Canna glauca L., Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were 61 mg As/m2/day, 56 mg As/m2/day, and 56 mg As/m2/day, respectively. Although the 4 aquatic plants were inferior in arsenic accumulation, their high arsenic removal rates were observed. Phytostabilization should be probable for the application of these plants. PMID:21598766

  14. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC-ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC-ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenicsbnd sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC-ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with HPLC-ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC-ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC-ICP-MS and ESI-MS, HPLC-ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI-MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC-ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches.

  15. Multiple Stress Signals Induce p73β Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wei Lin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Although p73 is a structural and functional homologue of the tumor-suppressor gene p53, it is not mutated in many human cancers as p53. Besides, p73 was shown to be activated by only a subset of signals that activate p53, such as y-irradiation and cisplatin, but not by other common genotoxic stress-inducing agents such as ultraviolet (UV irradiation, although many of these signals are also capable of inducing p53-independent cell death. Using a p73-specific antibody, we confirmed that c-Abl is required for cisplatininduced p73 upregulation, and further demonstrate that the p73 protein is upregulated by UV irradiation and other stress stimuli including sorbitol, hydrogen peroxide, nocodazol, and taxol. These stress signals upregulate both p73 mRNA and increases the stability of p73, indicating that p73 is regulated transcriptionally and posttranslationally. Cells stably expressing the dominant-negative p73 inhibitor protein (p73DD and p73-/- fibroblasts are more resistant than control cells to apoptosis induced by these stress signals, suggesting that p73 contributes to apoptosis induction. Together, the data demonstrate that several stress signals can signal to p73 in vivo, which raises the possibility of eradicating cancers with an unmutated p73 gene by activating them with stress-inducing agents or their mimetics.

  16. Biosensors for Inorganic and Organic Arsenicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed and is strongly associated with human health problems, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To date, a number of biosensors for the detection of arsenic involving the coupling of biological engineering and electrochemical techniques has been developed. The properties of whole-cell bacterial or cell-free biosensors are summarized in the present review with emphasis on their sensitivity and selectivity. Their limitations and future challenges are highlighted.

  17. Arsenic in Drinking Water and Its Removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenzhong; Deng Huiping; Zhan Jian

    2007-01-01

    Superfluous arsenic in drinking water can do harm to human health.In this paper,a broad overview of the available technologies for arsenic removal has been presented on the basis of literature survey.The main treatment methods included coagulation-sedimentation,adsorption separation and ion exchange,membrane technique,which have both advantages and disadvantages.It concluded that the selection of treatment process should be site specific and prevailing conditions and no process can serve the purpose under diverse conditions as each technology has its own limitations,In order to gain good results,some methods should be improved.

  18. Immobilisation of arsenic by iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, A.; Hohmann, C.; Winkler, E.; Muehe, M.; Morin, G.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is an environmental problem that affects about 1-2% of the world's population. As arsenic-contaminated water is also used for irrigating rice fields, the uptake of arsenic via rice is in some cases even higher than via drinking water. Arsenic is often of geogenic origin and in many cases bound to iron(III) minerals. Microbial iron(III) reduction leads to dissolution of Fe(III) minerals and thus the arsenic bound to these minerals is released to the environment. In turn, iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria have the potential to co-precipitate or sorb arsenic during iron(II) oxidation followed by iron(III) mineral formation. Here, we present work on arsenic co-precipitation and immobilization by anaerobic and aerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria. Co-precipitation batch experiments with pure cultures of nitrate-dependent, phototrophic, and microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are used to quantify the amount of arsenic that can be immobilized during microbial iron mineral precipitation. Iron and arsenic speciation and redox state are determined by X- ray diffraction and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption methods (EXAFS, XANES). Microcosm experiments are set-up either with liquid media or with rice paddy soil amended with arsenic. Rice paddy soil from arsenic contaminated rice fields in China that include a natural population of Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms is used as inoculum. Dissolved and solid-phase arsenic and iron are quantified, Arsenic speciation is determined and the iron minerals are identified. Additionally, Arsenic uptake into the rice plant is quantified and a gene expression pattern in rice (Oryza sativa cv Gladia) is determined by microarrays as a response to the presence of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria.

  19. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  20. Outbreak of chronic arsenic poisoning among retired workers from an arsenic mine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinishi, N; Kodama, Y; Nobutomo, K; Inamasu, T; Kunitake, E; Suenaga, Y

    1977-01-01

    Retired former workers of Matsuo Arsenic Mine of Miyazaki prefecture in Japan were subjected to extensive medical examination. The number of retired workers subjected to examination were 61 of 208 workers who were engaged in the works of the mine and were tracked down by the work rolls. These workers left the mine more than 15 years prior to the time of the examination. The main works in the mine were classified as mining, dressing of ores, refining, and clerical work. Several findings such as arsenodermatitis, depigmentation, performation of nasal septum, hyposmia, anosmia, and peripheral nervous disturbance attributed to exposure to arsenic were observed in 9 of 21 roasters who often worked in the arsenic kitchen. No characteristic findings of arsenic poisoning, that is, gastrointestinal disturbance, disorder of the cardiovascular system, hematopoietic disorders, or liver disturbance were observed in the retired workers. Another notable finding was that 8 cases diagnosed as pneumoconiosis were found in 18 miners. PMID:908287

  1. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L.

  2. Arsenic speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines and human health implication for inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Quan-Li; Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul; Lu, Xiu-Jun; Cai, Jing-Zhu; Liu, Wen-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Rice and drinking water are recognized as the dominant sources of arsenic (As) for human intake, while little is known about As accumulation and speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), which have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both eastern and western cultures. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. The levels of inorganic arsenic in CHMs from fields and markets or pharmacies ranged from 63 to 550 ng/g with a mean of 208 ng/g and 94 to 8683 ng/g with a mean of 1092 ng/g, respectively. The highest concentration was found in the Chrysanthemum from pharmacies. It indicates that the risk of inorganic As in CHMs to human health is higher in medicines from markets or pharmacies than that collected directly from fields. Some CHMs may make a considerable contribution to the human intake of inorganic arsenic.

  3. The MRP2/cMOAT transporter and arsenic-glutathione complex formation are required for biliary excretion of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, S V; Neely, M W; Kala, G; Prater, C I; Atwood, D W; Rice, J S; Lieberman, M W

    2000-10-27

    Worldwide, millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water that exceeds the World Health Organization standard of 10 microg/liter by as much as 50-300-fold, yet little is known about the molecular basis for arsenic excretion. Here we show that transport of arsenic into bile depends on the MRP2/cMOAT transporter and that glutathione is obligatory for such transport. Using reversed phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that two arsenic-glutathione complexes not previously identified in vivo, arsenic triglutathione and methylarsenic diglutathione, account for most of the arsenic in the bile. The structure of the compounds was also confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our findings may help explain the increased susceptibility of malnourished human populations to arsenic. PMID:10938093

  4. Preliminary study on the mode of occurrence of arsenic in high arsenic coals from southwest Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁振华; 郑宝山; 张杰; H.; E.; Belkin; R.; B.; Finkelman; 赵峰华; 周代兴; 周运书; 陈朝刚

    1999-01-01

    Coal samples from high arsenic coal areas have been analyzed by electron microprobe analyzer ( EMPA) , scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) , X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) , low temperature ashing (LTA) , transmission electron microscopy (TEM) , X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) , instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wet chemical analysis. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, and As-bearing clays are found in the high arsenic coals, their contents do not account for the abundance of arsenic in the some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that arsenic exists mainly in the form of As5+ and As3+ , combined with compounds in the organic matrix. The occurrence of such exceptionally high arsenic contents in coal and the fact that the arsenic is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. The modes of occurrence of arsenic in high As-coals are discussed.

  5. p73基因与肿瘤%p73 gene and tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元东; 范士志

    2005-01-01

    癌基因的激活和抑癌基因的失活是人类恶性肿瘤发生和发展的重要原因.p53基因是与人类肿瘤相关性最高的基因,近半数的恶性肿瘤与p53基因的突变有关,而p73基因是1997年发现的p53基因家族的一个成员,近年来对其结构、功能、分布和表达情况都有了深入的研究.我们就p73基因的研究现状以及其在人类肿瘤中的表达情况作一综述.p73基因定位于1p36.33,由13个外显子和12个内含子组成,表达相对分子质量为73×103的蛋白,在结构上与p53蛋白有同源性.p73过表达时能抑制细胞生长和诱导细胞凋亡,但是病毒原癌蛋白却与p73没有相互作用.C-Ab1激酶可以活化p73基因并参与凋亡反应.p73基因敲除的小鼠没有肿瘤易患现象发生,但却有严重的发育异常.p73基因在神经母细胞瘤中不常发生突变,在肺癌、食管癌、肝癌、卵巢癌、乳腺癌表达增高,在淋巴瘤和某些白血病表达降低.与p53基因有明显的不同,p73基因有自己独特的功能.对于野生型 p73基因在多种人类肿瘤中过表达的一种解释是,p73基因的过表达可能是一种p53基因失活的代偿反应,虽然这种作用可能无法完全替代p53基因的作用.但是目前研究已经证实p73基因很少突变,而且在肿瘤组织中存在异常表达,增加其表达可能诱导肿瘤细胞的凋亡,并且在p53基因突变时起抑制肿瘤细胞增殖的作用.因此增强p73基因表达也许是恶性肿瘤治疗的一种新方法.

  6. Mechanism of arsenic tolerance and bioremoval of arsenic by Acidithiobacilus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prabha M N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This paper reports the studies on mechanism of arsenic tolerance and bioremoval of arsenic ions (arsenite or arsenate by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Exposure of cells to arsenic ions resulted in increased cell surface hydrophobicity, decreased electrophoretic mobility and stronger adsorption affinity towards arsenopyrite. The mechanism of tolerance to arsenic ions were specific and could be attributed to the changes in specific protein expression in the outer membrane and cytosolic membrane fractions. Biosorption studies showed decrease in solution arsenic concentration only with ferrous–grown cells indicating that presence of ferric ions in the EPS was necessary for binding or entrapment of arsenic ions in the EPS. Bacterial EPS of ferrous–grown wild cells were able to uptake arsenate ions due to the strong affinity of ferric ions towards arsenate ions. Neither cells nor the ferric ions were capable of precipitating or oxidizing arsenite ions directly. Both arsenate ions and arsenite ions were co–precipitated with ferric ions formed during the growth of the bacteria.  

  7. Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nandita [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Ma, Lena Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.ed [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Vu, Joseph C. [Chemistry Research Unit, CMAVE, USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL 32608-1069 and Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0500 (United States); Raj, Anshita [Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2009-08-15

    This study investigated the effects of arsenic on the in vitro activities of the enzymes (nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in nitrate metabolism in the roots, rhizomes, and fronds of four-month old Pteris vittata (arsenic - hyperaccumulator) and Pteris ensiformis (non-arsenic--hyperaccumulator) plants. The arsenic treatments (0, 150, and 300 muM as sodium arsenate) in hydroponics had adverse effects on the root and frond dry weights, and this effect was more evident in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of arsenate-treated plants were reduced more in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. This effect was accompanied by similar decreases in tissue NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Therefore, this decrease is interpreted as being indirect, i.e., the consequence of the reduced NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake and translocation in the plants. The study shows the difference in the tolerance level of the two Pteris species with varying sensitivity to arsenic. - Arsenic reduced the activity of nitrate and nitrite reductase more in Pteris ensiformis than Pteris vittata.

  8. Interaction of Arsenic with Zinc and Organics in a Rice (Oryza sativa L.–Cultivated Field in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Das

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment on an Inceptisol with pH 7.6, organic carbon 6.8 g kg–1, and 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable arsenic 0.4 mg kg–1 was conducted to study the interaction effect of graded levels of arsenic (0, 5, and 10 mg kg–1 with zinc (0, 10, and 20 mg kg–1 and organics (0, 1, and 2% on soil weight basis separately on the mobilization of arsenic in soils.The results show that the amount of 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable arsenic at pH 8.5 increased with the progress of submergence up to 35 days. However, the increase in arsenic concentration was correlated with decreasing application of graded levels of Zn as zinc sulfate. The intensity of reduction varied with varying levels of Zn, being higher (0.73–2.72 mg kg–1 in the treatment where Zn was at 10 mg kg–1 and lower (0.70–1.08 mg kg–1 with Zn at 20 mg kg–1 application.The amount of arsenic content in the soil significantly decreased with the application of varying levels of organics. However, such depressive effect was found more pronounced with well-decomposed farm yard manure than that of vermicompost. The results of field experiments showed that the grain yield between continuous flooding (4.84 t ha–1 and intermittent flooding up to 40 days after transplanting then continuous flooding (4.83 t ha–1 with the application of ZnSO4 at 25 kg ha–1 did not vary. The lowest grain yield (3.65 t ha–1 was recorded in the treatment where intermittent flooding was maintained throughout the growth period without the application of Zn. The amount of arsenic content was, however, recorded much lower in the treatment where intermittent flooding throughout the growth period was maintained with ZnSO4.

  9. Soil Contamination by Arsenic in Urban Areas: A case study of Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Solgi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: It seems that arsenic in soil is controlled by natural and anthropogenic factors. The highest concentrations of arsenic in center and the north areas reflected arsenic loading is originated from anthropogenic sources such as vehicles and industrial processes.

  10. Arsenic Speciation in Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fubin; Ni, Zhanglin; Liu, Yihua; Yu, Qing; Wang, Zhikun; Mo, Runhong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, honeysuckle, a common Chinese herbal medicine, produced from different areas was investigated for total arsenic and arsenic species concentration. The total arsenic concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ranged from 275 to 635 μg kg(-1). A microwave-assisted procedure with 1 % phosphoric acid (v/v) was used for the extraction of arsenic species in honeysuckle. The total arsenic species concentration found by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) was in agreement with the total arsenic concentration determined by the ICP-MS analysis after the microwave digestion. Arsenate (As(V)) with an average proportion of 54.3 % was the predominant arsenic species in honeysuckle. The order of concentration is as follows: As(V) > arsenite (As(III)) > dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) > arsenobetaine (AsB) > monomethylarsonic acid (MMA). The proportion of organic arsenic (24.7 %) was higher than that in most terrestrial plants. Moreover, the distributions of arsenic species in the honeysuckle from different producing areas were significantly different. This study provides useful information for better understanding of the distribution of arsenic species in terrestrial plants.

  11. Arsenic hydrogeochemistry in an irrigated river valley - A reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations in ground water of the lower Madison River valley, Montana, are high (16 to 176 ??g/L). Previous studies hypothesized that arsenic-rich river water, applied as irrigation, was evapoconcentrated during recharge and contaminated the thin alluvial aquifer. Based on additional data collection and a reevaluation of the hydrology and geochemistry of the valley, the high arsenic concentrations in ground water are caused by a unique combination of natural hydrologic and geochemical factors, and irrigation appears to play a secondary role. The high arsenic concentrations in ground water have several causes: direct aquifer recharge by Madison River water having arsenic concentrations as high as 100 ??g/L, leaching of arsenic from Tertiary volcano-clastic sediment, and release of sorbed arsenic where redox conditions in ground water are reduced. The findings are consistent with related studies that demonstrate that arsenic is sorbed by irrigated soils in the valley. Although evaporation of applied irrigation water does not significantly increase arsenic concentrations in ground water, irrigation with arsenic-rich water raises other environmental concerns.

  12. Arsenic efflux from Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhou Yan

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton plays an important role in arsenic speciation, distribution, and cycling in freshwater environments. Little information, however, is available on arsenic efflux from the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes. This study investigated M. aeruginosa arsenic efflux and speciation by pre-exposing it to 10 µM arsenate or arsenite for 24 h during limited (12 h and extended (13 d depuration periods under phosphate enriched (+P and phosphate depleted (-P treatments. Arsenate was the predominant species detected in algal cells throughout the depuration period while arsenite only accounted for no greater than 45% of intracellular arsenic. During the limited depuration period, arsenic efflux occurred rapidly and only arsenate was detected in solutions. During the extended depuration period, however, arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were found to be the two predominant arsenic species detected in solutions under -P treatments, but arsenate was the only species detected under +P treatments. Experimental results also suggest that phosphorus has a significant effect in accelerating arsenic efflux and promoting arsenite bio-oxidation in M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, phosphorus depletion can reduce arsenic efflux from algal cells as well as accelerate arsenic reduction and methylation. These findings can contribute to our understanding of arsenic biogeochemistry in aquatic environments and its potential environmental risks under different phosphorus levels.

  13. Evaluation of electrokinetic remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Oh; Kim, Won-Seok; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2005-09-01

    The potential of electrokinetic (EK) remediation technology has been successfully demonstrated for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated fine-grained soils through laboratory scale and field application studies. Arsenic contamination in soil is a serious problem affecting both site use and groundwater quality. The EK technology was evaluated for the removal of arsenic from two soil samples; a kaolinite soil artificially contaminated with arsenic and an arsenic-bearing tailing-soil taken from the Myungbong (MB) gold mine area. The effectiveness of enhancing agents was investigated using three different types of cathodic electrolytes; deionized water (DIW), potassium phosphate (KH(2)PO(4)) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The results of the experiments on the kaolinite show that the potassium phosphate was the most effective in extracting arsenic, probably due to anion exchange of arsenic species by phosphate. On the other hand, the sodium hydroxide seemed to be the most efficient in removing arsenic from the tailing-soil. This result may be explained by the fact that the sodium hydroxide increased the soil pH and accelerated ionic migration of arsenic species through the desorption of arsenic species as well as the dissolution of arsenic-bearing minerals. PMID:16237600

  14. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri;

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, stri...

  15. Arsenic immobilization of Teniente furnace dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, R. [Japan Oil, Gas, and Metals National Corp., Kawasaki (Japan); Tateiwa, H. [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Almendares, C. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, G. [CODELCO, Santiago (Chile). Division Ventanas

    2007-07-01

    A 5-year joint Japanese-Chilean project to modify the treatment of furnace dust from a converter in Chile producing harmful amounts of arsenic and lead was described. A pilot plant was constructed to evaluate the method's commercialization potential. Flue dust was recovered by a dust collector installed to capture suspended dust generated by the smelting furnace. Arsenic content was approximately 15 per cent. Ninety per cent of the arsenic was then liquidated to lixivia and dissolved by leaching flue dust with sulphuric acid. The leaching rate decreased when flue dust had a high content of residual sulfide ore. A flotation device was then incorporated in the treatment process in order to increase the copper recovery rate. A solvent recovery process was then adopted to recover the copper and zinc contained in the solution after the arsenic recovery. An economic evaluation of the process indicated that efforts should be made to improve the efficiency of the dust treatment method. 5 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Speciation of arsenic in environmental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for speciation of arsenic in environmental waters by selective hydride formation and on-line AAS is described. Starting from literature data, the separation scheme and the necessary apparatus are outlined. Preliminary practical experience then leads to the formulation of further improvements and accompanying testing experiments. (author). 51 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  17. Influence of arsenic on iron sulfide transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, M.; Butler, I.B.; Rickard, D.

    2007-01-01

    The association of arsenate, As(V), and arsenite, As(III), with disordered mackinawite, FeS, was studied in sulfide-limited (Fe:S = 1:1) and excess-sulfide (Fe:S = 1:2) batch experiments. In the absence of arsenic, the sulfide-limited experiments produce disordered mackinawite while the excess-sulfi

  18. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  19. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The FDA has been ... this, the FDA is considering how any possible health risk from these two forms of ... arsenic in fruit juice? The FDA has proposed an “action level” ...

  20. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to h

  1. Arsenic(III Immobilization on Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Chaudhuri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of large aquifers in various parts of the world have been identified with contamination by arsenic. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water causes cancer of the skin, lungs, urinary bladder and kidney, as well as skin pigmentation and hyperkeratosis. Arsenic occurs in groundwater in two valence states, as trivalent arsenite [As(III] and pentavalent arsenate [As(V]. As(III is more toxic and more difficult to remove from water by adsorption on activated alumina. In this study, immobilization (adsorption of As(III by quaternized rice husk was examined. Batch adsorption test showed that extent of adsorption was dependent on pH, As (III concentration, contact time and rice husk dose. Maximum adsorption occurred at pH 7-8, and equilibrium adsorption was attained in 2 h. Equilibrium adsorption data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. According to the Langmuir isotherm, adsorption capacity of quaternized rice husk is 0.775 mg As(III/g, which is 4.3x higher than that (0.180 mg As(III/g of activated alumina. Quaternized rice husk is a potentially useful adsorbent for removing arsenic from groundwater.

  2. Peripheral vascular diseases resulting from chronic arsenical poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsin-Su; Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2002-03-01

    Drinking water contaminated by arsenic remains a major public health problem. Long-term arsenic exposure has been found to be associated with peripheral vascular diseases in a variety of studies. Reports of vascular effects of arsenic in drinking water, which span almost 100 years, have been published in Taiwan, Chile, Mexico, and China. This paper reviewed the association of peripheral vascular diseases resulting from arsenic exposure to drinking water from the clinical and pathological points of view. An endemic peripheral vascular disorder called "blackfoot disease" has been noticed in a limited area in Taiwan. This disease results in gangrene in the extremities. It has been associated with the ingestion of high concentrations of arsenic-tainted artesian well water. Epidemiological studies confirmed a dose-response relationship between long-term arsenic exposure and the occurrence of blackfoot disease. Whereas arsenic has induced various clinical manifestations of vascular effects in Chile, Mexico and China, they do not compare in magnitude or severity to the blackfoot disease found in Taiwan. The pathogenesis of vascular effects induced by arsenic is still controversial. The possible mechanisms include endothelial cell destruction, arsenic-associated atherogenesis, carotene and zinc deficiency, and/or some immunological mechanism. Microcirculatory assessments revealed that deficits of capillary blood flow and permeability exist in clinically normal skin of patients with chronic arsenical poisoning. The vascular effects of chronic arsenic poisoning may involve cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems as well. In view of the increasing public health problems caused by arsenic exposure, vascular effects should be included in the future study of health effects of arsenic.

  3. 47 CFR 73.788 - Service; commercial or sponsored programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....788 Section 73.788 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.788 Service; commercial or... commodity, utility or service, or attraction advertised. (2) In case of advertising a commodity,...

  4. 14 CFR 33.73 - Power or thrust response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.73 Power or... aircraft, without overtemperature, surge, stall, or other detrimental factors occurring to the...

  5. Soil flushing, iron coprecipitation, and ceramic membrane filtration: Innovative technologies for remediating arsenic-contaminated soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redwine, J.C. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a brief description and case study of soil flushing to treat contaminated groundwater. Selected reagents may be added to the flushing water to enhance contaminant removal. In the iron coprecipitation process, and iron salt is added to the contaminated water and the pH is adjusted to induce precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. During floc formation, trace elements adsorb onto the iron floc. Cross-flow ceramic membrane filtration can be used to remove any remaining contaminant in the feed stream. In field tests, an arsenic plume flushed with citric acid was reduced by 73 percent after 6 months of treatment.

  6. Association of Genetic Variation in Cystathionine-β-Synthase and Arsenic Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Kristin E.; Basu, Anamika; Alan E Hubbard; Bates, Michael N.; Kalman, David; Rey, Omar; Smith, Allan; Smith, Martyn T.; Steinmaus, Craig; Skibola, Christine F.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced disease may be partially explained by genetic differences in arsenic metabolism. Mounting epidemiological evidence and in vitro studies suggest that methylated arsenic metabolites, particularly monomethylarsonic (MMA3), are more acutely toxic than inorganic arsenic; thus, MMA3 may be the primary toxic arsenic species. To test the role of genetic variation in arsenic metabolism, polymorphisms in genes involved in one-carbon metabolism [...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010 Section 73.1010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried...

  8. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive is formed by depositing titanium salts onto mica, followed by heating...

  9. 34 CFR 668.73 - Nature of financial charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of financial charges. 668.73 Section 668.73... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Misrepresentation § 668.73 Nature of financial charges. Misrepresentation by an institution of the nature of its financial...

  10. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  11. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this...

  12. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306... Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature which are unwelcome. Sexual harassment...

  13. 45 CFR 73.735-705 - Writing and editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Writing and editing. 73.735-705 Section 73.735-705... Outside Activities § 73.735-705 Writing and editing. (a) Employees are encouraged to engage in outside writing and editing whether or not done for compensation, when such activity is not otherwise...

  14. 47 CFR 73.128 - AM stereophonic broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM stereophonic broadcasting. 73.128 Section 73.128 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.128 AM stereophonic broadcasting. (a) An Am broadcast...

  15. 42 CFR 73.2 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and scope. 73.2 Section 73.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.2 Purpose and scope. This part implements the provisions of the Public...

  16. 40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section 73.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining...

  18. 21 CFR 73.37 - Astaxanthin dimethyl-disuccinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Astaxanthin dimethyl-disuccinate. 73.37 Section 73.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.37 Astaxanthin dimethyl-disuccinate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  19. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dehydrated beets (beet powder). 73.40 Section 73.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets...

  20. 21 CFR 73.200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.200 Section 73.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of...

  1. 45 CFR 73.735-602 - Permissible activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible activities. 73.735-602 Section 73.735-602 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Political Activity § 73.735-602 Permissible activities. (a) Section 7324 of Title 5, United States...

  2. 45 CFR 73.735-1007 - Political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political activity. 73.735-1007 Section 73.735-1007 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members § 73.735-1007 Political...

  3. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3 Section 7.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1)...

  4. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  6. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  7. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The color additive disodium EDTA-copper is disodium ] (4-)-N,N′,O,O′,O N,O N′] cuprate (2-)....

  9. 47 CFR 73.1690 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... station (see § 73.6025). (4) Any change in the directional radiation characteristics of an AM directional... within the separation distances specified in Table A of § 73.525 with respect to a Channel 6 television... within the separation distances in § 73.525 with respect to a Channel 6 television station, or a Class...

  10. 47 CFR 73.853 - Licensing requirements and service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements and service. 73.853 Section 73.853 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.853 Licensing requirements...

  11. 47 CFR 73.503 - Licensing requirements and service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements and service. 73.503 Section 73.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.503 Licensing...

  12. 29 CFR 7.3 - Where to file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Where to file. 7.3 Section 7.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS Review of Wage Determinations. § 7.3 Where to file. The petition...

  13. 27 CFR 73.10 - What does subpart B cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 73.10 Section 73.10 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Signatures § 73.10 What does subpart B cover? This subpart provides...

  14. 27 CFR 73.30 - What does subpart C cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 73.30 Section 73.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Filing of Documents with TTB § 73.30 What does subpart C cover? This...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section 1852.246-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause:...

  16. 47 CFR 73.699 - TV engineering charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV engineering charts. 73.699 Section 73.699 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.699 TV engineering charts. This section consists of the following...

  17. 47 CFR 73.150 - Directional antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Directional antenna systems. 73.150 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.150 Directional antenna systems. (a) For each station employing a directional antenna, all determinations of service provided and interference caused shall...

  18. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  19. 47 CFR 73.239 - Use of common antenna site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of common antenna site. 73.239 Section 73.239 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.239 Use of common antenna site. No FM broadcast...

  20. 47 CFR 73.316 - FM antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM antenna systems. 73.316 Section 73.316... Broadcast Stations § 73.316 FM antenna systems. (a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization...) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose...

  1. 36 CFR 73.15 - International World Heritage activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International World Heritage activities. 73.15 Section 73.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION § 73.15 International World Heritage activities. (a) The Assistant Secretary, and other officials...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1225 - Station inspections by FCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station inspections by FCC. 73.1225 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1225 Station inspections by FCC. (a) The... FCC during the station's business hours, or at any time it is in operation. (b) In the course of...

  3. 47 CFR 73.4000 - Listing of FCC policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Listing of FCC policies. 73.4000 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4000 Listing of FCC policies. The following sections list, solely for the purpose of reference and convenience, certain Policies of the...

  4. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. PMID:9347899

  5. Determining the solid phases hosting arsenic in Mekong Delta sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucher, M.; Stuckey, J. W.; McCurdy, S.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    The major river systems originating from the Himalaya deposit arsenic bearing sediment into the deltas of South and Southeast Asia. High rates of sediment and organic carbon deposition combined with frequent flooding leads to anaerobic processes that release arsenic into the pore-water. Arsenic concentrations in the groundwater of these sedimentary basins are often above the World Health Organization drinking water standard of 10 μg As L-1. As a result, 150 million people are at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning through water and rice consumption. The composition of the iron bearing phases hosting the arsenic in these deltaic sediments is poorly understood. Here we implemented a suite of selective chemical extractions to help constrain the types of arsenic bearing solid phases, which were complimented with synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses to define the arsenic and iron mineralogy of the system. Sediment cores were collected in triplicate from a seasonally-inundated wetland in Cambodia at depths of 10, 50, 100, and 150 centimeters. We hypothesize that (i) arsenic will be predominantly associated with iron oxides, and (ii) the ratio of crystalline to amorphous iron oxides will increase with sediment depth (and age). We performed four selective extractions in parallel to quantify the various pools of arsenic. First, 1 M MgCl2 was used to extract electrostatically-bound arsenic (labile forms) from the sediment. Second, 1 M NaH2PO4 targeted strongly adsorbed arsenic. Third, 1 M HCl was used to liberated arsenic coprecipitated with amorphous Fe/Mn oxides, carbonates, and acid-volatile sulfides. Finally, a dithionite extraction was used to account for arsenic associated with reducible Fe/Mn oxides. Through this work, we identified the composition of the phases hosting arsenic at various depths through the soil profile, improving our understanding of how arsenic persists in the aquifer. In addition, defining the arsenic and

  6. Groundwater arsenic contamination in one of the 107 arsenic-affected blocks in West Bengal, India: Status, distribution, health effects and factors responsible for arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Tarit

    2010-11-01

    A somewhat detailed study was carried out in Gaighata, one of the 107 arsenic-affected blocks in West Bengal, India, to determine the degree of groundwater contamination with arsenic, its depth wise distribution, correlation with iron, arsenical health effects to the inhabitants and the factors responsible for arsenic poisoning. Groundwater in all the 107 mouzas over 13 gram-panchayets in Gaighata block contains arsenic above 0.01mgl(-1) and in 91 mouzas, arsenic concentration has been found above 0.05mgl(-1). About 59.2 and 40.3% of the tubewell water samples contain arsenic above 0.01 and 0.05mgl(-1), respectively. The approximate population drinking arsenic-contaminated water above 0.01 and 0.05mgl(-1) are 106,560 and 72,540, respectively. The tubewells that were installed within the depth range of 15.4-30.3m are mostly arsenic-contaminated. Even the shallow groundwater level (7.87-15.1m) is arsenic-contaminated. Both arsenic and iron concentrations in groundwater gradually increase from lower depth to higher depth up to 39.4m, and then decrease with increasing depth. About 58% of the deep tubewell water samples (depth range 122-182m, n=31) contain arsenic ≥0.05mgl(-1). About 72% of the arsenic-contaminated deep tubewells (n=18) were safe when surveyed first time. But within a span of 2-5 years, they became contaminated with arsenic. The linear regression shows direct correlation between arsenic and iron concentrations in groundwater (r(2)=0.8114, p<0.0001, n=912). Intakes of inorganic arsenic from water by an adult male and female in the surveyed areas are 11.7 and 13.1μg/kg body wt./day, respectively and these values are higher than the WHO recommended PTDI value of inorganic arsenic (2.1μg/kg body wt./day). Mean arsenic concentrations in urine, hair and nail samples, collected from the inhabitants of Gutri mouza are higher than their normal level and the values are 292μgl(-1) (range: 8.35-1024μg l(-1), n=193), 2.50mgkg(-1) (range: 0.17-5.99mgkg(-1), n

  7. Low doses of arsenic, via perturbing p53, promotes tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Suthakar; Li, Ping; Fagman, Johan; Yu, Tianqi; Lafontant, Jean; Zhang, Guojun; Chen, Changyan

    2016-09-01

    In drinking water and in workplace or living environments, low doses of arsenic can exist and operate as a potent carcinogen. Due to insufficient understanding and information on the pervasiveness of environmental exposures to arsenic, there is an urgent need to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of arsenic regarding its carcinogenic effect on human health. In this study, we demonstrate that low doses of arsenic exposure mitigate or mask p53 function and further perturb intracellular redox state, which triggers persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activates UPR (unfolded protein response), leading to transformation or tumorigenesis. Thus, the results suggest that low doses of arsenic exposure, through attenuating p53-regulated tumor suppressive function, change the state of intracellular redox and create a microenvironment for tumorigenesis. Our study also provides the information for designing more effective strategies to prevent or treat human cancers initiated by arsenic exposure. PMID:27425828

  8. Groundwater arsenic concentrations in Vietnam controlled by sediment age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming; Thai, Nguyen Thi;

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater continues to threaten the health of millions of people in southeast Asia. The oxidation of organic carbon, coupled to the reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron oxides, is thought to control the release of sediment-bound arsenic into groundwater. However......-section of the arsenic-contaminated Red River floodplain in Vietnam to determine the origin of variations in groundwater arsenic concentrations. The burial age of the aquifer sediments, determined using optical stimulated luminescence, ranged from 460 years near the course of the present-day river to 5,900 years......, the cause of the high spatial variability in groundwater arsenic concentrations—which can range from 5 to 500 μg l−1 within distances of a few kilometres—has been uncertain. Here, we combine measurements of sediment age, organic-matter reactivity and water chemistry at four locations along a cross...

  9. Analysis list: Cdc73 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cdc73 Muscle + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Cdc73.1.ts...v http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Cdc73.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Cd...c73.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Cdc73.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Muscle.gml ...

  10. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF P73 PRODUCT IN BRAIN GLIOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Guang; YUAN Xian-hou; PAN Hui-jin; QIU Shang-ming; ZHOU Ming-yong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the role of p73 in the genesis or development of glioma. Methods: P73 and p53expression of 63 gliomas were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Out of the 63 gliomas, 17 cases appeared p73 positive. The positive-rate in high grade gliomas was higher than that in low grade gliomas (x2=4.75, P<0.05). Among the 17 cases with p73-positive gliomas, 12 cases overexpressed p53 protein. Conclusion:Overexpression of wild p73 may involve in the genesis or development of glioma.

  11. Atypical non-fatal arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, M.W.M.

    1969-06-07

    Arsenic poisoning was found to be the cause of a herd of dairy cows suddenly becoming ill, developing pyrexia and diarrhea, with a gradual deterioration in health. There was also a reduction in the yield of milk. It was proven that the feed bins were strongly positive for arsenic. When the source of the arsenic was removed, the cows showed a rapid recovery in most cases.

  12. Resistance to Arsenic- and Antimony-Based Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Salerno; Arlette Garnier-Suillerot

    2003-01-01

    Organic arsenicals were the first antimicrobial agents specifically synthesized for the treatment of infectious diseases such as syphilis and sleeping sickness. For the treatment of diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites, organic derivatives of arsenic and the related metalloid antimony are still the drugs of choice. Arsenic trioxide, As203, has been used for a long time in traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of various diseases, and it has recently been shown to be clinically ac...

  13. Metal Attraction: An Ironclad Solution to Arsenic Contamination?

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer, Lance

    2005-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic—the more acutely toxic form of this metalloid element—contaminates drinking water supplies around the world. In the United States, the most serious arsenic contamination occurs in the West, Midwest, Southwest, and Northeast; as many as 20 million people—many getting their water from unregulated private wells—may be exposed to excess arsenic in their drinking water. In Bangladesh, it’s estimated that as many as 40 million people may be suffering from arsenic poisoning; contam...

  14. Health effects of arsenic in drinking water: Research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowle, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Research needed to resolve the uncertainties of cancer risk from ingestion of arsenic in drinking water is described. The recommendations fall into two categories reflecting the areas of greatest uncertainty regarding the assessment of arsenic risk: research on the mechanism of cancer, and research on the metabolism and detoxification of arsenic. The recommendations are discussed in light of risk assessment and risk management issues, stressing the need for scientists to interpret research findings for decision managers.

  15. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Gruber, Joann F.; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Baker, Emily R.; Jackson, Brian P.; Folt, Carol L; Margaret R Karagas

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's ho...

  16. Chronic renal insufficiency from cortical necrosis induced by arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, R E; Hudson, J B; Rao, R N; Sobel, R E

    1978-08-01

    A 39-year-old man had anuria and azotemia and was found to be suffering from acute arsenic poisoning. After two peritoneal dialyses, partial renal function returned, and the patient has survived for five years without dialysis. Renal cortical necrosis was demonstrated by renal biopsy and renal calcification. We suggest that arsenic be added to the list of substances capable of causing renal cortical necrosis and recommend consideration of this complication in cases of arsenical poisoning.

  17. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN DRINKING WATER: AN ASSESSMENT FOR TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Meltem BİLİCİ ÇALIŞKAN; Ayşegül PALA

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust and classified as a non-metal or a metalloid. Arsenic is toxic and carcinogen and in the environment occurs from both natural and anthropogenic sources. In the aqueous environment inorganic arsenic appears commonly in forms of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)). pH, redox potential, and the presence of complexing ions such as ions of sulfur, iron, and calcium determine the arsenic valence and speciation. Because of the nat...

  18. Arsenical keratoses in Bangladesh--update and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Ahsan, Habibul; Shea, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is considered a Class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer because of its increased risk for skin cancer, as well as internal cancers, such as lung and bladder cancer. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in Bangladesh has been called the "largest mass poisoning of a population in history." This inorganic arsenic contamination is of natural origin, with arsenic thought to be released to the groundwater from the surrounding sediment. Arsenicosis and its risk factors and prevention and management are discussed in this article.

  19. Reduction and coordination of arsenic in Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, I J; Prince, R C; George, M J; Smith, R D; George, G N; Salt, D E

    2000-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an As(III)-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an As(III)-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from As(III)-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element.

  20. Behavior of arsenic in hydrometallurgical zinc production and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Peltekov A.B.; Boyanov B.S.; Markova T.S.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of arsenic in zinc sulphide concentrates is particularly harmful, because it creates problems in zinc electrolysis. The main source of arsenic in non-ferrous metallurgy is arsenopyrite (FeAsS). In oxidative roasting of zinc concentrates, FeAsS oxidizes to arsenic oxides (As2O3, As2O5). In this connection a natural FeAsS was examined, and also the distribution of arsenic in the products of the roasting process, the cycle of sulphuric acid obtaining and the leaching of zinc calcine...

  1. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  2. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Microbiota in Induced Sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison G. White

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb. To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%, Proteobacteria (17% and Bacteriodetes (12% were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%, Prevotellaceae (12% and Veillonellacea (7% being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota.

  3. The revival of the ancient drug-arsenic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓军

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic, a natural substance, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for more than a thousand years. However, this medicine fell into disuse in the 1930s following the advent of radiotherapy and conventional cytotoxic drugs and reports about arsenic poisoning from its long-term low-dose ingestion. Until the late 1970s, it had its rebirth when a series of research papers from China described the successful application of AiLing-1,1 a traditional Chinese compound, containing arsenic trioxide (ATO) and other ingredients. Research into the molecular mechanisms of arsenic action has furthered clinical application of this drug.

  4. Hepatic venoocclusive disease and perisinusoidal fibrosis secondary to arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, H; Stoessel, P; Callard, P; Beaugrand, M

    1990-10-01

    Hepatic injury secondary to arsenic poisoning has been known long but is poorly documented. A case of a patient with hepatic injury following severe arsenic poisoning is reported. Histological study of the liver demonstrated acute venoocclusive disease and perisinusoidal fibrosis. This case indicates that arsenic poisoning causes veno-occlusive disease in humans. It also suggests that hepatic damage in arsenic poisoning is secondary to vascular endothelial injury and supports the hypothesis that different patterns of hepatic vascular injury might proceed from a common mechanism.

  5. Hepatoprotective efficacy of curcumin against arsenic trioxide toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VV Mathews; P Binu; MV Sauganth Paul; M Abhilash; Alex Manju; R Harikumaran Nair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of curcumin in combating arsenic induced hepatic oxidative stress, histopathological changes and the hepatic arsenic accumulation in rat model. Methods:Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration 4 mg/kg b.wt of arsenic trioxide (As2O3,) for 45 days in experimental rats. The level of liver arsenic concentration, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in adult male Wistar rats. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by quantifying the aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phophatase (ALP). Hepatoprotective efficacy of curcumin (15 mg/kg b.wt) was evaluated by combination treatment with As2O3. Results: As2O3 administration leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), arsenic accumulation, serum marker enzymes release and decrease in antioxidant enzymes in liver. Retention of arsenic in liver caused increased level of lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decline in the glutathione dependant antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes. Curcumin treatment protected the liver from arsenic induced deterioration of antioxidant levels as well as oxidative stress. And also a significant decrease in hepatic arsenic accumulation and serum marker enzymes was observed. Histopathological examination revealed a curative improvement in liver tissue. Conclusions:These findings lead to the conclusion that curcumin may have the potential to protect the liver from arsenic-induced toxic effects.

  6. Arsenical keratoses in Bangladesh--update and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Ahsan, Habibul; Shea, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is considered a Class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer because of its increased risk for skin cancer, as well as internal cancers, such as lung and bladder cancer. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in Bangladesh has been called the "largest mass poisoning of a population in history." This inorganic arsenic contamination is of natural origin, with arsenic thought to be released to the groundwater from the surrounding sediment. Arsenicosis and its risk factors and prevention and management are discussed in this article. PMID:21095527

  7. Analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium in wines from the Canary Islands, Spain, by ICP/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaste, M; Medina, B; Perez-Trujillo, J-P

    2003-02-01

    Because of their high toxicity, arsenic, lead and cadmium need to be quantified in food and beverages. For the first time, in this study the content of arsenic, lead and cadmium was investigated in 152 wine samples from the Canary Islands, Spain, belonging to eight Denominations of Origin (DO) and four islands by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of concentration found were 0.58-8.45 microg l(-1) for arsenic, 0.20-1.73 microg l(-1) for cadmium and 3.89-159.5 microg l(-1) for lead, and the mean content was 3.13, 0.63 and 28.74 microg l(-1), respectively. None of the wines contained levels above the limits set by the International Office of Vine and Wine (OIV), and thus did not pose a health hazard. Significant differences in mean content of those elements between harvest, type of wine, islands and DO were observed. PMID:12623662

  8. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Piyush Kant; Yadav, Sushma; Pandey, Madhurima

    2007-01-01

    The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations. PMID:17431310

  9. Human arsenic poisoning issues in central-east Indian locations: biomarkers and biochemical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Piyush Kant; Yadav, Sushma; Pandey, Madhurima

    2007-03-01

    The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations.

  10. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurima Pandey

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations.

  11. Urinary arsenic speciation profile in ethnic group of the Atacama desert (Chile) exposed to variable arsenic levels in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Jorge; Mansilla, Héctor D; Santander, I Paola; Fierro, Vladimir; Cornejo, Lorena; Barnes, Ramón M; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic groups from the Atacama Desert (known as Atacameños) have been exposed to natural arsenic pollution for over 5000 years. This work presents an integral study that characterizes arsenic species in water used for human consumption. It also describes the metabolism and arsenic elimination through urine in a chronically exposed population in northern Chile. In this region, water contained total arsenic concentrations up to 1250 μg L(-1), which was almost exclusively As(V). It is also important that this water was ingested directly from natural water sources without any treatment. The ingested arsenic was extensively methylated. In urine 93% of the arsenic was found as methylated arsenic species, such as monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. The original ingested inorganic species [As(V)], represent less than 1% of the total urinary arsenic. Methylation activity among individuals can be assessed by measuring primary [inorganic As/methylated As] and secondary methylation [MMA/DMA] indexes. Both methylation indexes were 0.06, indicating a high biological converting capability of As(V) into MMA and then MMA into DMA, compared with the control population and other arsenic exposed populations previously reported.

  12. Crossing redox boundaries--aquifer redox history and effects on iron mineralogy and arsenic availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Andre; Rüde, Thomas R; Dölling, Bettina

    2013-11-15

    Cretaceous shallow marine sediments from northwestern Germany exhibit a distinct colour and geochemical boundary in a depth of several decametres, witnessing a terrestrial oxidative paleo redox process which resulted in cement loss and oxidation of Fe(II) phases. Sediment samples were obtained from boreholes drilled in near-coastal and further basinward paleo environments, including both reduced and oxidized redox facies, to characterize As and Fe occurrence in unaltered layers and redistributional consequences of the redox event. Geochemical and mineralogical composition and As fractionation were assessed. Arsenic resides in pyrite in the reduced section with a bulk rock maximum concentration of 39 μg g(-1), calculated Aspyrite is ~0.2 wt.%. Siderite concretions in the fine sands do not function as As sinks, neither does glauconite whose general As/Fe leaching behaviour was characterized. In the zone of redox transition, reduced and oxidized phases coexist and elevated As concentrations (up to 73 μg g(-1)) with high proportions of reactive As were detected. Arsenic behaviour changes from relatively homogeneous Fe sulphide-control in the unaltered sediments to very heterogeneous Fe hydroxide-control above the paleo redox boundary. The studied characteristics determine recent As availability in the subsurface and must be considered during groundwater extraction from this highly important aquifer. PMID:23280400

  13. New Sorbents for Removing Arsenic From Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConchie, D. M.; Genc-Fuhrman, H.; Clark, M. W.; Caldicott, W.; Davies-McConchie, F. G.

    2004-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water used in many countries, including some of the poorest developing countries, and recognition that consuming this water can have serious consequences for human health, have led to increased investigations of ways to obtain safe water supplies. Finding new groundwater resources is a possible solution but this is a costly strategy that has no guarantee of success, particularly in areas where water is already a scarce commodity. The alternative is to treat water that is already available, but existing technologies are usually too expensive, too difficult to operate and maintain, or not completely effective when used in less developed countries or remote areas. There is therefore, an urgent need to find a simple and effective but inexpensive sorbent for arsenic that can be used to treat large volumes of water under less than ideal conditions. In this paper we present the results of field and laboratory trials that used a new, highly cost-effective, sorbent to remove arsenic from contaminated water. BauxsolT is the name given to the cocktail of minerals prepared by treating caustic bauxite refinery residues with Mg and Ca to produce a substance with a reaction pH of about 8.5, a high acid neutralizing capacity and an excellent ability to trap trace metals, metalloids and some other ionic species. The trapped ions are tightly bound by processes that include; precipitation of low solubility neoformational minerals, isomorphous substitution, solid-state diffusion, and adsorption; it is also an excellent flocculant. Although ordinary BauxsolT has an excellent ability to bind arsenate, and to a lesser extent arsenite, this ability can be further increased for particular water types by using activated BauxsolT or BauxsolT combined with small amounts of other reagents. Field trials conducted at the Gilt Edge Mine, South Dakota, showed that the addition of BauxsolT to highly sulfidic waste rock reduced the arsenic

  14. p73 regulates maintenance of neural stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → TAp73 is expressed in neural stem cells and its expression increases following their differentiation. → Neural stem cells from p73 null mice have a reduced proliferative potential. → p73-deficient neural stem cells show reduced expression of members of the Sox-2 and Notch gene families. → Neurogenic areas are reduced in the brains of embryonic and adult p73-/- mice. -- Abstract: p73, a member of the p53 family, is a transcription factor that plays a key role in many biological processes. In the present study, we show that TAp73 is expressed in neural stem cells (NSC) and its expression increases following their differentiation. NSC from p73 null mice have a reduced proliferative potential, together with reduced expression of members of the Sox-2 and Notch gene families known to be important for NSC proliferation. In parallel with this in vitro data, the width of the neurogenic areas was reduced in the brains of embryonic and adult p73-/- mice. These data suggest that p73, and in particular TAp73, is important for maintenance of the NSC pool.

  15. p73 regulates maintenance of neural stem cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Massimiliano [Medical Research Council, Toxicology Unit, Leicester University, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Tucci, Paola [Medical Research Council, Toxicology Unit, Leicester University, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Biochemistry Laboratory, IDI-IRCCS, C/O University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , 00133 Rome (Italy); Chen, Hailan; Knight, Richard A. [Medical Research Council, Toxicology Unit, Leicester University, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Bano, Daniele; Nicotera, Pierluigi [Deutsche Zentrum fuer Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen (DZNE), Bonn (Germany); McKeon, Frank [Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Melino, Gerry, E-mail: gm89@le.ac.uk [Medical Research Council, Toxicology Unit, Leicester University, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Biochemistry Laboratory, IDI-IRCCS, C/O University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} TAp73 is expressed in neural stem cells and its expression increases following their differentiation. {yields} Neural stem cells from p73 null mice have a reduced proliferative potential. {yields} p73-deficient neural stem cells show reduced expression of members of the Sox-2 and Notch gene families. {yields} Neurogenic areas are reduced in the brains of embryonic and adult p73-/- mice. -- Abstract: p73, a member of the p53 family, is a transcription factor that plays a key role in many biological processes. In the present study, we show that TAp73 is expressed in neural stem cells (NSC) and its expression increases following their differentiation. NSC from p73 null mice have a reduced proliferative potential, together with reduced expression of members of the Sox-2 and Notch gene families known to be important for NSC proliferation. In parallel with this in vitro data, the width of the neurogenic areas was reduced in the brains of embryonic and adult p73-/- mice. These data suggest that p73, and in particular TAp73, is important for maintenance of the NSC pool.

  16. Arsenic in ZnO and GaN: substitutional cation or anion sites?

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Ulrich; Rita, Elisabete; Marques, Ana Claudia; Alves, Eduardo; Carvalho Soares, José

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the lattice location of ion implanted As in ZnO and GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive $^{73}$As. In contrast to what one might expect from its nature as a group V element, we find that As does not occupy substitutional O sites in ZnO but in its large majority substitutional Zn sites. Arsenic in ZnO is thus an interesting example for an impurity in a semiconductor where the major impurity lattice site is determined by atomic size and electronegativity rather than its position in the periodic system. In contrast, in GaN the preference of As for substitutional cation sites is less pronounced and about half of the implanted As atoms occupy Ga and the other half N sites. Apparently, the smaller size-mismatch between As and N and the chemical similarity of both elements make it feasible that As partly substitutes for N atoms.

  17. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campos, J; Ramos-Peek, J; Martínez-Barros, M; Zamora-Peralta, M; Martínez-Cerrato, J

    1998-01-01

    Although peripheral neuropathy is a fairly common finding in chronic arsenic poisoning, little is known about the acute effects of this metal on peripheral nerves. This report shows clinical and electrophysiological findings in a patient who developed peripheral neuropathy only three days after a high-dose ingestion of this metal due to a failed suicide attempt. We speculate that peripheral nerves and some cranial nerves can show not only clinical but also subclinical involvement that can only be detected by neurophysiological studies.

  18. Arsenic trioxide: safety issues and their management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wing-Yan AU; Yok-Lam KWONG

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been used medicinally for thousands of years.Its therapeutic use in leukaemia was described a century ago.Recent rekindling in the interest of As2O3 is due to its high efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL).As2O3 has also been tested clinically in other blood and solid cancers.Most studies have used intravenous As2O3,although an oral As2O3 is equally efficacious.Side effects of As2O3 are usually minor,including skin reactions,gastrointestinal upset,and hepatitis.These respond to symptomatic treatment or temporary drug cessation,and do not compromise subsequent treatment with As2O3.During induction therapy in APL,a leucocytosis may occasionally occur,which can be associated with fluid accumulation and pulmonary infiltration.The condition is similar to the APL differentiation syndrome during treatment with all-trans retinoic acid,and responds to cytoreductive treatment and corticosteroids.Intravenous As2O3 treatment leads to QT prolongation.In the presence of under-lying cardiopulmonary diseases or electrolyte disturbances,particularly hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia,serious arrhythmias may develop,with torsades du pointes reported in 1% of cases.This may be related to a dose-dependent arsenic-mediated inhibition of potassium ion channels that compro-mises cardiac repolarization.Because of slow intestinal absorption,oral-As2O3 gives a lower plasma arsenic concentration,which is associated with lesser QT prolongation and hence a more favorable cardiac safety profile.As2O3 does not appear to enter the central nervous system.However,if the blood brain barrier is breached,elemental arsenic may enter the cerebrospinal fluid.As2O3 is predomi-nantly excreted in the kidneys,and dose adjustment is required when renal func-tion is impaired.

  19. Arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidou, M.; Charalambous, C.; Aletrari, M.; Nicolaidou Kanari, P.; Petronda, A.; Ward, N. I.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryCyprus being a Mediterranean island with long dry summers and mild winters suffers from water deficiency and over exploitation of its water resources. Groundwater in Cyprus is a valuable natural resource as approximately 50% of the total water needs come from underground water supplies. According to the Directive 118/2006/EC, groundwater should be protected from deterioration and chemical pollution, this is particularly important for groundwater dependent ecosystems and for the use of groundwater as a water supply for human consumption. During 2007 to 2009, as part of a national monitoring programme, 84 boreholes were sampled in Cyprus and subsequently analysed for total arsenic by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The groundwater concentrations ranged from <0.3 to 41 μg/L As. Several boreholes located in a rural farming district near Nicosia had concentrations above the World Health Organisation (WHO) Drinking Water Guideline limit of 10 μg/L As. Evaluation of the groundwater sampling procedure for boreholes provided data recommending that water samples should be collected after an initial borehole washout for 5 min. Further sampling of these boreholes in 2010, revealed total arsenic concentrations of <0.3-64.2 μg/L As, with the predominant arsenic species (determined using a novel field-based methodology) being arsenate (AsV). The maximum total arsenic concentration is 6-fold higher than the WHO Drinking Water Guideline limit (10 μg/L As) and approximately half of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (UN-FAO) irrigational limit of 100 μg/L As.

  20. Arsenic toxicity: the effects on plant metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eFinnegan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The two forms inorganic arsenic, arsenate (AsV and arsenite (AsIII, are easily taken up by the cells of the plant root. Once in the cell, AsV can be readily converted to AsIII, the more toxic of the two forms. AsV and AsIII both disrupt plant metabolism, but through distinct mechanisms. AsV is a chemical analogue of phosphate that can disrupt at least some phosphate-dependent aspects of metabolism. AsV can be translocated across cellular membranes by phosphate transport proteins, leading to imbalances in phosphate supply. It can compete with phosphate during phosphorylation reactions, leading to the formation of AsV adducts that are often unstable and short-lived. As an example, the formation and rapid autohydrolysis of AsV-ADP sets in place a futile cycle that uncouples photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation, decreasing the ability of cells to produce ATP and carry out normal metabolism. AsIII is a dithiol reactive compound that binds to and potentially inactivates enzymes containing closely spaced cysteine residues or other sulfhydryl-containing groups. Arsenic exposure generally induces the production of reactive oxygen species that can lead to the production of antioxidant metabolites and numerous enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. Oxidative carbon metabolism, amino acid and protein relationships, and nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways are also impacted by As exposure. These effects are reflected in a dramatic restructuring of amino acid pools in Arabidopsis thaliana upon AsV exposure. Readjustment of several metabolic pathways, such as glutathione production, has been shown to lead to increased arsenic tolerance in plants. Species- and cultivar-dependent variation in arsenic sensitivity and the remodeling of metabolite pools that occurs in response to As exposure gives hope that additional metabolic pathways associated with As tolerance will be identified.

  1. Construction of a modular arsenic resistance operon in E. coli and the production of arsenic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Charles Edmundson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a widespread contaminant of both land and water around the world. Current methods of decontamination such as phytoremediation and chemical adsorbents can be resource and time intensive, and may not be suitable for some areas such as remote communities where cost and transportation are major issues. Bacterial decontamination, with strict controls preventing environmental release, may offer a cost-effective alternative or provide a financial incentive when used in combination with other remediation techniques. In this study we have produced E. coli strains containing arsenic resistance genes from a number of sources, overexpressing them and testing their effects on arsenic resistance. While the lab E. coli strain JM109 (the wild-type is resistant up to 20 mM sodium arsenate the strain containing our plasmid pEC20 is resistant up to 80 mM. When combined with our construct pArsRBCC arsenic-containing nanoparticles were observed at the cell surface; the elements of pEC20 and pArsRBCC were therefore combined in a modular construct, pArs, in order to evaluate the roles and synergistic effects of the components of the original plasmids in arsenic resistance and nanoparticle formation. We also investigated the use of introducing the lac operator in order to more tightly control expression from pArs. We demonstrate that our strains are able to reduce toxic forms of arsenic into stable, insoluble metallic As(0, providing one way to remove arsenate contamination, and which may also be of benefit for other heavy metals.

  2. Odontoma: a retrospective study of 73 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical findings and treatment results for impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas. We retrospectively investigated 73 odontomas in 72 patients who visited Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from April 2004 through November 2011. The study was performed using medical records, panoramic radiographs, and pathological reports. Data gathered included age, gender, location, chief complaints, effects on dentition, and treatment of odontoma and the impacted tooth associated with odontoma. Most compound odontomas (46.7%) were found in the second decade and complex odontomas were not related to age. Odontomas showed no gender predilection. Fifty-five cases (75.3%) of odontomas were detected on routine dental radiographs. Sixty percent of compound odontomas occurred in the canine area and 57.1% of complex odontomas in the molar areas. Impaction of permanent teeth (61.6%) was the most common complication on the adjacent teeth. Most odontomas (84.9%) were removed surgically and impacted permanent teeth were managed by surgical removal (53.2%), orthodontic treatment (25.5%), or surgical repositioning (6.4%). There was a statistically significant relation between age and preservation of the impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas (p<0.01). Early detection and treatment of odontomas increase the possibility of preservation of the impacted tooth. Therefore, it would be suggested that periodic panoramic examination during the first and second decade of life might be beneficial for the early detection and better prognosis of odontomas.

  3. Arsenic metabolites in humans after ingestion of wakame seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed contains large amounts of various arsenic compounds such as arsenosugars (AsSugs, but their relative toxicities have not yet been fully evaluated. A risk evaluation of dietary arsenic would be necessary. After developing an arsenic speciation analysis of wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida, we conducted a wakame ingestion experiment using volunteers. Five volunteers ingested 300 g of commercial wakame after refraining from seafood for 5 days. Arsenic metabolites in the urine were monitored over a 5-day period after ingestion. Total arsenic concentration of the wakame seaweed was 34.3 ± 2.1 mg arsenic/kg (dry weight, n = 3. Two AsSugs, 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β-ribofuranosyloxy]-propylene glycol (AsSug328 and 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β- ribofuranosyl-oxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl phosphate (AsSug482 were detected, but arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, monomethylarsonic acid, and inorganic arsenics (iAs were not detected. The major peak was AsSug328, which comprised 89% of the total arsenic. Approximately 30% of the total arsenic ingested was excreted in the urine during the 5-day observation. Five arsenic compounds were detected in the urine after ingestion, the major one being DMA, which comprised 58.1 ± 5.0% of the total urinary arsenic excreted over the 5 days. DMA was believed to be metabolized not from iAs but from AsSugs, and its biological half-time was approximately 13 h.

  4. Arsenic speciation of geothermal waters in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Gillian; Kim, Nick; Ward, Neil I

    2012-12-01

    Total arsenic and four arsenic species; arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)), are reported in 28 geothermal features from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Waikato region of New Zealand. Samples were collected for arsenic speciation analysis via a solid phase extraction (SPE) kit allowing the separation, stabilisation and pre-concentration of the species at the time of sample collection in the field. This is the first research to present data for arsenic species collected by this technique in geothermal waters from New Zealand. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ranged from 0.008 to 9.08 mg l⁻¹ As. The highest levels were discovered in three features in Tokaanu (Taumatapuhipuhi, Takarea #5 and #6), with arsenic concentrations of 8.59, 8.70 and 9.08 mg l⁻¹ As, respectively. Inorganic arsenic species were predominant in the geothermal waters, with arsenite contributing to more than 70% of the total arsenic in the majority of samples. Organic species were also determined in all samples, indicating the presence of microbial activity. A potential risk to human health was highlighted due to the high levels of arsenic, mainly as arsenite, in geothermal features linked to bathing pools. Further research is needed into dermal absorption as a potential route of arsenic exposure whilst bathing in these hot pools, as it may contribute to an occurrence of acute arsenic-related health problems.

  5. Genes involved in arsenic transformation and resistance associated with different levels of arsenic-contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Gejiao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is known as a toxic metalloid, which primarily exists in inorganic form [As(III and As(V] and can be transformed by microbial redox processes in the natural environment. As(III is much more toxic and mobile than As(V, hence microbial arsenic redox transformation has a major impact on arsenic toxicity and mobility which can greatly influence the human health. Our main purpose was to investigate the distribution and diversity of microbial arsenite-resistant species in three different arsenic-contaminated soils, and further study the As(III resistance levels and related functional genes of these species. Results A total of 58 arsenite-resistant bacteria were identified from soils with three different arsenic-contaminated levels. Highly arsenite-resistant bacteria (MIC > 20 mM were only isolated from the highly arsenic-contaminated site and belonged to Acinetobacter, Agrobacterium, Arthrobacter, Comamonas, Rhodococcus, Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas. Five arsenite-oxidizing bacteria that belonged to Achromobacter, Agrobacterium and Pseudomonas were identified and displayed a higher average arsenite resistance level than the non-arsenite oxidizers. 5 aoxB genes encoding arsenite oxidase and 51 arsenite transporter genes [18 arsB, 12 ACR3(1 and 21 ACR3(2] were successfully amplified from these strains using PCR with degenerate primers. The aoxB genes were specific for the arsenite-oxidizing bacteria. Strains containing both an arsenite oxidase gene (aoxB and an arsenite transporter gene (ACR3 or arsB displayed a higher average arsenite resistance level than those possessing an arsenite transporter gene only. Horizontal transfer of ACR3(2 and arsB appeared to have occurred in strains that were primarily isolated from the highly arsenic-contaminated soil. Conclusion Soils with long-term arsenic contamination may result in the evolution of highly diverse arsenite-resistant bacteria and such diversity was probably caused in

  6. Effects of organic matter and ageing on the bioaccessibility of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, Louise; Koch, Iris [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College, P.O. Box 17 000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K7B4 (Canada); Reimer, Kenneth J., E-mail: reimer-k@rmc.ca [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College, P.O. Box 17 000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K7B4 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic-contaminated soils may pose a risk to human health. Redevelopment of contaminated sites may involve amending soils with organic matter, which potentially increases arsenic bioaccessibility. The effects of ageing on arsenic-contaminated soils mixed with peat moss were evaluated in a simulated ageing period representing two years, during which arsenic bioaccessibility was periodically measured. Significant increases (p = 0.032) in bioaccessibility were observed for 15 of 31 samples tested, particularly in comparison with samples originally containing >30% bioaccessible arsenic in soils naturally rich in organic matter (>25%). Samples where percent arsenic bioaccessibility was unchanged with age were generally poor in organic matter (average 7.7%) and contained both arsenopyrite and pentavalent arsenic forms that remained unaffected by the organic matter amendments. Results suggest that the addition of organic matter may lead to increases in arsenic bioaccessibility, which warrants caution in the evaluation of risks associated with redevelopment of arsenic-contaminated land. - Highlights: > Adding organic matter to contaminated soils may increase arsenic bioaccessibility. > Ageing soils with >25% organic matter can lead to increased arsenic bioaccessibility. > No changes in arsenic bioaccessibility for soils poor in organic matter (mean 7.7%). > No changes in arsenic bioaccessibility for samples containing arsenopyrite. > Organic matter in soil may favour oxidation of trivalent arsenic to pentavalent form. - Adding organic carbon may increase arsenic bioaccessibility, especially in samples originally containing >30% bioaccessible arsenic in organic carbon-rich soils (>25%).

  7. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal for drinking water treatment in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of shallow tube well drinking water is an urgent health problem in Bangladesh. Current arsenic mitigation solutions, including (household) arsenic removal options, do not always provide a sustainable alternative for safe drinking water. A novel technology, Subsurface Arsenic Re

  8. Arsenic speciation and fucoxanthin analysis from seaweed dietary supplements using LC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inorganic species are considered more toxic to humans than organic arsenic and total arsenic. Analysis of total arsenic in metallic form, organic and inorganic arsenic species from seaweeds and dietary supplements using LC-ICP-MS was developed. Solvent extraction with sonication and microwave extr...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M; Brown, Steven D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Rosen, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8. PMID:25883298

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brown, Steven D.; Ferrero, Marcela A.; ROSEN, BARRY P.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8.

  11. PEPTIDE BINDING AS A MODE OF ACTION FOR THE CARCINOGENICITY AND TOXICITY OF ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure leads to tumors in human skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Three likely initial stages of arsenical-macromolecular interaction are (1) binding of trivalent arsenicals to the sulfhydryl groups of peptides and proteins, (2) arsenical-induced generation...

  12. Detecting and quantifying lewisite degradation products in environmental samples using arsenic speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Crain, J.S.; Shem, L.M.; O`Neill, H.J.; Gowdy, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Besmer, M.; Mohrman, G.B. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a unique method for identifying and quantifying lewisite degradation products using arsenic (III) and arsenic (IV) speciation in solids and in solutions. Gas chromatographic methods, as well as high-performance liquid chromatographic methods are described for separation of arsenic species. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrographic methods are presented for the detection of arsenic.

  13. ASSESSING ARSENIC EXPOSURE AND SKIN HYPERKERATOSIS IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen. The inorganic forms, especially arsenite (As+3), are believed to be the most toxic species. Methylation is often considered to be thedetoxification pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic. The ground water in Ba Men, Inner Mo...

  14. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julshamn, K.; Nilsen, B. M.; Frantzen, S.;

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Arctic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of...

  15. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan H; Smith, Meera M Hira

    2004-05-20

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 microg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 microg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 microg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 microg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 microg/l.

  16. Adsorption characteristics of arsenic and boron by soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to obtain baseline data concerning the surface and ground water pollution caused by coal ash disposal, adsorption characteristics of arsenic (III) and boron by soil have been studied through laboratory experiments. The main results are as follows: (1) Arsenic (III) and boron adsorption on soil was strongly dependent on pH with adsorption maxima at pH 8 and 8-9, respectively. (2) Arsenic (III) and boron adsorption on soil over the entire concentration ranges investigated could be described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm, respectively. The Henry adsorption isotherm was also applicable over the lower concentration ranges of arsenic (III) and boron (As (III): < 0.1 deltag/ml; B: < 5deltag/ml.) (3) Arsenic (III) and boron adsorption on soil is controlled mainly by the contents of extractable Fe oxide and hydroxide for arsenic (III) and by the contents of extractable Al hydroxide and allophane (amorphous aluminium silicates) for boron. (4) Adsorption and movement of arsenic (III) and boron during the infiltration of coal ash leachate in soil layer were investigated by means of the unsteady-state, one-dimensional convective-diffusive mass transport model. This model is very useful for evaluation and prediction of the contamination of ground water by trace elements such as arsenic (III) and boron leached at coal ash disposal site.

  17. Arsenic from community water fluoridation: quantifying the effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Emily; Shapiro, Howard; Li, Ye; Minnery, John G; Copes, Ray

    2016-04-01

    Community water fluoridation is a WHO recommended strategy to prevent dental carries. One debated concern is that hydrofluorosilicic acid, used to fluoridate water, contains arsenic and poses a health risk. This study was undertaken to determine if fluoridation contributes to arsenic in drinking water, to estimate the amount of additional arsenic associated with fluoridation, and compare this to the National Sanitation Foundation/American National Standards Institute (NSF/ANSI) standard and estimates from other researchers. Using surveillance data from Ontario drinking water systems, mixed effects linear regression was performed to examine the effect of fluoridation status on the difference in arsenic concentration between raw water and treated water samples. On average, drinking water treatment was found to reduce arsenic levels in water in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated systems by 0.2 μg/L. However, fluoridated systems were associated with an additional 0.078 μg/L (95% CI 0.021, 0.136) of arsenic in water when compared to non-fluoridated systems (P = 0.008) while controlling for raw water arsenic concentrations, types of treatment processes, and source water type. Our estimate is consistent with concentrations expected from other research and is less than 10% of the NSF/ANSI standard of 1 μg/L arsenic in water. This study provides further information to inform decision-making regarding community water fluoridation.

  18. The microbial arsenic cycle in Mono Lake, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S; Stolz, John F; Hollibaugh, James T

    2004-04-01

    Significant concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic can be found in the waters of a number of lakes located in the western USA and in other water bodies around the world. These lakes are often situated in arid, volcanic terrain. The highest concentrations of arsenic occur in hypersaline, closed basin soda lakes and their remnant brines. Although arsenic is a well-known toxicant to eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike, some prokaryotes have evolved biochemical mechanisms to exploit arsenic oxyanions (i.e., arsenate and arsenite); they can use them either as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (arsenate), or as an electron donor (arsenite) to support chemoautotrophic fixation of CO(2) into cell carbon. Unlike in freshwater or marine ecosystems, these processes may assume quantitative significance with respect to the carbon cycle in arsenic-rich soda lakes. For the past several years our research has focused on the occurrence and biogeochemical manifestations of these processes in Mono Lake, a particularly arsenic-rich environment. Herein we review some of our findings concerning the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in this lake, with the hope that it may broaden the understanding of the influence of microorganisms upon the speciation of arsenic in more common, less "extreme" environments, such as drinking water aquifers. PMID:19712427

  19. Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajrak, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

  20. Poisoning the mind : arsenic contamination and cognitive achievement of children

    OpenAIRE

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2008-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced the largest mass poisoning of a population in history owing to contamination of groundwater with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic. Continuous drinking of such metal-contaminated water is highly cancerous; prolonged drinking of such water risks developing diseases in a span of just 5-10 years. Arsenicosis-intake of arsenic-contaminated drinking water-has imp...