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Sample records for arsenate-induced maternal glucose

  1. Maternal Glucose Tolerance in Pregnancy Affects Fetal Insulin Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Delvin, Edgard; Fraser, William D.; Audibert, Francois; Deal, Cheri I.; Julien, Pierre; Girard, Isabelle; Shear, Roberta; Levy, Emile; Nuyt, Anne-Monique

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Offspring of mothers with impaired glucose tolerance are far more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that maternal glucose tolerance in pregnancy affects fetal insulin sensitivity or β-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort study, we analyzed glucose, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations in maternal blood at the 50-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24–28 weeks of gestation and in venous cord blood (n = ...

  2. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Ya-Hong; Yu, Caiguo; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Guo, Xin; Ji, Zhili; Liu, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH. However, it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance. In this study, we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. ApoCIII transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia...

  3. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Hong Ma; Caiguo Yu; Abudurexiti Kayoumu; Xin Guo; Zhili Ji; George Liu

    2015-01-01

    Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH.However,it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance.In this study,we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice.ApoCⅢ transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia were mated with non-transgenic control mice to obtain 4 types of offspring:maternal non-transgenic control and maternal transgenic offspring,and paternal control and paternal transgenic offspring.Plasma triglycerides (TG),total cholesterol (TC),fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FINS) were measured.ApoCⅢ overexpression caused severe hypertriglyceridemia,but the transgenic female mice had unaltered fertility with normal pregnancy and birth of pups.The 4 groups of offspring had similar birth weight and growth rate.The plasma TG of maternal and paternal transgenic offspring were nearly 40-fold higher than maternal and paternal control mice,but there was no difference in plasma TG between maternal and paternal transgenic offspring.Although the FPG of the 4 groups of animals had no difference,the maternal transgenic mice showed impaired glucose tolerance,increased FINS levels and higher homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than the other 3 groups.In conclusion,maternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia in ApoCⅢ transgenic mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance,hyperinsulinemia and increased HOMA-R,while paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia did not have such impacts.

  4. Correlation between macrosomia body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhang, S; Song, W

    2014-05-01

    To explore the significance of neonatal body indices in identifying pathological macrosomia, we implemented a retrospective study of 254 neonates, including: 100 macrosomia of diabetic pregnancies, 77 macrosomia of healthy pregnancies and 77 normal neonates of healthy pregnancies, using their birth weight, body length, head circumference and chest circumference, to calculate neonatal body indices, multiple regression analysis of the correlation between newborn body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose. The Quetelet Index and Kaup Index of diabetic macrosomia is higher than that of non-diabetic macrosomia; HC:CC (ratio between head circumference and chest circumference) is reversed (p body indices to maternal fasting blood glucose is BG = 6.959 + 0.031 QI -4.482 × HC:CC. Quetelet index and HC:CC have linear relationship with maternal fasting blood glucose (p weight, Quetelet Index and HC:CC could better reflect the effect of maternal metabolism on the fetus and be of great significance in the prediction of fetal macrosomia. PMID:24798112

  5. Changes in Maternal Glucose Metabolism after the Administration of Dexamethasone for Fetal Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Jian Yun; Liang Zhaoxia; Chai Yun; Fang Qin; Chen Yuanyuan; Chen Danqing

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Antenatal dexamethasone administration for fetal lung development may impair maternal glucose tolerance. In this study, we investigated whether glucose and insulin levels differed among singleton and twin pregnancies and pregnancies with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after treatment with dexamethasone. Methods. Singleton pregnancies, twin pregnancies, and pregnancies with IGT between 28 and 33 weeks of gestation whose mothers were treated with dexamethasone were enrolled in this stud...

  6. FXR expression is associated with dysregulated glucose and lipid levels in the offspring kidney induced by maternal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Wong, Muh Geot; CHEN, HUI; Zhang, Jie; Zaky, Amgad; Pollock, Carol A.; Saad, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity is associated with dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism with consequent exposure of the fetus to an abnormal metabolic milieu. It is recognized that maternal obesity predisposes offspring to chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to determine whether the nuclear Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), known to play a role in maintaining homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism, is involved in renal injury in offspring of obese mothers. Methods Maternal obesity was ...

  7. Effects of ethanol ingestion on maternal and fetal glucose homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Singh, S.K.

    1984-08-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism has been studied in the offspring of rats fed liqiud diet containing ethanol during gestation (EF group). Weight-matched control dams were given liquid diet either by the pair-fed technique (PF group) or ad libitum (AF group). EF and PF dams showed reduced food consumption and attenuated gain in body weight during the gestation period compared with the AF group. Blood glucose, liver glycogen, and plasma insulin levels were significantly reduced in EF and PF dams. Ethanol ingestion resulted in a significant decrease in litter survival and fetal body weight. At term, EF pups on average showed a 30% decrease in blood glucose levels and 40% decrease in plasma insulin levels compared with AF pups. One hour after birth, EF pups exhibited a marked increase in blood sugar level compared with either control group. Fetal hyperinsulinemia disappeared shortly after delivery in control pups, as expected; however, in EF pups, the fall in plasma insulin level was gradual. Fetal and neonatal plasma glucagon levels were not altered by ethanol exposure in utero. Blood glucose levels remained significantly low at 2 days of age in EF pups, but reached near control values at 4 days of age. Plasma insulin and glucagon were nearly equal in EF and control pups at 2 and 4 days of age. These results show aberrations in blood glucose, plasma insulin, and liver glycogen levels in offspring exposed to ethanol in utero.

  8. Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Pregnancy versus Maternal and Infant Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Henriksson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.001 of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p ≤ 0.006 associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p = 0.001 associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p < 0.001, but not of sons (p = 0.65 (Sex-interaction: p = 0.042. In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance.

  9. Changes in Maternal Glucose Metabolism after the Administration of Dexamethasone for Fetal Lung Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jian Yun

    2012-01-01

    Methods. Singleton pregnancies, twin pregnancies, and pregnancies with IGT between 28 and 33 weeks of gestation whose mothers were treated with dexamethasone were enrolled in this study. Exclusion criteria included gestational hypertension, diabetes, renal disorders, and infectious diseases. The fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were checked before administration and 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after treatment was completed. Results. Mean glucose levels were significantly higher in the twin pregnancy and IGT groups at 24 h and 48 h after the administration of dexamethasone than those in the singleton pregnancy group (P<0.05. Although there was no significant difference in glucose levels before administration and 72 h after dexamethasone administration among the three groups, insulin levels in the IGT group were significantly higher (P<0.05. Insulin levels in the singleton pregnancy group at 24 h and 48 h after treatment were significantly lower than in the twin and IGT groups. Conclusion. The effects on maternal fasting blood glucose and insulin levels of dexamethasone administrated to promote fetal lung maturation correlated with embryo number and the presence of IGT.

  10. Effects of maternal diet and exercise during pregnancy on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and fat of weanling rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Raipuria

    Full Text Available Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C or high fat (F diet for 6 weeks before mating. Half underwent voluntary exercise (CE/FE with a running wheel introduced 10 days prior to mating and available until the dams delivered; others remained sedentary (CS/FS. Male and female pups were killed at postnatal day (PND19 and retroperitoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for gene expression. Lean and obese dams achieved similar modest levels of exercise. At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS, with no effect in those from obese dams. At PND19, maternal obesity significantly increased offspring body weight and adiposity, with no effect of maternal exercise. Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS, with reduced glucose in male FE pups. In males, maternal obesity significantly decreased muscle myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1 and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 mRNA expressions (FS vs CS; these were normalized by exercise. Maternal exercise upregulated adipose GLUT4, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α mRNA expression in offspring of dams consuming chow. Modest voluntary exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight in pups from lean dams. Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater

  11. Long-term disruption of maternal glucose homeostasis induced by prenatal glucocorticoid treatment correlates with miR-29 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia R; Graciano, Maria F; Pantaleão, Lucas C; Rennó, André L; Rodrigues, Sandra C; Velloso, Licio A; Latorraca, Márcia Q; Carpinelli, Angelo R; Anhê, Gabriel F; Bordin, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Excess of glucocorticoids (GCs) during pregnancy is strongly associated with the programming of glucose intolerance in the offspring. However, the impact of high GC levels on maternal metabolism is not clearly documented. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that mothers exposed to elevated levels of GCs might also display long-term disturbances in glucose homeostasis. Dexamethasone (DEX) was administered noninvasively to the mothers via drinking water between the 14th and the 19th days of pregnancy. Mothers were subjected to glucose and insulin tolerance tests at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 mo postweaning. Pregnant rats not treated with DEX and age-matched virgin rats were used as controls. Pancreatic islets were isolated at the 20th day of pregnancy and 12 mo postweaning in order to evaluate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The expression of the miR-29 family was also studied due to its responsiveness to GCs and its well-documented role in the regulation of pancreatic β-cell function. Rats treated with DEX during pregnancy presented long-term glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion. These changes correlated with 1) increased expression of miR-29 and its regulator p53, 2) reduced expression of syntaxin-1a, a direct target of miR-29, and 3) altered expression of genes related to cellular senescence. Our data demonstrate that the use of DEX during pregnancy results in deleterious outcomes to the maternal metabolism, hallmarked by reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance. This maternal metabolic programming might be a consequence of time-sustained upregulation of miR-29s in maternal pancreatic islets. PMID:24253049

  12. Effects of Maternal Diet and Exercise during Pregnancy on Glucose Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Fat of Weanling Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Raipuria; Hasnah Bahari; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or high ...

  13. ATLANTIC-DIP: raised maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects maternal and foetal outcomes in glucose tolerant women classified using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dennedy, MC

    2011-09-15

    Background and aims: Raised maternal body mass index (BMI), in association with hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Whether BMI has an independent effect on adverse pregnancy outcome is not clear. We aimed to investigate the effects of raised maternal BMI on pregnancy outcome in glucose tolerant women, classified using the IADPSG criteria.\\r\

  14. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 3260 Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B;

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk....../l than in women with 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for several maternal and perinatal complications increased with the diagnostic threshold for 2-h glucose. Large-scale blinded studies are needed to clarify the question of a clinically meaningful diagnosis of gestational diabetes...

  15. Maternal Glucose during Pregnancy and after Delivery in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on Overweight Status of Their Children

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    Shuang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association of maternal glycemia during pregnancy and after delivery with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods. A total of 1,263 GDM mothers and their children finished the health survey at 1–5 years after delivery. Results. Offspring of GDM mothers who were diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy had higher prevalence of overweight, higher mean weight for height Z scores, and higher mean BMI for age Z scores at 1–5 years old than the offspring of GDM mothers who were diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT during pregnancy. Offspring of GDM mothers who developed diabetes 1–5 years after delivery had higher mean values of Z scores for weight for height and BMI for age at 1–5 years old than the offspring of GDM mothers who had normal glucose or prediabetes after delivery. Conclusions. Offspring of GDM mothers who were diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy or after delivery had an increased risk of childhood overweight or weight gain at 1–5 years old compared with children of GDM mothers with IGT during pregnancy or with normal glucose or prediabetes after delivery.

  16. Maternal obesity programs senescence signaling and glucose metabolism in osteo-progenitors from rat and human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases, presumably via epigenetic mechanisms. However, evidence on the impact of gestational events on regulation of embryonic bone cell fate is sparse. We investigated the effects of maternal obesity on fe...

  17. Maternal dietary protein supplement confers long-term sex-specific beneficial consequences of obesity resistance and glucose tolerance to the offspring in Brandt's voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Rong-Shu; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Maternal under- or over-nutrition not only alters neonatal body mass but also increases the risk of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Little is known about how maternal dietary protein affects offspring fitness in wild rodents. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that maternal dietary protein supplement has a long-term beneficial effect on offspring fitness in Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii), a herbivorous rodent model. The vole dams were fed either a control (18% protein) or high-protein (36% protein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, all offspring received a control diet till 14 weeks old. Energetic parameters, serum leptin concentration and glucose tolerance were measured. The adult offspring were fed high-fat diet for 8 weeks, and body weight and food intake were measured. No difference was observed in litter size, litter mass or pup mass before weaning. Maternal protein supplement increased body mass and the mass of reproductive organ but decreased digestibility and fat deposition and alleviated HFD-induced obesity especially in the males. Glucose tolerance was elevated in the offspring from maternal protein supplement, especially in the females. The accelerated growth may be associated with high serum leptin concentration at weaning, a state of leptin resistance, and the low digestibility may predispose obesity resistance especially in male offspring from maternal high-protein diet. These data demonstrate that maternal protein supplement confers the long-term sex-specific beneficial consequences of accelerated growth and improved obesity resistance and glucose tolerance of their offspring. PMID:25499237

  18. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lindsey A; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Smith, Derek T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-04-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  19. Maternal and post-weaning high-fat, high-sucrose diet modulates glucose homeostasis and hypothalamic POMC promoter methylation in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Substantial evidence demonstrated that maternal dietary nutrients can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the later-life effects of maternal and postweaning diets interaction on epigenetic modification of the central nervous system in the offspring. We examined the effects of dams fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (FS) diet during pregnancy and lactation and weaned to FS diet continuously until 32 weeks of age. Then, DNA methylation and gene expressions of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) were determined in the offspring. Offspring of FS diet had heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity and higher serum leptin level at 32-week age (p age (p Maternal and post-weaning high-fat diet predisposes the offspring for obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in later life. Our findings can advance our thinking around the DNA methylation status of the promoter of the POMC and MC4R genes between long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet and glucose homeostasis in mouse. PMID:25936720

  20. Maternal High Folic Acid Supplement Promotes Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance in Male Mouse Offspring Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition may influence metabolic profiles in offspring. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplement on glucose metabolism in mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly assigned into three dietary groups and fed the AIN-93G diet containing 2 (control, 5 (recommended folic acid supplement, RFolS or 40 (high folic acid supplement, HFolS mg folic acid/kg of diet. All male offspring were fed HFD for eight weeks. Physiological, biochemical and genetic variables were measured. Before HFD feeding, developmental variables and metabolic profiles were comparable among each offspring group. However, after eight weeks of HFD feeding, the offspring of HFolS dams (Off-HFolS were more vulnerable to suffer from obesity (p = 0.009, glucose intolerance (p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (p < 0.001, compared with the controls. Off-HFolS had reduced serum adiponectin concentration, accompanied with decreased adiponectin mRNA level but increased global DNA methylation level in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest maternal HFolS exacerbates the detrimental effect of HFD on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring, implying that HFolS during pregnancy should be adopted cautiously in the general population of pregnant women to avoid potential deleterious effect on the metabolic diseases in their offspring.

  1. Dimethylesculetin ameliorates maternal glucose intolerance and fetal overgrowth in high-fat diet-fed pregnant mice via constitutive androstane receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Hisashi; Mitsui, Takashi; Maki, Jota; Tani, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Keiichiro; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been reported to decrease insulin resistance along with obesity. 6,7-dimethylesculetin (DE) is an active component of Yin Zhi Huang which is a traditional Asian medicine used to treat neonatal jaundice via CAR. In this study, we examined whether DE could affect the expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes via human CAR pathway using human HepG2 cells in vitro. We also studied whether DE treatment during pregnancy could prevent maternal hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia, and fetal overgrowth in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese pregnant mice. Dimethylesculetin suppressed the mRNA expression of gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, and lipogenic genes, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and enhanced CAR-mediated transcription. Blocking the CAR-mediated pathway abolished the effect of DE in vitro. DE treatment during pregnancy could prevent maternal hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia, and fetal overgrowth in HFD-induced obese pregnant mice in vivo. Our data indicate that DE might be a potential therapeutic agent for obese pregnant patients with insulin resistance through CAR to prevent the perinatal outcomes such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and macrosomia. Further analysis of possible complications and side effects using animal models is required. PMID:27426490

  2. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:27154523

  3. Sexual Dimorphism in Offspring Glucose-Sensitive Hypothalamic Gene Expression and Physiological Responses to Maternal High-Fat Diet Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Laura; Balthasar, Nina

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that early life environment significantly influences adult metabolic balance, however the etiology for offspring metabolic misprogramming remains incompletely understood. Here, we determine the effect of maternal diet per se on offspring sex-specific outcomes in metabolic health and hypothalamic transcriptome regulation in mice. Furthermore, to define developmental periods of maternal diet misprogramming aspects of offspring metabolic balance, ...

  4. Macrosomia in non-gestational diabetes pregnancy:glucose tolerance test characteristics and feto-maternal complications in tropical Asia Pacific Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Algenes Aranha; Usman H Malabu; Venkat Vangaveti; Elham Saleh Reda; Yong Mong Tan; Kunwarjit Singh Sangla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To look into the glucose tolerance test characteristics and determine complications in non-gestational diabetes pregnant subjects.Methods:who delivered macrosomia at the North Australia’s Townsville Hospital were retrospectively reviewed by extracting data from clinical record. Glucose tolerance tests results were analysed in the light of an earlier diagnosis of non-GDM. From 2006 to 2009 all non-gestational diabetes mellitus (non-GDM) pregnant women Results: Ninety-one non-GDM mothers with macrosomia were studied and compared with 41 normoglycemic subjects without macrosomia. Of the subjects with non-GDM macrosomia, 45 (49.4%) had normal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) without further testing, another 8 (8.8%) had abnormal GCT but normal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 4 (4.4%) subjects had normal GCT and OGTT. Interestingly, 14 out of 16 (87.5%) subjects who were tested with OGTT owing to past history of macrosomia had normal results but delivered macrosomic babies. Only 12 subjects had both GCT and OGTT, the rest of the cohort had either of the two tests. Subjects with non-GDM macrosomia had higher frequency of neonatal hypoglycaemia 34% as compared to 10% in non-macrosomic babies (P=0.003). Other feto-maternal complications were similar in both groups.Conclusions:No significant pattern of glucose tolerance characteristics was identified in non-GDM mothers with macrosomic babies. In spite of being normoglycemic significant neonatal hypoglycaemia was recorded in non-GDM macrosomic babies. Further prospective studies on a larger population are needed to verify our findings.

  5. Sex-Dependent Programming of Glucose and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Mouse Offspring by Maternal Protein Restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Esther M. E.; Bloks, Vincent W.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Baller, Julius F. W.; Huijkman, Nicolette C. A.; Kuipers, Irma; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Plosch, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nutritional conditions during fetal life influence the risk of the development of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in adult life (metabolic programming). Impaired glucose tolerance and dysregulated fatty acid metabolism are hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. Objective: We aim

  6. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  7. Small-for-gestational age and its association with maternal blood glucose, body mass index and stature: a perinatal cohort study among Chinese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Junhong; Hay, John; Liu, Gongshu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Huihuan; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal low blood glucose (BG), low body mass index (BMI) and small stature have a joint effect on the risk of delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. Design Women from a perinatal cohort were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Setting Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. Participants 1572 women aged 19–39 years with valid values of stature, BMI and BG level at gestational diabetes mellitus screening (gestational weeks 24–28), glucose challenge test <7.8 mmol/L and singleton birth (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Main outcome measures SGA was defined as birth weight <10th centile for gender separated gestational age of Tianjin singletons. Results 164 neonates (10.4%) were identified as SGA. From multiple logistic regression models, the ORs (95% CI) of delivery of SGA were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98), 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) and 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76) for every 1 SD increase in maternal BG, BMI and stature, respectively. When dichotomises, maternal BG (<6.0 vs ≥6.0 mmol/L), BMI (<24 vs ≥24 kg/m2) and stature (<160.0 vs ≥160.0 cm), those with BG, BMI and stature all in the lower categories had ∼8 times higher odds of delivering an SGA neonate (OR (95% CI) 8.01 (3.78 to 16.96)) relative to the reference that had BG, BMI and stature all in the high categories. The odds for an SGA delivery among women who had any 2 variables in the lower categories were ∼2–4 times higher. Conclusions Low maternal BG is associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant. The risk of SGA is significantly increased when the mother is also short and has a low BMI. This may be a useful clinical tool to identify women at higher risk for having an SGA infant at delivery. PMID:27633632

  8. Pregnancy Hyperglycemia in Prolactin Receptor Mutant, but Not Prolactin Mutant, Mice and Feeding-Responsive Regulation of Placental Lactogen Genes Implies Placental Control of Maternal Glucose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Saara M; Huang, Carol; Hughes, Martha; Shaykhutdinov, Rustem; Vogel, Hans J; Cross, James C

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy is often viewed as a conflict between the fetus and mother over metabolic resources. Insulin resistance occurs in mothers during pregnancy but does not normally lead to diabetes because of an increase in the number of the mother's pancreatic beta cells. In mice, this increase is dependent on prolactin (Prl) receptor signaling but the source of the ligand has been unclear. Pituitary-derived Prl is produced during the first half of pregnancy in mice but the placenta produces Prl-like hormones from implantation to term. Twenty-two separate mouse genes encode the placenta Prl-related hormones, making it challenging to assess their roles in knockout models. However, because at least four of them are thought to signal through the Prl receptor, we analyzed Prlr mutant mice and compared their phenotypes with those of Prl mutants. We found that whereas Prlr mutants develop hyperglycemia during gestation, Prl mutants do not. Serum metabolome analysis showed that Prlr mutants showed other changes consistent with diabetes. Despite the metabolic changes, fetal growth was normal in Prlr mutants. Of the four placenta-specific, Prl-related hormones that have been shown to interact with the Prlr, their gene expression localizes to different endocrine cell types. The Prl3d1 gene is expressed by trophoblast giant cells both in the labyrinth layer, sitting on the arterial side where maternal blood is highest in oxygen and nutrients, and in the junctional zone as maternal blood leaves the placenta. Expression increases during the night, though the increase in the labyrinth is circadian whereas it occurs only after feeding in the junctional zone. These data suggest that the placenta has a sophisticated endocrine system that regulates maternal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.

  9. Random plasma glucose in early pregnancy is a better predictor of gestational diabetes diagnosis than maternal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Meek, Claire L.; Murphy, Helen R.; Simmons, David

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Asymptomatic pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes (GDM) at 24–28 weeks’ gestation. Recent guidelines also recommend screening early in gestation to identify undiagnosed pre-existing overt diabetes. We assessed the performance of random plasma glucose (RPG) testing at antenatal booking in predicting GDM diagnosis later in pregnancy. Methods Data from 25,543 consecutive singleton pregnancies at the Rosie Hospital in Cambridge (UK) were obtained from hospital elec...

  10. Maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation changes body fat, inflammatory markers and glucose homeostasis in the adult progeny: role of gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Deysla Sabino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Carvalho, Janaíne Cavalcanti; Reis, Adelina Martha Dos; Soares, Patricia Novaes; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation on body composition, lipid profile, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation in male and female progeny at adulthood. Lactating rats were divided into the following: control 7% soybean oil (C), hyper 19% soybean oil (HS) and hyper 17% flaxseed oil+2% soybean oil (HF). Weaned pups received a standard diet. Offspring were killed in PN180. Male HF presented higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and triacylglycerol, and female HF showed insulin resistance. Both male and female HF had hyperleptinemia, and only male HF had hyperprolactinemia. In VAT, male HF presented lower PPAR-γ expressions and higher TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 expressions; in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), they presented lower PPAR-γ and TNF-α expressions. Female HF presented higher leptin, as well as lower adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β expressions in VAT and lower TNF-α in SAT. Flaxseed oil during lactation leads to gender-specific effects with more adiposity and dyslipidemia in male and insulin resistance in female. Higher prolactin and inflammatory cytokines in male could play a role in these gender differences. We suggest that the use of flaxseed oil during lactation increases metabolic syndrome risk in the adult progeny. PMID:27469994

  11. Maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation changes body fat, inflammatory markers and glucose homeostasis in the adult progeny: role of gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Deysla Sabino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Carvalho, Janaíne Cavalcanti; Reis, Adelina Martha Dos; Soares, Patricia Novaes; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation on body composition, lipid profile, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation in male and female progeny at adulthood. Lactating rats were divided into the following: control 7% soybean oil (C), hyper 19% soybean oil (HS) and hyper 17% flaxseed oil+2% soybean oil (HF). Weaned pups received a standard diet. Offspring were killed in PN180. Male HF presented higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and triacylglycerol, and female HF showed insulin resistance. Both male and female HF had hyperleptinemia, and only male HF had hyperprolactinemia. In VAT, male HF presented lower PPAR-γ expressions and higher TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 expressions; in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), they presented lower PPAR-γ and TNF-α expressions. Female HF presented higher leptin, as well as lower adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β expressions in VAT and lower TNF-α in SAT. Flaxseed oil during lactation leads to gender-specific effects with more adiposity and dyslipidemia in male and insulin resistance in female. Higher prolactin and inflammatory cytokines in male could play a role in these gender differences. We suggest that the use of flaxseed oil during lactation increases metabolic syndrome risk in the adult progeny.

  12. 妊娠期糖代谢异常162例母儿预后分析%Analysis on the outcomes of 162 maternal and fetal with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.Methods: 162 patients were diagnosed definitely in our hospital from June 2003 to August 2007.They were divided into Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) group (58 cases) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) group (104 cases).150 pregnant women of normal blood glucose were taken as normal glucose tolerance (GNGT) group, maternal and fetal outcomes were compared in three groups.Results: The incidences of postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean section, pregnancy - induced hypertension, polyhydramnios, fatal macrosomia, premature delivery, neonatal hypoglycemia were higher in GDM group than in GNGT group (P < 0.05 ).The incidences of cesarean section, polyhydramnios, fatal acrosomia were higher in the GIGT group than in GNGT group (P <0.05).Conclusion: Abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy can produce adverse effect on mothers and neonates.It is very important to positive treatment the pregnant women of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常对母儿预后的影响.方法:2003年6月~2007年8月在大同市第一人民医院诊断为妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕妇162例,其中妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)组58例,妊娠期糖耐量减低(GIGT)组104例,另选择150例血糖值正常孕妇作为血糖正常(GNGT)组,比较3组的母儿预后.结果:GDM组孕妇产后即时出血、剖宫产、妊娠期高血压疾病、羊水过多、巨大儿、早产儿和新生儿低血糖的发生率均显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05);GIGT组剖宫产、羊水过多、巨大儿的发生率显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05).结论:妊娠期糖代谢异常对孕产妇和围生儿的预后有不良影响,应对妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇进行积极干预.

  13. 孕期糖代谢状况对早产儿早期胰岛功能的影响%Maternal glucose-insulin metabolism on early pancreatic islet function in premature infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐继; 刘戈力; 张平平; 初玉芹; 张金艳; 王玉亮

    2013-01-01

      目的分析母亲孕期糖代谢状况对其早产儿早期胰岛功能的影响,并探讨监测早产儿早期胰岛功能的敏感指标。方法将2012年3月至12月入住新生儿重症监护病房的82例早产儿分为2组,母亲孕期糖代谢异常组(35例)和母亲孕期糖代谢正常组(47例),分别检测早产儿生后1 h和7 d的空腹血糖(FPG)、胰岛素(FINS)、C-肽和胰岛素原,并比较早产儿胰岛β细胞功能的相关指数。结果两组早产儿母亲的孕前和产前体质指数(BMI)、早产儿出生时体质量和头围的差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。两组早产儿出生时胰岛素原与生后7 d的C-肽、胰岛素原的差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论母亲孕期糖代谢异常并不影响早产儿早期胰岛功能,但早产儿早期胰岛素原的分泌已受影响。%Objectives To analyze the impact of glucose-insulin metabolism during pregnancy onβ-cell function in premature infant, and to explore biomarkers for monitoringβ-cell function in preterm infant. Methods Eighty-two premature infants admitted to NICU from March to December 2012 were divided into 2 groups, a group with abnormal maternal glucose metabolism during pregnancy (35 cases) and another group with normal maternal glucose metabolism during pregnancy group (47 cases). Fasting blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide and proinsulin at 1 hour after birth and 7 days postpartum were measured respectively, and relevant indices ofβ-cell function were compared in premature infants. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy and prenatal body mass index, weight and head circumference of preterm infants at birth were signiifcantly different between two groups (P0.05). The differences in levels of proinsulin at birth, C-peptide and proinsulin at postnatal day 7 were signiifcantly different between the two groups (P0.05). Conclusions Abnormal maternal glucose metabolism in pregnancy has no effect on early pancreatic islet

  14. Maternal Lipids as Strong Determinants of Fetal Environment and Growth in Pregnancies With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer-Graf, Ute M.; Graf, Kristof; Kulbacka, Irina; Kjos, Siri L.; Dudenhausen, Joachim; Vetter, Klaus; Herrera, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the contribution of maternal glucose and lipids to intrauterine metabolic environment and fetal growth in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In 150 pregnancies, serum triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFAs), glycerol, insulin, and glucose were determined in maternal serum and cord blood during the 3rd trimester. Maternal glucose values came from oral glucose tolerance testing and glucose profiles. Measurem...

  15. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  16. 糖耐量异常对妊娠期糖尿病母儿并发症的影响%Investigation of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance on Gestational Diabetes to Maternal and Neonatal Complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂秀娟

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the occurrence of maternal and neonatal complications caused by gestational diabetes and abnormal factors of glucose tolerance tests .Methods The singleton primiparas who were accepted system antenatal examination and delivered in my hospital from 1st Jan,2009 to 1st Jan,2011 were studied.They were divided into two groups,the OGTT 84 abnormal pregnant women was observation group,the OGTT normal pregnant ones was control group .The outcomes of pregnancy of the two groups were :maternal compli-cations(polyhydramnios,hypertensive disorders in pregnancy ,premature delivery,fetal distress,cesarean section rate,postpartum hemorrhage) and neonatal complications (macrosomia,deformity,RDS,intrauterine fetal death).Results The rate of the complications (such as postpartum hemorrhage,macrosomia polyhydramnios ,malformations,fetal death in utero) of the observation group was obviously increased with significant differences(P <0.05).Conclusion Pregnant women should do OGTT test for the early diagnosis ,to strengthen their pregnant and gestation -al nutrition and health,in order to reduce the hazards of gestational diabetes on maternal -fetal.%  目的探讨妊娠期糖尿病母婴并发症的发生与糖耐量试验异常的相关因素.方法2009年1月~2011年1月在我院行系统产前检查并住院分娩的单胎初产妇.口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)异常孕妇84例为观察组,OGTT 正常孕妇84例为对照组.观察妊娠结局:包括孕产妇并发症(羊水过多、妊娠期高血压疾病、早产、胎儿窘迫、剖宫产率、产后出血)及新生儿并发症(巨大儿、畸形、RDS、胎死宫内,窒息).结果观察组孕妇的并发症如产后出血、巨大儿羊水过多、畸形、胎死宫内的发生率明显升高(P <0.05).结论孕妇应行 OGTT 试验进行早期诊断,加强孕期、孕后营养及保健,可降低妊娠期糖尿病对母儿的危害.

  17. Glucose Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Glucose Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... the meaning of other test results. Fasting Blood Glucose Glucose Level Indication From 70 to 99 mg/ ...

  18. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  19. Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pregnant Women With Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L;

    2015-01-01

    developed LGA. LGA was associated with lower mean glucose (7.0 vs. 7.1 mmol/L; P ... of day that maternal glucose excursions were associated with LGA. It highlights trimester-specific differences, allowing treatment to be targeted to gestational glucose patterns....

  20. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-[U-13C] glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia

  1. Adverse pregnancy outcome in women with mild glucose intolerance: is there a clinically meaningful threshold value for glucose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Lauridsen, Lars Korsholm; Ovesen, Per Glud;

    2008-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been based on the risk of future maternal diabetes rather than the short-term risk of mother and infant. Our aim was to illustrate the relation between various adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal glucose levels in women...

  2. Maternal care

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    In June 2000 a distinguished group of obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners, and medical statisticians came together to discuss maternal care. Chaired by Professor James Drife from Leeds, discussion ranged over many topics, including: the changing role of the obstetrician, general practitioners, and the increasing status and responsibility of midwives. Other subjects include the induction of labour, obstetric analgesia and anaesthesia, and debates about the place and kind of delivery...

  3. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  4. Fetal and maternal metabolic responses to exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Michelle F; Artal, Raul

    2016-03-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by physiological, endocrine and metabolic adaptations creating a pseudo-diabetogenic state of progressive insulin resistance. These adaptations occur to sustain continuous fetal requirements for nutrients and oxygen. Insulin resistance develops at the level of the skeletal muscle, and maternal exercise, especially activity involving large muscle groups improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We discuss the maternal hormonal and metabolic changes associated with a normal pregnancy, the metabolic dysregulation that may occur leading to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and the consequences to mother and fetus. We will then examine the acute and chronic (training) responses to exercise in the non-pregnant state and relate these alterations to maternal exercise in a low-risk pregnancy, how exercise can be used to regulate glucose tolerance in women at risk for or diagnosed with GDM. Lastly, we present key exercise guidelines to help maintain maternal glucose regulation and suggest future research directions. PMID:26803360

  5. Placental Transfer of Lactate, Glucose and 2-deoxyglucose in Control and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Chris R.; Oon, Beryl B.; Lowy, Clara

    2001-01-01

    Placental transfer of lactate, glucose and 2-deoxyglucose was examined employing the in situ perfused placenta. Control and streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were infused with U-14C]-glucose and [3H]-2-deoxyglucose (2DG). The fetal side of the placenta was perfuseci with a cell free medium and glucose uptake was calculated in the adjacent fetuses. Despite the 5-fold higher maternal plasma glucose concentration in the diabetic dams the calculated fetal glucose metabolic index was not...

  6. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert;

    2003-01-01

    concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. Conceivably, glucose is one of the signals stimulating AIR in response to decreasing M. Hypothetically, as with any normally functioning feed-forward system, AIR should not fully compensate for worsening M, since this would remove the stimulus...... (insulin resistance), we propose to use the term "glucose allostasis." Allostasis (stability through change) ensures the continued homeostatic response (stability through staying the same) to acute stress at some cumulative costs to the system. With increasing severity and over time, the allostatic load...

  7. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    .002) after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, and birth length. Total (p = 0.012) and abdominal (p = 0.039) fat masses correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal...

  8. Impact of Participatory Health Education in Pregnancy Maternal with Diabetes on Blood Glucose and Health Behavior%参与式健康教育模式对妊娠期糖尿病孕产妇血糖及健康行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春吾; 陈利明

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the impact of participatory health education in pregnancy maternal with diabetes. Method:120 cases with gestational diabetes were selected in our hospital from January 2013 to January 2014 and were randomly divided into observation group and control group,60 cases in each group.The fasting blood glucose,2 h postprandial blood glucose,health behavior and incidence of complications of patients in the two groups after admission and postpartum 42 d werecompared.Result:The levels of fasting blood glucose and 2 h postprandial blood glucose in the observation group after admission and postpartum 42 d were lower than those in the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The health behaviors included attending lectures,diet control,exercise,weight management,monitoring of blood glucose and incidence of breast feeding in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).The incidence rate of complications in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The participatory health education mode on gestational diabetes mellitus pregnant women,can significantly improve the health behavior,control blood sugar during pregnancy and postpartum,reduce the maternal and fetal complications,and is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨参与式健康教育对妊娠期糖尿病孕产妇的影响。方法:选取2013年1月-2014年1月本院就诊的妊娠期糖尿病患者120例,随机分为观察组与对照组,每组各60例。对两组患者入院及产后42 d的空腹及餐后2 h血糖,健康行为及并发症发生率进行比较。结果:观察组入院及产后42 d的空腹及餐后2 h血糖水平明显低于对照组,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组健康行为包括参加讲座、饮食控制、运动、

  9. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes-the role of glucose and other factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmidt, Lone;

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values.......We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values....

  10. Chronic Maternal Dietary Chromium Restriction Modulates Visceral Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathi, Inagadapa J.N.; Rao, K Rajender; Venu, Lagishetty; Ganeshan, Manisha; Kumar, K. Anand; Rao, Ch. Narasima; Harishankar, Nemani; Ismail, Ayesha; Raghunath, Manchala

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We demonstrated previously that chronic maternal micronutrient restriction altered the body composition in rat offspring and may predispose offspring to adult-onset diseases. Chromium (Cr) regulates glucose and fat metabolism. The objective of this study is to determine the long-term effects of maternal Cr restriction on adipose tissue development and function in a rat model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Female weanling WNIN rats received, ad libitum, a control diet or the same with ...

  11. 口服二甲双胍对肥胖合并妊娠期糖耐量受损孕妇的影响%Effect of Oral Metformin on the Maternal Labor and Offspring′s Growth and Development in Pregnant Women with Simple Obesity Complicated with Gestational Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐韵

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of oral metformin on the maternal labor and offspring′s growth and development in pregnant women with simple obesity complicated with gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT ) .Methods 96 pregnant women with simple obesity complicated with GIGT were selected and divided into three groups ,which were the insulin group with 32 cases treated with insulin ,the metformin group with 34 cases treated with metformin ,and the combined group with 30 cases treated with both insulin and metformin .The data were collected and analyzed retrospectively to compare the changes of the pregnant women′s blood glucose levels before and after treatment ,the maternal and neonatal outcomes ,and the offspring′s growth and development in the 5‐year follow‐ups .Results The fasting and 2‐hour postprandial blood glucose levels in the three groups were significantly lower after treatment than before treatment (P 0.05 ) . The maternal and neonatal outcomes showed that there were no significant differences in the rate of cesarean section and premature labor and the incidence of pregnancy complications among the three groups (P>0.05) .Meanwhile ,there were no significant differences in the incidence of neonatal malformation ,fetal macrosomia ,jaundice and respiratory distress ,and the rate of being transferred to the department of pediatrics among the three groups (P>0.05) .The follow‐up results showed that the differences in the development of height ,weight and intelligence during the 5 years of follow‐ups were not significant among the three groups (P>0.05) .Conclusion Oral metformin has ideal effect on the regulation of blood glucose levels in pregnant women with simple obesity complicated with GIGT ,while it has no adverse effect on the maternal and neonatal outcomes and the offspring′s grow th and development and the drug safety is high .%目的:探讨肥胖合并妊娠期糖耐量受损(GIGT )孕妇口服二甲双胍对母体

  12. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  13. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels (N = 98). Following Mary Ainsworth's lead, our maternal sensitivity measures were primarily based on ratings of direct observations. Six sets of measures were obtained: positive maternal style at home (a mean of four different ratings); providing a sensitive framework, limit setting, allowing autonomy, criticizing/cutting in (each a mean over two laboratory joint tasks); and tension-making (a mean of three different ratings in a fear-inducing task). Regression analyses showed firstly that maternal anxiety rather than behavioral inhibition or sex of child was the significant predictor of each maternal sensitivity measure; and secondly that these measures rather than maternal anxiety or sex were the significant predictors of security of attachment. Finally, ANOVA's indicated which sets of maternal ratings were associated with each pattern of attachment (Avoidant, Secure, Ambivalent, or Controlling).

  14. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety leve

  15. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M;

    2016-01-01

    and fasting glucose, genetic associations were consistent with the observational associations, but for systolic blood pressure, the genetic and observational associations were in opposite directions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this mendelian randomization study, genetically elevated maternal BMI and blood...... glucose levels were potentially causally associated with higher offspring birth weight, whereas genetically elevated maternal SBP was potentially causally related to lower birth weight. If replicated, these findings may have implications for counseling and managing pregnancies to avoid adverse weight...

  16. The risk of postpartum maternal hyperglycaemia in women with gestational diabetes is reduced by breastfeeding

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, MW

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. It identifies women at risk of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular risk in later life. Recent studies have suggested that breastfeeding may confer a beneficial effect on postpartum maternal glucose tolerance in both women with GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy.\\r\

  17. Correlation between maternal inflammatory markers and fetomaternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-10-01

    Outside pregnancy, both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with changes in inflammatory cytokines. Obesity in pregnancy may be complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and\\/or fetal macrosomia. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between maternal cytokines and fetomaternal adiposity in the third trimester in women where the important confounding variable GDM had been excluded. Healthy women with a singleton pregnancy and a normal glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks gestation were enrolled at their convenience. Maternal cytokines were measured at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Maternal adiposity was assessed indirectly by calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI), and directly by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fetal adiposity was assessed by ultrasound measurement of fetal soft tissue markers and by birthweight at delivery. Of the 71 women studied, the mean maternal age and BMI were 29.1 years and 29.2 kg\\/m(2) respectively. Of the women studied 32 (45%) were obese. Of the cytokines, only maternal IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with maternal adiposity. Maternal TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not correlate with either fetal body adiposity or birthweight. In this well characterised cohort of pregnant non-diabetic women in the third trimester of pregnancy we found that circulating maternal cytokines are associated with maternal adiposity but not with fetal adiposity.

  18. Glucose test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  19. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  20. The influence of maternal glycaemia and dietary glycaemic index on pregnancy outcome in healthy mothers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Ciara A

    2010-07-01

    Infant birth weight has increased in Ireland in recent years along with levels of childhood overweight and obesity. The present article reviews the current literature on maternal glycaemia and the role of the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. It is known that maternal weight and weight gain significantly influence infant birth weight. Fetal macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal trauma to both mother and infant. Furthermore, macrosomic infants have greater risk of being obese in childhood, adolescence and adulthood compared to normal-sized infants. There is evidence that there is a direct relationship between maternal blood glucose levels during pregnancy and fetal growth and size at birth, even when maternal blood glucose levels are within their normal range. Thus, maintaining blood glucose concentrations within normal parameters during pregnancy may reduce the incidence of fetal macrosomia. Maternal diet, and particularly its carbohydrate (CHO) type and content, influences maternal blood glucose concentrations. However, different CHO foods produce different glycaemic responses. The GI was conceived by Jenkins in 1981 as a method for assessing the glycaemic responses of different CHO. Data from clinical studies in healthy pregnant women have documented that consuming a low-GI diet during pregnancy reduces peaks in postprandial glucose levels and normalises infant birth weight. Pregnancy is a physiological condition where the GI may be of particular relevance as glucose is the primary fuel for fetal growth.

  1. Maternal BMI Associations with Maternal and Cord Blood Vitamin D Levels in a North American Subset of Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO Study Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L Josefson

    Full Text Available Obesity in pregnancy may be associated with reduced placental transfer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD. The objective of this study was to examine associations between maternal BMI and maternal and cord blood levels of 25-OHD in full term neonates born to a single racial cohort residing at similar latitude. Secondary objectives were to examine associations between maternal glucose tolerance with maternal levels of 25-OHD and the relationship between cord blood 25-OHD levels and neonatal size.This study was conducted among participants of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO Study meeting the following criteria: residing at latitudes 41-43°, maternal white race, and gestational age 39-41 weeks. Healthy pregnant women underwent measures of height, weight, and a 75-g fasting oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT at approximately 28 weeks gestation. Maternal and cord blood sera were analyzed for total 25-OHD by HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included ANOVA and linear regression models.Maternal and cord blood (N = 360 mean levels (sd of 25-OHD were 37.2 (11.2 and 23.4 (9.2 ng/ml, respectively, and these levels were significantly different among the 3 field centers (ANOVA p< 0.001. Maternal serum 25-OHD was lower by 0.40 ng/ml for BMI higher by 1 kg/m2 (p<0.001 in an adjusted model. Maternal fasting plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity, and presence of GDM were not associated with maternal serum 25-OHD level when adjusted for maternal BMI. Cord blood 25-OHD was lower by 0.26 ng/ml for maternal BMI higher by 1 kg/m2 (p<0.004. With adjustment for maternal age, field center, birth season and maternal serum 25-OHD, the association of cord blood 25-OHD with maternal BMI was attenuated. Neither birth weight nor neonatal adiposity was significantly associated with cord blood 25-OHD levels.These results suggest that maternal levels of 25-OHD are associated with maternal BMI. The results also suggest that interpretation of

  2. Effects of maternal glucose tolerance, pregnancy diet quality and neonatal insulinemia upon insulin resistance/sensitivity biomarkers in normoweight neonates Efectos de la tolerancia a la glucosa y calidad de la dieta materna durante embarazo y de los niveles de insulina al nacimiento sobre biomarcadores de resistencia/sensibilidad a la insulina en neonatos normopeso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gesteiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differences in neonatal insulin sensitivity/ resistance markers due to the maternal impaired glucose tolerance (IGT have not been tested. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI score has been employed for evaluating pregnancy diet quality. Aims: To study, the effect of neonatal insulinemia, maternal IGT and diet HEI score upon insulin sensitivity/ resistance at birth. Methods: 176 singleton, normoweight, full-term, Caucasian Spanish neonates, delivered without fetal distress whose mothers were screened for gestational IGT were studied. Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI and Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMAIR were calculated. Diet followed during the third month of pregnancy was recorded and the respective HEI score calculated in a sample of 29 mothers. Results: As quartile for cord blood insulin levels increased, glucose, the insulin/cortisol ratio and HOMA-IR (all p Introducción: Los efectos de la disminución de la tolerancia a la glucosa (DTG materna sobre la insulinorresistencia neonatal han sido poco estudiados. La puntuación del Índice de Alimentación Saludable (HEI es útil para evaluar la calidad de la dieta en gestantes. Objetivos: Estudiar la asociación de insulinemia neonatal y DTG materna con la resistencia/sensibilidad a la insulina al nacimiento y con el HEI materno. Métodos: Se estudiaron 176 neonatos españoles, caucásicos, a término, normopeso, de embarazo único y sin distrés fetal, cuyas madres fueron cribadas para DTG en el embarazo. Se calcularon el Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI y el Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR. En 29 madres se estudió la dieta consumida durante el tercer mes de gestación y se calculó su respectivo HEI. Resultados: Al aumentar el cuartil de insulina en sangre de cordón, aumentaron glucosa, cociente insulina/ cortisol, HOMA-IR (p < 0,001 e IGF-I (p < 0,01, y disminuyeron QUICKI y cociente glucosa/insulina (p < 0,001 y GH (p < 0,05. Los

  3. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  4. HIV and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence.

  5. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results:Large for gestational age (LGA babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA group (P < 0.001. Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05. However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01. Conclusion:The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies.

  6. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Campbell, Melanie; Carson, George; Fraser, William; Liston, Robert M; Walker, Mark; Barrett, Jon

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System has provided a comprehensive review of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada, and has identified several important limitations to existing national maternal data collection systems, including variability in the detail and quality of mortality data. The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System report recommended the establishment of an ongoing national review and reporting system, as well as consistency in definitions and classifications of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity, in order to enhance surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. Using review articles and studies that examined maternal mortality in general as opposed to maternal mortality associated with particular management strategies or conditions, maternal mortality and severe morbidity classifications, terminology, and comparative statistics were reviewed and employed to evaluate deficiencies in past and current methods of data collection and to seek solutions to address the need for enhanced and consistent national surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada.

  7. Maternal mortality in Sirur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    The research aim was 1) to determine the incidence of maternal mortality in a rural health center area in Sirur, Maharashtra state, India; 2) to determine the relative risk; and 3) to make suggestions about reducing maternal mortality. The data on deliveries was obtained between 1981 and 1984. Medical care at the Rural Training Center was supervised by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, the B.J. Medical College in Pune. Deliveries numbered 5994 singleton births over the four years; 5919 births were live births. 15 mothers died: 14 after delivery and 1 predelivery. The maternal mortality rate was 2.5/1000 live births. The maternal causes of death included 9 direct obstetric causes, 3 from postpartum hemorrhage of anemic women, and 3 from puerperal sepsis of anemic women with prolonged labor. 2 deaths were due to eclampsia, and 1 death was unexplained. There were 5 (33.3%) maternal deaths due to indirect causes (3 from hepatitis and 2 from thrombosis). One woman died of undetermined causes. Maternal jaundice during pregnancy was associated with the highest relative risk of maternal death: 106.4. Other relative risk factors were edema, anemia, and prolonged labor. Attributable risk was highest for anemia, followed by jaundice, edema, and maternal age of over 30 years. Maternal mortality at 30 years and older was 3.9/1000 live births. Teenage maternal mortality was 3.3/1000. Maternal mortality among women 20-29 years old was lowest at 2.1/1000. Maternal mortality for women with a parity of 5 or higher was 3.6/1000. Prima gravida women had a maternal mortality rate of 2.9/1000. Parities between 1 and 4 had a maternal mortality rate of 2.3/1000. The lowest maternal mortality was at parity of 3. Only 1 woman who died had received more than 3 prenatal visits. 11 out of 13 women medically examined prenatally were identified with the following risk factors: jaundice, edema, anemia, young or old maternal age, parity, or poor obstetric history. The local

  8. Four grams of glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserman, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Four grams of glucose circulates in the blood of a person weighing 70 kg. This glucose is critical for normal function in many cell types. In accordance with the importance of these 4 g of glucose, a sophisticated control system is in place to maintain blood glucose constant. Our focus has been on the mechanisms by which the flux of glucose from liver to blood and from blood to skeletal muscle is regulated. The body has a remarkable capacity to satisfy the nutritional need for glucose, while ...

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  10. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation- ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ...

  15. CSF glucose test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  18. Role of gut microbiota in maternal glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yushi; 毛雨詩

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in daily biological reactions. It is proved that many metabolic diseases are accompanied with pattern change of gut microbiota and pregnancy is also a process with gut microbiota remodeling. Besides, serum IGF-1 level is increased during pregnancy, but the source of increased IGF-1 remains unclear. So far, there is a paper that explored the gut microbiota in pregnant women. However, the diet of pregnant women was not unified in the study, which might hav...

  19. Maternal factors associated with fetal growth and birthweight are independent determinants of placental weight and exhibit differential effects by fetal sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. RESULTS: Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.

  20. Maternal Smoking and Metabolic Health Biomarkers in Newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been associated with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes among the offspring in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this fetal "programming" effect remain unclear. The present study sought to explore whether maternal smoking affects metabolic health biomarkers in fetuses/newborns.In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248, we compared metabolic health biomarkers in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Outcomes included cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of β-cell function.Independent of maternal (glucose tolerance, age, ethnicity, parity, education, body mass index, alcohol use and infant (sex, gestational age, birth weight z score, mode of delivery, cord blood glucose concentration characteristics, the newborns of smoking mothers had lower IGF-I concentrations (mean: 6.7 vs. 8.4 nmol/L, adjusted p = 0.006, and marginally higher proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (0.94 vs. 0.72, adjusted p = 0.06 than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. Cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations and glucose-to-insulin ratios were similar in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers.Maternal smoking was associated with decreased fetal IGF-I levels, and borderline lower fetal β-cell function. Larger cohort studies are required to confirm the latter finding. The preliminary findings prompt the hypothesis that these early life metabolic changes may be involved in the impact of maternal smoking on future risk of metabolic syndrome related disorders in the offspring.

  1. Maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Dildy, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhage remains as one of the top 3 obstetrics related causes of maternal mortality, with most deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of delivery. Although hemorrhage related maternal mortality has declined globally, it continues to be a vexing problem. More specifically, the developing world continue to shoulder a disproportionate share of hemorrhage related deaths (99%) compared with industrialized nations (1%). Given the often preventable nature of death from hemorrhage, the cornerstone of effective mortality reduction involves risk factor identification, quick diagnosis, and timely management. In this monograph we will review the epidemiology, etiology, and preventative measures related to maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

  2. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia.

  3. Maternal and Fetal Lipid and Adipokine Profiles and Their Association with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solis-Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal metabolic changes impact fetal metabolism resulting in a higher risk for developing chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal and fetal adipokine and lipid profiles, as well as the influence of maternal weight on this association. Methods. Healthy pregnant women at term who delivered by C-section were enrolled. Maternal and fetal glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were analyzed by obesity and maternal weight gain. Statistics included descriptives, correlations, and mean differences (SPSS v20.0. Results. Adiponectin and resistin concentrations were higher in fetal blood, while leptin was lower (p<0.05. A significant inverse association between maternal resistin and fetal LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C (r=-0.327; p=0.022 was observed. A positive correlation was found between maternal and fetal resistin (r=0.358; p=0.013. Women with excessive weight gain had higher leptin levels and their fetuses showed higher LDL-C levels (p<0.05. Conclusions. Maternal resistin showed an inverse association with fetal LDL-C, suggesting that maternal adiposity status may play an active role in the regulation of fetal lipid profile and consequently, in fetal programming. Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy may exert an effect over metabolic mediators in both mother and newborn.

  4. Effects of pregnancy on maternal work tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Larry A; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Glenn, Nicole M; Heenan, Aaron P; Davies, Gregory A L

    2005-04-01

    This review summarizes current information on the tolerance of healthy pregnant women and their fetuses to acute strenuous exertion. Maximal aerobic power, expressed in L x min(-1), is not significantly affected in women who maintain an active lifestyle, whereas values expressed in ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) decline with advancing gestational age in relation to maternal/fetal weight gain. Efficiency during standard exercise testing and the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (Tvent) also appear to be unaffected by pregnancy, but the ability to utilize carbohydrate and exercise anaerobically during brief strenuous exercise may be reduced. Fetal responses to short strenuous exercise are usually moderate and revert to baseline values within approximately 30 min postexercise. Future studies should examine alveolar gas exchange kinetics at the start of exercise and during recovery from both moderate and strenuous exertion. Existing studies of the responses of pregnant women to prolonged exercise have focused primarily on substrate utilization and glucose homeostasis. Other maternal responses to prolonged exercise that should be examined include acid-base regulation, temperature regulation, fluid and electrolyte balance, and perception of effort. Fetal reactions should also be examined in relation to maternal responses. Until evidence-based, occupation-specific guidelines become available, it is recommended that pregnant women use the Joint SOGC/CSEP Clinical Practice Guideline: Exercise in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period, published by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (2003). PMID:15981789

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ...

  7. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... should know? How is it used? Maternal serum screening is used in the second trimester of pregnancy ...

  8. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  9. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  10. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  11. Resolving futile glucose cycling and glycogenolytic contributions to plasma glucose levels following a glucose load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.M.; Jarak, I.; Heerschap, A.; Jones, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: After a glucose load, futile glucose/glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) cycling (FGC) generates [2-(2) H]glucose from (2) H2 O thereby mimicking a paradoxical glycogenolytic contribution to plasma glucose levels. Contributions of load and G6P derived from gluconeogenesis, FGC, and glycogenolysis to

  12. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  13. Maternal temperature during labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, F. D.; Wolf, H.; Smjt, B. J.; Bekedam, D. J.; de Vos, R.; Wahlen, I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the variation of normal maternal temperature during labour. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Two hospitals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Population All women with a live singleton pregnancy and a gestational age of 36 weeks or more admitted

  14. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N;

    1999-01-01

    of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were....... This change was substantial in three countries (P maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... and consequently affect maternal mortality rates. Differences in classification of death must be taken into account when comparing maternal mortality rates, as well as differences in obstetric care, underreporting of maternal deaths and other factors such as the age distribution of mothers....

  15. Proximity to Delivery Alters Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Metabolism in Pregnant Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Musial, Babara; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Owen R Vaughan; Ozanne, Susan E.; Voshol, Peter; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Fowden, Abigail L.

    2016-01-01

    In late pregnancy, maternal insulin resistance occurs to support fetal growth but little is known about insulin-glucose dynamics close to delivery. This study measured insulin sensitivity in mice in late pregnancy, day (D) 16, and near term, D19, (term 20.5D). Non-pregnant (NP) and pregnant mice were assessed for metabolite and hormone concentrations, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, tissue insulin signalling protein abundance by Western blotting, glucose tolerance and ut...

  16. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Penghua; Shen, Wei-bin; Reece, E Albert; Chen, Xi; Yang, Peixin

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal neurogenesis occurs during embryonic development in human diabetic pregnancies and in animal models of diabetic embryopathy. Our previous studies in a mouse model of diabetic embryopathy have implicated that high glucose of maternal diabetes delays neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium leading to neural tube defects. However, the underlying process in high glucose-impaired neurogenesis is uncharacterized. Neurogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells provides a valuable model for understanding the abnormal neural lineage development under high glucose conditions. ES cells are commonly generated and maintained in high glucose (approximately 25 mM glucose). Here, the mouse ES cell line, E14, was gradually adapted to and maintained in low glucose (5 mM), and became a glucose responsive E14 (GR-E14) line. High glucose induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, CHOP, in GR-E14 cells. Under low glucose conditions, the GR-E14 cells retained their pluripotency and capability to differentiate into neural lineage cells. GR-E14 cell differentiation into neural stem cells (Sox1 and nestin positive cells) was inhibited by high glucose. Neuron (Tuj1 positive cells) and glia (GFAP positive cells) differentiation from GR-E14 cells was also suppressed by high glucose. In addition, high glucose delayed GR-E14 differentiation into neural crest cells by decreasing neural crest markers, paired box 3 (Pax3) and paired box 7 (Pax7). Thus, high glucose impairs ES cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. The low glucose adapted and high glucose responsive GR-E14 cell line is a useful in vitro model for assessing the adverse effect of high glucose on the development of the central nervous system.

  17. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin ...

  19. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glucose NIH Medline Plus - Diabetes Spotlight FDA permits marketing of first system of mobile medical apps for ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose ... be a serious problem if you don't treat it, so it's important to treat as soon ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Drive ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term ... body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: If ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $ ... glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders American Indian/ ... High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't ...

  10. Glucose Monitoring During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    HAWKINS, J. SETH

    2010-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose in women with mild gestational diabetes has recently been proven to be useful in reducing the rates of fetal overgrowth and gestational weight gain. However, uncertainty remains with respect to the optimal frequency and timing of self-monitoring. A continuous glucose monitoring system may have utility in pregnant women with insulin-treated diabetes, especially for those women with blood sugars that are difficult to control or who experience nocturnal hypoglyce...

  11. Maternal near miss: an indicator for maternal health and maternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Pragti

    2014-07-01

    Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health.

  12. Maternal near miss: An indicator for maternal health and maternal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragti Chhabra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health.

  13. Effects of maternal nicotine on breastfeeding infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Cândida Caniçali; Ruela, Priscilla Bôa F; Brotto, Léia Damasceno de A; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro; Lima, Eliane de Fátima

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess scientific evidence about the effects of maternal nicotine on infant by an integrative review. DATA SOURCES Studies published in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from 1990 to 2009, with abstracts available in the Latin American Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (Medline) databases. The descriptors were: "breastfeeding", "lactation" and "smoking". DATA SYNTHESIS The main identified effects of nicotine on infants were: changes in sleep and wakefulness patterns; reduction of iodine supply; hystopathological damage on liver and lung; intracellular oxidative damage; reduction of pancreatic ß cells; and decreased glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS It is recommended to inform mothers about harmful chemicals contained in cigarettes that can be secreted into breast milk. They should be strongly encouraged to stop smoking during lactation. PMID:24142324

  14. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D

    1987-05-01

    We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor.

  15. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  16. Maternal mortality in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Thobbi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study is to evaluate the incidence of maternal deaths, causes responsible for maternal mortality, direct and indirect factors, and various preventable methods to reduce maternal mortality rate. Background: 95% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and Africa. The need for undertaking this study is to know the maternal mortality rate, analyze the causes and preventable factors of death occurring in the district of Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Methodology: It is a study of 2years from the Records of District Health Office and Institutions on maternal mortality from June 2011 to May 2013 in Bijapur. Results: In two years there were fifty eight maternal deaths and seventy nine thousand five hundred and sixty six live births, hence maternal mortality ratio was seventy three per lakh live births. Eighty two percent of maternal deaths occurred in families who belonged to Below Poverty Line. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was 79.3%. Severe anemia (Hemoglobin <7g% seen in 5.1% was the most common indirect cause of death. Forty three percent of the deaths occurred at private setups. Hemorrhage, Septicemia and Preeclampsia & Eclampsia were responsible for 44.82%, 15.51% and 6.89% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the maternal deaths are preventable if these four delays are avoided: a Delay in identifying the problem. b Delay in seeking care. c Delay in reaching the referral institute. d Delay in getting treatment on reaching the referral institute.

  17. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction....

  18. The Maternal Heroine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Messer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a Chinese curse quoted in glib desk calendars that have a phrase for each day: ‘May you live in interesting times’. In fiction, maternity has not often been seen as terribly interesting, and in the real world having babies often stops a mother from writing, off and on and even for years. The story of mothers and babies seems elusive, not fit for the imagination, for where’s the story? The ‘maternal heroine’, a protagonist and main character whose actions and identity are closely bound up with her work and experience of herself as a mother of young and dependent children, is rare. How could she not be? She’s busy giving off strong whiffs of routine. Where’s the drama in that? And what are babies? They’re not thinking, arguing agents for change—hardly protagonists—even if antagonistic at the cocktail hour. At least, that is one way of opening up the question of the maternal heroine.

  19. Maternal and perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Menon, M K

    1972-01-01

    A brief analysis of data from the records of the Government Hospital for Women and Children in Madras for a 36-year period (1929-1964) is presented. India with a population of over 550 million has only 1 doctor for each 6000 population. For the 80% of the population which is rural, the doctor ratio is only 88/1 million. There is also a shortage of paramedical personnel. During the earlier years of this study period, abortions, puerperal infections; hemorrhage, and toxemia accounted for nearly 75% of all meternal deaths, while in later years deaths from these causes were 40%. Among associated factors in maternal mortality, anemia was the most frequent, it still accounts for 20% and is a contributory factor in another 20%. The mortality from postpartum hemorrhage was 9.3% but has now decreased to 2.8%. Eclampsia is a preventable disease and a marked reduction in maternal and perinatal mortality from this cause has been achieved. Maternal deaths from puerperal infections have dropped from 25% of all maternal deaths to 7%. Uterine rupture has been reduced from 75% to 9.3% due to modern facilities. Operative deliveries still have an incidence of 2.1% and a mortality rate of 1.4% of all deliveries. These rates would be further reduced by more efficient antenatal and intranatal care. Reported perinatal mortality of infants has been reduced from 182/1000 births to an average of 78/1000 in all areas, but is 60.6/1000 in the city of Madras. Socioeconomic standards play an important role in perinatal mortality, 70% of such deaths occurring in the lowest economic groups. Improvement has been noted in the past 25 years but in rural areas little progress has been made. Prematurity and low birth weights are still larger factors in India than in other countries, with acute infectious diseases, anemia, and general malnutrition among mothers the frequent causes. Problems requiring further efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality are correct vital statistics, improved

  20. Maternal mortality due to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Vivian Carolina; Pearlman, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of adequacy of health care in our society. Improvements in the obstetric care system as well as advances in technology have contributed to reduction in maternal mortality rates. Trauma complicates up to 7% of all pregnancies and has emerged as the leading cause of maternal mortality, becoming a significant concern for the public health system. Maternal mortality secondary to trauma can often be prevented by coordinated medical care, but it is essential that caregivers recognize the unique situation of providing simultaneous care to 2 patients who have a complex physiologic relationship. Optimal management of the pregnant trauma victim requires a multidisciplinary team, where the obstetrician plays a central role. This review focuses on the incidence of maternal mortality due to trauma, the mechanisms involved in traumatic injury, the important anatomic and physiologic changes that may predispose to mortality due to trauma, and finally, preventive strategies that may decrease the incidence of traumatic maternal death.

  1. Severe maternal outcome: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Suparna Grover; Harbhajan Kaur Shergill; Ajay Chhabra

    2016-01-01

    Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is considered an indicator of obstetric care available in a society and reduction in MMR has been one of the important millennium development goals defined by World Health Organization (WHO) but it has always been recognized that maternal mortality is just the tip of iceberg. WHO has now defined maternal near-miss cases thus broadening the focus on life threatening conditions encountered by pregnant women. A study was started at our obstetric unit based on near-...

  2. ADVERSE MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarisha Bhandiwad, Divyasree B, Surakshith L Gowda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM are at increased risk for many other health concerns with short and long-term implications for both mother and child. They are at higher risk for glucose-mediated macrosomia, hypertension, birth trauma, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia with increased neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admissions. Postpartum complications include obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in the offspring and diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the mothers. Objectives: To study the incidence of maternal and fetal co-morbidities associated with GDM. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study where cases with GDM were analyzed for maternal and fetal complications. Results: 189 cases were detected to be Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, out of which 63.49% cases developed co-morbidities with GDM. 11.11% cases developed preeclampsia, 9.52% had polyhydramnios, 5.8% patients went into preterm labour, 3 cases had Antepartum Haemorrhage and one case had Postpartum Haemorrhage. 19.57% cases developed macrosomia, hypoglycemia was seen in 7.40% babies and hyperbilirubinemia in 3.70% babies. 6 Intra Uterine Deaths and 2 still borns were documented. Conclusion: GDM is a condition which is worth monitoring and treating, since it has been demonstrated that good metabolic control maintained throughout gestation can reduce maternal and fetal complications.

  3. Glucose consumption by various tissues in pregnant rats : effects of a 6-day euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, AG; Schuiling, GA; Bonen, A; Paans, AMJ; Vaalburg, W; Koiter, TR

    1998-01-01

    In the course of pregnancy maternal tissues become increasingly more insensitive to insulin. As 6 days of euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamping, from day 8 until 14 of gestation, ameliorates total glucose consumption, we analysed the contribution of individual tissues in this phenomenon. We measure

  4. Effects of taurine supplementation on hepatic markers of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and offspring in the setting of maternal obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglan Li

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1 control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON; 2 CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT; 3 maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose during pregnancy and lactation (MO; or 4 MO supplemented with taurine (MOT. Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation

  5. Maternal and pregnancy related predictors of cardiometabolic traits in newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Morrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids, health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia, accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30 and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001 and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01 and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01. Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1 was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005. LDL-C was a bridging

  6. Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, M B; Henriksen, J-E; Durck, T T;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness...... in the development of isolated impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and acute insulin release. METHODS: At 0 years, 19 RELs and 18 matched control subjects had glucose effectiveness (GE), insulin sensitivity, acute insulin release (AIR)IVGTT, and disposition index measured during an iv glucose tolerance...... test (IVGTT), using the minimal model analysis. At 0 and 10 years, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and AIROGTT were determined. RESULTS: At 0 years, fasting glucose (FG) and GE were raised in RELs, but insulin sensitivity and AIROGTT were reduced (P ≤ .05) compared with controls. At 10 years, RELs...

  7. Maternal nutrition, health, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul

    2002-05-01

    The burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries is high. Each year, 600,000 women die from pregnancy-related causes and 62 million women suffer from morbidity and complications of pregnancy. The extent to which maternal nutrition can improve maternal health and survival is not well understood. Excluding deaths due to induced abortions, the other four main causes of maternal mortality (preeclampsia, hemorrhage, obstructed labor, and infection) may be amenable to nutrition interventions. The role of calcium in reducing the incidence of preeclampsia and hypertension is promising, but more research in deficient populations is urgently needed. Antenatal iron supplementation, although frequently recommended to prevent anemia during pregnancy, has had little program success. Severe anemia may be an important cause of maternal mortality, but convincing evidence is lacking on the health consequences of mild-to-moderate maternal anemia. Knowledge of the etiology of anemia is important in identifying effective strategies for combating it. Other vitamins such as folate, B12, and vitamin A may enhance the effect of iron supplementation in populations where multiple nutrition deficiencies exist. Maternal night blindness is widespread in South Asian women. In Nepal, this condition is associated with markedly increased risks of vitamin A deficiency, anemia, morbidity, and maternal and infant mortality. These findings need to be replicated elsewhere in South Asia. One study has shown vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. These findings need testing in different settings with emphasis on investigating the mechanisms of the effect. The area of prepregnancy nutrition and its influence on prolonged and obstructed labor is wide open for investigation. The scope for research in the area of maternal nutrition and health is large and the onus is on nutritionists to bring to the forefront the role of nutrition in

  8. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  9. Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors Associated With Weight Gain and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Among Pregnant Latinas123

    OpenAIRE

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy has been proposed as a critical period for the development of subsequent maternal overweight and/or obesity. Excessive gestational weight gain is, in turn, associated with maternal complications such as cesarean delivery, hypertension, preeclampsia, impaired glucose tolerance, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Although there is substantial evidence that targeting at-risk groups for type 2 diabetes prevention is effective if lifestyle changes are made, relatively little attention ha...

  10. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for ... diabetes. Learn More: Stories of Courage, Love and Resilience - 2016-08-blog.html Learn More Stories of ...

  13. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species.

  14. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  16. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hounton Sennen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030.

  17. Fetal growth and impaired glucose tolerance in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, K; Barker, D J; Hales, C N; Fall, C H; Osmond, C; Clark, P M

    1993-03-01

    A follow-up study was carried out to determine whether reduced fetal growth is associated with the development of impaired glucose tolerance in men and women aged 50 years. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out on 140 men and 126 women born in Preston (Lancashire, UK) between 1935 and 1943, whose size at birth had been measured in detail. Those subjects found to have impaired glucose tolerance or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had lower birthweight, a smaller head circumference and were thinner at birth. They also had a higher ratio of placental weight to birthweight. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes fell from 27% in subjects who weighed 2.50 kg (5.5 pounds) or less at birth to 6% in those who weighed more than 3.41 kg (7.5 pounds) (p body mass index). Plasma glucose concentrations taken at 2-h in the glucose tolerance test fell progressively as birthweight increased (p < 0.004), as did 2-h plasma insulin concentrations (p < 0.001). The trends with birthweight were independent of duration of gestation and must therefore be related to reduced rates of fetal growth. These findings confirm the association between impaired glucose tolerance in adult life and low birthweight previously reported in Hertfordshire (UK), and demonstrate it in women as well as men. It is suggested that the association reflects the long-term effects of reduced growth of the endocrine pancreas and other tissues in utero. This may be a consequence of maternal undernutrition. PMID:8462770

  18. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  19. Glucose and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  20. Sodium arsenate induce changes in fatty acids profiles and oxidative damage in kidney of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Wafa; Dhibi, Madiha; Mekni, Manel; Haouas, Zohra; Chreif, Imed; Neffati, Fadoua; Hammami, Mohamed; Sakly, Rachid

    2014-10-01

    Six groups of rats (n = 10 per group) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg/l of sodium arsenate for 45 and 90 days. Kidneys from treated groups exposed to arsenic showed higher levels of trans isomers of oleic and linoleic acids as trans C181n-9, trans C18:1n-11, and trans C18:2n-6 isomers. However, a significant decrease in eicosenoic (C20:1n-9) and arachidonic (C20:4n-6) acids were observed in treated rats. Moreover, the "Δ5 desaturase index" and the saturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio were increased. There was a significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde at 10 mg/l of treatment and in the amount of conjugated dienes after 90 days (p < 0.05). Significant kidney damage was observed at 10 mg/l by increase of plasma marker enzymes. Histological studies on the ultrastructure changes of kidney supported the toxic effect of arsenate exposure. Arsenate intoxication activates significantly the superoxide dismutase at 10 mg/l for 90 days, whereas the catalase activity was markedly inhibited in all treated groups (p < 0.05). In addition, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly increased at 45 days and dramatically declined after 90 days at 10 mg/l (p < 0.05). A significant increase in the level of glutathione was marked for the groups treated for 45 and 90 days at 1 mg/l followed by a significant decrease for rats exposed to 10 mg/l for 90 days. An increase in the level of protein carbonyl was observed in all treated groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for a direct effect of arsenate on fatty acid (FA) metabolism which concerns the synthesis pathway of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and leads to an increase in the trans FAs isomers. Therefore, FA-induced arsenate kidney damage could contribute to trigger kidney cancer. PMID:24920263

  1. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla M Friis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. METHODS: The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207 of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA. Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively, gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. CONCLUSION: Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept

  2. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  3. Proximity to Delivery Alters Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Metabolism in Pregnant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Barbara; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Vaughan, Owen R; Ozanne, Susan E; Voshol, Peter; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Fowden, Abigail L

    2016-04-01

    In late pregnancy, maternal insulin resistance occurs to support fetal growth, but little is known about insulin-glucose dynamics close to delivery. This study measured insulin sensitivity in mice in late pregnancy at day 16 (D16) and near term at D19. Nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant mice were assessed for metabolite and hormone concentrations, body composition by DEXA, tissue insulin signaling protein abundance by Western blotting, glucose tolerance and utilization, and insulin sensitivity using acute insulin administration and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with [(3)H]glucose infusion. Whole-body insulin resistance occurred in D16 pregnant dams in association with basal hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistant endogenous glucose production, and downregulation of several proteins in hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signaling pathways relative to NP and D19 values. Insulin resistance was less pronounced at D19, with restoration of NP insulin concentrations, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, and increased abundance of hepatic insulin signaling proteins. At D16, insulin resistance at whole-body, tissue, and molecular levels will favor fetal glucose acquisition, while improved D19 hepatic insulin sensitivity will conserve glucose for maternal use in anticipation of lactation. Tissue sensitivity to insulin, therefore, alters differentially with proximity to delivery in pregnant mice, with implications for human and other species. PMID:26740602

  4. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan

    2007-01-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. However, we find little impact on the self-reported...

  5. Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters at different gestational ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, W.B.; Gale, T.F.; Subramanyam, S.B.; DuRant, R.H.

    1985-04-01

    This study establishes levels of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glycogen phosphorlyase (GP), and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues at Days 9, 12, and 15 in the 16-day gestation period of the hamster, and following a single dose of either 8 or 15 mg/kg mercuric acetate on the eighth gestational day. Mercury significantly elevated maternal kidney G6PD activity and decreased GP activity. The increase in kidney G6PD strongly correlated with observed urine and kidney abnormalities.

  6. Oxytocin and Maternal Brain Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-09-01

    Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular emphasis on the oxytocin system. We examine plasticity observed within the oxytocin system and discuss how these changes mediate an array of other adaptations observed within the maternal brain. We outline factors that affect the oxytocin-mediated plasticity of the maternal brain and review evidence linking disruptions in oxytocin functions to challenges in maternal adaptation. We conclude by suggesting a strategy for intervention with mothers who may be at risk for maladjustment during this transition to motherhood, while highlighting areas where further research is needed. PMID:27589498

  7. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  8. Maternal Care Determinant of Longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Marco; Renzi, Chiara; Oliveri, Serena; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Maternal care is an essential early environment in mammals that ensures emotional regulation and adaptive fitness of progeny. Longevity and healthy aging are associated with favorable environmental factors including fitting social and behavioral features. In the present review, we discuss the findings that link rearing conditions and early maternal care with life span and aging from an evolutionary, psychological, and molecular perspective. The quality of maternal care may influence internal adaptation through a variety of parallel mechanisms including emotional regulation, stress sensitivity, coping and other behavioral strategies in response to events requiring adaptation. From a biological perspective, it regulates physiological pathways that may persist in adulthood through epigenetic mechanisms, influencing disease susceptibility and, potentially, longevity. Abnormal maternal care induces maladaptation that persists over the life span, may accelerate the onset of aging associated diseases, and shorten life span. This may have important implications in the development of preventive approaches and early interventions. PMID:27548096

  9. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Palmer, Tom M.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L.; De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Wood, Andrew R.; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J.; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E.; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P.; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Spector, Tim D.; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F.A.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Scholtens, Denise M.; Smith, George Davey; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F.; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Structured abstract Importance Neonates born to overweight/obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. Objective To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Design, Setting and Participants We used Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are causally related to offspring birth weight. Mendelian randomization makes use of the fact that genotypes are randomly determined at conception and are thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. Data were analysed on 30,487 women from 18 studies. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies located in Europe, North America or Australia and participating in the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. We tested associations between a genetic score of 30 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (i) maternal BMI and (ii) birth weight, to estimate the causal relationship between BMI and birth weight. Analyses were repeated for other obesity-related traits. Exposures Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol level, vitamin D status and adiponectin level. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Offspring birth weight measured by trained study personnel (n=2 studies), from medical records (n= 10 studies) or from maternal report (n=6 studies). Results Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2g (95%CI: 0, 3g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P=0.008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were

  10. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  11. Maternal effects in the magpie

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlaja, Marjo

    2006-01-01

    Maternal effects are suggested to be an efficient way to adapt offspring to variable and changing environments with consequent effects on variation in offspring fitness. In birds, mothers are able to affect the quality of their offspring through egg quality and through their incubation and parental care behaviour. Maternal effects via egg quality and hatching asynchrony, caused by incubation behaviour, may incur costs for both the mother and her offspring. For my thesis, I investigated the ad...

  12. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  13. Maternal immune transfer in mollusc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng

    2015-02-01

    Maternal immunity refers to the immunity transferred from mother to offspring via egg, playing an important role in protecting the offspring at early life stages and contributing a trans-generational effect on offspring's phenotype. Because fertilization is external in most of the molluscs, oocytes and early embryos are directly exposed to pathogens in the seawater, and thus maternal immunity could provide a better protection before full maturation of their immunological systems. Several innate immune factors including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like lectins, and immune effectors like lysozyme, lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) and antioxidant enzymes have been identified as maternally derived immune factors in mollusc eggs. Among these immune factors, some maternally derived lectins and antibacterial factors have been proved to endue mollusc eggs with effective defense ability against pathogen infection, while the roles of other factors still remain untested. The physiological condition of mollusc broodstock has a profound effect on their offspring fitness. Many other factors such as nutrients, pathogens, environment conditions and pollutants could exert considerable influence on the maternal transfer of immunity. The parent molluscs which have encountered an immune stimulation endow their offspring with a trans-generational immune capability to protect them against infections effectively. The knowledge on maternal transfer of immunity and the trans-generational immune effect could provide us with an ideal management strategy of mollusc broodstock to improve the immunity of offspring and to establish a disease-resistant family for a long-term improvement of cultured stocks.

  14. Maternal melatonin programs the daily pattern of energy metabolism in adult offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo S Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shift work was recently described as a factor that increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, rats born to mothers subjected to a phase shift throughout pregnancy are glucose intolerant. However, the mechanism by which a phase shift transmits metabolic information to the offspring has not been determined. Among several endocrine secretions, phase shifts in the light/dark cycle were described as altering the circadian profile of melatonin production by the pineal gland. The present study addresses the importance of maternal melatonin for the metabolic programming of the offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female Wistar rats were submitted to SHAM surgery or pinealectomy (PINX. The PINX rats were divided into two groups and received either melatonin (PM or vehicle. The SHAM, the PINX vehicle and the PM females were housed with male Wistar rats. Rats were allowed to mate and after weaning, the male and female offspring were subjected to a glucose tolerance test (GTT, a pyruvate tolerance test (PTT and an insulin tolerance test (ITT. Pancreatic islets were isolated for insulin secretion, and insulin signaling was assessed in the liver and in the skeletal muscle by western blots. We found that male and female rats born to PINX mothers display glucose intolerance at the end of the light phase of the light/dark cycle, but not at the beginning. We further demonstrate that impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hepatic insulin resistance are mechanisms that may contribute to glucose intolerance in the offspring of PINX mothers. The metabolic programming described here occurs due to an absence of maternal melatonin because the offspring born to PINX mothers treated with melatonin were not glucose intolerant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present results support the novel concept that maternal melatonin is responsible for the programming of the daily pattern of energy metabolism in their offspring.

  15. The role of the maternal-fetal medicine subspecialist in review and prevention of maternal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Haywood; Small, Maria

    2012-02-01

    The maternal-fetal medicine subspecialist plays a critical role in the evaluation and management of women with obstetrical and medical comorbidities. These women have a higher risk for obstetrical morbidity, "near miss," and maternal mortality. Maternal death surveillance is essential to understand the factors that contribute to maternal mortality. Maternal-fetal medicine subspecialists' involvement and leadership in peer review of maternal deaths can provide guidance in developing and supporting management protocols to the obstetrical community and health care facilities. PMID:22280862

  16. Maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes in adolescent and adult pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Tendais, Iva; Dias, Cláudia Castro

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: This study analyzes differences between adolescent and adult pregnant women and the contribution of maternal age to maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A sample of 398 Portuguese pregnant women (111 younger than 19 years) was recruited in a Portuguese Maternity Hospital and completed the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire between the 24th and 36th weeks of gestation. Main Outcome Measures: Mater...

  17. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and...... gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression...... on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression....

  18. Thermoresponsive amperometric glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Barwe, Stefan; Nebel, Michaela; Alburquerque, Natalia Guerrero; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, André; Schmaderer, Sebastian; Szeponik, Jan; Plumeré, Nicolas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of a thermoresponsive biosensor for the amperometric detection of glucose. Screen printed electrodes with heatable gold working electrodes were modified by a thermoresponsive statistical copolymer [polymer I: poly(ω-ethoxytriethylenglycol methacrylate-co-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl ammonio) propanesulfonate-co-ω-butoxydiethylenglycol methacrylate-co-2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)ethyl methacrylate)] with a lower critical solution temperature of around 28 °C in aqueous solution via electrochemically induced codeposition with a pH-responsive redox-polymer [polymer II: poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-[Os(bpy)2(4-(((2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)amino)methyl)-N,N-dimethylpicolinamide)](2+)] and pyrroloquinoline quinone-soluble glucose dehydrogenase acting as biological recognition element. Polymer II bears covalently bound Os-complexes that act as redox mediators for shuttling electrons between the enzyme and the electrode surface. Polymer I acts as a temperature triggered immobilization matrix. Probing the catalytic current as a function of the working electrode temperature shows that the activity of the biosensor is dramatically reduced above the phase transition temperature of polymer I. Thus, the local modulation of the temperature at the interphase between the electrode and the bioactive layer allows switching the biosensor from an on- to an off-state without heating of the surrounding analyte solution. PMID:26702635

  19. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PMID:22004338

  20. The pattern of maternal mortality at maternity hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisah Adeeb

    1983-01-01

    National data on maternal health status in Malaysia is minimal. These data, from Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, are presented toward the goal of accumulation of basic information. From 1978-81, there were 74,105 deliveries and 9,899 abortion admissions in this hospital, which serves as a referral center for areas within a 100-mile radius. 39 maternal mortalities were recorded in this time. Maternal mortality excluding that associated with abortions was 29.27/100,000 births; when abortions are included, the figure increases to 70.54. 50% of the women who died were under 30 years of age. 28.2% of deaths occurred among primigravida, and 25.64% were associated with parity 5 or above. Malays had a mortality rate double that of Chinese or Indians. Major causes of death were toxemia, hemorrhage, embolism, medical disease, and sepsis. These causes accounted for 89% of deaths, while the remaining 11% were due to uterine inversion, obstetric trauma, and pulmonary edema. Avoidable factors were isolated in all the deaths except 3, 1 due to infective hepatitis, and 2 due to cardiac disease. Inefficient hospital care occurred in 17 patients, defective care before admission in 2, and 4 death were associated with patients' failure to seek or accept medical attention. The need for documenting all maternal mortalities is a priority in Malaysia.

  1. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G.; Armitage, James A.; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20–25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  2. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G; Armitage, James A; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20-25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  3. Incretin and glucagon levels in adult offspring exposed to maternal diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R;

    2015-01-01

    two groups exposed to maternal diabetes in utero: offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (O-GDM; n = 163) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM; n = 146). Two reference groups were included: offspring of women with risk factors for GDM, but normoglycemia during pregnancy (O-NoGDM; n......CONTEXT: Fetal exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life. The pathogenesis of T2DM involves dysfunction of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), as well...... as hyperglucagonemia. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate circulating plasma levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a follow-up study of 567 offspring, aged 18-27 years. We included...

  4. Effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on growth and metabolism of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A P A; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-05-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that maternal heat stress (HS) during late gestation exerts carryover effects on a calf's insulin response after weaning, but a comprehensive evaluation of how maternal HS affects calf intake, growth, and metabolic response from birth to weaning is lacking. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of maternal HS during the dry period on dry matter intake, growth, and metabolism from birth to weaning. After birth, 20 heifers born to either HS (n=10) or cooled (CL, n=10) dry cows were immediately separated from their dams and fed 3.8 L of colostrum from a common pool within 4h of birth. All heifers were managed identically and weaned at 49 d of age (DOA). Calf starter intake was recorded daily, and body weight was assessed at birth and every 2 wk from birth to 56 DOA. Blood samples were collected twice a week until 56 DOA to assess hematocrit and concentrations of insulin and metabolites. To evaluate metabolic responses to maternal HS, a glucose tolerance test, insulin, and epinephrine challenge were performed on 3 consecutive days for all heifers at 8, 29, and 57 DOA. Maternal HS during the dry period did not affect heifer birth weight. Compared with HS, CL calves consumed more starter (0.53 vs. 0.34kg/d) from birth to 56 DOA and were heavier (71.7 vs. 61.4kg) at 56 DOA. Relative to HS calves, CL calves tended to have higher hematocrit (27.4 vs. 24.7%). No differences were found between treatments in plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose, but HS calves had higher nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations after 32 DOA. Compared with CL, HS calves had a faster glucose clearance after a glucose tolerance test and a slower insulin clearance after an insulin challenge. In conclusion, maternal HS during late gestation reduces calf starter intake and growth, alters blood metabolite profile, and increases noninsulin-dependent glucose uptake. PMID:26947308

  5. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. PMID:24820855

  6. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these two monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial trig...

  7. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed. PMID:27604865

  8. Increased Placental Glucose Transport Rates in Pregnant Mice Carrying Fetuses with Targeted Disruption of Their Placental-Specific Igf2 Transcripts Are Not Associated with Raised Circulating Glucose Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive J. Petry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the third week of pregnancy, mouse fetuses with targeted disruption of their paternally-transmitted insulin-like growth factor 2 gene placental-specific transcripts have growth-restricted placentas but normal body weights due to upregulated placental nutrient transport. We assessed whether increased placental glucose transport rates were associated with raised maternal glucose concentrations by performing intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (ipGTT in pregnant mice carrying knockout pups and comparing them with mice carrying genotype-matched phenotypically wild type pups. Mean ± SD body weights of affected pups were 95 ± 8% of control values at e16 and 73 ± 7% at e18. There were no differences in areas under the maternal ipGTT curves at either e16 (mean ± SD being 99.0 ± 9.1% of control values; P=.9 or e18 (91.4 ± 13.4%; P=.3, suggesting that effects on transplacental glucose transport in these mice are not mediated through changes in maternal glucose concentrations.

  9. Severe maternal outcome: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Grover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality ratio (MMR is considered an indicator of obstetric care available in a society and reduction in MMR has been one of the important millennium development goals defined by World Health Organization (WHO but it has always been recognized that maternal mortality is just the tip of iceberg. WHO has now defined maternal near-miss cases thus broadening the focus on life threatening conditions encountered by pregnant women. A study was started at our obstetric unit based on near-miss maternal mortality concept in March 2015 and is currently underway. We analyzed the initial data of the first few months and recognized four of such special cases which find mention in this review. We decided to review the literature with special reference to these cases as every such case is a lesson in itself for the health care provider, highlighting the acts of omission or interventions that may make the difference between a high risk pregnancy terminating without complication or ending as a near-miss or mortality. We reviewed the literature about various causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. In addition to the sincere efforts done by the doctors from different specialities, a good blood bank facility, ICU care as well as government provided transport facility played important roles in these cases. A long term analysis of this data can certainly guide the policy makers about the areas that need more stress and financial support. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 596-602

  10. [Neural basis of maternal behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriuchi, Madoka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant's development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to infant cues using video clips. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant's mother and crying for her). We found that a limited number of the mother's brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother's own infant, namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). and periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of putamen. Additionally, we found the strong and specific mother's brain response for the mother's own infant's distress. The differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and dorsolateral PFC. Our results showed the highly elaborate neural mechanism mediating maternal love and diverse and complex maternal behaviors for vigilant protectiveness.

  11. Association of Maternal Vitamin C Status with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of antioxidants in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been given limited attention. Vitamin C is a nutrient with radical quenching property and has been claimed to influence glucose tolerance. Aim: To study the association between vitamin C status (dietary intake and plasma concentrations and GDM. Material and Methods: Using a case-control design with 1:3 ratio we examined 42 pregnant women with GDM and 158 normal glucose tolerant (NGT gestational age-matched healthy pregnant women at an average of 26 weeks of gestation. Maternal vitamin C intake was determined using detailed semi food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ and 24 hour diet recall. Plasma vitamin C was determined using a spectrophotometric method in non-fasting samples. GDM was diagnosed by 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT using International Association for Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG criteria (fasting ≥92mg%, 1hour ≥180mg%, 2 hour ≥153mg %. Results: GDM women had lower median intake of vitamin C (35.0 mg/day vs. 66.7; p<0.001 and lower median plasma vitamin C concentration (45.9 µmol/L vs. 95.2; p<0.001 compared to NGT women. Plasma vitamin C concentration was inversely related to fasting, 1 hour and 2 hour post glucose plasma glucose concentrations (p<0.001. The associations remained significant after adjustment for age, income, pre-pregnancy BMI, and stress. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that low vitamin C intake as well as low plasma vitamin C concentration is associated with GDM. This association needs to be tested in a large prospective study and subsequently in a clinical trial

  12. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes--the role of glucose and other factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine D Clausen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2003-2005 cognitive function was assessed in a cohort of 18-27 year old offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 153 and offspring from the background population (n = 118. The main outcome measure was global cognitive score derived from Raven's Progressive Matrices and three verbal subtests from the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale. Maternal fasting- and 2-hour blood glucose values from the diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test were used as exposure variables. RESULTS: Offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus had a lower global cognitive score, than offspring from the background population (93.1 vs. 100.0, P<0.001. However, when adjusted for maternal age at delivery, parity, smoking during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy overweight, family social class, parental educational level, gender, birth weight, gestational age, perinatal complications and offspring age at follow-up, the difference was no longer statistically significant. Offspring global cognitive score decreased significantly with increasing maternal fasting glucose (β = -4.5, 95% CI -8.0 to -0.9, P = 0.01 and 2-hour glucose (β = -1.5, -2.9 to -0.2, P = 0.03 in univariate general linear models, but not when adjusted for family social class and parental educational level. CONCLUSIONS: Lower cognitive test scores in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes were explained by well known predictors of cognitive function, but not by maternal hyperglycaemia during pregnancy. We find it reassuring that mild intrauterine hyperglycaemia does not seem to have adverse effect on offspring cognitive function.

  13. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos; V; Rizos; Moses; S; Elisaf

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro-and macrovascular disease.Moreover,increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance.As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical.However,the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism.Indeed,angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.Calcium channel blockers(CCBs)have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism.However,some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis.On the other hand,diuretics andβ-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism.Of note,carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of theβ-blockers class,being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis.The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may,to an extent,compromise their cardiovascular protective role.As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment,especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes.

  14. Sex differences in glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Vaag, A;

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA(1c) could be explained by differences in body size and/or body composition between men and women in a general non-diabetic Danish population. Moreover, we aimed to study to what...

  15. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  16. Maternal obesity reduces oxidative capacity in fetal skeletal muscle of Japanese macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Carrie E.; Hetrick, Byron; Houck, Julie; Drew, Brian G.; Kaye, Spencer; Lashbrook, Melanie; Bergman, Bryan C.; Takahashi, Diana L.; Dean, Tyler A.; Gertsman, Ilya; Hansen, Kirk C.; Philp, Andrew; Hevener, Andrea L.; Chicco, Adam J.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.; Grove, Kevin L.; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is proposed to alter the programming of metabolic systems in the offspring, increasing the risk for developing metabolic diseases; however, the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of a maternal Western-style diet (WSD) alone, or in combination with obesity (Ob/WSD), on fetal skeletal muscle metabolism studied in the early third trimester. We find that fetal muscle responds to Ob/WSD by upregulating fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial complex activity, and metabolic switches (CPT-1, PDK4) that promote lipid utilization over glucose oxidation. Ob/WSD fetuses also had reduced mitochondrial content, diminished oxidative capacity, and lower mitochondrial efficiency in muscle. The decrease in oxidative capacity and glucose metabolism was persistent in primary myotubes from Ob/WSD fetuses despite no additional lipid-induced stress. Switching obese mothers to a healthy diet prior to pregnancy did not improve fetal muscle mitochondrial function. Lastly, while maternal WSD alone led only to intermediary changes in fetal muscle metabolism, it was sufficient to increase oxidative damage and cellular stress. Our findings suggest that maternal obesity or WSD, alone or in combination, leads to programmed decreases in oxidative metabolism in offspring muscle. These alterations may have important implications for future health. PMID:27734025

  17. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  18. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  19. MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Maternal Mortality in A Tertiary Care Centre. OBJECTIVE: To study maternal mortality and the complications leading to maternal death. METHODS: A retrospective study of hospital record to study maternal mortality and its causes over 3 years from January 2010 to December 2012. RESULTS: There were a total of 58 maternal deaths out of 2823 live births giving a maternal mortality ratio of 2054.55 per one lakh live births. Unbooked and late referrals account for 77.58% of maternal deaths. The majority of deaths around 75.86% were in 20-30 years age group. Haemorrhage was the commonest causes of death (24.12% followed by sepsis (18.96% and pregnancy induced hypertension 15.51% Anemia contributed to the most common indirect cause of maternal morality. CONCLUSION: Haemorrhage, sepsis and pregnancy induced hypertension including eclampsia were the direct major causes of death. Anaemia and cardiac diseases were other indirect causes of death.

  20. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  1. Maternal Transmission of Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Heggeli, Kristin; Crook, Julia; Thomas, Colleen; Graff-Radford, Neill

    2012-01-01

    Some propose maternal Alzheimer disease (1) inheritance. We compared dementia family histories in AD cases and cognitively normal controls. We expected more mothers to have AD in both groups. If maternal risk was not only due to female longevity more AD cases’ than controls’ mothers should be demented. We matched 196 AD cases to 200 controls by gender and age. We obtained parent dementia status and age of death for 348 AD and 319 control parents. 24 (12%) controls’ fathers, 26 (13%) AD patien...

  2. Maternity telehealth: ringing the changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Dorothy; Brown, Sheona

    2013-12-01

    This article describes NHS Scotland's Maternity telehealth options project and the implementation of the recommendations made. This 17-month project resulted in the development of national documentation for recording telehealth calls; the development of a self-directed eLearning tool on maternity telehealth call structure which was made available to all health boards in Scotland; a comprehensive programme of training on telehealth for student midwives; a programme of 'Train-the-trainer' events for qualified midwives to enable the cascade of learning throughout the service. The project also involved collaboration with Health Scotland, signposting for women to contact the appropriate caregiver at the appropriate time. PMID:24386706

  3. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the Netherlan

  4. Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Language: Implications for Infant Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryski, Katie R.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of infants age 3-12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal language use. Recordings of mothers' speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech…

  5. Glucose-stat, a glucose-controlled continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-04-01

    A predictive and feedback proportional control algorithm, developed for fed-batch fermentations and described in a companion paper (G. L. Kleman, J. J. Chalmers, G. W. Luli, and W. R. Strohl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:910-917, 1991), was used in this work to control a continuous culture on the basis of the soluble-glucose concentration (called the glucose-stat). This glucose-controlled continuous-culture system was found to reach and maintain steady state for 11 to 24 residence times when four different background glucose concentrations (0.27, 0.50, 0.7, and 1.5 g/liter) were used. The predictive-plus-feedback control system yielded very tight control of the continuous nutristat cultures; glucose concentrations were maintained at the set points with less than 0.003 standard error. Acetate production by Escherichia coli B in glucose-stats was found not to be correlated with the level of steady-state soluble-glucose concentration. PMID:2059050

  6. Problems of contemporary maternity: psychological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Puz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.

  7. Early Maternal Employment and Family Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Pinka Chatterji; Sara Markowitz; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    2011-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the NICHD Study on Early Child Care (SECC) to examine the effects of maternal employment on family well-being, measured by maternal mental and overall health, parenting stress, and parenting quality. First, we estimate the effects of maternal employment on these outcomes measured when children are 6 months old. Next, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the effects of maternal employment on family outcomes during the first 4.5 years of children's ...

  8. Glucose metabolism of fetal rat brain in utero, measured with labeled deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammals have low cerebral metabolic rates immediately after birth and, by inference, also before birth. In this study, we extended the deoxyglucose method to the fetal rat brain in utero. Rate constants for deoxyglucose transfer across the maternal placental and fetal blood-brain barriers, and lumped constant, have not been reported. Therefore, we applied a new method of determining the lumped constant regionally to the fetal rat brain in utero. The lumped constant averaged 0.55 ± 0.15 relative to the maternal circulation. On this basis, we determined the glucose metabolic rate of the fetal rat brain to be one third of the corresponding maternal value, or 19 ± 2 μmol hg-1 min-1. (author)

  9. Glucose homeostasis and metabolic adaptation in the pregnant and lactating sheep are affected by the level of nutrition previously provided during her late fetal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Sanne Munch; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Blache, D.;

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether undernutrition (UN) during late fetal life can programme the subsequent adult life adaptation of glucose homeostasis and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-four primiparous experimental ewes were used. Twelve had been exposed to a prenatal NORM level...... of nutrition (maternal diet approximately 15 MJME/d) and 12 to a LOW level of nutrition (maternal diet approximately 7 MJME/d) during the last 6 weeks pre-partum. The experimental ewes were subjected to two intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IGTT) in late gestation (one prior to (G-IGTT) and one by the end...

  10. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088

  11. Omentin-1 is decreased in maternal plasma, placenta and adipose tissue of women with pre-existing obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Barker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine (i the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on (i the circulating levels of omentin-1 in cord and maternal plasma, and (ii gene expression and release of omentin-1 from human placenta and adipose tissue. The effect of pregnancy on circulating omentin-1 levels was also determined. DESIGN: Omentin-1 levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma from obese and non-obese normal glucose tolerant women (NGT; n = 44 and women with GDM (n = 39 at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Placenta and adipose tissue expression and release of omentin-1 was measured from 22 NGT and 22 GDM women collected at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Omentin-1 levels were also measured in maternal plasma from 13 NGT women at 11 and 28 weeks gestation and 7 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Maternal obesity was associated with significantly lower omentin-1 levels in maternal plasma; however, there was no effect of maternal obesity on cord omentin levels. Omentin-1 gene expression was lower in placenta and adipose tissue obtained from women with pre-existing obesity. In addition to this, adipose tissue release of omentin-1 was significantly lower from obese pregnant women. Omentin-1 levels were significantly lower in non-obese GDM compared to non-obese NGT women. However, there was no difference in omentin-1 levels between obese NGT and obese GDM women. There was no effect of GDM on cord omentin levels, and placental and adipose tissue omentin-1 expression. Maternal omentin-1 levels were negatively correlated with fetal birthweight and fetal ponderal index. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this study demonstrate that pre-existing maternal obesity is associated with lower omentin-1 expression in placenta, adipose tissue and maternal plasma. Alteration in omentin-1 in pregnancy may influence the development of metabolic disorders in offspring later in life.

  12. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune;

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  13. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Schutte; E.A.P. Steegers; N.W.E. Schuitemaker; J.G. Santema; K. de Boer; M. Pel; G. Vermeulen; W. Visser; J. van Roosmalen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide in the Netherlands. Population 2,557,208 live births. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the pe

  14. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  15. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik A.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  16. Tightly Linked Systems: Reciprocal Relations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Maternal Reports of Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell; Meyer, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The frequently observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and heightened maternal reporting of adolescent externalizing behavior was examined from an integrative, systems perspective using a community sample of 180 adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and close peers, assessed twice over a three-year period. Consistent with this perspective, the maternal depression-adolescent externalizing link was found to reflect not simply maternal reporting biases, but heightened maternal sensitiv...

  17. Obstetric near-miss and maternal mortality in maternity university hospital, Damascus, Syria: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Chamat Ahmad; Shahrour Yasser; Matar Hosam E; Almerie Muhammad Q; Almerie Yara; Abdulsalam Asmaa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Investigating severe maternal morbidity (near-miss) is a newly recognised tool that identifies women at highest risk of maternal death and helps allocate resources especially in low income countries. This study aims to i. document the frequency and nature of maternal near-miss at hospital level in Damascus, Capital of Syria, ii. evaluate the level of care at maternal life-saving emergency services by comparatively analysing near-misses and maternal mortalities. Methods Ret...

  18. A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Xian HUANG; Li, SiQi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concent...

  19. Glucose metabolism of lactobacillus divergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compile an optimal growth and selective medium for Lactobacillus divergens and to determine the pathway by which it metabolised glucose. The optimum growth temperature is 25oC which is lower than that of most other lactobacilli. Citrate stimulates growth up to a concentration of 1% while acetate inhibits the organism at neutral pH, but it stimulates growth at pH 8.5 up to a concentration of 0.8%. MRS medium was therefore modified in order to obtain maximum growth of the organism. The acetate was omitted, sucrose was substituted for glucose and the pH was adjusted to 8.5. Sucrose was used, since a neutral pH is obtained after sterilisation of glucose in alkaline (pH ≥ 7.5) solution due to the degradation of glucose by the Maillard reaction. Various inhibitors and dyes were tested in order to formulate a selective medium. In the present study differently labelled glucose precursors were fermented by L. divergens and the fermentation products isolated by HPLC. The concentrations of acetate and formate were determined by comparison to a standard while the concentration of lactate and glucose was determined by enzymic assay. The radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and the positional labelling in lactate and acetate by chemical degradation. Fermentation of D-[U-14C]-glucose was included to correct for endogenous product dilution

  20. Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Programs & Initiatives Funding Opportunities Data, Research & Epidemiology About MCHB Maternal and Child Health Bureau  News & Announcements HHS Awards more than $742,000 to Health Centers in American Samoa and the Virgin Islands to Fight Zika (6/23/16) Approved on June 6, 2016 -- ...

  1. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  2. Androgyny and the Maternal Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miriam M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the movement toward androgyny based upon and fostered by an increasing societal emphasis upon "femininity" in its maternal (as opposed to its heterosexual) aspects. Argues that the masculine paradigm promotes differentiation between the sexes, especially the sex objectification of women. (Author/RK)

  3. Conversion of glucose to sorbose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Mark E.; Gounder, Rajamani

    2016-02-09

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing sorbose from glucose, said method comprising: (a) contacting the glucose with a silica-containing structure comprising a zeolite having a topology of a 12 membered-ring or larger, an ordered mesoporous silica material, or an amorphous silica, said structure containing Lewis acidic Ti.sup.4+ or Zr.sup.4+ or both Ti.sup.4+ and Zr.sup.4+ framework centers, said contacting conducted under reaction conditions sufficient to isomerize the glucose to sorbose. The sorbose may be (b) separated or isolated; or (c) converted to ascorbic acid.

  4. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳琼; 孟宪伟; 陈东; 冉均国; 郑昌琼

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydro-philic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  5. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydrophilic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  6. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  7. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  8. [Maternal mortality and perinatal mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutaleb, Y; Mesbahi, M; Lahlou, D; Aderdour, M

    1982-01-01

    94 maternal deaths and 1546 fetal and neonatal deaths were registered among 28,706 births at the CHU Averroes in Casablanca between 1978-80. 45% of women who deliver at the clinic are very poor and only 10% are relatively well off. Obstetrical antecedents were noted in 27% of the fetal deaths. 70% of the maternal deaths occurred in women aged 20-34. 32 maternal deaths occurred among 16,232 women with 1-2 children, 30 among 6514 women with 3-5 children, and 32 among 5960 women with 6-14 children. 11,027 of the 28,706 were primaparas. Perinatal mortality was 4.46% among primaparas, 8.24% among grand multiparas, and 4.1% among secondiparas. In 58 of the 94 cases of maternal mortality the woman was hospitalized after attempting delivery at home or in a village clinic. Among women with 1 or 2 children, hemorrhage was the cause of death in 8 cases, infection in 7 cases, eclampsia in 3 cases, thromboembolism in 2 cases, uterine inversion in 2 cases, pulmonary tuberculosis in 1 case, embolism in 5 cases, and other causes 1 case each. Among women with 3-5 children hemorrhage was the cause of death in 10 cases, septicemia in 3 cases, uterine rupture in 3 cases, eclampsia in 3 cases, uterine inversion in 2 cases, viral hepatitis in 2 cases, emboli in 2 cases, and other reasons 1 case each. Among grand multiparas hemorrhage was the cause of death in 11 cases, uterine rupture in 12 cases, peritonitis in 2 cases, eclampsia in 2 cases, emboli in 2 cases, and other causes 1 case each. 19 of the maternal deaths were judged to have been avoidable with better management. Prematurity and birth weight of 1000-2500 g associated or not with other pathology were found in 714 of 1546 perinatal deaths. Of 390 cases of death in utero with retention and maceration, 68 were caused by reno-vascular syndromes, 76 by maternal infections, 33 by maternal syphilis, 26 by fetal malformation, 18 by maternal diabetes, 10 by Rh incompatability, and 159 by indeterminate causes. In 795 cases of

  9. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  10. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  11. Current Concepts of Maternal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowensohn, Richard I.; Stadler, Diane D.; Naze, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Background A nutrient-rich maternal diet before and during pregnancy is associated with improved fetal health, more appropriate birth weight, and increased rates of maternal and infant survival. Physicians need a better understanding of the role of diet in shaping fetal outcomes. Given this background, we reviewed and summarized articles on maternal nutrition found in MEDLINE since 1981, written in English, and limited to human subjects. For the Offspring Maternal diets high in sugar and fat lead to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Folic acid should be supplemented prior to conception and continued through at least the first 28 days of fetal life to prevent neural tube defects, and vitamin C should be given to women who smoke to lower the incidence of asthma and wheezing in the children. Iodine deficiency is increasing, and iodine should be included in prenatal supplements. If the maternal hemoglobin is 7 g/dL or more, there is no evidence that iron supplementation is needed. Fish intake during pregnancy is protective against atopic outcomes, whereas high-meat diets contribute to elevated adult blood pressure and hypersecretion of cortisol. For the Mother Calcium supplementation lowers the risk of preeclampsia and hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Conclusions Given the limits of our current knowledge, a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and selected fish is desirable for the best outcomes. Diets high in sugar and fat lead to higher rates of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Folic acid, iodine, and calcium in all pregnant women and vitamin C in smokers are the only supplements so far shown to be of value for routine use. The physician treating a pregnant woman should be ready to advise a healthy diet for the benefit of the fetus. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives After participating in this activity, the

  12. The effects of maternal passive smoking on maternal milk lipid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Baheiraei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive smoking was long overlooked by those in the medical and legal professions as being harmful to one's health, but in recent years the negative effect of passive smoking has come to the fore in the media and laws have been changed so that less people are obliged to unwillingly suffer from passive smoking, particularly in the workplace and in indoor settings. To study the effects of environmental tobacco smoking exposure during the breast-feeding period on maternal milk lipids. This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers environmental tobacco smoking exposure and 40 non-exposed post-partum mothers referred to the Shahid Ayat health center, Tehran, Iran. Socioeconomic conditions and the demographic characteristics of exposed and non-exposed groups were recorded. Milk samples were collected twice--at baseline (5-7 days after delivery and four months after delivery. The samples were reserved at -20°C until assay. Milk lipids including cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL were evaluated. Dietary intake assessment was performed by means of the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire both times. Maternal occupation status and education levels were significantly different between the two groups. Lipids profiles of milk were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group and four months after delivery. Dietary intake was not significantly different between the two groups. Maternal environmental tobacco smoking exposure affects milk lipids which are essential for infant growth.

  13. The effects of maternal passive smoking on maternal milk lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shamsi, Azar; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Shams, Sedigheh; Chamari, Maryam; Boushehri, Hoda; Khedri, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Passive smoking was long overlooked by those in the medical and legal professions as being harmful to one's health, but in recent years the negative effect of passive smoking has come to the fore in the media and laws have been changed so that less people are obliged to unwillingly suffer from passive smoking, particularly in the workplace and in indoor settings. To study the effects of environmental tobacco smoking exposure during the breast-feeding period on maternal milk lipids. This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers environmental tobacco smoking exposure and 40 non-exposed post-partum mothers referred to the Shahid Ayat health center, Tehran, Iran. Socioeconomic conditions and the demographic characteristics of exposed and non-exposed groups were recorded. Milk samples were collected twice--at baseline (5-7 days after delivery) and four months after delivery. The samples were reserved at -20°C until assay. Milk lipids including cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were evaluated. Dietary intake assessment was performed by means of the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire both times. Maternal occupation status and education levels were significantly different between the two groups. Lipids profiles of milk were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group and four months after delivery. Dietary intake was not significantly different between the two groups. Maternal environmental tobacco smoking exposure affects milk lipids which are essential for infant growth. PMID:24901858

  14. Correlation between maternal weight and insulin resistance in second half of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius Chidiebere Imoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In pregnancy, routine measurement of maternal weight gives a crude assessment of maternal and foetal well-being. Excess weight gain in pregnancy is related to increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, hypertension in pregnancy and foetal macrosomia. In the Nigerian context, lack of knowledge of pre-pregnancy weight coupled with late booking of women in pregnancy hinders accurate assessment of weight gain in pregnancy. The absolute maternal weight is often used as surrogate. This study evaluates the relationship between absolute weight in the second half of pregnancy and insulin resistance. Patients and Methods: The weight of hundred pregnant women was measured between 24 to 32 weeks of pregnancy and their insulin resistance was measured using Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR from fasting serum glucose and fasting serum insulin. Results: Twenty-six women had weight ≥95 kg and 74 women had weight of <95 kg. There was a significant positive correlation between weight and HOMA-IR (r = 0.248, fasting glucose (r = 0.198, and fasting insulin (r = 0.228, (P < 0.05. The mean weight, HOMA-IR, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were higher in women with weight ≥95 kg compared to those with less weight. Also maternal weight ≥ 95 kg was associated with severe insulin resistance, (Odds Ratio = 3.1. Conclusion: Absolute weight in pregnancy correlates well with insulin resistance. Women having weight ≥95 kg between 24-32 weeks of gestation were more likely to have severe insulin resistance with implications for increased risk of GDM and other complications.

  15. Glucose kinetics in nondiabetic and diabetic women during the third trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Kahn, C.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

    1983-08-01

    Glucose kinetics were measured during the third trimester of pregnancy in nine nondiabetic women, nine insulin-dependent diabetic women, six gestational diabetic women, and five control women (nonpregnant, nondiabetic) after an overnight fast. The patients not dependent on insulin were diagnosed as diabetic by oral glucose tolerance tests during the third trimester. The turnover studies were repeated post partum (6 weeks to 5 months after delivery) in 14 of the 24 pregnant subjects. All pregnant groups had a progressive fall in plasma glucose concentration during the study, but there was a steady state of plasma glucose concentration during the turnover period. In comparison to the control subjects, both the pregnant nondiabetic and pregnant insulin-dependent diabetic women had significantly higher plasma insulin concentrations throughout the study There were no differences in the glucose turnover rate between any of the pregnant groups and the control group of women patients were studied post partum, the glucose turnover rate was similar when referenced to body weight; however, because of a 9.6% to 14.5% fall in weight post partum, the absolute valueds were h in the pregnant women. We conclude that, in the basal state after an overnight fast, (1) both nondiabetic and diabetic patients accelerated their glucose turnover rate during pregnancy to provide for increased maternal and fetoplacental metabolic requirements, and (2) in the diabetic subjects the nearly normal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and other metabolic parameters, as well as the glucose turnover rate, suggested good metabolic control during pregnancy in most of the insulin-dependent and in all of the gestational diabetic patients.

  16. Maternal transmission of Alzheimer's disease: Prodromal metabolic phenotype and the search for genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosconi Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After advanced age, having a parent affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most significant risk factor for developing AD among cognitively normal (NL individuals. Although rare genetic mutations have been identified among the early-onset forms of familial AD (EOFAD, the genetics of the more common forms of late-onset AD (LOAD remain elusive. While some LOAD cases appear to be sporadic in nature, genetically mediated risk is evident from the familial aggregation of many LOAD cases. The patterns of transmission and biological mechanisms through which a family history of LOAD confers risk to the offspring are not known. Brain imaging studies using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET have shown that NL individuals with a maternal history of LOAD, but not with a paternal family history, express a phenotype characterised by a pattern of progressive reductions of brain glucose metabolism, similar to that in AD patients. As maternally inherited AD may be associated with as many as 20 per cent of the total LOAD population, understanding the causes and mechanisms of expression of this form of AD is of great relevance. This paper reviews known genetic mutations implicated in EOFAD and their effects on brain chemistry, structure and function; epidemiology and clinical research findings in LOAD, including in vivo imaging findings showing selective patterns of hypometabolism in maternally inherited AD; possible genetic mechanisms involved in maternal transmission of AD, including chromosome X mutations, mitochondrial DNA and imprinting; and genetic mechanisms involved in other neurological disorders with known or suspected maternal inheritance. The review concludes with a discussion of the potential role of brain imaging for identifying endophenotypes in NL individuals at risk for AD, and for directing investigation of potential susceptibility genes for AD.

  17. Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Fetal Programming - Lessons Learned from Humans and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Reichetzeder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cardiovascular disease partially originates from poor environmental and nutritional conditions in early life. Lack of micronutrients like 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 (25OHD during pregnancy may be an important treatable causal factor. The present study explored the effect of maternal 25OHD deficiency on the offspring. Methods: We performed a prospective observational study analyzing the association of maternal 25OHD deficiency during pregnancy with birth outcomes considering confounding. To show that vitamin D deficiency may be causally involved in the observed associations, mice were set on either 25OHD sufficient or insufficient diets before and during pregnancy. Growth, glucose tolerance and mortality was analyzed in the F1 generation. Results: The clinical study showed that severe 25OHD deficiency was associated with low birth weight and low gestational age. ANCOVA models indicated that established confounding factors such as offspring sex, smoking during pregnancy and maternal BMI did not influence the impact of 25OHD on birth weight. However, there was a significant interaction between 25OHD and gestational age. Maternal 25OHD deficiency was also independently associated with low APGAR scores 5 minutes postpartum. The offspring of 25OHD deficient mice grew slower after birth, had an impaired glucose tolerance shortly after birth and an increased mortality during follow-up. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates an association between maternal 25OHD and offspring birth weight. The effect of 25OHD on birth weight seems to be mediated by vitamin D controlling gestational age. Results from an animal experiment suggest that gestational 25OHD insufficiency is causally linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Since birth weight and prematurity are associated with an adverse cardiovascular outcome in later life, this study emphasizes the need for novel monitoring and treatment guidelines of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy.

  18. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Sign Up forJoslin Newsletters Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous? Low blood glucose or hypoglycemia is one of the most common ... In general, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl. Low blood glucose ...

  19. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  20. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease.

  1. Trajectories of parenting behavior and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azak, Schale; Raeder, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated trajectories of maternal parenting behavior across the infants' first 18 months of life in relation to maternal depression. Furthermore, predictors of the quality of the mother-infant relationship at 18 months were examined. Participants consisted of three types of mother-infant dyads: mothers with comorbid depression and anxiety (n=19), mothers with depression (n=7) and nondepressed mothers (n=24). Maternal behaviors and the quality of relationship were rated on a global scale (NICHD) from video-taped mother-infant interactions. Maternal behaviors rated at six, 12 and 18 months were collapsed into a composite variable maternal style. The quality of the relationship captured as dyadic mutuality was rated at 18 months. Comorbid and depressed mothers showed lower quality in maternal style compared with the nondepressed mothers at six months. Over the follow-up the comorbid mothers were lower in maternal style compared to the nondepressed mothers, but the comorbid mothers increased significantly in maternal style despite elevated depression symptoms. Mean maternal style and infant cognitive skills predicted the quality in relationship at 18 months suggesting that the mother-toddler relationship depends on contributions from the mother and the child. Higher growth in maternal style despite of depression symptoms among comorbid mothers was interpreted against the background that the majority of the comorbid mother-infant dyads received several treatments.

  2. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  3. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  4. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  5. Partnership Transitions and Maternal Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers’ partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first five years of their children’s lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions, and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between transitions and race/ethnicity, maternal education and family structure at birth. Findings indicate that both coresidential and dating transitions were...

  6. Maternal Employment and Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia M. Anderson; Kristin F. Butcher; Levine, Phillip B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates whether children are more or less likely to be overweight if their mothers work. The prevalence of both overweight children and working mothers has risen dramatically over the past few decades, although these parallel trends may be coincidental. The goal of this paper is to help determine whether a causal relationship exists between maternal employment and childhood overweight. To accomplish this, we mainly utilize matched mother/child data from the National Longitudin...

  7. A Model for Maternal Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, Cynthia D.; Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah Mccue

    2010-01-01

    With the awareness of maternal depression as a prevalent public health issue and its important link to child physical and mental health, attention has turned to how healthcare providers can respond effectively. Intimate partner violence (IPV) and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs are strongly related to depression, particularly for low-income women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends psychosocial screening of pregnant women at least once per t...

  8. Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Biosensor for Glucose Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. W.Sun; J.X. Wang; A. Wei

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs were fabricated by vapor phase transport, and nanorods and hierarchical nanodisk structures by aqueous thermal decomposition. Glucose biosensors were constructed using these ZnO nanostructures as supporting materials for glucose oxidase (GOx) loading. These ZnO glucose biosensors showed a high sensitivity for glucose detection and high affinity of GOx to glucose as well as the low detection limit. The results demonstrate that ZnO nanostructures have potential applications in biosensors.

  9. Breakfast, blood glucose, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Parker, P Y

    1998-04-01

    This article compares the findings of three studies that explored the role of increased blood glucose in improving memory function for subjects who ate breakfast. An initial improvement in memory function for these subjects was found to correlate with blood glucose concentrations. In subsequent studies, morning fasting was found to adversely affect the ability to recall a word list and a story read aloud, as well as recall items while counting backwards. Failure to eat breakfast did not affect performance on an intelligence test. It was concluded that breakfast consumption preferentially influences tasks requiring aspects of memory. In the case of both word list recall and memory while counting backwards, the decline in performance associated with not eating breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a glucose-supplemented drink. Although a morning fast also affected the ability to recall a story read aloud, the glucose drink did not reverse this decline. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms, including an increase in blood glucose. PMID:9537627

  10. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro

    2006-11-01

    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  11. The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or post...

  12. Determinants of maternal healthcare utilization in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Zimbabwe and other developing countries struggle to achieve millennium development goals originally set for 2015. To assist health policy making, there was an investigation of how demographic, socioeconomic and cultural factors determine maternal healthcare services use in Zimbabwe. A logistic model for four different maternal healthcare services using data from the 2005/6 Zimbabwe Demographic Health Survey was estimated. Secondary education increases the odds of use of maternal health servic...

  13. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Berghella; Alessandro Ghidini; Giancarlo Mari; Mariarosaria Di Tommaso; Silvia Vannuccini; Filiberto Maria Severi; Felice Petraglia

    2013-01-01

    The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregn...

  14. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Self-Care

    OpenAIRE

    LOPOO, LEONARD M.

    2004-01-01

    Mounting evidence shows that self-care produces deleterious consequences for adolescents in the U.S. Since desscriptive evidence suggests that maternal employment is the primary explanation for adolescent self-care, maternal employment, it is frequently argued, is harming children. Heretofore, very little empirical research has actually investigated the impact of maternal employment on adolescent self-care, however, calling into question this assertion. This paper aims to fill this gap. The a...

  15. Maternal Health and Fertility: An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Albanesi, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the decline in maternal mortality on fertility and women's human capital. Fertility theory suggests that a permanent decline in maternal mortality initially increases fertility and generates a permanent rise in women's human capital, relative to men. The resulting rise in the opportunity cost of children leads to a subsequent decline in desired fertility, generating a boom-bust response. We assess these predictions using newly digitized data on maternal morta...

  16. Neonatally Induced Mild Diabetes in Rats and Its Effect on Maternal, Placental, and Fetal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Karen Sinzato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess placental changes and reproductive outcomes in neonatally induced mild diabetic dams and fetal development in their offspring. At birth, female rats were assigned either to control or diabetic group (100 mg of streptozotocin/Kg, subcutaneously. At adulthood, the female rats were mated. During pregnancy, the blood glucose levels and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. At term, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal and placental weight, and placental morphology were analyzed. Diabetic rats had smaller number of living fetuses, implantations and corpora lutea, and increased rate of embryonic loss. Placenta showed morphometric alterations in decidua area. Our results showed that mild diabetes was sufficient to trigger alterations in maternal organism leading to impaired decidua development contributing to failure in embryonic implantation and early embryonic losses. Regardless placental decidua alteration, the labyrinth, which is responsible for the maternal-fetal exchanges, showed no morphometric changes contributing to an appropriate fetal development, which was able to maintain normal fetal weight at term in mild diabetic rats. Thus, this experimental model of diabetes induction at the day of birth was more effective to reproduce the reproductive alterations of diabetic women.

  17. Maternity or catastrophe: a study of household expenditure on maternal health care in India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Using data from 60th round of the National Sample Survey, this study attempts to measure the incidence and intensity of ‘catastrophic’ maternal health care expenditure and examines its socio-economic correlates in urban and rural areas separately. Additionally, it measures the effect of maternal health care expenditure on poverty incidence and examines the factors associated with such impoverishment due to maternal health care payments. We found that maternal health care expenditure in urban ...

  18. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okina...

  19. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-la...

  20. Maternal Mortality Among Migrants in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population......-analysis provides evidence that migrant women in Western European countries have an excess risk of maternal mortality........ Results were derived from a random-effects meta-analysis, and statistical heterogeneity assessed by the I (2) statistic. In sub-analyses we also calculated summary estimates stratified by direct and indirect death causes. We included 13 studies with more than 42 million women and 4,995 maternal deaths...

  1. Maternal bereavement and cryptorchidism in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testis) is a common anomaly with largely unexplained etiology. Animal studies have suggested maternal emotional stress as a potential risk factor, but this has not been studied in humans. We aimed to investigate whether maternal bereavement due to the death...... interval = 0.92-1.14]). Results were similar when the diagnosis was verified with surgery. We adjusted for maternal and paternal age, birth year, and family history of cryptorchidism. CONCLUSION: We observed no association between maternal bereavement before and during pregnancy and the occurrence...

  2. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  3. The Effect of Marital Violence on Maternal Parenting Style and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesman, Cindy S.

    A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…

  4. Maternal Psychiatric Disorders, Parenting, and Maternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study, were used to investigate associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Maternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed in 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Maternal anxiety,…

  5. Maternal and Child Anxiety: Do Attachment Beliefs or Children's Perceptions of Maternal Control Mediate Their Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natalie M.; Weems, Carl F.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested a model of the association between maternal and child anxiety that views mother and child attachment beliefs and children's perceptions of maternal control as mediators of the association. The study was conducted with mothers and their children aged 6 to 17 (N = 88). Maternal anxiety was significantly associated with child…

  6. Reusable glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Chih Hsu; Yi-Cheng Chen; Ju-Yi Lee; Chyan-Chyi Wu

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum. High resolution and rapid measurement are achieved through the integration of highly selective enzymes and heterodyne interferometry. The best resolution and response time obtained are 0.14mg/dL and 1.3 s, respectively. The stability of the sensor is also verified by investigating the initial phase variation. Experimental results show that the fiber sensor can be reused more than 10 times.%We demonstrate a glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum.High resolution and rapid measurement are achieved through the integration of highly selective enzymes and heterodyne interferometry.The best resolution and response time obtained are 0.14 mg/dL and 1.3 s,respectively.The stability of the sensor is also verified by investigating the initial phase variation.Experimental results show that the fiber sensor can be reused more than 10 times.Fiber sensors have attracted considerable attention over the past two decades.Various kinds of fiber sensors have been proposed for measnring specific chemical concentrations[1-8].Most previously reported methods[1-5] involved measuring the variations in fluorescence intensity[2-4] or transmitted light[3,4].Hence,avoiding the inflnence of snrrounding light and the use of expensive photon detection equipment are important requirements.Furthermore,procedures for manufacturing optical biosensors are complicated[3] and qualitv is difficult to control[4]..

  7. Maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and risk of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Mitchell, Laura E; Canfield, Mark A; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2014-01-01

    Single-gene analyses indicate that maternal genes associated with metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity) may influence the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, to our knowledge, there have been no assessments of maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and NTDs. We investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 7 maternal metabolic genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and TCF7L2) and 2 fetal metabolic genes (SLC2A2 and UCP2). Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for birth years 1999-2007. We used a 2-step approach to evaluate maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions. First, a case-only approach was applied to screen all potential maternal and fetal interactions (n = 76), as this design provides greater power in the assessment of gene-gene interactions compared to other approaches. Specifically, ordinal logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each maternal-fetal gene-gene interaction, assuming a log-additive model of inheritance. Due to the number of comparisons, we calculated a corrected p-value (q-value) using the false discovery rate. Second, we confirmed all statistically significant interactions (q < 0.05) using a log-linear approach among case-parent triads. In step 1, there were 5 maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions with q < 0.05. The "top hit" was an interaction between maternal ENPP1 rs1044498 and fetal SLC2A2 rs6785233 (interaction OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 2.32-5.74, p = 2.09×10(-8), q=0.001), which was confirmed in step 2 (p = 0.00004). Our findings suggest that maternal metabolic genes associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and fetal metabolic genes involved in glucose homeostasis may interact to increase the risk of NTDs. PMID:24332798

  8. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Michelle Rivera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, and cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption display impairments in hyperactivity, social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose, hormones (leptin, insulin, and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor. Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavioral are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions.

  9. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M; Christiansen, Kelly J; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa), and impairments in cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption display hyperactivity, impairments in social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose), hormones (leptin, insulin), and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor). Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic systems. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavior are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26150767

  10. High glucose concentrations partially release hexokinase from inhibition by glucose 6-phosphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, S; Beutler, E

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of glucose by human erythrocyte hexokinase follows classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; hexokinase manifests maximum activity at 5 mM glucose, and no further increase in activity can be measured at higher glucose concentrations. However, the erythrocytes of diabetics and normal erythrocytes incubated with high concentrations of glucose contain increased concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate. To elucidate the mechanism of accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate when erythrocyte...

  11. Reengineered glucose oxidase for amperometric glucose determination in diabetes analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Gutierrez, Erik; Mundhada, Hemanshu; Meier, Thomas; Duefel, Hartmut; Bocola, Marco; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2013-12-15

    Glucose oxidase is an oxidoreductase exhibiting a high β-D-glucose specificity and high stability which renders glucose oxidase well-suited for applications in diabetes care. Nevertheless, GOx activity is highly oxygen dependent which can lead to inaccuracies in amperometric β-D-glucose determinations. Therefore a directed evolution campaign with two rounds of random mutagenesis (SeSaM followed by epPCR), site saturation mutagenesis studies on individual positions, and one simultaneous site saturation library (OmniChange; 4 positions) was performed. A diabetes care well suited mediator (quinone diimine) was selected and the GOx variant (T30V I94V) served as starting point. For directed GOx evolution a microtiter plate detection system based on the quinone diimine mediator was developed and the well-known ABTS-assay was applied in microtiter plate format to validate oxygen independency of improved GOx variants. Two iterative rounds of random diversity generation and screening yielded to two subsets of amino acid positions which mainly improved activity (A173, A332) and oxygen independency (F414, V560). Simultaneous site saturation of all four positions with a reduced subset of amino acids using the OmniChange method yielded finally variant V7 with a 37-fold decreased oxygen dependency (mediator activity: 7.4 U/mg WT, 47.5 U/mg V7; oxygen activity: 172.3 U/mg WT, 30.1 U/mg V7). V7 is still highly β-D-glucose specific, highly active with the quinone diimine mediator and thermal resistance is retained (prerequisite for GOx coating of diabetes test stripes). The latter properties and V7's oxygen insensitivity make V7 a very promising candidate to replace standard GOx in diabetes care applications. PMID:23835222

  12. Pattern and predictors of maternal care-seeking practices for severe neonatal jaundice in Nigeria: a multi-centre survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeaka, Chinyere V; Ugwu, Rosemary O; Mukhtar-Yola, Mariya; Ekure, Ekanem N; Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria is frequently associated with disproportionately high rates of severe neonatal jaundice (NNJ) underpinned by widespread Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Timely and appropriate treatment of NNJ is crucial for preventing the associated morbidity and neuro-developmental sequelae. Since mothers are likely to be the first mostly to observe the onset of severe illness in their newborns, we set out to identify the pattern and predictors of maternal care-seeking...

  13. Maternal mortality in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P S; Amalraj, A

    1994-01-01

    In a 4 year prospective community survey of 20,000 women randomly selected in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu State in South India, the maternal mortality rates per 1,000 liveborn were estimated to be 17.4 and 16.6 for rural and semi-urban areas, respectively. The rates based only on direct causes were 11.9 in rural and 14.4 in semi-urban areas. As expected, these figures are considerably higher than those based on official or hospital statistics. Factors associated with such high mortality and the implications for programme planning and implementation are discussed. PMID:7855917

  14. [Maternal mortality: levels, trends, and differentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, A; Lozano, R; Hernandez, B

    1993-01-01

    Maternal mortality in Mexico has declined significantly over the past half century. The maternal mortality rate was 53/10,000 live births in 1940 and 5.1 in 1990. The greatest and most rapid decline occurred in the 1940s. The maternal mortality rate is still too high, and in addition the differential between Mexican rates and those of the developed countries has increased. The average age at maternal death is 29 years, a full 40 years less than potential life expectancy. The risk of death from causes related to reproduction varies substantially by educational level. Of all maternal deaths between 1986 and 1991, 26% were in illiterate women, 33% in women with incomplete primary, and 24% in those with complete primary. In 1990, the average female school attainment was complete primary. The maternal mortality rate was eight times higher among illiterate women and five times higher in those not completing primary than in those finishing preparatory. Geographically, states with low maternal mortality rates of under 3.1 are mainly located in the north and those with high maternal mortality of over 6.0 are in the south. The central zone is an intermediate area. The 1991 maternal mortality rates of Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, and the state of Mexico are similar to those of Nuevo Leon 30 years ago or Aguascalientes, Sonora, and Baja California 20 years ago. 72% of maternal deaths in the 1980s occurred in rural areas. The rates were 6.5/10,000 in rural areas and 4.1/10,000 in urban areas. The maternal mortality rate also increases with marginalization. An index of marginalization constructed with census data using multivariate techniques showed that fertile aged women in very marginalized municipios had maternal mortality rates of 11.5/10,000, or a risk of death three times greater than women in municipios scoring low for marginalization. Maternal mortality continues to be a priority public health problem in Mexico. Because so many maternal deaths are preventable

  15. Silicon-based nanochannel glucose sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xihua; Gibney, Katherine A; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanochannel biological field effect transistors have been developed for glucose detection. The device is nanofabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a top-down approach and surface functionalized with glucose oxidase. The differential conductance of silicon nanowires, tuned with source-drain bias voltage, is demonstrated to be sensitive to the biocatalyzed oxidation of glucose. The glucose biosensor response is linear in the 0.5-8 mM concentration range with 3-5 min response time. This silicon nanochannel-based glucose biosensor technology offers the possibility of high density, high quality glucose biosensor integration with silicon-based circuitry.

  16. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-05-01

    We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk.We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype.Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ∼P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams.Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet.Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed

  17. Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel B; Calanna, Salvatore; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2014-01-01

    of glucagon and insulin and glucose disposal in patients with T2DM. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a single center, placebo-controlled, cross-over, experimental study. PATIENTS: We studied twelve patients with T2DM (age: 62 ± 1 years [mean ± SEM], body mass index: 29 ± 1 kg/m(2); glycosylated hemoglobin A1c...

  18. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Schutte, J.; Poeran, J.; Roosmalen, J. van; Bonsel, G.; Steegers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: de Graaf J, Schutte J, Poeran J, van Roosmalen J, Bonsel G, Steegers E. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality. BJOG 2012;119:582-588. Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of

  19. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  20. First trimester bleeding and maternal cardiovascular morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    First trimester bleeding without miscarriage is a risk factor for complications later in the pregnancy, such as preterm delivery. Also, first trimester miscarriage has been linked to subsequent maternal ischemic heart disease. We investigated the link between maternal cardiovascular disease prior...... to and subsequent to first trimester bleeding without miscarriage....

  1. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  2. Putting the "M" back in the Maternal and Child Health Bureau: reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Michael C; Highsmith, Keisher; de la Cruz, David; Atrash, Hani K

    2015-07-01

    Maternal mortality and severe morbidity are on the rise in the United States. A significant proportion of these events are preventable. The Maternal Health Initiative (MHI), coordinated by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau at the Health Resources and Services Administration, is intensifying efforts to reduce maternal mortality and severe morbidity in the U.S. Through a public-private partnership, MHI is taking a comprehensive approach to improving maternal health focusing on five priority areas: improving women's health before, during and beyond pregnancy; improving the quality and safety of maternity care; improving systems of maternity care including both clinical and public health systems; improving public awareness and education; and improving surveillance and research.

  3. Cognitive Function in Adult Offspring of Women with Gestational Diabetes–The Role of Glucose and Other Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Tine D.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Lone Schmidt; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Torben Hansen; Jensen, Dorte M.; Peter Damm

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2003-2005 cognitive function was assessed in a cohort of 18-27 year old offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 153) and offspring from the background population (n = 118). The main outcome measure was global cognitive score derived from Raven's Progressi...

  4. "The Role ofL-arginine in Control of Apoptosis in Preimplantation Mouse Embryos Cultured in High Glucose Media "

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Barbarestani; Iraj. Amiri; FaridAbolhassani; Ahmadreza. Dehpour; Behrooz Niknafs; Sayed Noreddinr Neamatollahi; Sayed Abbas Abdolvahabi

    2004-01-01

    Maternal hyperglycemia causes delay in early stages of embryonic growth and development, higher incidence of congenital malformations and spontaneous miscarriage compared with those of non-diabetic conditions. High glucosis tratogenicity seems to be related to reduction of Nitric Oxide production (NO) in hyperglycemic condition. In order to test this hypothesis, 2-cell stage embryos of normal mice were cultured with high concentration of glucose (30mM) and different concentrations of L-argini...

  5. Maternal deaths in Denmark 2002-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Birgit; Hvidman, Lone; Weber, Tom;

    2009-01-01

    and indirect deaths. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal mortality ratio, causes of death and suboptimal care. RESULTS: In the study period, 26 women died during pregnancy or within 42 days from direct or indirect causes, leading to a maternal mortality ratio of 8.0/100,000 live births. Causes of death were......OBJECTIVE: To describe a method for identification, classification and assessment of maternal deaths in Denmark and to identify substandard care. DESIGN: Register study and case audit based on data from the Registers of the Danish Medical Health Board, death certificates and hospital records....... SETTING: Denmark 2002-2006. POPULATION: Women who died during a pregnancy or within 42 days after a pregnancy. METHODS: Maternal deaths were identified by notification from maternity wards and data from the Danish National Board of Health. A national audit committee assessed hospital records of direct...

  6. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress has...... been made. There is not a simple and straight-forward intervention, which by itself will bring maternal mortality significantly down; and it is commonly agreed on that the high maternal mortality can only be addressed if the health system is strengthened. There is a common consensus about...... the importance of skilled attendance at delivery to address the high, maternal mortality. This consensus is also reflected in the MDG 5, where the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel is considered a key indicator. But even if countries invest massive efforts to increase skilled care...

  7. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  8. Striving for Respectful Maternity Care Everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rose L; Patel, Suha J; Scott, Jennifer; Schantz-Dunn, Julianna; Nour, Nawal M

    2016-09-01

    Purpose The mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities is a growing area of research and public attention. Description In many countries, disrespect and abuse from maternal health providers discourage women from seeking childbirth with a skilled birth attendant, which can lead to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. This commentary highlights examples from three countries-Kenya, Mexico and the United States-and presents different forms of mistreatment during childbirth, which range from physical abuse to non-consented care to discriminatory practices. Assessment Building on the momentum from the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and the Global and Maternal Neonatal Health Conference, the global community has placed respectful maternity care at the forefront of the maternal and neonatal health agenda. Conclusion Research efforts must focus on context-specific patient satisfaction during childbirth to identify areas for quality improvement.

  9. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  10. Increased Maternal Serum Interleukin-6 Concentrations at 11 to 14 Weeks of Gestation in Low Risk Pregnancies Complicated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Development of a Prediction Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassiakos, D; Eleftheriades, M; Papastefanou, I; Lambrinoudaki, I; Kappou, D; Lavranos, D; Akalestos, A; Aravantinos, L; Pervanidou, P; Chrousos, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine interleukin-6 (IL-6) maternal serum concentration at 11 to 14 gestational weeks in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to create first trimester prediction models for GDM. Case-control study conducted in a Fetal Medicine Unit. Study population included 40 GDM cases and 94 controls. Maternal characteristics, first trimester ultrasound markers, biochemical indices, and IL-6 levels were used for our analysis. IL-6 was related to maternal weight among the maternal characteristics, (R(2)=0.0679, p=0.01). IL-6 was increased (p=0.001) in the GDM group (median=2 pg/ml) compared to the control group (median=1.5 pg/ml) even after adjustment for maternal weight. IL-6 was inversely related to birth weight adjusted for gestational age at delivery (r=-0.3382, poral glucose test. Maternal weight and age were the only predictors of GDM among the maternal characteristics [Detection Rate (DR)=59.4%; for 25% False Positive Rate (FPR); Area Under the Curve (AUC)=0.7291; Model R(2)=0.1096, p<0.001]. IL-6 alone was a significant predictor of GDM (DR=51.3%; for 25% FPR; AUC=0.6731; Model R(2)=0.0616, p<0.001). Combination of maternal characteristics with IL-6 yielded an improved prediction (DR=67.5%; for 25% FPR; AUC=0.7586; Model R(2)=0.1521, p<0.001). IL-6 concentrations are increased at 11-14 weeks in pregnancies with GDM. Combination of maternal characteristics and maternal serum IL-6 levels may provide effective first trimester screening for GDM.

  11. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs GARD Information Navigator FAQs About Rare Diseases Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Title Other Names: G6PD ... G6PD deficiency Categories: Newborn Screening Summary Summary Listen Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a hereditary ...

  12. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  13. Microwave-Based Biosensor for Glucose Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, N. S. M.; Khalid, K.; Yusof, N. A.

    2010-07-01

    In this project, microwave-based biosensor for glucose detection has been studied. The study is based on the dielectric properties changes at microwave frequency for glucose-enzyme reaction. Glucose interaction with glucose oxidase (GOD) produced gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The reaction of the glucose solutions with an enzyme was carried out in 1:3 of glucose and enzyme respectively. The measurements were done using the Open Ended Coaxial Probe (OECP) coupled with computer controlled software automated network analyzer (ANA) with frequency range from 200MHz to 20GHz at room temperature (25 °C). The differences of enzyme and glucose-enzyme reaction were calculated and plotted. In the microwave interaction with the glucose-enzyme reaction, ionic conduction and dipole molecules was detected at 0.99GHz and 16.44GHz respectively based on changes of dielectric loss factor.

  14. Screening in high-risk group of gestational diabetes mellitus with its maternal and fetal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angadi Rajasab Nilofer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The complications associated with GDM can be prevented by early recognition, intense monitoring and proper treatment. Aims: The present study was done to screen the high-risk pregnancy group for GDM, to find the incidence of abnormal results on screening and to correlate the abnormal results with the maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute. It was a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Selective screening for GDM was done in 150 pregnant women with high-risk factors. Screening was done with 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT after 18 weeks, and if GCT was negative then the test was repeated after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The patients who were having an abnormal GCT were subjected to 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. The period of study was from April 2008 to March 2009. Results: 7.3% of study population was OGCT positive. 6% of the study population was OGTT positive. Age >25 years, obesity, family history of DM, and past history of GDM were the risk factors significantly associated with GDM. One newborn had hypoglycemia and one had hyperbilirubinemia. The fetal and maternal outcome in GDM patients was good in our study due to early diagnosis and intervention. Conclusion: Women with GDM are at an increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The increased morbidity in GDM is preventable by meticulous antenatal care.

  15. 21 CFR 168.120 - Glucose sirup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glucose sirup. 168.120 Section 168.120 Food and... § 168.120 Glucose sirup. (a) Glucose sirup is the purified, concentrated, aqueous solution of nutritive... equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not less than 20.0 percent m/m calculated on a dry basis. (2)...

  16. Silicon-based nanochannel glucose sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xihua; Chen, Yu; Gibney, Katherine A.; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanochannel biological field effect transistors have been developed for glucose detection. The device is nanofabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a top-down approach and surface functionalized with glucose oxidase. The differential conductance of silicon nanowires, tuned with source-drain bias voltage, is demonstrated to be sensitive to the biocatalyzed oxidation of glucose. The glucose biosensor response is linear in the 0.5-8 mM concentration range with 3-5 min response...

  17. A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Li, Siqi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2013-06-20

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concentrations. This sensor features simplicity in sensor design, and possesses high specificity and accuracy in glucose detection. However, lack of glucose diffusion passage, this device is unable to fulfill real-time in-vivo monitoring. As a major improvement to this device, we present in this paper a fully implantable MEMS dielectric affinity glucose biosensor that contains a perforated electrode embedded in a suspended diaphragm. This capacitive-based sensor contains no moving parts, and enables glucose diffusion and real-time monitoring. The experimental results indicate that this sensor can detect glucose solutions at physiological concentrations and possesses good reversibility and reliability. This sensor has a time constant to glucose concentration change at approximately 3 min, which is comparable to commercial systems. The sensor has potential applications in fully implantable CGM that require excellent long-term stability and reliability. PMID:24511215

  18. CALIBRATION OF A WEARABLE GLUCOSE SENSOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHMIDT, FJ; AALDERS, AL; SCHOONEN, AJM; DOORENBOS, H

    1992-01-01

    Calibration of glucose sensors proved difficult for electrodes with immobilized glucose-oxidase. The correlation between the sensitivity of the electrodes in vitro and in vivo appeared to be poor. We developed a new type of glucose sensor, based on a microdialysis system, in which an oxygen electrod

  19. Na+-d-glucose Cotransporter SGLT1 is Pivotal for Intestinal Glucose Absorption and Glucose-Dependent Incretin Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Gorboulev, Valentin; Schürmann, Annette; Vallon, Volker; Kipp, Helmut; Jaschke, Alexander; Klessen, Dirk; Friedrich, Alexandra; Scherneck, Stephan; Rieg, Timo; Cunard, Robyn; Veyhl-Wichmann, Maike; Srinivasan, Aruna; Balen, Daniela; Breljak, Davorka; Rexhepaj, Rexhep

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the physiological role of Na+-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in small intestine and kidney, Sglt1−/− mice were generated and characterized phenotypically. After gavage of d-glucose, small intestinal glucose absorption across the brush-border membrane (BBM) via SGLT1 and GLUT2 were analyzed. Glucose-induced secretion of insulinotropic hormone (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in wild-type and Sglt1−/− mice were compared. The impact of SGLT1 on renal glucose handling was inves...

  20. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajngot, A.; Khan, A.; Giacca, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-11-01

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with (2-3H)glucose and HGP with (6-3H)glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). (2-3H)- minus (6-3H)glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP.

  1. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with [2-3H]glucose and HGP with [6-3H]glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). [2-3H]- minus [6-3H]glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP

  2. Severe maternal morbidity for 2004-2005 in the three Dublin maternity hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Cliona M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and causes of severe maternal morbidity in Dublin over a two year period from 2004 to 2005. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2005 was undertaken in the three large maternity hospitals in Dublin, which serve a population of 1.5 million people. All are tertiary referral centres for obstetrics and neonatology and have an annual combined delivery rate of circa 23,000 births. Cases of severe maternal morbidity were identified. A systems based classification was used. The primary cause of maternal morbidity and the number of events experienced per patient was recorded. RESULTS: We identified 158 women who fulfilled the definition for severe maternal morbidity, giving a rate of 3.2 per 1000 maternities. There were two maternal deaths during the time period giving mortality to morbidity ratio of 1:79. The commonest cause of severe morbidity was vascular dysfunction related to obstetric haemorrhage. Eclampsia comprised 15.4% of cases. Intensive care or coronary care admission occurred in 12% of cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity in this population is 3.2\\/1000 maternities. Obstetric haemorrhage was the main cause of severe maternal morbidity.

  3. Low and high dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy affect materno-fetal glucose metabolism in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C; Görs, Solvig; Lang, Iris S; Hammon, Harald M; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Weitzel, Joachim M; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2014-02-01

    Inadequate dietary protein during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth retardation. Whether this is related to altered maternal and fetal glucose metabolism was examined in pregnant sows comparing a high-protein:low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 30% protein, 39% carbohydrates) with a moderately low-protein:high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 6.5% protein, 68% carbohydrates) and the isoenergetic standard diet (ST; 12.1% protein, 60% carbohydrates). During late pregnancy, maternal and umbilical glucose metabolism and fetal hepatic mRNA expression of gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. During an i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), the LP-HC-fed sows had lower insulin concentrations and area under the curve (AUC), and higher glucose:insulin ratios than the ST- and the HP-LC-fed sows (P < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity and glucose clearance were higher in the LP-HC sows compared with ST sows (P < 0.05). Glucagon concentrations during postabsorptive conditions and IVGTT, and glucose AUC during IVGTT, were higher in the HP-LC group compared with the other groups (P < 0.001). (13)C glucose oxidation was lower in the HP-LC sows than in the ST and LP-HC sows (P < 0.05). The HP-LC fetuses were lighter and had a higher brain:liver ratio than the ST group (P < 0.05). The umbilical arterial inositol concentration was greater in the HP-LC group (P < 0.05) and overall small fetuses (230-572 g) had higher values than medium and heavy fetuses (≥573 g) (P < 0.05). Placental lactate release was lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P < 0.05). Fetal glucose extraction tended to be lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P = 0.07). In the HP-LC and LP-HC fetuses, hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) was higher than in the ST fetuses (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the HP-LC and LP-HC sows adapted by reducing glucose turnover and oxidation and having higher glucose utilization, respectively. The HP-LC and LP

  4. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  5. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship.

  6. Improvements in electrochemical glucose biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Fragkou, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Even though insulin was discovered in 1920, an intense research on diabetes has been conducted during the last five decades and this is because of the market size. The huge demand is creating the need for the development of new approaches. This project involved the research aimed at better understanding and improvements in performance of glucose biosensors. In general, high surface area electrodes ar...

  7. Maternal irradiation and Down Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of preconception irradiation in the etiology of Down Syndrome was examined using the techniques of record linkage. Although 909 cases of Down Syndrome, born in B.C. between 1952-70, were ascertained through a system of linked vital and health registrations, interest was restricted to the 348 case/control pairs born in the greater Vancouver area. The maternal identifying information routinely recorded on birth and ill-health registrations was used to link 155 Down Syndrome mothers and 116 control mothers to patient files at the Vancouver General Hospital. Only 28 of the case and 25 of the control mothers were subjected to diagnostic irradiation at the Vancouver Ganeral Hospital. The difference was not significant at the 5% level

  8. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pușcă

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  9. A model for maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Cynthia D; Baker-Ericzen, Mary J; Hazen, Andrea L; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2010-09-01

    With the awareness of maternal depression as a prevalent public health issue and its important link to child physical and mental health, attention has turned to how healthcare providers can respond effectively. Intimate partner violence (IPV) and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs are strongly related to depression, particularly for low-income women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends psychosocial screening of pregnant women at least once per trimester, yet screening is uncommonly done. Research suggests that a collaborative care approach improves identification, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of care. This article presents The Perinatal Mental Health Model, a community-based model that developed screening and referral partnerships for use in community obstetric settings in order to specifically address the psychosocial needs of culturally diverse, low-income mothers. PMID:20718624

  10. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  11. Maternal immunoglobulin E and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Buffler, Patricia A; Metayer, Catherine; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Patoka, Joe; Kronish, Daniel; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2009-08-01

    Childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has long been hypothesized to be affected by abnormal immune responses to microbial challenges stemming from a lack of immune modulation in early childhood. Studies of allergies suggest that a child's immune development may be modulated by maternal immune status. We conducted a study to explore the relationship between maternal immunoglobulin E (IgE) and childhood leukemia and to investigate whether maternal immune status can influence childhood leukemia risk. Serum total and specific IgE (respiratory and food) were measured in biological mothers of 352 children (193 healthy controls and 159 leukemia cases, including 139 ALL cases) ages <8 years who were enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. Odds ratios associated with maternal IgE were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and annual household income. A positive association between childhood leukemia or ALL and elevated levels of maternal serum total IgE was observed, especially among Hispanics. In addition, a positive association was observed between childhood leukemia or ALL and maternal respiratory or food IgE status. These results suggest that maternal immune function may play a crucial role in the etiology of childhood leukemia, although additional studies need to be conducted to confirm the results of this study and provide a perspective on mechanisms. PMID:19622720

  12. Maternal haemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Anjanappa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal anaemia is common medical disorder in developing countries. WHO defines anaemia as haemoglobin concentration of and #8804;11 g/dl. However, in developing countries like India, the lower limit is accepted as 10 g/dl. Results: Of 218 women, 69 had anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia was 31.65%; of which 84% had mild anaemia, 14.6% had moderate and only 1.4% had severe anaemia. Mean Hb levels were 12.04% among non-anaemic mothers and mean birth weight was 2.89 Kg whereas 9.14%, 2.18 kg in anaemic mothers respectively. In our study, 21% in anaemic group has birth weight <2.5 kg and only 0.06% in non-anaemic mothers (p<0.0012 3.6 times higher. The risk of IUGR was 3.77 times higher, low APGAR score at 1 min was 3.8 times higher (p<0.0001, meconium stained liquor was 2.3 times higher and NICU admissions 2.96 times higher in anaemic mothers than non-anaemic mothers. Conclusions: Anaemia in pregnancy is one of the causes of poor perinatal outcome. Maternal anaemia is associated with the high risk of low birth weight, IUGR babies, low APGAR scores and NICU admissions and overall increase in perinatal morbidity. Hence proper antenatal care and counseling can reduce occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1335-1338

  13. Maternal high-fat diet during lactation impairs thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue in offspring mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xingwei; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhang, Lupei; Maricelli, Joseph W; Rodgers, Buel D.; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. Due to uncoupling, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy via heat generation, mitigating obesity and diabetes. The lactation stage is a manageable period for improving the health of offspring of obese mothers, but the impact of maternal HFD during lactation on offspring BAT function is unknown. To determine, female mice were fed either a control or HFD during lactation. At weaning, HFD offspring gained more body weight and had greater body fat mass compared to the control, and these differences maintained into adulthood, which correlated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in HFD offspring. Adaptive thermogenesis of BAT was impaired in HFD offspring at weaning. In adulthood, HFD offspring BAT had lower Ucp1 expression and thermogenic activity. Mechanistically, maternal HFD feeding during lactation elevated peripheral serotonin, which decreased the sensitivity of BAT to sympathetic β3-adrenergic signaling. Importantly, early postnatal metformin administration decreased serotonin concentration and ameliorated the impairment of offspring BAT due to maternal HFD. Our data suggest that attenuation of BAT thermogenic function may be a key mechanism linking maternal HFD during lactation to persisted metabolic disorder in the offspring. PMID:27686741

  14. Differential effects of exposure to maternal obesity or maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in the sheep on insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle of the offspring at 4 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nicholas

    Full Text Available Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3α and higher muscle GSK3α abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110β, aPKCζ, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation.

  15. Hepatic glucose sensing is required to preserve β cell glucose competence.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyer, Pascal; Vallois, David; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Schutz, Frédéric; Metref, Salima; Tarussio, David; Maechler, Pierre; Staels, Bart; Lanz, Bernard; Grueter, Rolf; Decaris, Julie; Turner, Scott; Da Costa, Anabela; Preitner, Frédéric; Minehira, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    Liver glucose metabolism plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and may also regulate feeding and energy expenditure. Here we assessed the impact of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene inactivation in adult mouse liver (LG2KO mice). Loss of Glut2 suppressed hepatic glucose uptake but not glucose output. In the fasted state, expression of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and its glycolytic and lipogenic target genes was abnormally elevated. Feeding, energy expenditu...

  16. Lifestyle, glucose regulation and the cognitive effects of glucose load in middle-aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    Riby, Leigh; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Riby, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Interventions aimed at improving glucose regulatory mechanisms have been suggested as a possible source of cognitive enhancement in the elderly. In particular, previous research has identified episodic memory as a target for facilitation after either moderate increases in glycaemia (after a glucose drink) or after improvements in glucose regulation. The present study aimed to extend this research by examining the joint effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on cognition. In addit...

  17. Disrupted normal ingestion during glucose intake modulates glucose kinetics in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Kida, Kumiko; Bakhshishayan, Sanam; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the importance of chemical senses in glucose kinetics and autonomic nervous activity by imposing interventions during glucose intake. The glucose-loading test was applied to seven healthy individuals. Three successive oral glucose-loadings induced a gradual downward shift in the blood glucose curves (BGC) together with increased salivary α-amylase activity (s-AMY) and positively correlated with satisfaction scores. On the other hands, adding a pleasant flavor given d...

  18. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Possible Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects Beyond Glucose Lowering

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Adachi, Hiroki; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Sako, Akahito

    2015-01-01

    The new drug for type 2 diabetes, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, is reversible inhibitor of SGLT-2, leading to reduction of renal glucose reabsorption and decrease of plasma glucose, in an insulin-independent manner. In addition to glucose control, the management of coronary risk factors is very important for patients with diabetes. Here we reviewed published articles about the possible anti-atherosclerotic effects beyond glucose lowering of the SGLT-2 inhibitors. We s...

  19. KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out in villages around health centers, which were distributed over 10 regencies in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province. All deaths occurring in 1986 were recorded and reported to the health centers. Each case was investigated by the health center doctor to identify the multiple causes of death as well as its related factors. Pregnancy and delivery histories of maternal deaths were analysed. In the study area, the maternal mortality ratio was found to be 1346 per 100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 101 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. The maternal mortality ratio, among women under 20 years of age, was 3390 per 100,000 live births; and 4545 per 100,000 live births among women aged 40 years and over. The predominant factor as a risk of maternal deaths was attributable to delivery assistance by non medical personnel, which was 71%. Maternal deaths attributable to the first parities was 40%, and to pregnancies without antenatal care was 20.1%}. The most prevalent disease causing maternal deaths were haemorrhage 46.2%}, postpartum infections 30.8% and retained placenta 30.8%. To reduce maternal mortality, the most important intervention is to provide qualified delivery assistants especially for the first parities, and the provision of accessible delivery centers for emergency cases in addition to provision of appropriate antenatal care for early detection of high risk pregnancies. Family planning programs will have to be more specified towards high risk groups, i.e women aged under 20 years or 35 years and over, as well as women of high parity. A similar study is recommended to be conducted throughout the other parts of East Nusa Tenggara islands in order to evaluate the general maternal health status of the province.

  20. The WHO maternal near-miss approach and the maternal severity index model (MSI: tools for assessing the management of severe maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments. METHODS: In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death probability among women with severe maternal complications and benchmark the management of severe maternal morbidity. RESULTS: Of the 82,388 women having deliveries in the participating health facilities, 9,555 women presented pregnancy-related complications, including 140 maternal deaths and 770 maternal near misses. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were found to be accurate and highly associated with maternal deaths (Positive likelihood ratio 106.8 (95% CI 99.56-114.6. The maternal severity index (MSI model was developed and found to able to describe the relationship between life-threatening conditions and mortality (Area under the ROC curve: 0.951 (95% CI 0.909-0.993. CONCLUSION: The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment.

  1. Effects of maternal starvation on some blood metabolites, liver glycogen, birth weight and survival of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, M O

    1981-12-01

    Pregnant crossbred sows were assigned to three treatments during the third trimester of gestation for an evaluation of the effects of maternal starvation on fetal development and piglet survival. Two groups of sows were taken off feed (water and trace mineralized salt only) on days 93 and 107 of gestation, respectively; the third group was fed 1.82 kg of complete sow diet/day and served as the control. Litter size, gestation length and pig birth weight in the 7-day and 21-day starvation groups were not different from those in the control group (P less than .05). Liver weight was depressed (P greater than .05) among the 7-day and 21-day progeny. However, liver glycogen concentrations and total liver glycogen were unaffected. Maternal blood glucose decreased to a fasting but steady level, while free fatty acid (FFA) increased in the two starved groups. Blood glucose and FFA at birth were similar for all treatment groups; however, FFA increased in the progeny of sows in the 7-day (P greater than .05) and 21-day (P greater than .01) starvation groups at 48 hr of age. Blood glucose at 48 hr did not vary (P less than .05), but the control progeny showed a faster glucose utilization, suggesting a greater dependence on carbohydrate metabolism than in the progeny of starved dams. Survival rate at 72 hr of age was higher among 21-day (43.8%) and 7-day (37.5%) progeny than among control progeny (8.5%). The increased plasma FFA level observed with fasting in the progeny of starved dams might indicate a shift toward lipid metabolism, which would account for the improved survival observed among the progeny of treated dams.

  2. Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in...

  3. Doubts and Concerns about Isolated Maternal Hypothyroxinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacarla Moleti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia may have detrimental effects on both mother and foetus. Nonetheless, this condition is still far from being universally accepted as a separate thyroid disease, and a standard definition of this state of mild thyroid underfunction is still lacking. We will review the biochemical criteria used to define isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia, together with current methodological issues related to FT4 assays. We will also discuss its epidemiological impact in both iodine-deficient and-sufficient areas, and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis on maternal thyroid function and neuropsychomotor development in offspring.

  4. Higher fetal insulin resistance in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with maternal insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwei Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. RESULTS: Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, P<0.001, proinsulin, 25.8 vs. 15.1 pmol/L, P = 0.015, and HOMA-IR, 2.8 vs. 1.4, P = 0.017, respectively. Fetal HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019, in the pregnant women with GDM. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.

  5. Severe maternal morbidity associated with maternal birthplace in three high-immigration settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Glazier, Richard H; Mortensen, Laust;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality and morbidity vary substantially worldwide. It is unknown if these geographic differences translate into disparities in severe maternal morbidity among immigrants from various world regions. We assessed disparities in severe maternal morbidity between immigrant women...... provided aggregate data according to standardized definitions of the outcome, maternal regions of birth and covariates for pooled analyses. We used random effects and stratified logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for maternal age, parity...... and comparability scores. RESULTS: We retrieved 2,322,907 deliveries in all three receiving countries, of which 479,986 (21%) were to immigrant women. Compared with non-immigrants, only Sub-Saharan African women were consistently at higher risk of severe maternal morbidity in all three receiving countries (pooled...

  6. Maternal intake of energy, macronutrients and fiber during pregnancy, and relation to maternal anthropometry

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background: The evidence for a relationship between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and future health of her unborn child is now ample. The different factors that may link fetal development and growth to later health of the fetus are currently gaining increasing attention. Composition of maternal gestational weight gain may be one of the factors that have an impact on this relationship. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether maternal intake of energy, ma...

  7. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior prob...

  8. Maternal seizures can affect the brain developing of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossa, Ana Carolina; Lima, Daiana Correia; do Vale, Tiago Gurgel; de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Amado, Debora

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the impact of maternal seizures in the developing rat brain, pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to the pilocarpine-induced seizures and pups from different litters were studied at different ages. In the first 24 h of life, blood glucose and blood gases were analyzed. (14)C-leucine [(14)C-Leu] incorporation was used to analyze protein synthesis at PN1, and Western Blot method was used to analyze protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the hippocampus (PN3-PN21). During the first 22 days of postnatal life, body weight gain, length, skull measures, tooth eruption, eye opening and righting reflex have been assessed. Pups from naive mothers were used as controls. Experimental pups showed a compensated metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia. At PN1, the [(14)C-Leu] incorporation into different studied areas of experimental pups was lower than in the control pups. During development, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and PARP-1 in the hippocampus of experimental pups were altered when compared with control pups. A decreased level of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was verified in the early postnatal age (PN3), and an increased level of pro-apoptotic proteins concomitant with a reduced level of anti-apoptotic protein was observed at the later stages of the development (PN21). Experimental pups had a delay in postnatal growth and development beyond disturb in protein synthesis and some protein expression during development. These changes can be result from hormonal alterations linked to stress and/or hypoxic events caused by maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy. PMID:27085526

  9. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test. STUDY DESIGN: A historical cohort study of 2459 pregnant women systematically examined for gestational diabetes...... was performed. Information of oral glucose tolerance test results and clinical outcome were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The risk of hypertensive complications, cesarean section, induction of labor and macrosomia was significantly increased in both overweight women (body mass index [BMI] 25.......0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese women (BMI >or= 30.0 kg/m(2)) compared with women who were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). The frequencies of shoulder dystocia, preterm delivery, and infant morbidity other than macrosomia were not significantly associated with maternal BMI. CONCLUSION: Prepregnancy...

  10. Evidence From Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baker; Kevin Milligan

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent between 48 and 58 percent more time not working in the first year of their children's lives. We find that this extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed non-relatives, and replaced mostly full-time work. However, the estimates suggest a weak impact of the increase in maternal care ...

  11. Maternal mortality in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Sengupta, B S; Chattopadhyay, C; Zaidi, Z; Showail, H

    1983-09-01

    The maternal mortality in the Maternity and Children Hospital, Riyadh, during the years 1978-1980 was 52 per 100 000 births, when the total births were 55 428. This is higher than the rate reported from the hospitals in developed countries but lower than rates reported by the university hospitals of developing countries such as India, Thailand and Nigeria. Haemorrhage, associated disease, pulmonary embolism and infection, in that order, were the main causes of maternal deaths. The main avoidable factor was failure by the patient to seek the medical care. Much could be done in reducing deaths due to haemorrhage by improving blood transfusion facilities in the peripheral hospitals. Adequate health education, especially of rural women and their midwives, is a crucial factor in improving the maternal death rate for the country as a whole. PMID:6615737

  12. Current trend of maternal health in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noviyani Sugiarto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs will be assessed in the next three years (2015. Several parameters in the area of maternal health are evaluated continuously. The aim of this paper is to formally summarize and report the state of maternal health in Indonesia based on the data from Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2010.Methods: This paper utilizes tertiary data obtained from the latest Riskesdas (2010.Results: Data that is available in the report covers data about marriage, reproduction health, abortion, access to health care for pregnancies, place of labor, health care provider, as well as rate of the first postpartum period visit.Conclusion: The latest data shows improvement in the maternal health area, nevertheless large effort in maintaining and improving the condition is still needed. Continuous evaluation is also proven to be essential in achieving the goals. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:179-83Keywords: Indonesia, maternal health, millennium development goals

  13. Maternal Insomnia and Children's Family Socialization Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Design: Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Setting: Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. Patients or Participants: One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (β = −0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = −0.16, −0.04], P Moffitt TE; Ambler A; Arseneault L; Houts RM; Caspi A. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments. SLEEP 2012;35(4):579-582. PMID:22467996

  14. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...... patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak...

  15. Maternal Risk Factors for Congenital Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Streja, Elani

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in children. In spite of major advances in medical technology, the etiology of CP is still not well understood. There is growing evidence that brain damage leading to CP development occurs during pregnancy and that maternal phenotype contributes to this intrauterine environment. We hypothesized that maternal factors such as infections, smoking, comorbidities and genetics can increase the risk of CP in children. Additionally...

  16. Maternal perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Hobbs, Amy J; Sheila W McDonald; Tough, Suzanne C

    2013-01-01

    Background Many women find breastfeeding challenging to sustain beyond the first three postpartum months. Women rely on a variety of resources to aid and encourage breastfeeding, including ‘partner support’. Women’s perception of partner support during breastfeeding may influence maternal satisfaction and confidence but it remains understudied. We asked women about their perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding and measured the effect on maternal confidence, commitment, and satisfa...

  17. Maternal affection and motivation for breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Edite; Chaves, Cláudia; Duarte, João; Nelas, Paula; Coutinho, Emília

    2016-01-01

    Several studies by UNICEF, OMS and other childhood protection institutions have concluded that the breastfeeding is considered an important strategy for infantile survival. Thus, the motivation for breastfeeding is an important variable which should be considered, given that motivation is the agent propeller of all action. To identify whether maternal affection conditions the motivation for maternal breast feeding. Quantitative, transverse, descriptive-correlational and explanatory study, usi...

  18. Julia Kristeva’s Maternal Passions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically engages Julia Kristeva’s latest work on maternal passion as an antidote to what she calls “feminine fatigue.”  Oliver elaborates, criticizes, and expands Kristeva’s view that maternity can be a model for thinking about passion and its relation to creativity and even to ethics.  She relates Kristeva’s thinking about feminine fatigue to contemporary feminism in the United States. 

  19. Supporting Maternal Transition: Continuity, Coaching, and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Jennifer; Barnes, Margaret; Sutherns, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The transition from maternity services to community child health services on discharge from hospital occurs at a potentially vulnerable time for women in their transition through the childbearing/early parenting continuum. Their experiences contribute to their developing maternal efficacy and parenting skill. The ideal attributes of services that aim to support women and their families during this time include continuity of care, service integration, and birth in accessible, community-based c...

  20. Maternal Intensive Care’: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Van Parys, A.S.; Verstraelen, H.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this systematic literature review is to review current scientific knowledge on the definition of and the indications for maternal/obstetric intensive care (MIC). Methods: We conducted a extensive search in OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CINHAL and CEBAM using the keywords: maternal/obstetric intensive care, subacute care, intermediate care, postacute care, critical care, sub intensive care, progressive patient care, postnatal care, perinatal care, obstetrical nurs...

  1. Influence of the time of day and fasting duration on glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchalli Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the time of day (TD of glucose measurement and the fasting duration (FD influence the glucose levels in adults. Few studies have examined the effects of the TD and FD on the glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test (GCT in pregnant women in screening for or diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the TD (morning, afternoon, night and the FD (the time of the last food ingestion as follows: ≤1 hour, 1-2 hours, and >2 hours by examining their combined effects on the glucose levels following a 50-gram GCT in pregnant women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the data of 1,454 non-diabetic pregnant Taiwanese women in a prospective study. Multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression were used to estimate the relationships between the 9 TD-FD groups and the continuous and binary glucose levels (cut-off at 140 mg/dL following a 50-gram GCT, after adjusting for maternal age, nulliparity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain. Different TD and FD groups were associated with variable glucose responses to the 50-gram GCT, some of which were significant. The estimate coefficients (β of the TD-FD groups "night, ≤1 hr" and "night, 1-2 hr" revealed significantly lower glucose concentrations [β (95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.46 (-12.53, -0.38 and -6.85 (-12.50, -1.20] compared with the "morning, >2 hr" group. The TD-FD groups "afternoon, ≤1 hr" and "afternoon, 1-2 hr" showed significantly lower odds ratios (OR of a positive GCT; the adjusted ORs (95% CI were 0.54 (0.31-0.95 and 0.58 (0.35-0.96, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the importance of standardizing the TD and FD for the 1-hour, 50-gram GCT. In screening for and diagnosing GDM, the TD and FD are modifiable factors that should be considered in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.

  2. Glucose oxidase activity of actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Vlahov, S

    1978-01-01

    The ability of 311 actiomycete, belonging to 12 species to produce glucose oxidase was studied. It was found that 174 of them formed exoenzymes on solid medium and 133 in liquid medium. The composition of the nutrient medium has an essential effect on the amount of enzyme formed. Strains with considerably higher activity form a greater amount of exoenzymes on soya meal medium and on synthetic medium with KNO2. The highest activity of the culture liquid of some strains was observed between the 6th and 7th day of cultivation. During this phase of growth the highest productivity of the biomas was established. PMID:76424

  3. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies.

  4. Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Y Yu

    Full Text Available Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  5. Enhanced surveillance of maternal mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Larissa J; Lloyd, Linda E; Selwyn, Beatrice J

    2012-12-01

    Maternal mortality is often used to measure health and well-being for women. Improved surveillance efforts can improve maternal mortality estimates and inform the development of strategies to address the needs of maternal and child health populations. The purpose of this study was to provide better estimates of maternal mortality in Texas by using enhanced surveillance methods. Results from our analyses of fetal death and live birth records in Texas from 2000 through 2006 were then linked to pregnancy-related death records and death records of women of childbearing age (15-44 years) in Texas from 2001 through 2006. Enhanced surveillance identified almost 3.5 times as many deaths that might be associated with pregnancy than do current methods and confirmed a persistent race/ethnicity trend in maternal mortality. The leading cause of these 2001-2006 pregnancy-associated deaths was accidents. Enhanced surveillance allows the identification of additional deaths possibly associated with pregnancy and provides a stable foundation to investigate trends further and to review maternal mortality cases systematically.

  6. Growth and Glucose Repression Are Controlled by Glucose Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Containing Only One Glucose Transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Ling; Kruckeberg, Arthur L.; Berden, Jan A.; van Dam, Karel

    1999-01-01

    A set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with variable expression of only the high-affinity Hxt7 glucose transporter was constructed by partial deletion of the HXT7 promoter in vitro and integration of the gene at various copy numbers into the genome of an hxt1-7 gal2 deletion strain. The glucose transport capacity increased in strains with higher levels of HXT7 expression. The consequences for various physiological properties of varying the glucose transport capacity were examined. The cont...

  7. Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges and opportunities of reducing maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shija, Angela E; Msovela, Judith; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2011-12-01

    High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. Most of maternal deaths are caused by factors attributed to pregnancy, childbirth and poor quality of health services. More than 80% of maternal deaths can be prevented if pregnant women access essential maternity care and assured of skilled attendance at childbirth as well as emergency obstetric care. The objective of this review was to analyse maternal mortality situation in Tanzania during the past 50 years and to identify efforts, challenges and opportunities of reducing it. This paper was written through desk review of key policy documents, technical reports, publications and available internet-based literature. From 1961 to 1990 maternal mortality ratio in Tanzania had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. However, from 1990's there been an increasing trend to 578 per 100,000 live births. Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 to 454 per 100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage (96%) in pregnant women who attend at least one antenatal clinic, only half of the women (51%) have access to skilled delivery. Coverage of emergence obstetric services is 64.5% and utilization of modern family planning method is 27%. Only about 13% of home deliveries access post natal check-up. Despite a number of efforts maternal mortality is still unacceptably high. Some of the efforts done to reduce maternal mortality in Tanzania included the following initiatives: reproductive and child survival; increased skilled delivery; maternal death audit; coordination and integration of different programs including maternal and child health services, family planning, malaria interventions, expanded program on immunization and adolescent health and nutrition programmes. These initiatives are however challenged by inadequate access to maternal health care services. In order to considerably reduce maternal deaths some of recommended

  8. Evolutionary genetics of maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jason B; Wade, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Maternal genetic effects (MGEs), where genes expressed by mothers affect the phenotype of their offspring, are important sources of phenotypic diversity in a myriad of organisms. We use a single-locus model to examine how MGEs contribute patterns of heritable and nonheritable variation and influence evolutionary dynamics in randomly mating and inbreeding populations. We elucidate the influence of MGEs by examining the offspring genotype-phenotype relationship, which determines how MGEs affect evolutionary dynamics in response to selection on offspring phenotypes. This approach reveals important results that are not apparent from classic quantitative genetic treatments of MGEs. We show that additive and dominance MGEs make different contributions to evolutionary dynamics and patterns of variation, which are differentially affected by inbreeding. Dominance MGEs make the offspring genotype-phenotype relationship frequency dependent, resulting in the appearance of negative frequency-dependent selection, while additive MGEs contribute a component of parent-of-origin dependent variation. Inbreeding amplifies the contribution of MGEs to the additive genetic variance and, therefore enhances their evolutionary response. Considering evolutionary dynamics of allele frequency change on an adaptive landscape, we show that this landscape differs from the mean fitness surface, and therefore, under some condition, fitness peaks can exist but not be "available" to the evolving population. PMID:26969266

  9. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, H; Richter, E A

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1...... Berger et al., 3-O-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting...

  10. Roles of the Gut in Glucose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Gribble, Fiona; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Chris K

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in the regulation of postprandial glucose profiles. Gastric emptying is a highly regulated process, which normally ensures a limited and fairly constant delivery of nutrients and glucose to the proximal gut. The subsequent digestion and absorption of nutrients are associated with the release of a set of hormones that feeds back to regulate subsequent gastric emptying and regulates the release of insulin, resulting in downregulation of hepatic glucose production and deposition of glucose in insulin-sensitive tissues. These remarkable mechanisms normally keep postprandial glucose excursions low, regardless of the load of glucose ingested. When the regulation of emptying is perturbed (e.g., pyloroplasty, gastric sleeve or gastric bypass operation), postprandial glycemia may reach high levels, sometimes followed by profound hypoglycemia. This article discusses the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27222546

  11. Pancreatic regulation of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Pia V; Wu, Bingbing; Liu, Yixian; Han, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure normal body function, the human body is dependent on a tight control of its blood glucose levels. This is accomplished by a highly sophisticated network of various hormones and neuropeptides released mainly from the brain, pancreas, liver, intestine as well as adipose and muscle tissue. Within this network, the pancreas represents a key player by secreting the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin and its opponent glucagon. However, disturbances in the interplay of the hormones and peptides involved may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) whose prevalence, comorbidities and medical costs take on a dramatic scale. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to uncover and understand the mechanisms underlying the various interactions to improve existing anti-diabetic therapies and drugs on the one hand and to develop new therapeutic approaches on the other. This review summarizes the interplay of the pancreas with various other organs and tissues that maintain glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, anti-diabetic drugs and their impact on signaling pathways underlying the network will be discussed. PMID:26964835

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of different oils during the first or second half of pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Litten, J C; Dodds, P F; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-07-01

    Poor glucose tolerance may be an under-researched contributory factor in the high (10% to 20%) pre-weaning mortality rate observed in pigs. Insulin resistance commences at around week 12 of gestation in the sow, although there are conflicting reports in the literature about the extent to which insulin resistance is modulated by maternal diet. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with different dietary oils during either the first half or the second half of gestation on the glucose tolerance of the sow. Sows were offered the control (C: n = 5) diet as pellets or the C diet plus 10% extra energy (n = 16 per group) derived from either: (i) extra pellets; (ii) palm oil; (iii) olive oil; (iv) sunflower oil; or (v) fish oil. Experimental diets were fed during either the first (G1) or second (G2) half of gestation. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted on day 108 of gestation by administering 0.5 g/kg glucose i.v. Blood samples were taken every 5 to 10 min for 90 min post administration. The change in body weight and backfat thickness during gestation was similar but both type and timing of dietary supplementation influenced litter size and weight. With the exception of the sunflower oil group, supplementing the maternal diet in G1 resulted in larger and heavier litters, particularly in mothers offered palm oil. Basal blood glucose concentrations tended to be more elevated in G1 than G2 groups, whilst plasma insulin concentrations were similar. Following a GTT, the adjusted area under the curve was greater in G1 compared to G2 sows, despite no differences in glucose clearance. Maternal diet appeared to influence the relationship between glucose curve characteristics following a GTT and litter outcome. In conclusion, the degree of insulin sensitivity can be altered by both the period during which maternal nutritional supplementation is offered and the fatty acid profile of the diet.

  13. Measurement of tear glucose levels with amperometric glucose biosensor/capillary tube configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qinyi; Peng, Bo; Su, Gang; Cohan, Bruce E; Major, Terry C; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    An amperometric needle-type electrochemical glucose sensor intended for tear glucose measurements is described and employed in conjunction with a 0.84 mm i.d. capillary tube to collect microliter volumes of tear fluid. The sensor is based on immobilizing glucose oxidase on a 0.25 mm o.d. platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir) wire and anodically detecting the liberated hydrogen peroxide from the enzymatic reaction. Inner layers of Nafion and an electropolymerized film of 1,3-diaminobenzene/resorcinol greatly enhance the selectivity for glucose over potential interferences in tear fluid, including ascorbic acid and uric acid. Further, the new sensor is optimized to achieve very low detection limits of 1.5 ± 0.4 μM of glucose (S/N = 3) that is required to monitor glucose levels in tear fluid with a glucose sensitivity of 0.032 ± 0.02 nA/μM (n = 6). Only 4-5 μL of tear fluid in the capillary tube is required when the needle sensor is inserted into the capillary. The glucose sensor was employed to measure tear glucose levels in anesthetized rabbits over an 8 h period while also measuring the blood glucose values. A strong correlation between tear and blood glucose levels was found, suggesting that measurement of tear glucose is a potential noninvasive substitute for blood glucose measurements, and the new sensor configuration could aid in conducting further research in this direction. PMID:21961809

  14. Fabrication of glucose biosensors by inkjet printing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tianming; Cook, Christopher C.; Serban, Simona; Ali, Tarif; Drago, Guido; Derby, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Inkjet printing has been used to fabricate glucose sensors using glucose oxidase and screen printed carbon electrodes. By appropriate selection of printing and drying conditions we are able to fabricate sensor structures that show a good linear response to glucose concentration. In order to achieve these structures we must carefully control the spreading and drying of the enzyme solution on the carbon electrode. Carbon electrode suirfaces are hydrophobic and Triton X was used as a surfactant ...

  15. Leptin therapy, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Paz-Filho; Claudio Mastronardi; Ma-Li Wong; Julio Licinio

    2012-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is closely regulated not only by insulin, but also by leptin. Both hormones act centrally, regulating food intake and adiposity in humans. Leptin has several effects on the glucose-insulin homeostasis, some of which are independent of body weight and adiposity. Those effects of leptin are determined centrally in the hypothalamus and peripherally in the pancreas, muscles and liver. Leptin has beneficial effects on the glucose-insulin metabolism, by decreasing glycemia, insu...

  16. Maternal Mortality and Serious Maternal Morbidity in Jehovah's Witnesses in The Netherlands EDITORIAL COMMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wolfswinkel, M. E.; Zwart, J. J.; Schutte, J. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Pel, M.; Van Roosmalen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Refusal of blood by women with major obstetric hemorrhage who are Jehovah's witnesses increases their risk of maternal death. This retrospective study of case notes assessed the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality from major obstetric hemorrhage in Jehovah's witnesses. The data was obtained fro

  17. Maternal mortality and serious maternal morbidity in Jehovah's witnesses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Wolfswinkel; J.J. Zwart; J.M. Schutte; J.J. Duvekot; M. Pel; J. van Roosmalen

    2009-01-01

    To determine the risk of maternal mortality and serious maternal morbidity because of major obstetric haemorrhage in Jehovah's witnesses in the Netherlands. A retrospective study of case notes. All tertiary care centres, general teaching hospitals and other general hospitals in the Netherlands. All

  18. Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Halley; Power, Thomas G; Nicklas, Theresa; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children's eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationships were mediated through maternal feeding practices. Two hundred and twenty-two low-income mothers and their preschool children participated. About half of the families were African American and half were Latino. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing maternal eating patterns, maternal feeding practices, and children's eating patterns. Maternal external eating (eating in response to outside stimuli, not internal hunger/thirst cues) was positively correlated with two child eating scores: picky eating and desire to eat. Mediational analyses showed that external eating in mothers was related to picky eating in children through high maternal control in feeding; the relationship between mothers' external eating and desire to eat in children was not mediated through maternal control. Picky eating and desire to eat in children were related to emotional eating in mothers as well. The implications of these results for understanding the development of childhood obesity are considered.

  19. Maternal Attachment Representations, Maternal Sensitivity, and the Infant-Mother Attachment Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, David R.; Gleason, Karin E.; Moran, Greg; Bento, Sandi

    1998-01-01

    Examined the mediating role of maternal sensitivity for the association between maternal attachment representations and the quality of infant-mother attachment. Found that autonomous mothers and mothers in secure relationships were more sensitive at home than nonautonomous mothers and mothers in nonsecure relationships, respectively. Infants in…

  20. Maternal passive smoking and its effect on maternal, neonatal and placental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K N; Vidyadaran, M K; Goh, Y M; Nasaruddin, A A; Jammal, A B E; Zainab, S

    2005-08-01

    A study was undertaken to 1) determine the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on maternal and neonatal weight and body mass index (BMI) and placental weight, volume and surface area and 2) establish any correlations between the placental surface area, volume and weight with maternal and neonatal body weight and BMI in mothers exposed to cigarette smoke. A total of 154 full-term placentae, 65 from mothers exposed to tobacco smoke and 89 from non-exposed mothers were collected from Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital. The placental surface area was determined using a stereological grid, the volume by Scherle's method and the weight by using an electronic weighing machine. In general there were no differences in maternal, placental and neonatal parameters between the exposed and non-exposed groups. However, there were significant correlations between placental weight with maternal weight and maternal BMI in both exposed (r = 0.315; p = 0.013) and (r = 0.265; p = 0.038), and non-exposed (r = 0.224; p = 0.035) and (r = 0.241; p = 0.023) mothers. It was also found that the maternal weight on admission correlated significantly with placental weight in both Malay (r = 0.405; p = 0.020) and Indian (r = 0.553; p = 0.050) passive smokers. Correcting the placental parameters for the maternal weight had no effect on the results. PMID:16379184

  1. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  2. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  3. Maternal Preconceptions About Parenting Predict Child Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Children's Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Moreno, Amanda J.; Robinson, JoAnn L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of maternal preconceptions on child difficult temperament at 6 months and maternal sensitivity at 12-15 months and whether all 3 variables predicted children's empathy at 21-24 months. Within a low-income, ethnically diverse sample of 175 mother-child dyads, path models were tested with 3 empathy indices…

  4. Relations among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…

  5. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J D A; Akerud, H; Kaihola, H; Pawluski, J L; Skalkidou, A; Högberg, U; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well-documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are

  6. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

  7. Maternal hormones meet environmental variability : Context-dependent effects of maternal hormones in avian egg yolks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, maternal effects have been widely recognized as an important way through which mothers can modify offspring phenotypes above and over direct genetic effects. As a wide variety of animals are prenatal exposed to maternal hormones, accumulating evidences also suggest that mate

  8. The Contributions of Maternal Sensitivity and Maternal Depressive Symptoms to Epigenetic Processes and Neuroendocrine Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Hawes, Katheleen; Guerin, Dylan; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Tronick, Edward; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal responsiveness may buffer the child to the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on DNA methylation of "NR3C1," "11ß-HSD2," and neuroendocrine functioning. DNA was derived from buccal epithelial cells and prestress cortisol was obtained from the saliva of 128 infants. Mothers with depressive…

  9. Poverty and Maternal Responsiveness: The Role of Maternal Stress and Social Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Boxhill, Louise; Pinkava, Michael

    2008-01-01

    One of the main reasons poverty is bad for children's development is because it reduces maternal responsiveness. This study addresses a heretofore unanswered question: why do low-income children experience diminished maternal responsiveness compared with their more affluent counterparts? In addition, we examine this question among a largely…

  10. Trends in maternal mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2016-09-01

    Maternal mortality is a major global concern. Although a notable decline in maternal mortality in the United States occurred during the mid-20th century, this progress stalled during the late 20th century. Furthermore, maternal mortality rates have increased during the early 21st century. Around the year 2000 the maternal mortality rate began to rise and has since nearly doubled. Given that at least half of maternal deaths in the U.S. are preventable, the rise in maternal deaths in the U.S. is historic and worrisome. This overview will try to provide a context for understanding the problem of this rise in maternal mortality in the U.S. by briefly discussing how maternal mortality rates are reported from National Vital Statistics data and from a National Surveillance system. Trends and causes of maternal deaths and the difficulty with interpreting these trends will be discussed.

  11. Diagnosis of prediabetes in cats: glucose concentration cut points for impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Vankan, D; Anderson, S T; Marshall, R; Morton, J M

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is typically diagnosed in cats once clinical signs are evident. Diagnostic criteria for prediabetes in cats have not been defined. The objective of the study was to establish methodology and cut points for fasting and 2-h blood glucose concentrations in healthy client-owned senior cats (≥8 yr) using ear/paw samples and a portable glucose meter calibrated for feline blood. Of the 78 cats, 27 were ideal (body condition score [BCS] 4 or 5 of 9), 31 overweight (BCS 6 or 7), and 20 obese (BCS 8 or 9); 19 were Burmese and 59 non-Burmese. After an 18-24-h fast and an ear/paw blood glucose measurement using a portable glucose meter, glucose (0.5 g/kg bodyweight) was administered intravenous and blood glucose measured at 2 min and 2 h. Cut points for fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations were defined as the upper limits of 95% reference intervals using cats with BCS 4 or 5. The upper cut point for fasting glucose was 6.5 mmol/L. Of the overweight and obese cats, 1 (BCS 7) was above this cut point indicating evidence of impaired fasting glucose. The cut point for 2-h glucose was 9.8 mmol/L. A total of 7 cats (4 with BCS 8 or 9 including 1 Burmese; 3 with BCS 6 or 7, non-Burmese) were above this cut point and thus had evidence of impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the methodology and cutpoints for diagnosis of prediabetes are defined for use in healthy cats 8 yr and older with a range of BCSs. PMID:27565231

  12. Enzyme Analysis to Determine Glucose Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles; Ward, Robert E.

    Enzyme analysis is used for many purposes in food science and technology. Enzyme activity is used to indicate adequate processing, to assess enzyme preparations, and to measure constituents of foods that are enzyme substrates. In this experiment, the glucose content of corn syrup solids is determined using the enzymes, glucose oxidase and peroxidase. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which then reacts with a dye in the presence of peroxidase to give a stable colored product.

  13. Glucose Metabolism in Mentally Retarded Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose metabolism has been studied in normal, mentally retarded and hypothyroid children who exhibited subnormal I.Q. in spite of an adequate thyroxine dose. Two parameters, the breath and the blood, were examined. Continuous breath analysis following intravenous glucose-U-14C was carried out to examine its end product 14CO2. Blood was analysed half-hourly for the specific activity of glucose in this pool. Data are presented in terms of stable carbon dioxide expiration rate, the maximum specific activity of carbon dioxide attained, the glucose pool of the body and its turnover rate. (author)

  14. Physiological and behavioral responses in offspring mice following maternal exposure to sulfamonomethoxine during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Dan; Ye, Kui; Liu, Kaiyong; Sheng, Jie; Liu, Yehao; Hu, Chunqiu; Ruan, Liang; Li, Li; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-06-15

    Sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), a veterinary antibiotic, is widely used in China. However, the impacts of maternal SMM exposure on neurobehavioral development in early life remain little known. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal SMM exposure during pregnancy on behavioral and physiological responses in offspring mice. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into three SMM-treated groups, namely low-(10mg/kg/day), medium-(50mg/kg/day), and high-dose (200mg/kg/day), and a control group. The pregnant mice in the SMM-treated groups received SMM by gavage daily from gestational day 1-18, whereas those in the control received normal saline. On postnatal day (PND) 50, spatial memory was assessed using the Morris water maze test, and anxiety was measured using the elevated plus-maze and open field tests. The results showed significantly increased blood glucose in pups whose mothers received a high SMM dose. In addition, maternal SMM exposure increased anxiety-related activities among the offspring; spatial learning and memory were impaired more severely in the male offspring. The contents of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) on PND 22 were significantly reduced in the male offspring of the high-dose group compared with the controls. These findings indicate that SMM may be identified as a risk factor for cognitive and behavioral development on the basis of gender and that it may be associated with diminished BH4 and BDNF levels early in life. PMID:27173165

  15. Aorta Structural Alterations in Term Neonates: The Role of Birth and Maternal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of selected maternal and neonatal characteristics on aorta walls in term, appropriately grown-for-gestational age newborns. Methods. Age, parity, previous abortions, weight, height, body mass index before and after delivery, smoking, and history of hypertension, of diabetes, of cardiovascular diseases, and of dyslipidemia were all assessed in seventy mothers. They delivered 34 males and 36 females healthy term newborns who underwent ultrasound evaluation of the anteroposterior infrarenal abdominal aorta diameter (APAO, biochemical profile (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and D-dimers homeostasis model assessment [HOMAIR]index, and biometric parameters. Results. APAO was related to newborn length (r=+0.36; P=0.001, head circumference (r=+0.37; P=0.001, gestational age (r=+0.40, P=0.0005, HOMA index (r=+0.24; P=0.04, and D-dimers (r=+0.33, P=0.004. Smoke influenced APAO values (odds ratio: 1.80; confidence interval 95%: 1.05–3.30, as well as diabetes during pregnancy (r=+0.42, P=0.0002. Maternal height influenced neonatal APAO (r=+0.47, P=0.00003. Multiple regression analysis outlined neonatal D-dimers as still significantly related to neonatal APAO values. Conclusions. Many maternal and neonatal characteristics could influence aorta structures. Neonatal D-dimers are independently related to APAO.

  16. Short communication: Effect of maternal heat stress in late gestation on blood hormones and metabolites of newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J-R; Monteiro, A P A; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Laporta, J; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-08-01

    Maternal heat stress alters immune function of the offspring, as well as metabolism and future lactational performance, but its effect on the hormonal and metabolic responses of the neonate immediately after birth is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the blood profiles of hormones and metabolites of calves born to cows that were cooled (CL) or heat-stressed (HS) during the dry period. Within 2 h after birth, but before colostrum feeding, blood samples were collected from calves [18 bulls (HS: n=10; CL: n=8) and 20 heifers (HS: n=10; CL: n=10)] born to CL or HS dry cows, and hematocrit and plasma concentrations of total protein, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured. Compared with CL, HS calves had lower hematocrit and tended to have lower plasma concentrations of insulin, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. However, maternal heat stress had no effect on plasma levels of total protein, glucose, fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate immediately after birth. These results suggest that maternal heat stress desensitizes a calf's stress response and alters the fetal development by reducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I, prolactin, and insulin. PMID:27265168

  17. Short communication: Effect of maternal heat stress in late gestation on blood hormones and metabolites of newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J-R; Monteiro, A P A; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Laporta, J; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-08-01

    Maternal heat stress alters immune function of the offspring, as well as metabolism and future lactational performance, but its effect on the hormonal and metabolic responses of the neonate immediately after birth is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the blood profiles of hormones and metabolites of calves born to cows that were cooled (CL) or heat-stressed (HS) during the dry period. Within 2 h after birth, but before colostrum feeding, blood samples were collected from calves [18 bulls (HS: n=10; CL: n=8) and 20 heifers (HS: n=10; CL: n=10)] born to CL or HS dry cows, and hematocrit and plasma concentrations of total protein, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured. Compared with CL, HS calves had lower hematocrit and tended to have lower plasma concentrations of insulin, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. However, maternal heat stress had no effect on plasma levels of total protein, glucose, fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate immediately after birth. These results suggest that maternal heat stress desensitizes a calf's stress response and alters the fetal development by reducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I, prolactin, and insulin.

  18. Glucokinase, the pancreatic glucose sensor, is not the gut glucose sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, R; Tura, A; Clark, P M;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP) are released from intestinal endocrine cells in response to luminal glucose. Glucokinase is present in these cells and has been proposed as a glucose sensor. The physiological...... role of glucokinase can be tested using individuals with heterozygous glucokinase gene (GCK) mutations. If glucokinase is the gut glucose sensor, GLP-1 and GIP secretion during a 75 g OGTT would be lower in GCK mutation carriers compared with controls. METHODS: We compared GLP-1 and GIP concentrations....../INTERPRETATION: Glucokinase, the major pancreatic glucose sensor, is not the main gut glucose sensor. By modelling OGTT data in GCK mutation carriers we were able to distinguish a specific beta cell glucose-sensing defect. Our data suggest a reduction in potentiation of insulin secretion by glucose that is independent...

  19. Glucose metabolism in ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the myocardial metabolic rate for glucose (MMRGlc) in the ischemic or infarcted myocardium using 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET), and studied energy metabolism in the ischemic myocardium. In some cases, we compared glucose metabolism images by 18-FDG with myocardial blood flow images using 15-oxygen water. Two normal subjects, seven patients with myocardial infarction and four patients with angina pectoris were studied. Coronary angiography was performed within two weeks before or after the PET study to detect ischemic areas. PET studies were performed for patients who did not eat for 5 to 6 hours after breakfast. Cannulation was performed in the pedal artery to measure free fatty acid, blood sugar, and insulin. After recording the transmission scan for subsequent correction of photon attenuation, blood pool images were recorded for two min. after the inhalation of carbon monoxide (oxygen-15) which labeled the red blood cells in vivo. After 20 min., oxygen-15 water (15 to 20 mCi) was injected for dynamic scans, and flow images were obtained. Thirty min. after this procedure, 18-FDG (5 to 6 mCi) was injected, and 60 min later, a static scan was performed and glucose metabolism images were obtained. Arterial blood sampling for the time activity curve of the tracer was performed at the same time. According to the method of Phelps et al, MMRGlc was calculated in each of the region of interest (ROI) which was located in the left ventricular wall. MMRGlc obtained from each ROI was 0 to 17 mg/100 ml/min. In normal subjects MMRGlc was 0.4 to 7.3 mg/100 ml/min. In patients with myocardial infarction, it ranged from 3 to 5 mg/100 ml/min in the infarcted lesion. In patients with angina pectoris and subendocardial infarction, MMRGlc was 7 to 17 mg/100 ml/min in the ischemic lesion. In this lesion, myocardial blood flow was relatively low by oxygen-15 imagings (so-called mismatch). (J.P.N.)

  20. Glucose enhancement of human memory: A comprehensive research review of the glucose memory facilitation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael; Riby, Leigh; van Eekelen, Anke; Foster, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The brain relies upon glucose as its primary fuel. In recent years, a rich literature has developed from both human and animal studies indicating that increases in circulating blood glucose can facilitate cognitive functioning. This phenomenon has been termed the ‘glucose memory facilitation effect’. The purpose of this review is to discuss a number of salient studies which have investigated the influence of glucose ingestion on neurocognitive performance in individuals with (a) compromised n...

  1. Two glucose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are glucose sensors that generate a signal for induction of gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan, S; Dover, J; Rosenwald, A G; Wölfl, S; Johnston, M.

    1996-01-01

    Glucose is the preferred carbon source for most eukaryotic cells and has profound effects on many cellular functions. How cells sense glucose and transduce a signal into the cell is a fundamental, unanswered question. Here we describe evidence that two unusual glucose transporters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae serve as glucose sensors that generate an intracellular glucose signal. The Snf3p high-affinity glucose transporter appears to function as a low glucose sensor, since it is requ...

  2. Intraperitoneal Glucose Sensing is Sometimes Surprisingly Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lyngvi Fougner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate and robust glucose measurements are needed to make a safe artificial pancreas for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. The present gold standard of continuous glucose sensing, subcutaneous (SC glucose sensing, has been claimed to have slow response and poor robustness towards local tissue changes such as mechanical pressure, temperature changes, etc. The present study aimed at quantifying glucose dynamics from central circulation to intraperitoneal (IP sensor sites, as an alternative to the SC location. Intraarterial (IA and IP sensors were tested in three anaesthetized non-diabetic pigs during experiments with intravenous infusion of glucose boluses, enforcing rapid glucose level excursions in the range 70--360 mg/dL (approximately 3.8--20 mmol/L. Optical interferometric sensors were used for IA and IP measurements. A first-order dynamic model with time delay was fitted to the data after compensating for sensor dynamics. Additionally, off-the-shelf Medtronic Enlite sensors were used for illustration of SC glucose sensing. The time delay in glucose excursions from central circulation (IA to IP sensor location was found to be in the range 0--26 s (median: 8.5 s, mean: 9.7 s, SD 9.5 s, and the time constant was found to be 0.5--10.2 min (median: 4.8 min, mean: 4.7 min, SD 2.9 min. IP glucose sensing sites have a substantially faster and more distinctive response than SC sites when sensor dynamics is ignored, and the peritoneal fluid reacts even faster to changes in intravascular glucose levels than reported in previous animal studies. This study may provide a benchmark for future, rapid IP glucose sensors.

  3. DEFECTS IN INSULIN-SECRETION IN NIDDM - B-CELL GLUCOSE INSENSITIVITY OR GLUCOSE TOXICITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANHAEFTEN, TW

    1993-01-01

    In NIDDM, first-phase insulin release to glucose is (almost) absent. However, in contrast to older studies which suggested that in NIDDM the B-cell is ''blind'' for glucose, recent evidence indicates that the B-cell is not insensitive for glucose as far as second phase release is concerned. This sug

  4. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Saxena (Richa); M.F. Hivert; C. Langenberg (Claudia); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Pankow (James); P. Vollenweider (Peter); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); J. Dupuis (Josée); A.U. Jackson (Anne); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M. Li (Man); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); A.K. Manning (Alisa); J. Anluan (Jian); H.M. Stringham (Heather); I. Prokopenko (Inga); T. Johnson (Toby); N. Grarup (Niels); T.W. Boesgaard (Trine); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); P. Shrader (Peter); J.R. O´Connell; E. Ingelsson (Erik); D.J. Couper (David); K. Rice (Kenneth); K. Song (Kijoung); C.H. Andreasen (Camilla); C. Dina (Christian); A. Köttgen (Anna); O.L. Bacquer (Olivier); F. Pattou (François); J. Taneera (Jalal); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); D. Rybin (Denis); K.G. Ardlie (Kristin); M.J. Sampson (Michael); L. Qi (Lu); M.V. Hoek; M.N. Weedon (Michael); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); H. Grallert (Harald); B. Balkau (Beverley); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.J. Bielinski (Suzette); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); K. Borch-Johnsen; Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); E. Brunner (Eric); T.A. Buchanan (Thomas); S. Bumpstead (Suzannah); C. Cavalcanti-Proença (Christine); G. Charpentier (Guillaume); C. Chen (Chao); P.S. Chines (Peter); F.S. Collins (Francis); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); G. Crawford (Gabe); J. Delplanque (Jerome); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); J.M. Egan (Josephine); M.R. Erdos (Michael); M. Firmann (Mathieu); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C.S. Fox (Caroline); M. Goodarzi (Mark); J. Graessler (Jürgen); A. Hingorani (Aroon); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Jørgensen (Torben); M. Kivimaki (Mika); P. Kovacs (Peter); K. Krohn (Knut); M. Kumari (Meena); T. Lauritzen (Torsten); C. Lévy-Marchal (Claire); V. Mayor (Vladimir); J.B. McAteer (Jarred); D. Meyre (David); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); M.A. Morken (Mario); N. Narisu (Narisu); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); R. Pakyz (Ruth); L. Pascoe (Laura); F. Payne (Felicity); D. Pearson (Daniel); W. Rathmann (Wolfgang); A. Sandbaek (Annelli); A.A. Sayer; L.J. Scott (Laura); S.J. Sharp (Stephen); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); A. Singleton (Andrew); D.S. Siscovick (David); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); T. Sparsø (Thomas); A.J. Swift (Amy); H. Syddall (Holly); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tönjes (Anke); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); T.T. Valle (Timo); G. Waeber (Gérard); A. Walley (Andrew); D. Waterworth (Dawn); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); J.H. Zhao; G. Consortium (Giant); T. Illig (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); J.F. Wilson (James); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); F.B. Hu (Frank); A.D. Morris (Andrew); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); P. Nilsson (Peter); A.C. Syvänen; A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); M. Walker (Mark); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); P. Schwarz (Peter); G.H. Williams (Gordon); D.M. Nathan (David); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); M. Laakso (Markku); C. Cooper (Charles); M. Marmot (Michael); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); V. Mooser (Vincent); M. Stumvoll (Michael); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); D. Altshuler (David); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); E. Boerwinkle (Eric); T. Hansen (Torben); O. Pedersen (Oluf); J.C. Florez (Jose); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); R. Sladek (Rob); P. Froguel (Philippe); J.B. Meigs (James); L. Groop (Leif); N.J. Wareham (Nick); R.M. Watanabe (Richard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,95

  5. Glucose reactivity with filling materials as a limitation for using the glucose leakage model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Shemesh; E.M. Souza; M.K. Wu; P.R. Wesselink

    2008-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the reactivity of different endodontic materials and sealers with glucose and to asses the reliability of the glucose leakage model in measuring penetration of glucose through these materials. Methodology Ten uniform discs (radius 5 mm, thickness 2 mm) were made of each of the follow

  6. Maternal diabetes and perinatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagemann, A

    2011-11-01

    Alterations of the intrauterine and neonatal environment may predispose for disorders and diseases throughout later life (perinatal programming). Especially, hormones and nutrients are dose-dependent organizers of the developing organism. Studies in offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) have paradigmatically contributed to the perception of this developmental principle and our understanding of causal mechanisms. Fetal and neonatal hyperinsulinism in consequence of materno-fetal hyperglycaemia is the pathognomic feature in ODM. Epidemiological, clinical, as well as experimental data indicate that both insulin and glucose, when occurring in elevated concentrations during perinatal life, may epigenetically program a predisposition for obesity and diabetes later on. Similar may occur due to pre- and neonatal overfeeding. From a clinical point of view, avoidance of materno-fetal overnutrition, universal diabetes screening in all pregnant women and adequate therapy of all forms of diabetes during pregnancy, as well as avoidance of neonatal overfeeding are therefore recommended. These measures might serve as causal approaches of a genuine prevention to the benefit of long-term offspring health. PMID:21945359

  7. Glucose control in critical care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Glycemic control among critically-ill patients has beena topic of considerable attention for the past 15 years.An initial focus on the potentially deleterious effects ofhyperglycemia led to a series of investigations regardingintensive insulin therapy strategies that targeted tightglycemic control. As knowledge accumulated, the pursuitof tight glycemic control among critically-ill patients cameto be seen as counterproductive, and moderate glycemiccontrol came to dominate as the standard practice inintensive care units. In recent years, there has beenincreased focus on the importance of hypoglycemicepisodes, glycemic variability, and premorbid diabeticstatus as factors that contribute to outcomes amongcritically-ill patients. This review provides a survey ofkey studies on glucose control in critical care, and aimsto deliver perspective regarding glycemic managementamong critically-ill patients.

  8. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  9. Thermoinactivation Mechanism of Glucose Isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leng Hong; Saville, Bradley A.

    In this article, the mechanisms of thermoinactivation of glucose isomerase (GI) from Streptomyces rubiginosus (in soluble and immobilized forms) were investigated, particularly the contributions of thiol oxidation of the enzyme's cysteine residue and a "Maillard-like" reaction between the enzyme and sugars in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Soluble GI (SGI) was successfully immobilized on silica gel (13.5 μm particle size), with an activity yield between 20 and 40%. The immobilized GI (IGI) has high enzyme retention on the support during the glucose isomerization process. In batch reactors, SGI (half-life =145 h) was more stable than IGI (half-life=27 h) at 60°C in HFCS, whereas at 80°C, IGI (half-life=12 h) was more stable than SGI (half-life=5.2 h). IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 60°C, which contributed to the enzyme's deactivation. IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 80°C, but this did not contribute to the deactivation of the enzyme. SGI did not undergo thiol oxidation at 60°C, but at 80°C SGI underwent severe precipitation and thiol oxidation, which caused the enzyme to deactivate. Experimental results show that immobilization suppresses the destablizing effect of thiol oxidation on GI. A "Maillard-like" reaction between SGI and the sugars also caused SGI thermoinactivation at 60, 70, and 80°C, but had minimal effect on IGI. At 60 and 80°C, IGI had higher thermostability in continuous reactors than in batch reactors, possibily because of reduced contact with deleterious compounds in HFCS.

  10. Glucose concentration in parotid saliva after glucose/food intake in individuals with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg Andersson, A; Birkhed, D; Berntorp, K; Lindgärde, F; Matsson, L

    1998-10-01

    The concentration of glucose in parotid saliva was measured after glucose/food intake in two separate studies (A and B). In Study A, 10 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 10 subjects with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and 12 healthy controls were included. Study B comprised 15 subjects with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes on insulin treatment, nine subjects with Type 2 diabetes on treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs and 12 healthy controls. After a 10-h overnight fast, the participants in Study A were given a 75 g oral glucose load, while those in Study B received a standardized breakfast. Citric acid-stimulated parotid saliva was collected up to two hours after the intake. Capillary blood and gingival exudate samples were also taken. On the basis of AUC values (area under the curve over baseline), the glucose concentration in parotid saliva increased significantly in individuals with IGT and Type 2 diabetes compared with controls in Study A and in diabetic patients on treatment with insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs compared with controls in Study B. No effect by the glucose/food intake on the glucose concentration in gingival exudate could be demonstrated in any of the studies. The correlation coefficient between the AUC values of glucose in saliva and blood, when all three groups were combined, was 0.38 in Study A and 0.52 in Study B. It is concluded that the concentration of glucose in parotid saliva is elevated at least 2 h after glucose/food intake in individuals with both IGT and manifest diabetes mellitus. PMID:9786322

  11. Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis: the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Veena, S. R.; Krishnaveni, G.V.; Karat, S. C.; Osmond, C.; Fall, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation...

  12. One in Five Maternal Deaths in Bangladesh Associated with Acute Jaundice: Results from a National Maternal Mortality Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rupal; Nahar, Quamrun; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-03-01

    We estimated the proportion of maternal deaths in Bangladesh associated with acute onset of jaundice. We used verbal autopsy data from a nationally representative maternal mortality survey to calculate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with jaundice and compared it to previously published estimates. Of all maternal deaths between 2008 and 2010, 23% were associated with jaundice, compared with 19% from 1998 to 2001. Approximately one of five maternal deaths was preceded by jaundice, unchanged in 10 years. Our findings highlight the need to better understand the etiology of these maternal deaths in Bangladesh.

  13. POF based glucose sensor incorporating grating wavelength filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Aasmul, Søren; Bang, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    Medtronic has already developed a plastic fiber based optical sensor to detect the concentration of glucose both in vivo and in-vitro. The glucose sensor is based on a competitive glucose binding affinity assay consisting of a glucose receptor and glucose analog (ligand) contained in a compartmen...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1345 - Glucose test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glucose test system. 862.1345 Section 862.1345....1345 Glucose test system. (a) Identification. A glucose test system is a device intended to measure glucose quantitatively in blood and other body fluids. Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis...

  15. Glucose and galactose metabolism in Gluconabacter liquefaciens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, A.H.

    1961-01-01

    Glucose-grown cells of Gluconobacter liquefaciens oxidize glucose, gluconate and 2-ketogluconate practically completely to 2,5-diketogluconate by particulate enzymes, localized in the protoplasmic membrane. The bulk of the 2,5-diketgluconate (and 5-ketogluconate) enters the cytoplasm and is metaboli

  16. Toward a Continuous Intravascular Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Irazoqui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proof-of-concept studies that display the potential of using a glucose-sensitive hydrogel as a continuous glucose sensor are presented. The swelling ratio, porosity, and diffusivity of the hydrogel increased with glucose concentration. In glucose solutions of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/dL, the hydrogel swelling ratios were 4.9, 12.3, 15.9, and 21.7, respectively, and the swelling was reversible. The impedance across the hydrogel depended solely on the thickness and had an average increase of 47 W/mm. The hydrogels exposed to a hyperglycemic solution were more porous than the hydrogels exposed to a normal glycemic solution. The diffusivity of 390 Da MW fluorescein isothiocyanate in hydrogels exposed to normal and hyperglycemic solutions was examined using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and was found to be 9.3 × 10−14 and 41.4 × 10−14 m2/s, respectively, compared to 6.2 × 10−10 m2/s in glucose solution. There was no significant difference between the permeability of hydrogels in normal and hyperglycemic glucose solutions with averages being 5.26 × 10−17 m2 and 5.80 × 10−17 m2, respectively, which resembles 2–4% agarose gels. A prototype design is presented for continuous intravascular glucose monitoring by attaching a glucose sensor to an FDA-approved stent.

  17. Impaired glucose metabolism treatment and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    MATYSZEWSKI, ARTUR; Czarnecka, Anna; Kawecki, Maciej; KORZEŃ, PIOTR; SAFIR, ILAN J.; Kukwa, Wojciech; SZCZYLIK, CEZARY

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism disorders increase the risk of carcinogenesis. Diabetes mellitus alters numerous physiological processes that may encourage cancer growth. However, treating impaired glucose homeostasis may actually promote neoplasia; maintaining proper glucose plasma concentrations reduces metabolic stresses, however, certain medications may themselves result in oncogenic effects. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that metformin reduces the cancer risk. However, the use o...

  18. Ophthalmic glucose monitoring using disposable contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Chris

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a range of disposable and colorless tear glucose sensing contact lenses, using off-the-shelf lenses embedded with new water soluble, highly fluorescent and glucose sensitive boronic acid containing fluorophores. The new lenses are readily able to track tear glucose levels and therefore blood glucose levels, which are ideally suited for potential use by diabetics. The fluorescence responses from the lenses can be monitored using simple excitation and emission detection devices. The novelty of our approach is two fold. Firstly, the notion of sensing extremely low glucose concentrations in tears, which track blood levels, by our contact lens approach, and secondly, the unique compatibility of our new glucose signaling probes with the internal mildly acidic contact lens environment. The new lenses are therefore ideal for the noninvasive and continuous monitoring of tear glucose, with a 15 minute response time, and a measured shelf life in excess of 3 months. In this invited article, we show that fluorescence based signaling using plastic disposable lenses, which have already been industrially optimized with regard to vision correction and oxygen / analyte permeability etc, may a notable alternative to invasive and random finger pricking, the most widely used glucose monitoring technology by diabetics. PMID:17271473

  19. A bioluminescent assay for measuring glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Michael P; Karassina, Natasha; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Carlson, Coby; Cali, James J; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2016-07-15

    Identifying activators and inhibitors of glucose uptake is critical for both diabetes management and anticancer therapy. To facilitate such studies, easy-to-use nonradioactive assays are desired. Here we describe a bioluminescent glucose uptake assay for measuring glucose transport in cells. The assay is based on the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and the enzymatic detection of the 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate that accumulates. Uptake can be measured from a variety of cell types, it can be inhibited by known glucose transporter inhibitors, and the bioluminescent assay yields similar results when compared with the radioactive method. With HCT 116 cells, glucose uptake can be detected in as little as 5000 cells and remains linear up to 50,000 cells with signal-to-background values ranging from 5 to 45. The assay can be used to screen for glucose transporter inhibitors, or by multiplexing with viability readouts, changes in glucose uptake can be differentiated from overall effects on cell health. The assay also can provide a relevant end point for measuring insulin sensitivity. With adipocytes and myotubes, insulin-dependent increases in glucose uptake have been measured with 10- and 2-fold assay windows, respectively. Significant assay signals of 2-fold or more have also been measured with human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes and skeletal myoblasts. PMID:27130501

  20. Acute Glucose Response Properties Beyond Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, C Joseph; Krashes, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Hypothalamic AgRP neurons potently coordinate feeding behavior to ensure an organism's viability. However, their acute role in glucose-regulatory function remains to be addressed. Steculorum et al. now report that activation of a specific set of AgRP neurons results in an impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in brown fat through a myogenic signature program. PMID:27052261

  1. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Denmark, maternal mortality has been reported over the last century, both locally through hospital reports and in national registries. The purpose of this study was to analyze data from national medical registries of pregnancy-related deaths in Denmark 1985-1994 and to classify them......: This is the first systematic report on deaths in Denmark based on data from national registries. The maternal mortality rate in Denmark is comparable to the rates in other developed countries. Fortunately, statistics are low, but each case represents potential learning. Obstetric care has changed and classification...... methods differ between countries. Prospective registration and registry linkage seem to be a way to ensure completion. This retrospective study has provided the background for a prospective study on registration and evaluation of maternal mortality in Denmark....

  2. Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming.

  3. Thrombosis in pregnancy and maternal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andra H

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy increases the risk of thrombosis four- to five-fold. Seventy-five to eighty percent of pregnancy-related thrombotic events are venous and twenty to -twenty-five percent are arterial. The main reason for the increased risk is hypercoagulability. Women are hypercoagulable because they have evolved so that they are protected against the bleeding challenges of pregnancy, miscarriage, or childbirth. Both genetic and acquired risk factors can further increase the risk of thrombosis. The maternal consequences of thrombosis of pregnancy include permanent vascular damage, disability, and death. While the maternal outcomes of thrombosis can be modified by anticoagulation therapy, management of thrombosis during pregnancy is the subject of another paper in this issue (see paper by B. Konkle). This review will focus on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, and maternal consequences of thrombosis in pregnancy.

  4. Maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark; Tang, Alvin; Levy, Denis; Grossfeld, Paul; Kashani, Iraj; Shaughnessy, Robin; Rothman, Abraham

    2002-02-01

    The maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography may be deleterious in the face of newly diagnosed congenital heart disease. This questionnaire-based study prospectively examined the psychological impact of both normal and abnormal fetal echocardiography. Normal fetal echocardiography decreased maternal anxiety, increased happiness, and increased the closeness women felt toward their unborn children. In contrast, when fetal echocardiography detected congenital heart disease, maternal anxiety typically increased, and mothers commonly felt less happy about being pregnant. However, among women who had recently delivered infants with congenital heart disease, those who had had fetal echocardiography during the pregnancy felt less responsible for their infants' defects and tended to have improved their relationships with the infants' fathers after the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Further study of the psychological and medical impact of fetal echocardiography will be necessary to define and optimize the clinical value of this powerful diagnostic tool.

  5. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions.

  6. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  7. Leptin therapy, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Paz-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is closely regulated not only by insulin, but also by leptin. Both hormones act centrally, regulating food intake and adiposity in humans. Leptin has several effects on the glucose-insulin homeostasis, some of which are independent of body weight and adiposity. Those effects of leptin are determined centrally in the hypothalamus and peripherally in the pancreas, muscles and liver. Leptin has beneficial effects on the glucose-insulin metabolism, by decreasing glycemia, insulinemia and insulin resistance. The understanding of the effects of leptin on the glucose-insulin homeostasis will lead to the development of leptin-based therapies against diabetes and other insulin resistance syndromes. In these review, we summarize the interactions between leptin and insulin, and their effects on the glucose metabolism.

  8. Magnetism-Based Remote Query Glucose Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Grimes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Two wireless, passive remote query magnetism-based glucose sensors, which operate in combination with a mass and volume changing glucose responsive polymer, are presented. One sensor design is based upon the magnetostatic coupling of magnetically soft thin-film elements; as the polymer volume changes in response to glucose concentration so does the magnetostatic coupling between elements. In response to a time varying magnetic field, upon reversal of the magnetization vector of the elements the magnetostatic coupling determines the time rate of change of magnetic flux, and hence the amplitude of the voltage spike generated in a pick-up coil. The other sensor consists of a free-standing magnetoelastic thick-film, coated with a thin layer of the glucose responsive polymer. In response to a time varying magnetic field the sensor mechanically vibrates at a characteristic resonant frequency; the characteristic resonant frequency of the sensor linearly tracks the change in mass of the glucose responsive polymer.

  9. Hydrogen production from glucose by anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Hiroyasu; Miura, Takashi; Ishimi, Kosaku; Seki, Minoru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Various anaerobes were cultivated in media containing glucose. When 100 mL of thioglycollate medium containing 2.0% (w/v) glucose was used, Clostridium butyricum ATCC 859, NBRC 3315, and NBRC 13949 evolved 227-243 mL of biogas containing about 180 mL of hydrogen in 1 day. Although some strains had some resistance against oxygen, C. butyricum ATCC 859 and 860 did not have it. C. butyricum NBRC 3315 and Enterobacter aerogenes NBRC 13534 produced hydrogen in the presence of glucose or pyruvic acid, and E. aerogenes NBRC 13534 produced hydrogen by not only glucose and pyruvic acid but also dextrin, sucrose, maltose, galactose, fructose, mannose, and mannitol. When a medium containing 0.5% (w/v) yeast extract and 2.0% (w/v) glucose was used, E. aerogenes NBRC 13534 evolved more biogas and hydrogen than C. butyricum NBRC 3315 in the absence of reducing agent.

  10. Dynamic modulation of intracellular glucose imaged in single cells using a FRET-based glucose nanosensor

    OpenAIRE

    John, Scott A.; Ottolia, Michela; James N Weiss; Ribalet, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    To study intracellular glucose homeostasis, the glucose nanosensor FLIPglu-600µM, which undergoes changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) upon interaction with glucose, was expressed in four mammalian cell lines: COS-7, CHO, HEK293, and C2C12. Upon addition of extracellular glucose, the intracellular FRET ratio decreased rapidly as intracellular glucose increased. The kinetics were fast (τ =5 to 15 s) in COS and C2C12 cells and slow (τ =20 to 40 s) in HEK and CHO cells. Upon ...

  11. Glucose Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase in Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Nanocomposite Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Kang, Xinhuang; Wang, Chong M.; Wang, Donghai; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-09-01

    The bionanocomposite film consisting of glucose oxidase/Pt/functional graphene sheets/chitosan (GOD/Pt/FGS/chitosan) for glucose sensing was described. With the electrocatalytic synergy of FGS and Pt nanoparticles to hydrogen peroxide, a sensitive biosensor with detection limit of 0.6 µM glucose was achieved. The biosensor also had good reproducibility, long term stability and negligible interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid comparing to the response to glucose. The large surface area and good conductivity of graphene suggests that graphene is a potential candidate for sensor material. The hybrid nanocomposite glucose sensor provides new opportunity for clinical diagnosis and point-of-care applications.

  12. Depot- and sex-specific effects of maternal obesity in offspring's adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Simon; Deracinois, Barbara; Laborie, Christine; Eberlé, Delphine; Guinez, Céline; Panchenko, Polina E; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne; Breton, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, alterations of nutrient supply in the fetus or neonate result in long-term programming of individual body weight (BW) setpoint. In particular, maternal obesity, excessive nutrition, and accelerated growth in neonates have been shown to sensitize offspring to obesity. The white adipose tissue may represent a prime target of metabolic programming induced by maternal obesity. In order to unravel the underlying mechanisms, we have developed a rat model of maternal obesity using a high-fat (HF) diet (containing 60% lipids) before and during gestation and lactation. At birth, newborns from obese dams (called HF) were normotrophs. However, HF neonates exhibited a rapid weight gain during lactation, a key period of adipose tissue development in rodents. In males, increased BW at weaning (+30%) persists until 3months of age. Nine-month-old HF male offspring was normoglycemic but showed mild glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercorticosteronemia. Despite no difference in BW and energy intake, HF adult male offspring was predisposed to fat accumulation showing increased visceral (gonadal and perirenal) depots weights and hyperleptinemia. However, only perirenal adipose tissue depot exhibited marked adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia with elevated lipogenic (i.e. sterol-regulated element binding protein 1 (Srebp1), fatty acid synthase (Fas), and leptin) and diminished adipogenic (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-Hds1)) mRNA levels. By contrast, very few metabolic variations were observed in HF female offspring. Thus, maternal obesity and accelerated growth during lactation program offspring for higher adiposity via transcriptional alterations of visceral adipose tissue in a depot- and sex-specific manner. PMID:27122310

  13. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  14. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  15. Identification of glucose transporters in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, João Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and -E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ΔhxtB, ΔhxtC or ΔhxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ΔhxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ΔhxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ΔhxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

  16. Identification of glucose transporters in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis

    Full Text Available To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 % in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and -E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ΔhxtB, ΔhxtC or ΔhxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ΔhxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ΔhxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ΔhxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose.

  17. National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OHRC on Twitter Tweets by @OHRC_GU With funding from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center • Georgetown ...

  18. Maternal Lifestyle and Pregnancy Complications: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bakker (Rachel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAdverse maternal lifestyle habits during pregnancy are important modifiable risk factors for pregnancy complications in Western countries. Most common adverse maternal lifestyle habits include smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine consumption. Although not directly lifestyle related

  19. Maternal body mass index in outcome of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sharmila

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Maternal BMI shows strong associations with pregnancy complications and outcome. Both maternal and fetal complications are increased. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2652-2656

  20. Maternal Infections during Pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Jessica; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Streja, Elani;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common motor disability in childhood. We examined the association between maternal infections during pregnancy and the risk of congenital CP in the child. METHODS: Liveborn singletons in Denmark between 1997 and 2003 were identified from the Danish National...... the Danish Cerebral Palsy Registry. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Of the 440 564 singletons with follow-up data, 840 were diagnosed with congenital CP. Maternal genito-urinary tract infections (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4, 3...

  1. Human Maternal Brain Plasticity: Adaptation to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung

    2016-09-01

    New mothers undergo dynamic neural changes that support positive adaptation to parenting and the development of mother-infant relationships. In this article, I review important psychological adaptations that mothers experience during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. I then review evidence of structural and functional plasticity in human mothers' brains, and explore how such plasticity supports mothers' psychological adaptation to parenting and sensitive maternal behaviors. Last, I discuss pregnancy and the early postpartum period as a window of vulnerabilities and opportunities when the human maternal brain is influenced by stress and psychopathology, but also receptive to interventions. PMID:27589497

  2. Fetal Heart Rate Response to Maternal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Manju

    2016-09-01

    Current guidelines regarding recommended exercise in pregnancy appear consistent with reported research regarding fetal heart changes in response to maternal exercise. Fetal heart rate increases during pregnancy, but maternal exercise appears well tolerated if performed in uncomplicated pregnancies and not in the supine position. Maximal levels of exercise that are well tolerated by the fetus have not yet been well defined; however, recent literature suggests that sustained exercise during pregnancy may have beneficial effects on autonomic control of fetal heart rate and variability that may lead to long-term health benefits. PMID:27388963

  3. Glucose-induced insulin resistance of skeletal-muscle glucose transport and uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Hansen, B F; Hansen, S A

    1988-01-01

    in the presence of glucose and insulin. The data indicate that exposure to a moderately increased glucose concentration (12 mM) leads to rapidly developing resistance of skeletal-muscle glucose transport and uptake to maximal insulin stimulation. The effect of glucose is enhanced by simultaneous insulin exposure......, whereas exposure for 5 h to insulin itself does not cause measurable resistance to maximal insulin stimulation.......The ability of glucose and insulin to modify insulin-stimulated glucose transport and uptake was investigated in perfused skeletal muscle. Here we report that perfusion of isolated rat hindlimbs for 5 h with 12 mM-glucose and 20,000 microunits of insulin/ml leads to marked, rapidly developing...

  4. Potentiometric measurement of glucose concentration with an immobilized glucose oxidase/catalase electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, L B; Liu, C C; Wolfson, S K; Yao, S J; Drash, A L

    1982-01-01

    A series of enzyme electrodes for measurement of glucose have been constructed. The electrodes contain glucose oxidase immobilized on platinum, either with or without co-immobilization of catalase. When placed in buffered glucose, the enzyme electrodes show a potentiometric response to glucose with respect to a Ag/AgCl reference electrode. This response is reproducible in the physiologic range of glucose concentrations. The immobilization technique, some of the environmental variables such as oxygen concentration and pH, and several compounds that might interfere with the selectivity of the enzyme electrodes for glucose have received preliminary study. This direct potentiometric approach is undergoing further evaluation to determine the basic electrochemical mechanism responsible for the potentiometric signal and whether it can be adapted for continuous in vivo monitoring of the glucose concentration in body fluids. PMID:7172983

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Gerrit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in 5–6 year olds. Additionally to explore the explanatory role of maternal factors, birth outcome, and child factors. Methods In 1308 5–6 year old ethnic Dutch children from the ABCD cohort study, lipids (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, glucose and C-peptide were measured after an overnight-fast. Results There were no differences in cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides between socioeconomic groups, as indicated by maternal education and income adequacy. However, children of low educated mothers had on average a higher glucose (β = 0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.03 – 0.27, logC-peptide (β = 0.07; 95% CI 0.04 – 0.09, and calculated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (β = 0.15; 95% CI 0.08 – 0.22 compared to children of high educated mothers. Only childhood BMI partly explained these differences (models controlled for age, height, and sex. Conclusions The socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk factors seems to emerge in early childhood. In absence of underlying mechanisms these empirical findings are relevant for public health care and further explanatory research.

  6. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing [3-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only [3-3H]glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use [6-3H]glucose rather than [3-3H]glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle

  7. A scoping review of geographic information systems in maternal health

    OpenAIRE

    Makanga, Prestige T.; Schuurman, Nadine; von Dadelszen, Peter; Firoz, Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Background Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly recognized tools in maternal health. Objectives To evaluate the use of GIS in maternal health and to identify knowledge gaps and opportunities. Search strategy Keywords broadly related to maternal health and GIS were used to search for academic articles and gray literature. Selection criteria Reviewed articles focused on maternal health, with GIS used as part of the methods. Data collection and analysis Peer reviewed articles (n...

  8. Prenatal Care and Maternal Age, Education and Reproductive Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Z.Pouranssari; P Kamali; H.Eftekhar Ardbili; A.Komarizadeh

    1987-01-01

    Reproductive behavior of 1525 pregnant woman were studied in the time of termination of pregnancy in relation to maternal age, education, prenatal care and the number of previous pregnancies. The results show that the frequency of maternal attendance at the centers of prenatal care is significantly related to maternal education. And the total pregnancies per woman are inversely correlated with maternal education. The kind of termination of pregnancy which resulted in live births or abortion h...

  9. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associat...

  10. Maternal Neglect: Oxytocin, Dopamine and the Neurobiology of Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Strathearn, Lane

    2011-01-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, in order to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified which contribute to maternal caregiving behavior, focusing on the oxy...

  11. Responses of the Embryonic Epigenome to Maternal Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Salbaum, J. Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diabetes and obesity are independent risk factors for neural tube defects, although it is unclear whether the effects are mediated by common pathogenic mechanisms. In this manuscript, we report a genome-wide survey of histone acetylation in neurulation stage embryos from mouse pregnancies with different metabolic conditions: maternal diabetes, and maternal consumption of a high fat content diet. We find that maternal diabetes, and independently, exposure to high-fat diet, are associa...

  12. Causes of Maternal Mortality Decline in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Kalim, Nahid; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh is distinct among developing countries in achieving a low maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 322 per 100,000 livebirths despite the very low use of skilled care at delivery (13% nationally). This variation has also been observed in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, where longitudinal data on maternal mortality are available since the mid-1970s. The current study investigated the possible causes of the maternal mortality decline in Matlab. The study analyzed 769 maternal deaths and...

  13. MATERNAL NEAR MISS: AN EXPERIENCE IN RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi; Sunita Sudhir; Rajesh; Preethi

    2014-01-01

    : INTRODUCTION: Maternal mortality is an important indicator of health care system. As the mortality rates are consistently decreasing the focus is shifted on maternal near miss which describes severe maternal morbidity which shares the common pathway as mortality. Maternal near miss indicators are relevant in developing world and low resource setting as it indicates the gaps in the health system. In 2009 WHO working group has standardized the criteria for selecting these ...

  14. Maternal Health and Child Mortality in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Manoj K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of maternal health on the under-five mortality has been examined. Third wave of micro-level National Family Health Survey 2005-06 data for rural India is used. Using various alternative measures of maternal health, the paper finds strong association between maternal health and child mortality. In particular, the effects of maternal height, weight, presence of any disease and anemia are found significant. Based on our findings, we argue that if the possible generation...

  15. Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon

    OpenAIRE

    Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional changes ...

  16. A glucose oxidase-coupled DNAzyme sensor for glucose detection in tears and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Sheng, Yongjie; Sun, Yanhong; Feng, Junkui; Wang, Shijin; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Jiacui; Jiang, Dazhi

    2015-08-15

    Biosensors have been widely investigated and utilized in a variety of fields ranging from environmental monitoring to clinical diagnostics. Glucose biosensors have triggered great interest and have been widely exploited since glucose determination is essential for diabetes diagnosis. In here, we designed a novel dual-enzyme biosensor composed of glucose oxidase (GOx) and pistol-like DNAzyme (PLDz) to detect glucose levels in tears and saliva. First, GOx, as a molecular recognition element, catalyzes the oxidation of glucose forming H2O2; then PLDz recognizes the produced H2O2 as a secondary signal and performs a self-cleavage reaction promoted by Mn(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+). Thus, detection of glucose could be realized by monitoring the cleavage rate of PLDz. The slope of the cleavage rate of PLDz versus glucose concentration curve was fitted with a Double Boltzmann equation, with a range of glucose from 100 nM to 10mM and a detection limit of 5 μM. We further applied the GOx-PLDz 1.0 biosensor for glucose detection in tears and saliva, glucose levels in which are 720±81 μM and 405±56 μM respectively. Therefore, the GOx-PLDz 1.0 biosensor is able to determine glucose levels in tears and saliva as a noninvasive glucose biosensor, which is important for diabetic patients with frequent/continuous glucose monitoring requirements. In addition, induction of DNAzyme provides a new approach in the development of glucose biosensors. PMID:25863343

  17. Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-03-15

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training. PMID:26744506

  18. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Jurysta

    2009-01-01

    saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  19. Resolving the sources of plasma glucose excursions following a glucose tolerance test in the rat with deuterated water and [U-13C]glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, T.C.; Barosa, C.; Nunes, P.M.; Cerdán, S.; Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Jones, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Sources of plasma glucose excursions (PGE) following a glucose tolerance test enriched with [U-(13)C]glucose and deuterated water were directly resolved by (13)C and (2)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy analysis of plasma glucose and water enrichments in rat. Plasma water (2)H-enrichment att

  20. Genetics of Glucose regulation in Gestation and Growth (Gen3G): a prospective prebirth cohort of mother–child pairs in Sherbrooke, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Laetitia; Allard, Catherine; Lacroix, Marilyn; Patenaude, Julie; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Moreau, Julie; Ménard, Julie; Bouchard, Luigi; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We initiated the Genetics of Glucose regulation in Gestation and Growth (Gen3G) prospective cohort to increase our understanding of biological, environmental and genetic determinants of glucose regulation during pregnancy and their impact on fetal development. Participants Between January 2010 and June 2013, we invited pregnant women aged ≥18 years old who visited the blood sampling in pregnancy clinic in Sherbrooke for their first trimester clinical blood samples: 1034 women accepted to participate in our cohort study. Findings to date At first and second trimester, we collected demographics and lifestyle questionnaires, anthropometry measures (including fat and lean mass estimated using bioimpedance), blood pressure, and blood samples. At second trimester, women completed a full 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and we collected additional blood samples. At delivery, we collected cord blood and placenta samples; obstetrical and neonatal clinical data were abstracted from electronic medical records. We also collected buffy coats and extracted DNA from maternal and/or offspring samples (placenta and blood cells) to pursue genetic and epigenetic hypotheses. So far, we have found that low adiponectin and low vitamin D maternal levels in first trimester predict higher risk of developing gestational diabetes. Future plans We are now in the phase of prospective follow-up of mothers and offspring 3 and 5 years postdelivery to investigate the consequences of maternal dysglycaemia during pregnancy on offspring adiposity and metabolic profile. Trial registration number NCT01623934. PMID:26842272

  1. Mediating Links between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers…

  2. Maternal oxytocin response predicts mother-to-infant gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuropeptide oxytocin is importantly implicated in the emergence and maintenance of maternal behavior that forms the basis of the mother–infant bond. However, no research has yet examined the specific association between maternal oxytocin and maternal gaze, a key modality through which the mothe...

  3. Single versus Dual Paycheck: Married Parents' Attitudes about Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebusch, Jenna-Lyn; Miller, Heather; Fulmer, Kimberly; Fontanez, Mary; Ellis, Trisha; DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Carey, Brandi; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study examines attitudes about maternal employment by comparing the responses of married parents from single versus two-paycheck families. Participants in this study were 138 mothers and 120 fathers given the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children Scale (BACMEC), which assesses views about maternal employment.…

  4. Investing in Maternal Health : Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pathmanathan, Indra; Liljestrand, Jerker; Jo. M. Martins; Lalini C. Rajapaksa; Lissner, Craig; de Silva, Amala; Selvaraju, Swarna; Singh, Prabha Joginder

    2003-01-01

    This study provides the most comprehensive and detailed analysis available on factors behind the decline in maternal mortality in Malaysia and Sri Lanka in the past 50 to 60 years and the magnitude of health system expenditures on maternal health. The main findings are that a modest investment in maternal health services, combined with other poverty reduction measures leads to a fairly rap...

  5. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  6. Perioperative Glucose Control in Neurosurgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Agustín Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many neurosurgery patients may have unrecognized diabetes or may develop stress-related hyperglycemia in the perioperative period. Diabetes patients have a higher perioperative risk of complications and have longer hospital stays than individuals without diabetes. Maintenance of euglycemia using intensive insulin therapy (IIT continues to be investigated as a therapeutic tool to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with derangements in glucose metabolism due to surgery. Suboptimal perioperative glucose control may contribute to increased morbidity, mortality, and aggravate concomitant illnesses. The challenge is to minimize the effects of metabolic derangements on surgical outcomes, reduce blood glucose excursions, and prevent hypoglycemia. Differences in cerebral versus systemic glucose metabolism, time course of cerebral response to injury, and heterogeneity of pathophysiology in the neurosurgical patient populations are important to consider in evaluating the risks and benefits of IIT. While extremes of glucose levels are to be avoided, there are little data to support an optimal blood glucose level or recommend a specific use of IIT for euglycemia maintenance in the perioperative management of neurosurgical patients. Individualized treatment should be based on the local level of blood glucose control, outpatient treatment regimen, presence of complications, nature of the surgical procedure, and type of anesthesia administered.

  7. Reduction of Severe Acute Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality in Thyolo District, Malawi: The Impact of Obstetric Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas van den Akker; Jair van Rhenen; Beatrice Mwagomba; Kinke Lommerse; Steady Vinkhumbo; Jos van Roosmalen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical incident audit and feedback are recommended interventions to improve the quality of obstetric care. To evaluate the effect of audit at district level in Thyolo, Malawi, we assessed the incidence of facility-based severe maternal complications (severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal mortality) during two years of audit and feedback. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between September 2007 and September 2009, we included all cases of maternal mortality and SAMM t...

  8. Effect of maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Opdahl, Signe; Bergh, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    weeks), low birth weight (LBW; mortality (≥28 weeks). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated. Associations between maternal age and outcomes were analyzed. RESULT(S): The risk of placenta previa (AOR 4.11-6.05), cesarean delivery (AOR 1......OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of maternal age on assisted reproductive technology (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC) pregnancies regarding maternal and neonatal complications. DESIGN: Nordic retrospective population-based cohort study. Data from national ART registries were cross.......18-1.50), PTB (AOR 1.23-2.19), and LBW (AOR 1.44-2.35) was significantly higher in ART than in SC pregnancies for most maternal ages. In both ART and SC pregnancies, the risk of HDP, placenta previa, cesarean delivery, PTB, LBW, and SGA changed significantly with age. The AORs for adverse neonatal outcomes...

  9. Does prenatal care benefit maternal health? A study of post-partum maternal care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on prenatal care focus on its effects on infant health, while studying less about the effects on maternal health. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan in a recursive bivariate probit model, this study examines the impact of adequate prenatal care on the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization during the first 6 months after birth. The results show that adequate prenatal care significantly reduces the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization among women who have had vaginal delivery by 43.8%. This finding suggests that the benefits of prenatal care may have been underestimated among women with vaginal delivery. Timely and adequate prenatal care not only creates a positive impact on infant health, but also yields significant benefits for post-partum maternal health. However, we do not find similar benefits of prenatal care for women undergoing a cesarean section. PMID:26189913

  10. The maternal early warning criteria: a proposal from the national partnership for maternal safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhyre, Jill M; D'Oria, Robyn; Hameed, Afshan B; Lappen, Justin R; Holley, Sharon L; Hunter, Stephen K; Jones, Robin L; King, Jeffrey C; D'Alton, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Case reviews of maternal death have revealed a concerning pattern of delay in recognition of hemorrhage, hypertensive crisis, sepsis, venous thromboembolism, and heart failure. Early-warning systems have been proposed to facilitate timely recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for women developing critical illness. A multidisciplinary working group convened by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety used a consensus-based approach to define The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, a list of abnormal parameters that indicate the need for urgent bedside evaluation by a clinician with the capacity to escalate care as necessary in order to pursue diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This commentary reviews the evidence supporting the use of early-warning systems, describes The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, and provides considerations for local implementation. PMID:25203897

  11. How did Nepal reduce the maternal mortality? A result from analysing the determinants of maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, R

    2012-01-01

    Nepal reportedly reduced the maternal mortality ratio by 48% within one decade between 1996-2005 and received the Millennium development goal award for this. However, there is debate regarding the accuracy of this figure. On the basis of framework of determinants of maternal mortality proposed by McCarthy and Maine in 1992 and successive data from Nepal demographic health survey of 1996, 2001 and 2006, a literature analysis was done to identify the important factors behind this decline. Although facility delivery and skilled birth attendants are acclaimed as best strategy of reducing maternal mortality, a proportionate increase in these factors was not found to account the maternal mortality rate reduction in Nepal. Alternatively, intermediate factors particularly women awareness, family planning and safe abortion might have played a significant role. Hence, Nepal as well as similar other developing countries should pay equal attention to such intermediate factors while concentrating on biomedical care strategy. PMID:23478738

  12. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment and Offspring Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Maternal and Paternal Mechanisms of Risk Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Jansen, Pauline W; Ringoot, Ank P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Ayer, Lynsay; Verhulst, Frank C; Hudziak, James J; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-03-18

    This study examined hostility and harsh discipline of both mothers and fathers as potential mechanisms explaining the association between a maternal maltreatment history and her offspring's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 6 were collected from a total of 4,438 families participating in the Generation R Study. Maternal maltreatment was assessed during pregnancy using a self-administered questionnaire. Mothers and fathers each reported on their psychological distress and harsh discipline when the child was 3 years. Children's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed by parental reports and child interview at age 6. Findings from structural equation modeling showed that the association between a maternal maltreatment history and her offspring's externalizing problems was explained by maternal hostility and harsh discipline and, at least partially, also by paternal hostility and harsh discipline. Child interview data provided support for both these indirect paths, with associations largely similar to those observed for parent reports.

  13. Obstetric near-miss and maternal mortality in maternity university hospital, Damascus, Syria: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Chamat Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating severe maternal morbidity (near-miss is a newly recognised tool that identifies women at highest risk of maternal death and helps allocate resources especially in low income countries. This study aims to i. document the frequency and nature of maternal near-miss at hospital level in Damascus, Capital of Syria, ii. evaluate the level of care at maternal life-saving emergency services by comparatively analysing near-misses and maternal mortalities. Methods Retrospective facility-based review of cases of near-miss and maternal mortality that took place in the years 2006-2007 at Damascus Maternity University Hospital, Syria. Near-miss cases were defined based on disease-specific criteria (Filippi 2005 including: haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, dystocia, infection and anaemia. Main outcomes included maternal mortality ratio (MMR, maternal near miss ratio (MNMR, mortality indices and proportion of near-miss cases and mortality cases to hospital admissions. Results There were 28 025 deliveries, 15 maternal deaths and 901 near-miss cases. The study showed a MNMR of 32.9/1000 live births, a MMR of 54.8/100 000 live births and a relatively low mortality index of 1.7%. Hypertensive disorders (52% and haemorrhage (34% were the top causes of near-misses. Late pregnancy haemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal mortality (60% while sepsis had the highest mortality index (7.4%. Most cases (93% were referred in critical conditions from other facilities; namely traditional birth attendants homes (67%, primary (5% and secondary (10% healthcare unites and private practices (11%. 26% of near-miss cases were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Conclusion Near-miss analyses provide valuable information on obstetric care. The study highlights the need to improve antenatal care which would help early identification of high risk pregnancies. It also emphasises the importance of both: developing protocols to

  14. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  15. Maternal Mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne S.

    1977-01-01

    Figures from 1800 through 1973 are used to demonstrate that black women have had substantially higher rates of death in childbirth than white women. As mortality has declined, the relative difference between whites and blacks has actually increased. Factors affecting mortality and future prospects for reducing maternal deaths are discussed. (GC)

  16. Early Environmental Correlates of Maternal Emotion Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Adkins, Daniel; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

    2008-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to examine contextual, child, and maternal factors that are associated with mothers' early emotion talk in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample. DESIGN: Emotion talk (positive and negative labels) was coded for 1111 mothers while engaged with their 7-month-olds in viewing an emotion-faces picture book. Infant attention during the interaction was also coded. Mothers' parenting style (positive engagement and negative intrusiveness) was coded during a dyadic free-play interaction. Demographic information was obtained, as well as maternal ratings of child temperament and mother's knowledge of infant development. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that social context and maternal qualities are significant predictors of mothers' early positive and negative emotion talk. In particular, mothers who were African American, had higher income, and who showed more positive engagement when interacting with their infants demonstrated increased rates of positive and negative emotion talk with their infants. For negative emotion talk, social context variables moderated other predictors. Specifically, infant attention was positively associated with negative emotion talk only for African American mothers, and knowledge of infant development was positively associated with negative emotion talk only for non-African American mothers. The positive association between maternal positive engagement and negative emotion talk was greater for lower-income families than for higher-income families. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' emotion language with infants is not sensitive to child factors but is associated with social contextual factors and characteristics of the mothers themselves.

  17. Maternal occupational risk factors for oral clefts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorente, C; Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; De Walle, HEK; Goujard, J; Ayme, S; Knill-Jones, R; Calzolari, E

    2000-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the role of maternal exposures at work during pregnancy in the occurrence of oral clefts. Methods The occupational exposures of 851 women (100 mothers of babies with oral clefts and 751 mothers of healthy referents) who worked during the first trimester of pregnanc

  18. Jaundice during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Krishnamoorthy

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Jaundice in pregnancy has adverse fetomaternal outcome. Improvement in health awareness, education and regular antenatal checkups, early referrals result in early diagnosis and treatment of jaundice during pregnancy thus reducing maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2541-2545

  19. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  20. Feto-maternal outcome in twin pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiben V. Gajera

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Most of the complications in multiple gestations are preventable. High risk units in the obstetric ward and well developed NICU set up would reduce the maternal, perinatal morbidity and mortality. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1836-1839

  1. [Maternal mortality in France, 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo, M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Bouvier-Colle, M-H

    2013-11-01

    To monitor the maternal mortality which is an indicator of the quality of obstetric and intensive care, France has a specific approach since 1996. Recently linkages have been introduced to improve the inclusion of cases. Here are the results for the 2007 to 2009 period. The identification of the pregnancy associated deaths is lying on different data bases that are medical causes of death, birth register and hospital discharges. To document the cases, confidential enquiries are conducted by two assessors on the field; a committee of medical experts analyses the documents, select the underlying cause and assess the quality of health care. Two hundred and fifty-four obstetric deaths were identified from 2007 to 2009 giving the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 10.3 per 100,000 births. The maternal age and nationality, the region of deaths are associated to the MMR. The haemorrhages are the leading cause but their ratio is 1.9 versus 2.5 previously; this decrease results from the postpartum haemorrhage by uterine atony going down. The suboptimal care are still frequent (60%) but slightly less than before. The linkage method should be pursued. Maternal mortality is rather stable in France. We may reach more reduction as deaths due to atony decreased as suboptimal care did.

  2. Maternal diabetes and the fetal heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hornberger, L K

    2006-01-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus significantly affects the fetal heart and fetal–placental circulation in both structure and function. The influence of pre‐conceptional diabetes begins during embryonic development in the first trimester, with altered cardiac morphogenesis and placental development. It continues to have an influence on the fetal circulation through the second and third trimesters and into the perinatal and neonatal period

  3. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein

    1996-01-01

    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  4. Breastfeeding and maternal diet in atopic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Tina Y.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2011-01-01

    Question Many children are affected by atopic dermatitis (AD) at a very young age. I often consider whether nonpharmacologic interventions could prevent or mitigate the development of AD. Do breastfeeding or changes to the maternal diet help prevent the development of childhood AD?

  5. Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…

  6. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Cramer; L.H. Lumey

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet influenc

  7. Acute polyhydramnios after maternal status epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Shindo, Ryosuke; Aoki, Shigeru; Kasai, Michi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Maternal status epilepticus can cause fetal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy that in turn results in acute polyhydramnios caused by fetal dysphagia; thus, acute polyhydramnios is a symptom that should lead to a suspicion of fetal dysphagia caused by hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

  8. Geniposide regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion possibly through controlling glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Liu

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS is essential to the control of metabolic fuel homeostasis. The impairment of GSIS is a key element of β-cell failure and one of causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Although the KATP channel-dependent mechanism of GSIS has been broadly accepted for several decades, it does not fully describe the effects of glucose on insulin secretion. Emerging evidence has suggested that other mechanisms are involved. The present study demonstrated that geniposide enhanced GSIS in response to the stimulation of low or moderately high concentrations of glucose, and promoted glucose uptake and intracellular ATP levels in INS-1 cells. However, in the presence of a high concentration of glucose, geniposide exerted a contrary role on both GSIS and glucose uptake and metabolism. Furthermore, geniposide improved the impairment of GSIS in INS-1 cells challenged with a high concentration of glucose. Further experiments showed that geniposide modulated pyruvate carboxylase expression and the production of intermediates of glucose metabolism. The data collectively suggest that geniposide has potential to prevent or improve the impairment of insulin secretion in β-cells challenged with high concentrations of glucose, likely through pyruvate carboxylase mediated glucose metabolism in β-cells.

  9. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...

  10. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Kozacz; Paulina Grunt; Marta Steczkowska; Tomasz Mikulski; Jan Dąbrowski; Monika Górecka; Urszula Sanocka; Andrzej Wojciech Ziemba

    2014-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG) was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A), and noradrenaline (NA) were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68 ± 3.90 versus 55.40 ± 7.32 kJ, resp., P < ...

  11. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charity H; Lee, Jane; Ruhlman, Melissa K

    2015-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is a common finding in surgical patients during the perioperative period. Factors contributing to poor glycemic control include counterregulatory hormones, hepatic insulin resistance, decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, use of dextrose-containing intravenous fluids, and enteral and parenteral nutrition. Hyperglycemia in the perioperative period is associated with increased morbidity, decreased survival, and increased resource utilization. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period contributes to reduced morbidity and mortality. To readily identify hyperglycemia, blood glucose monitoring should be instituted for all hospitalized patients. PMID:25814110

  12. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Heather N.; Linda M. Bierer; Amy eLehrner; Iouri eMakotkine; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Rachel eYehuda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluat...

  13. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Heather N.; Linda M. Bierer; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects r...

  14. Food availability and maternal immunization affect transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismail

    Full Text Available The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia. This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.

  15. Relations Among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child’s life. The results indicated that, in this diverse sample of families living in predominantly low-income rural communities (N = 705), higher levels of early IPV were associated with in...

  16. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  17. MATERNAL NEAR MISS: AN EXPERIENCE IN RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Maternal mortality is an important indicator of health care system. As the mortality rates are consistently decreasing the focus is shifted on maternal near miss which describes severe maternal morbidity which shares the common pathway as mortality. Maternal near miss indicators are relevant in developing world and low resource setting as it indicates the gaps in the health system. In 2009 WHO working group has standardized the criteria for selecting these cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is performed in rural medical college between October 2012 to september2014 and maternal near miss cases are identified according to WHO criteria. Variables related to age, parity, gestational age, intensive care unit admission, ventilator support, requirement of massive blood transfusion were analyzed. Further the events leading to maternal near miss were studied. Finally the indices like maternal near miss incidence ratio, maternal near miss: maternal mortality ratio and mortality index were calculated. RESULTS: during the study period 2409 deliveries were conducted of which 2385 were live births. Potentially life threatening conditions were identified to be 265 and maternal near miss cases were 22. Maternal near miss incidence ratio was 9.2per 1000 live births, maternal near miss to maternal mortality ratio was 11:1 and mortality index was 8.3%. The leading causes of maternal near miss were abruption and rupture uterus requiring emergency hysterectomy. The morbidity was high in unbooked cases. CONCLUSION: maternal near miss is good alternative indicator of health care system. Lacunae between grass root level and tertiary centers should be filled.

  18. MATERNAL NEAR MISS AND MATERNAL MORTALITY AS HEALTH INDICATORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To assess the various causes and incidence of maternal near miss (MNM and maternal deaths (MD and to define the limitations and to search the level of delay. METHODS: A prospective and observational study, including women who were admitted in emergency from April 2012 to March 2013 with severe maternal complications and who fulfilled any of the WHO criteria of MNM. Results: A total of 6008 live births (LB and 156 severe maternal outcomes (25.9/1000 LB were observed, consisting of 140 MNM (23.3/1000 LB and 16 MD(266/100, 000 LB. The maternal near miss/mortality ratio was 8.75. Hypertensive disorders accounted for the most common event of MNM (50.6%, followed by haemorrhagic disorders (38.6%. Majority of maternal deaths were due to hypertensive disorders (31.2% and sepsis (25%. CONCLUSION: Reduction of present MNM and MD may be achieved by strictly following management protocols for hypertension and haemorrhage.

  19. Social exclusion, infant behavior, social isolation, and maternal expectations independently predict maternal depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John; Jalaludin, Bin; Kemp, Lynn; Phung, Hai; Barnett, Bryanne; Tobin, Jacinta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify latent variables that can be used to inform theoretical models of perinatal influences on postnatal depressed mood and maternal-infant attachment. A routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney in 2000. The survey included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and 46 psychosocial and health-related variables. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were surveyed at 2-3 weeks for depressive symptoms. Nonlinear principal components analysis was undertaken to identify dimensions that might represent latent variables. Correlations between latent variables and EPDS >12 were assessed by logistic regression. A five-dimension solution was identified, which accounted for 51% of the variance among the items studied. The five dimensions identified were maternal responsiveness, social exclusion, infant behavior, migrant social isolation, and family size. In addition, the variable maternal expectation contributed significantly to total variance and was included in the regression analysis. Regression on EPDS >12 was predictive for all variables except for maternal responsiveness, which was considered an outcome variable. The findings are consistent with the proposition that social exclusion, infant behavior, social isolation among migrant mothers, and maternal expectations are determinants of maternal mood. PMID:23408743

  20. [New data on maternal mortality in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, J C

    1990-01-01

    A survey was carried out in urban and rural areas of the district of Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh state, India, between July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985 by a team of 6 interviewers and 1 supervisor to identify investigate, and study the causative factors/characteristics of the causes of maternal deaths. They visited each of the 15 hospitals in the district collecting information about maternal deaths that occurred in the reproductive age range of 15-49 years. 22 health centers and 50% of subcenters were also visited, registers were examined, and staff and families were also interviewed. The hospitals and centers served 569,500 people. During the 1st phase in the rural area all main village centers, 181 village subcenters, and 1192 other villages in the district with a total population of 1,090,640 were covered. During the 2nd phase all towns in the urban zones, 10 primary centers, 65 subcenters, and 135 others were visited. The maternal mortality rate was 7.9/1000 live births, well above the national average. 36% of female mortality occurred in women in reproductive age, but fewer than 1/2 of these deaths were registered and only 1/3 figured in center and subcenter records. In rural areas maternal mortality was 8.3/1000, ahead of the urban rate of 5.4/1000. 63% of 284 deaths detailed were related to live births, 14% to stillbirths, 10% to abortions, and 13% to obstructed labor. 19% of total maternal deaths occurred before birth, 12% during labor, and 69% after delivery. Among clinical causes of death sepsis accounted for 36%, hemorrhage for 12%, eclampsia for 9%, retention of placenta for 7%, and infectious hepatitis for 10%. 80% of these deaths could have been avoided by timely antenatal care, treatment of previous complaints, and medical attention and hospitalization at the right time. PMID:12179349

  1. The importance of maternal nutrition for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cetin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition plays a major role in maternal and child health and it is widely recognized that optimum nutrition in early life is the foundation for long-term health. A healthy maternal dietary pattern, along with adequate maternal body composition, metabolism and placental nutrient supply, reduces the risk of maternal, fetal and long-term effects in the offspring. While undernutrition is mainly an issue of low-income countries, malnutrition, due to poor quality diet, is becoming a global health problem.Preconceptional counseling of women of childbearing age should spread awareness of the importance of maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy and should promote a cultural lifestyle change, in favor of a healthy weight before conceiving and balanced healthy diet with high-quality foods consumption. Supplementation and/or fortification can make a contribution when recommended micronutrient intakes are difficult to be met through food alone. In industrialized countries, although a balanced diet is generally accessible, a switch to a high-fat and low-quality diet has led to inadequate vitamin and mineral intake during pregnancy. Evidence do not support a routine multiple micronutrient supplementation but highlights the importance of an individualized approach, in order to recognize nutritional deficiencies of individuals, thus leading to healthful dietary practices prior to conception and eventually to tailored supplementation. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  2. Impact of maternal body mass index on neonatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Kalk P; Guthmann F; Krause K; Relle K; Godes M; Gossing G; Halle H; Wauer R; Hocher B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Maternal body mass index has an impact on maternal and fetal pregnancy outcome. An increased maternal BMI is known to be associated with admission of the newborn to a neonatal care unit. The reasons and impact of this admission on fetal outcome, however, are unknown so far. Objective The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of maternal BMI on maternal and fetal pregnancy outcome with special focus on the children admitted to a neonatal care unit. Methods A coho...

  3. The influence of maternal islet beta-cell autoantibodies in conjunction with gestational hyperglycemia on neonatal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Li

    Full Text Available To determine the predictive value of the presence of maternal islet beta-cell autoantibodies with respect to neonatal outcomes.A total of 311 pregnant women with abnormal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT results were enrolled in this study. Maternal glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA, islet cell autoantibodies (ICA and insulin autoantibodies (IAA were tested in fasting blood both on the day following the routine OGTT and before delivery. The birth weight, Apgar score, blood glucose and outcomes of each neonate were later evaluated and recorded.1. In this study, 33.9% of the pregnant women with gestational hyperglycemia had detectable levels of one or more types of anti-islet cell antibodies in the third trimester. The proportion of women who produced GADA and/or ICA was significantly higher in the group of women with gestational hyperglycemia than in the control group (P<0.05. The groups similarly differed in the proportion of women who tested positive for any anti-islet cell antibody (P<0.05. 2. Of the patients in our study, those who produced GADA exhibited an increase in uterine and umbilical arterial pulsatility indexes (PIs during the third trimesters compared with the control group (P˂0.05. Additionally, an increased frequency of fetal growth restriction (FGR was observed in the infants of women who produced IAA during pregnancy compared with those without autoantibodies (P˂0.05. 3. The rate of newborn admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU was significantly associated with the presence of maternal ICA during the third trimester (OR, 6.36; 95% CI, 1.22-33.26. 4. The incidence of neonatal asphyxia was associated with the presence of maternal GADA in both the second (OR, 10.44; 95% CI, 1.46-74.92 and the third (OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 1.45-47.82 trimesters.Approximately one-third of the women with gestational hyperglycemia produced anti-islet cell antibodies. The incidence of FGR was higher in women with

  4. Audit of maternal mortality ratio and causes of maternal deaths in the largest maternity hospital in Cairo, Egypt (Kasr Al Aini) in 2008 and 2009: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Wael F; Ragab, Wael S; Aboulgheit, Samah S

    2013-09-01

    This study examined maternal deaths at Cairo University Maternity Hospital between January 2008 and December 2009. The aim was to calculate Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) as well as identify the causes and predisposing factors to maternal deaths. Data were collected from the files of the hospitalized pregnant women in the hospital. There were 38 maternal deaths and MMR was 79 per 100,000 live births for the two years examined. The main causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and cardiac arrest. Substandard medical care and the delay in seeking of medical advice were two contributing factors to maternal deaths recorded. The need for audit and publication of all obstetric hospitals MMR to compare and identify areas of improvements is recommended.

  5. Glucose isomerization in simulated moving bed reactor by Glucose isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto Borges da Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the production of high-fructose syrup by Simulated Moving Bed (SMB technology. A mathematical model and numerical methodology were used to predict the behavior and performance of the simulated moving bed reactors and to verify some important aspects for application of this technology in the isomerization process. The developed algorithm used the strategy that considered equivalences between simulated moving bed reactors and true moving bed reactors. The kinetic parameters of the enzymatic reaction were obtained experimentally using discontinuous reactors by the Lineweaver-Burk technique. Mass transfer effects in the reaction conversion using the immobilized enzyme glucose isomerase were investigated. In the SMB reactive system, the operational variable flow rate of feed stream was evaluated to determine its influence on system performance. Results showed that there were some flow rate values at which greater purities could be obtained.Neste trabalho a tecnologia de Leito Móvel Simulado (LMS reativo é aplicada no processo de isomerização da glicose visando à produção de xarope concentrado de frutose. É apresentada a modelagem matemática e uma metodologia numérica para predizer o comportamento e o desempenho de unidades reativas de leito móvel simulado para verificar alguns aspectos importantes para o emprego desta tecnologia no processo de isomerização. O algoritmo desenvolvido utiliza a abordagem que considera as equivalências entre as unidades reativas de leito móvel simulado e leito móvel verdadeiro. Parâmetros cinéticos da reação enzimática são obtidos experimentalmente usando reatores em batelada pela técnica Lineweaver-Burk. Efeitos da transferência de massa na conversão de reação usando a enzima imobilizada glicose isomerase são verificados. No sistema reativo de LMS, a variável operacional vazão da corrente de alimentação é avaliada para conhecer o efeito de sua influência no

  6. A glucose-centric perspective of hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasarma, T; Rafi, M

    2016-02-01

    Digestion of food in the intestines converts the compacted storage carbohydrates, starch and glycogen, to glucose. After each meal, a flux of glucose (> 200 g) passes through the blood pool (4-6 g) in a short period of 2 h, keeping its concentration ideally in the range of 80-120 mg/100 mL. Tissue-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs) aid in the distribution of glucose to all tissues. The balance glucose after meeting the immediate energy needs is converted into glycogen and stored in liver (up to 100 g) and skeletal muscle (up to 300 g) for later use. High blood glucose gives the signal for increased release of insulin from pancreas. Insulin binds to insulin receptor on the plasma membrane and activates its autophosphorylation. This initiates the post-insulin-receptor signal cascade that accelerates synthesis of glycogen and triglyceride. Parallel control by phos-dephos and redox regulation of proteins exists for some of these steps. A major action of insulin is to inhibit gluconeogensis in the liver decreasing glucose output into blood. Cases with failed control of blood glucose have alarmingly increased since 1960 coinciding with changed life-styles and large scale food processing. Many of these turned out to be resistant to insulin, usually accompanied by dysfunctional glycogen storage. Glucose has an extended stay in blood at 8 mM and above and then indiscriminately adds on to surface protein-amino groups. Fructose in common sugar is 10-fold more active. This random glycation process interferes with the functions of many proteins (e.g., hemoglobin, eye lens proteins) and causes progressive damage to heart, kidneys, eyes and nerves. Some compounds are known to act as insulin mimics. Vanadium-peroxide complexes act at post-receptor level but are toxic. The fungus-derived 2,5-dihydroxybenzoquinone derivative is the first one known to act on the insulin receptor. The safe herbal products in use for centuries for glucose control have multiple active principles and

  7. Programming of glucose-insulin homoeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Tygesen, M. P.; Husted, Sanne Vinter;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Exposure to adverse intra-uterine conditions can predispose for metabolic disorders later in life. By using a sheep model, we studied (i) how programming of glucose-insulin homoeostasis during late gestation is manifested later in life depending on the early post-natal dietary exposure and (ii......-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) diet until around puberty. Offspring remaining thereafter (exclusively females) were fed a moderate diet until young adulthood. RESULTS: LOW lambs had increased insulin secretory responses during intravenous glucose tolerance tests indicative of reduced insulin sensitivity. HCHF lambs were...... hypertriglyceridaemic, 75% had mild pancreatic collagen infiltration, and their acute insulin secretory response and insulin clearance during intravenous glucose and insulin tolerance tests, respectively, were reduced. However, NORM-HCHF in contrast to LOW-HCHF lambs had normal glucose tolerance, indicating that later...

  8. Condensation reactions of glucose and aromatic ring; Glucose to hokokan tono shukugo hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T.; Tanaka, C.; Yoshioka, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For artificial coalification, condensation reactions of aromatic ring and activated compounds produced by dehydrating reaction of glucose were studied experimentally. In heat treatment experiment in water, three reaction specimens such as glucose, glucose and phenol, and glucose and benzaldehyde were fed into an autoclave together with distilled water, and subjected to reaction at 180{degree}C under spontaneous pressure for 50 hours. In hydrogenation experiment, the specimens were fed into an autoclave together with tetradecane and sulfurization catalyst, and subjected to reaction at 350{degree}C under initial pressure of 9.8MPa for 2 hours for gas chromatography (GC) analysis of products. As the experimental result, the reaction between glucose and aromatic ring in heat treatment in water occurred between aromatic ring and active fragment with a mean carbon number of 4-5 produced by decomposition of glucose. The reactivity was higher in benzaldehyde addition than phenol addition. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Designing a highly active soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase for efficient glucose biosensors and biofuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, Fabien [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Stines-Chaumeil, Claire [Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, Institut de Biochimie et de Genetique Cellulaires, 1 rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Flexer, Victoria [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Andre, Isabelle [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792 Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Mano, Nicolas, E-mail: mano@crpp-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} A new mutant of PQQ-GDH designed for glucose biosensors application. {yields} First mutant of PQQ-GDH with higher activity for D-glucose than the Wild type. {yields} Position N428 is a key point to increase the enzyme activity. {yields} Molecular modeling shows that the N428 C mutant displays a better interaction for PQQ than the WT. -- Abstract: We report for the first time a soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase that is twice more active than the wild type for glucose oxidation and was obtained by combining site directed mutagenesis, modelling and steady-state kinetics. The observed enhancement is attributed to a better interaction between the cofactor and the enzyme leading to a better electron transfer. Electrochemical experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the new mutant for glucose oxidation and make it a promising enzyme for the development of high-performance glucose biosensors and biofuel cells.

  10. Higher Endogenous Glucose Production during OGTT vs Isoglycemic Intravenous Glucose Infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Oral glucose ingestion elicits a larger insulin response and delayed suppression of glucagon compared to isoglycemic intravenous (iv) glucose infusion (IIGI). OBJECTIVE: We studied whether these differences translate into effects on endogenous glucose production (EGP) and glucose disposal...... with a concomitant iv glucagon infusion (0.8 ng/kg/min from 0 to 25 min) designed to mimic portal glucagon concentrations during OGTT in the type 2 diabetic group). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Glucose kinetics assessed by the double-tracer technique. RESULTS: Glucose rate of disappearance was higher during the OGTT vs...... IIGIs in the control group, but similar on all days in the diabetic group. Surprisingly, in both groups, EGP was more suppressed during IIGI than during OGTT and exogenous glucagon infusion during IIGI did not restore EGP to the levels observed during OGTT. CONCLUSION: EGP was less suppressed during...

  11. Can prenatal maternal stress increase the risk of asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress adversely affects a mother's well-being and health and also negatively impacts her offspring. That this relationship also holds true for maternal stress during the pregnancy period is intuitive. However, whether maternal stress increases the risk of asthma development in her offspring is less clear and will be evaluated in this review. There is evidence from murine models to suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy increases the risk of asthma in the offspring. While recent experimental research adds to the increasing body of evidence supporting a causal relationship between prenatal maternal stress and asthma risk in the offspring, the epidemiological evidence supporting this notion is insufficient. Almost all existing observational studies suffer from severe methodological limitations. Nevertheless, the results from experimental work on maternal stress during pregnancy and asthma risk in the offspring, in concert with other obvious adverse health effects in the offspring are sufficient to justify a recommendation to reduce maternal stressors, particularly during pregnancy.

  12. Praying until Death: Apostolicism, Delays and Maternal Mortality in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaradzi Kenneth, Dodzo; Marvellous, Mhloyi; Stanzia, Moyo; Memory, Dodzo-Masawi

    2016-01-01

    Religion affects people's daily lives by solving social problems, although it creates others. Female sexual and reproductive health are among the issues most affected by religion. Apostolic sect members in Zimbabwe have been associated with higher maternal mortality. We explored apostolic beliefs and practices on maternal health using 15 key informant interviews in 5 purposively selected districts of Zimbabwe. Results show that apostolicism promotes high fertility, early marriage, non-use of contraceptives and low or non-use of hospital care. It causes delays in recognizing danger signs, deciding to seek care, reaching and receiving appropriate health care. The existence of a customized spiritual maternal health system demonstrates a huge desire for positive maternal health outcomes among apostolics. We conclude that apostolic beliefs and practices exacerbate delays between onset of maternal complications and receiving help, thus increasing maternal risk. We recommend complementary and adaptive approaches that address the maternal health needs of apostolics in a religiously sensitive manner. PMID:27509018

  13. STUDY OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Devi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A woman dies from complications of child birth every minute . The major causes for maternal mortality in India are uncontrolled fertility , inaccessibility or inadequate utilization of health care facilities , illiteracy , ignorance and gender discrimination . OBJECTIV ES: (1 To identify various causes of maternal deaths in a teaching hospital . (2 To study the profile of population attending the tertiary hospital . Methodology : A retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital over a period of 2 years (January 2013 - December 2014 and data was analysed manually using case sheets and maternal death audit forms . RESULTS: In the study period , there were 11636 deliveries and 97 maternal deaths . The direct causes accounted for 77 maternal deaths with haemorrhage , hype rtension and sepsis as leading causes of maternal mortality . Conclusion : Emphasis on health education , need for regular antenatal checkups and proper training of health personnel is required to reduce maternal mortality .

  14. Nanomaterial-mediated Biosensors for Monitoring Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Masashige; Ptitsyn, Andre; McLamore, Eric S.; Claussen, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of physiological glucose transport is crucial for gaining new understanding of diabetes. Many techniques and equipment currently exist for measuring glucose, but these techniques are limited by complexity of the measurement, requirement of bulky equipment, and low temporal/spatial resolution. The development of various types of biosensors (eg, electrochemical, optical sensors) for laboratory and/or clinical applications will provide new insights into the cause(s) and poss...

  15. A glucose sensor for fermentation monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Steven

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation, analysis and development of an oxygen-insensitive amperometric glucose biosensor and its application in microbial batch culture are described. The biosensor consisted of a graphite foil electrode modified with glucose oxidase and 1,1'-dimethylferrocene, and operated via mediated electron transfer from the enzyme to the electrode. Initial evaluations illustrated several operating characteristics which would be expected to cause problems in conti...

  16. Impaired glucose tolerance in acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas. In spite of the pivotal role of the endocrine pancreas in glucose metabolism, the impact of impaired glucose tolerance on AP has not been fully elucidated. A meta-analysis of seven observational studies showed that type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with an increased risk of AP. The increased risk of AP shown in the meta-analysis was independent of hyperlipidemia, alcohol use and gallstones. Anti-diab...

  17. Nonlinear optical measurements of glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, V. V.

    2008-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that currently affects about 7% of the US population, or roughly about 20 million people. Effectively controlling diabetes requires regular measurements of the blood sugar levels to ensure the one time insulin injection when the concentration of glucose reaches a critical level. In this report, nonlinear Raman microspectroscopy is demonstrated to be a promising new way of continuous and noninvasive way of measuring the glucose concentration.

  18. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Shen; Igor Ying Zhang; Gang Fu; Xin Xu

    2011-01-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  19. Glucose Sensing by Time-Resolved Fluorescence of Sol-Gel Immobilized Glucose Oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lepore; Raffaele Velotta; Carlo Altucci; Sergio De Nicola; Bartolomeo Della Ventura; Rosario Esposito; Damiano Gustavo Mita

    2011-01-01

    A monolithic silica gel matrix with entrapped glucose oxidase (GOD) was constructed as a bioactive element in an optical biosensor for glucose determination. Intrinsic fluorescence of free and immobilised GOD was investigated in the visible range in presence of different glucose concentrations by time-resolved spectroscopy with time-correlated single-photon counting detector. A three-exponential model was used for analysing the fluorescence transients. Fractional intensities and mean lifetime...

  20. Effects of fasting on plasma glucose and prolonged tracer measurement of hepatic glucose output in NIDDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauber, H.; Wallace, P.; Brechtel, G.

    1987-10-01

    We studied the measurement of hepatic glucose output (HGO) with prolonged (3-/sup 3/H)glucose infusion in 14 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Over the course of 10.5 h, plasma glucose concentration fell with fasting by one-third, from 234 +/- 21 to 152 +/- 12 mg/dl, and HGO fell from 2.35 +/- 0.18 to 1.36 +/- 0.07 mg . kg-1 . min-1 (P less than .001). In the basal state, HGO and glucose were significantly correlated (r = 0.68, P = .03), and in individual patients, HGO and glucose were closely correlated as both fell with fasting (mean r = 0.79, P less than .01). Plasma (3-/sup 3/H)glucose radioactivity approached a steady state only 5-6 h after initiation of the primed continuous infusion, and a 20% overestimate of HGO was demonstrated by not allowing sufficient time for tracer labeling of the glucose pool. Assumption of steady-state instead of non-steady-state kinetics in using Steele's equations to calculate glucose turnover resulted in a 9-24% overestimate of HGO. Stimulation of glycogenolysis by glucagon injection demonstrated no incorporation of (3-/sup 3/H)glucose in hepatic glycogen during the prolonged tracer infusion. In a separate study, plasma glucose was maintained at fasting levels (207 +/- 17 mg/dl) for 8 h with the glucose-clamp technique. Total glucose turnover rates remained constant during this prolonged tracer infusion. However, HGO fell to 30% of the basal value simply by maintaining fasting hyperglycemia in the presence of basal insulin levels.

  1. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.;

    2013-01-01

    .RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  2. Biocatalytic anode for glucose oxidation utilizing carbon nanotubes for direct electron transfer with glucose oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaze, Abhay; Hussain, Nighat; Tang, Chi [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Rusling, James [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06032 (United States); School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Covalently linked layers of glucose oxidase, single-wall carbon nanotubes and poly-L-lysine on pyrolytic graphite resulted in a stable biofuel cell anode featuring direct electron transfer from the enzyme. Catalytic response observed upon addition of glucose was due to electrochemical oxidation of FADH{sub 2} under aerobic conditions. The electrode potential depended on glucose concentration. This system has essential attributes of an anode in a mediator-free biocatalytic fuel cell. (author)

  3. Okara ameliorates glucose tolerance in GK rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Masaya; Katsukawa, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okuno, Sonomi; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Iritani, Nobuko

    2016-05-01

    Okara, a food by-product from the production of tofu and soy milk, is rich in three beneficial components: insoluble dietary fiber, β-conglycinin, and isoflavones. Although isoflavones and β-conglycinin have recently been shown to improve glucose tolerance, the effects of okara have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of okara on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a representative animal model of Japanese type 2 diabetes. Male GK rats were fed a 10% lard diet with or without 5% dry okara powder for 2 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats were then fed each diet for another week and sacrificed. The expression of genes that are the master regulators of glucose metabolism in adipose tissue was subsequently examined. No significant differences were observed in body weight gain or food intake between the two groups of GK rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, increases in plasma glucose levels were suppressed by the okara diet. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, and GLUT4, which up-regulate the effects of insulin, were increased in epididymal adipose tissue by the okara diet. These results suggest that okara provides a useful means for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:27257347

  4. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  5. Enhancement of 4-chlorophenol biodegradation using glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarighian, Alireza; Hill, Gordon; Headley, John [Division of Environmental Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 105 Maintenance Road, S7N 5C5, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Pedras, Soledad [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, S7N 5C9, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2003-03-01

    Toxic, xenobiotic chemicals present challenging problems for the environment since they are normally resistant to biodegradation. Sometimes it is possible to induce biodegradation activity by the use of growth cosubstrates. In this study, pure solutions and binary mixtures of glucose, phenol and 4-chlorophenol have been metabolized in batch cultures by a pure strain of Pseudomonas putida. Following a lag period during which slow growth and low production of biomass occurred, phenol was metabolized according to the Monod model. Glucose was also metabolized according to the Monod model but exponential growth commenced immediately after inoculation with no noticeable lag phase. Biokinetic behavior for growth on a mixture of phenol and glucose paralleled the behavior on individual substrates with simultaneous consumption of both substrates. 4-chlorophenol was not consumed as a sole substrate by Pseudomonas putida but was consumed as a cometabolite with either glucose or phenol acting as the primary growth cosubstrate. Surprisingly, glucose was found to be the superior growth cosubstrate, suggesting that inexpensive sugars can be used to enhance the biodegradation of chlorophenol-contaminated sites. Glucose and the excreted metabolic products of the biodegradation process, including a bright yellow pigment, demonstrated negligible toxicity towards Artemia salina, unlike the phenol and 4-chlorophenol substrates. (orig.)

  6. Characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make clear the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia, PET studies with 18F-FDG were carried out. Taking the pattern of 18F-FDG utilization, dementia can be subdivided into two types. One type shows a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction glucose utilization in the posterior part of neocortex covering the temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. This is referred to as type I. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients, it is considered the fundamental type of dementia. Aside from this, there is type wherein a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction in glucose utilization of the neocortex. This is type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more type I. There are no essential difference in the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in AD and MID. However, with regards the mean, AD is lower than MID. Various organic defect in neocortex do not correlate with the global reduction in glucose utilization in dementia patients. These results suggest that the reduction in glucose utilization in dementia may be functional disorder. (author)

  7. Metabolic induction and early responses of mouse blastocyst developmental programming following maternal low protein diet affecting life-long health.

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    Judith J Eckert

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that a maternal low protein diet, fed exclusively during the preimplantation period of mouse development (Emb-LPD, is sufficient to induce by the blastocyst stage a compensatory growth phenotype in late gestation and postnatally, correlating with increased risk of adult onset cardiovascular disease and behavioural dysfunction. Here, we examine mechanisms of induction of maternal Emb-LPD programming and early compensatory responses by the embryo. Emb-LPD induced changes in maternal serum metabolites at the time of blastocyst formation (E3.5, notably reduced insulin and increased glucose, together with reduced levels of free amino acids (AAs including branched chain AAs leucine, isoleucine and valine. Emb-LPD also caused reduction in the branched chain AAs within uterine fluid at the blastocyst stage. These maternal changes coincided with an altered content of blastocyst AAs and reduced mTORC1 signalling within blastocysts evident in reduced phosphorylation of effector S6 ribosomal protein and its ratio to total S6 protein but no change in effector 4E-BP1 phosphorylated and total pools. These changes were accompanied by increased proliferation of blastocyst trophectoderm and total cells and subsequent increased spreading of trophoblast cells in blastocyst outgrowths. We propose that induction of metabolic programming following Emb-LPD is achieved through mTORC1signalling which acts as a sensor for preimplantation embryos to detect maternal nutrient levels via branched chain AAs and/or insulin availability. Moreover, this induction step associates with changes in extra-embryonic trophectoderm behaviour occurring as early compensatory responses leading to later nutrient recovery.

  8. A Glucose Sensing Contact Lens: A Non-Invasive Technique for Continuous Physiological Glucose Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a range of glucose sensing contact lenses, using a daily, disposable contact lens embedded with newly developed boronic acid containing fluorophores. Our findings show that our approach may be suitable for the continuous monitoring of tear glucose levels in the range 50–1000 μM, which typically track blood glucose levels, which are ≈5–10 fold higher. Our non-invasive approach may well offer an alternative solution to current invasive glucose monitoring techniques for diabetes, such as “finger pricking.” PMID:27340364

  9. Noninvasive Continuous Monitoring of Tear Glucose Using Glucose-Sensing Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, Francisco J; Huerva, Valentín

    2016-04-01

    : The incidence of diabetes mellitus is dramatically increasing in the developed countries. Tight control of blood glucose concentration is crucial to diabetic patients to prevent microvascular complications. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is widely used for controlling blood glucose levels and usually performed by an invasive test using a portable glucometer. Many technologies have been developed over the past decades with the purpose of obtaining a continuous physiological glycemic monitoring. A contact lens is the ideal vehicle for continuous tear glucose monitoring of glucose concentration in tear film. There are several research groups that are working in the development of contact lenses with embedded biosensors for continuously and noninvasively monitoring tear glucose levels. Although numerous aspects must be improved, contact lens technology is one step closer to helping diabetic subjects better manage their condition, and these contact lenses will be able to measure the level of glucose in the wearer's tears and communicate the information to a mobile phone or computer. This article reviews studies on ocular glucose and its monitoring methods as well as the attempts to continuously monitor the concentration of tear glucose by using contact lens-based sensors. PMID:26390345

  10. Glucose as substrate and signal in priming: Results from experiments with non-metabolizable glucose analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Kyle; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Priming of soil organic matter remains the subject of intense research, but a mechanistic explanation of the phenomenon remains to be demonstrated. This is largely due to the multiple effects of easily available carbon on the soil microbial community, and the challenge of separating these influences from one another. Several glucose analogues can be taken up by microbial glucose transporters and have similar regulatory effects on metabolism. These substances are, however, not easily catabolized by the common glycolytic pathway, limiting their energy value. Therefore, they can be used to distinguish between the action of glucose as a metabolic signal, and its influence as an energy source. We incubated an agricultural Haplic Luvisol under controlled conditions for 24 days after addition of: 1) glucose, 2) 3-O-methyl-glucose, 3) α-methylglucoside or 4) 2-deoxyglucose, at three concentration levels, along with a control treatment of water addition. CO2 efflux from soil was monitored by trapping evolved CO2 in NaOH and back-titration with HCl. On the first day after amendment, CO2 efflux from soil increased strongly for glucose and much less for the analogues, relative to the control. Only glucose caused a peak in efflux within the first two days. Peak mineralization of 2-deoxyglucose and α-methylglucoside was delayed until the third day, while CO2 from 3-O-methyl-glucose increased gradually, with a peak delayed by approximately a week. For glucose, the immediate increase in respiration was strongly dependent on the amount of glucose added, but this was not the case for the analogues, indicating that the catabolic potential for these substances was saturated. This is consistent with only a small part of the microbial community being capable of utilizing these carbon sources. In a subsequent experiment, 14C-labelled glucose or 14C-labelled 3-O-methyl-glucose were added to the same soil, enabling quantification of the priming effect. For 3-O-methyl-glucose, priming was

  11. Glucose transport by human renal Na+/d-glucose cotransporters SGLT1 and SGLT2

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Charles S.; Lu, Chuan; Loo, Donald D. F.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Voss, Andrew A.; Wright, Ernest M.

    2010-01-01

    The human Na+/d-glucose cotransporter 2 (hSGLT2) is believed to be responsible for the bulk of glucose reabsorption in the kidney proximal convoluted tubule. Since blocking reabsorption increases urinary glucose excretion, hSGLT2 has become a novel drug target for Type 2 diabetes treatment. Glucose transport by hSGLT2 was studied at 37°C in human embryonic kidney 293T cells using whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. We compared hSGLT2 with hSGLT1, the transporter in the straight proximal...

  12. Goodness of fit between prenatal maternal sleep and infant sleep: Associations with maternal depression and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Parade, Stephanie H; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    The current study prospectively examined the ways in which goodness of fit between maternal and infant sleep contributes to maternal depressive symptoms and the mother-child relationship across the first years of life. In a sample of 173 mother-child dyads, maternal prenatal sleep, infant sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child attachment security were assessed via self-report, actigraphy, and observational measures. Results suggested that a poor fit between mothers' prenatal sleep and infants' sleep at 8 months (measured by sleep diary and actigraphy) was associated with maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months. Additionally, maternal depression mediated the association between the interplay of mother and infant sleep (measured by sleep diary) and mother-child attachment security at 30 months. Findings emphasize the importance of the match between mother and infant sleep on maternal wellbeing and mother-child relationships and highlight the role of mothers' perceptions of infant sleep. PMID:27448324

  13. Severe maternal morbidity and near misses in tertiary hospitals, Kelantan, Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Nik Hazlina, Nik Hussain; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Azman, Mohd Yacob

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe maternal conditions have increasingly been used as alternative measurements of the quality of maternal care and as alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality. We aimed to study severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss among women in two tertiary hospitals in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study with record review was conducted in 2014. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss were classified using the new World Health Organ...

  14. A Comparison of Medical Birth Register Outcomes between Maternity Health Clinics and Integrated Maternity and Child Health Clinics in Southwest Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Miia; Kaljonen, Anne; Ahonen, Pia; Mäkinen, Juha; Rautava, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary maternity care services are globally provided according to various organisational models. Two models are common in Finland: a maternity health clinic and an integrated maternity and child health clinic. The aim of this study was to clarify whether there is a relation between the organisational model of the maternity health clinics and the utilisation of maternity care services, and certain maternal and perinatal health outcomes.Methods: A comparative, register-based cros...

  15. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. However, studies that prospectively examined circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-[OH] D in relation to diabetes risk are limited. Our objective is to determine the association between maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted among a prospective cohort of 953 pregnant women. Among them, 57 incident GDM cases were ascertained and 114 women who were not diagnosed with GDM were selected as controls. Controls were frequency matched to cases for the estimated season of conception of the index pregnancy. RESULTS: Among women who developed GDM, maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations at an average of 16 weeks of gestation were significantly lower than controls (24.2 vs. 30.1 ng/ml, P<0.001. This difference remained significant (3.62 ng/ml lower on average in GDM cases than controls (P value = 0.018 after the adjustment for maternal age, race, family history of diabetes, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Approximately 33% of GDM cases, compared with 14% of controls (P<0.001, had maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations consistent with a pre-specified diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml. After adjustment for the aforementioned covariates including BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 2.66-fold (OR (95% CI: 2.66 (1.01-7.02 increased GDM risk. Moreover, each 5 ng/ml decrease in 25-[OH] D concentrations was related to a 1.29-fold increase in GDM risk (OR (95% CI: 1.29 (1.05-1.60. Additional adjustment for season and physical activity did not change findings substantially. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study suggest that maternal vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is significantly associated with an elevated risk for GDM.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in...

  17. Maternal near miss and quality of maternal health care in Baghdad, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabir Maysoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal near-miss concept has been developed as an instrument for assisting health systems to evaluate and improve their quality of care. Our study aimed at studying the characteristics and quality of care provided to women with severe complications in Baghdad through the use of the World Health Organization (WHO near-miss approach for maternal health. Methods This is a facility-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 6 public hospitals in Baghdad between March 1, 2010 and the June 30, 2010. WHO near-miss approach was utilized to analyze the data in terms of indicators of maternal near miss and access to and quality of maternal care. Results The maternal near-miss rate was low at 5.06 per 1,000 live births, while the overall maternal near miss: mortality ratio was 9:1. One third of the near-miss cases were referred from other facilities and the mortality index was the same for referred women and for in-hospital women (11%. The intensive care unit (ICU admission rate was 37% for women with severe maternal outcomes (SMO, while the overall admission rate was 0.28%. Anemia (55% and previous cesarean section (45% were the most common associated conditions with severe maternal morbidity. The use of magnesium sulfate for treatment of eclampsia, oxytocin for prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, prophylactic antibiotics during caesarean section, and corticosteroids for inducing fetal lung maturation in preterm birth is suboptimum. Conclusions The WHO near-miss approach allowed systematic identification of the roadblocks to improve quality of care and then monitoring the progress. Critical evidence-based practices, relevant to the management of women experiencing life-threatening conditions, are underused. In addition, possible limitations in the referral system result in a very high proportion of women presenting at the hospital already in a severe health condition (i.e. with organ dysfunction. A shortage of ICU

  18. The Turkish version of Maternal Attachment Inventory

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    Oya Kavlak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research has been designed as methodological with purpose of the validity and the reliability of the Turkish language version of Maternal Attachment Inventory on mothers within one and four months postpartum. Method: This study was carried out with mothers registered at 19 Health Clinics and three Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning Clinics in which connected to Bornova Health Presidency in Izmir. The sample of research has been composed three clinics in which determined with the purposive sampling technique. First stage, the research was studied on 165 mothers when their babies were approximately 30-40 days old in these registered clinics.At the second stage of research has been interviewed again with 78 mothers when their babies were approximately 90-105 days old.Results: It is determined that experts consensuses about content of items as a result of analysis (Kendall’s W=0.274, p=0.001

  19. The neurobiology of infant maternal odor learning

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    C. Raineki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Infant rats must learn to identify their mother’s diet-dependent odor. Once learned, maternal odor controls pups’ approach to the mother, their social behavior and nipple attachment. Here we present a review of the research from four different laboratories, which suggests that neural and behavioral responses to the natural maternal odor and neonatal learned odors are similar. Together, these data indicate that pups have a unique learning circuit relying on the olfactory bulb for neural plasticity and on the hyperfunctioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus flooding the olfactory bulb with norepinephrine to support the neural changes. Another important factor making this system unique is the inability of the amygdala to become incorporated into the infant learning circuit. Thus, infant rats appear to be primed in early life to learn odors that will evoke approach responses supporting attachment to the caregiver.

  20. Microfabricated glucose biosensor for culture well operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, R M; Cox, T; Tuffin, R; Sage, I; Drago, G A; Biddle, N; Griffiths, J; Pittson, R; Johnson, G; Xu, J; Jackson, S K; Kenna, G; Luxton, R; Hart, J P

    2013-04-15

    A water-based carbon screen-printing ink formulation, containing the redox mediator cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) and the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx), was investigated for its suitability to fabricate glucose microbiosensors in a 96-well microplate format: (1) the biosensor ink was dip-coated onto a platinum (Pt) wire electrode, leading to satisfactory amperometric performance; (2) the ink was deposited onto the surface of a series of Pt microelectrodes (10-500 μm diameter) fabricated on a silicon substrate using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) microfabrication techniques: capillary deposition proved to be successful; a Pt microdisc electrode of ≥100 μm was required for optimum biosensor performance; (3) MEMS processing was used to fabricate suitably sized metal (Pt) tracks and pads onto a silicon 96 well format base chip, and the glucose biosensor ink was screen-printed onto these pads to create glucose microbiosensors. When formed into microwells, using a 340 μl volume of buffer, the microbiosensors produced steady-state amperometric responses which showed linearity up to 5 mM glucose (CV=6% for n=5 biosensors). When coated, using an optimised protocol, with collagen in order to aid cell adhesion, the biosensors continued to show satisfactory performance in culture medium (linear range to 2 mM, dynamic range to 7 mM, CV=5.7% for n=4 biosensors). Finally, the operation of these collagen-coated microbiosensors, in 5-well 96-well format microwells, was tested using a 5-channel multipotentiostat. A relationship between amperometric response due to glucose, and cell number in the microwells, was observed. These results indicate that microphotolithography and screen-printing techniques can be combined successfully to produce microbiosensors capable of monitoring glucose metabolism in 96 well format cell cultures. The potential application areas for these microbiosensors are discussed. PMID:23265827