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Sample records for arsenate-induced maternal glucose

  1. Arsenate-induced maternal glucose intolerance and neural tube defects in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Epidemiological studies have linked environmental arsenic (As) exposure to increased type 2 diabetes risk. Periconceptional hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most common structural birth defect. A suspected teratogen, arsenic (As) induces NTDs in laboratory animals. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal glucose homeostasis disruption was responsible for arsenate-induced NTDs in a well-established dosing regimen used in studies of arsenic's teratogenicity in early neurodevelopment. Methods: We evaluated maternal intraperitoneal (IP) exposure to As 9.6 mg/kg (as sodium arsenate) in LM/Bc/Fnn mice for teratogenicity and disruption of maternal plasma glucose and insulin levels. Selected compounds (insulin pellet, sodium selenate (SS), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), L-methionine (L-Met), N-tert-Butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN)) were investigated for their potential to mitigate arsenate's effects. Results: Arsenate caused significant glucose elevation during an IP glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Insulin levels were not different between arsenate and control dams before (arsenate, 0.55 ng/dl; control, 0.48 ng/dl) or after glucose challenge (arsenate, 1.09 ng/dl; control, 0.81 ng/dl). HOMA-IR index was higher for arsenate (3.9) vs control (2.5) dams (p = 0.0260). Arsenate caused NTDs (100%, p < 0.0001). Insulin pellet and NAC were the most successful rescue agents, reducing NTD rates to 45% and 35%. Conclusions: IPGTT, insulin assay, and HOMA-IR results suggest a modest failure of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance characteristic of glucose intolerance. Insulin's success in preventing arsenate-induced NTDs provides evidence that these arsenate-induced NTDs are secondary to elevated maternal glucose. The NAC rescue, which did not restore maternal glucose or insulin levels, suggests oxidative disruption plays a role.

  2. Maternal Lipids Are as Important as Glucose for Fetal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Smita R.; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Rao, Shobha R.; Chougule, Suresh D.; Deokar, Tukaram M.; Bhalerao, Ankush J.; Solat, Vishnu A.; Bhat, Dattatray S; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between maternal circulating fuels and neonatal size and compare the relative effects of glucose and lipids. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (1993–1996) investigated the influence of maternal nutrition on fetal growth. We measured maternal body size and glucose and lipid concentrations during pregnancy and examined their relationship with birth size in full-term babies using correlation and regression techniques. RESULTS The mo...

  3. Maternal Glucose Tolerance in Pregnancy Affects Fetal Insulin Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Delvin, Edgard; Fraser, William D.; Audibert, Francois; Deal, Cheri I.; Julien, Pierre; Girard, Isabelle; Shear, Roberta; Levy, Emile; Nuyt, Anne-Monique

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Offspring of mothers with impaired glucose tolerance are far more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that maternal glucose tolerance in pregnancy affects fetal insulin sensitivity or β-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort study, we analyzed glucose, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations in maternal blood at the 50-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24–28 weeks of gestation and in venous cord blood (n = ...

  4. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Ya-Hong; Yu, Caiguo; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Guo, Xin; Ji, Zhili; Liu, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH. However, it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance. In this study, we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. ApoCIII transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia...

  5. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Hong Ma; Caiguo Yu; Abudurexiti Kayoumu; Xin Guo; Zhili Ji; George Liu

    2015-01-01

    Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH.However,it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance.In this study,we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice.ApoCⅢ transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia were mated with non-transgenic control mice to obtain 4 types of offspring:maternal non-transgenic control and maternal transgenic offspring,and paternal control and paternal transgenic offspring.Plasma triglycerides (TG),total cholesterol (TC),fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FINS) were measured.ApoCⅢ overexpression caused severe hypertriglyceridemia,but the transgenic female mice had unaltered fertility with normal pregnancy and birth of pups.The 4 groups of offspring had similar birth weight and growth rate.The plasma TG of maternal and paternal transgenic offspring were nearly 40-fold higher than maternal and paternal control mice,but there was no difference in plasma TG between maternal and paternal transgenic offspring.Although the FPG of the 4 groups of animals had no difference,the maternal transgenic mice showed impaired glucose tolerance,increased FINS levels and higher homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than the other 3 groups.In conclusion,maternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia in ApoCⅢ transgenic mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance,hyperinsulinemia and increased HOMA-R,while paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia did not have such impacts.

  6. Effects of maternal undernutrition and exercise on glucose kinetics in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leury, B J; Chandler, K D; Bird, A R; Bell, A W

    1990-09-01

    Fetal glucose kinetics were measured using a combination of isotope-dilution and Fick-principle methodology in single-pregnant ewes which were either well-fed throughout, or fed at 0.3-0.4 predicted energy requirement for 7-21 d during late pregnancy. All ewes were studied while standing at rest and then while walking on a treadmill at 0.7 m/s on a 10 degree slope for 60 min. Underfed ewes suffered major decreases in fetal total disposal rate, fetal-placental transfer and umbilical net uptake of glucose, each of which were significantly related to declines in maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations respectively. In well-fed ewes, fetal endogenous glucose production was negligible, as indicated by the similarity between fetal utilization rate (total glucose disposal rate minus placental uptake of fetal glucose) and umbilical net uptake of glucose, and by nearly identical fetal and maternal arterial blood specific radioactivities of maternally infused D-[2-3H]glucose. By contrast, in underfed ewes, fetal utilization rate greatly exceeded umbilical net uptake of glucose, and the fetal:maternal [3H]glucose specific activity ratio declined significantly, suggesting induction of a substantial rate of fetal endogenous glucogenesis. Exercise caused increases in fetal total glucose disposal rate and glycaemia in fed and underfed ewes. In underfed ewes only, this was accompanied by increased placental uptake of fetal glucose and umbilical net glucose uptake, unchanged fetal glucose utilization and decreased fetal endogenous glucose production. It is concluded that fetal gluconeogenesis makes a major contribution to fetal glucose requirements in undernourished ewes. Increased maternal supply of fetal glucose during exercise substitutes for rather than adds to fetal endogenous glucogenesis. PMID:2223747

  7. Changes in Maternal Glucose Metabolism after the Administration of Dexamethasone for Fetal Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Jian Yun; Liang Zhaoxia; Chai Yun; Fang Qin; Chen Yuanyuan; Chen Danqing

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Antenatal dexamethasone administration for fetal lung development may impair maternal glucose tolerance. In this study, we investigated whether glucose and insulin levels differed among singleton and twin pregnancies and pregnancies with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after treatment with dexamethasone. Methods. Singleton pregnancies, twin pregnancies, and pregnancies with IGT between 28 and 33 weeks of gestation whose mothers were treated with dexamethasone were enrolled in this stud...

  8. FXR expression is associated with dysregulated glucose and lipid levels in the offspring kidney induced by maternal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Wong, Muh Geot; CHEN, HUI; Zhang, Jie; Zaky, Amgad; Pollock, Carol A.; Saad, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity is associated with dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism with consequent exposure of the fetus to an abnormal metabolic milieu. It is recognized that maternal obesity predisposes offspring to chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to determine whether the nuclear Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), known to play a role in maintaining homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism, is involved in renal injury in offspring of obese mothers. Methods Maternal obesity was ...

  9. Effects of ethanol ingestion on maternal and fetal glucose homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Singh, S.K.

    1984-08-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism has been studied in the offspring of rats fed liqiud diet containing ethanol during gestation (EF group). Weight-matched control dams were given liquid diet either by the pair-fed technique (PF group) or ad libitum (AF group). EF and PF dams showed reduced food consumption and attenuated gain in body weight during the gestation period compared with the AF group. Blood glucose, liver glycogen, and plasma insulin levels were significantly reduced in EF and PF dams. Ethanol ingestion resulted in a significant decrease in litter survival and fetal body weight. At term, EF pups on average showed a 30% decrease in blood glucose levels and 40% decrease in plasma insulin levels compared with AF pups. One hour after birth, EF pups exhibited a marked increase in blood sugar level compared with either control group. Fetal hyperinsulinemia disappeared shortly after delivery in control pups, as expected; however, in EF pups, the fall in plasma insulin level was gradual. Fetal and neonatal plasma glucagon levels were not altered by ethanol exposure in utero. Blood glucose levels remained significantly low at 2 days of age in EF pups, but reached near control values at 4 days of age. Plasma insulin and glucagon were nearly equal in EF and control pups at 2 and 4 days of age. These results show aberrations in blood glucose, plasma insulin, and liver glycogen levels in offspring exposed to ethanol in utero.

  10. Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Pregnancy versus Maternal and Infant Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Henriksson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.001 of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p ≤ 0.006 associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p = 0.001 associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p < 0.001, but not of sons (p = 0.65 (Sex-interaction: p = 0.042. In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance.

  11. Effects of maternal diet and exercise during pregnancy on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and fat of weanling rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Raipuria

    Full Text Available Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C or high fat (F diet for 6 weeks before mating. Half underwent voluntary exercise (CE/FE with a running wheel introduced 10 days prior to mating and available until the dams delivered; others remained sedentary (CS/FS. Male and female pups were killed at postnatal day (PND19 and retroperitoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for gene expression. Lean and obese dams achieved similar modest levels of exercise. At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS, with no effect in those from obese dams. At PND19, maternal obesity significantly increased offspring body weight and adiposity, with no effect of maternal exercise. Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS, with reduced glucose in male FE pups. In males, maternal obesity significantly decreased muscle myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1 and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 mRNA expressions (FS vs CS; these were normalized by exercise. Maternal exercise upregulated adipose GLUT4, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α mRNA expression in offspring of dams consuming chow. Modest voluntary exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight in pups from lean dams. Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater

  12. Effects of Maternal Diet and Exercise during Pregnancy on Glucose Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle and Fat of Weanling Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Raipuria; Hasnah Bahari; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or high ...

  13. ATLANTIC-DIP: raised maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects maternal and foetal outcomes in glucose tolerant women classified using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dennedy, MC

    2011-09-15

    Background and aims: Raised maternal body mass index (BMI), in association with hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Whether BMI has an independent effect on adverse pregnancy outcome is not clear. We aimed to investigate the effects of raised maternal BMI on pregnancy outcome in glucose tolerant women, classified using the IADPSG criteria.\\r\

  14. Using the 100-g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test to Predict Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This 5-year cohort study investigated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMusing new diagnostic criteria and predictive factors for maternal and fetaloutcomes.Methods: From March 2001 to February 2006, 8557 pregnant women underwent a 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. A diagnosis ofGDM was based on a a one-hour plasma glucose level ≧ 140 mg/dl on the50 g GCT, followed by at lease two abnormal values on a 100-g oral glucosetolerance test (OGTT, according to the Carpenter and Coustan modificationof the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG criteria. Maternal and fetaloutcomes were compared with women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Results: The incidence of GDM was 7.4%. After excluding women with twin pregnancies,617 women with GDM and 1250 women with NGT were enrolledfor comparison. Older age (33.7 ± 4.1 vs. 32.2 ± 4.1, p 90mg/dL is anticipated to improve outcomes effectively.

  15. The Impact of Maternal Age, Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Weight Gain and Parity on Glucose Challenge Test (GCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM complicates 3-7% of all pregnancies and feto-maternal outcomes are strongly related to early diagnosis of GDM. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of risk factors in the prediction of an abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT.Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted during 2009-2010 in two prenatal clinics in Rey, Iran. A total of 711 pregnant women who were in their first trimester of pregnancy and met the inclusion criteria were selected. The women were observed once every other week until 24-28 weeks of gestation. All patients at 24-28 weeks of gestation were screened with 50 g oral glucose GCT. The effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, maternal age, and weight gain until the time of GCT, and parity on abnormal GCT were evaluated. All confident intervals were calculated at the 95% level. Data was analyzed using student’s t test and the logistic regression test.Results: Maternal age (p<0.001, pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.00, parity (p=0.05 and weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.05, were significantly higher in women with abnormal GCT compared to women who had normal GCT. Logistic regression analyses confirmed that pre-pregnancy BMI (OR=1.09, maternal age (OR=1.14, and weight gain during pregnancy (OR=1.13 were associated with abnormal GCT.Conclusion: Weight gain had a profound impact on the prevalence of abnormal GCT in our population. Therefore, we propose that pregnant women should only gain the recommended amount of weight during pregnancy.

  16. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a ...

  17. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 3260 Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B;

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk....../l than in women with 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for several maternal and perinatal complications increased with the diagnostic threshold for 2-h glucose. Large-scale blinded studies are needed to clarify the question of a clinically meaningful diagnosis of gestational diabetes...... mellitus. Until these results are available, a 2-h threshold level of 9.0 mmol/l after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test seems acceptable....

  18. Maternal Glucose during Pregnancy and after Delivery in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on Overweight Status of Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association of maternal glycemia during pregnancy and after delivery with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods. A total of 1,263 GDM mothers and their children finished the health survey at 1–5 years after delivery. Results. Offspring of GDM mothers who were diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy had higher prevalence of overweight, higher mean weight for height Z scores, and higher mean BMI for age Z scores at 1–5 years old than the offspring of GDM mothers who were diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT during pregnancy. Offspring of GDM mothers who developed diabetes 1–5 years after delivery had higher mean values of Z scores for weight for height and BMI for age at 1–5 years old than the offspring of GDM mothers who had normal glucose or prediabetes after delivery. Conclusions. Offspring of GDM mothers who were diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy or after delivery had an increased risk of childhood overweight or weight gain at 1–5 years old compared with children of GDM mothers with IGT during pregnancy or with normal glucose or prediabetes after delivery.

  19. Maternal dietary protein supplement confers long-term sex-specific beneficial consequences of obesity resistance and glucose tolerance to the offspring in Brandt's voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Rong-Shu; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Maternal under- or over-nutrition not only alters neonatal body mass but also increases the risk of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Little is known about how maternal dietary protein affects offspring fitness in wild rodents. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that maternal dietary protein supplement has a long-term beneficial effect on offspring fitness in Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii), a herbivorous rodent model. The vole dams were fed either a control (18% protein) or high-protein (36% protein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, all offspring received a control diet till 14 weeks old. Energetic parameters, serum leptin concentration and glucose tolerance were measured. The adult offspring were fed high-fat diet for 8 weeks, and body weight and food intake were measured. No difference was observed in litter size, litter mass or pup mass before weaning. Maternal protein supplement increased body mass and the mass of reproductive organ but decreased digestibility and fat deposition and alleviated HFD-induced obesity especially in the males. Glucose tolerance was elevated in the offspring from maternal protein supplement, especially in the females. The accelerated growth may be associated with high serum leptin concentration at weaning, a state of leptin resistance, and the low digestibility may predispose obesity resistance especially in male offspring from maternal high-protein diet. These data demonstrate that maternal protein supplement confers the long-term sex-specific beneficial consequences of accelerated growth and improved obesity resistance and glucose tolerance of their offspring. PMID:25499237

  20. Maternally transmitted severe glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an embryonic lethal

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Letizia; Vanegas, Olga Camacho; Patel, Meghavi; Rosti, Vittorio; Li, Haiqing; Waka, John; Merghoub, Taha; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Notaro, Rosario; Manova, Katia; Luzzatto, Lucio

    2002-01-01

    Mouse chimeras from embryonic stem cells in which the X-linked glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene had been targeted were crossed with normal females. First-generation (F1) G6PD(+/–) heterozygotes born from this cross were essentially normal; analysis of their tissues demonstrated strong selection for cells with the targeted G6PD allele on the inactive X chromosome. When these F1 G6PD(+/–) females were bred to normal males, only normal G6PD mice were born, because: (i) hemizygous G6...

  1. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Anand Kumar

    Full Text Available Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM, fat free mass (FFM, muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30 were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6 or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R (n = 24; after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF% in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring.

  2. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  3. Maternal High-Fat Diet Modulates Hepatic Glucose, Lipid Homeostasis and Gene Expression in the PPAR Pathway in the Early Life of Offspring

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    Jia Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal dietary modifications determine the susceptibility to metabolic diseases in adult life. However, whether maternal high-fat feeding can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in the early life of offspring is less understood. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanisms that influence the phenotype. Using C57BL/6J mice, we examined the effects on the offspring at weaning from dams fed with a high-fat diet or normal chow diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Gene array experiments and quantitative real-time PCR were performed in the liver tissues of the offspring mice. The offspring of the dams fed the high-fat diet had a heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased serum cholesterol and hepatic steatosis at weaning. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that all differentially expressed genes of the offspring between the two groups were mapped to nine pathways. Genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway were verified by quantitative real-time PCR and these genes were significantly up-regulated in the high-fat diet offspring. A maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation can modulate hepatic glucose, lipid homeostasis, and gene expression in the PPAR signaling in the early life of offspring, and our results suggested that potential mechanisms that influences this phenotype may be related partially to up-regulate some gene expression in the PPAR signalling pathway.

  4. Maternal and post-weaning high-fat, high-sucrose diet modulates glucose homeostasis and hypothalamic POMC promoter methylation in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Substantial evidence demonstrated that maternal dietary nutrients can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the later-life effects of maternal and postweaning diets interaction on epigenetic modification of the central nervous system in the offspring. We examined the effects of dams fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (FS) diet during pregnancy and lactation and weaned to FS diet continuously until 32 weeks of age. Then, DNA methylation and gene expressions of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) were determined in the offspring. Offspring of FS diet had heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity and higher serum leptin level at 32-week age (p age (p Maternal and post-weaning high-fat diet predisposes the offspring for obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in later life. Our findings can advance our thinking around the DNA methylation status of the promoter of the POMC and MC4R genes between long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet and glucose homeostasis in mouse. PMID:25936720

  5. Maternal High Folic Acid Supplement Promotes Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance in Male Mouse Offspring Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition may influence metabolic profiles in offspring. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplement on glucose metabolism in mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly assigned into three dietary groups and fed the AIN-93G diet containing 2 (control, 5 (recommended folic acid supplement, RFolS or 40 (high folic acid supplement, HFolS mg folic acid/kg of diet. All male offspring were fed HFD for eight weeks. Physiological, biochemical and genetic variables were measured. Before HFD feeding, developmental variables and metabolic profiles were comparable among each offspring group. However, after eight weeks of HFD feeding, the offspring of HFolS dams (Off-HFolS were more vulnerable to suffer from obesity (p = 0.009, glucose intolerance (p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (p < 0.001, compared with the controls. Off-HFolS had reduced serum adiponectin concentration, accompanied with decreased adiponectin mRNA level but increased global DNA methylation level in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest maternal HFolS exacerbates the detrimental effect of HFD on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring, implying that HFolS during pregnancy should be adopted cautiously in the general population of pregnant women to avoid potential deleterious effect on the metabolic diseases in their offspring.

  6. Placental DNA methylation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α promoter is associated with maternal gestational glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuemei; Gao, Hongjie; Zeng, Wanjiang; Chen, Suhua; Feng, Ling; Deng, Dongrui; Qiao, Fu-yuan; Liao, Lihong; McCormick, Kenneth; Ning, Qin; Luo, Xiaoping

    2015-08-01

    Intrauterine exposure to hyperglycaemia may increase the risk of later-life metabolic disorders. Although the underlying mechanism is not fully understood, epigenetic dysregulation in fetal programming has been implicated. With regard to energy homoeostasis, PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α, encoded by the PPARGC1A gene) plays a regulatory role in several biochemical processes. We hypothesized that maternal gestational glucose levels would positively correlate with DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter in placental tissue. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 58 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Caesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined after a 75-g OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Placenta tissue and cord blood were collected immediately after delivery. Genomic DNA was extracted and thereafter bisulfite conversion was performed. After PCR amplification, the DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter was quantified using a pyrosequencing technique. The protein level of PGC-1α was evaluated by Western blotting. For all participants as a whole, including the GDM (gestational diabetes mellitus) and normoglycaemia groups, the maternal gestational glucose level was positively correlated with placental DNA methylation, and negatively correlated with cord blood DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter in a CpG site-specific manner. In the GDM group alone, the placental CpG site-specific methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter strongly correlated with gestational 2-h post-OGTT glycaemia. Epigenetic alteration of the PPAGRC1A promoter may be one of the potential mechanisms underlying the metabolic programming in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycaemia. PMID:25875376

  7. Dimethylesculetin ameliorates maternal glucose intolerance and fetal overgrowth in high-fat diet-fed pregnant mice via constitutive androstane receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Hisashi; Mitsui, Takashi; Maki, Jota; Tani, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Keiichiro; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been reported to decrease insulin resistance along with obesity. 6,7-dimethylesculetin (DE) is an active component of Yin Zhi Huang which is a traditional Asian medicine used to treat neonatal jaundice via CAR. In this study, we examined whether DE could affect the expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes via human CAR pathway using human HepG2 cells in vitro. We also studied whether DE treatment during pregnancy could prevent maternal hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia, and fetal overgrowth in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese pregnant mice. Dimethylesculetin suppressed the mRNA expression of gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, and lipogenic genes, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and enhanced CAR-mediated transcription. Blocking the CAR-mediated pathway abolished the effect of DE in vitro. DE treatment during pregnancy could prevent maternal hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia, and fetal overgrowth in HFD-induced obese pregnant mice in vivo. Our data indicate that DE might be a potential therapeutic agent for obese pregnant patients with insulin resistance through CAR to prevent the perinatal outcomes such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and macrosomia. Further analysis of possible complications and side effects using animal models is required. PMID:27426490

  8. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:27154523

  9. Sexual Dimorphism in Offspring Glucose-Sensitive Hypothalamic Gene Expression and Physiological Responses to Maternal High-Fat Diet Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Laura; Balthasar, Nina

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that early life environment significantly influences adult metabolic balance, however the etiology for offspring metabolic misprogramming remains incompletely understood. Here, we determine the effect of maternal diet per se on offspring sex-specific outcomes in metabolic health and hypothalamic transcriptome regulation in mice. Furthermore, to define developmental periods of maternal diet misprogramming aspects of offspring metabolic balance, ...

  10. Maternal and offspring fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants and cognitive function at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Carolina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In observational epidemiological studies type 2 diabetes (T2D and both low and high plasma concentrations of fasting glucose have been found to be associated with lower cognitive performance. These associations could be explained by confounding. Methods In this study we looked at the association between genetic variants, known to be robustly associated with fasting glucose and T2D risk, in the mother and her offspring to determine whether there is likely to be a causal link between early life exposure to glucose and child’s intelligence quotient (IQ scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC cohort. We generated a fasting glucose (FGGRS and a T2D (T2DGRS genetic risk score and used them in a Mendelian randomization approach. Results We found a strong correlation between the FGGRS and fasting glucose plasma measurements that were available for a subset of children, but no association of either the maternal or the offspring FGGRS with child’s IQ was observed. In contrast, the maternal T2DGRS was positively associated with offspring IQ. Conclusions Maternal and offspring genetic variants which are associated with glucose levels are not associated with offspring IQ, suggesting that there is unlikely to be a causal link between glucose exposure in utero and IQ in childhood. Further exploration in even larger cohorts is required to exclude the possibility that our null findings were due to a lack of statistical power.

  11. Macrosomia in non-gestational diabetes pregnancy:glucose tolerance test characteristics and feto-maternal complications in tropical Asia Pacific Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Algenes Aranha; Usman H Malabu; Venkat Vangaveti; Elham Saleh Reda; Yong Mong Tan; Kunwarjit Singh Sangla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To look into the glucose tolerance test characteristics and determine complications in non-gestational diabetes pregnant subjects.Methods:who delivered macrosomia at the North Australia’s Townsville Hospital were retrospectively reviewed by extracting data from clinical record. Glucose tolerance tests results were analysed in the light of an earlier diagnosis of non-GDM. From 2006 to 2009 all non-gestational diabetes mellitus (non-GDM) pregnant women Results: Ninety-one non-GDM mothers with macrosomia were studied and compared with 41 normoglycemic subjects without macrosomia. Of the subjects with non-GDM macrosomia, 45 (49.4%) had normal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) without further testing, another 8 (8.8%) had abnormal GCT but normal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 4 (4.4%) subjects had normal GCT and OGTT. Interestingly, 14 out of 16 (87.5%) subjects who were tested with OGTT owing to past history of macrosomia had normal results but delivered macrosomic babies. Only 12 subjects had both GCT and OGTT, the rest of the cohort had either of the two tests. Subjects with non-GDM macrosomia had higher frequency of neonatal hypoglycaemia 34% as compared to 10% in non-macrosomic babies (P=0.003). Other feto-maternal complications were similar in both groups.Conclusions:No significant pattern of glucose tolerance characteristics was identified in non-GDM mothers with macrosomic babies. In spite of being normoglycemic significant neonatal hypoglycaemia was recorded in non-GDM macrosomic babies. Further prospective studies on a larger population are needed to verify our findings.

  12. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  13. Random plasma glucose in early pregnancy is a better predictor of gestational diabetes diagnosis than maternal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Meek, Claire L.; Murphy, Helen R.; Simmons, David

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Asymptomatic pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes (GDM) at 24–28 weeks’ gestation. Recent guidelines also recommend screening early in gestation to identify undiagnosed pre-existing overt diabetes. We assessed the performance of random plasma glucose (RPG) testing at antenatal booking in predicting GDM diagnosis later in pregnancy. Methods Data from 25,543 consecutive singleton pregnancies at the Rosie Hospital in Cambridge (UK) were obtained from hospital elec...

  14. Maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation changes body fat, inflammatory markers and glucose homeostasis in the adult progeny: role of gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Deysla Sabino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Carvalho, Janaíne Cavalcanti; Reis, Adelina Martha Dos; Soares, Patricia Novaes; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation on body composition, lipid profile, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation in male and female progeny at adulthood. Lactating rats were divided into the following: control 7% soybean oil (C), hyper 19% soybean oil (HS) and hyper 17% flaxseed oil+2% soybean oil (HF). Weaned pups received a standard diet. Offspring were killed in PN180. Male HF presented higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and triacylglycerol, and female HF showed insulin resistance. Both male and female HF had hyperleptinemia, and only male HF had hyperprolactinemia. In VAT, male HF presented lower PPAR-γ expressions and higher TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 expressions; in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), they presented lower PPAR-γ and TNF-α expressions. Female HF presented higher leptin, as well as lower adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β expressions in VAT and lower TNF-α in SAT. Flaxseed oil during lactation leads to gender-specific effects with more adiposity and dyslipidemia in male and insulin resistance in female. Higher prolactin and inflammatory cytokines in male could play a role in these gender differences. We suggest that the use of flaxseed oil during lactation increases metabolic syndrome risk in the adult progeny. PMID:27469994

  15. 妊娠期糖代谢异常162例母儿预后分析%Analysis on the outcomes of 162 maternal and fetal with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.Methods: 162 patients were diagnosed definitely in our hospital from June 2003 to August 2007.They were divided into Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) group (58 cases) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) group (104 cases).150 pregnant women of normal blood glucose were taken as normal glucose tolerance (GNGT) group, maternal and fetal outcomes were compared in three groups.Results: The incidences of postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean section, pregnancy - induced hypertension, polyhydramnios, fatal macrosomia, premature delivery, neonatal hypoglycemia were higher in GDM group than in GNGT group (P < 0.05 ).The incidences of cesarean section, polyhydramnios, fatal acrosomia were higher in the GIGT group than in GNGT group (P <0.05).Conclusion: Abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy can produce adverse effect on mothers and neonates.It is very important to positive treatment the pregnant women of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常对母儿预后的影响.方法:2003年6月~2007年8月在大同市第一人民医院诊断为妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕妇162例,其中妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)组58例,妊娠期糖耐量减低(GIGT)组104例,另选择150例血糖值正常孕妇作为血糖正常(GNGT)组,比较3组的母儿预后.结果:GDM组孕妇产后即时出血、剖宫产、妊娠期高血压疾病、羊水过多、巨大儿、早产儿和新生儿低血糖的发生率均显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05);GIGT组剖宫产、羊水过多、巨大儿的发生率显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05).结论:妊娠期糖代谢异常对孕产妇和围生儿的预后有不良影响,应对妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇进行积极干预.

  16. 孕期糖代谢状况对早产儿早期胰岛功能的影响%Maternal glucose-insulin metabolism on early pancreatic islet function in premature infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐继; 刘戈力; 张平平; 初玉芹; 张金艳; 王玉亮

    2013-01-01

      目的分析母亲孕期糖代谢状况对其早产儿早期胰岛功能的影响,并探讨监测早产儿早期胰岛功能的敏感指标。方法将2012年3月至12月入住新生儿重症监护病房的82例早产儿分为2组,母亲孕期糖代谢异常组(35例)和母亲孕期糖代谢正常组(47例),分别检测早产儿生后1 h和7 d的空腹血糖(FPG)、胰岛素(FINS)、C-肽和胰岛素原,并比较早产儿胰岛β细胞功能的相关指数。结果两组早产儿母亲的孕前和产前体质指数(BMI)、早产儿出生时体质量和头围的差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。两组早产儿出生时胰岛素原与生后7 d的C-肽、胰岛素原的差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论母亲孕期糖代谢异常并不影响早产儿早期胰岛功能,但早产儿早期胰岛素原的分泌已受影响。%Objectives To analyze the impact of glucose-insulin metabolism during pregnancy onβ-cell function in premature infant, and to explore biomarkers for monitoringβ-cell function in preterm infant. Methods Eighty-two premature infants admitted to NICU from March to December 2012 were divided into 2 groups, a group with abnormal maternal glucose metabolism during pregnancy (35 cases) and another group with normal maternal glucose metabolism during pregnancy group (47 cases). Fasting blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide and proinsulin at 1 hour after birth and 7 days postpartum were measured respectively, and relevant indices ofβ-cell function were compared in premature infants. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy and prenatal body mass index, weight and head circumference of preterm infants at birth were signiifcantly different between two groups (P0.05). The differences in levels of proinsulin at birth, C-peptide and proinsulin at postnatal day 7 were signiifcantly different between the two groups (P0.05). Conclusions Abnormal maternal glucose metabolism in pregnancy has no effect on early pancreatic islet

  17. Maternal Lipids as Strong Determinants of Fetal Environment and Growth in Pregnancies With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer-Graf, Ute M.; Graf, Kristof; Kulbacka, Irina; Kjos, Siri L.; Dudenhausen, Joachim; Vetter, Klaus; Herrera, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the contribution of maternal glucose and lipids to intrauterine metabolic environment and fetal growth in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In 150 pregnancies, serum triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFAs), glycerol, insulin, and glucose were determined in maternal serum and cord blood during the 3rd trimester. Maternal glucose values came from oral glucose tolerance testing and glucose profiles. Measurem...

  18. Maternal 75-g OGTT glucose levels as predictive factors for large-for-gestational age newborns in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankica, Krstevska; Valentina, Velkoska Nakova; Slagjana, Simeonova Krstevska; Sasha, Jovanovska Mishevska

    2016-02-01

    Objective Our goal was to investigate which glucose measurement from the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has more capability of predicting large for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Subjects and methods The study group consisted of 118 consecutively pregnant women with singleton pregnancy, patients of Outpatients Department of the Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Disorders Clinic. All were prospectively screened for GDM between 24th and 28th week of pregnancy and followed to delivery. Outcome measures included: patients' ages, pre-pregnancy BMI, BMI before delivery, FPG, 1 and 2 hour OGTT glucose values, haemoglobin A1c at third trimester, gestational week of delivery, mode of delivery and baby birth weight. Results From 118 pregnancies, 78 (66.1%) women were with GDM, and 40 (33.9%) without GDM. There were statistically significant differences (30.7 versus 5.0%, p Gestation week of delivery and fasting glucose levels were independent predictors for LGA (Beta = 0.58 and Beta = 0.37 respectively, p pregnancies. PMID:26909480

  19. 糖耐量异常对妊娠期糖尿病母儿并发症的影响%Investigation of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance on Gestational Diabetes to Maternal and Neonatal Complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂秀娟

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the occurrence of maternal and neonatal complications caused by gestational diabetes and abnormal factors of glucose tolerance tests .Methods The singleton primiparas who were accepted system antenatal examination and delivered in my hospital from 1st Jan,2009 to 1st Jan,2011 were studied.They were divided into two groups,the OGTT 84 abnormal pregnant women was observation group,the OGTT normal pregnant ones was control group .The outcomes of pregnancy of the two groups were :maternal compli-cations(polyhydramnios,hypertensive disorders in pregnancy ,premature delivery,fetal distress,cesarean section rate,postpartum hemorrhage) and neonatal complications (macrosomia,deformity,RDS,intrauterine fetal death).Results The rate of the complications (such as postpartum hemorrhage,macrosomia polyhydramnios ,malformations,fetal death in utero) of the observation group was obviously increased with significant differences(P <0.05).Conclusion Pregnant women should do OGTT test for the early diagnosis ,to strengthen their pregnant and gestation -al nutrition and health,in order to reduce the hazards of gestational diabetes on maternal -fetal.%  目的探讨妊娠期糖尿病母婴并发症的发生与糖耐量试验异常的相关因素.方法2009年1月~2011年1月在我院行系统产前检查并住院分娩的单胎初产妇.口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)异常孕妇84例为观察组,OGTT 正常孕妇84例为对照组.观察妊娠结局:包括孕产妇并发症(羊水过多、妊娠期高血压疾病、早产、胎儿窘迫、剖宫产率、产后出血)及新生儿并发症(巨大儿、畸形、RDS、胎死宫内,窒息).结果观察组孕妇的并发症如产后出血、巨大儿羊水过多、畸形、胎死宫内的发生率明显升高(P <0.05).结论孕妇应行 OGTT 试验进行早期诊断,加强孕期、孕后营养及保健,可降低妊娠期糖尿病对母儿的危害.

  20. Placental glucose transfer: a human in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane M Holme

    Full Text Available The placental transfer of nutrients is influenced by maternal metabolic state, placenta function and fetal demands. Human in vivo studies of this interplay are scarce and challenging. We aimed to establish a method to study placental nutrient transfer in humans. Focusing on glucose, we tested a hypothesis that maternal glucose concentrations and uteroplacental arterio-venous difference (reflecting maternal supply determines the fetal venous-arterial glucose difference (reflecting fetal consumption.Cross-sectional in vivo study of 40 healthy women with uncomplicated term pregnancies undergoing planned caesarean section. Glucose and insulin were measured in plasma from maternal and fetal sides of the placenta, at the incoming (radial artery and umbilical vein and outgoing vessels (uterine vein and umbilical artery.There were significant mean (SD uteroplacental arterio-venous 0.29 (0.23 mmol/L and fetal venous-arterial 0.38 (0.31 mmol/L glucose differences. The transplacental maternal-fetal glucose gradient was 1.22 (0.42 mmol/L. The maternal arterial glucose concentration was correlated to the fetal venous glucose concentration (r = 0.86, p<0.001, but not to the fetal venous-arterial glucose difference. The uteroplacental arterio-venous glucose difference was neither correlated to the level of glucose in the umbilical vein, nor fetal venous-arterial glucose difference. The maternal-fetal gradient was correlated to fetal venous-arterial glucose difference (r = 0.8, p<0.001 and the glucose concentration in the umbilical artery (r = -0.45, p = 0.004. Glucose and insulin concentrations were correlated in the mother (r = 0.52, p = 0.001, but not significantly in the fetus. We found no significant correlation between maternal and fetal insulin values.We did not find a relation between indicators of maternal glucose supply and the fetal venous-arterial glucose difference. Our findings indicate that the maternal-fetal glucose gradient is significantly

  1. Glucose Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Glucose Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... the meaning of other test results. Fasting Blood Glucose Glucose Level Indication From 70 to 99 mg/ ...

  2. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  3. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-[U-13C] glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia

  4. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert;

    2003-01-01

    In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose...... chronic stress (insulin resistance), we propose to use the term "glucose allostasis." Allostasis (stability through change) ensures the continued homeostatic response (stability through staying the same) to acute stress at some cumulative costs to the system. With increasing severity and over time, the...

  5. Maternal and offspring fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants and cognitive function at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla Carolina; Lawlor Debbie A; Ben–Shlomo Yoav; Ness Andrew R; Gunnell David; Ring Susan M; Smith George; Lewis Sarah J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In observational epidemiological studies type 2 diabetes (T2D) and both low and high plasma concentrations of fasting glucose have been found to be associated with lower cognitive performance. These associations could be explained by confounding. Methods In this study we looked at the association between genetic variants, known to be robustly associated with fasting glucose and T2D risk, in the mother and her offspring to determine whether there is likely to be a causal li...

  6. Maternal care

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    In June 2000 a distinguished group of obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners, and medical statisticians came together to discuss maternal care. Chaired by Professor James Drife from Leeds, discussion ranged over many topics, including: the changing role of the obstetrician, general practitioners, and the increasing status and responsibility of midwives. Other subjects include the induction of labour, obstetric analgesia and anaesthesia, and debates about the place and kind of delivery...

  7. Maternal Microchimerism

    OpenAIRE

    Kanold, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Microchimerism refers to one individual harboring cells or DNA at a low level that derive from another individual. The most common source is pregnancy when cells from the fetus and the mother pass the placenta bidirectionally, and give rise to maternal microchimerism (cells from the mother in the fetus) and fetal microchimerism (cells from the fetus in the mother). The cells persist in the individual, at least until middleage. Several hypotheses have addressed the consequences ...

  8. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  9. Adverse pregnancy outcome in women with mild glucose intolerance: is there a clinically meaningful threshold value for glucose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Lauridsen, Lars Korsholm; Ovesen, Per Glud; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Damm, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been based on the risk of future maternal diabetes rather than the short-term risk of mother and infant. Our aim was to illustrate the relation between various adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal glucose levels in women with...

  10. Fetal and maternal metabolic responses to exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Michelle F; Artal, Raul

    2016-03-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by physiological, endocrine and metabolic adaptations creating a pseudo-diabetogenic state of progressive insulin resistance. These adaptations occur to sustain continuous fetal requirements for nutrients and oxygen. Insulin resistance develops at the level of the skeletal muscle, and maternal exercise, especially activity involving large muscle groups improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We discuss the maternal hormonal and metabolic changes associated with a normal pregnancy, the metabolic dysregulation that may occur leading to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and the consequences to mother and fetus. We will then examine the acute and chronic (training) responses to exercise in the non-pregnant state and relate these alterations to maternal exercise in a low-risk pregnancy, how exercise can be used to regulate glucose tolerance in women at risk for or diagnosed with GDM. Lastly, we present key exercise guidelines to help maintain maternal glucose regulation and suggest future research directions. PMID:26803360

  11. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-[U-14C]- and D-[2-3H]glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production

  12. Glucose partitioning in the pregnant ewe: effects of undernutrition and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leury, B J; Bird, A R; Chandler, K D; Bell, A W

    1990-09-01

    Maternal whole-body glucose entry rate and uterine and umbilical net uptakes of glucose and oxygen were measured in single-pregnant ewes which were either well-fed throughout, or fed at 0.3-0.4 predicted energy requirement for 7-21 d during late pregnancy. All ewes were studied while standing at rest and then while walking on a treadmill at 0.7 m/s on a 10 degrees slope for 60 min. Underfed ewes suffered significant decreases in live weight and had lower fetal, but not placental, weights at 140-144 d gestation. Undernutrition also caused large decreases in maternal glycaemia and glucose entry rate, which were associated with equally large decreases in uterine and umbilical net uptakes and O2 quotients of glucose, and with a decrease in placental glucose transfer capacity. Exercise caused increases in maternal blood concentration, entry rate and uterine net uptake of glucose, the magnitudes of which were not significantly affected by plane of nutrition. Umbilical glucose uptake and placental glucose transfer capacity increased during exercise in underfed but not fed ewes. The fractional distribution of maternal glucose to the pregnant uterus, and of uterine glucose uptake to the fetus, were unaltered by undernutrition; during exercise, a disproportionately small fraction of the increased maternal glucose supply went to the uterus. The results confirm that the ovine conceptus responds to nutritional reduction in maternal glucose availability in a manner similar to non-uterine maternal tissues. Major reductions in glucose supply appear to override putative glucose-sparing mechanisms which may operate to favour the conceptus in better-nourished animals. PMID:2223746

  13. Placental Transfer of Lactate, Glucose and 2-deoxyglucose in Control and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Chris R.; Oon, Beryl B.; Lowy, Clara

    2001-01-01

    Placental transfer of lactate, glucose and 2-deoxyglucose was examined employing the in situ perfused placenta. Control and streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were infused with U-14C]-glucose and [3H]-2-deoxyglucose (2DG). The fetal side of the placenta was perfuseci with a cell free medium and glucose uptake was calculated in the adjacent fetuses. Despite the 5-fold higher maternal plasma glucose concentration in the diabetic dams the calculated fetal glucose metabolic index was not...

  14. Glucose and insulin dynamics in late gestation mares and neonatal foals

    OpenAIRE

    George, Lindsey Ann

    2007-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity decreases during pregnancy, presumably an adaptation ensuring sufficient glucose supply to feto-placental tissues. Feeds high in non-structural carbohydrates are also linked to diminished insulin sensitivity in horses. Because the equine fetus is highly glucose reliant, maternal glucose and insulin dynamics during pregnancy may have implications for optimal fetal development in horses. Mismanagement of maternal nutrition during gestation could predispose the offspring t...

  15. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes-the role of glucose and other factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmidt, Lone;

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values.......We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values....

  16. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal...... newborn fat masses, but not to fat-free mass. Interventions targeting maternal postprandial glucose levels may induce more appropriate birth weight, thereby reducing the risk of subsequent morbidity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Ethnic Differences in Maternal Adipokines during Normal Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhua Chen; Scholl, Theresa O.

    2015-01-01

    Two adipokines (adiponectin and resistin) have opposite relations with insulin resistance and inflammation. Our major focus was to determine whether there were detectable ethnic differences in maternal adipokines during pregnancy. We also explored the correlation of the adipokines with maternal glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters. Pregnant women (n = 1634) were from a large prospective cohort study in Camden NJ (African-American 36.8%; Hispanic 47.6%; Caucasian 1...

  18. Chronic Maternal Dietary Chromium Restriction Modulates Visceral Adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathi, Inagadapa J.N.; Rao, K Rajender; Venu, Lagishetty; Ganeshan, Manisha; Kumar, K. Anand; Rao, Ch. Narasima; Harishankar, Nemani; Ismail, Ayesha; Raghunath, Manchala

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We demonstrated previously that chronic maternal micronutrient restriction altered the body composition in rat offspring and may predispose offspring to adult-onset diseases. Chromium (Cr) regulates glucose and fat metabolism. The objective of this study is to determine the long-term effects of maternal Cr restriction on adipose tissue development and function in a rat model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Female weanling WNIN rats received, ad libitum, a control diet or the same with ...

  19. Maternal obesity, lipotoxicity and cardiovascular diseases in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maolong; Zheng, Qijun; Ford, Stephen P; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ren, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Maternal obesity has risen dramatically over the past 20 years, by nearly 42% in African-Americans and 29% in Caucasians. Maternal obesity is afflicted with many maternal obstetric complications in the offspring including high blood pressure, obesity, gestational diabetes and increased perinatal morbidity. Maternal nutritional environment plays a rather important role in the programming of the health set-points in the offspring such as glucose and insulin metabolism, energy balance and predisposition to metabolic disorders. In particular, maternal obesity is associated with elevated prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the offspring. Evidence from human and experimental studies including rodents and nonhuman primates has indicated that maternal obesity or overnutrition programs offspring for an increased risk of adult obesity. Maternal obesity or fat diet exposure predisposes the onset and development of obesity, insulin resistance, cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial contractile anomalies in the offspring. A number of mechanisms including elevated hormones (leptin, insulin), nutrients (fatty acids, triglycerides and glucose) and inflammatory cytokines have been postulated to play a key role in maternal obesity-induced postnatal cardiovascular sequelae. In addition, lipotoxicity (accumulation of lipid metabolites) resulting from maternal obesity is capable of activating a number of stress signaling cascades including pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress to exacerbate maternal obesity-induced cardiovascular complications later on in adult life. This mini-review summarizes the recent knowledge with regard to the role of lipotoxicity in maternal obesity-induced change in cardiovascular function in the offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism". PMID:22982026

  20. The risk of postpartum maternal hyperglycaemia in women with gestational diabetes is reduced by breastfeeding

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, MW

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. It identifies women at risk of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular risk in later life. Recent studies have suggested that breastfeeding may confer a beneficial effect on postpartum maternal glucose tolerance in both women with GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy.\\r\

  1. Correlation between maternal inflammatory markers and fetomaternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-10-01

    Outside pregnancy, both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with changes in inflammatory cytokines. Obesity in pregnancy may be complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and\\/or fetal macrosomia. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between maternal cytokines and fetomaternal adiposity in the third trimester in women where the important confounding variable GDM had been excluded. Healthy women with a singleton pregnancy and a normal glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks gestation were enrolled at their convenience. Maternal cytokines were measured at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Maternal adiposity was assessed indirectly by calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI), and directly by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fetal adiposity was assessed by ultrasound measurement of fetal soft tissue markers and by birthweight at delivery. Of the 71 women studied, the mean maternal age and BMI were 29.1 years and 29.2 kg\\/m(2) respectively. Of the women studied 32 (45%) were obese. Of the cytokines, only maternal IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with maternal adiposity. Maternal TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not correlate with either fetal body adiposity or birthweight. In this well characterised cohort of pregnant non-diabetic women in the third trimester of pregnancy we found that circulating maternal cytokines are associated with maternal adiposity but not with fetal adiposity.

  2. 口服二甲双胍对肥胖合并妊娠期糖耐量受损孕妇的影响%Effect of Oral Metformin on the Maternal Labor and Offspring′s Growth and Development in Pregnant Women with Simple Obesity Complicated with Gestational Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐韵

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of oral metformin on the maternal labor and offspring′s growth and development in pregnant women with simple obesity complicated with gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT ) .Methods 96 pregnant women with simple obesity complicated with GIGT were selected and divided into three groups ,which were the insulin group with 32 cases treated with insulin ,the metformin group with 34 cases treated with metformin ,and the combined group with 30 cases treated with both insulin and metformin .The data were collected and analyzed retrospectively to compare the changes of the pregnant women′s blood glucose levels before and after treatment ,the maternal and neonatal outcomes ,and the offspring′s growth and development in the 5‐year follow‐ups .Results The fasting and 2‐hour postprandial blood glucose levels in the three groups were significantly lower after treatment than before treatment (P 0.05 ) . The maternal and neonatal outcomes showed that there were no significant differences in the rate of cesarean section and premature labor and the incidence of pregnancy complications among the three groups (P>0.05) .Meanwhile ,there were no significant differences in the incidence of neonatal malformation ,fetal macrosomia ,jaundice and respiratory distress ,and the rate of being transferred to the department of pediatrics among the three groups (P>0.05) .The follow‐up results showed that the differences in the development of height ,weight and intelligence during the 5 years of follow‐ups were not significant among the three groups (P>0.05) .Conclusion Oral metformin has ideal effect on the regulation of blood glucose levels in pregnant women with simple obesity complicated with GIGT ,while it has no adverse effect on the maternal and neonatal outcomes and the offspring′s grow th and development and the drug safety is high .%目的:探讨肥胖合并妊娠期糖耐量受损(GIGT )孕妇口服二甲双胍对母体

  3. The influence of maternal glycaemia and dietary glycaemic index on pregnancy outcome in healthy mothers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Ciara A

    2010-07-01

    Infant birth weight has increased in Ireland in recent years along with levels of childhood overweight and obesity. The present article reviews the current literature on maternal glycaemia and the role of the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. It is known that maternal weight and weight gain significantly influence infant birth weight. Fetal macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal trauma to both mother and infant. Furthermore, macrosomic infants have greater risk of being obese in childhood, adolescence and adulthood compared to normal-sized infants. There is evidence that there is a direct relationship between maternal blood glucose levels during pregnancy and fetal growth and size at birth, even when maternal blood glucose levels are within their normal range. Thus, maintaining blood glucose concentrations within normal parameters during pregnancy may reduce the incidence of fetal macrosomia. Maternal diet, and particularly its carbohydrate (CHO) type and content, influences maternal blood glucose concentrations. However, different CHO foods produce different glycaemic responses. The GI was conceived by Jenkins in 1981 as a method for assessing the glycaemic responses of different CHO. Data from clinical studies in healthy pregnant women have documented that consuming a low-GI diet during pregnancy reduces peaks in postprandial glucose levels and normalises infant birth weight. Pregnancy is a physiological condition where the GI may be of particular relevance as glucose is the primary fuel for fetal growth.

  4. Maternal BMI Associations with Maternal and Cord Blood Vitamin D Levels in a North American Subset of Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO Study Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L Josefson

    Full Text Available Obesity in pregnancy may be associated with reduced placental transfer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD. The objective of this study was to examine associations between maternal BMI and maternal and cord blood levels of 25-OHD in full term neonates born to a single racial cohort residing at similar latitude. Secondary objectives were to examine associations between maternal glucose tolerance with maternal levels of 25-OHD and the relationship between cord blood 25-OHD levels and neonatal size.This study was conducted among participants of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO Study meeting the following criteria: residing at latitudes 41-43°, maternal white race, and gestational age 39-41 weeks. Healthy pregnant women underwent measures of height, weight, and a 75-g fasting oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT at approximately 28 weeks gestation. Maternal and cord blood sera were analyzed for total 25-OHD by HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included ANOVA and linear regression models.Maternal and cord blood (N = 360 mean levels (sd of 25-OHD were 37.2 (11.2 and 23.4 (9.2 ng/ml, respectively, and these levels were significantly different among the 3 field centers (ANOVA p< 0.001. Maternal serum 25-OHD was lower by 0.40 ng/ml for BMI higher by 1 kg/m2 (p<0.001 in an adjusted model. Maternal fasting plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity, and presence of GDM were not associated with maternal serum 25-OHD level when adjusted for maternal BMI. Cord blood 25-OHD was lower by 0.26 ng/ml for maternal BMI higher by 1 kg/m2 (p<0.004. With adjustment for maternal age, field center, birth season and maternal serum 25-OHD, the association of cord blood 25-OHD with maternal BMI was attenuated. Neither birth weight nor neonatal adiposity was significantly associated with cord blood 25-OHD levels.These results suggest that maternal levels of 25-OHD are associated with maternal BMI. The results also suggest that interpretation of

  5. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  6. Glucose test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  7. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results:Large for gestational age (LGA babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA group (P < 0.001. Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05. However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01. Conclusion:The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies.

  8. Diabetes-induced perturbations are subject to intergenerational transmission through maternal line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Mervat Y; Abdelkhalek, Taha M; Saad, Mohamed I; Saleh, Moustafa M; Haiba, Maha M; Kamel, Maher A

    2016-06-01

    The hypothesis of fetal origins of adult disease states that early life events program the occurrence of significant adult diseases, including diabetes and obesity. Maternal diabetes is associated with general stress environment for developing fetus, and gestational diabetes is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in offspring. Intra-uterine fetal programming of fetal tissues exposes the offspring to increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Here, we examined the transmission of maternal diabetes-induced fetal programming in second generation and compared maternal and paternal routes of intergenerational effects. We organized 40 Wistar rats into three groups, male offspring of diabetic mothers, female offspring of diabetic mothers, and offspring of control mothers. These groups were mated with normal healthy rats to assess the effect of grand-maternal diabetes on pregnancy outcome in F2 rats, as well as glucose-sensing parameters, insulin resistance, and glucose tolerance prenatally and postnatally. We found that F2 offspring of diabetic mothers had impaired glucose sensing, increased oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance, and these effects were more prominent in the F2 offspring of F1 female rats (F2-DF1F). We deduce that fetal programming of maternal diabetes is mostly transmitted through maternal line across two generations. PMID:27038466

  9. Maternal mortality in Sirur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    The research aim was 1) to determine the incidence of maternal mortality in a rural health center area in Sirur, Maharashtra state, India; 2) to determine the relative risk; and 3) to make suggestions about reducing maternal mortality. The data on deliveries was obtained between 1981 and 1984. Medical care at the Rural Training Center was supervised by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, the B.J. Medical College in Pune. Deliveries numbered 5994 singleton births over the four years; 5919 births were live births. 15 mothers died: 14 after delivery and 1 predelivery. The maternal mortality rate was 2.5/1000 live births. The maternal causes of death included 9 direct obstetric causes, 3 from postpartum hemorrhage of anemic women, and 3 from puerperal sepsis of anemic women with prolonged labor. 2 deaths were due to eclampsia, and 1 death was unexplained. There were 5 (33.3%) maternal deaths due to indirect causes (3 from hepatitis and 2 from thrombosis). One woman died of undetermined causes. Maternal jaundice during pregnancy was associated with the highest relative risk of maternal death: 106.4. Other relative risk factors were edema, anemia, and prolonged labor. Attributable risk was highest for anemia, followed by jaundice, edema, and maternal age of over 30 years. Maternal mortality at 30 years and older was 3.9/1000 live births. Teenage maternal mortality was 3.3/1000. Maternal mortality among women 20-29 years old was lowest at 2.1/1000. Maternal mortality for women with a parity of 5 or higher was 3.6/1000. Prima gravida women had a maternal mortality rate of 2.9/1000. Parities between 1 and 4 had a maternal mortality rate of 2.3/1000. The lowest maternal mortality was at parity of 3. Only 1 woman who died had received more than 3 prenatal visits. 11 out of 13 women medically examined prenatally were identified with the following risk factors: jaundice, edema, anemia, young or old maternal age, parity, or poor obstetric history. The local

  10. Glucose kinetics and pregnancy outcome in Indian women with low and normal body mass indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal energy demands are met from the oxidation of maternally supplied glucose and amino acids. During the fasted state, the glucose supply is thought to be met by gluconeogenesis. Underweight women with low body mass index (BMI) might be unable to adequately supply amino acids to satisfy the demand...

  11. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  12. Maternal obesity accelerates fetal pancreatic β-cell but not α-cell development in sheep: prenatal consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Stephen P; Zhang, Liren; Zhu, Meijun; Miller, Myrna M.; Smith, Derek T.; Hess, Bret W.; Moss, Gary E.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity affects offspring weight, body composition, and organ function, increasing diabetes and metabolic syndrome risk. We determined effects of maternal obesity and a high-energy diet on fetal pancreatic development. Sixty days prior to breeding, ewes were assigned to control [100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or obesogenic (OB; 150% NRC) diets. At 75 days gestation, OB ewes exhibited elevated insulin-to-glucose ratios at rest and during a glucose tolerance t...

  13. Maternal Smoking and Metabolic Health Biomarkers in Newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been associated with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes among the offspring in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this fetal "programming" effect remain unclear. The present study sought to explore whether maternal smoking affects metabolic health biomarkers in fetuses/newborns.In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248, we compared metabolic health biomarkers in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Outcomes included cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of β-cell function.Independent of maternal (glucose tolerance, age, ethnicity, parity, education, body mass index, alcohol use and infant (sex, gestational age, birth weight z score, mode of delivery, cord blood glucose concentration characteristics, the newborns of smoking mothers had lower IGF-I concentrations (mean: 6.7 vs. 8.4 nmol/L, adjusted p = 0.006, and marginally higher proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (0.94 vs. 0.72, adjusted p = 0.06 than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. Cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations and glucose-to-insulin ratios were similar in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers.Maternal smoking was associated with decreased fetal IGF-I levels, and borderline lower fetal β-cell function. Larger cohort studies are required to confirm the latter finding. The preliminary findings prompt the hypothesis that these early life metabolic changes may be involved in the impact of maternal smoking on future risk of metabolic syndrome related disorders in the offspring.

  14. Four grams of glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserman, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Four grams of glucose circulates in the blood of a person weighing 70 kg. This glucose is critical for normal function in many cell types. In accordance with the importance of these 4 g of glucose, a sophisticated control system is in place to maintain blood glucose constant. Our focus has been on the mechanisms by which the flux of glucose from liver to blood and from blood to skeletal muscle is regulated. The body has a remarkable capacity to satisfy the nutritional need for glucose, while ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... but it is not as effective as it should be. You ate more than planned or exercised ... glucose often. Ask your doctor how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation- ...

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  18. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Your Gift for Research Doubled - 2016- ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ...

  3. Role of gut microbiota in maternal glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yushi; 毛雨詩

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in daily biological reactions. It is proved that many metabolic diseases are accompanied with pattern change of gut microbiota and pregnancy is also a process with gut microbiota remodeling. Besides, serum IGF-1 level is increased during pregnancy, but the source of increased IGF-1 remains unclear. So far, there is a paper that explored the gut microbiota in pregnant women. However, the diet of pregnant women was not unified in the study, which might hav...

  4. CSF glucose test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  8. Maternal and Fetal Lipid and Adipokine Profiles and Their Association with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solis-Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal metabolic changes impact fetal metabolism resulting in a higher risk for developing chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal and fetal adipokine and lipid profiles, as well as the influence of maternal weight on this association. Methods. Healthy pregnant women at term who delivered by C-section were enrolled. Maternal and fetal glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were analyzed by obesity and maternal weight gain. Statistics included descriptives, correlations, and mean differences (SPSS v20.0. Results. Adiponectin and resistin concentrations were higher in fetal blood, while leptin was lower (p<0.05. A significant inverse association between maternal resistin and fetal LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C (r=-0.327; p=0.022 was observed. A positive correlation was found between maternal and fetal resistin (r=0.358; p=0.013. Women with excessive weight gain had higher leptin levels and their fetuses showed higher LDL-C levels (p<0.05. Conclusions. Maternal resistin showed an inverse association with fetal LDL-C, suggesting that maternal adiposity status may play an active role in the regulation of fetal lipid profile and consequently, in fetal programming. Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy may exert an effect over metabolic mediators in both mother and newborn.

  9. Effects of pregnancy on maternal work tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Larry A; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Glenn, Nicole M; Heenan, Aaron P; Davies, Gregory A L

    2005-04-01

    This review summarizes current information on the tolerance of healthy pregnant women and their fetuses to acute strenuous exertion. Maximal aerobic power, expressed in L x min(-1), is not significantly affected in women who maintain an active lifestyle, whereas values expressed in ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) decline with advancing gestational age in relation to maternal/fetal weight gain. Efficiency during standard exercise testing and the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (Tvent) also appear to be unaffected by pregnancy, but the ability to utilize carbohydrate and exercise anaerobically during brief strenuous exercise may be reduced. Fetal responses to short strenuous exercise are usually moderate and revert to baseline values within approximately 30 min postexercise. Future studies should examine alveolar gas exchange kinetics at the start of exercise and during recovery from both moderate and strenuous exertion. Existing studies of the responses of pregnant women to prolonged exercise have focused primarily on substrate utilization and glucose homeostasis. Other maternal responses to prolonged exercise that should be examined include acid-base regulation, temperature regulation, fluid and electrolyte balance, and perception of effort. Fetal reactions should also be examined in relation to maternal responses. Until evidence-based, occupation-specific guidelines become available, it is recommended that pregnant women use the Joint SOGC/CSEP Clinical Practice Guideline: Exercise in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period, published by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (2003). PMID:15981789

  10. Maternal Separation Anxiety and Child Care: Effects on Maternal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Heidi A.; Ridley-Johnson, Robyn

    Maternal separation anxiety influences maternal behavior, attitudes about employment, and employment decisions made by mothers. This study examined the relationship between maternal separation anxiety and the number of hours a child was in substitute care. The sample consisted of 44 mothers and their children who ranged in age from 12 to 41 months…

  11. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... should know? How is it used? Maternal serum screening is used in the second trimester of pregnancy ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ...

  14. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  15. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  16. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  17. Glucose monitoring during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In patients with diabetes who intend to fast during Ramadan, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important tool. During this month, a long established treatment regimen, including medications, physical activity and diet plan, is changed to achieve concordance with the rules of fasting. Without proper glucose monitoring, it is not possible to achieve good glycaemic control. PMID:26013788

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  19. Proximity to Delivery Alters Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Metabolism in Pregnant Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Musial, Babara; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Owen R Vaughan; Ozanne, Susan E.; Voshol, Peter; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Fowden, Abigail L.

    2016-01-01

    In late pregnancy, maternal insulin resistance occurs to support fetal growth but little is known about insulin-glucose dynamics close to delivery. This study measured insulin sensitivity in mice in late pregnancy, day (D) 16, and near term, D19, (term 20.5D). Non-pregnant (NP) and pregnant mice were assessed for metabolite and hormone concentrations, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, tissue insulin signalling protein abundance by Western blotting, glucose tolerance and ut...

  20. Effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring in pregnant women with diabetes: randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Helen R.; Rayman, Gerry; Lewis, Karen; Kelly, Susan; Johal, Balroop; Duffield, Katherine; Fowler, Duncan; Campbell, Peter J.; Temple, Rosemary C

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring during pregnancy on maternal glycaemic control, infant birth weight, and risk of macrosomia in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Design Prospective, open label randomised controlled trial. Setting Two secondary care multidisciplinary obstetric clinics for diabetes in the United Kingdom. Participants 71 women with type 1 diabetes (n=46) or type 2 diabetes (n=25) allocated to antenatal care plus continuous glucose mon...

  1. Prenatal depressive symptoms and abnormalities of glucose tolerance during pregnancy among Hispanic women

    OpenAIRE

    Ertel, Karen A.; Silveira, Marushka; Pekow, Penelope; Braun, Barry; Manson, JoAnn E.; Solomon, Caren G.; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively examine the association between maternal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in mid-pregnancy. We evaluated this association among 934 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) women in Western Massachusetts. Depressive symptoms were assessed in early pregnancy using the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depres...

  2. Effects of maternal nicotine on breastfeeding infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Cândida Caniçali; Ruela, Priscilla Bôa F; Brotto, Léia Damasceno de A; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro; Lima, Eliane de Fátima

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess scientific evidence about the effects of maternal nicotine on infant by an integrative review. DATA SOURCES Studies published in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from 1990 to 2009, with abstracts available in the Latin American Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (Medline) databases. The descriptors were: "breastfeeding", "lactation" and "smoking". DATA SYNTHESIS The main identified effects of nicotine on infants were: changes in sleep and wakefulness patterns; reduction of iodine supply; hystopathological damage on liver and lung; intracellular oxidative damage; reduction of pancreatic ß cells; and decreased glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS It is recommended to inform mothers about harmful chemicals contained in cigarettes that can be secreted into breast milk. They should be strongly encouraged to stop smoking during lactation. PMID:24142324

  3. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity...... care, at least not in the intended manner. It was, however, an achievement to relate the different interests for a period. In this dissertation I will elucidate the proposed changes in the initiatives as well as expound on the manner in which they were proposed. It is argued that the different...... interests involved in the initiatives were not obstacles which the proposed changes should overcome, but are on the contrary necessary, as it is the alliances between the particular interests and the proposed changes that motor the initiatives. The interests were not invented through the initiatives but are...

  4. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  5. Maternal mortality in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Thobbi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study is to evaluate the incidence of maternal deaths, causes responsible for maternal mortality, direct and indirect factors, and various preventable methods to reduce maternal mortality rate. Background: 95% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and Africa. The need for undertaking this study is to know the maternal mortality rate, analyze the causes and preventable factors of death occurring in the district of Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Methodology: It is a study of 2years from the Records of District Health Office and Institutions on maternal mortality from June 2011 to May 2013 in Bijapur. Results: In two years there were fifty eight maternal deaths and seventy nine thousand five hundred and sixty six live births, hence maternal mortality ratio was seventy three per lakh live births. Eighty two percent of maternal deaths occurred in families who belonged to Below Poverty Line. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was 79.3%. Severe anemia (Hemoglobin <7g% seen in 5.1% was the most common indirect cause of death. Forty three percent of the deaths occurred at private setups. Hemorrhage, Septicemia and Preeclampsia & Eclampsia were responsible for 44.82%, 15.51% and 6.89% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the maternal deaths are preventable if these four delays are avoided: a Delay in identifying the problem. b Delay in seeking care. c Delay in reaching the referral institute. d Delay in getting treatment on reaching the referral institute.

  6. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction....

  7. Maternal-fetal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-03-01

    Advances in prenatal care have brought about a greater understanding as to the special status of the fetus to the point that it is considered a patient in its own regard. Pregnant women generally follow the medical recommendations of their physicians that are intended for the benefit of their baby. Any situation where maternal well-being or wishes contradict fetal benefit constitutes a maternal-fetal conflict. Such situations include a broad range of possible interventions, non-interventions, and coercive influences. In such cases, the attending physician is expected to attain an attitude that involves either the respect of the woman's autonomy and right to privacy, which precludes any approach other than to accept her decision, or to modify this absolute for the beneficence of the fetus. Current ethical viewpoints range from absolute respect for maternal autonomy with no persuasion allowed, to gentle persuasion and to others which permit intervention and overriding of the woman's autonomy. Court-ordered decisions enforcing the pregnant woman to undergo a procedure in order to improve fetal outcome have been criticized as an invasion of a woman's privacy, limitation of her autonomy, and taking away of her right to informed consent. PMID:10733034

  8. Maternal and perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Menon, M K

    1972-01-01

    A brief analysis of data from the records of the Government Hospital for Women and Children in Madras for a 36-year period (1929-1964) is presented. India with a population of over 550 million has only 1 doctor for each 6000 population. For the 80% of the population which is rural, the doctor ratio is only 88/1 million. There is also a shortage of paramedical personnel. During the earlier years of this study period, abortions, puerperal infections; hemorrhage, and toxemia accounted for nearly 75% of all meternal deaths, while in later years deaths from these causes were 40%. Among associated factors in maternal mortality, anemia was the most frequent, it still accounts for 20% and is a contributory factor in another 20%. The mortality from postpartum hemorrhage was 9.3% but has now decreased to 2.8%. Eclampsia is a preventable disease and a marked reduction in maternal and perinatal mortality from this cause has been achieved. Maternal deaths from puerperal infections have dropped from 25% of all maternal deaths to 7%. Uterine rupture has been reduced from 75% to 9.3% due to modern facilities. Operative deliveries still have an incidence of 2.1% and a mortality rate of 1.4% of all deliveries. These rates would be further reduced by more efficient antenatal and intranatal care. Reported perinatal mortality of infants has been reduced from 182/1000 births to an average of 78/1000 in all areas, but is 60.6/1000 in the city of Madras. Socioeconomic standards play an important role in perinatal mortality, 70% of such deaths occurring in the lowest economic groups. Improvement has been noted in the past 25 years but in rural areas little progress has been made. Prematurity and low birth weights are still larger factors in India than in other countries, with acute infectious diseases, anemia, and general malnutrition among mothers the frequent causes. Problems requiring further efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality are correct vital statistics, improved

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of ... enough insulin. Without insulin, your body can't use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... t use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use for energy. When your ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin ...

  13. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glucose NIH Medline Plus - Diabetes Spotlight FDA permits marketing of first system of mobile medical apps for ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose ... be a serious problem if you don't treat it, so it's important to treat as soon ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ... for Professionals Professional Books Patient Access to Research Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $ ... glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... events, such as eating breakfast, take on exaggerated importance. It's a world where a person needs a ...

  9. Glucose Monitoring During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    HAWKINS, J. SETH

    2010-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose in women with mild gestational diabetes has recently been proven to be useful in reducing the rates of fetal overgrowth and gestational weight gain. However, uncertainty remains with respect to the optimal frequency and timing of self-monitoring. A continuous glucose monitoring system may have utility in pregnant women with insulin-treated diabetes, especially for those women with blood sugars that are difficult to control or who experience nocturnal hypoglyce...

  10. Human blood glucose dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaghi, Farbod N.

    2007-01-01

    The control of blood glucose concentration has become central to the prevention of morbidity in diabetes. Currently sensors are becoming available to make available near continuous measurements of tissue glucose concentrations. Frequently measured values provide an opportunity to analyze the dynamics of these measurements in addition to statistical analysis. The dynamics can be used to verify sensor validity, to provide a physiologic control target, and serve as a tool to diagnose and monitor...

  11. ADVERSE MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarisha Bhandiwad, Divyasree B, Surakshith L Gowda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM are at increased risk for many other health concerns with short and long-term implications for both mother and child. They are at higher risk for glucose-mediated macrosomia, hypertension, birth trauma, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia with increased neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admissions. Postpartum complications include obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in the offspring and diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the mothers. Objectives: To study the incidence of maternal and fetal co-morbidities associated with GDM. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study where cases with GDM were analyzed for maternal and fetal complications. Results: 189 cases were detected to be Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, out of which 63.49% cases developed co-morbidities with GDM. 11.11% cases developed preeclampsia, 9.52% had polyhydramnios, 5.8% patients went into preterm labour, 3 cases had Antepartum Haemorrhage and one case had Postpartum Haemorrhage. 19.57% cases developed macrosomia, hypoglycemia was seen in 7.40% babies and hyperbilirubinemia in 3.70% babies. 6 Intra Uterine Deaths and 2 still borns were documented. Conclusion: GDM is a condition which is worth monitoring and treating, since it has been demonstrated that good metabolic control maintained throughout gestation can reduce maternal and fetal complications.

  12. Effects of taurine supplementation on hepatic markers of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and offspring in the setting of maternal obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglan Li

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1 control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON; 2 CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT; 3 maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose during pregnancy and lactation (MO; or 4 MO supplemented with taurine (MOT. Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation

  13. Severe maternal outcome: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Suparna Grover; Harbhajan Kaur Shergill; Ajay Chhabra

    2016-01-01

    Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is considered an indicator of obstetric care available in a society and reduction in MMR has been one of the important millennium development goals defined by World Health Organization (WHO) but it has always been recognized that maternal mortality is just the tip of iceberg. WHO has now defined maternal near-miss cases thus broadening the focus on life threatening conditions encountered by pregnant women. A study was started at our obstetric unit based on near-...

  14. Maternal and pregnancy related predictors of cardiometabolic traits in newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Morrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids, health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia, accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30 and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001 and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01 and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01. Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1 was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005. LDL-C was a bridging

  15. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  16. Maternal nutrition, health, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul

    2002-05-01

    The burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries is high. Each year, 600,000 women die from pregnancy-related causes and 62 million women suffer from morbidity and complications of pregnancy. The extent to which maternal nutrition can improve maternal health and survival is not well understood. Excluding deaths due to induced abortions, the other four main causes of maternal mortality (preeclampsia, hemorrhage, obstructed labor, and infection) may be amenable to nutrition interventions. The role of calcium in reducing the incidence of preeclampsia and hypertension is promising, but more research in deficient populations is urgently needed. Antenatal iron supplementation, although frequently recommended to prevent anemia during pregnancy, has had little program success. Severe anemia may be an important cause of maternal mortality, but convincing evidence is lacking on the health consequences of mild-to-moderate maternal anemia. Knowledge of the etiology of anemia is important in identifying effective strategies for combating it. Other vitamins such as folate, B12, and vitamin A may enhance the effect of iron supplementation in populations where multiple nutrition deficiencies exist. Maternal night blindness is widespread in South Asian women. In Nepal, this condition is associated with markedly increased risks of vitamin A deficiency, anemia, morbidity, and maternal and infant mortality. These findings need to be replicated elsewhere in South Asia. One study has shown vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. These findings need testing in different settings with emphasis on investigating the mechanisms of the effect. The area of prepregnancy nutrition and its influence on prolonged and obstructed labor is wide open for investigation. The scope for research in the area of maternal nutrition and health is large and the onus is on nutritionists to bring to the forefront the role of nutrition in

  17. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  18. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  19. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal metabonome

  20. A Common Haplotype of the Glucokinase Gene Alters Fasting Glucose and Birth Weight: Association in Six Studies and Population-Genetics Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Weedon, Michael N. ; Clark, Vanessa J. ; Qian, Yudong ; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav ; Timpson, Nicholas ; Ebrahim, Shah ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Pembrey, Marcus E. ; Ring, Susan ; Wilkin, Terry J. ; Voss, Linda D. ; Jeffery, Alison N. ; Metcalf, Brad ; Ferrucci, Luigi ; Corsi, Anna Maria 

    2006-01-01

    Fasting glucose is associated with future risk of type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease and is tightly regulated despite considerable variation in quantity, type, and timing of food intake. In pregnancy, maternal fasting glucose concentration is an important determinant of offspring birth weight. The key determinant of fasting glucose is the enzyme glucokinase (GCK). Rare mutations of GCK cause fasting hyperglycemia and alter birth weight. The extent to which common variation of GCK expl...

  1. Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors Associated With Weight Gain and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Among Pregnant Latinas123

    OpenAIRE

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy has been proposed as a critical period for the development of subsequent maternal overweight and/or obesity. Excessive gestational weight gain is, in turn, associated with maternal complications such as cesarean delivery, hypertension, preeclampsia, impaired glucose tolerance, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Although there is substantial evidence that targeting at-risk groups for type 2 diabetes prevention is effective if lifestyle changes are made, relatively little attention ha...

  2. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  3. Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, M B; Henriksen, J-E; Durck, T T;

    2014-01-01

    development of isolated impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and acute insulin release. METHODS: At 0 years, 19 RELs and 18 matched control subjects had glucose effectiveness (GE), insulin sensitivity, acute insulin release (AIR)IVGTT, and disposition index measured during an iv glucose tolerance...... test (IVGTT), using the minimal model analysis. At 0 and 10 years, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and AIROGTT were determined. RESULTS: At 0 years, fasting glucose (FG) and GE were raised in RELs, but insulin sensitivity and AIROGTT were reduced (P ≤ .05) compared with controls. At 10 years, RELs......AIMS: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness in the...

  4. How to monitor blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Trisha

    2016-01-27

    Rationale and key points Capillary blood glucose monitoring is an essential component of diabetes care. Blood glucose tests provide important information about how the body is controlling blood glucose metabolism, and the effect of glucose-lowering medicines, illness and stress. ▶ The nurse should consider the rationale for testing blood glucose each time they perform a test, and reflect on the result, taking into consideration the patient's blood glucose target range and recommended care guidelines. ▶ Blood glucose testing times and testing frequency should be planned to suit the glucose-lowering medicine regimen and the clinical situation. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. What you have gained from this article. 2. How this article will influence your practice when monitoring blood glucose. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26967884

  5. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...... from 23:00 to 07:00 h for plasma glucose (PG) measurements (gold standard). Results: Valid data were obtained in 217 nights. The sensitivity of CGM was 65% (95% confidence interval, 53-77%) below 4 mmol/L, 40% (24-56%) below 3 mmol/L, and 17% (0-47%) below 2.2 mmol/L. PG and CGM readings correlated in...

  6. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hounton Sennen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030.

  7. MATERNAL DEATHS REVIEW: AN APPROACH TOWARDS IMPROVING MATERNAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Anupama

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG adopted at the 2000 Millennium Summit, there are two targets for assessing progress in improving maternal health (MDG 5: Reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR by three quarters between 1990 and 2015 and achieving universal access to reproductive health by 2015. Closer examination of maternal mortality level is needed to inform planning of reproductive health programs, to guide advocacy efforts and research at the national and international levels, and to inform decision-making. The audit for the reasons for maternal mortality in a resource poor country is extremely helpful in not only identifying the reasons but also in identifying the preventable causes of maternal mortality. AIMS & OBJECTIVE: 1. To determine the causes of maternal mortality in NSCB Medical College and Hospital of Jabalpur. 2. To study the various socio-demographic factors associated with maternal mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a record based study conducted at Obs and Gynae Dept of NSCB medical College, Jabalpur. Mortality Data from January 2012 to December 2012 was analyzed including for all pregnancy-related deaths, their demographic profile, including age, parity, antenatal care record, type of delivery, status of patient i.e., booked or not booked, diagnosis during admission, duration of the hospital stay, and cause of death by reviewing case sheet records. Gynaecological deaths were excluded in this study. Data entry as well analysis was done in Microsoft Excel. RESULTS: Eighty nine maternal deaths were recorded during study period. Most of the deaths were 87(98% unbooked. Majority of the deaths were ANC primi i.e. 57(64%. The major direct cause for deaths were eclampsia 39(44% followed by pre eclampsia 10(11% and haemorrhage 7(8%. Severe anaemia 14(16% followed by hepatitis 5(6% were the most common indirect causes. Maternal mortality ratio was 2182/100,000 live births (89/4078. Antenatal care

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produces daily around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... html Learn More Join Ryan Reed & Drive Your Health Access tools to help actively manage your diabetes. ... .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == 'false') { $('.survey-form'). ...

  11. Blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Sarah

    2014-06-10

    I found the CPD article on blood glucose monitoring and management in acute stroke care interesting and informative. As I am a mental health nursing student, my knowledge of chronic physical conditions is limited, so I learned a lot. PMID:24894257

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for ... diabetes. Learn More: Stories of Courage, Love and Resilience - 2016-08-blog.html Learn More Stories of ...

  13. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  14. Increased incidence of glucose disorders during pregnancy is not explained by pre-pregnancy obesity in London, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell M Karen; Davenport Margie H; Mottola Michelle F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing incidence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), gestational diabetes (GDM) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) during pregnancy was hypothesized to be associated with increases in pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). The aims were to 1) determine the prevalence of IGT/GDM/T2 D over a 10 year period; 2) examine the relationship between maternal overweight/obesity and IGT/GDM/T2D; and 3) examine the extent to which maternal metabolic complications impact maternal and fet...

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  16. Sodium arsenate induce changes in fatty acids profiles and oxidative damage in kidney of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Wafa; Dhibi, Madiha; Mekni, Manel; Haouas, Zohra; Chreif, Imed; Neffati, Fadoua; Hammami, Mohamed; Sakly, Rachid

    2014-10-01

    Six groups of rats (n = 10 per group) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg/l of sodium arsenate for 45 and 90 days. Kidneys from treated groups exposed to arsenic showed higher levels of trans isomers of oleic and linoleic acids as trans C181n-9, trans C18:1n-11, and trans C18:2n-6 isomers. However, a significant decrease in eicosenoic (C20:1n-9) and arachidonic (C20:4n-6) acids were observed in treated rats. Moreover, the "Δ5 desaturase index" and the saturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio were increased. There was a significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde at 10 mg/l of treatment and in the amount of conjugated dienes after 90 days (p < 0.05). Significant kidney damage was observed at 10 mg/l by increase of plasma marker enzymes. Histological studies on the ultrastructure changes of kidney supported the toxic effect of arsenate exposure. Arsenate intoxication activates significantly the superoxide dismutase at 10 mg/l for 90 days, whereas the catalase activity was markedly inhibited in all treated groups (p < 0.05). In addition, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly increased at 45 days and dramatically declined after 90 days at 10 mg/l (p < 0.05). A significant increase in the level of glutathione was marked for the groups treated for 45 and 90 days at 1 mg/l followed by a significant decrease for rats exposed to 10 mg/l for 90 days. An increase in the level of protein carbonyl was observed in all treated groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for a direct effect of arsenate on fatty acid (FA) metabolism which concerns the synthesis pathway of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and leads to an increase in the trans FAs isomers. Therefore, FA-induced arsenate kidney damage could contribute to trigger kidney cancer. PMID:24920263

  17. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan

    2007-01-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. However, we find little impact on the self-reported...

  18. Proximity to Delivery Alters Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Metabolism in Pregnant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Barbara; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Vaughan, Owen R; Ozanne, Susan E; Voshol, Peter; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Fowden, Abigail L

    2016-04-01

    In late pregnancy, maternal insulin resistance occurs to support fetal growth, but little is known about insulin-glucose dynamics close to delivery. This study measured insulin sensitivity in mice in late pregnancy at day 16 (D16) and near term at D19. Nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant mice were assessed for metabolite and hormone concentrations, body composition by DEXA, tissue insulin signaling protein abundance by Western blotting, glucose tolerance and utilization, and insulin sensitivity using acute insulin administration and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with [(3)H]glucose infusion. Whole-body insulin resistance occurred in D16 pregnant dams in association with basal hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistant endogenous glucose production, and downregulation of several proteins in hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signaling pathways relative to NP and D19 values. Insulin resistance was less pronounced at D19, with restoration of NP insulin concentrations, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, and increased abundance of hepatic insulin signaling proteins. At D16, insulin resistance at whole-body, tissue, and molecular levels will favor fetal glucose acquisition, while improved D19 hepatic insulin sensitivity will conserve glucose for maternal use in anticipation of lactation. Tissue sensitivity to insulin, therefore, alters differentially with proximity to delivery in pregnant mice, with implications for human and other species. PMID:26740602

  19. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  20. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  1. Evolution of maternal effect senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Nussey, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory underpins our understanding of the aging process. The many aspects of reproduction that decline with maternal age in animals include number of offspring born, offspring size, and neonatal survival. Current theories of aging ignore potential differences in the evolutionary pressures on these traits. Here, we combine two important branches of evolutionary theory to allow consideration of age-dependent selection at both offspring and maternal levels. We show that we should ac...

  2. Maternal effects in the magpie

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlaja, Marjo

    2006-01-01

    Maternal effects are suggested to be an efficient way to adapt offspring to variable and changing environments with consequent effects on variation in offspring fitness. In birds, mothers are able to affect the quality of their offspring through egg quality and through their incubation and parental care behaviour. Maternal effects via egg quality and hatching asynchrony, caused by incubation behaviour, may incur costs for both the mother and her offspring. For my thesis, I investigated the ad...

  3. Glucose and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  4. Maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes in adolescent and adult pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Tendais, Iva; Dias, Cláudia Castro

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: This study analyzes differences between adolescent and adult pregnant women and the contribution of maternal age to maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A sample of 398 Portuguese pregnant women (111 younger than 19 years) was recruited in a Portuguese Maternity Hospital and completed the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire between the 24th and 36th weeks of gestation. Main Outcome Measures: Mater...

  5. Ethnic Differences in Maternal Adipokines during Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two adipokines (adiponectin and resistin have opposite relations with insulin resistance and inflammation. Our major focus was to determine whether there were detectable ethnic differences in maternal adipokines during pregnancy. We also explored the correlation of the adipokines with maternal glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters. Pregnant women (n = 1634 were from a large prospective cohort study in Camden NJ (African-American 36.8%; Hispanic 47.6%; Caucasian 15.6%. Serum adiponectin and resistin were measured at entry (week 16.8 and the 3rd trimester (week 30.7 using the Luminex xMapTechnology. Significant differences were observed among ethnic groups, controlling for confounding variables. African American women were exceptional in that they had decreased adiponectin and increased resistin throughout the course of pregnancy (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001 and a greater than two fold risk of simultaneously exhibiting low adiponectin (lowest tertile and high resistin (highest tertile compared to Caucasians and/or Hispanics. The cohort as a whole and each ethnic group showed similar negative correlations between adiponectin, and glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters but there was lesser correspondence with resistin. Our data underscore the need for further research on ethnic variation in adipokines and other physiologic biomarkers during complicated and uncomplicated pregnancy.

  6. Ethnic Differences in Maternal Adipokines during Normal Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinhua; Scholl, Theresa O

    2016-01-01

    Two adipokines (adiponectin and resistin) have opposite relations with insulin resistance and inflammation. Our major focus was to determine whether there were detectable ethnic differences in maternal adipokines during pregnancy. We also explored the correlation of the adipokines with maternal glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters. Pregnant women (n = 1634) were from a large prospective cohort study in Camden NJ (African-American 36.8%; Hispanic 47.6%; Caucasian 15.6%). Serum adiponectin and resistin were measured at entry (week 16.8) and the 3rd trimester (week 30.7) using the Luminex xMapTechnology. Significant differences were observed among ethnic groups, controlling for confounding variables. African American women were exceptional in that they had decreased adiponectin and increased resistin throughout the course of pregnancy (p Hispanics. The cohort as a whole and each ethnic group showed similar negative correlations between adiponectin, and glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters but there was lesser correspondence with resistin. Our data underscore the need for further research on ethnic variation in adipokines and other physiologic biomarkers during complicated and uncomplicated pregnancy. PMID:26703679

  7. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who delivered at Emam Hospital, Sari Iran during 2008–2009 werestudied A control group with two hundred fifty nine women of normal body mass index matched for ageand parity were selected and incidence of preeclampsia were compared between groups. χ2 and Oddsratioand 95% confidence were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.Results: There was a significant relation between obesity and preeclampsia (20.8 vs. 5.8%, P<0.0001compared to non-obese women.Conclusion: Obesity in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes.

  8. Maternal fructose drives placental uric acid production leading to adverse fetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Zeenat A; Thompson, Alysha; Chi, Maggie; Cusumano, Andrew; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Saben, Jessica L; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-01-01

    Maternal metabolic diseases increase offspring risk for low birth weight and cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. Excess fructose consumption may confer metabolic risks for both women and their offspring. However, the direct consequences of fructose intake per se are unknown. We assessed the impact of a maternal high-fructose diet on the fetal-placental unit in mice in the absence of metabolic syndrome and determined the association between maternal serum fructose and placental uric acid levels in humans. In mice, maternal fructose consumption led to placental inefficiency, fetal growth restriction, elevated fetal serum glucose and triglyceride levels. In the placenta, fructose induced de novo uric acid synthesis by activating the activities of the enzymes AMP deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Moreover, the placentas had increased lipids and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress. Treatment of mothers with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol reduced placental uric acid levels, prevented placental inefficiency, and improved fetal weights and serum triglycerides. Finally, in 18 women delivering at term, maternal serum fructose levels significantly correlated with placental uric acid levels. These findings suggest that in mice, excess maternal fructose consumption impairs placental function via a xanthine oxidase/uric acid-dependent mechanism, and similar effects may occur in humans. PMID:27125896

  9. What neonatal complications should the pediatrician be aware of in case of maternal gestational diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitanchez, Delphine; Yzydorczyk, Catherine; Simeoni, Umberto

    2015-06-10

    In the epidemiologic context of maternal obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), the incidence of gestational diabetes has significantly increased in the last decades. Infants of diabetic mothers are prone to various neonatal adverse outcomes, including metabolic and hematologic disorders, respiratory distress, cardiac disorders and neurologic impairment due to perinatal asphyxia and birth traumas, among others. Macrosomia is the most constant consequence of diabetes and its severity is mainly influenced by maternal blood glucose level. Neonatal hypoglycemia is the main metabolic disorder that should be prevented as soon as possible after birth. The severity of macrosomia and the maternal health condition have a strong impact on the frequency and the severity of adverse neonatal outcomes. Pregestational T2D and maternal obesity significantly increase the risk of perinatal death and birth defects. The high incidence of maternal hyperglycemia in developing countries, associated with the scarcity of maternal and neonatal care, seriously increase the burden of neonatal complications in these countries. PMID:26069722

  10. High glucose environment inhibits cranial neural crest survival by activating excessive autophagy in the chick embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chuai, Manli; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    High glucose levels induced by maternal diabetes could lead to defects in neural crest development during embryogenesis, but the cellular mechanism is still not understood. In this study, we observed a defect in chick cranial skeleton, especially parietal bone development in the presence of high glucose levels, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). In early chick embryo, we found that inducing high glucose levels could inhibit the development of CNCC, however, cell proliferation was not significantly involved. Nevertheless, apoptotic CNCC increased in the presence of high levels of glucose. In addition, the expression of apoptosis and autophagy relevant genes were elevated by high glucose treatment. Next, the application of beads soaked in either an autophagy stimulator (Tunicamycin) or inhibitor (Hydroxychloroquine) functionally proved that autophagy was involved in regulating the production of CNCC in the presence of high glucose levels. Our observations suggest that the ERK pathway, rather than the mTOR pathway, most likely participates in mediating the autophagy induced by high glucose. Taken together, our observations indicated that exposure to high levels of glucose could inhibit the survival of CNCC by affecting cell apoptosis, which might result from the dysregulation of the autophagic process. PMID:26671447

  11. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PMID:22004338

  12. Incretin and glucagon levels in adult offspring exposed to maternal diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R;

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Fetal exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life. The pathogenesis of T2DM involves dysfunction of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), as well as...... hyperglucagonemia. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate circulating plasma levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a follow-up study of 567 offspring, aged 18-27 years. We included...... two groups exposed to maternal diabetes in utero: offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (O-GDM; n = 163) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM; n = 146). Two reference groups were included: offspring of women with risk factors for GDM, but normoglycemia during pregnancy (O-NoGDM; n...

  13. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Candace A.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Stoner, Julie; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carabin, Hélène; Cowan, Linda; Goodman, Jean R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n = 110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n = 72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression. Results Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3 μg/l, β = −18.3, 95% CI: −35.4, −1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3 μg/l, β = −17.3, 95% CI: −34.1, −0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates. Conclusion Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25726127

  14. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. PMID:24820855

  15. Association of Maternal Vitamin C Status with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of antioxidants in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been given limited attention. Vitamin C is a nutrient with radical quenching property and has been claimed to influence glucose tolerance. Aim: To study the association between vitamin C status (dietary intake and plasma concentrations and GDM. Material and Methods: Using a case-control design with 1:3 ratio we examined 42 pregnant women with GDM and 158 normal glucose tolerant (NGT gestational age-matched healthy pregnant women at an average of 26 weeks of gestation. Maternal vitamin C intake was determined using detailed semi food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ and 24 hour diet recall. Plasma vitamin C was determined using a spectrophotometric method in non-fasting samples. GDM was diagnosed by 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT using International Association for Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG criteria (fasting ≥92mg%, 1hour ≥180mg%, 2 hour ≥153mg %. Results: GDM women had lower median intake of vitamin C (35.0 mg/day vs. 66.7; p<0.001 and lower median plasma vitamin C concentration (45.9 µmol/L vs. 95.2; p<0.001 compared to NGT women. Plasma vitamin C concentration was inversely related to fasting, 1 hour and 2 hour post glucose plasma glucose concentrations (p<0.001. The associations remained significant after adjustment for age, income, pre-pregnancy BMI, and stress. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that low vitamin C intake as well as low plasma vitamin C concentration is associated with GDM. This association needs to be tested in a large prospective study and subsequently in a clinical trial

  16. Severe maternal outcome: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Grover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality ratio (MMR is considered an indicator of obstetric care available in a society and reduction in MMR has been one of the important millennium development goals defined by World Health Organization (WHO but it has always been recognized that maternal mortality is just the tip of iceberg. WHO has now defined maternal near-miss cases thus broadening the focus on life threatening conditions encountered by pregnant women. A study was started at our obstetric unit based on near-miss maternal mortality concept in March 2015 and is currently underway. We analyzed the initial data of the first few months and recognized four of such special cases which find mention in this review. We decided to review the literature with special reference to these cases as every such case is a lesson in itself for the health care provider, highlighting the acts of omission or interventions that may make the difference between a high risk pregnancy terminating without complication or ending as a near-miss or mortality. We reviewed the literature about various causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. In addition to the sincere efforts done by the doctors from different specialities, a good blood bank facility, ICU care as well as government provided transport facility played important roles in these cases. A long term analysis of this data can certainly guide the policy makers about the areas that need more stress and financial support. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 596-602

  17. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and...... gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression...... on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression....

  18. Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel B; Calanna, Salvatore; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have clinically relevant disturbances in the effects of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the importance of the prevailing plasma glucose levels for the effect of GIP on responses of...... glucagon and insulin and glucose disposal in patients with T2DM. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a single center, placebo-controlled, cross-over, experimental study. PATIENTS: We studied twelve patients with T2DM (age: 62 ± 1 years [mean ± SEM], body mass index: 29 ± 1 kg/m(2); glycosylated hemoglobin A1c......: 6.5 ± 0.1% [48 ± 2 mmol/mol]). INTERVENTION: We infused physiological amounts of GIP (2 pmol × kg(-1) × min(-1)) or saline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured plasma concentrations of glucagon, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, intact GIP, and amounts of glucose needed to maintain glucose clamps. RESULTS...

  19. The relationship between maternal and fetal vitamin D, insulin resistance, and fetal growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    Evidence for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis is inconclusive. We sought to clarify the relationship between maternal and fetal insulin resistance and vitamin D status. This is a prospective cohort study of 60 caucasian pregnant women. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. Ultrasound at 34 weeks assessed fetal anthropometry including abdominal wall width, a marker of fetal adiposity. At delivery birth weight was recorded and fetal 25-OHD, glucose, C-peptide, and leptin measured in cord blood. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) equation. We found that those with lower 25-OHD in early pregnancy had higher HOMA indices at 28 weeks, (r = -.32, P = .02). No significant relationship existed between maternal or fetal leptin and 25-OHD, or between maternal or fetal 25-OHD and fetal anthropometry or birth weight. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was high at each time point (15%-45%). These findings lend support to routine antenatal supplementation with vitamin D in at risk populations.

  20. Maternal Body Weight and Gestational Diabetes Differentially Influence Placental and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, J.; Sebert, S.; Segura, M. T.; García-Valdés, L.; Florido, J.; Padilla, M. C.; Marcos, A.; Rueda, R.; McArdle, H. J.; Budge, H.; Campoy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Methods: Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the “Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming” survey at the first antenatal visit (12–20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Results: Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Conclusions: Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight. PMID:26513002

  1. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  2. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  3. Thermoresponsive amperometric glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Barwe, Stefan; Nebel, Michaela; Alburquerque, Natalia Guerrero; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, André; Schmaderer, Sebastian; Szeponik, Jan; Plumeré, Nicolas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of a thermoresponsive biosensor for the amperometric detection of glucose. Screen printed electrodes with heatable gold working electrodes were modified by a thermoresponsive statistical copolymer [polymer I: poly(ω-ethoxytriethylenglycol methacrylate-co-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl ammonio) propanesulfonate-co-ω-butoxydiethylenglycol methacrylate-co-2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)ethyl methacrylate)] with a lower critical solution temperature of around 28 °C in aqueous solution via electrochemically induced codeposition with a pH-responsive redox-polymer [polymer II: poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-[Os(bpy)2(4-(((2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)amino)methyl)-N,N-dimethylpicolinamide)](2+)] and pyrroloquinoline quinone-soluble glucose dehydrogenase acting as biological recognition element. Polymer II bears covalently bound Os-complexes that act as redox mediators for shuttling electrons between the enzyme and the electrode surface. Polymer I acts as a temperature triggered immobilization matrix. Probing the catalytic current as a function of the working electrode temperature shows that the activity of the biosensor is dramatically reduced above the phase transition temperature of polymer I. Thus, the local modulation of the temperature at the interphase between the electrode and the bioactive layer allows switching the biosensor from an on- to an off-state without heating of the surrounding analyte solution. PMID:26702635

  4. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Vedtofte, Louise; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 5.5 ± 0.1%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Saline or physiological doses...... contrast, GIP increases glucagon levels during fasting and hypoglycemic conditions, where it has little or no effect on insulin secretion. Thus, GIP seems to be a physiological bifunctional blood glucose stabilizer with diverging glucose-dependent effects on the two main pancreatic glucoregulatory hormones....

  5. MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Maternal Mortality in A Tertiary Care Centre. OBJECTIVE: To study maternal mortality and the complications leading to maternal death. METHODS: A retrospective study of hospital record to study maternal mortality and its causes over 3 years from January 2010 to December 2012. RESULTS: There were a total of 58 maternal deaths out of 2823 live births giving a maternal mortality ratio of 2054.55 per one lakh live births. Unbooked and late referrals account for 77.58% of maternal deaths. The majority of deaths around 75.86% were in 20-30 years age group. Haemorrhage was the commonest causes of death (24.12% followed by sepsis (18.96% and pregnancy induced hypertension 15.51% Anemia contributed to the most common indirect cause of maternal morality. CONCLUSION: Haemorrhage, sepsis and pregnancy induced hypertension including eclampsia were the direct major causes of death. Anaemia and cardiac diseases were other indirect causes of death.

  6. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  7. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes--the role of glucose and other factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine D Clausen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2003-2005 cognitive function was assessed in a cohort of 18-27 year old offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 153 and offspring from the background population (n = 118. The main outcome measure was global cognitive score derived from Raven's Progressive Matrices and three verbal subtests from the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale. Maternal fasting- and 2-hour blood glucose values from the diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test were used as exposure variables. RESULTS: Offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus had a lower global cognitive score, than offspring from the background population (93.1 vs. 100.0, P<0.001. However, when adjusted for maternal age at delivery, parity, smoking during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy overweight, family social class, parental educational level, gender, birth weight, gestational age, perinatal complications and offspring age at follow-up, the difference was no longer statistically significant. Offspring global cognitive score decreased significantly with increasing maternal fasting glucose (β = -4.5, 95% CI -8.0 to -0.9, P = 0.01 and 2-hour glucose (β = -1.5, -2.9 to -0.2, P = 0.03 in univariate general linear models, but not when adjusted for family social class and parental educational level. CONCLUSIONS: Lower cognitive test scores in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes were explained by well known predictors of cognitive function, but not by maternal hyperglycaemia during pregnancy. We find it reassuring that mild intrauterine hyperglycaemia does not seem to have adverse effect on offspring cognitive function.

  8. Maternal Transmission of Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Heggeli, Kristin; Crook, Julia; Thomas, Colleen; Graff-Radford, Neill

    2012-01-01

    Some propose maternal Alzheimer disease (1) inheritance. We compared dementia family histories in AD cases and cognitively normal controls. We expected more mothers to have AD in both groups. If maternal risk was not only due to female longevity more AD cases’ than controls’ mothers should be demented. We matched 196 AD cases to 200 controls by gender and age. We obtained parent dementia status and age of death for 348 AD and 319 control parents. 24 (12%) controls’ fathers, 26 (13%) AD patien...

  9. [Psychiatry at the maternal clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammälä, Antti-Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Various mental disorders are encountered at the maternal clinic. Pregnancy predisposes to some mental disorders, most commonly depressive and anxiety disorders. The recognition of substance use disorders during pregnancy is very important, but difficult owing to the associated disgrace. An eating disorder with an onset preceding the pregnancy may cause problems for growth and development of the fetus and should thus be identified early enough. The rare but severe postpartum psychosis may often break out only after discharge from the maternity hospital. Drug therapy during pregnancy requires careful consideration and clear-cut reasoning. PMID:26237899

  10. Maternity telehealth: ringing the changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Dorothy; Brown, Sheona

    2013-12-01

    This article describes NHS Scotland's Maternity telehealth options project and the implementation of the recommendations made. This 17-month project resulted in the development of national documentation for recording telehealth calls; the development of a self-directed eLearning tool on maternity telehealth call structure which was made available to all health boards in Scotland; a comprehensive programme of training on telehealth for student midwives; a programme of 'Train-the-trainer' events for qualified midwives to enable the cascade of learning throughout the service. The project also involved collaboration with Health Scotland, signposting for women to contact the appropriate caregiver at the appropriate time. PMID:24386706

  11. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088

  12. Omentin-1 is decreased in maternal plasma, placenta and adipose tissue of women with pre-existing obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Barker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine (i the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on (i the circulating levels of omentin-1 in cord and maternal plasma, and (ii gene expression and release of omentin-1 from human placenta and adipose tissue. The effect of pregnancy on circulating omentin-1 levels was also determined. DESIGN: Omentin-1 levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma from obese and non-obese normal glucose tolerant women (NGT; n = 44 and women with GDM (n = 39 at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Placenta and adipose tissue expression and release of omentin-1 was measured from 22 NGT and 22 GDM women collected at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Omentin-1 levels were also measured in maternal plasma from 13 NGT women at 11 and 28 weeks gestation and 7 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Maternal obesity was associated with significantly lower omentin-1 levels in maternal plasma; however, there was no effect of maternal obesity on cord omentin levels. Omentin-1 gene expression was lower in placenta and adipose tissue obtained from women with pre-existing obesity. In addition to this, adipose tissue release of omentin-1 was significantly lower from obese pregnant women. Omentin-1 levels were significantly lower in non-obese GDM compared to non-obese NGT women. However, there was no difference in omentin-1 levels between obese NGT and obese GDM women. There was no effect of GDM on cord omentin levels, and placental and adipose tissue omentin-1 expression. Maternal omentin-1 levels were negatively correlated with fetal birthweight and fetal ponderal index. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this study demonstrate that pre-existing maternal obesity is associated with lower omentin-1 expression in placenta, adipose tissue and maternal plasma. Alteration in omentin-1 in pregnancy may influence the development of metabolic disorders in offspring later in life.

  13. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  14. Problems of contemporary maternity: psychological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Puz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.

  15. Framing maternal morbidity: WHO scoping exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderkruik, Rachel C; Tunçalp, Özge; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity estimations are not based on well-documented methodologies and thus have limited validity for informing efforts to address the issue and improve maternal health. To fill this gap, maternal morbidity needs to be clearly defined, driving the development of tools and indicators to measure and monitor maternal health. This article describes the scoping exercise conducted by the World Health Organization’s Department of Reproductive of Health and Research (WHO/RHR), a...

  16. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress. The study sample comprised 116 women and their full term infants. Maternal plasma cortisol and report of stress, anxiety and depression were assessed at ...

  17. Early Maternal Employment and Family Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Pinka Chatterji; Sara Markowitz; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    2011-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the NICHD Study on Early Child Care (SECC) to examine the effects of maternal employment on family well-being, measured by maternal mental and overall health, parenting stress, and parenting quality. First, we estimate the effects of maternal employment on these outcomes measured when children are 6 months old. Next, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the effects of maternal employment on family outcomes during the first 4.5 years of children's ...

  18. The importance of maternal nutrition for health

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Cetin; Arianna Laoreti

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in maternal and child health and it is widely recognized that optimum nutrition in early life is the foundation for long-term health. A healthy maternal dietary pattern, along with adequate maternal body composition, metabolism and placental nutrient supply, reduces the risk of maternal, fetal and long-term effects in the offspring. While undernutrition is mainly an issue of low-income countries, malnutrition, due to poor quality diet, is becoming a global health ...

  19. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these two monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial trig...

  20. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  1. Glucose homeostasis and metabolic adaptation in the pregnant and lactating sheep are affected by the level of nutrition previously provided during her late fetal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Sanne Munch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Blache, D;

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether undernutrition (UN) during late fetal life can programme the subsequent adult life adaptation of glucose homeostasis and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-four primiparous experimental ewes were used. Twelve had been exposed to a prenatal NORM level...... of nutrition (maternal diet approximately 15 MJME/d) and 12 to a LOW level of nutrition (maternal diet approximately 7 MJME/d) during the last 6 weeks pre-partum. The experimental ewes were subjected to two intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IGTT) in late gestation (one prior to (G-IGTT) and one by...

  2. Tightly Linked Systems: Reciprocal Relations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Maternal Reports of Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell; Meyer, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The frequently observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and heightened maternal reporting of adolescent externalizing behavior was examined from an integrative, systems perspective using a community sample of 180 adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and close peers, assessed twice over a three-year period. Consistent with this perspective, the maternal depression-adolescent externalizing link was found to reflect not simply maternal reporting biases, but heightened maternal sensitiv...

  3. Obstetric near-miss and maternal mortality in maternity university hospital, Damascus, Syria: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Chamat Ahmad; Shahrour Yasser; Matar Hosam E; Almerie Muhammad Q; Almerie Yara; Abdulsalam Asmaa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Investigating severe maternal morbidity (near-miss) is a newly recognised tool that identifies women at highest risk of maternal death and helps allocate resources especially in low income countries. This study aims to i. document the frequency and nature of maternal near-miss at hospital level in Damascus, Capital of Syria, ii. evaluate the level of care at maternal life-saving emergency services by comparatively analysing near-misses and maternal mortalities. Methods Ret...

  4. ATLANTIC DIP: The Impact of Obesity on Pregnancy Outcome in Glucose-Tolerant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Lisa A.; O'Sullivan, Eoin P; Kirwan, Breeda; Avalos, Gloria; Gaffney, Geraldine; Dunne, Fidelma; ,

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A prospective study of the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Irish Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy network advocates universal screening for gestational diabetes. Women with normoglycemia and a recorded booking BMI were included. Maternal and infant outcomes correlated with booking BMI are reported. RESULTS A total of 2,329 women fulfilled the criteria. Caesarean deliveries increased in overweight (OW) (odds ratio 1.57 [...

  5. Glucose metabolism of fetal rat brain in utero, measured with labeled deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammals have low cerebral metabolic rates immediately after birth and, by inference, also before birth. In this study, we extended the deoxyglucose method to the fetal rat brain in utero. Rate constants for deoxyglucose transfer across the maternal placental and fetal blood-brain barriers, and lumped constant, have not been reported. Therefore, we applied a new method of determining the lumped constant regionally to the fetal rat brain in utero. The lumped constant averaged 0.55 ± 0.15 relative to the maternal circulation. On this basis, we determined the glucose metabolic rate of the fetal rat brain to be one third of the corresponding maternal value, or 19 ± 2 μmol hg-1 min-1. (author)

  6. Sex differences in glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Vaag, A;

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA(1c) could be explained by differences in body size and/or body composition between men and women in a general non-diabetic Danish population. Moreover, we aimed to study to what...

  7. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  8. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos; V; Rizos; Moses; S; Elisaf

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro-and macrovascular disease.Moreover,increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance.As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical.However,the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism.Indeed,angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.Calcium channel blockers(CCBs)have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism.However,some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis.On the other hand,diuretics andβ-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism.Of note,carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of theβ-blockers class,being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis.The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may,to an extent,compromise their cardiovascular protective role.As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment,especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes.

  9. Antecedents of Maternal Separation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Greta G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined antecedents of maternal separation anxiety in 83 Italian mothers prior to their infants or toddlers entering group care. Mothers' anxiety did not vary with the child's age. Anxious mothers were younger and less educated, received less support, had temperamentally negative infants, and provided less varied stimulation in the home. (MM)

  10. Androgyny and the Maternal Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miriam M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the movement toward androgyny based upon and fostered by an increasing societal emphasis upon "femininity" in its maternal (as opposed to its heterosexual) aspects. Argues that the masculine paradigm promotes differentiation between the sexes, especially the sex objectification of women. (Author/RK)

  11. Glucose transport in malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the dynamic PET mode with 18FDG and H215O, glucose transport in patients with glioma was investigated. The values of the rate constants (k1*, k2*), the CBF, the distribution volume, the glucose extraction, and the permeability-surface (PS) products were obtained. The values of k1*, k2, the blood flow, and the PS products were higher in the high-grade glioma and the contralateral cortex, and lower in the low-grade glioma, while the value of glucose extraction was the reverse. The only statistically significant difference between high-grade glioma and the contra-lateral cortex was noted in the distribution volume, which was lower in the high-grade glioma. The present study revealed no increase in the glucose transport in high-grade glioma. Further study is necessary in order to determine the functional significance of the distribution volume and the relevance to glucose transporters in gliomas. (author)

  12. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation of...... infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating to the...... risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  13. Maternal high-fat diet programming of the neuroendocrine system and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Elinor L; Riper, Kellie M; Lockard, Rachel; Valleau, Jeanette C

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Maternal obesity, metabolic state, and diet during gestation have profound effects on offspring development. The prevalence of neurodevelopmental and mental health disorders has risen rapidly in the last several decades in parallel with the rise in obesity rates. Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of offspring developing behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and schizophrenia. Animal models show that a maternal diet high in fat similarly disrupts behavioral programming of offspring, with animals showing social impairments, increased anxiety and depressive behaviors, reduced cognitive development, and hyperactivity. Maternal obesity, metabolic conditions, and high fat diet consumption increase maternal leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and inflammatory cytokines. This leads to increased risk of placental dysfunction, and altered fetal neuroendocrine development. Changes in brain development that likely contribute to the increased risk of behavioral and mental health disorders include increased inflammation in the brain, as well as alterations in the serotonergic system, dopaminergic system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. PMID:25913366

  14. Glucose-stat, a glucose-controlled continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-04-01

    A predictive and feedback proportional control algorithm, developed for fed-batch fermentations and described in a companion paper (G. L. Kleman, J. J. Chalmers, G. W. Luli, and W. R. Strohl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:910-917, 1991), was used in this work to control a continuous culture on the basis of the soluble-glucose concentration (called the glucose-stat). This glucose-controlled continuous-culture system was found to reach and maintain steady state for 11 to 24 residence times when four different background glucose concentrations (0.27, 0.50, 0.7, and 1.5 g/liter) were used. The predictive-plus-feedback control system yielded very tight control of the continuous nutristat cultures; glucose concentrations were maintained at the set points with less than 0.003 standard error. Acetate production by Escherichia coli B in glucose-stats was found not to be correlated with the level of steady-state soluble-glucose concentration. PMID:2059050

  15. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... to diagnose diabetes in people who are not pregnant are: Fasting blood glucose level: diabetes is diagnosed ...

  16. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune;

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  17. A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Xian HUANG; Li, SiQi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concent...

  18. Correlation between maternal weight and insulin resistance in second half of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius Chidiebere Imoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In pregnancy, routine measurement of maternal weight gives a crude assessment of maternal and foetal well-being. Excess weight gain in pregnancy is related to increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, hypertension in pregnancy and foetal macrosomia. In the Nigerian context, lack of knowledge of pre-pregnancy weight coupled with late booking of women in pregnancy hinders accurate assessment of weight gain in pregnancy. The absolute maternal weight is often used as surrogate. This study evaluates the relationship between absolute weight in the second half of pregnancy and insulin resistance. Patients and Methods: The weight of hundred pregnant women was measured between 24 to 32 weeks of pregnancy and their insulin resistance was measured using Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR from fasting serum glucose and fasting serum insulin. Results: Twenty-six women had weight ≥95 kg and 74 women had weight of <95 kg. There was a significant positive correlation between weight and HOMA-IR (r = 0.248, fasting glucose (r = 0.198, and fasting insulin (r = 0.228, (P < 0.05. The mean weight, HOMA-IR, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were higher in women with weight ≥95 kg compared to those with less weight. Also maternal weight ≥ 95 kg was associated with severe insulin resistance, (Odds Ratio = 3.1. Conclusion: Absolute weight in pregnancy correlates well with insulin resistance. Women having weight ≥95 kg between 24-32 weeks of gestation were more likely to have severe insulin resistance with implications for increased risk of GDM and other complications.

  19. Glucose metabolism of lactobacillus divergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compile an optimal growth and selective medium for Lactobacillus divergens and to determine the pathway by which it metabolised glucose. The optimum growth temperature is 25oC which is lower than that of most other lactobacilli. Citrate stimulates growth up to a concentration of 1% while acetate inhibits the organism at neutral pH, but it stimulates growth at pH 8.5 up to a concentration of 0.8%. MRS medium was therefore modified in order to obtain maximum growth of the organism. The acetate was omitted, sucrose was substituted for glucose and the pH was adjusted to 8.5. Sucrose was used, since a neutral pH is obtained after sterilisation of glucose in alkaline (pH ≥ 7.5) solution due to the degradation of glucose by the Maillard reaction. Various inhibitors and dyes were tested in order to formulate a selective medium. In the present study differently labelled glucose precursors were fermented by L. divergens and the fermentation products isolated by HPLC. The concentrations of acetate and formate were determined by comparison to a standard while the concentration of lactate and glucose was determined by enzymic assay. The radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and the positional labelling in lactate and acetate by chemical degradation. Fermentation of D-[U-14C]-glucose was included to correct for endogenous product dilution

  20. Conversion of glucose to sorbose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Mark E.; Gounder, Rajamani

    2016-02-09

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing sorbose from glucose, said method comprising: (a) contacting the glucose with a silica-containing structure comprising a zeolite having a topology of a 12 membered-ring or larger, an ordered mesoporous silica material, or an amorphous silica, said structure containing Lewis acidic Ti.sup.4+ or Zr.sup.4+ or both Ti.sup.4+ and Zr.sup.4+ framework centers, said contacting conducted under reaction conditions sufficient to isomerize the glucose to sorbose. The sorbose may be (b) separated or isolated; or (c) converted to ascorbic acid.

  1. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydrophilic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  2. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳琼; 孟宪伟; 陈东; 冉均国; 郑昌琼

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydro-philic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  3. Maternal transmission of Alzheimer's disease: Prodromal metabolic phenotype and the search for genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosconi Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After advanced age, having a parent affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most significant risk factor for developing AD among cognitively normal (NL individuals. Although rare genetic mutations have been identified among the early-onset forms of familial AD (EOFAD, the genetics of the more common forms of late-onset AD (LOAD remain elusive. While some LOAD cases appear to be sporadic in nature, genetically mediated risk is evident from the familial aggregation of many LOAD cases. The patterns of transmission and biological mechanisms through which a family history of LOAD confers risk to the offspring are not known. Brain imaging studies using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET have shown that NL individuals with a maternal history of LOAD, but not with a paternal family history, express a phenotype characterised by a pattern of progressive reductions of brain glucose metabolism, similar to that in AD patients. As maternally inherited AD may be associated with as many as 20 per cent of the total LOAD population, understanding the causes and mechanisms of expression of this form of AD is of great relevance. This paper reviews known genetic mutations implicated in EOFAD and their effects on brain chemistry, structure and function; epidemiology and clinical research findings in LOAD, including in vivo imaging findings showing selective patterns of hypometabolism in maternally inherited AD; possible genetic mechanisms involved in maternal transmission of AD, including chromosome X mutations, mitochondrial DNA and imprinting; and genetic mechanisms involved in other neurological disorders with known or suspected maternal inheritance. The review concludes with a discussion of the potential role of brain imaging for identifying endophenotypes in NL individuals at risk for AD, and for directing investigation of potential susceptibility genes for AD.

  4. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N;

    1999-01-01

    change was substantial in three countries (P < 0.05) where statistical offices appeared to attribute fewer deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... 100,000 live births, but it increased to 8.7 after classification by the European panel (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The classification of pregnancy-associated deaths differs between European countries. These differences in coding contribute to variations in the reported numbers of maternal deaths and...... sufficient data to complete reclassification of 359 or 82% of the 437 cases for which data were collected. RESULTS: Compared with the statistical offices, the European panel attributed more deaths to obstetric causes. The overall number of deaths attributed to obstetric causes increased from 229 to 260. This...

  5. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  6. Glucose kinetics in nondiabetic and diabetic women during the third trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Kahn, C.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

    1983-08-01

    Glucose kinetics were measured during the third trimester of pregnancy in nine nondiabetic women, nine insulin-dependent diabetic women, six gestational diabetic women, and five control women (nonpregnant, nondiabetic) after an overnight fast. The patients not dependent on insulin were diagnosed as diabetic by oral glucose tolerance tests during the third trimester. The turnover studies were repeated post partum (6 weeks to 5 months after delivery) in 14 of the 24 pregnant subjects. All pregnant groups had a progressive fall in plasma glucose concentration during the study, but there was a steady state of plasma glucose concentration during the turnover period. In comparison to the control subjects, both the pregnant nondiabetic and pregnant insulin-dependent diabetic women had significantly higher plasma insulin concentrations throughout the study There were no differences in the glucose turnover rate between any of the pregnant groups and the control group of women patients were studied post partum, the glucose turnover rate was similar when referenced to body weight; however, because of a 9.6% to 14.5% fall in weight post partum, the absolute valueds were h in the pregnant women. We conclude that, in the basal state after an overnight fast, (1) both nondiabetic and diabetic patients accelerated their glucose turnover rate during pregnancy to provide for increased maternal and fetoplacental metabolic requirements, and (2) in the diabetic subjects the nearly normal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and other metabolic parameters, as well as the glucose turnover rate, suggested good metabolic control during pregnancy in most of the insulin-dependent and in all of the gestational diabetic patients.

  7. Partnership Transitions and Maternal Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers’ partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first five years of their children’s lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions, and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between transitions and race/ethnicity, maternal education and family structure at birth. Findings indicate that both coresidential and dating transitions were...

  8. A Model for Maternal Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, Cynthia D.; Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah Mccue

    2010-01-01

    With the awareness of maternal depression as a prevalent public health issue and its important link to child physical and mental health, attention has turned to how healthcare providers can respond effectively. Intimate partner violence (IPV) and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs are strongly related to depression, particularly for low-income women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends psychosocial screening of pregnant women at least once per t...

  9. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  10. Maternal Employment and Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia M. Anderson; Kristin F. Butcher; Levine, Phillip B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates whether children are more or less likely to be overweight if their mothers work. The prevalence of both overweight children and working mothers has risen dramatically over the past few decades, although these parallel trends may be coincidental. The goal of this paper is to help determine whether a causal relationship exists between maternal employment and childhood overweight. To accomplish this, we mainly utilize matched mother/child data from the National Longitudin...

  11. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  12. The influence of parental history of diabetes and offspring birthweight on offspring glucose metabolism in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Jørgensen, Mie Kw; Damm, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Background. Links are well established between both family history of diabetes and reduced birthweight and increased risk of diabetes in adulthood. Objectives. 1) To investigate the influence of parental history of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on offspring birthweight and adult offspring glucose...... tolerance status in non-diabetic offspring of patients with T2DM and 2) to study the associations of birthweight with measures of pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Design. Family cohort study. Population. Offspring of patients with verified T2DM diagnosed after age 40 years with a...... spouse without known diabetes. Methods. Oral glucose tolerance tests and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIGT) in non-diabetic offspring. Birthweight and length obtained from birth records. Results. Among 122 offspring with maternal history of T2DM, 14.8% had diabetes compared to...

  13. Decreasing maternal nutrient intake during the final third of pregnancy in previously overnourished adolescent sheep: effects on maternal nutrient partitioning and feto-placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmer, D A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Johnson, M L; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Wallace, J M

    2012-02-01

    When pregnant adolescent sheep are overnourished during pregnancy normal nutrient partitioning priorities to the gravid uterus are altered, leading to impaired placental development and fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that decreasing dietary intake in overnourished dams during the final third of gestation may reverse this inappropriate nutrient partitioning in favor of the fetus. Adolescent ewes were offered control (C; n = 12) or high (H; n = 20) dietary intakes to induce normal vs. compromised placental development. Ten ewes receiving the H intake were switched to a low intake at d90 of gestation (HL). Between d90 to 130, HL dams lost weight and adiposity, and metabolic hormones and glucose at d130 were less than H and similar to C. In spite of these maternal changes, at d130 fetal bodyweight was equivalent in HL and H groups and ∼20% less than in C. A greater degree of brain sparing was evident in HL fetuses and glucose and insulin concentrations were more perturbed than in H fetuses. Relative to C, placentome weight was reduced by 46 and 32% in H and HL and the fetal:placentome weight ratio was H > HL > C. Placental vascular morphology was largely unaffected by maternal diet during late gestation but mRNA expression of five angiogenic genes was up-regulated in the fetal cotyledon of HL pregnancies, commensurate with blood vessel remodeling. Nevertheless, overfeeding to promote maternal anabolic growth during adolescent pregnancy impairs feto-placental development that cannot be rescued by reducing maternal intake during the final third of gestation. PMID:22154692

  14. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  15. Sleeping, Waking, ... and Glucose Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Rudic R. Daniel; McNamara Peter; Curtis Anne-Maria; Boston Raymond C; Panda Satchidananda; Hogenesch John B; FitzGerald Garret A

    2004-01-01

    Circadian timing is generated through a unique series of autoregulatory interactions termed the molecular clock. Behavioral rhythms subject to the molecular clock are well characterized. We demonstrate a role for Bmal1 and Clock in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Inactivation of the known clock components Bmal1 (Mop3) and Clock suppress the diurnal variation in glucose and triglycerides. Gluconeogenesis is abolished by deletion of Bmal1 and is depressed in Clock mutants, but the counte...

  16. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Sign Up forJoslin Newsletters Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous? Low blood glucose or hypoglycemia is one of the most common ... In general, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl. Low blood glucose ...

  17. The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or post...

  18. Determinants of maternal healthcare utilization in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Zimbabwe and other developing countries struggle to achieve millennium development goals originally set for 2015. To assist health policy making, there was an investigation of how demographic, socioeconomic and cultural factors determine maternal healthcare services use in Zimbabwe. A logistic model for four different maternal healthcare services using data from the 2005/6 Zimbabwe Demographic Health Survey was estimated. Secondary education increases the odds of use of maternal health servic...

  19. Maternal Health and Fertility: An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Albanesi, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the decline in maternal mortality on fertility and women's human capital. Fertility theory suggests that a permanent decline in maternal mortality initially increases fertility and generates a permanent rise in women's human capital, relative to men. The resulting rise in the opportunity cost of children leads to a subsequent decline in desired fertility, generating a boom-bust response. We assess these predictions using newly digitized data on maternal morta...

  20. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Self-Care

    OpenAIRE

    LOPOO, LEONARD M.

    2004-01-01

    Mounting evidence shows that self-care produces deleterious consequences for adolescents in the U.S. Since desscriptive evidence suggests that maternal employment is the primary explanation for adolescent self-care, maternal employment, it is frequently argued, is harming children. Heretofore, very little empirical research has actually investigated the impact of maternal employment on adolescent self-care, however, calling into question this assertion. This paper aims to fill this gap. The a...

  1. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Berghella; Alessandro Ghidini; Giancarlo Mari; Mariarosaria Di Tommaso; Silvia Vannuccini; Filiberto Maria Severi; Felice Petraglia

    2013-01-01

    The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregn...

  2. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-la...

  3. Maternity or catastrophe: a study of household expenditure on maternal health care in India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Using data from 60th round of the National Sample Survey, this study attempts to measure the incidence and intensity of ‘catastrophic’ maternal health care expenditure and examines its socio-economic correlates in urban and rural areas separately. Additionally, it measures the effect of maternal health care expenditure on poverty incidence and examines the factors associated with such impoverishment due to maternal health care payments. We found that maternal health care expenditure in urban ...

  4. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okina...

  5. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  6. Maternal Moderators of Child Care: The Role of Maternal Separation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Susan L.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between maternal separation anxiety, maternal employment, and quality of child care for 49 mothers of 2- to 3-year olds in day care centers. Findings suggest that the mother's concern about separation is an important moderator of the effects of maternal employment and child care on children's development. (BB)

  7. The Effect of Marital Violence on Maternal Parenting Style and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesman, Cindy S.

    A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…

  8. Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Biosensor for Glucose Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. W.Sun; J.X. Wang; A. Wei

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs were fabricated by vapor phase transport, and nanorods and hierarchical nanodisk structures by aqueous thermal decomposition. Glucose biosensors were constructed using these ZnO nanostructures as supporting materials for glucose oxidase (GOx) loading. These ZnO glucose biosensors showed a high sensitivity for glucose detection and high affinity of GOx to glucose as well as the low detection limit. The results demonstrate that ZnO nanostructures have potential applications in biosensors.

  9. Maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and risk of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Mitchell, Laura E; Canfield, Mark A; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2014-01-01

    Single-gene analyses indicate that maternal genes associated with metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity) may influence the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, to our knowledge, there have been no assessments of maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and NTDs. We investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 7 maternal metabolic genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and TCF7L2) and 2 fetal metabolic genes (SLC2A2 and UCP2). Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for birth years 1999-2007. We used a 2-step approach to evaluate maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions. First, a case-only approach was applied to screen all potential maternal and fetal interactions (n = 76), as this design provides greater power in the assessment of gene-gene interactions compared to other approaches. Specifically, ordinal logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each maternal-fetal gene-gene interaction, assuming a log-additive model of inheritance. Due to the number of comparisons, we calculated a corrected p-value (q-value) using the false discovery rate. Second, we confirmed all statistically significant interactions (q < 0.05) using a log-linear approach among case-parent triads. In step 1, there were 5 maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions with q < 0.05. The "top hit" was an interaction between maternal ENPP1 rs1044498 and fetal SLC2A2 rs6785233 (interaction OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 2.32-5.74, p = 2.09×10(-8), q=0.001), which was confirmed in step 2 (p = 0.00004). Our findings suggest that maternal metabolic genes associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and fetal metabolic genes involved in glucose homeostasis may interact to increase the risk of NTDs. PMID:24332798

  10. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Christiansen, Kelly J.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa), and impairments in cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption display hyperactivity, impairments in social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose), hormones (leptin, insulin), and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor). Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic systems. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavior are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26150767

  11. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Michelle Rivera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, and cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption display impairments in hyperactivity, social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose, hormones (leptin, insulin, and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor. Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavioral are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions.

  12. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M; Christiansen, Kelly J; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa), and impairments in cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption display hyperactivity, impairments in social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose), hormones (leptin, insulin), and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor). Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic systems. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavior are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26150767

  13. Pattern and predictors of maternal care-seeking practices for severe neonatal jaundice in Nigeria: a multi-centre survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeaka, Chinyere V; Ugwu, Rosemary O; Mukhtar-Yola, Mariya; Ekure, Ekanem N; Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria is frequently associated with disproportionately high rates of severe neonatal jaundice (NNJ) underpinned by widespread Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Timely and appropriate treatment of NNJ is crucial for preventing the associated morbidity and neuro-developmental sequelae. Since mothers are likely to be the first mostly to observe the onset of severe illness in their newborns, we set out to identify the pattern and predictors of maternal care-seeking...

  14. Breakfast, blood glucose, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Parker, P Y

    1998-04-01

    This article compares the findings of three studies that explored the role of increased blood glucose in improving memory function for subjects who ate breakfast. An initial improvement in memory function for these subjects was found to correlate with blood glucose concentrations. In subsequent studies, morning fasting was found to adversely affect the ability to recall a word list and a story read aloud, as well as recall items while counting backwards. Failure to eat breakfast did not affect performance on an intelligence test. It was concluded that breakfast consumption preferentially influences tasks requiring aspects of memory. In the case of both word list recall and memory while counting backwards, the decline in performance associated with not eating breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a glucose-supplemented drink. Although a morning fast also affected the ability to recall a story read aloud, the glucose drink did not reverse this decline. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms, including an increase in blood glucose. PMID:9537627

  15. Educación maternal

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicer Fuentes, Inmaculada Concepción

    2010-01-01

    Definir y/o describir los objetivos, metodología y contenidos de la educación maternal como componente del proceso asistencial integrado de atención al “Embarazo, Parto y Puerperio” de la Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía. Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos del crecimiento y desarrollo ovular Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos de la educación sanitaria durante el embarazo, incluyendo aspectos como nutrición, fármacos, vacunas, atención prenatal y prevención ...

  16. Maternal mortality in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P S; Amalraj, A

    1994-01-01

    In a 4 year prospective community survey of 20,000 women randomly selected in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu State in South India, the maternal mortality rates per 1,000 liveborn were estimated to be 17.4 and 16.6 for rural and semi-urban areas, respectively. The rates based only on direct causes were 11.9 in rural and 14.4 in semi-urban areas. As expected, these figures are considerably higher than those based on official or hospital statistics. Factors associated with such high mortality and the implications for programme planning and implementation are discussed. PMID:7855917

  17. Maternal Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbo, Ahmad; Tan, Susanna; Kassis, Christelle; Tamura, Leslie; Carlson, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The year 2015 marked the 200th anniversary of the birth of Ignaz Semmelweis, the Hungarian physician who identified unhygienic practices of physicians as a major cause of childbed fever or puerperal sepsis. Although such practices have largely disappeared as a factor in the development of chorioamnionitis and postpartum or puerperal endometritis, it is appropriate that this article on sepsis in pregnancy acknowledges his contributions to maternal health. This review describes the incidence and mortality of sepsis in pregnancy, methods to identify and define sepsis in this population, including scoring systems, causes, and sites of infection during pregnancy and parturition and management guidelines. PMID:26600449

  18. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress h...

  19. Maternal Mortality Among Migrants in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population. Resu...

  20. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  1. First trimester bleeding and maternal cardiovascular morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    First trimester bleeding without miscarriage is a risk factor for complications later in the pregnancy, such as preterm delivery. Also, first trimester miscarriage has been linked to subsequent maternal ischemic heart disease. We investigated the link between maternal cardiovascular disease prior...... to and subsequent to first trimester bleeding without miscarriage....

  2. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  3. Glucose Sensing Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa H. Routh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurons whose activity is regulated by glucose are found in a number of brain regions. Glucose-excited (GE neurons increase while glucose-inhibited (GI neurons decrease their action potential frequency as interstitial brain glucose levels increase. We hypothesize that these neurons evolved to sense and respond to severe energy deficit (e.g., fasting that threatens the brains glucose supply. During modern times, they are also important for the restoration of blood glucose levels following insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Our data suggest that impaired glucose sensing by hypothalamic glucose sensing neurons may contribute to the syndrome known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in which the mechanisms which restore euglycemia following hypoglycemia become impaired. On the other hand, increased responses of glucose sensing neurons to glucose deficit may play a role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and obesity. This review will discuss the mechanisms by which glucose sensing neurons sense changes in interstitial glucose and explore the roles of these specialized glucose sensors in glucose and energy homeostasis.

  4. High glucose concentrations partially release hexokinase from inhibition by glucose 6-phosphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, S; Beutler, E

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of glucose by human erythrocyte hexokinase follows classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; hexokinase manifests maximum activity at 5 mM glucose, and no further increase in activity can be measured at higher glucose concentrations. However, the erythrocytes of diabetics and normal erythrocytes incubated with high concentrations of glucose contain increased concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate. To elucidate the mechanism of accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate when erythrocyte...

  5. Reusable glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Chih Hsu; Yi-Cheng Chen; Ju-Yi Lee; Chyan-Chyi Wu

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum. High resolution and rapid measurement are achieved through the integration of highly selective enzymes and heterodyne interferometry. The best resolution and response time obtained are 0.14mg/dL and 1.3 s, respectively. The stability of the sensor is also verified by investigating the initial phase variation. Experimental results show that the fiber sensor can be reused more than 10 times.%We demonstrate a glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum.High resolution and rapid measurement are achieved through the integration of highly selective enzymes and heterodyne interferometry.The best resolution and response time obtained are 0.14 mg/dL and 1.3 s,respectively.The stability of the sensor is also verified by investigating the initial phase variation.Experimental results show that the fiber sensor can be reused more than 10 times.Fiber sensors have attracted considerable attention over the past two decades.Various kinds of fiber sensors have been proposed for measnring specific chemical concentrations[1-8].Most previously reported methods[1-5] involved measuring the variations in fluorescence intensity[2-4] or transmitted light[3,4].Hence,avoiding the inflnence of snrrounding light and the use of expensive photon detection equipment are important requirements.Furthermore,procedures for manufacturing optical biosensors are complicated[3] and qualitv is difficult to control[4]..

  6. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  7. The WHO Maternal Near-Miss Approach and the Maternal Severity Index Model (MSI): Tools for Assessing the Management of Severe Maternal Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Joao Paulo; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Costa, Maria Laura; ,; Almeida, Elson J; Amaral, Eliana M; Amorim, Melania M; Andreucci, Carla B.; Aquino, Márcia M; Bahamondes, Maria V; Lima, Antonio C Barbosa; Barroso, Frederico; Bione, Adriana; Brum, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments. Methods In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death proba...

  8. Screening in high-risk group of gestational diabetes mellitus with its maternal and fetal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angadi Rajasab Nilofer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The complications associated with GDM can be prevented by early recognition, intense monitoring and proper treatment. Aims: The present study was done to screen the high-risk pregnancy group for GDM, to find the incidence of abnormal results on screening and to correlate the abnormal results with the maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute. It was a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Selective screening for GDM was done in 150 pregnant women with high-risk factors. Screening was done with 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT after 18 weeks, and if GCT was negative then the test was repeated after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The patients who were having an abnormal GCT were subjected to 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. The period of study was from April 2008 to March 2009. Results: 7.3% of study population was OGCT positive. 6% of the study population was OGTT positive. Age >25 years, obesity, family history of DM, and past history of GDM were the risk factors significantly associated with GDM. One newborn had hypoglycemia and one had hyperbilirubinemia. The fetal and maternal outcome in GDM patients was good in our study due to early diagnosis and intervention. Conclusion: Women with GDM are at an increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The increased morbidity in GDM is preventable by meticulous antenatal care.

  9. Silicon-based nanochannel glucose sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xihua; Gibney, Katherine A; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanochannel biological field effect transistors have been developed for glucose detection. The device is nanofabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a top-down approach and surface functionalized with glucose oxidase. The differential conductance of silicon nanowires, tuned with source-drain bias voltage, is demonstrated to be sensitive to the biocatalyzed oxidation of glucose. The glucose biosensor response is linear in the 0.5-8 mM concentration range with 3-5 min response time. This silicon nanochannel-based glucose biosensor technology offers the possibility of high density, high quality glucose biosensor integration with silicon-based circuitry.

  10. Reengineered glucose oxidase for amperometric glucose determination in diabetes analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Gutierrez, Erik; Mundhada, Hemanshu; Meier, Thomas; Duefel, Hartmut; Bocola, Marco; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2013-12-15

    Glucose oxidase is an oxidoreductase exhibiting a high β-D-glucose specificity and high stability which renders glucose oxidase well-suited for applications in diabetes care. Nevertheless, GOx activity is highly oxygen dependent which can lead to inaccuracies in amperometric β-D-glucose determinations. Therefore a directed evolution campaign with two rounds of random mutagenesis (SeSaM followed by epPCR), site saturation mutagenesis studies on individual positions, and one simultaneous site saturation library (OmniChange; 4 positions) was performed. A diabetes care well suited mediator (quinone diimine) was selected and the GOx variant (T30V I94V) served as starting point. For directed GOx evolution a microtiter plate detection system based on the quinone diimine mediator was developed and the well-known ABTS-assay was applied in microtiter plate format to validate oxygen independency of improved GOx variants. Two iterative rounds of random diversity generation and screening yielded to two subsets of amino acid positions which mainly improved activity (A173, A332) and oxygen independency (F414, V560). Simultaneous site saturation of all four positions with a reduced subset of amino acids using the OmniChange method yielded finally variant V7 with a 37-fold decreased oxygen dependency (mediator activity: 7.4 U/mg WT, 47.5 U/mg V7; oxygen activity: 172.3 U/mg WT, 30.1 U/mg V7). V7 is still highly β-D-glucose specific, highly active with the quinone diimine mediator and thermal resistance is retained (prerequisite for GOx coating of diabetes test stripes). The latter properties and V7's oxygen insensitivity make V7 a very promising candidate to replace standard GOx in diabetes care applications. PMID:23835222

  11. "The Role ofL-arginine in Control of Apoptosis in Preimplantation Mouse Embryos Cultured in High Glucose Media "

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Barbarestani; Iraj. Amiri; FaridAbolhassani; Ahmadreza. Dehpour; Behrooz Niknafs; Sayed Noreddinr Neamatollahi; Sayed Abbas Abdolvahabi

    2004-01-01

    Maternal hyperglycemia causes delay in early stages of embryonic growth and development, higher incidence of congenital malformations and spontaneous miscarriage compared with those of non-diabetic conditions. High glucosis tratogenicity seems to be related to reduction of Nitric Oxide production (NO) in hyperglycemic condition. In order to test this hypothesis, 2-cell stage embryos of normal mice were cultured with high concentration of glucose (30mM) and different concentrations of L-argini...

  12. Cognitive Function in Adult Offspring of Women with Gestational Diabetes–The Role of Glucose and Other Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Tine D.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Lone Schmidt; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Torben Hansen; Jensen, Dorte M.; Peter Damm

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2003-2005 cognitive function was assessed in a cohort of 18-27 year old offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 153) and offspring from the background population (n = 118). The main outcome measure was global cognitive score derived from Raven's Progressi...

  13. Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism during seizure in spontaneously epileptic El mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism were examined in spontaneously epileptic El mice using autoradiography with 125I-IMP and 14C-DG in the interictal phase and during seizure. El (+) mice that developed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions and El (-) mice that received no stimulation and had no history of epileptic seizures were examined. The seizure non-susceptible, maternal strain ddY mice were used as control. Uptake ratios for IMP and DG in mouse brain were calculated using the autoradiographic density. In the interictal phase, the pattern of local cerebral blood flow of El (+) mice was similar to that of ddY and El (-) mice, and glucose metabolism in the hippocampus was higher in El (+) mice than in El (-) and ddY mice, but flow and metabolism were nearly matched. During seizure, no significant changed blood flow and increased glucose metabolism in the hippocampus, the epileptic focus, and no markedly changed blood flow and depressed glucose metabolism in other brain regions were observed and considered to be flow-metabolism uncoupling. These observations have never been reported in clinical or experimental studies of epilepsy. Seizures did not cause large regional differences in cerebral blood flow. Therefore, only glucose metabolism is useful for detection of the focus of secondary generalized seizures in El mice, and appeared possibly to be related to the pathophysiology of secondary generalized epilepsy in El mice. (author)

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    G-6-PD deficiency; Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency; Anemia - hemolytic due to G6PD deficiency ... G6PD deficiency occurs when a person is missing or doesn't have enough of an enzyme called glucose- ...

  15. Glucose polymer regimens and hypernatraemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, D C; Watling, R M

    1990-01-01

    A 3 year old boy who had glutaric aciduria diagnosed at 22 months of age was admitted with a history of lethargy, vomiting, and fever. He had been receiving glucose polymers as part of his dietary management. He was severely hypernatraemic, but after resuscitation and rehydration made a good recovery. The possible aetiology of his hypernatraemia is discussed.

  16. Severe maternal morbidity for 2004-2005 in the three Dublin maternity hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Cliona M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and causes of severe maternal morbidity in Dublin over a two year period from 2004 to 2005. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2005 was undertaken in the three large maternity hospitals in Dublin, which serve a population of 1.5 million people. All are tertiary referral centres for obstetrics and neonatology and have an annual combined delivery rate of circa 23,000 births. Cases of severe maternal morbidity were identified. A systems based classification was used. The primary cause of maternal morbidity and the number of events experienced per patient was recorded. RESULTS: We identified 158 women who fulfilled the definition for severe maternal morbidity, giving a rate of 3.2 per 1000 maternities. There were two maternal deaths during the time period giving mortality to morbidity ratio of 1:79. The commonest cause of severe morbidity was vascular dysfunction related to obstetric haemorrhage. Eclampsia comprised 15.4% of cases. Intensive care or coronary care admission occurred in 12% of cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity in this population is 3.2\\/1000 maternities. Obstetric haemorrhage was the main cause of severe maternal morbidity.

  17. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship. PMID:25913568

  18. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  19. Differential effects of exposure to maternal obesity or maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in the sheep on insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle of the offspring at 4 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nicholas

    Full Text Available Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3α and higher muscle GSK3α abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110β, aPKCζ, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation.

  20. Microwave-Based Biosensor for Glucose Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, N. S. M.; Khalid, K.; Yusof, N. A.

    2010-07-01

    In this project, microwave-based biosensor for glucose detection has been studied. The study is based on the dielectric properties changes at microwave frequency for glucose-enzyme reaction. Glucose interaction with glucose oxidase (GOD) produced gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The reaction of the glucose solutions with an enzyme was carried out in 1:3 of glucose and enzyme respectively. The measurements were done using the Open Ended Coaxial Probe (OECP) coupled with computer controlled software automated network analyzer (ANA) with frequency range from 200MHz to 20GHz at room temperature (25 °C). The differences of enzyme and glucose-enzyme reaction were calculated and plotted. In the microwave interaction with the glucose-enzyme reaction, ionic conduction and dipole molecules was detected at 0.99GHz and 16.44GHz respectively based on changes of dielectric loss factor.

  1. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs GARD Information Navigator FAQs About Rare Diseases Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Title Other Names: G6PD ... G6PD deficiency Categories: Newborn Screening Summary Summary Listen Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a hereditary ...

  2. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  3. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Center (GARD) Print friendly version Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Table of Contents Overview Symptoms Cause ... National Institutes of Health. Overview Listen Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a hereditary condition in ...

  4. Maternal irradiation and Down Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of preconception irradiation in the etiology of Down Syndrome was examined using the techniques of record linkage. Although 909 cases of Down Syndrome, born in B.C. between 1952-70, were ascertained through a system of linked vital and health registrations, interest was restricted to the 348 case/control pairs born in the greater Vancouver area. The maternal identifying information routinely recorded on birth and ill-health registrations was used to link 155 Down Syndrome mothers and 116 control mothers to patient files at the Vancouver General Hospital. Only 28 of the case and 25 of the control mothers were subjected to diagnostic irradiation at the Vancouver Ganeral Hospital. The difference was not significant at the 5% level

  5. Measuring quality of maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Katherine J; Draycott, Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Health-care organisations are required to monitor and measure the quality of their maternity services, but measuring quality is complex, and no universal consensus exists on how best to measure it. Clinical outcomes and process measures that are important to stakeholders should be measured, ideally in standardised sets for benchmarking. Furthermore, a holistic interpretation of quality should also reflect patient experience, ideally integrated with outcome and process measures, into a balanced suite of quality indicators. Dashboards enable reporting of trends in adverse outcomes to stakeholders, staff and patients, and they facilitate targeted quality improvement initiatives. The value of such dashboards is dependent upon high-quality, routinely collected data, subject to robust statistical analysis. Moving forward, we could and should collect a standard, relevant set of quality indicators, from routinely collected data, and present these in a manner that facilitates ongoing quality improvement, both locally and at regional/national levels. PMID:25913563

  6. Maternal immunoglobulin E and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Buffler, Patricia A; Metayer, Catherine; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Patoka, Joe; Kronish, Daniel; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2009-08-01

    Childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has long been hypothesized to be affected by abnormal immune responses to microbial challenges stemming from a lack of immune modulation in early childhood. Studies of allergies suggest that a child's immune development may be modulated by maternal immune status. We conducted a study to explore the relationship between maternal immunoglobulin E (IgE) and childhood leukemia and to investigate whether maternal immune status can influence childhood leukemia risk. Serum total and specific IgE (respiratory and food) were measured in biological mothers of 352 children (193 healthy controls and 159 leukemia cases, including 139 ALL cases) ages <8 years who were enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. Odds ratios associated with maternal IgE were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and annual household income. A positive association between childhood leukemia or ALL and elevated levels of maternal serum total IgE was observed, especially among Hispanics. In addition, a positive association was observed between childhood leukemia or ALL and maternal respiratory or food IgE status. These results suggest that maternal immune function may play a crucial role in the etiology of childhood leukemia, although additional studies need to be conducted to confirm the results of this study and provide a perspective on mechanisms. PMID:19622720

  7. Maternal haemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Anjanappa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal anaemia is common medical disorder in developing countries. WHO defines anaemia as haemoglobin concentration of and #8804;11 g/dl. However, in developing countries like India, the lower limit is accepted as 10 g/dl. Results: Of 218 women, 69 had anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia was 31.65%; of which 84% had mild anaemia, 14.6% had moderate and only 1.4% had severe anaemia. Mean Hb levels were 12.04% among non-anaemic mothers and mean birth weight was 2.89 Kg whereas 9.14%, 2.18 kg in anaemic mothers respectively. In our study, 21% in anaemic group has birth weight <2.5 kg and only 0.06% in non-anaemic mothers (p<0.0012 3.6 times higher. The risk of IUGR was 3.77 times higher, low APGAR score at 1 min was 3.8 times higher (p<0.0001, meconium stained liquor was 2.3 times higher and NICU admissions 2.96 times higher in anaemic mothers than non-anaemic mothers. Conclusions: Anaemia in pregnancy is one of the causes of poor perinatal outcome. Maternal anaemia is associated with the high risk of low birth weight, IUGR babies, low APGAR scores and NICU admissions and overall increase in perinatal morbidity. Hence proper antenatal care and counseling can reduce occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1335-1338

  8. KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out in villages around health centers, which were distributed over 10 regencies in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province. All deaths occurring in 1986 were recorded and reported to the health centers. Each case was investigated by the health center doctor to identify the multiple causes of death as well as its related factors. Pregnancy and delivery histories of maternal deaths were analysed. In the study area, the maternal mortality ratio was found to be 1346 per 100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 101 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. The maternal mortality ratio, among women under 20 years of age, was 3390 per 100,000 live births; and 4545 per 100,000 live births among women aged 40 years and over. The predominant factor as a risk of maternal deaths was attributable to delivery assistance by non medical personnel, which was 71%. Maternal deaths attributable to the first parities was 40%, and to pregnancies without antenatal care was 20.1%}. The most prevalent disease causing maternal deaths were haemorrhage 46.2%}, postpartum infections 30.8% and retained placenta 30.8%. To reduce maternal mortality, the most important intervention is to provide qualified delivery assistants especially for the first parities, and the provision of accessible delivery centers for emergency cases in addition to provision of appropriate antenatal care for early detection of high risk pregnancies. Family planning programs will have to be more specified towards high risk groups, i.e women aged under 20 years or 35 years and over, as well as women of high parity. A similar study is recommended to be conducted throughout the other parts of East Nusa Tenggara islands in order to evaluate the general maternal health status of the province.

  9. Silicon-based nanochannel glucose sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xihua; Chen, Yu; Gibney, Katherine A.; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanochannel biological field effect transistors have been developed for glucose detection. The device is nanofabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a top-down approach and surface functionalized with glucose oxidase. The differential conductance of silicon nanowires, tuned with source-drain bias voltage, is demonstrated to be sensitive to the biocatalyzed oxidation of glucose. The glucose biosensor response is linear in the 0.5-8 mM concentration range with 3-5 min response...

  10. 21 CFR 168.120 - Glucose sirup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glucose sirup. 168.120 Section 168.120 Food and... § 168.120 Glucose sirup. (a) Glucose sirup is the purified, concentrated, aqueous solution of nutritive... equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not less than 20.0 percent m/m calculated on a dry basis. (2)...

  11. The WHO maternal near-miss approach and the maternal severity index model (MSI: tools for assessing the management of severe maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments. METHODS: In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death probability among women with severe maternal complications and benchmark the management of severe maternal morbidity. RESULTS: Of the 82,388 women having deliveries in the participating health facilities, 9,555 women presented pregnancy-related complications, including 140 maternal deaths and 770 maternal near misses. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were found to be accurate and highly associated with maternal deaths (Positive likelihood ratio 106.8 (95% CI 99.56-114.6. The maternal severity index (MSI model was developed and found to able to describe the relationship between life-threatening conditions and mortality (Area under the ROC curve: 0.951 (95% CI 0.909-0.993. CONCLUSION: The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment.

  12. Higher fetal insulin resistance in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with maternal insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwei Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. RESULTS: Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, P<0.001, proinsulin, 25.8 vs. 15.1 pmol/L, P = 0.015, and HOMA-IR, 2.8 vs. 1.4, P = 0.017, respectively. Fetal HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019, in the pregnant women with GDM. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.

  13. GABA Enhancement of Maternal Defense in Mice: Possible Neural Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Grace; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that low doses of GABAA receptor agonists facilitate maternal defense of offspring (maternal aggression), without significantly affecting other maternal behaviors. In addition, it has been demonstrated that endogenous changes in GABAergic neurotransmission occur in association with lactation. This study investigated the effects of GABAA receptor agonist, chlordiazepoxide (CDP), a benzodiazepine (BDZ), on maternal behaviors including aggression, and identified brain...

  14. Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in...

  15. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik A.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4 to...

  16. A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Li, Siqi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2013-06-20

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concentrations. This sensor features simplicity in sensor design, and possesses high specificity and accuracy in glucose detection. However, lack of glucose diffusion passage, this device is unable to fulfill real-time in-vivo monitoring. As a major improvement to this device, we present in this paper a fully implantable MEMS dielectric affinity glucose biosensor that contains a perforated electrode embedded in a suspended diaphragm. This capacitive-based sensor contains no moving parts, and enables glucose diffusion and real-time monitoring. The experimental results indicate that this sensor can detect glucose solutions at physiological concentrations and possesses good reversibility and reliability. This sensor has a time constant to glucose concentration change at approximately 3 min, which is comparable to commercial systems. The sensor has potential applications in fully implantable CGM that require excellent long-term stability and reliability. PMID:24511215

  17. Postpartum Maternal Sleep, Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Self-Perceived Mother-Infant Emotional Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the links between maternal sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mothers' perceptions of their emotional relationship with their infant in a self-recruited sample of mothers. Eighty mothers of infants 3-18 months old completed sleep diaries for 5 consecutive nights, and questionnaires assessing sleep (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), depressive symptom severity (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS]), and perceived mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire [PBQ] and Maternal Postnatal Attachment Questionnaire [MPAQ]). Significant correlations, controlling for depression severity, were found between more disturbed maternal sleep and more negative maternal perceptions of the mother-infant relationship. Regression analyses revealed that EPDS showed the strongest association with PBQ, whereas ISI demonstrated the strongest association with MPAQ. The present study highlights the importance of deepening and expanding our understanding of the negative implications of maternal sleep problems. PMID:25127316

  18. Na+-d-glucose Cotransporter SGLT1 is Pivotal for Intestinal Glucose Absorption and Glucose-Dependent Incretin Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Gorboulev, Valentin; Schürmann, Annette; Vallon, Volker; Kipp, Helmut; Jaschke, Alexander; Klessen, Dirk; Friedrich, Alexandra; Scherneck, Stephan; Rieg, Timo; Cunard, Robyn; Veyhl-Wichmann, Maike; Srinivasan, Aruna; Balen, Daniela; Breljak, Davorka; Rexhepaj, Rexhep

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the physiological role of Na+-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in small intestine and kidney, Sglt1−/− mice were generated and characterized phenotypically. After gavage of d-glucose, small intestinal glucose absorption across the brush-border membrane (BBM) via SGLT1 and GLUT2 were analyzed. Glucose-induced secretion of insulinotropic hormone (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in wild-type and Sglt1−/− mice were compared. The impact of SGLT1 on renal glucose handling was inves...

  19. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with [2-3H]glucose and HGP with [6-3H]glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). [2-3H]- minus [6-3H]glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP

  20. Maternal intake of energy, macronutrients and fiber during pregnancy, and relation to maternal anthropometry

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background: The evidence for a relationship between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and future health of her unborn child is now ample. The different factors that may link fetal development and growth to later health of the fetus are currently gaining increasing attention. Composition of maternal gestational weight gain may be one of the factors that have an impact on this relationship. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether maternal intake of energy, ma...

  1. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior prob...

  2. The Maternal Migration Effect : Exploring Maternal Healthcare in Diaspora Using Qualitative Proxies for Medical Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the 'maternal migration effect'. Following migration to a high-income country with a low maternal mortality rate, we assume that some immigrant women’s reliance upon maternal practices that respond to a low-income, high-mortality context can adversely affect care-seeking and utilization of treatment facilities. At highest risk in the United Kingdom and Sweden are those from Africa's Horn, particularly Somali women who have experienced diasporic migration. By applying con...

  3. Maternal seizures can affect the brain developing of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossa, Ana Carolina; Lima, Daiana Correia; do Vale, Tiago Gurgel; de Alencar Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José; Amado, Debora

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the impact of maternal seizures in the developing rat brain, pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to the pilocarpine-induced seizures and pups from different litters were studied at different ages. In the first 24 h of life, blood glucose and blood gases were analyzed. (14)C-leucine [(14)C-Leu] incorporation was used to analyze protein synthesis at PN1, and Western Blot method was used to analyze protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the hippocampus (PN3-PN21). During the first 22 days of postnatal life, body weight gain, length, skull measures, tooth eruption, eye opening and righting reflex have been assessed. Pups from naive mothers were used as controls. Experimental pups showed a compensated metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia. At PN1, the [(14)C-Leu] incorporation into different studied areas of experimental pups was lower than in the control pups. During development, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2 and PARP-1 in the hippocampus of experimental pups were altered when compared with control pups. A decreased level of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was verified in the early postnatal age (PN3), and an increased level of pro-apoptotic proteins concomitant with a reduced level of anti-apoptotic protein was observed at the later stages of the development (PN21). Experimental pups had a delay in postnatal growth and development beyond disturb in protein synthesis and some protein expression during development. These changes can be result from hormonal alterations linked to stress and/or hypoxic events caused by maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy. PMID:27085526

  4. Evidence From Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baker; Kevin Milligan

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent between 48 and 58 percent more time not working in the first year of their children's lives. We find that this extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed non-relatives, and replaced mostly full-time work. However, the estimates suggest a weak impact of the increase in maternal care ...

  5. Correlates of Maternal Health Care Utilization in Rohilkhand Region, India

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, A.; Mahmood, SE; P Mishra; Shrotriya, VP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until date, the importance of maternal health care services in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity has received a significant recognition. Most of the maternal deaths can be prevented if women have access to basic antenatal, natal and postnatal care. However, uptake of maternal health care services is far from universal even in settings where they are extensively available. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the pattern and identify underlying factors on maternal health...

  6. Maternal Health Care: The Case of Iron Supplementation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali; Raza, Muhammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal care is an essential segment of maternal health-care. In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the socioeconomic determinants of maternal iron supplementation and sufficient maternal iron supplementation as components of prenatal care. Micro-data having 25999 and 19764 observations for two models, i.e. maternal iron supplementation and maternal sufficient iron supplementation respectively has been taken from Indian Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) 2005-06. To estimate th...

  7. Extraction of Silver by Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Ananya; Gandi, Mounika; Chaudhari, Swathi; Bag, Soumabha; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-06-27

    Unprecedented silver ion leaching, in the range of 0.7 ppm was seen when metallic silver was heated in water at 70 °C in presence of simple carbohydrates, such as glucose, making it a green method of silver extraction. Extraction was facilitated by the presence of anions, such as carbonate and phosphate. Studies confirm a two-step mechanism of silver release, first forming silver ions at the metal surface and later complexation of ionic silver with glucose; such complexes have been detected by mass spectrometry. Extraction leads to microscopic roughening of the surface making it Raman active with an enhancement factor of 5×10(8) . PMID:27119514

  8. Hepatic glucose sensing is required to preserve β cell glucose competence.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyer, Pascal; Vallois, David; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Schutz, Frédéric; Metref, Salima; Tarussio, David; Maechler, Pierre; Staels, Bart; Lanz, Bernard; Grueter, Rolf; Decaris, Julie; Turner, Scott; Da Costa, Anabela; Preitner, Frédéric; Minehira, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    Liver glucose metabolism plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and may also regulate feeding and energy expenditure. Here we assessed the impact of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene inactivation in adult mouse liver (LG2KO mice). Loss of Glut2 suppressed hepatic glucose uptake but not glucose output. In the fasted state, expression of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and its glycolytic and lipogenic target genes was abnormally elevated. Feeding, energy expenditu...

  9. Disrupted normal ingestion during glucose intake modulates glucose kinetics in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Kida, Kumiko; Bakhshishayan, Sanam; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the importance of chemical senses in glucose kinetics and autonomic nervous activity by imposing interventions during glucose intake. The glucose-loading test was applied to seven healthy individuals. Three successive oral glucose-loadings induced a gradual downward shift in the blood glucose curves (BGC) together with increased salivary α-amylase activity (s-AMY) and positively correlated with satisfaction scores. On the other hands, adding a pleasant flavor given d...

  10. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Possible Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects Beyond Glucose Lowering

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Adachi, Hiroki; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Sako, Akahito

    2015-01-01

    The new drug for type 2 diabetes, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, is reversible inhibitor of SGLT-2, leading to reduction of renal glucose reabsorption and decrease of plasma glucose, in an insulin-independent manner. In addition to glucose control, the management of coronary risk factors is very important for patients with diabetes. Here we reviewed published articles about the possible anti-atherosclerotic effects beyond glucose lowering of the SGLT-2 inhibitors. We s...

  11. Lifestyle, glucose regulation and the cognitive effects of glucose load in middle-aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    Riby, Leigh; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Riby, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Interventions aimed at improving glucose regulatory mechanisms have been suggested as a possible source of cognitive enhancement in the elderly. In particular, previous research has identified episodic memory as a target for facilitation after either moderate increases in glycaemia (after a glucose drink) or after improvements in glucose regulation. The present study aimed to extend this research by examining the joint effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on cognition. In addit...

  12. Current trend of maternal health in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noviyani Sugiarto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs will be assessed in the next three years (2015. Several parameters in the area of maternal health are evaluated continuously. The aim of this paper is to formally summarize and report the state of maternal health in Indonesia based on the data from Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2010.Methods: This paper utilizes tertiary data obtained from the latest Riskesdas (2010.Results: Data that is available in the report covers data about marriage, reproduction health, abortion, access to health care for pregnancies, place of labor, health care provider, as well as rate of the first postpartum period visit.Conclusion: The latest data shows improvement in the maternal health area, nevertheless large effort in maintaining and improving the condition is still needed. Continuous evaluation is also proven to be essential in achieving the goals. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:179-83Keywords: Indonesia, maternal health, millennium development goals

  13. Maternal mortality in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Sengupta, B S; Chattopadhyay, C; Zaidi, Z; Showail, H

    1983-09-01

    The maternal mortality in the Maternity and Children Hospital, Riyadh, during the years 1978-1980 was 52 per 100 000 births, when the total births were 55 428. This is higher than the rate reported from the hospitals in developed countries but lower than rates reported by the university hospitals of developing countries such as India, Thailand and Nigeria. Haemorrhage, associated disease, pulmonary embolism and infection, in that order, were the main causes of maternal deaths. The main avoidable factor was failure by the patient to seek the medical care. Much could be done in reducing deaths due to haemorrhage by improving blood transfusion facilities in the peripheral hospitals. Adequate health education, especially of rural women and their midwives, is a crucial factor in improving the maternal death rate for the country as a whole. PMID:6615737

  14. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. PMID:25934599

  15. Reimbursement for Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz; DeVries, J Hans

    2016-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems have been available for more than 15 years by now. However, market uptake is relatively low in most countries; in other words, relatively few patients with diabetes use CGM systems regularly. One major reason for the reluctance of patients to use CGM systems is the costs associated (i.e., in most countries no reimbursement is provided by the health insurance companies). In case reimbursement is in place, like in the United States, only certain patient groups get reimbursement that fulfills strict indications. This situation is somewhat surprising in view of the mounting evidence for benefits of CGM usage from clinical trials: most meta-analyses of these trials consistently show a clinically relevant improvement of glucose control associated with a reduction in hypoglycemic events. More recent trials with CGM systems with an improved CGM technology showed even more impressive benefits, especially if CGM systems are used in different combinations with an insulin pump (e.g., with automated bolus calculators and low glucose suspend features). Nevertheless, sufficient evidence is not available for all patient groups, and more data on cost-efficacy are needed. In addition, good data from real-world studies/registers documenting the benefits of CGM usage under daily life conditions would be of help to convince healthcare systems to cover the costs of CGM systems. In view of the ongoing improvements in established needle-type CGM systems, the fact that new CGM technology will come to the market soon (e.g., implantable sensors), that CGM-like systems are quite successfully at least in certain markets (like the flash glucose monitoring systems), and that the first artificial pancreas systems will come to the market in the next few years, there is a need to make sure that this major improvement in diabetes therapy becomes more widely available for patients with diabetes, for which better reimbursement is essential. PMID:26784130

  16. Improvements in electrochemical glucose biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Fragkou, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Even though insulin was discovered in 1920, an intense research on diabetes has been conducted during the last five decades and this is because of the market size. The huge demand is creating the need for the development of new approaches. This project involved the research aimed at better understanding and improvements in performance of glucose biosensors. In general, high surface area electrodes ar...

  17. Maternal Intensive Care’: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Van Parys, A. S.; Verstraelen, H.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this systematic literature review is to review current scientific knowledge on the definition of and the indications for maternal/obstetric intensive care (MIC). Methods: We conducted a extensive search in OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CINHAL and CEBAM using the keywords: maternal/obstetric intensive care, subacute care, intermediate care, postacute care, critical care, sub intensive care, progressive patient care, postnatal care, perinatal care, obstetrical nurs...

  18. The Reset Hypothesis: Lactation and Maternal Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Stuebe, Alison M.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2008-01-01

    For maternal metabolism, pregnancy ends not with delivery, but with weaning. In several recent epidemiological studies, authors have reported an association between duration of breast-feeding and reduced maternal risk of metabolic disease. These findings parallel data from animal models showing favorable changes in metabolism associated with lactation. During gestation, visceral fat accumulates, and insulin resistance and lipid and triglyceride levels increase. These changes appear to reverse...

  19. Why are most organelle genomes transmitted maternally?

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Stephan; Sobanski, Johanna; Bock, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Why the DNA-containing organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria, are inherited maternally is a long standing and unsolved question. However, recent years have seen a paradigm shift, in that the absoluteness of uniparental inheritance is increasingly questioned. Here, we review the field and propose a unifying model for organelle inheritance. We argue that the predominance of the maternal mode is a result of higher mutational load in the paternal gamete. Uniparental inheritance evolved from ...

  20. Maternal morbidity associated with in utero transfer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, T. D.; Kidd, G M

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the extent of maternal morbidity associated with in utero transfer. DESIGN--Retrospective study of 190 consecutive cases over two years. SETTING--Liverpool Maternity Hospital. PATIENTS--190 Pregnant women were transferred to the hospital under the in utero transfer arrangements from district general hospitals both within and outside the Mersey region. The women admitted were divided into two categories: those in threatened or established uncomplicated preterm labour an...

  1. Supporting Maternal Transition: Continuity, Coaching, and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Jennifer; Barnes, Margaret; Sutherns, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The transition from maternity services to community child health services on discharge from hospital occurs at a potentially vulnerable time for women in their transition through the childbearing/early parenting continuum. Their experiences contribute to their developing maternal efficacy and parenting skill. The ideal attributes of services that aim to support women and their families during this time include continuity of care, service integration, and birth in accessible, community-based c...

  2. IMPACT OF MATERNAL OBESITY ON OBSTETRIC OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Najafiyan Mahin; Cheraghi Maria; Mahmodi Mandana

    2012-01-01

    Weight gain and obesity are public health problems in pregnant women and is associated with increased risk of maternal and neonatal complications. Objective was to determine maternal, fetal and neonatal complications in obese women. A Prospective study was conducted at Gynecology ward, Razi medical and educational center, Ahvaz, Iran during year 2011. A total of 850 subjects were participated in this study for 18 weeks follow- up. The subjects were divided into two groups. Overweight/ obese (...

  3. Maternal Postpartum Distress and Childhood Overweight

    OpenAIRE

    Ajslev, Teresa A.; Andersen, Camilla S.; Ingstrup, Katja G.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21 121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information ...

  4. Maternal Risk Factors for Congenital Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Streja, Elani

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in children. In spite of major advances in medical technology, the etiology of CP is still not well understood. There is growing evidence that brain damage leading to CP development occurs during pregnancy and that maternal phenotype contributes to this intrauterine environment. We hypothesized that maternal factors such as infections, smoking, comorbidities and genetics can increase the risk of CP in children. Additionally...

  5. Maternal perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Mannion, Cynthia A; Hobbs, Amy J; Sheila W McDonald; Tough, Suzanne C

    2013-01-01

    Background Many women find breastfeeding challenging to sustain beyond the first three postpartum months. Women rely on a variety of resources to aid and encourage breastfeeding, including ‘partner support’. Women’s perception of partner support during breastfeeding may influence maternal satisfaction and confidence but it remains understudied. We asked women about their perceptions of partner support during breastfeeding and measured the effect on maternal confidence, commitment, and satisfa...

  6. Maternal affection and motivation for breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Edite; Chaves, Cláudia; Duarte, João; Nelas, Paula; Coutinho, Emília

    2016-01-01

    Several studies by UNICEF, OMS and other childhood protection institutions have concluded that the breastfeeding is considered an important strategy for infantile survival. Thus, the motivation for breastfeeding is an important variable which should be considered, given that motivation is the agent propeller of all action. To identify whether maternal affection conditions the motivation for maternal breast feeding. Quantitative, transverse, descriptive-correlational and explanatory study, usi...

  7. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test. STUDY DESIGN: A historical cohort study of 2459 pregnant women systematically examined for gestational diabetes was.......0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese women (BMI >or= 30.0 kg/m(2)) compared with women who were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). The frequencies of shoulder dystocia, preterm delivery, and infant morbidity other than macrosomia were not significantly associated with maternal BMI. CONCLUSION: Prepregnancy...... overweight and obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women....

  8. Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Y Yu

    Full Text Available Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  9. Noninvasive Prenatal Molecular Karyotyping from Maternal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Stephanie C. Y.; Jiang, Peiyong; Choy, Kwong W.; Chan, Kwan Chee Allen; Won, Hye-Sung; Leung, Wing C.; Lau, Elizabeth T.; Tang, Mary H. Y.; Leung, Tak Y.; Lo, Yuk Ming Dennis; Chiu, Rossa W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing. PMID:23613765

  10. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  11. What is a normal blood glucose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güemes, Maria; Rahman, Sofia A; Hussain, Khalid

    2016-06-01

    Glucose is the key metabolic substrate for tissue energy production. In the perinatal period the mother supplies glucose to the fetus and for most of the gestational period the normal lower limit of fetal glucose concentration is around 3 mmol/L. Just after birth, for the first few hours of life in a normal term neonate appropriate for gestational age, blood glucose levels can range between 1.4 mmol/L and 6.2 mmol/L but by about 72 h of age fasting blood glucose levels reach normal infant, child and adult values (3.5-5.5 mmol/L). Normal blood glucose levels are maintained within this narrow range by factors which control glucose production and glucose utilisation. The key hormones which regulate glucose homoeostasis include insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and growth hormone. Pathological states that affect either glucose production or utilisation will lead to hypoglycaemia. Although hypoglycaemia is a common biochemical finding in children (especially in the newborn) it is not possible to define by a single (or a range of) blood glucose value/s. It can be defined as the concentration of glucose in the blood or plasma at which the individual demonstrates a unique response to the abnormal milieu caused by the inadequate delivery of glucose to a target organ (eg, the brain). Hypoglycaemia should therefore be considered as a continuum and the blood glucose level should be interpreted within the clinical scenario and with respect to the counter-regulatory hormonal responses and intermediate metabolites. PMID:26369574

  12. Evolutionary genetics of maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jason B; Wade, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Maternal genetic effects (MGEs), where genes expressed by mothers affect the phenotype of their offspring, are important sources of phenotypic diversity in a myriad of organisms. We use a single-locus model to examine how MGEs contribute patterns of heritable and nonheritable variation and influence evolutionary dynamics in randomly mating and inbreeding populations. We elucidate the influence of MGEs by examining the offspring genotype-phenotype relationship, which determines how MGEs affect evolutionary dynamics in response to selection on offspring phenotypes. This approach reveals important results that are not apparent from classic quantitative genetic treatments of MGEs. We show that additive and dominance MGEs make different contributions to evolutionary dynamics and patterns of variation, which are differentially affected by inbreeding. Dominance MGEs make the offspring genotype-phenotype relationship frequency dependent, resulting in the appearance of negative frequency-dependent selection, while additive MGEs contribute a component of parent-of-origin dependent variation. Inbreeding amplifies the contribution of MGEs to the additive genetic variance and, therefore enhances their evolutionary response. Considering evolutionary dynamics of allele frequency change on an adaptive landscape, we show that this landscape differs from the mean fitness surface, and therefore, under some condition, fitness peaks can exist but not be "available" to the evolving population. PMID:26969266

  13. Influence of the time of day and fasting duration on glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchalli Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the time of day (TD of glucose measurement and the fasting duration (FD influence the glucose levels in adults. Few studies have examined the effects of the TD and FD on the glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test (GCT in pregnant women in screening for or diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the TD (morning, afternoon, night and the FD (the time of the last food ingestion as follows: ≤1 hour, 1-2 hours, and >2 hours by examining their combined effects on the glucose levels following a 50-gram GCT in pregnant women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the data of 1,454 non-diabetic pregnant Taiwanese women in a prospective study. Multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression were used to estimate the relationships between the 9 TD-FD groups and the continuous and binary glucose levels (cut-off at 140 mg/dL following a 50-gram GCT, after adjusting for maternal age, nulliparity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain. Different TD and FD groups were associated with variable glucose responses to the 50-gram GCT, some of which were significant. The estimate coefficients (β of the TD-FD groups "night, ≤1 hr" and "night, 1-2 hr" revealed significantly lower glucose concentrations [β (95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.46 (-12.53, -0.38 and -6.85 (-12.50, -1.20] compared with the "morning, >2 hr" group. The TD-FD groups "afternoon, ≤1 hr" and "afternoon, 1-2 hr" showed significantly lower odds ratios (OR of a positive GCT; the adjusted ORs (95% CI were 0.54 (0.31-0.95 and 0.58 (0.35-0.96, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the importance of standardizing the TD and FD for the 1-hour, 50-gram GCT. In screening for and diagnosing GDM, the TD and FD are modifiable factors that should be considered in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.

  14. A MEMS differential viscometric sensor for affinity glucose detection in continuous glucose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micromachined viscometric affinity glucose sensors have been previously demonstrated using vibrational cantilever and diaphragm. These devices featured a single glucose detection module that determines glucose concentrations through viscosity changes of glucose-sensitive polymer solutions. However, fluctuations in temperature and other environmental parameters might potentially affect the stability and reliability of these devices, creating complexity in their applications in subcutaneously implanted continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). To address these issues, we present a MEMS differential sensor that can effectively reject environmental disturbances while allowing accurate glucose detection. The sensor consists of two magnetically driven vibrating diaphragms situated inside microchambers filled with a boronic-acid based glucose-sensing solution and a reference solution insensitive to glucose. Glucose concentrations can be accurately determined by characteristics of the diaphragm vibration through differential capacitive detection. Our in vitro and preliminary in vivo experimental data demonstrate the potential of this sensor for highly stable subcutaneous CGM applications. (paper)

  15. Glucose transport in brain - effect of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcovicova, J

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is transported across the cell membrane by specific saturable transport system, which includes two types of glucose transporters: 1) sodium dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs) which transport glucose against its concentration gradient and 2) sodium independent glucose transporters (GLUTs), which transport glucose by facilitative diffusion in its concentration gradient. In the brain, both types of transporters are present with different function, affinity, capacity, and tissue distribution. GLUT1 occurs in brain in two isoforms. The more glycosylated GLUT1 is produced in brain microvasculature and ensures glucose transport across the blood brain barrier (BBB). The less glycosylated form is localized in astrocytic end-feet and cell bodies and is not present in axons, neuronal synapses or microglia. Glucose transported to astrocytes by GLUT1 is metabolized to lactate serving to neurons as energy source. Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β upregulates GLUT1 in endothelial cells and astrocytes, whereas it induces neuronal death in neuronal cell culture. GLUT2 is present in hypothalamic neurons and serves as a glucose sensor in regulation of food intake. In neurons of the hippocampus, GLUT2 is supposed to regulate synaptic activity and neurotransmitter release. GLUT3 is the most abundant glucose transporter in the brain having five times higher transport capacity than GLUT1. It is present in neuropil, mostly in axons and dendrites. Its density and distribution correlate well with the local cerebral glucose demands. GLUT5 is predominantly fructose transporter. In brain, GLUT5 is the only hexose transporter in microglia, whose regulation is not yet clear. It is not present in neurons. GLUT4 and GLUT8 are insulin-regulated glucose transporters in neuronal cell bodies in the cortex and cerebellum, but mainly in the hippocampus and amygdala, where they maintain hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Insulin translocates GLUT4 from cytosol to plasma

  16. Aorta Structural Alterations in Term Neonates: The Role of Birth and Maternal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of selected maternal and neonatal characteristics on aorta walls in term, appropriately grown-for-gestational age newborns. Methods. Age, parity, previous abortions, weight, height, body mass index before and after delivery, smoking, and history of hypertension, of diabetes, of cardiovascular diseases, and of dyslipidemia were all assessed in seventy mothers. They delivered 34 males and 36 females healthy term newborns who underwent ultrasound evaluation of the anteroposterior infrarenal abdominal aorta diameter (APAO, biochemical profile (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and D-dimers homeostasis model assessment [HOMAIR]index, and biometric parameters. Results. APAO was related to newborn length (r=+0.36; P=0.001, head circumference (r=+0.37; P=0.001, gestational age (r=+0.40, P=0.0005, HOMA index (r=+0.24; P=0.04, and D-dimers (r=+0.33, P=0.004. Smoke influenced APAO values (odds ratio: 1.80; confidence interval 95%: 1.05–3.30, as well as diabetes during pregnancy (r=+0.42, P=0.0002. Maternal height influenced neonatal APAO (r=+0.47, P=0.00003. Multiple regression analysis outlined neonatal D-dimers as still significantly related to neonatal APAO values. Conclusions. Many maternal and neonatal characteristics could influence aorta structures. Neonatal D-dimers are independently related to APAO.

  17. Physiological and behavioral responses in offspring mice following maternal exposure to sulfamonomethoxine during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Dan; Ye, Kui; Liu, Kaiyong; Sheng, Jie; Liu, Yehao; Hu, Chunqiu; Ruan, Liang; Li, Li; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-06-15

    Sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), a veterinary antibiotic, is widely used in China. However, the impacts of maternal SMM exposure on neurobehavioral development in early life remain little known. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal SMM exposure during pregnancy on behavioral and physiological responses in offspring mice. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into three SMM-treated groups, namely low-(10mg/kg/day), medium-(50mg/kg/day), and high-dose (200mg/kg/day), and a control group. The pregnant mice in the SMM-treated groups received SMM by gavage daily from gestational day 1-18, whereas those in the control received normal saline. On postnatal day (PND) 50, spatial memory was assessed using the Morris water maze test, and anxiety was measured using the elevated plus-maze and open field tests. The results showed significantly increased blood glucose in pups whose mothers received a high SMM dose. In addition, maternal SMM exposure increased anxiety-related activities among the offspring; spatial learning and memory were impaired more severely in the male offspring. The contents of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) on PND 22 were significantly reduced in the male offspring of the high-dose group compared with the controls. These findings indicate that SMM may be identified as a risk factor for cognitive and behavioral development on the basis of gender and that it may be associated with diminished BH4 and BDNF levels early in life. PMID:27173165

  18. The Contributions of Maternal Sensitivity and Maternal Depressive Symptoms to Epigenetic Processes and Neuroendocrine Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Hawes, Katheleen; Guerin, Dylan; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Tronick, Edward; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal responsiveness may buffer the child to the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on DNA methylation of "NR3C1," "11ß-HSD2," and neuroendocrine functioning. DNA was derived from buccal epithelial cells and prestress cortisol was obtained from the saliva of 128 infants. Mothers with depressive…

  19. Poverty and Maternal Responsiveness: The Role of Maternal Stress and Social Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Boxhill, Louise; Pinkava, Michael

    2008-01-01

    One of the main reasons poverty is bad for children's development is because it reduces maternal responsiveness. This study addresses a heretofore unanswered question: why do low-income children experience diminished maternal responsiveness compared with their more affluent counterparts? In addition, we examine this question among a largely…

  20. Maternal Preconceptions About Parenting Predict Child Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Children's Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Moreno, Amanda J.; Robinson, JoAnn L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of maternal preconceptions on child difficult temperament at 6 months and maternal sensitivity at 12-15 months and whether all 3 variables predicted children's empathy at 21-24 months. Within a low-income, ethnically diverse sample of 175 mother-child dyads, path models were tested with 3 empathy indices…

  1. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J D A; Akerud, H; Kaihola, H; Pawluski, J L; Skalkidou, A; Högberg, U; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well-documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are

  2. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

  3. Relations among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…

  4. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  5. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  6. Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children’s eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationsh...

  7. Short communication: Effect of maternal heat stress in late gestation on blood hormones and metabolites of newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J-R; Monteiro, A P A; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Laporta, J; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-08-01

    Maternal heat stress alters immune function of the offspring, as well as metabolism and future lactational performance, but its effect on the hormonal and metabolic responses of the neonate immediately after birth is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the blood profiles of hormones and metabolites of calves born to cows that were cooled (CL) or heat-stressed (HS) during the dry period. Within 2 h after birth, but before colostrum feeding, blood samples were collected from calves [18 bulls (HS: n=10; CL: n=8) and 20 heifers (HS: n=10; CL: n=10)] born to CL or HS dry cows, and hematocrit and plasma concentrations of total protein, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured. Compared with CL, HS calves had lower hematocrit and tended to have lower plasma concentrations of insulin, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. However, maternal heat stress had no effect on plasma levels of total protein, glucose, fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate immediately after birth. These results suggest that maternal heat stress desensitizes a calf's stress response and alters the fetal development by reducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I, prolactin, and insulin. PMID:27265168

  8. Coping with an exogenous glucose overload: glucose kinetics of rainbow trout during graded swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kevin; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2016-03-15

    This study examines how chronically hyperglycemic rainbow trout modulate glucose kinetics in response to graded exercise up to critical swimming speed (Ucrit), with or without exogenous glucose supply. Our goals were 1) to quantify the rates of hepatic glucose production (Ra glucose) and disposal (Rd glucose) during graded swimming, 2) to determine how exogenous glucose affects the changes in glucose fluxes caused by exercise, and 3) to establish whether exogenous glucose modifies Ucrit or the cost of transport. Results show that graded swimming causes no change in Ra and Rd glucose at speeds below 2.5 body lengths per second (BL/s), but that glucose fluxes may be stimulated at the highest speeds. Excellent glucoregulation is also achieved at all exercise intensities. When exogenous glucose is supplied during exercise, trout suppress hepatic production from 16.4 ± 1.6 to 4.1 ± 1.7 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) and boost glucose disposal to 40.1 ± 13 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1). These responses limit the effects of exogenous glucose to a 2.5-fold increase in glycemia, whereas fish showing no modulation of fluxes would reach dangerous levels of 114 mM of blood glucose. Exogenous glucose reduces metabolic rate by 16% and, therefore, causes total cost of transport to decrease accordingly. High glucose availability does not improve Ucrit because the fish are unable to take advantage of this extra fuel during maximal exercise and rely on tissue glycogen instead. In conclusion, trout have a remarkable ability to adjust glucose fluxes that allows them to cope with the cumulative stresses of a glucose overload and graded exercise. PMID:26719305

  9. Growth and Glucose Repression Are Controlled by Glucose Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Containing Only One Glucose Transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Ling; Kruckeberg, Arthur L.; Berden, Jan A.; van Dam, Karel

    1999-01-01

    A set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with variable expression of only the high-affinity Hxt7 glucose transporter was constructed by partial deletion of the HXT7 promoter in vitro and integration of the gene at various copy numbers into the genome of an hxt1-7 gal2 deletion strain. The glucose transport capacity increased in strains with higher levels of HXT7 expression. The consequences for various physiological properties of varying the glucose transport capacity were examined. The cont...

  10. Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John G

    2016-06-01

    The liver has a central role in the regulation of systemic glucose and lipid fluxes during feeding and fasting and also relies on these substrates for its own energy needs. These parallel requirements are met by coordinated control of carbohydrate and lipid fluxes into and out of the Krebs cycle, which is highly tuned to nutrient availability and heavily regulated by insulin and glucagon. During progression of type 2 diabetes, hepatic carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis fluxes become elevated, thus contributing to hyperglycaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. Over this interval there are also significant fluctuations in hepatic energy state. To date, it is not known to what extent abnormal glucose and lipid fluxes are causally linked to altered energy states. Recent evidence that the glucose-lowering effects of metformin appear to be mediated by attenuation of hepatic energy generation places an additional spotlight on the interdependence of hepatic biosynthetic and oxidative fluxes. The transition from fasting to feeding results in a significant re-direction of hepatic glucose and lipid fluxes and may also incur a temporary hepatic energy deficit. At present, it is not known to what extent these variables are additionally modified by type 2 diabetes and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, there is a compelling need to measure fluxes through oxidative, gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways and determine their relationship with hepatic energy state in both fasting and fed conditions. New magnetic resonance-based technologies allow these variables to be non-invasively studied in animal models and humans. This review summarises a presentation given at the symposium entitled 'The liver in focus' at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Kenneth Cusi, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3952-1 , and by Hannele Yki-Järvinen, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3944-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Michael

  11. Effects of antenatal corticosteroids on maternal serum indicators of infection in women at risk for preterm delivery: A randomized trial comparing betamethasone and dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Danesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effect of betamethasone and dexamethasone on maternal white blood cell (WBC and differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, Apgar score, maternal and fetal plasma glucose and length of admission to delivery, gestational age at delivery in women at risk of preterm labor (PTL. Study Design: Two hundred and forty pregnant women at risk for PTL with intact membranes or preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM were randomly allocated to receive either two intramuscular injections of 12 mg betamethasone at 24-h intervals or 4 injections of 6 mg dexamethasone at 12-h intervals. Blood tests for WBC and differential count, ESR and fasting plasma glucose were drawn before betamethasone or dexamethasone injection and after injection every 24 h for two days. Pregnancy outcome was assessed as Apgar score, fetal plasma glucose and length of gestation. Result : In the preterm delivery group with intact membranes, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the maternal serum indicators of infection. The mean gestational age at delivery, 1- and 5-min Apgar score were higher in the dexamethasone group than in the betamethasone group. In the PPROM group, a significant rise in WBC count was occurred (12.4 cells/mm 3 vs. 10.5 cells/mm 3 , P < 0.001, none of the other maternal serum indicators of infection and outcome variables showed significant differences between the dexamethasone and betamethasone groups. Conclusions : Dexamethasone compared to betamethasone significantly increased WBC count in women with PPROM, but in women at risk of PTL with intact membranes none of the maternal serum indicators of infection showed significant differences.

  12. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, H; Richter, E A

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1...... Berger et al., 3-O-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting...

  13. Roles of the Gut in Glucose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Gribble, Fiona; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Chris K

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in the regulation of postprandial glucose profiles. Gastric emptying is a highly regulated process, which normally ensures a limited and fairly constant delivery of nutrients and glucose to the proximal gut. The subsequent digestion and absorption of nutrients are associated with the release of a set of hormones that feeds back to regulate subsequent gastric emptying and regulates the release of insulin, resulting in downregulation of hepatic glucose production and deposition of glucose in insulin-sensitive tissues. These remarkable mechanisms normally keep postprandial glucose excursions low, regardless of the load of glucose ingested. When the regulation of emptying is perturbed (e.g., pyloroplasty, gastric sleeve or gastric bypass operation), postprandial glycemia may reach high levels, sometimes followed by profound hypoglycemia. This article discusses the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27222546

  14. Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis: the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Veena, S. R.; Krishnaveni, G.V.; Karat, S. C.; Osmond, C.; Fall, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation...

  15. Intrauterine Exposure to Maternal Diabetes Is Associated With Higher Adiposity and Insulin Resistance and Clustering of Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Indian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Kehoe, Sarah; Karat, Samuel C.; Fall, Caroline H.D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that maternal gestational diabetes increases cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Anthropometry, blood pressure, and glucose/insulin concentrations were measured in 514 children at 5 and 9.5 years of age (35 offspring of diabetic mothers [ODMs], 39 offspring of diabetic fathers [ODFs]). Children of nondiabetic parents were control subjects. RESULTS At age 9.5 years, female ODMs had larger skinfolds (P < 0.001), higher glu...

  16. Measurement of tear glucose levels with amperometric glucose biosensor/capillary tube configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qinyi; Peng, Bo; Su, Gang; Cohan, Bruce E; Major, Terry C; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    An amperometric needle-type electrochemical glucose sensor intended for tear glucose measurements is described and employed in conjunction with a 0.84 mm i.d. capillary tube to collect microliter volumes of tear fluid. The sensor is based on immobilizing glucose oxidase on a 0.25 mm o.d. platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir) wire and anodically detecting the liberated hydrogen peroxide from the enzymatic reaction. Inner layers of Nafion and an electropolymerized film of 1,3-diaminobenzene/resorcinol greatly enhance the selectivity for glucose over potential interferences in tear fluid, including ascorbic acid and uric acid. Further, the new sensor is optimized to achieve very low detection limits of 1.5 ± 0.4 μM of glucose (S/N = 3) that is required to monitor glucose levels in tear fluid with a glucose sensitivity of 0.032 ± 0.02 nA/μM (n = 6). Only 4-5 μL of tear fluid in the capillary tube is required when the needle sensor is inserted into the capillary. The glucose sensor was employed to measure tear glucose levels in anesthetized rabbits over an 8 h period while also measuring the blood glucose values. A strong correlation between tear and blood glucose levels was found, suggesting that measurement of tear glucose is a potential noninvasive substitute for blood glucose measurements, and the new sensor configuration could aid in conducting further research in this direction. PMID:21961809

  17. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  18. Maternal diabetes and perinatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagemann, A

    2011-11-01

    Alterations of the intrauterine and neonatal environment may predispose for disorders and diseases throughout later life (perinatal programming). Especially, hormones and nutrients are dose-dependent organizers of the developing organism. Studies in offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) have paradigmatically contributed to the perception of this developmental principle and our understanding of causal mechanisms. Fetal and neonatal hyperinsulinism in consequence of materno-fetal hyperglycaemia is the pathognomic feature in ODM. Epidemiological, clinical, as well as experimental data indicate that both insulin and glucose, when occurring in elevated concentrations during perinatal life, may epigenetically program a predisposition for obesity and diabetes later on. Similar may occur due to pre- and neonatal overfeeding. From a clinical point of view, avoidance of materno-fetal overnutrition, universal diabetes screening in all pregnant women and adequate therapy of all forms of diabetes during pregnancy, as well as avoidance of neonatal overfeeding are therefore recommended. These measures might serve as causal approaches of a genuine prevention to the benefit of long-term offspring health. PMID:21945359

  19. Leptin therapy, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Paz-Filho; Claudio Mastronardi; Ma-Li Wong; Julio Licinio

    2012-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is closely regulated not only by insulin, but also by leptin. Both hormones act centrally, regulating food intake and adiposity in humans. Leptin has several effects on the glucose-insulin homeostasis, some of which are independent of body weight and adiposity. Those effects of leptin are determined centrally in the hypothalamus and peripherally in the pancreas, muscles and liver. Leptin has beneficial effects on the glucose-insulin metabolism, by decreasing glycemia, insu...

  20. A self-powered glucose biosensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Gymama; Kulkarni, Tanmay

    2016-04-15

    A self-powered glucose biosensor (SPGS) system is fabricated and in vitro characterization of the power generation and charging frequency characteristics in glucose analyte are described. The bioelectrodes consist of compressed network of three-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes with redox enzymes, pyroquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) and laccase functioning as the anodic and cathodic catalyst, respectively. When operated in 45 mM glucose, the biofuel cell exhibited an open circuit voltage and power density of 681.8 mV and 67.86 µW/cm(2) at 335 mV, respectively, with a current density of 202.2 µA/cm(2). Moreover, at physiological glucose concentration (5mM), the biofuel cell exhibits open circuit voltage and power density of 302.1 mV and 15.98 µW/cm(2) at 166.3 mV, respectively, with a current density of 100 µA/cm(2). The biofuel cell assembly produced a linear dynamic range of 0.5-45 mM glucose. These findings show that glucose biofuel cells can be further investigated in the development of a self-powered glucose biosensor by using a capacitor as the transducer element. By monitoring the capacitor charging frequencies, which are influenced by the concentration of the glucose analyte, a linear dynamic range of 0.5-35 mM glucose is observed. The operational stability of SPGS is monitored over a period of 63 days and is found to be stable with 15.38% and 11.76% drop in power density under continuous discharge in 10mM and 20mM glucose, respectively. These results demonstrate that SPGSs can simultaneously generate bioelectricity to power ultra-low powered devices and sense glucose. PMID:26594885

  1. Fabrication of glucose biosensors by inkjet printing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tianming; Cook, Christopher C.; Serban, Simona; Ali, Tarif; Drago, Guido; Derby, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Inkjet printing has been used to fabricate glucose sensors using glucose oxidase and screen printed carbon electrodes. By appropriate selection of printing and drying conditions we are able to fabricate sensor structures that show a good linear response to glucose concentration. In order to achieve these structures we must carefully control the spreading and drying of the enzyme solution on the carbon electrode. Carbon electrode suirfaces are hydrophobic and Triton X was used as a surfactant ...

  2. Pancreatic regulation of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Pia V; Wu, Bingbing; Liu, Yixian; Han, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure normal body function, the human body is dependent on a tight control of its blood glucose levels. This is accomplished by a highly sophisticated network of various hormones and neuropeptides released mainly from the brain, pancreas, liver, intestine as well as adipose and muscle tissue. Within this network, the pancreas represents a key player by secreting the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin and its opponent glucagon. However, disturbances in the interplay of the hormones and peptides involved may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) whose prevalence, comorbidities and medical costs take on a dramatic scale. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to uncover and understand the mechanisms underlying the various interactions to improve existing anti-diabetic therapies and drugs on the one hand and to develop new therapeutic approaches on the other. This review summarizes the interplay of the pancreas with various other organs and tissues that maintain glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, anti-diabetic drugs and their impact on signaling pathways underlying the network will be discussed. PMID:26964835

  3. Glucose Metabolism in Mentally Retarded Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose metabolism has been studied in normal, mentally retarded and hypothyroid children who exhibited subnormal I.Q. in spite of an adequate thyroxine dose. Two parameters, the breath and the blood, were examined. Continuous breath analysis following intravenous glucose-U-14C was carried out to examine its end product 14CO2. Blood was analysed half-hourly for the specific activity of glucose in this pool. Data are presented in terms of stable carbon dioxide expiration rate, the maximum specific activity of carbon dioxide attained, the glucose pool of the body and its turnover rate. (author)

  4. Glucokinase, the pancreatic glucose sensor, is not the gut glucose sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, R; Tura, A; Clark, P M;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP) are released from intestinal endocrine cells in response to luminal glucose. Glucokinase is present in these cells and has been proposed as a glucose sensor. The physiological...... role of glucokinase can be tested using individuals with heterozygous glucokinase gene (GCK) mutations. If glucokinase is the gut glucose sensor, GLP-1 and GIP secretion during a 75 g OGTT would be lower in GCK mutation carriers compared with controls. METHODS: We compared GLP-1 and GIP concentrations....../INTERPRETATION: Glucokinase, the major pancreatic glucose sensor, is not the main gut glucose sensor. By modelling OGTT data in GCK mutation carriers we were able to distinguish a specific beta cell glucose-sensing defect. Our data suggest a reduction in potentiation of insulin secretion by glucose that is independent...

  5. Depot- and sex-specific effects of maternal obesity in offspring's adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Simon; Deracinois, Barbara; Laborie, Christine; Eberlé, Delphine; Guinez, Céline; Panchenko, Polina E; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne; Breton, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, alterations of nutrient supply in the fetus or neonate result in long-term programming of individual body weight (BW) setpoint. In particular, maternal obesity, excessive nutrition, and accelerated growth in neonates have been shown to sensitize offspring to obesity. The white adipose tissue may represent a prime target of metabolic programming induced by maternal obesity. In order to unravel the underlying mechanisms, we have developed a rat model of maternal obesity using a high-fat (HF) diet (containing 60% lipids) before and during gestation and lactation. At birth, newborns from obese dams (called HF) were normotrophs. However, HF neonates exhibited a rapid weight gain during lactation, a key period of adipose tissue development in rodents. In males, increased BW at weaning (+30%) persists until 3months of age. Nine-month-old HF male offspring was normoglycemic but showed mild glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercorticosteronemia. Despite no difference in BW and energy intake, HF adult male offspring was predisposed to fat accumulation showing increased visceral (gonadal and perirenal) depots weights and hyperleptinemia. However, only perirenal adipose tissue depot exhibited marked adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia with elevated lipogenic (i.e. sterol-regulated element binding protein 1 (Srebp1), fatty acid synthase (Fas), and leptin) and diminished adipogenic (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-Hds1)) mRNA levels. By contrast, very few metabolic variations were observed in HF female offspring. Thus, maternal obesity and accelerated growth during lactation program offspring for higher adiposity via transcriptional alterations of visceral adipose tissue in a depot- and sex-specific manner. PMID:27122310

  6. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  7. Identifying 'at risk' women and the impact of maternal obesity on National Health Service maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslehurst, Nicola

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is a public health concern worldwide, arising from multifaceted and complex causes that relate to individual choice and lifestyle, and the influences of wider society. In addition to a long-standing focus on both childhood and adult obesity, there has been more recent concern relating to maternal obesity. This review explores the published evidence relating to maternal obesity incidence and associated inequalities, the impact of obesity on maternity services, and associated guidelines. Epidemiological data comprising three national maternal obesity datasets within the UK have identified a significant increase in maternal obesity in recent years, and reflect broad socio-demographic inequalities particularly deprivation, ethnicity and unemployment. Obese pregnancies present increased risk of complications that require more resource intensive antenatal and perinatal care, such as caesarean deliveries, gestational diabetes, haemorrhage, infections and congenital anomalies. Healthcare professionals also face difficulties when managing the care of women in pregnancy as obesity is an emotive and stigmatising topic. There is a lack of good-quality evidence for effective interventions to tackle maternal obesity. Recently published national guidelines for the clinical management and weight management of maternal obesity offer advice for professionals, but acknowledge the limitations of the evidence base. The consequence of these difficulties is an absence of support services available for women. Further evaluative research is thus required to assess the effectiveness of interventions with women before, during and after pregnancy. Qualitative work with women will also be needed to help inform the development of more sensitive risk communication and women-centred services. PMID:21854697

  8. Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming.

  9. Maternal Infections during Pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Jessica E.; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Streja, Elani;

    2013-01-01

    the Danish Cerebral Palsy Registry. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Of the 440 564 singletons with follow-up data, 840 were diagnosed with congenital CP. Maternal genito-urinary tract infections (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1...... trimester-specific exposures, CP risk was associated with prescriptions redeemed in the first trimester for any antibacterials, beta-lactam antibacterials, and nitrofurantoin, an antibiotic commonly used to treat lower urinary tract infection, and genito-urinary tract infections in the third trimester....... CONCLUSION: Genito-urinary tract infections and antibiotic use during pregnancy were associated with increased risks of CP, indicating that some maternal infections or causes of maternal infections present in prenatal life may be part of a causal pathway leading to CP....

  10. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions.

  11. Glucose enhancement of human memory: A comprehensive research review of the glucose memory facilitation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael; Riby, Leigh; van Eekelen, Anke; Foster, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The brain relies upon glucose as its primary fuel. In recent years, a rich literature has developed from both human and animal studies indicating that increases in circulating blood glucose can facilitate cognitive functioning. This phenomenon has been termed the ‘glucose memory facilitation effect’. The purpose of this review is to discuss a number of salient studies which have investigated the influence of glucose ingestion on neurocognitive performance in individuals with (a) compromised n...

  12. Two glucose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are glucose sensors that generate a signal for induction of gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan, S; Dover, J; Rosenwald, A G; Wölfl, S; Johnston, M.

    1996-01-01

    Glucose is the preferred carbon source for most eukaryotic cells and has profound effects on many cellular functions. How cells sense glucose and transduce a signal into the cell is a fundamental, unanswered question. Here we describe evidence that two unusual glucose transporters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae serve as glucose sensors that generate an intracellular glucose signal. The Snf3p high-affinity glucose transporter appears to function as a low glucose sensor, since it is requ...

  13. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  14. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  15. Relationship between maternal dietary patterns and hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, Christianne A R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Mendez, Michelle A

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the role of maternal nutrition in the development of hypospadias, which is the most common urogenital congenital anomaly. This study investigated the relationship between maternal nutrition and the risk of hypospadias, particularly focusing on maternal food patterns. We compared 471 hypospadias cases with 490 controls in the United Kingdom. A questionnaire including information on life style, occupation, usual maternal diet and dietary supplements was administered using telephone interviews. Cases and controls were compared for individual food item intake and food patterns derived by cluster analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for income, maternal age, low birthweight, smoking and folic acid supplement use was used to assess the relationship between maternal nutrition and hypospadias. Three food patterns were created with the labels 'health conscious', 'mixed' and 'non-health conscious'. 'Non-health conscious' subjects (low frequency of consumption of yoghurt, cheese, eggs, fruit and vegetables, fish, beans and pulses, olive oil and organic food) had a higher risk of hypospadias (odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.26) compared with 'health conscious' subjects (high frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, dried fruit, fresh or frozen fish, beans, pulses, soya products, olive oil and organic food), after adjustment for potential confounders. Intakes of individual foods were not strongly associated with hypospadias. We could not exclude the possibility of residual confounding, and this needs to be further investigated. We found an association between food pattern and hypospadias, with those with less health conscious food patterns having a higher risk. Further study is needed to confirm this association. PMID:21470265

  16. Neuroendocrinology of maternal behavior in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariscal, G

    2001-09-01

    Rabbit maternal behavior consists of building an underground nest of straw and body hair during late pregnancy and displaying, with circadian periodicity, a single 3-min nursing bout/day across lactation. Estrogen, androgen, progesterone, and prolactin regulate specific aspects of nest-building and promote the onset of maternal responsiveness. However, the maintenance of this behavior relies on stimuli from the litter: by preventing mother/young contact at parturition or during early lactation maternal responsiveness is altered or abolished. The brain areas controlling the expression of nest-building and nursing were investigated by implanting estradiol, locating the distribution of estrogen and prolactin receptors, quantifying the expression of immediate-early genes, and lesioning structures of the olfactory system. These studies revealed that: (a) estrogen receptor-alpha, alpha, present in the preoptic region, may mediate the stimulation of nest-building by estradiol; (b) prolactin binding sites, located mainly in periventricular structures, are more abundant in late pregnancy and early lactation; (c) the number of FOS-immunoreactive neurons increases in the lateral septum, but not in the mediobasal hypothalamus, following nursing; (d) the accessory olfactory bulb tonically inhibits the expression of maternal behavior because its removal promotes maternal responsiveness in virgins, which are otherwise unresponsive to daily pup exposure. In summary, rabbits rely on the same hormonal and extrahormonal factors that stimulate maternal behavior in other mammals, yet the way in which such factors promote elaborate nest-building and the unfailing display of circadian nursing is unique to rabbits and warrants future investigation. PMID:11534972

  17. Maternal Lifestyle and Pregnancy Complications: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bakker (Rachel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAdverse maternal lifestyle habits during pregnancy are important modifiable risk factors for pregnancy complications in Western countries. Most common adverse maternal lifestyle habits include smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine consumption. Although not directly lifestyle related

  18. Maternal body mass index in outcome of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sharmila

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Maternal BMI shows strong associations with pregnancy complications and outcome. Both maternal and fetal complications are increased. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2652-2656

  19. Glucose reactivity with filling materials as a limitation for using the glucose leakage model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Shemesh; E.M. Souza; M.K. Wu; P.R. Wesselink

    2008-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the reactivity of different endodontic materials and sealers with glucose and to asses the reliability of the glucose leakage model in measuring penetration of glucose through these materials. Methodology Ten uniform discs (radius 5 mm, thickness 2 mm) were made of each of the follow

  20. DEFECTS IN INSULIN-SECRETION IN NIDDM - B-CELL GLUCOSE INSENSITIVITY OR GLUCOSE TOXICITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANHAEFTEN, TW

    1993-01-01

    In NIDDM, first-phase insulin release to glucose is (almost) absent. However, in contrast to older studies which suggested that in NIDDM the B-cell is ''blind'' for glucose, recent evidence indicates that the B-cell is not insensitive for glucose as far as second phase release is concerned. This sug

  1. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis caused by maternal autoimmune hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Miguel Fragata; Maria, Ana Teresa; Prado, Sara; Limbert, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal immune hyperthyroidism is a rare but potentially fatal condition. It occurs in 1-5% of infants born to women with Graves' disease (GD). In most of the cases it is due to maternal antibodies transferred from the mother into the fetal compartment, stimulating the fetal thyroid by binding thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor. We present a case of neonatal thyrotoxicosis due to maternal GD detected at 25 days of age and discuss the potential pitfalls in the diagnosis. PMID:25750228

  2. Fetal Heart Rate Response to Maternal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Manju

    2016-09-01

    Current guidelines regarding recommended exercise in pregnancy appear consistent with reported research regarding fetal heart changes in response to maternal exercise. Fetal heart rate increases during pregnancy, but maternal exercise appears well tolerated if performed in uncomplicated pregnancies and not in the supine position. Maximal levels of exercise that are well tolerated by the fetus have not yet been well defined; however, recent literature suggests that sustained exercise during pregnancy may have beneficial effects on autonomic control of fetal heart rate and variability that may lead to long-term health benefits. PMID:27388963

  3. A case of maternal tetanus in Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Dong Hyeon; Park, Jung Ho; Jung, Phil Jin; Lee, Sang Rok; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Sei Jong

    2002-01-01

    Tetanus is uncommon in Korea due to the introduction of vaccination programs and advances in public health. A case of maternal tetanus occurred on the 9 day postpartum in a 29-yr-old woman, who had not received a 10-yr-booster of tetanus-diphtheria toxoid after receiving the primary series of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine. There has hitherto been no reports on maternal tetanus in Korea. This case illustrates that tetanus remains a medical problem, principally among non- and under-immunize...

  4. Glucose metabolism in ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the myocardial metabolic rate for glucose (MMRGlc) in the ischemic or infarcted myocardium using 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET), and studied energy metabolism in the ischemic myocardium. In some cases, we compared glucose metabolism images by 18-FDG with myocardial blood flow images using 15-oxygen water. Two normal subjects, seven patients with myocardial infarction and four patients with angina pectoris were studied. Coronary angiography was performed within two weeks before or after the PET study to detect ischemic areas. PET studies were performed for patients who did not eat for 5 to 6 hours after breakfast. Cannulation was performed in the pedal artery to measure free fatty acid, blood sugar, and insulin. After recording the transmission scan for subsequent correction of photon attenuation, blood pool images were recorded for two min. after the inhalation of carbon monoxide (oxygen-15) which labeled the red blood cells in vivo. After 20 min., oxygen-15 water (15 to 20 mCi) was injected for dynamic scans, and flow images were obtained. Thirty min. after this procedure, 18-FDG (5 to 6 mCi) was injected, and 60 min later, a static scan was performed and glucose metabolism images were obtained. Arterial blood sampling for the time activity curve of the tracer was performed at the same time. According to the method of Phelps et al, MMRGlc was calculated in each of the region of interest (ROI) which was located in the left ventricular wall. MMRGlc obtained from each ROI was 0 to 17 mg/100 ml/min. In normal subjects MMRGlc was 0.4 to 7.3 mg/100 ml/min. In patients with myocardial infarction, it ranged from 3 to 5 mg/100 ml/min in the infarcted lesion. In patients with angina pectoris and subendocardial infarction, MMRGlc was 7 to 17 mg/100 ml/min in the ischemic lesion. In this lesion, myocardial blood flow was relatively low by oxygen-15 imagings (so-called mismatch). (J.P.N.)

  5. Maternal Health and Child Mortality in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Manoj K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of maternal health on the under-five mortality has been examined. Third wave of micro-level National Family Health Survey 2005-06 data for rural India is used. Using various alternative measures of maternal health, the paper finds strong association between maternal health and child mortality. In particular, the effects of maternal height, weight, presence of any disease and anemia are found significant. Based on our findings, we argue that if the possible generation...

  6. Maternal Neglect: Oxytocin, Dopamine and the Neurobiology of Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Strathearn, Lane

    2011-01-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, in order to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified which contribute to maternal caregiving behavior, focusing on the oxy...

  7. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associat...

  8. Maternal mortality: a cross-sectional study in global health

    OpenAIRE

    Sajedinejad, Sima; Majdzadeh, Reza; Vedadhir, Abouali; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Background Although most of maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality reduction programs have not been completely successful. As targeting individuals alone does not seem to be an effective strategy to reduce maternal mortality (Millennium Development Goal 5), the present study sought to reveal the role of many distant macrostructural factors affecting maternal mortality at the global level. Methods After preparing a global dataset, 439 indicators were selected from nearly 1800 indi...

  9. Prenatal Care and Maternal Age, Education and Reproductive Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Z.Pouranssari; P Kamali; H.Eftekhar Ardbili; A.Komarizadeh

    1987-01-01

    Reproductive behavior of 1525 pregnant woman were studied in the time of termination of pregnancy in relation to maternal age, education, prenatal care and the number of previous pregnancies. The results show that the frequency of maternal attendance at the centers of prenatal care is significantly related to maternal education. And the total pregnancies per woman are inversely correlated with maternal education. The kind of termination of pregnancy which resulted in live births or abortion h...

  10. Causes of Maternal Mortality Decline in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Kalim, Nahid; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh is distinct among developing countries in achieving a low maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 322 per 100,000 livebirths despite the very low use of skilled care at delivery (13% nationally). This variation has also been observed in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, where longitudinal data on maternal mortality are available since the mid-1970s. The current study investigated the possible causes of the maternal mortality decline in Matlab. The study analyzed 769 maternal deaths and...

  11. Maternal Cocaine Use and Mother-Toddler Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig; Veira, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother-toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2 years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, or poor infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Particip...

  12. Responses of the Embryonic Epigenome to Maternal Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Salbaum, J. Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diabetes and obesity are independent risk factors for neural tube defects, although it is unclear whether the effects are mediated by common pathogenic mechanisms. In this manuscript, we report a genome-wide survey of histone acetylation in neurulation stage embryos from mouse pregnancies with different metabolic conditions: maternal diabetes, and maternal consumption of a high fat content diet. We find that maternal diabetes, and independently, exposure to high-fat diet, are associa...

  13. Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon

    OpenAIRE

    Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional changes ...

  14. MiR-17 Downregulation by High Glucose Stabilizes Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein and Removes Thioredoxin Inhibition on ASK1 Leading to Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Daoyin; Fu, Noah; Yang, Peixin

    2016-03-01

    Pregestational diabetes significantly increases the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). Maternal diabetes activates an Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1)-initiated pathway, which triggers neural stem cell apoptosis of the developing neuroepithelium leading to NTD formation. How high glucose of diabetes activates ASK1 is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying high glucose-induced ASK1 activation. High glucose suppressed miR-17 expression, which led to an increase in its target gene Txnip (Thioredoxin-interacting protein). High glucose-increased Txnip enhanced its binding to the ASK1 inhibitor, thioredoxin (Trx), and thereby sequestered Trx from the Trx-ASK1 complex. High glucose-induced ASK1 activation and consequent apoptosis were abrogated by either the miR-17 mimic or Txnip siRNA knockdown. In contrast, the miR-17 inhibitor or Txnip ectopic overexpression mimicked the stimulative effect of high glucose on ASK1 and apoptosis. Thus, our study demonstrated that miR-17 repression mediates the pro-apoptotic effect of high glucose, and revealed a new mechanism underlying ASK1 activation, in which decreased miR-17 removes Trx inhibition on ASK1 through Txnip. PMID:26660634

  15. 21 CFR 862.1345 - Glucose test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glucose test system. 862.1345 Section 862.1345....1345 Glucose test system. (a) Identification. A glucose test system is a device intended to measure glucose quantitatively in blood and other body fluids. Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis...

  16. Glucose concentration in parotid saliva after glucose/food intake in individuals with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg Andersson, A; Birkhed, D; Berntorp, K; Lindgärde, F; Matsson, L

    1998-10-01

    The concentration of glucose in parotid saliva was measured after glucose/food intake in two separate studies (A and B). In Study A, 10 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 10 subjects with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes and 12 healthy controls were included. Study B comprised 15 subjects with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes on insulin treatment, nine subjects with Type 2 diabetes on treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs and 12 healthy controls. After a 10-h overnight fast, the participants in Study A were given a 75 g oral glucose load, while those in Study B received a standardized breakfast. Citric acid-stimulated parotid saliva was collected up to two hours after the intake. Capillary blood and gingival exudate samples were also taken. On the basis of AUC values (area under the curve over baseline), the glucose concentration in parotid saliva increased significantly in individuals with IGT and Type 2 diabetes compared with controls in Study A and in diabetic patients on treatment with insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs compared with controls in Study B. No effect by the glucose/food intake on the glucose concentration in gingival exudate could be demonstrated in any of the studies. The correlation coefficient between the AUC values of glucose in saliva and blood, when all three groups were combined, was 0.38 in Study A and 0.52 in Study B. It is concluded that the concentration of glucose in parotid saliva is elevated at least 2 h after glucose/food intake in individuals with both IGT and manifest diabetes mellitus. PMID:9786322

  17. Increased incidence of glucose disorders during pregnancy is not explained by pre-pregnancy obesity in London, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell M Karen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing incidence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, gestational diabetes (GDM and type 2 diabetes (T2D during pregnancy was hypothesized to be associated with increases in pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI. The aims were to 1 determine the prevalence of IGT/GDM/T2 D over a 10 year period; 2 examine the relationship between maternal overweight/obesity and IGT/GDM/T2D; and 3 examine the extent to which maternal metabolic complications impact maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes. Methods Data arose from a perinatal database which contains maternal characteristics and perinatal outcome for all singleton infants born in London, Canada between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Univariable and multivariable odds ratios (OR were estimated using logistic regression with IGT/GDM/T2 D being the outcome of interest. Results A total of 36,597 women were included in the analyses. Population incidence of IGT, GDM and T2 D rose from 0.7%, 2.9% and 0.5% in 2000 to 1.2%, 4.2% and 0.9% in 2009. The univariable OR for IGT, GDM and T2 D were 1.65, 1.52 and 2.06, respectively, over the ten year period. After controlling for maternal age, parity and pre-pregnancy BMI the OR did not decrease. Although there was a positive relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and prevalence of IGT/GDM/T2 D, this did not explain the time trends in the latter. Diagnosis of IGT/GDM/T2 D increased the risk of having an Apgar score Conclusions We found a significant increase in the incidence of IGT/GDM/T2 D for the decade between 2000-2009 which was not explained by rising prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity.

  18. Glucose control in critical care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Glycemic control among critically-ill patients has beena topic of considerable attention for the past 15 years.An initial focus on the potentially deleterious effects ofhyperglycemia led to a series of investigations regardingintensive insulin therapy strategies that targeted tightglycemic control. As knowledge accumulated, the pursuitof tight glycemic control among critically-ill patients cameto be seen as counterproductive, and moderate glycemiccontrol came to dominate as the standard practice inintensive care units. In recent years, there has beenincreased focus on the importance of hypoglycemicepisodes, glycemic variability, and premorbid diabeticstatus as factors that contribute to outcomes amongcritically-ill patients. This review provides a survey ofkey studies on glucose control in critical care, and aimsto deliver perspective regarding glycemic managementamong critically-ill patients.

  19. Investing in Maternal Health : Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pathmanathan, Indra; Liljestrand, Jerker; Jo. M. Martins; Lalini C. Rajapaksa; Lissner, Craig; de Silva, Amala; Selvaraju, Swarna; Singh, Prabha Joginder

    2003-01-01

    This study provides the most comprehensive and detailed analysis available on factors behind the decline in maternal mortality in Malaysia and Sri Lanka in the past 50 to 60 years and the magnitude of health system expenditures on maternal health. The main findings are that a modest investment in maternal health services, combined with other poverty reduction measures leads to a fairly rap...

  20. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  1. Mediating Links between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers…

  2. Thermoinactivation Mechanism of Glucose Isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leng Hong; Saville, Bradley A.

    In this article, the mechanisms of thermoinactivation of glucose isomerase (GI) from Streptomyces rubiginosus (in soluble and immobilized forms) were investigated, particularly the contributions of thiol oxidation of the enzyme's cysteine residue and a "Maillard-like" reaction between the enzyme and sugars in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Soluble GI (SGI) was successfully immobilized on silica gel (13.5 μm particle size), with an activity yield between 20 and 40%. The immobilized GI (IGI) has high enzyme retention on the support during the glucose isomerization process. In batch reactors, SGI (half-life =145 h) was more stable than IGI (half-life=27 h) at 60°C in HFCS, whereas at 80°C, IGI (half-life=12 h) was more stable than SGI (half-life=5.2 h). IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 60°C, which contributed to the enzyme's deactivation. IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 80°C, but this did not contribute to the deactivation of the enzyme. SGI did not undergo thiol oxidation at 60°C, but at 80°C SGI underwent severe precipitation and thiol oxidation, which caused the enzyme to deactivate. Experimental results show that immobilization suppresses the destablizing effect of thiol oxidation on GI. A "Maillard-like" reaction between SGI and the sugars also caused SGI thermoinactivation at 60, 70, and 80°C, but had minimal effect on IGI. At 60 and 80°C, IGI had higher thermostability in continuous reactors than in batch reactors, possibily because of reduced contact with deleterious compounds in HFCS.

  3. Toward a Continuous Intravascular Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Irazoqui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proof-of-concept studies that display the potential of using a glucose-sensitive hydrogel as a continuous glucose sensor are presented. The swelling ratio, porosity, and diffusivity of the hydrogel increased with glucose concentration. In glucose solutions of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/dL, the hydrogel swelling ratios were 4.9, 12.3, 15.9, and 21.7, respectively, and the swelling was reversible. The impedance across the hydrogel depended solely on the thickness and had an average increase of 47 W/mm. The hydrogels exposed to a hyperglycemic solution were more porous than the hydrogels exposed to a normal glycemic solution. The diffusivity of 390 Da MW fluorescein isothiocyanate in hydrogels exposed to normal and hyperglycemic solutions was examined using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and was found to be 9.3 × 10−14 and 41.4 × 10−14 m2/s, respectively, compared to 6.2 × 10−10 m2/s in glucose solution. There was no significant difference between the permeability of hydrogels in normal and hyperglycemic glucose solutions with averages being 5.26 × 10−17 m2 and 5.80 × 10−17 m2, respectively, which resembles 2–4% agarose gels. A prototype design is presented for continuous intravascular glucose monitoring by attaching a glucose sensor to an FDA-approved stent.

  4. A bioluminescent assay for measuring glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Michael P; Karassina, Natasha; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Carlson, Coby; Cali, James J; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2016-07-15

    Identifying activators and inhibitors of glucose uptake is critical for both diabetes management and anticancer therapy. To facilitate such studies, easy-to-use nonradioactive assays are desired. Here we describe a bioluminescent glucose uptake assay for measuring glucose transport in cells. The assay is based on the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and the enzymatic detection of the 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate that accumulates. Uptake can be measured from a variety of cell types, it can be inhibited by known glucose transporter inhibitors, and the bioluminescent assay yields similar results when compared with the radioactive method. With HCT 116 cells, glucose uptake can be detected in as little as 5000 cells and remains linear up to 50,000 cells with signal-to-background values ranging from 5 to 45. The assay can be used to screen for glucose transporter inhibitors, or by multiplexing with viability readouts, changes in glucose uptake can be differentiated from overall effects on cell health. The assay also can provide a relevant end point for measuring insulin sensitivity. With adipocytes and myotubes, insulin-dependent increases in glucose uptake have been measured with 10- and 2-fold assay windows, respectively. Significant assay signals of 2-fold or more have also been measured with human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes and skeletal myoblasts. PMID:27130501

  5. Ophthalmic glucose monitoring using disposable contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Chris

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a range of disposable and colorless tear glucose sensing contact lenses, using off-the-shelf lenses embedded with new water soluble, highly fluorescent and glucose sensitive boronic acid containing fluorophores. The new lenses are readily able to track tear glucose levels and therefore blood glucose levels, which are ideally suited for potential use by diabetics. The fluorescence responses from the lenses can be monitored using simple excitation and emission detection devices. The novelty of our approach is two fold. Firstly, the notion of sensing extremely low glucose concentrations in tears, which track blood levels, by our contact lens approach, and secondly, the unique compatibility of our new glucose signaling probes with the internal mildly acidic contact lens environment. The new lenses are therefore ideal for the noninvasive and continuous monitoring of tear glucose, with a 15 minute response time, and a measured shelf life in excess of 3 months. In this invited article, we show that fluorescence based signaling using plastic disposable lenses, which have already been industrially optimized with regard to vision correction and oxygen / analyte permeability etc, may a notable alternative to invasive and random finger pricking, the most widely used glucose monitoring technology by diabetics. PMID:17271473

  6. Acute Glucose Response Properties Beyond Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, C Joseph; Krashes, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Hypothalamic AgRP neurons potently coordinate feeding behavior to ensure an organism's viability. However, their acute role in glucose-regulatory function remains to be addressed. Steculorum et al. now report that activation of a specific set of AgRP neurons results in an impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in brown fat through a myogenic signature program. PMID:27052261

  7. Glucose Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase in Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Nanocomposite Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Kang, Xinhuang; Wang, Chong M.; Wang, Donghai; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-09-01

    The bionanocomposite film consisting of glucose oxidase/Pt/functional graphene sheets/chitosan (GOD/Pt/FGS/chitosan) for glucose sensing was described. With the electrocatalytic synergy of FGS and Pt nanoparticles to hydrogen peroxide, a sensitive biosensor with detection limit of 0.6 µM glucose was achieved. The biosensor also had good reproducibility, long term stability and negligible interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid comparing to the response to glucose. The large surface area and good conductivity of graphene suggests that graphene is a potential candidate for sensor material. The hybrid nanocomposite glucose sensor provides new opportunity for clinical diagnosis and point-of-care applications.

  8. Dynamic modulation of intracellular glucose imaged in single cells using a FRET-based glucose nanosensor

    OpenAIRE

    John, Scott A.; Ottolia, Michela; James N Weiss; Ribalet, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    To study intracellular glucose homeostasis, the glucose nanosensor FLIPglu-600µM, which undergoes changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) upon interaction with glucose, was expressed in four mammalian cell lines: COS-7, CHO, HEK293, and C2C12. Upon addition of extracellular glucose, the intracellular FRET ratio decreased rapidly as intracellular glucose increased. The kinetics were fast (τ =5 to 15 s) in COS and C2C12 cells and slow (τ =20 to 40 s) in HEK and CHO cells. Upon ...

  9. Reduction of Severe Acute Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality in Thyolo District, Malawi: The Impact of Obstetric Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas van den Akker; Jair van Rhenen; Beatrice Mwagomba; Kinke Lommerse; Steady Vinkhumbo; Jos van Roosmalen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critical incident audit and feedback are recommended interventions to improve the quality of obstetric care. To evaluate the effect of audit at district level in Thyolo, Malawi, we assessed the incidence of facility-based severe maternal complications (severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal mortality) during two years of audit and feedback. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between September 2007 and September 2009, we included all cases of maternal mortality and SAMM t...

  10. Glucose-lactose diauxie in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, W F; Magasanik, B

    1967-04-01

    Growth of Escherichia coli in medium containing glucose, at a concentration insufficient to support full growth, and containing lactose, is diauxic. A mutation in the gene, CR, which determines catabolite repression specific to the lac operon, was found to relieve glucose-lactose but not glucose-maltose diauxie. Furthermore, a high concentration of lactose was shown to overcome diauxie in a CR(+) strain. Studies on the induction of beta-galactosidase by lactose suggested that glucose inhibits induction by 10(-2)m lactose. Preinduction of the lac operon was found to overcome this effect. The ability of glucose to prevent expression of the lac operon by reducing the internal concentration of inducer as well as by catabolite repression is discussed. PMID:5340309

  11. Magnetism-Based Remote Query Glucose Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Grimes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Two wireless, passive remote query magnetism-based glucose sensors, which operate in combination with a mass and volume changing glucose responsive polymer, are presented. One sensor design is based upon the magnetostatic coupling of magnetically soft thin-film elements; as the polymer volume changes in response to glucose concentration so does the magnetostatic coupling between elements. In response to a time varying magnetic field, upon reversal of the magnetization vector of the elements the magnetostatic coupling determines the time rate of change of magnetic flux, and hence the amplitude of the voltage spike generated in a pick-up coil. The other sensor consists of a free-standing magnetoelastic thick-film, coated with a thin layer of the glucose responsive polymer. In response to a time varying magnetic field the sensor mechanically vibrates at a characteristic resonant frequency; the characteristic resonant frequency of the sensor linearly tracks the change in mass of the glucose responsive polymer.

  12. Glucose Recognition in Vitro Using Fluorescent Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noronha, G; Heiss, A M; Reilly, J R; Vachon, Jr, D J; Cary, D R; Zaitseva, N P; Reibold, R A; Lane, S M; Peyser, T A; Satcher, J H

    2001-04-25

    Diabetes is a disease that affects over 16 million people in the USA at a cost of 100 billion dollars annually. The ability to regulate insulin delivery in people with Type 1 diabetes is imperative as is the need to manage glucose levels in all people with this disease. Our current method for monitoring glucose is a (FDA approved) minimally invasive enzymatic sensor that can measure glucose levels in vivo for three days. We are focused on developing a noninvasive implantable glucose sensor that will be interrogated by an external device. The material must be robust, easy to process, biocompatible and resistant to biofouling. In this Presentation we will discuss the development of a new polymeric matrix that can recognize physiological levels of glucose in vitro using fluorescent spectroscopy.

  13. Leptin therapy, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Paz-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is closely regulated not only by insulin, but also by leptin. Both hormones act centrally, regulating food intake and adiposity in humans. Leptin has several effects on the glucose-insulin homeostasis, some of which are independent of body weight and adiposity. Those effects of leptin are determined centrally in the hypothalamus and peripherally in the pancreas, muscles and liver. Leptin has beneficial effects on the glucose-insulin metabolism, by decreasing glycemia, insulinemia and insulin resistance. The understanding of the effects of leptin on the glucose-insulin homeostasis will lead to the development of leptin-based therapies against diabetes and other insulin resistance syndromes. In these review, we summarize the interactions between leptin and insulin, and their effects on the glucose metabolism.

  14. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freckmann et al. discusses performance metrics used to characterize the accuracy of continuous glucose measurement devices. This topic is highly relevant for prediction models since many of them rely on the data given by the continuous sensors which are previously calibrated with blood glucose meter...... on the net effect of meals on the blood glucose concentration. By assuming that all major unexplained glycemic excursions can be vi Preface attributed to oral glucose ingestion, a meal vector is estimated which significantly improves the mathematical model. Results are shown on three patients during...... intrasubject variability by using the concept of interval pre-dictions. Instead of predicting a single blood glucose value in the future, a whole solution envelope is determined. With the presented theory it can be guaranteed that the real value is always inside of the envelope and moreover the envelope...

  15. Genetics of Glucose regulation in Gestation and Growth (Gen3G): a prospective prebirth cohort of mother–child pairs in Sherbrooke, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Laetitia; Allard, Catherine; Lacroix, Marilyn; Patenaude, Julie; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Moreau, Julie; Ménard, Julie; Bouchard, Luigi; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We initiated the Genetics of Glucose regulation in Gestation and Growth (Gen3G) prospective cohort to increase our understanding of biological, environmental and genetic determinants of glucose regulation during pregnancy and their impact on fetal development. Participants Between January 2010 and June 2013, we invited pregnant women aged ≥18 years old who visited the blood sampling in pregnancy clinic in Sherbrooke for their first trimester clinical blood samples: 1034 women accepted to participate in our cohort study. Findings to date At first and second trimester, we collected demographics and lifestyle questionnaires, anthropometry measures (including fat and lean mass estimated using bioimpedance), blood pressure, and blood samples. At second trimester, women completed a full 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and we collected additional blood samples. At delivery, we collected cord blood and placenta samples; obstetrical and neonatal clinical data were abstracted from electronic medical records. We also collected buffy coats and extracted DNA from maternal and/or offspring samples (placenta and blood cells) to pursue genetic and epigenetic hypotheses. So far, we have found that low adiponectin and low vitamin D maternal levels in first trimester predict higher risk of developing gestational diabetes. Future plans We are now in the phase of prospective follow-up of mothers and offspring 3 and 5 years postdelivery to investigate the consequences of maternal dysglycaemia during pregnancy on offspring adiposity and metabolic profile. Trial registration number NCT01623934. PMID:26842272

  16. Does prenatal care benefit maternal health? A study of post-partum maternal care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on prenatal care focus on its effects on infant health, while studying less about the effects on maternal health. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan in a recursive bivariate probit model, this study examines the impact of adequate prenatal care on the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization during the first 6 months after birth. The results show that adequate prenatal care significantly reduces the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization among women who have had vaginal delivery by 43.8%. This finding suggests that the benefits of prenatal care may have been underestimated among women with vaginal delivery. Timely and adequate prenatal care not only creates a positive impact on infant health, but also yields significant benefits for post-partum maternal health. However, we do not find similar benefits of prenatal care for women undergoing a cesarean section. PMID:26189913

  17. The maternal early warning criteria: a proposal from the national partnership for maternal safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhyre, Jill M; D'Oria, Robyn; Hameed, Afshan B; Lappen, Justin R; Holley, Sharon L; Hunter, Stephen K; Jones, Robin L; King, Jeffrey C; D'Alton, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Case reviews of maternal death have revealed a concerning pattern of delay in recognition of hemorrhage, hypertensive crisis, sepsis, venous thromboembolism, and heart failure. Early-warning systems have been proposed to facilitate timely recognition, diagnosis, and treatment for women developing critical illness. A multidisciplinary working group convened by the National Partnership for Maternal Safety used a consensus-based approach to define The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, a list of abnormal parameters that indicate the need for urgent bedside evaluation by a clinician with the capacity to escalate care as necessary in order to pursue diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This commentary reviews the evidence supporting the use of early-warning systems, describes The Maternal Early Warning Criteria, and provides considerations for local implementation. PMID:25203897

  18. How did Nepal reduce the maternal mortality? A result from analysing the determinants of maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, R

    2012-01-01

    Nepal reportedly reduced the maternal mortality ratio by 48% within one decade between 1996-2005 and received the Millennium development goal award for this. However, there is debate regarding the accuracy of this figure. On the basis of framework of determinants of maternal mortality proposed by McCarthy and Maine in 1992 and successive data from Nepal demographic health survey of 1996, 2001 and 2006, a literature analysis was done to identify the important factors behind this decline. Although facility delivery and skilled birth attendants are acclaimed as best strategy of reducing maternal mortality, a proportionate increase in these factors was not found to account the maternal mortality rate reduction in Nepal. Alternatively, intermediate factors particularly women awareness, family planning and safe abortion might have played a significant role. Hence, Nepal as well as similar other developing countries should pay equal attention to such intermediate factors while concentrating on biomedical care strategy. PMID:23478738

  19. Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-03-15

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training. PMID:26744506

  20. Obstetric near-miss and maternal mortality in maternity university hospital, Damascus, Syria: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Chamat Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating severe maternal morbidity (near-miss is a newly recognised tool that identifies women at highest risk of maternal death and helps allocate resources especially in low income countries. This study aims to i. document the frequency and nature of maternal near-miss at hospital level in Damascus, Capital of Syria, ii. evaluate the level of care at maternal life-saving emergency services by comparatively analysing near-misses and maternal mortalities. Methods Retrospective facility-based review of cases of near-miss and maternal mortality that took place in the years 2006-2007 at Damascus Maternity University Hospital, Syria. Near-miss cases were defined based on disease-specific criteria (Filippi 2005 including: haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, dystocia, infection and anaemia. Main outcomes included maternal mortality ratio (MMR, maternal near miss ratio (MNMR, mortality indices and proportion of near-miss cases and mortality cases to hospital admissions. Results There were 28 025 deliveries, 15 maternal deaths and 901 near-miss cases. The study showed a MNMR of 32.9/1000 live births, a MMR of 54.8/100 000 live births and a relatively low mortality index of 1.7%. Hypertensive disorders (52% and haemorrhage (34% were the top causes of near-misses. Late pregnancy haemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal mortality (60% while sepsis had the highest mortality index (7.4%. Most cases (93% were referred in critical conditions from other facilities; namely traditional birth attendants homes (67%, primary (5% and secondary (10% healthcare unites and private practices (11%. 26% of near-miss cases were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Conclusion Near-miss analyses provide valuable information on obstetric care. The study highlights the need to improve antenatal care which would help early identification of high risk pregnancies. It also emphasises the importance of both: developing protocols to

  1. Jaundice during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Krishnamoorthy

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Jaundice in pregnancy has adverse fetomaternal outcome. Improvement in health awareness, education and regular antenatal checkups, early referrals result in early diagnosis and treatment of jaundice during pregnancy thus reducing maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2541-2545

  2. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  3. Feto-maternal outcome in twin pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiben V. Gajera

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Most of the complications in multiple gestations are preventable. High risk units in the obstetric ward and well developed NICU set up would reduce the maternal, perinatal morbidity and mortality. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1836-1839

  4. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  5. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Cramer; L.H. Lumey

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet influenc

  6. Acute polyhydramnios after maternal status epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Shindo, Ryosuke; Aoki, Shigeru; Kasai, Michi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Maternal status epilepticus can cause fetal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy that in turn results in acute polyhydramnios caused by fetal dysphagia; thus, acute polyhydramnios is a symptom that should lead to a suspicion of fetal dysphagia caused by hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

  7. Human maternal plasma proteomic changes with parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Phillips

    2014-12-01

    Significance: Proteomic technology is constantly advancing, and the latest techniques enable gel-free analysis of minimally preprocessed, complex biological samples, enabling simultaneous identification and quantification of many hundreds of proteins. The technique of TMT labelling and Orbitrap mass spectrometry is applicable to the analysis of serial maternal plasma samples in order to identify potential markers of the onset of labour.

  8. Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…

  9. Maternal diabetes and the fetal heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hornberger, L K

    2006-01-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus significantly affects the fetal heart and fetal–placental circulation in both structure and function. The influence of pre‐conceptional diabetes begins during embryonic development in the first trimester, with altered cardiac morphogenesis and placental development. It continues to have an influence on the fetal circulation through the second and third trimesters and into the perinatal and neonatal period

  10. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein

    1996-01-01

    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  11. Breastfeeding and maternal diet in atopic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Tina Y.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2011-01-01

    Question Many children are affected by atopic dermatitis (AD) at a very young age. I often consider whether nonpharmacologic interventions could prevent or mitigate the development of AD. Do breastfeeding or changes to the maternal diet help prevent the development of childhood AD?

  12. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  13. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing [3-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only [3-3H]glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use [6-3H]glucose rather than [3-3H]glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle

  14. Potentiometric measurement of glucose concentration with an immobilized glucose oxidase/catalase electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, L B; Liu, C C; Wolfson, S K; Yao, S J; Drash, A L

    1982-01-01

    A series of enzyme electrodes for measurement of glucose have been constructed. The electrodes contain glucose oxidase immobilized on platinum, either with or without co-immobilization of catalase. When placed in buffered glucose, the enzyme electrodes show a potentiometric response to glucose with respect to a Ag/AgCl reference electrode. This response is reproducible in the physiologic range of glucose concentrations. The immobilization technique, some of the environmental variables such as oxygen concentration and pH, and several compounds that might interfere with the selectivity of the enzyme electrodes for glucose have received preliminary study. This direct potentiometric approach is undergoing further evaluation to determine the basic electrochemical mechanism responsible for the potentiometric signal and whether it can be adapted for continuous in vivo monitoring of the glucose concentration in body fluids. PMID:7172983

  15. Glucose-induced insulin resistance of skeletal-muscle glucose transport and uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Hansen, B F; Hansen, S A

    1988-01-01

    in the presence of glucose and insulin. The data indicate that exposure to a moderately increased glucose concentration (12 mM) leads to rapidly developing resistance of skeletal-muscle glucose transport and uptake to maximal insulin stimulation. The effect of glucose is enhanced by simultaneous insulin exposure......, whereas exposure for 5 h to insulin itself does not cause measurable resistance to maximal insulin stimulation.......The ability of glucose and insulin to modify insulin-stimulated glucose transport and uptake was investigated in perfused skeletal muscle. Here we report that perfusion of isolated rat hindlimbs for 5 h with 12 mM-glucose and 20,000 microunits of insulin/ml leads to marked, rapidly developing...

  16. Food availability and maternal immunization affect transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismail

    Full Text Available The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia. This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.

  17. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Heather N.; Linda M. Bierer; Amy eLehrner; Iouri eMakotkine; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Rachel eYehuda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluat...

  18. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Heather N.; Linda M. Bierer; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects r...

  19. Relations Among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child’s life. The results indicated that, in this diverse sample of families living in predominantly low-income rural communities (N = 705), higher levels of early IPV were associated with in...

  20. The Effect of Maternal Helminth Infection on Maternal and Neonatal Immune Function and Immunity to Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreegziabiher, Dawit; Desta, Kassu; Desalegn, Girmay; Howe, Rawleigh; Abebe, Markos

    2014-01-01

    Background M. tuberculosis and helminth infection each affects one third of the world population. Helminth infections down regulate cell mediated immune responses and this may contribute to lower efficacy of BCG vaccination and higher prevalence of tuberculosis. Objective To determine the effect of maternal helminth infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. Methods In this cross sectional study, eighty five pregnant women were screened for parasitic and latent TB ...

  1. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Maternal Behavior, and Toddler Internalizing Outcomes: A Moderated Mediation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Alexandra C.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression relates to child internalizing outcomes, but one missing aspect of this association is how variation in depressive symptoms, including mild and moderate symptoms, relates to young children’s outcomes. The current study examined a moderated mediation model to investigate how maternal behaviors may mediate this association in the context of child temperament and gender. Mothers and toddlers completed a free-play/clean-up task in the laboratory. Mothers rated their depressive...

  2. MATERNAL NEAR MISS: AN EXPERIENCE IN RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Maternal mortality is an important indicator of health care system. As the mortality rates are consistently decreasing the focus is shifted on maternal near miss which describes severe maternal morbidity which shares the common pathway as mortality. Maternal near miss indicators are relevant in developing world and low resource setting as it indicates the gaps in the health system. In 2009 WHO working group has standardized the criteria for selecting these cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is performed in rural medical college between October 2012 to september2014 and maternal near miss cases are identified according to WHO criteria. Variables related to age, parity, gestational age, intensive care unit admission, ventilator support, requirement of massive blood transfusion were analyzed. Further the events leading to maternal near miss were studied. Finally the indices like maternal near miss incidence ratio, maternal near miss: maternal mortality ratio and mortality index were calculated. RESULTS: during the study period 2409 deliveries were conducted of which 2385 were live births. Potentially life threatening conditions were identified to be 265 and maternal near miss cases were 22. Maternal near miss incidence ratio was 9.2per 1000 live births, maternal near miss to maternal mortality ratio was 11:1 and mortality index was 8.3%. The leading causes of maternal near miss were abruption and rupture uterus requiring emergency hysterectomy. The morbidity was high in unbooked cases. CONCLUSION: maternal near miss is good alternative indicator of health care system. Lacunae between grass root level and tertiary centers should be filled.

  3. Social exclusion, infant behavior, social isolation, and maternal expectations independently predict maternal depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John; Jalaludin, Bin; Kemp, Lynn; Phung, Hai; Barnett, Bryanne; Tobin, Jacinta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify latent variables that can be used to inform theoretical models of perinatal influences on postnatal depressed mood and maternal-infant attachment. A routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney in 2000. The survey included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and 46 psychosocial and health-related variables. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were surveyed at 2-3 weeks for depressive symptoms. Nonlinear principal components analysis was undertaken to identify dimensions that might represent latent variables. Correlations between latent variables and EPDS >12 were assessed by logistic regression. A five-dimension solution was identified, which accounted for 51% of the variance among the items studied. The five dimensions identified were maternal responsiveness, social exclusion, infant behavior, migrant social isolation, and family size. In addition, the variable maternal expectation contributed significantly to total variance and was included in the regression analysis. Regression on EPDS >12 was predictive for all variables except for maternal responsiveness, which was considered an outcome variable. The findings are consistent with the proposition that social exclusion, infant behavior, social isolation among migrant mothers, and maternal expectations are determinants of maternal mood. PMID:23408743

  4. A glucose oxidase-coupled DNAzyme sensor for glucose detection in tears and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Sheng, Yongjie; Sun, Yanhong; Feng, Junkui; Wang, Shijin; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Jiacui; Jiang, Dazhi

    2015-08-15

    Biosensors have been widely investigated and utilized in a variety of fields ranging from environmental monitoring to clinical diagnostics. Glucose biosensors have triggered great interest and have been widely exploited since glucose determination is essential for diabetes diagnosis. In here, we designed a novel dual-enzyme biosensor composed of glucose oxidase (GOx) and pistol-like DNAzyme (PLDz) to detect glucose levels in tears and saliva. First, GOx, as a molecular recognition element, catalyzes the oxidation of glucose forming H2O2; then PLDz recognizes the produced H2O2 as a secondary signal and performs a self-cleavage reaction promoted by Mn(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+). Thus, detection of glucose could be realized by monitoring the cleavage rate of PLDz. The slope of the cleavage rate of PLDz versus glucose concentration curve was fitted with a Double Boltzmann equation, with a range of glucose from 100 nM to 10mM and a detection limit of 5 μM. We further applied the GOx-PLDz 1.0 biosensor for glucose detection in tears and saliva, glucose levels in which are 720±81 μM and 405±56 μM respectively. Therefore, the GOx-PLDz 1.0 biosensor is able to determine glucose levels in tears and saliva as a noninvasive glucose biosensor, which is important for diabetic patients with frequent/continuous glucose monitoring requirements. In addition, induction of DNAzyme provides a new approach in the development of glucose biosensors. PMID:25863343

  5. The influence of maternal islet beta-cell autoantibodies in conjunction with gestational hyperglycemia on neonatal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Li

    Full Text Available To determine the predictive value of the presence of maternal islet beta-cell autoantibodies with respect to neonatal outcomes.A total of 311 pregnant women with abnormal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT results were enrolled in this study. Maternal glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA, islet cell autoantibodies (ICA and insulin autoantibodies (IAA were tested in fasting blood both on the day following the routine OGTT and before delivery. The birth weight, Apgar score, blood glucose and outcomes of each neonate were later evaluated and recorded.1. In this study, 33.9% of the pregnant women with gestational hyperglycemia had detectable levels of one or more types of anti-islet cell antibodies in the third trimester. The proportion of women who produced GADA and/or ICA was significantly higher in the group of women with gestational hyperglycemia than in the control group (P<0.05. The groups similarly differed in the proportion of women who tested positive for any anti-islet cell antibody (P<0.05. 2. Of the patients in our study, those who produced GADA exhibited an increase in uterine and umbilical arterial pulsatility indexes (PIs during the third trimesters compared with the control group (P˂0.05. Additionally, an increased frequency of fetal growth restriction (FGR was observed in the infants of women who produced IAA during pregnancy compared with those without autoantibodies (P˂0.05. 3. The rate of newborn admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU was significantly associated with the presence of maternal ICA during the third trimester (OR, 6.36; 95% CI, 1.22-33.26. 4. The incidence of neonatal asphyxia was associated with the presence of maternal GADA in both the second (OR, 10.44; 95% CI, 1.46-74.92 and the third (OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 1.45-47.82 trimesters.Approximately one-third of the women with gestational hyperglycemia produced anti-islet cell antibodies. The incidence of FGR was higher in women with

  6. Resolving the sources of plasma glucose excursions following a glucose tolerance test in the rat with deuterated water and [U-13C]glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, T.C.; Barosa, C.; Nunes, P.M.; Cerdán, S.; Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Jones, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Sources of plasma glucose excursions (PGE) following a glucose tolerance test enriched with [U-(13)C]glucose and deuterated water were directly resolved by (13)C and (2)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy analysis of plasma glucose and water enrichments in rat. Plasma water (2)H-enrichment att

  7. Impact of maternal body mass index on neonatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Kalk P; Guthmann F; Krause K; Relle K; Godes M; Gossing G; Halle H; Wauer R; Hocher B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Maternal body mass index has an impact on maternal and fetal pregnancy outcome. An increased maternal BMI is known to be associated with admission of the newborn to a neonatal care unit. The reasons and impact of this admission on fetal outcome, however, are unknown so far. Objective The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of maternal BMI on maternal and fetal pregnancy outcome with special focus on the children admitted to a neonatal care unit. Methods A coho...

  8. The importance of maternal nutrition for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cetin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition plays a major role in maternal and child health and it is widely recognized that optimum nutrition in early life is the foundation for long-term health. A healthy maternal dietary pattern, along with adequate maternal body composition, metabolism and placental nutrient supply, reduces the risk of maternal, fetal and long-term effects in the offspring. While undernutrition is mainly an issue of low-income countries, malnutrition, due to poor quality diet, is becoming a global health problem.Preconceptional counseling of women of childbearing age should spread awareness of the importance of maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy and should promote a cultural lifestyle change, in favor of a healthy weight before conceiving and balanced healthy diet with high-quality foods consumption. Supplementation and/or fortification can make a contribution when recommended micronutrient intakes are difficult to be met through food alone. In industrialized countries, although a balanced diet is generally accessible, a switch to a high-fat and low-quality diet has led to inadequate vitamin and mineral intake during pregnancy. Evidence do not support a routine multiple micronutrient supplementation but highlights the importance of an individualized approach, in order to recognize nutritional deficiencies of individuals, thus leading to healthful dietary practices prior to conception and eventually to tailored supplementation. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  9. [New data on maternal mortality in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, J C

    1990-01-01

    A survey was carried out in urban and rural areas of the district of Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh state, India, between July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985 by a team of 6 interviewers and 1 supervisor to identify investigate, and study the causative factors/characteristics of the causes of maternal deaths. They visited each of the 15 hospitals in the district collecting information about maternal deaths that occurred in the reproductive age range of 15-49 years. 22 health centers and 50% of subcenters were also visited, registers were examined, and staff and families were also interviewed. The hospitals and centers served 569,500 people. During the 1st phase in the rural area all main village centers, 181 village subcenters, and 1192 other villages in the district with a total population of 1,090,640 were covered. During the 2nd phase all towns in the urban zones, 10 primary centers, 65 subcenters, and 135 others were visited. The maternal mortality rate was 7.9/1000 live births, well above the national average. 36% of female mortality occurred in women in reproductive age, but fewer than 1/2 of these deaths were registered and only 1/3 figured in center and subcenter records. In rural areas maternal mortality was 8.3/1000, ahead of the urban rate of 5.4/1000. 63% of 284 deaths detailed were related to live births, 14% to stillbirths, 10% to abortions, and 13% to obstructed labor. 19% of total maternal deaths occurred before birth, 12% during labor, and 69% after delivery. Among clinical causes of death sepsis accounted for 36%, hemorrhage for 12%, eclampsia for 9%, retention of placenta for 7%, and infectious hepatitis for 10%. 80% of these deaths could have been avoided by timely antenatal care, treatment of previous complaints, and medical attention and hospitalization at the right time. PMID:12179349

  10. A CLINICAL STUDY OF MATERNAL DEATHS DUE TO PPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal mortality is a global problem, facing every country in the world. Target specific interventions are needed for specific population. Fifth millennium development goal (MDG is to reduce maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015, worthwhile investment for every case provider, results that investing on mothers

  11. Praying until Death: Apostolicism, Delays and Maternal Mortality in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaradzi Kenneth, Dodzo; Marvellous, Mhloyi; Stanzia, Moyo; Memory, Dodzo-Masawi

    2016-01-01

    Religion affects people's daily lives by solving social problems, although it creates others. Female sexual and reproductive health are among the issues most affected by religion. Apostolic sect members in Zimbabwe have been associated with higher maternal mortality. We explored apostolic beliefs and practices on maternal health using 15 key informant interviews in 5 purposively selected districts of Zimbabwe. Results show that apostolicism promotes high fertility, early marriage, non-use of contraceptives and low or non-use of hospital care. It causes delays in recognizing danger signs, deciding to seek care, reaching and receiving appropriate health care. The existence of a customized spiritual maternal health system demonstrates a huge desire for positive maternal health outcomes among apostolics. We conclude that apostolic beliefs and practices exacerbate delays between onset of maternal complications and receiving help, thus increasing maternal risk. We recommend complementary and adaptive approaches that address the maternal health needs of apostolics in a religiously sensitive manner. PMID:27509018

  12. STUDY OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Devi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A woman dies from complications of child birth every minute . The major causes for maternal mortality in India are uncontrolled fertility , inaccessibility or inadequate utilization of health care facilities , illiteracy , ignorance and gender discrimination . OBJECTIV ES: (1 To identify various causes of maternal deaths in a teaching hospital . (2 To study the profile of population attending the tertiary hospital . Methodology : A retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital over a period of 2 years (January 2013 - December 2014 and data was analysed manually using case sheets and maternal death audit forms . RESULTS: In the study period , there were 11636 deliveries and 97 maternal deaths . The direct causes accounted for 77 maternal deaths with haemorrhage , hype rtension and sepsis as leading causes of maternal mortality . Conclusion : Emphasis on health education , need for regular antenatal checkups and proper training of health personnel is required to reduce maternal mortality .

  13. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, Ra...

  14. Perioperative Glucose Control in Neurosurgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Agustín Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many neurosurgery patients may have unrecognized diabetes or may develop stress-related hyperglycemia in the perioperative period. Diabetes patients have a higher perioperative risk of complications and have longer hospital stays than individuals without diabetes. Maintenance of euglycemia using intensive insulin therapy (IIT continues to be investigated as a therapeutic tool to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with derangements in glucose metabolism due to surgery. Suboptimal perioperative glucose control may contribute to increased morbidity, mortality, and aggravate concomitant illnesses. The challenge is to minimize the effects of metabolic derangements on surgical outcomes, reduce blood glucose excursions, and prevent hypoglycemia. Differences in cerebral versus systemic glucose metabolism, time course of cerebral response to injury, and heterogeneity of pathophysiology in the neurosurgical patient populations are important to consider in evaluating the risks and benefits of IIT. While extremes of glucose levels are to be avoided, there are little data to support an optimal blood glucose level or recommend a specific use of IIT for euglycemia maintenance in the perioperative management of neurosurgical patients. Individualized treatment should be based on the local level of blood glucose control, outpatient treatment regimen, presence of complications, nature of the surgical procedure, and type of anesthesia administered.

  15. Taeniid tapeworm responses to in vitro glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Kaethe; Presas, Ana María Fernández; Jiménez, José Agustín; Landa, Abraham; Zurabián, Rimma; Ugarte, María Eugenia Juárez; Robert, Lilia

    2005-07-01

    Experimental taeniid strobilae from Taenia solium and T. crassiceps (WFU strain) were incubated for 0-72 h in 0, 5 or 20 mM glucose solutions and further exposed for 15 min to the gap junction fluorochrome Lucifer Yellow. Frozen sections were obtained from each worm and observed under an epifluorescent microscope. Worm sections from strobilae incubated with glucose, revealed intense fluorescence in the base of the tegumentary surface, suggesting that this tissue behaves as a gap junction complex. Fluorescence intensity differences between control worms not exposed to glucose and worms incubated with glucose, were highly significant. The results demonstrate that under in vitro conditions, glucose is taken up along the whole strobilar tegument in both taeniid species, suggesting, that although taeniids attached to the duodenum probably take up most of their nutrients directly from the mucosal wall, the capacity for absorbing glucose along the tegumentary surface is always active and may increase the survival capacity of these intestinal worms by promoting glucose absorption at other points in the intestinal lumen. PMID:15918070

  16. Exercising Tactically for Taming Postmeal Glucose Surges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Elsamma

    2016-01-01

    This review seeks to synthesize data on the timing, intensity, and duration of exercise found scattered over some 39 studies spanning 3+ decades into optimal exercise conditions for controlling postmeal glucose surges. The results show that a light aerobic exercise for 60 min or moderate activity for 20-30 min starting 30 min after meal can efficiently blunt the glucose surge, with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. Exercising at other times could lead to glucose elevation caused by counterregulation. Adding a short bout of resistance exercise of moderate intensity (60%-80%  VO2max) to the aerobic activity, 2 or 3 times a week as recommended by the current guidelines, may also help with the lowering of glucose surges. On the other hand, high-intensity exercise (>80%  VO2max) causes wide glucose fluctuations and its feasibility and efficacy for glucose regulation remain to be ascertained. Promoting the kind of physical activity that best counters postmeal hyperglycemia is crucial because hundreds of millions of diabetes patients living in developing countries and in the pockets of poverty in the West must do without medicines, supplies, and special diets. Physical activity is the one tool they may readily utilize to tame postmeal glucose surges. Exercising in this manner does not violate any of the current guidelines, which encourage exercise any time. PMID:27073714

  17. Metabolic induction and early responses of mouse blastocyst developmental programming following maternal low protein diet affecting life-long health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith J Eckert

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that a maternal low protein diet, fed exclusively during the preimplantation period of mouse development (Emb-LPD, is sufficient to induce by the blastocyst stage a compensatory growth phenotype in late gestation and postnatally, correlating with increased risk of adult onset cardiovascular disease and behavioural dysfunction. Here, we examine mechanisms of induction of maternal Emb-LPD programming and early compensatory responses by the embryo. Emb-LPD induced changes in maternal serum metabolites at the time of blastocyst formation (E3.5, notably reduced insulin and increased glucose, together with reduced levels of free amino acids (AAs including branched chain AAs leucine, isoleucine and valine. Emb-LPD also caused reduction in the branched chain AAs within uterine fluid at the blastocyst stage. These maternal changes coincided with an altered content of blastocyst AAs and reduced mTORC1 signalling within blastocysts evident in reduced phosphorylation of effector S6 ribosomal protein and its ratio to total S6 protein but no change in effector 4E-BP1 phosphorylated and total pools. These changes were accompanied by increased proliferation of blastocyst trophectoderm and total cells and subsequent increased spreading of trophoblast cells in blastocyst outgrowths. We propose that induction of metabolic programming following Emb-LPD is achieved through mTORC1signalling which acts as a sensor for preimplantation embryos to detect maternal nutrient levels via branched chain AAs and/or insulin availability. Moreover, this induction step associates with changes in extra-embryonic trophectoderm behaviour occurring as early compensatory responses leading to later nutrient recovery.

  18. Geniposide regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion possibly through controlling glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Liu

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS is essential to the control of metabolic fuel homeostasis. The impairment of GSIS is a key element of β-cell failure and one of causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Although the KATP channel-dependent mechanism of GSIS has been broadly accepted for several decades, it does not fully describe the effects of glucose on insulin secretion. Emerging evidence has suggested that other mechanisms are involved. The present study demonstrated that geniposide enhanced GSIS in response to the stimulation of low or moderately high concentrations of glucose, and promoted glucose uptake and intracellular ATP levels in INS-1 cells. However, in the presence of a high concentration of glucose, geniposide exerted a contrary role on both GSIS and glucose uptake and metabolism. Furthermore, geniposide improved the impairment of GSIS in INS-1 cells challenged with a high concentration of glucose. Further experiments showed that geniposide modulated pyruvate carboxylase expression and the production of intermediates of glucose metabolism. The data collectively suggest that geniposide has potential to prevent or improve the impairment of insulin secretion in β-cells challenged with high concentrations of glucose, likely through pyruvate carboxylase mediated glucose metabolism in β-cells.

  19. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charity H; Lee, Jane; Ruhlman, Melissa K

    2015-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is a common finding in surgical patients during the perioperative period. Factors contributing to poor glycemic control include counterregulatory hormones, hepatic insulin resistance, decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, use of dextrose-containing intravenous fluids, and enteral and parenteral nutrition. Hyperglycemia in the perioperative period is associated with increased morbidity, decreased survival, and increased resource utilization. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period contributes to reduced morbidity and mortality. To readily identify hyperglycemia, blood glucose monitoring should be instituted for all hospitalized patients. PMID:25814110

  20. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed by the...

  1. [Microbial production of glucose/fructose syrups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matur, A; Sağlam, N

    1982-04-01

    With the ever-increasing demand for sugar and the trend in rising price, rapid progress in research on new and/or alternative sweeteners has been inevitable during the past decade or so. Pure glucose, glucose/fructose, glucose/maltose syrups are often called "isosyrups". Isosyrups have been recognized as a good alternative sources of sugar. These are used today in the manufacture of soft drinks, jams and jellies, confectionary, baking fermentation, dietetic and infant food, ice-cream, pharmaceutical processes, etc. Isosyrups are produced by hydrolysis of starch and cellulocis raw materials have been utilized for the production of isosyrups. PMID:7144624

  2. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Kozacz; Paulina Grunt; Marta Steczkowska; Tomasz Mikulski; Jan Dąbrowski; Monika Górecka; Urszula Sanocka; Andrzej Wojciech Ziemba

    2014-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG) was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A), and noradrenaline (NA) were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68 ± 3.90 versus 55.40 ± 7.32 kJ, resp., P < ...

  3. Cognitive Function in Adult Offspring of Women with Gestational Diabetes–The Role of Glucose and Other Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Tine D.; Mortensen, Erik L; Schmidt, Lone; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte M.; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values. Materials and Methods In 2003–2005 cognitive function was assessed in a cohort of 18–27 year old offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 153) and offspring from the background population (n = 118). The main outcome measure was global cognitive score derived from Raven’s Progressive...

  4. Goodness of fit between prenatal maternal sleep and infant sleep: Associations with maternal depression and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Parade, Stephanie H; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    The current study prospectively examined the ways in which goodness of fit between maternal and infant sleep contributes to maternal depressive symptoms and the mother-child relationship across the first years of life. In a sample of 173 mother-child dyads, maternal prenatal sleep, infant sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child attachment security were assessed via self-report, actigraphy, and observational measures. Results suggested that a poor fit between mothers' prenatal sleep and infants' sleep at 8 months (measured by sleep diary and actigraphy) was associated with maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months. Additionally, maternal depression mediated the association between the interplay of mother and infant sleep (measured by sleep diary) and mother-child attachment security at 30 months. Findings emphasize the importance of the match between mother and infant sleep on maternal wellbeing and mother-child relationships and highlight the role of mothers' perceptions of infant sleep. PMID:27448324

  5. Severe maternal morbidity and near misses in tertiary hospitals, Kelantan, Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Nik Hazlina, Nik Hussain; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Azman, Mohd Yacob

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe maternal conditions have increasingly been used as alternative measurements of the quality of maternal care and as alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality. We aimed to study severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss among women in two tertiary hospitals in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study with record review was conducted in 2014. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss were classified using the new World Health Organ...

  6. A Comparison of Medical Birth Register Outcomes between Maternity Health Clinics and Integrated Maternity and Child Health Clinics in Southwest Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Miia; Kaljonen, Anne; Ahonen, Pia; Mäkinen, Juha; Rautava, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary maternity care services are globally provided according to various organisational models. Two models are common in Finland: a maternity health clinic and an integrated maternity and child health clinic. The aim of this study was to clarify whether there is a relation between the organisational model of the maternity health clinics and the utilisation of maternity care services, and certain maternal and perinatal health outcomes.Methods: A comparative, register-based cros...

  7. Effect and Modeling of Glucose Inhibition and In Situ Glucose Removal During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2010-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. In this study, the effects on cellulolytic glucose yields of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal were examined and modeled during extended treatment of heat-pretreated wheat straw with the......, during 96 h of reaction. When glucose was removed by dialysis during the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion rates and glucose yields increased. In fact, with dialytic in situ glucose removal, the rate of enzyme-catalyzed glucose release during 48-72 h of reaction recovered from 20-40% to...... removal during enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose....

  8. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. However, studies that prospectively examined circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-[OH] D in relation to diabetes risk are limited. Our objective is to determine the association between maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted among a prospective cohort of 953 pregnant women. Among them, 57 incident GDM cases were ascertained and 114 women who were not diagnosed with GDM were selected as controls. Controls were frequency matched to cases for the estimated season of conception of the index pregnancy. RESULTS: Among women who developed GDM, maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations at an average of 16 weeks of gestation were significantly lower than controls (24.2 vs. 30.1 ng/ml, P<0.001. This difference remained significant (3.62 ng/ml lower on average in GDM cases than controls (P value = 0.018 after the adjustment for maternal age, race, family history of diabetes, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Approximately 33% of GDM cases, compared with 14% of controls (P<0.001, had maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations consistent with a pre-specified diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml. After adjustment for the aforementioned covariates including BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 2.66-fold (OR (95% CI: 2.66 (1.01-7.02 increased GDM risk. Moreover, each 5 ng/ml decrease in 25-[OH] D concentrations was related to a 1.29-fold increase in GDM risk (OR (95% CI: 1.29 (1.05-1.60. Additional adjustment for season and physical activity did not change findings substantially. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study suggest that maternal vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is significantly associated with an elevated risk for GDM.

  9. Condensation reactions of glucose and aromatic ring; Glucose to hokokan tono shukugo hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T.; Tanaka, C.; Yoshioka, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For artificial coalification, condensation reactions of aromatic ring and activated compounds produced by dehydrating reaction of glucose were studied experimentally. In heat treatment experiment in water, three reaction specimens such as glucose, glucose and phenol, and glucose and benzaldehyde were fed into an autoclave together with distilled water, and subjected to reaction at 180{degree}C under spontaneous pressure for 50 hours. In hydrogenation experiment, the specimens were fed into an autoclave together with tetradecane and sulfurization catalyst, and subjected to reaction at 350{degree}C under initial pressure of 9.8MPa for 2 hours for gas chromatography (GC) analysis of products. As the experimental result, the reaction between glucose and aromatic ring in heat treatment in water occurred between aromatic ring and active fragment with a mean carbon number of 4-5 produced by decomposition of glucose. The reactivity was higher in benzaldehyde addition than phenol addition. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Conditions With High Intracellular Glucose Inhibit Sensing Through Glucose Sensor Snf3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhumaa, Kaisa; Wu, B.Q.; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    2010-01-01

    amino acids. An alternating-access model of the function of transporter-like sensors has been previously suggested based on amino acid sensing, where intracellular ligand inhibits binding of extracellular ligand. Here we studied the effect of intracellular glucose on sensing of extracellular glucose...... through the transporter-like sensor Snf3 in yeast. Sensing through Snf3 was determined by measuring degradation of Mth1 protein. High intracellular glucose concentrations were achieved by using yeast strains lacking monohexose transporters which were grown on maltose. The apparent affinity of...... extracellular glucose to Snf3 was measured for cells grown in non-fermentative medium or on maltose. The apparent affinity for glucose was lowest when the intracellular glucose concentration was high. The results conform to an alternating-access model for transporter-like sensors. J. Cell. Biochem. 110: 920...

  11. Designing a highly active soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase for efficient glucose biosensors and biofuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → A new mutant of PQQ-GDH designed for glucose biosensors application. → First mutant of PQQ-GDH with higher activity for D-glucose than the Wild type. → Position N428 is a key point to increase the enzyme activity. → Molecular modeling shows that the N428 C mutant displays a better interaction for PQQ than the WT. -- Abstract: We report for the first time a soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase that is twice more active than the wild type for glucose oxidation and was obtained by combining site directed mutagenesis, modelling and steady-state kinetics. The observed enhancement is attributed to a better interaction between the cofactor and the enzyme leading to a better electron transfer. Electrochemical experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the new mutant for glucose oxidation and make it a promising enzyme for the development of high-performance glucose biosensors and biofuel cells.

  12. The role of inflammatory pathway genetic variation on maternal metabolic phenotypes during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrit Urbanek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since mediators of inflammation are associated with insulin resistance, and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes, we hypothesized that genetic variation in members of the inflammatory gene pathway impact glucose levels and related phenotypes in pregnancy. We evaluated this hypothesis by testing for association between genetic variants in 31 inflammatory pathway genes in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO cohort, a large multiethnic multicenter study designed to address the impact of glycemia less than overt diabetes on pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: Fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour glucose, fasting and 1-hour C-peptide, and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples obtained from HAPO participants during an oral glucose tolerance test at 24-32 weeks gestation. We tested for association between 458 SNPs mapping to 31 genes in the inflammatory pathway and metabolic phenotypes in 3836 European ancestry and 1713 Thai pregnant women. The strongest evidence for association was observed with TNF alpha and HbA1c (rs1052248; 0.04% increase per allele C; p-value = 4.4×10(-5, RETN and fasting plasma glucose (rs1423096; 0.7 mg/dl decrease per allele A; p-value = 1.1×10(-4, IL8 and 1 hr plasma glucose (rs2886920; 2.6 mg/dl decrease per allele T; p-value = 1.3×10(-4, ADIPOR2 and fasting C-peptide (rs2041139; 0.55 ug/L decrease per allele A; p-value = 1.4×10(-4, LEPR and 1-hour C-peptide (rs1171278; 0.62 ug/L decrease per allele T; p-value = 2.4×10(-4, and IL6 and 1-hour plasma glucose (rs6954897; -2.29 mg/dl decrease per allele G, p-value = 4.3×10(-4. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the genes surveyed in this study the inflammatory pathway is unlikely to have a strong impact on maternal metabolic phenotypes in pregnancy although variation in individual members of the pathway (e.g. RETN, IL8, ADIPOR2, LEPR, IL6, and TNF alpha, may contribute to metabolic phenotypes in pregnant women.

  13. A glucose-centric perspective of hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasarma, T; Rafi, M

    2016-02-01

    Digestion of food in the intestines converts the compacted storage carbohydrates, starch and glycogen, to glucose. After each meal, a flux of glucose (> 200 g) passes through the blood pool (4-6 g) in a short period of 2 h, keeping its concentration ideally in the range of 80-120 mg/100 mL. Tissue-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs) aid in the distribution of glucose to all tissues. The balance glucose after meeting the immediate energy needs is converted into glycogen and stored in liver (up to 100 g) and skeletal muscle (up to 300 g) for later use. High blood glucose gives the signal for increased release of insulin from pancreas. Insulin binds to insulin receptor on the plasma membrane and activates its autophosphorylation. This initiates the post-insulin-receptor signal cascade that accelerates synthesis of glycogen and triglyceride. Parallel control by phos-dephos and redox regulation of proteins exists for some of these steps. A major action of insulin is to inhibit gluconeogensis in the liver decreasing glucose output into blood. Cases with failed control of blood glucose have alarmingly increased since 1960 coinciding with changed life-styles and large scale food processing. Many of these turned out to be resistant to insulin, usually accompanied by dysfunctional glycogen storage. Glucose has an extended stay in blood at 8 mM and above and then indiscriminately adds on to surface protein-amino groups. Fructose in common sugar is 10-fold more active. This random glycation process interferes with the functions of many proteins (e.g., hemoglobin, eye lens proteins) and causes progressive damage to heart, kidneys, eyes and nerves. Some compounds are known to act as insulin mimics. Vanadium-peroxide complexes act at post-receptor level but are toxic. The fungus-derived 2,5-dihydroxybenzoquinone derivative is the first one known to act on the insulin receptor. The safe herbal products in use for centuries for glucose control have multiple active principles and

  14. Maternal near miss and quality of maternal health care in Baghdad, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabir Maysoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal near-miss concept has been developed as an instrument for assisting health systems to evaluate and improve their quality of care. Our study aimed at studying the characteristics and quality of care provided to women with severe complications in Baghdad through the use of the World Health Organization (WHO near-miss approach for maternal health. Methods This is a facility-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 6 public hospitals in Baghdad between March 1, 2010 and the June 30, 2010. WHO near-miss approach was utilized to analyze the data in terms of indicators of maternal near miss and access to and quality of maternal care. Results The maternal near-miss rate was low at 5.06 per 1,000 live births, while the overall maternal near miss: mortality ratio was 9:1. One third of the near-miss cases were referred from other facilities and the mortality index was the same for referred women and for in-hospital women (11%. The intensive care unit (ICU admission rate was 37% for women with severe maternal outcomes (SMO, while the overall admission rate was 0.28%. Anemia (55% and previous cesarean section (45% were the most common associated conditions with severe maternal morbidity. The use of magnesium sulfate for treatment of eclampsia, oxytocin for prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, prophylactic antibiotics during caesarean section, and corticosteroids for inducing fetal lung maturation in preterm birth is suboptimum. Conclusions The WHO near-miss approach allowed systematic identification of the roadblocks to improve quality of care and then monitoring the progress. Critical evidence-based practices, relevant to the management of women experiencing life-threatening conditions, are underused. In addition, possible limitations in the referral system result in a very high proportion of women presenting at the hospital already in a severe health condition (i.e. with organ dysfunction. A shortage of ICU

  15. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    been made. There is not a simple and straight-forward intervention, which by itself will bring maternal mortality significantly down; and it is commonly agreed on that the high maternal mortality can only be addressed if the health system is strengthened. There is a common consensus about the...... will be a time lag. In addition, there is a need of major investment in human resources to counter the present momentum of emigration of qualified personnel from low income countries. To address the lack of skilled attendance, alternative strategies should therefore be developed and incorporated within...... important innovative strategy. Along with the strategy of aiming at increasing the number of health facility based deliveries and the empowerment of non physicians to provide obstetric surgery, some preventive functions of basic care targeting women who prefer to deliver outside the health facilities should...

  16. The Turkish version of Maternal Attachment Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Kavlak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research has been designed as methodological with purpose of the validity and the reliability of the Turkish language version of Maternal Attachment Inventory on mothers within one and four months postpartum. Method: This study was carried out with mothers registered at 19 Health Clinics and three Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning Clinics in which connected to Bornova Health Presidency in Izmir. The sample of research has been composed three clinics in which determined with the purposive sampling technique. First stage, the research was studied on 165 mothers when their babies were approximately 30-40 days old in these registered clinics.At the second stage of research has been interviewed again with 78 mothers when their babies were approximately 90-105 days old.Results: It is determined that experts consensuses about content of items as a result of analysis (Kendall’s W=0.274, p=0.001

  17. The difficulties of conducting maternal death reviews in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Broek Nynke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal death reviews is a tool widely recommended to improve the quality of obstetric care and reduce maternal mortality. Our aim was to explore the challenges encountered in the process of facility-based maternal death review in Malawi, and to suggest sustainable and logically sound solutions to these challenges. Methods SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis of the process of maternal death review during a workshop in Malawi. Results Strengths: Availability of data from case notes, support from hospital management, and having maternal death review forms. Weaknesses: fear of blame, lack of knowledge and skills to properly conduct death reviews, inadequate resources and missing documentation. Opportunities: technical assistance from expatriates, support from the Ministry of Health, national protocols and high maternal mortality which serves as motivation factor. Threats: Cultural practices, potential lawsuit, demotivation due to the high maternal mortality and poor planning at the district level. Solutions: proper documentation, conducting maternal death review in a blame-free manner, good leadership, motivation of staff, using guidelines, proper stock inventory and community involvement. Conclusion Challenges encountered during facility-based maternal death review are provider-related, administrative, client related and community related. Countries with similar socioeconomic profiles to Malawi will have similar 'pull-and-push' factors on the process of facility-based maternal death reviews, and therefore we will expect these countries to have similar potential solutions.

  18. Biocatalytic anode for glucose oxidation utilizing carbon nanotubes for direct electron transfer with glucose oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaze, Abhay; Hussain, Nighat; Tang, Chi [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Rusling, James [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06032 (United States); School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Covalently linked layers of glucose oxidase, single-wall carbon nanotubes and poly-L-lysine on pyrolytic graphite resulted in a stable biofuel cell anode featuring direct electron transfer from the enzyme. Catalytic response observed upon addition of glucose was due to electrochemical oxidation of FADH{sub 2} under aerobic conditions. The electrode potential depended on glucose concentration. This system has essential attributes of an anode in a mediator-free biocatalytic fuel cell. (author)

  19. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.;

    2013-01-01

    .RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  20. Glucose Sensing by Time-Resolved Fluorescence of Sol-Gel Immobilized Glucose Oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lepore; Raffaele Velotta; Carlo Altucci; Sergio De Nicola; Bartolomeo Della Ventura; Rosario Esposito; Damiano Gustavo Mita

    2011-01-01

    A monolithic silica gel matrix with entrapped glucose oxidase (GOD) was constructed as a bioactive element in an optical biosensor for glucose determination. Intrinsic fluorescence of free and immobilised GOD was investigated in the visible range in presence of different glucose concentrations by time-resolved spectroscopy with time-correlated single-photon counting detector. A three-exponential model was used for analysing the fluorescence transients. Fractional intensities and mean lifetime...

  1. A glucose biofuel cell implanted in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cinquin, Philippe; Gondran, Chantal; Giroud, Fabien; Mazabrard, Simon; Pellissier, Aymeric; Boucher, François; Alcaraz, Jean-Pierre; Gorgy, Karine; Lenouvel, François; Mathé, Stéphane; Porcu, Paolo; Cosnier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Powering future generations of implanted medical devices will require cumbersome transcutaneous energy transfer or harvesting energy from the human body. No functional solution that harvests power from the body is currently available, despite attempts to use the Seebeck thermoelectric effect, vibrations or body movements. Glucose fuel cells appear more promising, since they produce electrical energy from glucose and dioxygen, two substrates present in physiological fluids. The most powerful o...

  2. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Igor Ying; Fu, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2011-06-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  3. Evidence for Central Regulation of Glucose Metabolism*

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Michelle; Kehlenbrink, Sylvia; Hawkins, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for central regulation of glucose homeostasis is accumulating from both animal and human studies. Central nutrient and hormone sensing in the hypothalamus appears to coordinate regulation of whole body metabolism. Central signals activate ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, thereby down-regulating glucose production, likely through vagal efferent signals. Recent human studies are consistent with this hypothesis. The contributions of direct and central inputs to metabolic regulat...

  4. Nonlinear optical measurements of glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, V. V.

    2008-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that currently affects about 7% of the US population, or roughly about 20 million people. Effectively controlling diabetes requires regular measurements of the blood sugar levels to ensure the one time insulin injection when the concentration of glucose reaches a critical level. In this report, nonlinear Raman microspectroscopy is demonstrated to be a promising new way of continuous and noninvasive way of measuring the glucose concentration.

  5. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Shen; Igor Ying Zhang; Gang Fu; Xin Xu

    2011-01-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  6. Impaired glucose tolerance in acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas. In spite of the pivotal role of the endocrine pancreas in glucose metabolism, the impact of impaired glucose tolerance on AP has not been fully elucidated. A meta-analysis of seven observational studies showed that type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with an increased risk of AP. The increased risk of AP shown in the meta-analysis was independent of hyperlipidemia, alcohol use and gallstones. Anti-diab...

  7. Nanomaterial-mediated Biosensors for Monitoring Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Masashige; Ptitsyn, Andre; McLamore, Eric S.; Claussen, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of physiological glucose transport is crucial for gaining new understanding of diabetes. Many techniques and equipment currently exist for measuring glucose, but these techniques are limited by complexity of the measurement, requirement of bulky equipment, and low temporal/spatial resolution. The development of various types of biosensors (eg, electrochemical, optical sensors) for laboratory and/or clinical applications will provide new insights into the cause(s) and poss...

  8. A glucose sensor for fermentation monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Steven

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation, analysis and development of an oxygen-insensitive amperometric glucose biosensor and its application in microbial batch culture are described. The biosensor consisted of a graphite foil electrode modified with glucose oxidase and 1,1'-dimethylferrocene, and operated via mediated electron transfer from the enzyme to the electrode. Initial evaluations illustrated several operating characteristics which would be expected to cause problems in conti...

  9. [Model for a comprehensive approach to maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolinski, Ariel; Mercer, Raúl; Micone, Paula; Ocampo, Celina; Salgado, Pablo; Szulik, Dalia; Swarcz, Lucila; Corte, Vicente R; del Moral, Belén Fernández; Pianesi, Jorge; Balladelli, Pier Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Maternal mortality is an important public health and human rights problem and reflects the effects of social determinants on women's health. Understanding the extent and causes of maternal death has been insufficient to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. This article proposes a model for a comprehensive approach to maternal mortality, covering seven areas: prioritization and definition of the problem, contextual description, methodological scope, knowledge management, innovation, implementation, and a monitoring and evaluation system. This model helps address problems associated with maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity through early monitoring of potentially fatal complications in the reproductive process. Knowledge management is important for the reorientation of policies, programs, and health care. Interaction and synergies among people, communities, and actors in the health system should be strengthened in order to improve the results of health programs. More validated scientific information is needed on how actions should be implemented in different environments. It is essential to strengthen communication among research centers, cooperation agencies, and government organizations and to include them in programs and in the definition of a new women's health agenda in the Region of the Americas. PMID:26208207

  10. Glucose isomerization in simulated moving bed reactor by Glucose isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto Borges da Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the production of high-fructose syrup by Simulated Moving Bed (SMB technology. A mathematical model and numerical methodology were used to predict the behavior and performance of the simulated moving bed reactors and to verify some important aspects for application of this technology in the isomerization process. The developed algorithm used the strategy that considered equivalences between simulated moving bed reactors and true moving bed reactors. The kinetic parameters of the enzymatic reaction were obtained experimentally using discontinuous reactors by the Lineweaver-Burk technique. Mass transfer effects in the reaction conversion using the immobilized enzyme glucose isomerase were investigated. In the SMB reactive system, the operational variable flow rate of feed stream was evaluated to determine its influence on system performance. Results showed that there were some flow rate values at which greater purities could be obtained.Neste trabalho a tecnologia de Leito Móvel Simulado (LMS reativo é aplicada no processo de isomerização da glicose visando à produção de xarope concentrado de frutose. É apresentada a modelagem matemática e uma metodologia numérica para predizer o comportamento e o desempenho de unidades reativas de leito móvel simulado para verificar alguns aspectos importantes para o emprego desta tecnologia no processo de isomerização. O algoritmo desenvolvido utiliza a abordagem que considera as equivalências entre as unidades reativas de leito móvel simulado e leito móvel verdadeiro. Parâmetros cinéticos da reação enzimática são obtidos experimentalmente usando reatores em batelada pela técnica Lineweaver-Burk. Efeitos da transferência de massa na conversão de reação usando a enzima imobilizada glicose isomerase são verificados. No sistema reativo de LMS, a variável operacional vazão da corrente de alimentação é avaliada para conhecer o efeito de sua influência no

  11. A case of near miss maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eclampsia is a common cause of maternal morbidity and at times, mortality. Usually patients show dramatic improvement soon after delivery. But rarely eclampsia, dealt by obstetricians often, can herald an underlying life-threatening disease process requiring intensive care support and multi- disciplinary care. Such a case is being reported here. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 833-835

  12. Maternal mental health and parenting in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, Linda S; Miles, Margaret Shandor

    2003-01-01

    Maternal mental health is a key factor affecting the quality of parenting and, ultimately, a child's developmental outcomes. Thus, the persistence of mental health problems such as chronic depressive symptoms or addiction in low-income mother-child dyads may be the critical determinant of their collective future. This review examines the research conducted by nurses that focuses on maternal mental health, mothering, and child outcomes in the context of rearing children in poverty. Multiple methods were used for the search. Four programs showed evidence of sustained, related studies focused on the mental health of low-income mothers and their parenting. Two of these programs included intervention studies aimed at improving the mental health of mothers and developmental outcomes for their children. There were four newer programs of research in which the research teams had begun to focus on mothers rearing children in poverty and five other researchers who conducted single studies of maternal mental health. Additionally, two investigators focused on mothers who were prisoners, one team focused on homeless mothers, and another on mothers with HIV. Studies were critiqued using a developmental science framework. Studies varied widely in the degree to which they used developmentally based conceptual frameworks, designs, and measures. While nurse scientists have made progress in conducting research with mothers rearing children in poverty, there is an urgent need for more developmentally sensitive research aimed at strengthening maternal mental health and assisting mothers to be more effective parents in the midst of the challenges of poverty and welfare reform. By doing so, nursing interventions can improve the child's developmental outcomes. PMID:12858701

  13. Varicella during pregnancy. Maternal and fetal effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, V L; Kuller, J A; McMahon, M J; Warren, M A; Wells, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of maternal varicella at our institution, we reviewed all cases of primary varicella in pregnancy. Using a perinatal database that summarizes all obstetric admissions, we reviewed the medical records of women with varicella infections during pregnancy. Over a 5 1/2-year period, 31 pregnancies were affected by varicella infection among 11,753 deliveries. The mean age of those patients was 19.6 years, significantly different from our overall population of 25.3 y...

  14. Maternal deaths in Denmark 2002-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Birgit; Hvidman, Lone; Weber, Tom;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a method for identification, classification and assessment of maternal deaths in Denmark and to identify substandard care. DESIGN: Register study and case audit based on data from the Registers of the Danish Medical Health Board, death certificates and hospital records...... cardiac disease, thromboembolism, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, Streptococcus A infections, suicide, amniotic fluid embolism, cerebrovascular hemorrhage, asthma and diabetes. CONCLUSION: Our method proved valid and can be used for future research. Causes of death could be identified and learning...

  15. Discussion: The Coalition for Improving Maternity Services:

    OpenAIRE

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    The Ten Steps of Mother-Friendly Care developed by the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services (CIMS) provides guidelines for caregivers, hospitals, birth centers, and home birth services that are committed to ensuring their services are “mother-friendly.” The evidence basis compiled by the CIMS Expert Work Group for the Ten Steps of Mother-Friendly Care confirms that substantial support exists for the Ten Steps. Furthermore, the group's findings—along with the results from the Listening t...

  16. Maternal health care in Masanga, Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Fugmann, Laura; Nielsen, Sofie Hede; Madsen, Nina Maria

    2013-01-01

    Sierra Leone has the statistic world record of being the country with the highest average child and maternal mortality. The Danish community based organization Masanga, has initiated a hospital in the village of Masanga, in order to contribute to rebuild the health sector after the civil war, to help prevent disease and death and promote health locally. By interviewing three Danish volunteers from the Masanga Organization who all have been at the hospital, and by examining relevant artic...

  17. Maternal postnatal depression: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, Pauliina

    2003-01-01

    Abstract A longitudinal follow-up study of postnatal depression was performed in the years 1995-2000 in the University of Oulu. A volunteer, ramdomly selected group of 187 mothers from maternal wards of the University Hospital of Oulu were studied with different questionnaires in the first postpartum week. Depressive symptoms were re-assessed with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale four months postpartum when paternal depression was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory. 16.2% of the ...

  18. Resilience to Maternal Depression in Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Pargas, Rebecca Cristina Malvar; Brennan, Patricia A.; Hammen, Constance; Le Brocque, Robyne

    2010-01-01

    Using a prospective longitudinal design this study investigated factors associated with resilience in 20-year old offspring of depressed mothers (n=648). Resilient youth were operationally defined as those whose mothers were depressed, but who themselves had no history of recurrent depression, and currently evidenced adequate academic/work and romantic functioning, no Axis I psychopathology, and no clinically significant internalizing behavior problems. Low levels of perceived maternal psycho...

  19. Fetal and Maternal Effects of Vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşenur Alper Gürz1; Füsun Ayşin Artıran İğde1; Mustafa Fevzi Dikici1

    2015-01-01

    Since in the early 1900s, the relationship between vitamin D and human health was discovered which led to a cure for rickets. In recent years, studies suggest that besides the rickets, vitamin D deficiency may also have an important role in the development of some clinical situations such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis and tuberculosis. In addition, many studies showed that the maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy influence the development of pree...

  20. FAMILY STRUCTURE TRANSITIONS AND MATERNAL PARENTING STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we find that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers report higher levels of parenting stress than mothers in stable coresidential relationships. Mothers who enter coresidential relationships with biological fathers report lower...