WorldWideScience

Sample records for ars detoxification system

  1. Enzyme therapeutics for systemic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Lu, Yunfeng

    2015-08-01

    Life relies on numerous biochemical processes working synergistically and correctly. Certain substances disrupt these processes, inducing living organism into an abnormal state termed intoxication. Managing intoxication usually requires interventions, which is referred as detoxification. Decades of development on detoxification reveals the potential of enzymes as ideal therapeutics and antidotes, because their high substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency are essential for clearing intoxicating substances without adverse effects. However, intrinsic shortcomings of enzymes including low stability and high immunogenicity are major hurdles, which could be overcome by delivering enzymes with specially designed nanocarriers. Extensive investigations on protein delivery indicate three types of enzyme-nanocarrier architectures that show more promise than others for systemic detoxification, including liposome-wrapped enzymes, polymer-enzyme conjugates, and polymer-encapsulated enzymes. This review highlights recent advances in these nano-architectures and discusses their applications in systemic detoxifications. Therapeutic potential of various enzymes as well as associated challenges in achieving effective delivery of therapeutic enzymes will also be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biocatalytic Buffering System for Detoxification of Nerve Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaar, Joel L; Koepsel, Richard; Russell, Alan J

    2005-01-01

    .... In the enzymatic hydrolysis of nerve agents, to prevent inaction of the enzyme prior to complete conversion of the toxin, tight control of pH over the full time course of detoxification is required...

  3. Arsenic Detoxification by Geobacter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yan; Walker, David J F; Vautour, Kaitlin E; Dixon, Steven; Holmes, Dawn E

    2017-02-15

    Insight into the mechanisms for arsenic detoxification by Geobacter species is expected to improve the understanding of global cycling of arsenic in iron-rich subsurface sedimentary environments. Analysis of 14 different Geobacter genomes showed that all of these species have genes coding for an arsenic detoxification system (ars operon), and several have genes required for arsenic respiration (arr operon) and methylation (arsM). Genes encoding four arsenic repressor-like proteins were detected in the genome of G. sulfurreducens; however, only one (ArsR1) regulated transcription of the ars operon. Elimination of arsR1 from the G. sulfurreducens chromosome resulted in enhanced transcription of genes coding for the arsenic efflux pump (Acr3) and arsenate reductase (ArsC). When the gene coding for Acr3 was deleted, cells were not able to grow in the presence of either the oxidized or reduced form of arsenic, while arsC deletion mutants could grow in the presence of arsenite but not arsenate. These studies shed light on how Geobacter influences arsenic mobility in anoxic sediments and may help us develop methods to remediate arsenic contamination in the subsurface. This study examines arsenic transformation mechanisms utilized by Geobacter, a genus of iron-reducing bacteria that are predominant in many anoxic iron-rich subsurface environments. Geobacter species play a major role in microbially mediated arsenic release from metal hydroxides in the subsurface. This release raises arsenic concentrations in drinking water to levels that are high enough to cause major health problems. Therefore, information obtained from studies of Geobacter should shed light on arsenic cycling in iron-rich subsurface sedimentary environments, which may help reduce arsenic-associated illnesses. These studies should also help in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect arsenic contaminants in anoxic subsurface environments. We examined 14 different Geobacter genomes and found

  4. Metagenomics reveals that detoxification systems are underrepresented in marine bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Molin, Mikael; Blomberg, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Environmental shotgun sequencing (metagenomics) provides a new way to study communities in microbial ecology. We here use sequence data from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition to investigate toxicant selection pressures revealed by the presence of detoxification genes in marine bacteria. To capture a broad range of potential toxicants we selected detoxification protein families representing systems protecting microorganisms from a variety of stressors, such as metals, organic compounds, antibiotics and oxygen radicals. Using a bioinformatics procedure based on comparative analysis to finished bacterial genomes we found that the amount of detoxification genes present in marine microorganisms seems surprisingly small. The underrepresentation is particularly evident for toxicant transporters and proteins involved in detoxifying metals. Exceptions are enzymes involved in oxidative stress defense where peroxidase enzymes are more abundant in marine bacteria compared to bacteria in general. In contrast, catalases are almost completely absent from the open ocean environment, suggesting that peroxidases and peroxiredoxins constitute a core line of defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the marine milieu. We found no indication that detoxification systems would be generally more abundant close to the coast compared to the open ocean. On the contrary, for several of the protein families that displayed a significant geographical distribution, like peroxidase, penicillin binding transpeptidase and divalent ion transport protein, the open ocean samples showed the highest abundance. Along the same lines, the abundance of most detoxification proteins did not increase with estimated pollution. The low level of detoxification systems in marine bacteria indicate that the majority of marine bacteria have a low capacity to adapt to increased pollution. Our study exemplifies the use of metagenomics data in ecotoxicology, and in particular how anthropogenic

  5. Detoxification of zearalenone from corn oil by adsorption of functionalized GO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaojuan; Sun, Changpo; Xu, Jing; Liu, Di; Han, Yangying; Wu, Songling; Luo, Xiaohong

    2018-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and its functionalized systems have very unique structural advantages as excellent adsorbent or substrate material in the removal of organic contaminants. Herein, we reported a strategy to establish functionalized GO system (FGO) using amphiphilic molecules didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) as a modifier for the detoxification of zearalenone (ZEN) from corn oil. The adsorption property for the removal of ZEN from edible corn oils under different experimental conditions such as pH, amphiphilic molecules, time and temperature was investigated in detail. The morphology structure, adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics and the recyclability of FGO systems have also been researched, systematically. The FGO systems exhibit a higher adsorption efficiency, recyclability and thermostability in comparison with the traditional adsorbent materials. It provides an insight into the detoxification of mycotoxin from edible oils by graphene-based new materials.

  6. Cadmium transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system: phytoremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng

    2015-11-01

    Phytoremediation has been proven to be an environmentally sound alternative for the recovery of contaminated soils, and the economic profit that comes along with the process might stimulate its field use. This study investigated cadmium (Cd) transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system to estimate the suitability of the mulberry and silkworm as an alternative method for the remediation of Cd-polluted soil; it also explored the underlying mechanisms regulating the trophic transfer of Cd. The results show that both the mulberry and silkworm have high Cd tolerance. The transfer factor suggests that the mulberry has high potential for Cd extraction from polluted soil. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in mulberry leaves show that cell wall deposition and vacuolar compartmentalization play important role in Cd tolerance. In the presence of increasing Cd concentrations in silkworm food, detoxification mechanisms (excretion and homeostasis) were activated so that excess Cd was excreted in fecal balls, and metallothionein levels in the mid-gut, the posterior of the silk gland, and the fat body of silkworms were enhanced. And, the Cd concentrations in silk are at a low level, ranging from 0.02 to 0.21 mg kg(-1). Therefore, these mechanisms of detoxification can regulate Cd trophic transfer, and mulberry planting and silkworm breeding has high phytoremediation potential for Cd-contaminated soil.

  7. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  8. Paleotemperatures at the lunar surfaces from open system behavior of cosmogenic 38Ar and radiogenic 40Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, David L.; Cassata, William S.

    2015-04-01

    both the radiogenic 40Ar and cosmogenic 38Ar abundances can be explained by internally consistent thermal conditions expected for solar heating of the rocks at the lunar surface. These conditions correspond to effective diffusion temperatures (EDT, i.e., the temperature corresponding to the mean diffusivity over temperature variability) between 65 and 81 °C, with an error-weighted mean of 77.0 ± 1.3 °C, despite differences in diffusion kinetics and large differences in surface exposure duration between the three samples (∼56-621 Ma). This EDT corresponds to a maximum daytime temperature of ∼96 °C, which is in excellent agreement direct measurements of temperature at the Apollo 15 landing site. The open system behavior in both a radiogenic and a cosmogenic nuclide provides tests for internal consistency in best-fitting solutions of time-integrated thermal conditions of rocks collected from planetary surfaces. This thermal information is important for the study of habitable conditions at planetary surfaces, and has implications for Ar-based geochronology and paleomagnetic observations applied to planetary materials.

  9. Some Footnotes to the Optimization-based Calibration of the 40Ar/39Ar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, P. R.; Deino, A.

    2011-12-01

    Calibration of the 40Ar/39Ar system presented by Renne et al. (2010) provides a robust synthesis of data from disintegration counting, isotopic composition of a standard, and normalization to the precisely-determined 238U decay constant. Recognition of the incompatibility of liquid scintillation counting (LSC) data for the total 40K decay constant, and subsequent exclusion of these data, provides a minor improvement to accuracy that is most important for pre-Phanerozoic samples (Renne et al., 2011). Discrepancies remain, however, with some results from the literature recalculated using this calibration. To investigate these discrepancies, we have analyzed sanidine from (1) the Bishop Tuff (Sarna et al., 2002) and (2) the IrZ coal (Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary; KPB) (Swisher et al., 1993). Preliminary results give 775.8 ± 1.7 ka (1σ here and throughout, including systematic errors) for the Bishop Tuff and 66.041 ± 0.046 Ma for the IrZ coal, contrasting with ages of 778.1 ± 3.7 ka and 66.214 ± 0.060 (respectively) recalculated from the original work by Renne et al. (2011). Our Bishop Tuff results, though younger than recalculated previous results, still conflict with the U-Pb zircon age (767.1 ± 0.5 ka) reported by Crowley et al. (2007), and with the age of the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic polarity transition inferred by Channell et al. (2010). Our age for the IrZ coal (KPB) agrees with the preferred astronomically tuned age of 65.957 ± 0.040 Ma inferred for the KPB by Kuiper et al. (2008), although the recent work of Laskar et al. (2011) may undermine this result. Some misconceptions regarding the approach and results of Renne et al. (2010) need to be rectified. First, the age of the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) standard arising from this approach is not the primary output of the approach but rather a consequence of output parameters having correlated errors- it should not be used in conjunction with other decay constants such as those of Steiger and J

  10. AR based ornament design system for 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Aoki; Jun Mitani; Yoshihiro Kanamori; Yukio Fukui

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, 3D printers have become popular as a means of outputting geometries designed on CAD or 3D graphics systems. However, the complex user interfaces of standard 3D software can make it difficult for ordinary consumers to design their own objects. Furthermore, models designed on 3D graphics software often have geometrical problems that make them impossible to output on a 3D printer. We propose a novel AR (augmented reality) 3D modeling system with an air-spray like interface. We a...

  11. Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP) for Autonomous Robust Systems (ARS)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Trad; A. Trad

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes the Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP) for building Autonomous and Robust Systems (ARS) such as Mobile Robot Systems (MRS). These patterns are also applicable to other Mission Critical and Complex Systems (MCCS). This paper presents a proposal which will help ARS project managers and engineers design, build and estimate the probability that an ARS will succeed or fail. Furthermore, this proposal offers the possibility to ARS problems with...

  12. Decision Support System for Aquifer Recharge (AR) and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquifer recharge (AR) is a technical method being utilized to enhance groundwater resources through man-made replenishment means, such as infiltration basins and injections wells. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) furthers the AR techniques by withdrawal of stored groundwater at a later time for beneficial use. It is a viable adaptation technique for water availability problems. Variants of the water storage practices include recharge through urban green infrastructure and the subsurface injection of reclaimed water, i.e., wastewater, which has been treated to remove solids and impurities. In addition to a general overview of ASR variations, this report focuses on the principles and technical basis for an ASR decision support system (DSS), with the necessary technical references provided. The DSS consists of three levels of tools and methods for ASR system planning and assessment, design, and evaluation. Level 1 of the system is focused on ASR feasibility, for which four types of data and technical information are organized around: 1) ASR regulations and permitting needs, 2) Water demand projections, 3) Climate change and water availability, and 4) ASR sites and technical information. These technical resources are integrated to quantify water availability gaps and the feasibility of using ASR to meet the volume and timing of the water resource shortages. A systemic analysis of water resources was conducted for sustainable water supplies in Las Vegas, Nevada f

  13. The readout system for the ArTeMis camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.; Dumaye, L.; Hamon, G.

    2014-07-01

    During ArTeMiS observations at the APEX telescope (Chajnantor, Chile), 5760 bolometric pixels from 20 arrays at 300mK, corresponding to 3 submillimeter focal planes at 450μm, 350μm and 200μm, have to be read out simultaneously at 40Hz. The read out system, made of electronics and software, is the full chain from the cryostat to the telescope. The readout electronics consists of cryogenic buffers at 4K (NABU), based on CMOS technology, and of warm electronic acquisition systems called BOLERO. The bolometric signal given by each pixel has to be amplified, sampled, converted, time stamped and formatted in data packets by the BOLERO electronics. The time stamping is obtained by the decoding of an IRIG-B signal given by APEX and is key to ensure the synchronization of the data with the telescope. Specifically developed for ArTeMiS, BOLERO is an assembly of analogue and digital FPGA boards connected directly on the top of the cryostat. Two detectors arrays (18*16 pixels), one NABU and one BOLERO interconnected by ribbon cables constitute the unit of the electronic architecture of ArTeMiS. In total, the 20 detectors for the tree focal planes are read by 10 BOLEROs. The software is working on a Linux operating system, it runs on 2 back-end computers (called BEAR) which are small and robust PCs with solid state disks. They gather the 10 BOLEROs data fluxes, and reconstruct the focal planes images. When the telescope scans the sky, the acquisitions are triggered thanks to a specific network protocol. This interface with APEX enables to synchronize the acquisition with the observations on sky: the time stamped data packets are sent during the scans to the APEX software that builds the observation FITS files. A graphical user interface enables the setting of the camera and the real time display of the focal plane images, which is essential in laboratory and commissioning phases. The software is a set of C++, Labview and Python, the qualities of which are respectively used

  14. Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP for Autonomous Robust Systems (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Trad

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP for building Autonomous and Robust Systems (ARS such as Mobile Robot Systems (MRS. These patterns are also applicable to other Mission Critical and Complex Systems (MCCS. This paper presents a proposal which will help ARS project managers and engineers design, build and estimate the probability that an ARS will succeed or fail. Furthermore, this proposal offers the possibility to ARS problems with the help of audit, monitoring and controlling components, adjust the project management pathways, and define the problem sources as well as their possible solutions, in order to deliver an ARS or an MRS.

  15. Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP for Autonomous Robust Systems (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Trad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP for building Autonomous and Robust Systems (ARS such as Mobile Robot Systems (MRS. These patterns are also applicable to other Mission Critical and Complex Systems (MCCS. This paper presents a proposal which will help ARS project managers and engineers design, build and estimate the probability that an ARS will succeed or fail. Furthermore, this proposal offers the possibility to ARS problems with the help of audit, monitoring and controlling components, adjust the project management pathways, and define the problem sources as well as their possible solutions, in order to deliver an ARS or an MRS.

  16. Chromium speciation, bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and detoxification in soil-plant system: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Shamshad, Saliha; Rafiq, Marina; Khalid, Sana; Bibi, Irshad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Dumat, Camille; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz

    2017-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a potentially toxic heavy metal which does not have any essential metabolic function in plants. Various past and recent studies highlight the biogeochemistry of Cr in the soil-plant system. This review traces a plausible link among Cr speciation, bioavailability, phytouptake, phytotoxicity and detoxification based on available data, especially published from 2010 to 2016. Chromium occurs in different chemical forms (primarily as chromite (Cr(III)) and chromate (Cr(VI)) in soil which vary markedly in term of their biogeochemical behavior. Chromium behavior in soil, its soil-plant transfer and accumulation in different plant parts vary with its chemical form, plant type and soil physico-chemical properties. Soil microbial community plays a key role in governing Cr speciation and behavior in soil. Chromium does not have any specific transporter for its uptake by plants and it primarily enters the plants through specific and non-specific channels of essential ions. Chromium accumulates predominantly in plant root tissues with very limited translocation to shoots. Inside plants, Cr provokes numerous deleterious effects to several physiological, morphological, and biochemical processes. Chromium induces phytotoxicity by interfering plant growth, nutrient uptake and photosynthesis, inducing enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, causing lipid peroxidation and altering the antioxidant activities. Plants tolerate Cr toxicity via various defense mechanisms such as complexation by organic ligands, compartmentation into the vacuole, and scavenging ROS via antioxidative enzymes. Consumption of Cr-contaminated-food can cause human health risks by inducing severe clinical conditions. Therefore, there is a dire need to monitor biogeochemical behavior of Cr in soil-plant system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. AR based ornament design system for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Aoki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, 3D printers have become popular as a means of outputting geometries designed on CAD or 3D graphics systems. However, the complex user interfaces of standard 3D software can make it difficult for ordinary consumers to design their own objects. Furthermore, models designed on 3D graphics software often have geometrical problems that make them impossible to output on a 3D printer. We propose a novel AR (augmented reality 3D modeling system with an air-spray like interface. We also propose a new data structure (octet voxel for representing designed models in such a way that the model is guaranteed to be a complete solid. The target shape is based on a regular polyhedron, and the octet voxel representation is suitable for designing geometrical objects having the same symmetries as the base regular polyhedron. Finally, we conducted a user test and confirmed that users can intuitively design their own ornaments in a short time with a simple user interface.

  18. Establishment and Usability Evaluation of an Interactive AR Learning System on Conservation of Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Hsieh, Min-Chai; Wang, Cheng-Hung; Sie, Zong-Yuan; Chang, Shei-Hsi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we develop an interactive AR Learning System based on Augmented Reality and interactive touch-screen. The learning content knowledge is about conservation of fish in Taiwan. The system combines the game by the concept of AR book which allows children to learn about the importance of conservation of fish. A mechanism is designed to…

  19. Conservation of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System Apple Collection using dormant bud cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a grafted collection of apple accessions representing 49 taxa in Geneva, NY. Since 1993, dormant buds of many of these accessions have been routinely cryopreserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in For...

  20. Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi, have been found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, causing enormous economic losses in livestock production and severe human health problems. Compared to traditional physical adsorption and chemical reactions, interest in biological detoxification methods that are environmentally sound, safe and highly efficient has seen a significant increase in recent years. However, researchers in this field have been facing tremendous unexpected challenges and are eager to find solutions. This review summarizes and assesses the research strategies and methodologies in each phase of the development of microbiological solutions for mycotoxin mitigation. These include screening of functional microbial consortia from natural samples, isolation and identification of single colonies with biotransformation activity, investigation of the physiological characteristics of isolated strains, identification and assessment of the toxicities of biotransformation products, purification of functional enzymes and the application of mycotoxin decontamination to feed/food production. A full understanding and appropriate application of this tool box should be helpful towards the development of novel microbiological solutions on mycotoxin detoxification.

  1. Design analysis report for the 244-AR vault Interim Stabilization interior transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to verify that the 244-AR Vault Interior Transfer System piping installed in the vault meets ASME B31.3 code requirements. This calculation also evaluates the pipe support loads

  2. Experimental system to measure excitation cross-sections by electron impact. Measurements for ArI and ArII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.; Sanchez, J.A.; Aguilera, J.A.; Campos, J.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental set-up to measure excitation cross-section of atomic and molecular levels by electron impact based on the optical method is reported. We also present some measurements on the excitation cross-section for ArI 5p'(1/2)0 level, and for simultaneous ionization and excitation of Ar leading to ArII levels belonging to the 3p 4 4p and 3p 4 4d configurations. (Author)

  3. Characterization of the Aspergillus fumigatus detoxification systems for reactive nitrogen intermediates and their impact on virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eLapp

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic mold that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. In the lung, inhaled conidia are confronted with immune effector cells that attack the fungus by various mechanisms such as phagocytosis, production of antimicrobial proteins or generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. Macrophages and neutrophils can also form nitric oxide (NO and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI that potentially also contribute to killing of the fungus. However, fungi can produce several enzymes involved in RNI detoxification. Based on genome analysis of A. fumigatus, we identified two genes encoding flavohemoglobins, FhpA and FhpB, which have been shown for other fungi to convert NO to nitrate, and a gene encoding S-nitrosoglutathione reductase GnoA reducing S-nitrosoglutathione to ammonium and glutathione disulphide. To elucidate the role of these enzymes in detoxification of RNI, single and double deletion mutants of FhpA, FhpB and GnoA encoding genes were generated. The analysis of mutant strains using the NO donor DETA-NO indicated that FhpA and GnoA play the major role in defense against RNI. By generating fusions with the green fluorescence protein, we showed that both FhpA-eGFP and GnoA-eGFP were located in the cytoplasm of all A. fumigatus morphotypes, from conidia to hyphae, whereas FhpB-eGFP was localized in mitochondria. Because fhpA and gnoA mRNA was also detected in the lungs of infected mice, we investigated the role of these genes in fungal pathogenicity by using a murine infection model for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Remarkably, all mutant strains tested displayed wild-type pathogenicity, indicating that the ability to detoxify host-derived RNI is not essential for virulence of A. fumigatus in the applied mouse infection model. Consistently, no significant differences in killing of ΔfhpA, ΔfhpB or ΔgnoA conidia by cells of the macrophage cell line MH-S were observed when

  4. Characterization of the Aspergillus fumigatus detoxification systems for reactive nitrogen intermediates and their impact on virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Katrin; Vödisch, Martin; Kroll, Kristin; Strassburger, Maria; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic mold that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. In the lung, inhaled conidia are confronted with immune effector cells that attack the fungus by various mechanisms such as phagocytosis, production of antimicrobial proteins or generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. Macrophages and neutrophils can also form nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that potentially also contribute to killing of the fungus. However, fungi can produce several enzymes involved in RNI detoxification. Based on genome analysis of A. fumigatus, we identified two genes encoding flavohemoglobins, FhpA, and FhpB, which have been shown to convert NO to nitrate in other fungi, and a gene encoding S-nitrosoglutathione reductase GnoA reducing S-nitrosoglutathione to ammonium and glutathione disulphide. To elucidate the role of these enzymes in detoxification of RNI, single and double deletion mutants of FhpA, FhpB, and GnoA encoding genes were generated. The analysis of mutant strains using the NO donor DETA-NO indicated that FhpA and GnoA play the major role in defense against RNI. By generating fusions with the green fluorescence protein, we showed that both FhpA-eGFP and GnoA-eGFP were located in the cytoplasm of all A. fumigatus morphotypes, from conidia to hyphae, whereas FhpB-eGFP was localized in mitochondria. Because fhpA and gnoA mRNA was also detected in the lungs of infected mice, we investigated the role of these genes in fungal pathogenicity by using a murine infection model for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Remarkably, all mutant strains tested displayed wild-type pathogenicity, indicating that the ability to detoxify host-derived RNI is not essential for virulence of A. fumigatus in the applied mouse infection model. Consistently, no significant differences in killing of ΔfhpA, ΔfhpB, or ΔgnoA conidia by cells of the macrophage cell line MH-S were observed when compared to the

  5. Effects of depleted uranium chronic exposure on detoxification systems in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouas, C.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal naturally presents in the environment. The aim of this work is to study effects of a U exposure on organs involved in the detoxification: the kidney and the liver (and notably the xenobiotics metabolizing enzymes (XME)). In order to mimic population chronic exposure, rats were contaminated during 9 months through the drinking water (40 mg/L). In vivo results show that U, in our experimental conditions, does not induce neither nephrotoxicity nor sensitivity to increase a renal toxicity induced by gentamicin. In the liver, U provokes impairments on the XME gene expression, particularly CYP3A. Nevertheless, paracetamole metabolism is modified only if it is administrated at a hepatotoxic dose. The in vitro results suggest an indirect effect of uranium on the XME, probably dependant of body adaptation mechanisms. Besides, in vitro studies were underline cytotoxic properties of U as well as the localisation of its soluble and/or participated forms in cytoplasmic and nuclear compartment. (author)

  6. Impact of morphine dependency and detoxification by methadone on male’s rat reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ghowsi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the problems that addicts suffer from is decreased libido. Erectile dysfunction has been reported in men using opioids for treatment of heroin addiction. Objective: The study was performed to investigate the effects of morphine and detoxification with methadone as causes of sexual dysfunction in addiction. Methods and Methods: A total of 40 adult male rats (Wistar were used. Animals were divided in to 4 groups. Control groups received saline for 30 days. Other 2 groups received 10 mg/kg morphine on day 1 and the morphine doses increased daily by 2 mg/kg increments per day until in day 30 a maximum of 68 mg/kg twice daily was achieved. Withdrawal syndrome sings were evaluated. At the end of period, one group of 2 morphine dependent groups was treated with methadone during 14 days. Animals in group 4 (saline solution+ methadone received saline for 30 consecutive days and then detoxified with methadone during 14 days. Partial weights of seminal vesicles, testes, prostates, seminal vesicles content, concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone in serum were determined. Results: In the dependent group serum levels of testosterone (p<0.001, folicle stimulating hormone (p=0.0097 and luteinizing hormone (p=0.0031 as well as the weights of testes (p=0.0051, partial weights of prostates, seminal vesicles and seminal vesicles contents (p<0.001 were reduced as compared with control group. In the morphine dependent animals detoxified with methadone, testosterone concentrations and seminal vesicles contents remained lower than levels in the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results suggest that morphine dependence may impair the reproductive function in male rats.

  7. Multi-viewpoint Smartphone AR-based Learning System for Solar Movement Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Tian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding solar movement (e.g., solar diurnal motion is difficult for those are beginning to learn about astronomy. Previous research has revealed that observation-based learning can help make astronomical phenomena clearer to understand for such learners. In this research, Smartphone Augmented Reality (AR technology and 3D content were used to develop a multi-viewpoint Smartphone AR-based learning system (M-VSARLS for solar movement observations that can be used in the real-world environment. The goal of this research is to assess the usefulness of the system, usability of the AR function and 3D content, and the overall effect of the system on the learner’s motivation through task-based experiments with follow-up questionnaires. The results show that the M-VSARL system is effective in improving the observational skills and learning ability of learners, and in enhancing their motivation to learn about solar movement.

  8. Use of an audience response system (ARS) in a dual-campus classroom environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Melissa S; Medina, Patrick J; Wanzer, Donald S; Wilson, Jane E; Er, Nelson; Britton, Mark L

    2008-04-15

    To implement an audience response system in a dual-campus classroom that aggregated data during graded (attendance and quizzes) and non-graded classroom activities (formative quizzes, case discussions, examination reviews, and team activities) and explore its strengths, weaknesses, and impact on active learning. After extensive research, an appropriate audience response system was selected and implemented in a dual-classroom setting for a third-year required PharmD course. Students were assigned a clicker and training and policies regarding clicker use were reviewed. Activities involving clicker use were carefully planned to simultaneously engage students in both classrooms in real time. Focus groups were conducted with students to gather outcomes data. Students and faculty members felt that the immediate feedback the automated response system (ARS) provided was most beneficial during non-graded activities. Student anxiety increased with use of ARS during graded activities due to fears regarding technology failure, user error, and academic integrity. ARS is a viable tool for increasing active learning in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program, especially when used for non-graded class activities. Faculty members should proceed cautiously with using ARS for graded classroom activities and develop detailed and documented policies for ARS use.

  9. Observation of new satellites in Cs-Ar system using resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Young, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption line shape of Cs-Ar system is recorded using two-photon ionization of the system with Cs(7P) as an intermediate state. New satellite structures in the wings of Cs(7P) are observed which were not resolved in previous absorption measurements. Also the absolute absorption cross section in the blue wing is measured

  10. Registration Combining Wide and Narrow Baseline Feature Tracking Techniques for Markerless AR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality (AR is a field of computer research which deals with the combination of real world and computer generated data. Registration is one of the most difficult problems currently limiting the usability of AR systems. In this paper, we propose a novel natural feature tracking based registration method for AR applications. The proposed method has following advantages: (1 it is simple and efficient, as no man-made markers are needed for both indoor and outdoor AR applications; moreover, it can work with arbitrary geometric shapes including planar, near planar and non planar structures which really enhance the usability of AR systems. (2 Thanks to the reduced SIFT based augmented optical flow tracker, the virtual scene can still be augmented on the specified areas even under the circumstances of occlusion and large changes in viewpoint during the entire process. (3 It is easy to use, because the adaptive classification tree based matching strategy can give us fast and accurate initialization, even when the initial camera is different from the reference image to a large degree. Experimental evaluations validate the performance of the proposed method for online pose tracking and augmentation.

  11. Effects of florfenicol on the antioxidant status, detoxification system and biomolecule damage in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianyun; Wang, Zhuqing; Gao, Baoquan; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Florfenicol (FLR) is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in aquaculture because of its wide spectrum of activity and few side-effects. We characterized the toxicokinetics of FLR in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) after intravenous (IV) dosing (20, 40 and 80mg/kg). The results showed that FLR significantly suppressed the antioxidant system of the hepatopancreas. FLR induced transcriptional expression of phase I and phase II detoxification genes (CYP3 and GST, respectively) in a dose- and clearance time-dependent manner and altered the expression of their corresponding enzymes (erythromycin N-demethylase and glutathione S-transferase, respectively). Moreover, FLR induced the transcription of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily B (ABCB) and subfamily G (ABCG), although ABCG transcription was not induced by FLR at 20mg/kg. Additionally, higher FLR doses caused significant biomolecule damage during the first 48h after delivery. This study will provide an improved understanding of the exact mechanism underlying toxicity in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lactococcus lactis is an Efficient Expression System for Mammalian Membrane Proteins Involved in Liver Detoxification, CYP3A4, and MGST1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Sana; Lembrouk, Mehdi; Sourd, Laura; Ousalem, Fares; André, François; Orlowski, Stéphane; Delaforge, Marcel; Frelet-Barrand, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Despite the great importance of human membrane proteins involved in detoxification mechanisms, their wide use for biochemical approaches is still hampered by several technical difficulties considering eukaryotic protein expression in order to obtain the large amounts of protein required for functional and/or structural studies. Lactococcus lactis has emerged recently as an alternative heterologous expression system to Escherichia coli for proteins that are difficult to express. The aim of this work was to check its ability to express mammalian membrane proteins involved in liver detoxification, i.e., CYP3A4 and two isoforms of MGST1 (rat and human). Genes were cloned using two different strategies, i.e., classical or Gateway-compatible cloning, and we checked the possible influence of two affinity tags (6×-His-tag and Strep-tag II). Interestingly, all proteins could be successfully expressed in L. lactis at higher yields than those previously obtained for these proteins with classical expression systems (E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or those of other eukaryotic membrane proteins expressed in L. lactis. In addition, rMGST1 was fairly active after expression in L. lactis. This study highlights L. lactis as an attractive system for efficient expression of mammalian detoxification membrane proteins at levels compatible with further functional and structural studies.

  13. Development of distance measurement system using Ar laser under water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakawa, Shinichi; Shibaike, Kunio; Shimizu, Sumiya; Yoshimura, Koji; Aoyama, Tomio

    1996-01-01

    For positioning measurement of an underwater vehicle robot in a reactor pressure vessel for ultrasonic inspection of the vessel, we developed distance measurement system using pan/tilt mechanisms to control directions of an argon gas laser and outgoing/incoming lights. This can automatically measure three-dimensional position and follow of the underwater vehicle robot up to 0.5 ppm water turbidity, this is the first of its kind in the world. This system can measure up to maximum length measuring distance of 8.5 m underwater, within a ±3.6 mm error. We adopted the power 75 mW output for argon gas laser modulated at 80 MHz, and a detector with resolution of 0.004 degree for the pan/tilt mechanisms. (author)

  14. Lactobacillus casei stimulates phase-II detoxification system and rescues malathion-induced physiological impairments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaladevi, Arumugam; Ganguli, Abhijit; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Malathion, an organophosphorus insecticide, is renowned for its inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that eventually leads to widespread disturbance in the normal physiological and behavioral activities of any organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are still an underexploited and inexhaustible source of significant pharmaceutical thrust. In the present study, Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to identify and characterize the indigenous LAB isolated from different traditional food against malathion-induced toxicity. The results demonstrated that malathion at its LD50 concentration decreased various C. elegans physiological parameters such as survival, feeding, and locomotion. Among the screened isolates, L. casei exhibited an excellent protective efficacy against malathion-induced toxicity by increasing the level of AChE and thereby rescued all physiological parameters of C. elegans. In addition, short-term exposure and food choice assay divulged that L. casei could serve as a better food to protect C. elegans from noxious environment. The expression analysis unveiled that L. casei gavage upregulated the phase-II detoxification enzymes coding genes metallothioneins (mtl-1 and mtl-2) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst-8) and thereby eliminated malathion from the host system. Furthermore, the upregulation of ace-3 along with down-regulation of cyp35a in the nematodes supplemented with L. casei could be attributed to attenuate the malathion-induced physiological defects in C. elegans. Thus, the present study reports that an indigenous LAB-L. casei could serve as a promising protective agent against the harmful effects of pesticide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and Error Analysis of a Vehicular AR System with Auto-Harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxlin, Eric; Calloway, Thomas; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the design, development and testing of an AR system that was developed for aerospace and ground vehicles to meet stringent accuracy and robustness requirements. The system uses an optical see-through HMD, and thus requires extremely low latency, high tracking accuracy and precision alignment and calibration of all subsystems in order to avoid mis-registration and "swim". The paper focuses on the optical/inertial hybrid tracking system and describes novel solutions to the challenges with the optics, algorithms, synchronization, and alignment with the vehicle and HMD systems. Tracker accuracy is presented with simulation results to predict the registration accuracy. A car test is used to create a through-the-eyepiece video demonstrating well-registered augmentations of the road and nearby structures while driving. Finally, a detailed covariance analysis of AR registration error is derived.

  16. Improvement of robustness of optical see-through AR for a remote maintenance support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamatsu, Takashi; Kaieda, Yohei; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Otsuji, Tomoo; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2005-01-01

    A remote maintenance support system using optical see-through AR has been developed to keep safety and reliability in preparation for old experts' retirement. It enables plant workers to collaborate with a remote expert (supervisor) by using a wearable computer, an optical see-through AR (Augmented Reality) technology and eye-gaze information. The optical see-through AR enables a user to see the real world through a transparent display and it contributes to keeping safety of plant workers and acquiring detail information of machines. On the contrary, the registration between computer-generated objects and the real world is difficult, so we developed a method to correct the geometrical consistency for practical use of optical see-through AR. The developed method has two steps: (1) detection of the shift amount of HMD by the eye camera image and (2) adjustment of the display position on the HMD screen. This method made it possible to allow user's moving and physical shift of HMD, so it is capable of wide application to practical works

  17. MonitAR, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop MonitAR, an Augmented Reality (AR) system that provides procedure completion guidance to astronauts. MonitAR will replace guidance from mission...

  18. A New AR Interaction Paradigm for Collaborative TeleAssistance system: The P.O.A

    OpenAIRE

    Bottecchia, Sébastien; Cieutat, Jean-Marc; Merlo, Christophe; Jessel, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a prototype of a collaborative teleassistance system for mechanical repairs based on Augmented Reality (AR). This technology is generally used to implement specific assistance applications for users, which consist of providing all the information, known as augmentations, required to perform a task. For teletransmission applications, operators are equipped with a wearable computer and a technical support expert can accurately visualize what the...

  19. Esterase detoxification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors by ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methylcarbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but differences in metabolism and detoxification can influence potency of these pesticides across and within species. Carboxylesterase (CaE) and A-esterase (paraoxonase, PON) are considered factors underlying age-related sensitivity differences. We used an in vitro system to measure detoxification of AChE-inhibiting pesticides mediated via these esterases. Recombinant human AChE was used as a bioassay of inhibitor concentration following incubation with detoxifying tissue: liver plus Ca+2 (to stimulate PONs, measuring activity of both esterases) or EGTA (to inhibit PONs, thereby measuring CaE activity). Inhibitory concentrations of aldicarb, chlorpyrifos oxon, malaoxon, methamidophos, oxamyl, paraoxon, and methyl paraoxon were incubated with liver from adult male rat or one of 20 commercially provided human (11-83 years of age) liver samples. Detoxification was the difference in inhibition produced by the pesticide alone or in combination with liver plus Ca+2 or EGTA. Generally, rat liver produced more detoxification than did the human samples. There were large detoxification differences, which were not correlated with age or sex, across human samples for some pesticides (especially malaoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon) but not for others (e.g., aldicarb, methamidophos). Chlorpyrifos oxon was detoxified only in the presence of Ca+2 in both rat and human livers. Detoxification of pa

  20. Software Verification and Validation Report for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Ventilation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YEH, T.

    2002-01-01

    This document reports on the analysis, testing and conclusions of the software verification and validation for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization ventilation system. Automation control system will use the Allen-Bradley software tools for programming and programmable logic controller (PLC) configuration. The 244-AR Interim Stabilization Ventilation System will be used to control the release of radioactive particles to the environment in the containment tent, located inside the canyon of the 244-AR facility, and to assist the waste stabilization efforts. The HVAC equipment, ducts, instruments, PLC hardware, the ladder logic executable software (documented code), and message display terminal are considered part of the temporary ventilation system. The system consists of a supply air skid, temporary ductwork (to distribute airflow), and two skid-mounted, 500-cfm exhausters connected to the east filter building and the vessel vent system. The Interim Stabilization Ventilation System is a temporary, portable ventilation system consisting of supply side and exhaust side. Air is supplied to the containment tent from an air supply skid. This skid contains a constant speed fan, a pre-filter, an electric heating coil, a cooling coil, and a constant flow device (CFD). The CFD uses a passive component that allows a constant flow of air to pass through the device. Air is drawn out of the containment tent, cells, and tanks by two 500-cfm exhauster skids running in parallel. These skids are equipped with fans, filters, stack, stack monitoring instrumentation, and a PLC for control. The 500CFM exhaust skids were fabricated and tested previously for saltwell pumping activities. The objective of the temporary ventilation system is to maintain a higher pressure to the containment tent, relative to the canyon and cell areas, to prevent contaminants from reaching the containment tent

  1. A Study on Markerless AR-Based Infant Education System Using CBIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Seoksoo

    Block play is widely known to be effective to help a child develop emotionally and physically based on learning by a sense of sight and touch. But block play can not expect to have learning effects through a sense of hearing. Therefore, in this study, such limitations are overcome by a method that recognizes an object made up of blocks, not a marker-based method generally used for an AR environment, a matching technology enabling an object to be perceived in every direction, and a technology combining images of the real world with 2D/3D images/pictures/sounds of a similar object. Also, an education system for children aged 3~5 is designed to implement markerless AR with the CBIR method.

  2. Study of the excitation mechanisms of the second positive system in the negative glow of a N2-Ar discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isola, L; Lopez, M; Gomez, B J

    2011-01-01

    In an Ar-N 2 discharge, the high excitation transfer from Ar( 3 P 2,0 ) to N 2 produces an overpopulation of the high rotational levels of the bands of the second positive system (SPS), and so the spectra interpretation is not straightforward. This paper presents a fit function for the SPS bands measured in Ar-N 2 , which allows us to study the excitation process contributions to the N 2 (C) level. The procedure was tested in the negative glow of a pulsed Ar-N 2 discharge at a pressure of 2.5 Torr, for different mixture concentrations. In this discharge, through the fitting, it was possible to calculate the variation of the N 2 (C) densities produced by different excitation processes as well as the variation of Ar metastable density.

  3. UMineAR: Mobile-Tablet-Based Abandoned Mine Hazard Site Investigation Support System Using Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwon Suh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional mine site investigation has difficulties in fostering location awareness and understanding the subsurface environment; moreover, it produces a large amount of hardcopy data. To overcome these limitations, the UMineAR mobile tablet application was developed. It enables users to rapidly identify underground mine objects (drifts, entrances, boreholes, hazards and intuitively visualize them in 3D using a mobile augmented reality (AR technique. To design UMineAR, South Korean georeferenced standard-mine geographic information system (GIS databases were employed. A web database system was designed to access via a tablet groundwater-level data measured every hour by sensors installed in boreholes. UMineAR consists of search, AR, map, and database modules. The search module provides data retrieval and visualization options/functions. The AR module provides 3D interactive visualization of mine GIS data and camera imagery on the tablet screen. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map. The database module provides mine GIS database management functions. A case study showed that the proposed application is suitable for onsite visualization of high-volume mine GIS data based on geolocations; no specialized equipment or skills are required to understand the underground mine environment. UMineAR can be used to support abandoned-mine hazard site investigations.

  4. Solid-state-based laser system as a replacement for Ar+ lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tobias; Rein, Benjamin; Sörensen, Fabian; Walther, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    We report on a solid-state-based laser system at 1028 nm. The light is generated by a diode laser seeded ytterbium fiber amplifier. In two build-up cavities, its frequency is doubled and quadrupled to 514 nm and 257 nm, respectively. At 514 nm, the system delivers up to 4.7 W of optical power. In the fourth harmonic, up to 173 mW are available limited by the nonlinear crystal. The frequency of the laser is mode-hop-free tunable by 16 GHz in 10 ms in the UV. Therefore, the system is suitable as a low maintenance, efficient, and tunable narrowband replacement for frequency doubled Ar+ laser systems.

  5. Polarimetric Evidence of the First White Dwarf Pulsar: The Binary System AR Scorpii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A.H. Buckley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary star AR Scorpii was recently discovered to exhibit high amplitude coherent variability across the electromagnetic spectrum (ultraviolet to radio at two closely spaced ∼2 min periods, attributed to the spin period of a white dwarf and the beat period. There is strong evidence (low X-ray luminosity, lack of flickering and absense of broad emission lines that AR Sco is a detached non-accreting system whose luminosity is dominated by the spin-down power of a white dwarf, due to magnetohydrodynamical (MHD interactions with its M5 companion. Optical polarimetry has revealed highly pulsed linear polarization on the same periods, reaching a maximum of 40%, consistent with a pulsar-like dipole, with the Stokes Q and U variations reminiscent of the Crab pulsar. These observations, coupled with the spectral energy distribution (SED which is dominated by non-thermal emission, characteristic of synchrotron emission, support the notion that a strongly magnetic (∼200 MG white dwarf is behaving like a pulsar, whose magnetic field interacts with the secondary star’s photosphere and magnetosphere. Radio synchrotron emission is produced from the pumping action of the white dwarf’s magnetic field on coronal loops from the M-star companion, while emission at high frequencies (UV/optical/X-ray comes from the particle wind, driven by large electric potential, again reminiscent of processes seen in neutron star pulsars.

  6. Study of Bunch by Bunch Feedback System in TRISTAN-AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiyama, M.; Kikutani, E.

    1997-05-01

    Beam tests of the KEKB bunch by bunch feedback system prototypes have been performed in the TRISTAN-AR on both longitudinal and transverse planes. Both bunch detection systems are capable to distinguish the individual bunches with the minimum bunch spacing of 2 ns. A two-tap FIR filter system consisting of hardware logic's realized the function of the phase shift by 90 degrees, the suppression of the static component and the delay of up to a few tens of turns in longitudinal plane with 508 MHz of system clock. The transverse systems were purely analog system without any digital signal processing part. Four cells of series-drift-tube type kickers just same structure as used in ALS at LBNL have been employed for the longitudinal kicker, and simple stripline kickers have been used for the transverse kicker. Both feedback system worked well as expected. More than 100 bunches with maximum current of 376 mA have been accumulated successfully with the bunch spacing of 2 ns. Without the system, it was impossible to accumulate more than 20 bunches with the same bunch current. The growth time and the growing modes of the transverse instabilities has also been measured with the memory function of the two-tap FIR filter. It suggests that the bunch-by-bunch feedback system is a powerful tool to explore the source of the instabilities.

  7. Responsibility-based A/R reporting: how one health system drove performance with analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa; Hindman, Ashley; McMillan, Brett

    2009-09-01

    An automated accounts receivable (A/R) reporting package should provide managers with data-driven information to help them respond to emerging trends in the revenue cycle. Responsibility for clearly defined account portfolios should be assigned to managers, and targets should be established. This data-driven approach with its culture of responsibility can help healthcare organizations reach their A/R goals.

  8. Newer approaches to opioid detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid use disorders present with distressing withdrawal symptoms at the time of detoxification. The pharmacological agents and methods currently in use for detoxification mainly include buprenorphine, methadone, and clonidine. Many other pharmacological agents have been tried for opioid detoxification. This review takes a look at the newer pharmacological options, both opioid agonists and non-agonist medications that have been utilized for detoxification. Peer reviewed articles were identified using PubMed and PsychInfo databases. The keywords included for the search were a combination of ′opioid′ and ′detoxification′ and their synonyms. All the articles published in the last 10 years were screened for. Relevant data was extracted from identified studies. Many newer pharmacological agents have been tried in detoxification of opioids. However, the quest for a safe, efficacious, cost-effective pharmacological option which requires minimal monitoring still continues. The role of non-pharmacological measures and alternative medicine needs further evaluation.

  9. Phosphorylation-dependent and Phosphorylation-independent Regulation of Helicobacter pylori Acid Acclimation by the ArsRS Two-component System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George; Wen, Yi; Scott, David R

    2016-02-01

    The pH-sensitive Helicobacter pylori ArsRS two-component system (TCS) aids survival of this neutralophile in the gastric environment by directly sensing and responding to environmental acidity. ArsS is required for acid-induced trafficking of urease and its accessory proteins to the inner membrane, allowing rapid, urea-dependent cytoplasmic and periplasmic buffering. Expression of ArsR, but not its phosphorylation, is essential for bacterial viability. The aim of this study was to characterize the roles of ArsS and ArsR in the response of H. pylori to acid. Wild-type H. pylori and an arsR(D52N) phosphorylation-deficient strain were incubated at acidic or neutral pH. Gene and protein expression, survival, membrane trafficking of urease proteins, urease activity, and internal pH were studied. Phosphorylation of ArsR is not required for acid survival. ArsS-driven trafficking of urease proteins to the membrane in acid, required for recovery of internal pH, is independent of ArsR phosphorylation. ArsR phosphorylation increases expression of the urease gene cluster, and the loss of negative feedback in a phosphorylation-deficient mutant leads to an increase in total urease activity. ArsRS has a dual function in acid acclimation: regulation of urease trafficking to UreI at the cytoplasmic membrane, driven by ArsS, and regulation of urease gene cluster expression, driven by phosphorylation of ArsR. ArsS and ArsR work through phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent regulatory mechanisms to impact acid acclimation and allow gastric colonization. Furthering understanding of the intricacies of acid acclimation will impact the future development of targeted, nonantibiotic treatment regimens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Arsenic biotransformation potential of microbial arsH responses in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin-Soo; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2018-01-01

    ArsH encodes an oxidoreductase, an NAD(P)H-dependent mononucleotide reductase, with an unknown function, frequently within an ars operon, and is widely distributed in bacteria. Novel arsenite-oxidizing bacteria have been isolated from arsenic-contaminated groundwater and surface soil in Vietnam. We found that ArsH gene activity, with arsenite oxidase in the periplasm; it revealed arsenic oxidation potential of the arsH system. Batch experiment results revealed Citrobacter freundii strain VTan4 (DQ481466) and Pseudomonas putida strain VTw33 (DQ481482) completely oxidized 1 mM of arsenite to arsenate within 30-50 h. High concentrations of arsenic were detected in groundwater and surrounding soil obtained from Vinh Tru village in Ha Nam province (groundwater: 11.0 μg/L to 37.0 μg/L; and soil: 2.5 mg/kg, 390.1 mg/kg), respectively. An arsH gene encoding an organoarsenical oxidase protein was observed in arsenite-oxidizing Citrobacter freundii strain VTan4 (DQ481466), whereas arsB, arsH, and arsH were detected in Pseudomonas putida strain VTw33 (DQ481482). arsH gene in bacteria was first reported from Vietnam for resistance and arsenite oxidase. We proposed that residues, Ser 43, Arg 45, Ser 48, and Tyr 49 are required for arsenic binding and activation of arsH. The ars-mediated biotransformation strongly influenced potential arsenite oxidase enzyme of the operon encoding a homogeneous arsH. Results suggest that the further study of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria may lead to a better understanding of arsenite oxidase responses, such as those of arsH, that may be applied to control biochemical properties; for example, speciation, detoxification, bioremediation, biotransformation, and mobilization of arsenic in contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pb detoxification in Equisetum diffusum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research highlights the use of aquatic macrophyte Equisetum diffusum (Himalayan horsetail for lead detoxification. This plant species can grow in waste cathode ray tube (CRT powder and absorbs its Pb. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF analysis of plant ash shows that 68 mg/kg lead concentration in the untreated plant was improved to 7600 mg/kg in CRT powder after 90 days. The role of monosilicic and/or monoplumbic acid as reaction intermediates for Pb detoxification and associated bioaccumulation is proposed. Pb detoxification in E. diffusum is mainly rendering around the iso-electronic nature of Pb and Si and forms similar phytochelatin (PC complexes with available family of peptide ligands. The study focuses on the underlying functions of silicon containing plants in metal detoxification.

  12. Cryogenic system for the ArTeMiS large sub millimeter camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolani, E.; Relland, J.; Clerc, L.; Duband, L.; Jourdan, T.; Talvard, M.; Le Pennec, J.; Martignac, J.; Visticot, F.

    2014-07-01

    A new photonic camera has been developed in the framework of the ArTéMis project (Bolometers architecture for large field of view ground based telescopes in the sub-millimeter). This camera scans the sky in the sub-millimeter range at simultaneously three different wavelengths, namely 200 μm, 350 μm, 450 μm, and is installed inside the APEX telescope located at 5100m above sea level in Chile. Bolometric detectors cooled to 300 mK are used in the camera, which is integrated in an original cryostat developed at the low temperature laboratory (SBT) of the INAC institut. This cryostat contains filters, optics, mirrors and detectors which have to be implemented according to mass, size and stiffness requirements. As a result the cryostat exhibits an unusual geometry. The inner structure of the cryostat is a 40 K plate which acts as an optical bench and is bound to the external vessel through two hexapods, one fixed and the other one mobile thanks to a ball bearing. Once the cryostat is cold, this characteristic enabled all the different elements to be aligned with the optical axis. The cryogenic chain is built around a pulse tube cooler (40 K and 4 K) coupled to a double stage helium sorption cooler (300 mK). The cryogenic and vacuum processes are managed by a Siemens PLC and all the data are showed and stored on a CEA SCADA system. This paper describes the mechanical and thermal design of the cryostat, its command control, and the first thermal laboratory tests. This work was carried out in collaboration with the Astrophysics laboratory SAp of the IRFU institut. SAp and SBT have installed the camera in July 2013 inside the Cassegrain cabin of APEX.

  13. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  14. Ars Electronica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Ars Electronica festivalen 3. - 8. september, 2009 i Linz, Østrig, der fejrede 30 års jubilæum under temaet "Human Nature". Festivalen fokuserer på interaktion mellem menneske, teknologi, kunst og samfund med særlig vægt på udviklingen af computeren og det digitale. Udgivelsesdato: 15.12...

  15. Laser Ar-39-Ar-40 study of Apollo 17 basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, O. A.; Mueller, H. W.; Grove, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    Three Apollo 17 basalts were studied by the laser Ar-39-Ar-40 method. The 70215 basalt has a normal well-behaved Ar-39-Ar-40 release pattern; the 70017 basalt has a disturbed release pattern which indicates a limited intermediate maximum age followed by a broad low-age region; and the 75035 basalt has a pattern initially similar to 70017 that is followed by a high-temperature maximum age. The laser study shows that all mineral systems in 70215 have small and uniform temperature losses, while the laser-determined ages for 70017 and 75035 are, apparently, primarily controlled by the minerals containing mesostasis inclusions. It is possible that the drop in ages observed by the conventional Ar-39-Ar-40 method was due not only to recoil of Ar-39 during neutron irradiation but also to gas loss from some minerals. It is suggested that the plagioclases are the best minerals to use for a reliable age.

  16. Theoretical studies on the interaction and dynamics in the colisional systems Hg+Li,Na,P and Ar*(4s3P2,0)+Hg,H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, L.

    2004-01-01

    The central aim of this work is the detailed theoretical characterization of the autoionization process in collisions of metastable argon atoms with mercury and hydrogen atoms, Ar * (4s 3 P 2,0 ) + Hg and Ar * (4s 3 P 2,0 ) + H(1s). The autoionization process in the collision complexes Ar * (4s 3 P 2,0 ) + Hg und Ar * (4s 3 P 2,0 ) + H(1s) was investigated using the local complex potential approximation. Within this approach the entrance channel is described by a complex resonance potential whose imaginary part - the socalled autoionization width describes the ionization probability as a function of the internuclear distance. For both investigated systems, this work presents the first ab initio treatment of the autoionization process. In the collision complex Ar * + Hg, the asymptote of the entrance channel lies energetically above the asymptote of the exit channel Ar + Hg + . Both Penning ionization (PI) Ar * + Hg → Ar + Hg + + e - and associative ionization (AI) Ar * + Hg → ArHg + + e - are possible at thermal collision energies. The resonance potential and the autoionization width which describe the entrance channel were determined in MRCI calculations in which the resonance state was de- fined through Feshbach projection based on orbital occupancy. Taking the spin-orbit interaction in the Ar + core into account, the calculated complex potentials are able to reproduce the available experimental data such as the absolute ionization cross sections, the collision energy dependence of the relative cross sections for Penning and assoziative ionization and the electron energy spectra. (orig.)

  17. Study of the excitation mechanisms of the second positive system in the negative glow of a N{sub 2}-Ar discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isola, L; Lopez, M; Gomez, B J, E-mail: isola@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) 27 Febrero 210 Bis. (S2000EZP) Rosario (Argentina)

    2011-09-21

    In an Ar-N{sub 2} discharge, the high excitation transfer from Ar({sup 3}P{sub 2,0}) to N{sub 2} produces an overpopulation of the high rotational levels of the bands of the second positive system (SPS), and so the spectra interpretation is not straightforward. This paper presents a fit function for the SPS bands measured in Ar-N{sub 2}, which allows us to study the excitation process contributions to the N{sub 2}(C) level. The procedure was tested in the negative glow of a pulsed Ar-N{sub 2} discharge at a pressure of 2.5 Torr, for different mixture concentrations. In this discharge, through the fitting, it was possible to calculate the variation of the N{sub 2}(C) densities produced by different excitation processes as well as the variation of Ar metastable density.

  18. Relating Radiative Fluxes on Arctic Sea Ice Area Using Arctic Observation and Reanalysis Integrated System (ArORIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledd, A.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    With Arctic sea ice declining rapidly and Arctic temperatures rising faster than the rest of the globe, a better understanding of the Arctic climate, and ice cover-radiation feedbacks in particular, is needed. Here we present the Arctic Observation and Reanalysis Integrated System (ArORIS), a dataset of integrated products to facilitate studying the Arctic using satellite, reanalysis, and in-situ datasets. The data include cloud properties, radiative fluxes, aerosols, meteorology, precipitation, and surface properties, to name just a few. Each dataset has uniform grid-spacing, time-averaging and naming conventions for ease of use between products. One intended use of ArORIS is to assess Arctic radiation and moisture budgets. Following that goal, we use observations from ArORIS - CERES-EBAF radiative fluxes and NSIDC sea ice fraction and area to quantify relationships between the Arctic energy balance and surface properties. We find a discernable difference between energy budgets for years with high and low September sea ice areas. Surface fluxes are especially responsive to the September sea ice minimum in months both leading up to September and the months following. In particular, longwave fluxes at the surface show increased sensitivity in the months preceding September. Using a single-layer model of solar radiation we also investigate the individual responses of surface and planetary albedos to changes in sea ice area. By partitioning the planetary albedo into surface and atmospheric contributions, we find that the atmospheric contribution to planetary albedo is less sensitive to changes in sea ice area than the surface contribution. Further comparisons between observations and reanalyses can be made using the available datasets in ArORIS.

  19. Functional Promiscuity of Homologues of the Bacterial ArsA ATPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostislav Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ArsA ATPase of E. coli plays an essential role in arsenic detoxification. Published evidence implicates ArsA in the energization of As(III efflux via the formation of an oxyanion-translocating complex with ArsB. In addition, eukaryotic ArsA homologues have several recognized functions unrelated to arsenic resistance. By aligning ArsA homologues, constructing phylogenetic trees, examining ArsA encoding operons, and estimating the probable coevolution of these homologues with putative transporters and auxiliary proteins unrelated to ArsB, we provide evidence for new functions for ArsA homologues. They may play roles in carbon starvation, gas vesicle biogenesis, and arsenic resistance. The results lead to the proposal that ArsA homologues energize four distinct and nonhomologous transporters, ArsB, ArsP, CstA, and Acr3.

  20. Advancing Physically-Based Flow Simulations of Alluvial Systems Through Atmospheric Noble Gases and the Novel 37Ar Tracer Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver S.; Gerber, Christoph; Partington, Daniel J.; Purtschert, Roland; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Kipfer, Rolf; Hunkeler, Daniel; Brunner, Philip

    2017-12-01

    To provide a sound understanding of the sources, pathways, and residence times of groundwater water in alluvial river-aquifer systems, a combined multitracer and modeling experiment was carried out in an important alluvial drinking water wellfield in Switzerland. 222Rn, 3H/3He, atmospheric noble gases, and the novel 37Ar-method were used to quantify residence times and mixing ratios of water from different sources. With a half-life of 35.1 days, 37Ar allowed to successfully close a critical observational time gap between 222Rn and 3H/3He for residence times of weeks to months. Covering the entire range of residence times of groundwater in alluvial systems revealed that, to quantify the fractions of water from different sources in such systems, atmospheric noble gases and helium isotopes are tracers suited for end-member mixing analysis. A comparison between the tracer-based mixing ratios and mixing ratios simulated with a fully-integrated, physically-based flow model showed that models, which are only calibrated against hydraulic heads, cannot reliably reproduce mixing ratios or residence times of alluvial river-aquifer systems. However, the tracer-based mixing ratios allowed the identification of an appropriate flow model parametrization. Consequently, for alluvial systems, we recommend the combination of multitracer studies that cover all relevant residence times with fully-coupled, physically-based flow modeling to better characterize the complex interactions of river-aquifer systems.

  1. Glutathione-Dependent Detoxification Processes in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dringen, Ralf; Brandmann, Maria; Hohnholt, Michaela C

    2015-01-01

    component in many of the astrocytic detoxification processes is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) which serves as electron donor in the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of peroxides. In addition, GSH is substrate in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by GSH-S-transferases which...... knowledge on the GSH metabolism of astrocytes with a special emphasis on GSH-dependent detoxification processes....

  2. Standardization of 40Ar-39Ar dating facility at KDMIPE, ONGC, Dehradun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, S.S.; Singh, M.P.; Vijan, A.R.; Bansal, M.; Prabhu, B.N.; Misra, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    In the pursuit of acquiring state of the art technology, efforts were being made for last more than two years to establish 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating facility at KDMIPE. The 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating technique is an analytical conversion of the conventional K-Ar dating method. In this method, the sample to be dated is first irradiated in a nuclear reactor to transform a portion of 39 K to 39 Ar by the fast neutron reaction i.e. 39 K(n, p) 39 Ar. After irradiation, the sample is placed in an ultra-high vacuum system and the argon extracted from it by fusion is purified and analyzed isotopically in a mass spectrometer. The relative abundances of 40 Ar, 39 Ar, 37 Ar and 36 Ar are measured. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar K is determined, where 40 Ar is the radiogenic argon, and 39 Ar K is the 39 Ar produced from 39 K during the irradiation. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar K ratio is proportional to the 40 Ar/ 40 K ratio in the sample and, therefore, is proportional to age

  3. 40Ar/39Ar age calibration against counted annuallayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole

    2008-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar method, based on the decay of the naturally occurring radioactive isotope 40K, is capable of producing ages with precision better than ± 0.1 %. However, accuracy is limited to no better than 1 % mainly due to the relatively large uncertainty in the 40K decay constants. One approach...... worth exploring for an improved absolute age basis for the 40Ar/39Ar system is through cross-calibration with counted annual layers (e.g. tree rings, varves and ice cores). North Atlantic Ash Zone (NAAZ) II is found within the dated part of the annual Greenland ice core record. NAAZ II has been...... correlated to the Icelandic peralkaline rhyolitic Thorsmörk ignimbrite. We will present preliminary 40Ar/39Ar results on the age of this eruption...

  4. ARS leptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, M.; Garbrecht, B.; Hernández, P.; Kekic, M.; Lopez-Pavon, J.; Racker, J.; Rius, N.; Salvado, J.; Teresi, D.

    2018-02-01

    We review the current status of the leptogenesis scenario originally proposed by Akhmedov, Rubakov and Smirnov (ARS). It takes place in the parametric regime where the right-handed neutrinos are at the electroweak scale or below and the CP-violating effects are induced by the coherent superposition of different right-handed mass eigenstates. Two main theoretical approaches to derive quantum kinetic equations, the Hamiltonian time evolution as well as the Closed-Time-Path technique are presented, and we discuss their relations. For scenarios with two right-handed neutrinos, we chart the viable parameter space. Both, a Bayesian analysis, that determines the most likely configurations for viable leptogenesis given different variants of flat priors, and a determination of the maximally allowed mixing between the light, mostly left-handed, and heavy, mostly right-handed, neutrino states are discussed. Rephasing invariants are shown to be a useful tool to classify and to understand various distinct contributions to ARS leptogenesis that can dominate in different parametric regimes. While these analyses are carried out for the parametric regime where initial asymmetries are generated predominantly from lepton-number conserving, but flavor violating effects, we also review the contributions from lepton-number violating operators and identify the regions of parameter space where these are relevant.

  5. Design of a radioactive gas sampling system for NESHAP compliance measurements of 41Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; McDonald, M.J.; Ghanbari, F.; Hoover, M.D.; Barr, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    United States Department of Energy facilities are required to comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) 40 CFR, part 61, subpart H. Compliance generally requires confirmatory measurements of emitted radionuclides. Although a number of standard procedures exist for extractive sampling of particle-associated radionuclides, sampling approaches for radioactive gases are less defined. Real-time, flow-through sampling of radioactive gases can be done when concentrations are high compared to interferences from background radiation. Cold traps can be used to collect and concentrate condensible effluents in applications where cryogenic conditions can be established and maintained. Commercially available gas-sampling cylinders can be used to capture grab samples of contaminated air under ambient or compressed conditions, if suitable sampling and control hardware are added to the cylinders. The purpose of the current study was to develop an efficient and compact set of sampling and control hardware for use with commercially available gas-sampling cylinders, and to demonstrate its use in NESHAP compliance testing of 41 Ar at two experimental research reactors

  6. arXiv ARS Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Drewes, M.; Hernandez, P.; Kekic, M.; Lopez-Pavon, J.; Racker, J.; Rius, N.; Salvado, J.; Teresi, D.

    2018-02-28

    We review the current status of the leptogenesis scenario originally proposed by Akhmedov, Rubakov and Smirnov (ARS). It takes place in the parametric regime where the right-handed neutrinos are at the electroweak scale or below and the CP-violating effects are induced by the coherent superposition of different right-handed mass eigenstates. Two main theoretical approaches to derive quantum kinetic equations, the Hamiltonian time evolution as well as the Closed-Time-Path technique are presented, and we discuss their relations. For scenarios with two right-handed neutrinos, we chart the viable parameter space. Both, a Bayesian analysis, that determines the most likely configurations for viable leptogenesis given different variants of flat priors, and a determination of the maximally allowed mixing between the light, mostly left-handed, and heavy, mostly right-handed, neutrino states are discussed. Rephasing invariants are shown to be a useful tool to classify and to understand various distinct contributions to...

  7. Decision Support System for Aquifer Recharge (AR) and Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Planning, Design, and Evaluation Decision Support System for Aquifer Recharge (AR) and Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Planning, Design, and Evaluation – Principles and Technical Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquifer recharge (AR) is a technical method being utilized to enhance groundwater resources through man-made replenishment means, such as infiltration basins and injections wells. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) furthers the AR techniques by withdrawal of stored groundwater at...

  8. Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb resistant and susceptible malarial vectors ( Anopheles gambiae ) breeding in Bichi agricultural and residential sites, Kano state, Nigeria.

  9. The ArDM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haranczyk, M; Badertscher, A; Boccone, V; Bourgeois, N; Bueno, A; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chorowski, M; Creus, W; Curioni, A; Daw, E; Degunda, U; Dell'Antone, A; Droge, M; Epprecht, L; Haller, C; Horikawa, S; Kaufmann, L; Kisiel, J; Knecht, L; Laffranchi, M; Lagoda, J; Lazzaro, C; Lightfoot, P; Lozano, J; Lussi, D; Maire, G; Mania, S; Marchionni, A; Mavrokoridis, K; Melgarejo, A; Mijakowski, P; Natterer, G; Navas-Concha, S; Otiougova, P; Piotrowska, A; Polinski, J; de Prado, M; Przewlocki, P; Ravat, S; Regenfus, C; Resnati, F; Robinson, M; Rochet, J; Romero, L; Rondio, E; Rubbia, A; Scotto-Lavina, L; Spooner, N; Viant, T; Trawinski, A; Ulbricht, J; Zalewska, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the ArDM project is the development and operation of a one ton double-phase liquid argon detector for direct Dark Matter searches. The detector measures both the scintillation light and the ionization charge from ionizing radiation using two independent readout systems. This paper briefly describes the detector concept and presents preliminary results from the ArDM R&D program, including a 3 l prototype developed to test the charge readout system.

  10. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; De Jong, Cor A J; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  11. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  12. 40Ar-39Ar geochronology and thermochronology: principles and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kanchan

    2004-01-01

    Geochronology based on radiogenic isotopes has become an invaluable tool in earth sciences. Several radioactive parent-daughter systems of varying half-lives such as Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar have been traditionally used by researchers for determining the timing of geological and planetary processes. 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating, a variant of the K-Ar system, is a well-established and versatile method of determining the eruptive ages of volcanic rocks and the ∼150-500 deg C thermal histories of a variety of more slowly cooled igneous and metamorphic rocks. This technique has been the most popular tool for dating felsic and intermediate volcanic rocks. Recently several new areas of research have been explored, including total-fusion dating of mineral grains from volcanic and sedimentary samples, mapping of argon isotopic gradients in crystals, and selective dating of fabric-defining minerals in poly deformed specimens

  13. Development control systems takeover: subject robotic arm on the example anthropomorhic robot AR-601

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirazetdinov, R.; Devaev, V.; Zakirzyanova, G.

    2016-06-01

    It is proposed the formation software architecture of complex motion for robotic systems in the form of sets of behavior - patterns - similar to the motor reflexes of living organisms. To form patterns of behavior of the robot teh authors used a methodology of structural analysis of complex systems IDEF0, then developed types of elementary algorithms (patterns) that make up the dynamics of the anthropomorphic robot jump. The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

  14. HyMoTrack: A Mobile AR Navigation System for Complex Indoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstweiler, Georg; Vonach, Emanuel; Kaufmann, Hannes

    2015-12-24

    Navigating in unknown big indoor environments with static 2D maps is a challenge, especially when time is a critical factor. In order to provide a mobile assistant, capable of supporting people while navigating in indoor locations, an accurate and reliable localization system is required in almost every corner of the building. We present a solution to this problem through a hybrid tracking system specifically designed for complex indoor spaces, which runs on mobile devices like smartphones or tablets. The developed algorithm only uses the available sensors built into standard mobile devices, especially the inertial sensors and the RGB camera. The combination of multiple optical tracking technologies, such as 2D natural features and features of more complex three-dimensional structures guarantees the robustness of the system. All processing is done locally and no network connection is needed. State-of-the-art indoor tracking approaches use mainly radio-frequency signals like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth for localizing a user. In contrast to these approaches, the main advantage of the developed system is the capability of delivering a continuous 3D position and orientation of the mobile device with centimeter accuracy. This makes it usable for localization and 3D augmentation purposes, e.g. navigation tasks or location-based information visualization.

  15. HyMoTrack: A Mobile AR Navigation System for Complex Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Gerstweiler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Navigating in unknown big indoor environments with static 2D maps is a challenge, especially when time is a critical factor. In order to provide a mobile assistant, capable of supporting people while navigating in indoor locations, an accurate and reliable localization system is required in almost every corner of the building. We present a solution to this problem through a hybrid tracking system specifically designed for complex indoor spaces, which runs on mobile devices like smartphones or tablets. The developed algorithm only uses the available sensors built into standard mobile devices, especially the inertial sensors and the RGB camera. The combination of multiple optical tracking technologies, such as 2D natural features and features of more complex three-dimensional structures guarantees the robustness of the system. All processing is done locally and no network connection is needed. State-of-the-art indoor tracking approaches use mainly radio-frequency signals like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth for localizing a user. In contrast to these approaches, the main advantage of the developed system is the capability of delivering a continuous 3D position and orientation of the mobile device with centimeter accuracy. This makes it usable for localization and 3D augmentation purposes, e.g. navigation tasks or location-based information visualization.

  16. A comparison of laser-based ranging systems for AR/C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Goode, Pleasant W., IV

    1991-01-01

    The three most common types of laser target ranging (time-of-flight, tone modulated, and FM-CW) are discussed in terms of principle of operation. The first, time-of-flight, is shown to depend more on the ability of support electronics than the fundamentals of the concept. Examples in the literature are cited to show the remarkably good performance of time-of-flight systems. A system developed in Finland was shown to have an incremental ranging capability of a few millimeters. The system is not only robust; it does not include additions such as reference legs and the like, which are expected, for improvement in performance. Though not immediately obvious, the second technique, tone modulated ranging is somewhat of an extension of the time-of-flight technique. Finally, the FM-CW technique is presented. This is completely different from the tone or time-of-flight techniques, but is a direct translation of the same-named technique used in radar ranging systems.

  17. A comparison of laser based ranging systems for AR/C category 1: Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Goode, Pleasant W., IV

    1991-01-01

    This paper will present some aspects of the effect of inherent laser effects on the performance of CW-Tone modulated and FM-CW laser ranging techniques. It will be shown that performance of these techniques is affected in different ways by inherent laser characteristics and previous comparisons of the techniques should be modified to reflect more realistic conditions. An overall survey of laser ranging will be given to place the CW and FM-CW techniques in perspective. It will be seen that the newly introduced FM-CW laser radar has potentially far superior performance to CW-Tone modulated systems now proposed for use in space rendezvous and capture systems.

  18. arXiv Architecture of the LHCb muon Frontend control system upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bocci, Valerio

    2016-10-06

    The LHCb experiment(Fig. 1), that is presently taking data at CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) Large Hadron Collider (LHC), aims at the study of CP violation in the B meson sector. Its key elements is the Muon detector [1], which allows triggering, and muon identification from inclusive b decays. The electronic system (Fig. 2) of the whole detector is very complex and its Muon detector Experiment Control System (ECS) allows monitoring and control of a number of Front-End boards in excess of 7000. The present system in charge of controlling Muon detector Front-End (FE) Electronics consists of 10 Crates of equipment; each crate contains two kinds of modules: a Pulse Distribution Module (PDM) and up to 20 Service Boards (SB) connected via a custom Backplane for a total amount of about 800 microcontrollers[2]. LHCb upgrade is planned for 2018/19, which will allow the detector to exploit higher luminosity running. This upgrade will allow the experiment to accumulate more luminosity to allow measurements...

  19. Analysis of an electricity–cooling cogeneration system based on RC–ARS combined cycle aboard ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Youcai; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Liang, Xingyu; Wei, Haiqiao; Liu, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel electricity–cooling cogeneration system was used to recover waste heat aboard ships. • Performance of such RC–ARS system was investigated theoretically. • Optimal exergy output can be obtained when the vaporization pressure of RC is 300 kPa. • The exergy efficiency of cogeneration system is 5–12% higher than that of basic Rankine cycle only. - Abstract: In this paper, an electricity–cooling cogeneration system based on Rankine–absorption refrigeration combined cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat of the engine coolant and exhaust gas to generate electricity and cooling onboard ships. Water is selected as the working fluid of the Rankine cycle (RC), and a binary solution of ammonia–water is used as the working fluid of the absorption refrigeration cycle. The working fluid of RC is preheated by the engine coolant and then evaporated and superheated by the exhaust gas. The absorption cycle is powered by the heat of steam at the turbine outlet. Electricity output, cooling capacity, total exergy output, primary energy ratio (PER) and exergy efficiency are chosen as the objective functions. Results show that the amount of additional cooling output is up to 18 MW. Exergy output reaches the maximum 4.65 MW at the vaporization pressure of 300 kPa. The study reveals that the electricity–cooling cogeneration system has improved the exergy efficiency significantly: 5–12% increase compared with the basic Rankine cycle only. Primary energy ratio (PER) decreases as the vaporization pressure increases, varying from 0.47 to 0.40

  20. arXiv Mechanical stability of the CMS strip tracker measured with a laser alignment system

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Michelotto, Michele; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kumar, Ajay; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-04-21

    The CMS tracker consists of 206 m$^2$ of silicon strip sensors assembled on carbon fibre composite structures and is designed for operation in the temperature range from $-25$ to $+25^\\circ$C. The mechanical stability of tracker components during physics operation was monitored with a few $\\mu$m resolution using a dedicated laser alignment system as well as particle tracks from cosmic rays and hadron-hadron collisions. During the LHC operational period of 2011-2013 at stable temperatures, the components of the tracker were observed to experience relative movements of less than 30$ \\mu$m. In addition, temperature variations were found to cause displacements of tracker structures of about 2$\\mu$m/$^\\circ$C, which largely revert to their initial positions when the temperature is restored to its original value.

  1. Detoxification of organophosphate residues using phosphotriesterase and their evaluation using flow based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rupesh K; Istamboulie, George; Bhand, Sunil; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2012-10-01

    Among known pesticide groups, organophosphates (OPs) have grasped attention due to their hazardous nature and their applications as pesticides and chemical weapons. This work presents the development of cost-effective column based biosensor for detoxification of OPs in water and milk. Enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) was immobilized on an activated Sepharose 4B via covalent coupling using an Omnifit glass column. Three different OPs, ethyl paraoxon (EPOx), malaoxon (MAO) and chlorpyriphos-oxon (CPO) were spiked in water and milk to test the detoxification of OPs. Mixtures of these pesticides were also tested to check the cumulative detoxification in the real samples. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated using a highly sensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) B394 biosensor based flow system. The column conditions were optimized for the detoxification studied. The method was shown to be promising when we tested real milk samples spiked with OPs. Detoxification obtained in milk was up to 86% whereas in water, 100% detoxification was obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacillus cereus AR156 primes induced systemic resistance by suppressing miR825/825* and activating defense-related genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dongdong; Xia, Jing; Jiang, Chunhao; Qi, Beibei; Ling, Xiaoyu; Lin, Siyuan; Zhang, Weixiong; Guo, Jianhua; Jin, Hailing; Zhao, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    Small RNAs play an important role in plant immune responses. However, their regulatory function in induced systemic resistance (ISR) is nascent. Bacillus cereus AR156 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that induces ISR in Arabidopsis against bacterial infection. Here, by comparing small RNA profiles of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000-infected Arabidopsis with and without AR156 pretreatment, we identified a group of Arabidopsis microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially regulated by AR156 pretreatment. miR825 and miR825* are two miRNA generated from a single miRNA gene. Northern blot analysis indicated that they were significantly downregulated in Pst DC3000-infected plants pretreated with AR156, in contrast to the plants without AR156 pretreatment. miR825 targets two ubiquitin-protein ligases, while miR825* targets toll-interleukin-like receptor (TIR)-nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) type resistance (R) genes. The expression of these target genes negatively correlated with the expression of miR825 and miR825*. Moreover, transgenic plants showing reduced expression of miR825 and miR825* displayed enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000 infection, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing miR825 and miR825* were more susceptible. Taken together, our data indicates that Bacillus cereus AR156 pretreatment primes ISR to Pst infection by suppressing miR825 and miR825* and activating the defense related genes they targeted. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Production of heavy fragments in the Ar on Th system at 27, 44 and 77 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoumieux, E.

    1995-01-01

    In measurements for the system Ar on Th at 27, 44 and 77 MeV/u we show the existence of the formation of heavy fragments (mean mass ranging from 140 to 170 amu). The production cross section at 27 MeV/u is small. However, at the two higher incident energies a yield of 200 mb was evaluated with a velocity threshold of 0.5 cm/ns. The apparent temperature (5 MeV) extracted from the coincident alpha energy spectra and the light charge particle multiplicity (6.5 to 8) affirm that the heavy fragments are formed in highly dissipative collisions. In addition, the study of correlations with intermediate mass fragments (charge ranging between 4 and 16) identifies the heavy fragments as residue of the target in reactions where a substantial energy transfer takes place and where two intermediate mass fragments are present in the final state. Calculations based on the solution of the Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov equation predict a neck configuration and are in good qualitative agreement with the data. (Authors). 75 refs., 67 figs., 35 tabs., 2 appends

  4. Genomics study of the exposure effect of Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralyzing toxin producer, on Crassostrea gigas' defense system and detoxification genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma García-Lagunas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crassostrea gigas accumulates paralytic shellfish toxins (PST associated with red tide species as Gymnodinium catenatum. Previous studies demonstrated bivalves show variable feeding responses to toxic algae at physiological level; recently, only one study has reported biochemical changes in the transcript level of the genes involved in C. gigas stress response. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that 24 h feeding on toxic dinoflagellate cells (acute exposure induced a significant decrease in clearance rate and expression level changes of the genes involved in antioxidant defense (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, Cu/Zn-SOD, cell detoxification (glutathione S-transferase, GST and cytochrome P450, CPY450, intermediate immune response activation (lipopolysaccharide and beta glucan binding protein, LGBP, and stress responses (glutamine synthetase, GS in Pacific oysters compared to the effects with the non-toxic microalga Isochrysis galbana. A sub-chronic exposure feeding on toxic dinoflagellate cells for seven and fourteen days (30×10³ cells mL⁻¹ showed higher gene expression levels. A significant increase was observed in Cu/Zn-SOD, GST, and LGBP at day 7 and a major increase in GS and CPY450 at day 14. We also observed that oysters fed only with G. catenatum (3×10³ cells mL⁻¹ produced a significant increase on the transcription level than in a mixed diet (3×10³ cells mL⁻¹ of G. catenatum+0.75×10⁶ cells mL⁻¹ I. galbana in all the analyzed genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide gene expression data of PST producer dinoflagellate G. catenatum toxic effects on C. gigas, a commercially important bivalve. Over expressed genes indicate the activation of a potent protective mechanism, whose response depends on both cell concentration and exposure time against these toxic microalgae. Given the importance of dinoflagellate blooms in coastal environments, these results provide a more comprehensive overview of how oysters respond to

  5. Genomics study of the exposure effect of Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralyzing toxin producer, on Crassostrea gigas' defense system and detoxification genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lagunas, Norma; Romero-Geraldo, Reyna; Hernández-Saavedra, Norma Y

    2013-01-01

    Crassostrea gigas accumulates paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) associated with red tide species as Gymnodinium catenatum. Previous studies demonstrated bivalves show variable feeding responses to toxic algae at physiological level; recently, only one study has reported biochemical changes in the transcript level of the genes involved in C. gigas stress response. We found that 24 h feeding on toxic dinoflagellate cells (acute exposure) induced a significant decrease in clearance rate and expression level changes of the genes involved in antioxidant defense (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, Cu/Zn-SOD), cell detoxification (glutathione S-transferase, GST and cytochrome P450, CPY450), intermediate immune response activation (lipopolysaccharide and beta glucan binding protein, LGBP), and stress responses (glutamine synthetase, GS) in Pacific oysters compared to the effects with the non-toxic microalga Isochrysis galbana. A sub-chronic exposure feeding on toxic dinoflagellate cells for seven and fourteen days (30×10³ cells mL⁻¹) showed higher gene expression levels. A significant increase was observed in Cu/Zn-SOD, GST, and LGBP at day 7 and a major increase in GS and CPY450 at day 14. We also observed that oysters fed only with G. catenatum (3×10³ cells mL⁻¹ produced a significant increase on the transcription level than in a mixed diet (3×10³ cells mL⁻¹ of G. catenatum+0.75×10⁶ cells mL⁻¹ I. galbana) in all the analyzed genes. Our results provide gene expression data of PST producer dinoflagellate G. catenatum toxic effects on C. gigas, a commercially important bivalve. Over expressed genes indicate the activation of a potent protective mechanism, whose response depends on both cell concentration and exposure time against these toxic microalgae. Given the importance of dinoflagellate blooms in coastal environments, these results provide a more comprehensive overview of how oysters respond to stress generated by toxic dinoflagellate exposure.

  6. On-road performance analysis of R134a/R600a/R290 refrigerant mixture in an automobile air-conditioning system with mineral oil as lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, T.S.; Mohan Lal, D.

    2009-01-01

    R134a has been accepted as the single major refrigerant in the automobile industry and it has been used worldwide. But, the problem associated with it is the use of the PAG oil as the lubricant. Unlike the conventional mineral oil, the synthetic PAG oil used with R134a is highly hygroscopic in nature. The PAG lubricants come with different additives unique for different compressors. This leads to serious service issues. Therefore, a refrigerant, which will be readily available to replace R12, and also compatible with mineral oil, is needed. In the present study the readily available R134a is used in place of R12. However, to avoid PAG oil and to use the conventional mineral oil as lubricant, R134a is mixed with the commercially available hydrocarbon blend, (45.2% R290 and 56.8% R600a) in the proportion of 91% and 9%, respectively by mass. The quantity of hydrocarbons used is well below the lower flammable limit. This new mixture R134a/R600a/R290 is tested in the air-conditioning system of a passenger car 'on road' in the true running conditions and compared with the results that has been obtained with R12. The cool down performance under varying speed and varying ambient conditions, system performance under severe accelerating conditions and bumper-to-bumper traffic conditions is studied. The test results show that the new blend can be a promising substitute for the existing R12 systems and it can eliminate the use of hygroscopic PAG oil.

  7. Antivesication by Simultaneous Prophylaxis and Detoxification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwong, Cecil

    1996-01-01

    Our project DAMD17-93-C-3186 entitled 'Antivesication by Simultaneous Prophylaxis and Detoxification' has been directed toward the development of a new topically applied pretreatment that will prevent...

  8. ETS: DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOTOTHERMAL DETOXIFICATION UNIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has long been interest in utilizing photochemical methods for destroying hazardous organic materials. Unfortunately, the direct application of classic, low temperature photochemical processes to hazardous waste detoxification is often too slow to be practical for wide spre...

  9. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  10. Analysis of electron pair production in the collision system Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Simon Martin

    2008-01-01

    The HADES-spectrometer at GSI is used to measure the production of the light vector mesons ρ, ω and φ at SIS energies. Therefore, the medium sized collision system Ar+KCl was measured at 1.76 AGeV kinetic energy of beam particles. In this system the density of particle tracks is much larger as compared to the formerly used collision system C+C, making it necessary to upgrade the data analysis. The previous method of hard-cuts - used for particle identification - was replaced by a newly developed multi-variate analysis based on an artificial neural network. This algorithm has the benefit, that it is more robust against fluctuations in one or more of the used detector observables. This increases the overall efficiency and purity of the analysis procedure. Furthermore, the reconstruction of particle tracks inside the HADES spectrometer is based on a few position information, only. During analysis of raw data, these information are combined to a artificially large manifold of tracks. This leads to the general problem that one has to select the maximum number of true physical tracks out of this set of tracks per event. A new method of track selection is used to filter the data not only to select single tracks, but also to identify electron pairs created during Dalitz-decay of π 0 mesons, which build the bulk of combinatorial background. The result of the analysis is an efficiency corrected invariant mass spectrum of electron pairs, normalized to the mean number of pions per event. The spectrum consists of more than 16,000 pairs with an invariant mass larger than 150 MeV. In total more than 150000 pairs were found. A first comparison with the spectra calculated by using the old analysis approach shows a 30% enhancement in yield of reconstructed electron pairs. A first comparison with a simple thermal model implemented by the Pluto event generator, opens the possibility to compare the measured pair yield of ω and φ mesons via m T -scaling with the yield of η mesons

  11. Role of the two component signal transduction system CpxAR in conferring cefepime and chloramphenicol resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Bharathi Srinivasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobe belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family of the γ-Proteobacteria class in the phylum Proteobacteria. Multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae have caused major therapeutic problems worldwide due to emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing strains. Two-component systems serve as a basic stimulus-response coupling mechanism to allow organisms to sense and respond to changes in many different environmental conditions including antibiotic stress. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we investigated the role of an uncharacterized cpxAR operon in bacterial physiology and antimicrobial resistance by generating isogenic mutant (ΔcpxAR deficient in the CpxA/CpxR component derived from the hyper mucoidal K1 strain K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. The behaviour of ΔcpxAR was determined under hostile conditions, reproducing stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal environment and deletion resulted in higher sensitivity to bile, osmotic and acid stresses. The ΔcpxAR was more susceptible to β-lactams and chloramphenicol than the wild-type strain, and complementation restored the altered phenotypes. The relative change in expression of acrB, acrD, eefB efflux genes were decreased in cpxAR mutant as evidenced by qRT-PCR. Comparison of outer membrane protein profiles indicated a conspicuous difference in the knock out background. Gel shift assays demonstrated direct binding of CpxR(KP to promoter region of ompC(KP in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The Cpx envelope stress response system is known to be activated by alterations in pH, membrane composition and misfolded proteins, and this systematic investigation reveals its direct involvement in conferring antimicrobial resistance against clinically significant antibiotics for the very first time. Overall results displayed in this report reflect the pleiotropic role of the CpxAR

  12. Enzymatic Mercury Detoxification: The Regulatory Protein MerR

    CERN Multimedia

    Ctortecka, B; Walsh, C T; Comess, K M

    2002-01-01

    Mercury ions and organomercurial reagents are extremely toxic due to their affinity for thiol groups. Many bacteria contain an elaborate detoxification system for a metabolic conversion of toxic Hg$^{2+}$ or organomercurials to less toxic elemental Hg$^0$. The main components of the enzymatic mercury detoxification (see Fig. 1) are the regulatory protein MerR (mercury responsive genetic switch), the organomercurial lyase MerB (cleavage of carbon mercury bonds), and the mercuric ion reductase MerA (reduction of mercuric ions). In these proteins Hg$^{2+}$ is usually coordinated by the thiol groups of cysteines. We utilize the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg detected by time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to identify the Hg metal site geometries in these proteins in order to elucidate the molecular origin of the ultrasensitivity, selectivity and reaction mechanism of this detoxification system. The short lived TDPAC probe ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg ($\\tau_{1/2} =$ 43 min) is su...

  13. 40Ar/39Ar dating of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, D.; Masliwec, A.; Kuybida, P.; Hanes, J.A.; Hall, C.M.; Kenyon, W.J.; Spooner, E.T.C.; Scott, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    To overcome difficulties encountered in the customary method of determining the age of mineralization of sulphide ore deposits by analysing silicate material, the sulphide minerals themselves have been examined to see if they contained sufficient potassium and argon for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age determination. Initial results indicate that this is the case for pyrite from the Geco ore body in northwestern Ontario, Canada. (U.K.)

  14. Impacto de los sistemas de riego por goteo en arándanos Impact of drip irrigation systems in blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pannunzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examinó los efectos de diferentes sistemas de riego por goteo en el rendimiento de la variedad O´Neal de arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L. El estudio se realizó en Zarate (33º 41’ S y 59º 41’ W, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El cultivo se implantó en agosto de 2001, la primera cosecha se efectuó en octubre de 2003. El objetivo fue determinar cual era el sistema de riego por goteo que maximizaba el rendimiento, siendo los tratamientos, un lateral de tubería de goteo por fila de plantas con goteros a 40 cm (T1 y dos laterales de tubería de goteo con goteros a 20 cm por fila de plantas (T2. El porcentaje de suelo mojado por sistema se incrementa a medida que aumenta el número de emisores por metro lineal. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados, con bloques de cinco plantas y cinco repeticiones por tratamiento. La cosecha de 2003, reportó rendimientos de 2436 kg ha-1 para el tratamiento T1 y de 4335 kg ha-1 para tratamiento T2. El mojado parcial del suelo que realiza el tratamiento T1, de menor cantidad de goteros por metro lineal, no es suficiente para mojar un porcentaje de suelo compatible con altos rendimientos.The experiment examined the effects of different drip irrigation systems in an O´Neal variety of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. It was contucted at Zarate (33º 41’ S and 59º 41’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plants of the experiment were planted in August of 2001, after one year in nursery. The first harvest was realized in October of 2003. The main scope of the experiment was to find the irrigation system which maximized yields. Treatments were: one drip irrigation line with drippers at 40 cm (T1 and two laterals with drippers at 20 cm per row (T2. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design, each one with 5 plants and 5 replications. During the harvest of October and November of 2003, reported yields were 2436 kg ha-1 for the treatment T1 and

  15. Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

  16. Performance contracting to engage detoxification-only patients into continued rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Sean J; Dugosh, Karen Leggett; Lynch, Kevin G

    2011-03-01

    In 2006, only 18.7% of Delaware's detoxification patients were admitted to continuing recovery-oriented treatment within 30 days after discharge. In response, Delaware established financial contingencies to (1) maintain 90% detoxification occupancy, (2) make receipt of 10% of the facility's monthly reimbursement contingent on 25% of patients entering treatment, and (3) provide a $500 bonus for every patient with three or more prior detoxification visits who was retained in treatment. Under the performance contract, the detoxification provider (1) maintained the 90% occupancy requirement, (2) achieved the 25% treatment entry target for 7 of 12 months, and (3) observed only 8% (27/337) of detoxification completions that met the targeted length of stay. Continuation to and retention in treatment was even more constrained for patients with three or more prior detoxifications. Contrary to the policy intent, the number of patients with three or more detoxifications in fiscal year (FY) 2008 is nearly triple that of FY 2006. The modest gain in the transition rate was achieved without changes in patient access; the FY 2008 patient population reported significantly higher rates of homelessness and a younger age of first use than before the performance contract in FY 2006. Performance contracting may offer promise for improving transition to treatment rates. However, the unique needs of detoxification patients, the treatment capacity of each level of care to meet patient needs, and the structure of the performance contract must be carefully considered. Performance contracting efforts may be strengthened when service contracts across the system are tightly synchronized. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. Azizur, E-mail: Mohammad.Rahman@uts.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Hassler, Christel [Marine and Lake Biogeochemistry, Institute F. A. Forel, University of Geneva, 10 rte de Suisse, Versoix, 1290 Switzerland (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As{sup V}, which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As{sup III}, which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As{sup V}, biotransform it to As{sup III}, then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As{sup III} is more toxic than As{sup V}, As{sup III} is much more easily excreted from the cells than As{sup V}. Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As{sup V} to As{sup III} as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA{sup V}, dimethylarsonate; DMA{sup V}, and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO{sup V}) and trimethylarsine (TMAO{sup III}). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsenite (DMA{sup III}), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data.

  18. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M. Azizur; Hassler, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As V , which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As III , which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As V , biotransform it to As III , then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As III is more toxic than As V , As III is much more easily excreted from the cells than As V . Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As V to As III as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA V , dimethylarsonate; DMA V , and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO V ) and trimethylarsine (TMAO III ). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA III ) and dimethylarsenite (DMA III ), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data

  19. UV-B and B-band Optical Flare Search in AR Lacertae, II Pegasi, and UX Arietis Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Haagen, G. A.

    2013-11-01

    A high-cadence search was conducted on the known RS CVn-type flare stars AR Lac, II Peg, and UX Ari. Two optical flares were observed in the B-band on AR Lac at 5 milliseconds (ms) resolution for a rate of 0.04 fl/hr. Flare energy of the two B-band fast-flares ranged from 0.55 to 16.7 × 1033 ergs. The UV-B and B-band search of II Peg for 44.5 hours at 5 and 10 ms resolution and UV-B band search of UX Ari for 25.6 hours at 10 ms resolution detected no flare activity.

  20. Nutritional aspects of detoxification in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, John C

    2015-01-01

    Detoxification is a vital cellular task that, if lacking, can lead to early morbidity and mortality. The process of detoxification involves the mobilization, biotransformation, and elimination of toxicants of exogenous and endogenous origin. This article discusses the phase I and phase II detoxification and biotransformation pathways and promotes using food to support these highly complex processes. The author identifies the comprehensive elimination diet as a useful therapeutic tool for clinicians and patients to use to achieve detoxification. Using this diet, the patient removes the most common allergenic foods and beverages from the diet and replaces them with nonallergenic choices for a period of 4 wk, gradually adding back the eliminated foods and observing their effects. Another effective clinical tool that the author discusses is the detox-focused core food plan, which identifies the variety of foods required to supply key nutrients that can maximize the effectiveness of detoxification. Finally, the author provides a case study in which these tools were used to help a patient suffering from major, debilitating illnesses that resulted from exposure to malathion, including severe vomiting and diarrhea, headaches, night sweats, severe arthralgias and myalgias, episcleritis, and shortness of breath. The article details the interventions used and the clinical results (ie, successful resolution of most issues after 3 mo).

  1. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    is known about the strategies of seagrasses to survive sulfide intrusion, their potential detoxification mechanisms and sulfur nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled with a series of field studies and in situ experiments we elucidate sulfide intrusion and different...... not present in terrestrial plants at that level. Sulfide is not necessarily toxic but used as sulfur nutrition, presupposing healthy seagrass ecosystems that can support detoxification mechanisms. Presence or absence of those mechanisms determines susceptibility of seagrass ecosystems to sediment sulfide...

  2. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses. In contrast seegrasses grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to sulfide intrusion. Little is known about the strategies to survive sulfide intrusion, if there are detoxification mechanisms and sulfur...... indicating a possible role of sulfide in the sulfur nutrition beside the detoxification function. Our results suggest different adaptations of Z. marina to reduced sediments and sulfide intrusion ranging from bacterial and chemical reoxidation of sulfide to sulfate to incorporation of sulfide into organic...

  3. Implications of terrestrial 40Ar/36Ar for atmospheric and mantle evolutionary models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The terrestrial 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio is a function of the degassing history of the earth because 40 Ar is the volatile daughter produced by continuing decay of the non-volatile parent 40 K. The value of the ratio for the solid earth needs to be known and whether there is a single value, or a range of values, depending on the extent of depletion in volatiles. Measurement of 40 Ar/ 36 Ar for the interior is obtained from diamonds (a), which gives low values for the ratio ( 4 He/ 136 Xe. If the amount of contamination varies in a suite of samples, 40 Ar/ 36 Ar gives a straight line when plotted against ( 36 Ar) -1 . Again, the data suggests low values (approx. equal to 295) relative to the oceanic basalts but will need to be checked for contamination. From oceanic glasses (c) where there are enough data for the 40 Ar/ 36 Ar v. ( 36 Ar) -1 test to be significant. A good straight line is obtained for the results from seamount P-50, leading to a ratio approx. equal to 10 4 for the mantle region feeding the oceanic seamounts and ridge system. Further checks on atmospheric contamination, using the straight line test, should enable depleted and undepleted regions of the mantle to be mapped, and thus provide more definite data for models of atmospheric evolution. (orig.)

  4. First-principles calibration of 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and complete extraction of 40Ar* from sanidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.; Kuiper, K.; Mark, D.; Postma, O.; Villa, I. M.; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar geochronology relies on comparing argon isotopic data for unknowns to those for knowns. Mineral standards used as neutron fluence monitors must be dated by the K-Ar method (or at least referenced to a mineral of known K-Ar age). The commonly used age of 28.02 ± 0.28 Ma for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) (Renne et al., 1998) is based upon measurements of radiogenic 40Ar in GA1550 biotite (McDougall and Roksandic, 1974), but underlying full data were not published (these measurements were never intended for use as an international standard), so uncertainties are difficult to assess. Recent developments by Kuiper et al. (2008) and Renne et al. (2010) are limited by their reliance on the accuracy of other systems. Modern technology should allow for more precise and accurate calibration of primary K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar standards. From the ideal gas law, the number of moles of 40Ar in a system can be calculated from measurements of pressure, volume, and temperature. Thus we have designed and are proceeding to build a pipette system to introduce well-determined amounts of 40Ar into noble gas extraction lines and mass spectrometers. This system relies on components with calibrations traceable to SI unit prototypes, including a diaphragm pressure gauge (MKS Instruments), thermocouples, and a “slug” of an accurately determined volume to be inserted into the reservoir for volume determinations of the reservoir and pipette. The system will be renewable, with a lifetime of ca. 1 month for gas in the reservoir, and portable, to permit interlaboratory calibrations. The quantitative extraction of 40Ar* from the mineral standard is of highest importance; for sanidine standards this is complicated by high melt viscosity during heating. Experiments adding basaltic “zero age glass” (ZAG) to decrease melt viscosity are underway. This has previously been explored by McDowell (1983) with a resistance furnace, but has not been quantitatively addressed with laser heating

  5. ScattAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Alex Dempster; Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur

    2017-01-01

    We present an augmented reality (AR) audio application where scattering delay networks efficiently generate and organize a reverberator, based on room geometry scanned by an AR device. The application allows for real-time processing and updating of reflection path geometry. It provides a proof-of...

  6. A system for field gas-extraction of 85Kr, 39Ar and 81Kr using SuperPhobic membrane contactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, L.; Suckow, A.; Cook, P.; Mathouchanh, E.

    2013-12-01

    Radioactive noble gas isotopes are established tools for assessing groundwater movement and transport processes on time scales of decades (85Kr), centuries (39Ar) and many millenia (81Kr). While the atomic trap trace analysis (ATTA) technology promises small sample sizes for these isotopes, field gas extraction will remain the method of choice for several years to come. Recently CSIRO obtained decommissioned radiocarbon gas proportional counters and targets to use them for 85Kr. We aim for a sample size of 50μL Kr corresponding to the gas extracted from 500-1000L water. Flinders University and CSIRO have developed a field-deployable extraction system for large volume gas-extraction in the field. It uses two membrane contactors (MEMBRANA SuperPhobic 4x13) allowing flow rates of up to 50L/min in serial mode. Switching to parallel flow through both contactors is possible, allowing even higher water flow rates. The system automatically logs water temperature, water pressure, water flow rate, gas pressure of the sample, vacuum pressure at the contactor and all valve states, using an Endress + Hauser RSG40 Memograph M. The use of SuperPhobic contactors results in ten times less water in the gas fraction than reported for earlier systems. With the two contactors in serial configuration, gas extraction efficiencies, determined for O2, N2 and Ar, are better than 95% at 5L/min water flow. They are still above 80% for flow rates up to 20L/min in parallel configuration for O2, N2 and Ar. No measurable isotopic fractionation of the target isotope ratios of argon and krypton is to be expected at these high extraction efficiencies.

  7. Mechanistic insight into acrylate metabolism and detoxification in marine dimethylsulfoniopropionate-catabolizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Cao, Hai-Yan; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Li, Chun-Yang; Li, Ping-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Qin, Qi-Long; Todd, Jonathan D; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage, yielding dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and acrylate, provides vital carbon sources to marine bacteria, is a key component of the global sulfur cycle and effects atmospheric chemistry and potentially climate. Acrylate and its metabolite acryloyl-CoA are toxic if allowed to accumulate within cells. Thus, organisms cleaving DMSP require effective systems for both the utilization and detoxification of acrylate. Here, we examine the mechanism of acrylate utilization and detoxification in Roseobacters. We propose propionate-CoA ligase (PrpE) and acryloyl-CoA reductase (AcuI) as the key enzymes involved and through structural and mutagenesis analyses, provide explanations of their catalytic mechanisms. In most cases, DMSP lyases and DMSP demethylases (DmdAs) have low substrate affinities, but AcuIs have very high substrate affinities, suggesting that an effective detoxification system for acylate catabolism exists in DMSP-catabolizing Roseobacters. This study provides insight on acrylate metabolism and detoxification and a possible explanation for the high K m values that have been noted for some DMSP lyases. Since acrylate/acryloyl-CoA is probably produced by other metabolism, and AcuI and PrpE are conserved in many organisms across all domains of life, the detoxification system is likely relevant to many metabolic processes and environments beyond DMSP catabolism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Chinese herbal medicine shenqi detoxification granule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shenqi Detoxification Granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been used for treatment of chronic renal failure in clinic for many years. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the efficacy, and explore the mechanism of SDG to inhibit the progression of renal fibrosis, study was carried out using the ...

  9. Transcriptional regulation of xenobiotic detoxification in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Jyoti R.; Horner, Michael A.; Lam, Geanette; Thummel, Carl S.

    2011-01-01

    Living organisms, from bacteria to humans, display a coordinated transcriptional response to xenobiotic exposure, inducing enzymes and transporters that facilitate detoxification. Several transcription factors have been identified in vertebrates that contribute to this regulatory response. In contrast, little is known about this pathway in insects. Here we show that the Drosophila Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) ortholog CncC (cap ‘n’ collar isoform-C) is a central regulator of xenobiotic detoxification responses. A binding site for CncC and its heterodimer partner Maf (muscle aponeurosis fibromatosis) is sufficient and necessary for robust transcriptional responses to three xenobiotic compounds: phenobarbital (PB), chlorpromazine, and caffeine. Genetic manipulations that alter the levels of CncC or its negative regulator, Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1), lead to predictable changes in xenobiotic-inducible gene expression. Transcriptional profiling studies reveal that more than half of the genes regulated by PB are also controlled by CncC. Consistent with these effects on detoxification gene expression, activation of the CncC/Keap1 pathway in Drosophila is sufficient to confer resistance to the lethal effects of the pesticide malathion. These studies establish a molecular mechanism for the regulation of xenobiotic detoxification in Drosophila and have implications for controlling insect populations and the spread of insect-borne human diseases. PMID:21896655

  10. Complete Detoxification of Short Chain Chlorinated Aliphatic Compounds: Isolation of Halorespiring Organisms and Biochemical Studies of the Dehalogenating Enzyme Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedje, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Work focused on the isolation and characterization of halorespiring populations, and the initial investigation of the dechlorinating enzyme systems. In addition, tools to evaluate the presence/activity to halorespiring populations in the environment were developed. The tools developed in this work (measurements of hydrogen consumption thresholds, molecular probes) are relevant for regulatory agencies in order to facilitate decisions on which bioremediation technology (biostimulation or bioaugmentation) is most promising at a particular site. In addition, a better understanding of the physiology of the halorespiring organisms as well as the biochemistry of the dehalogenating enzyme systems enhances our knowledge of how these organisms can successfully be employed in the bioremediation of contaminated sites.

  11. Analysis of electron pair production in the collision system Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV; Analyse der Elektronpaarproduktion im Stosssystem Ar+KCl bei 1,76 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Simon Martin

    2008-06-30

    The HADES-spectrometer at GSI is used to measure the production of the light vector mesons {rho}, {omega} and {phi} at SIS energies. Therefore, the medium sized collision system Ar+KCl was measured at 1.76 AGeV kinetic energy of beam particles. In this system the density of particle tracks is much larger as compared to the formerly used collision system C+C, making it necessary to upgrade the data analysis. The previous method of hard-cuts - used for particle identification - was replaced by a newly developed multi-variate analysis based on an artificial neural network. This algorithm has the benefit, that it is more robust against fluctuations in one or more of the used detector observables. This increases the overall efficiency and purity of the analysis procedure. Furthermore, the reconstruction of particle tracks inside the HADES spectrometer is based on a few position information, only. During analysis of raw data, these information are combined to a artificially large manifold of tracks. This leads to the general problem that one has to select the maximum number of true physical tracks out of this set of tracks per event. A new method of track selection is used to filter the data not only to select single tracks, but also to identify electron pairs created during Dalitz-decay of {pi}{sup 0} mesons, which build the bulk of combinatorial background. The result of the analysis is an efficiency corrected invariant mass spectrum of electron pairs, normalized to the mean number of pions per event. The spectrum consists of more than 16,000 pairs with an invariant mass larger than 150 MeV. In total more than 150000 pairs were found. A first comparison with the spectra calculated by using the old analysis approach shows a 30% enhancement in yield of reconstructed electron pairs. A first comparison with a simple thermal model implemented by the Pluto event generator, opens the possibility to compare the measured pair yield of {omega} and {phi} mesons via m{sub T

  12. Sistemas primários de transporte de prótons integram os mecanismos de desintoxicação do mesotrione em plantas de milho Proton transport primary systems used as mechanisms of mesotrione detoxification in corn plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ogliari

    2009-01-01

    ão variaram mais do que 20 a 60% das atividades obtidas em vesículas de membranas oriundas de plantas não tratadas (controle. Os resultados demonstraram que o mesotrione promove uma ativação diferencial dos principais sistemas primários de transporte de H+, indicando que essas bombas iônicas são enzimas transportadoras essenciais aos mecanismos relacionados com o processo de desintoxicação das plantas de milho, possivelmente ao energizar a compartimentalização das moléculas do herbicida mesotrione no vacúolo ou a exceção celular através das membranas plasmáticas.The herbicide Mesotrione herbicides are very effective in the control of a wide range of weeds that infest corn (Zea mays fields. However, the biochemical and molecular bases of corn seedling tolerance to this herbicide have not been established so far. To understand the mechanisms of mesotrione detoxification in corn plants, the activities of the main primary proton (H+ ion transport systems of the vacuolar and plasma membranes (H+-ATPases V- and P-types, and H+-PPase of the cells from different tissues were analyzed, after post-emergence herbicide application. Thus, cell fractionation procedures on root, leaf and mesocotyl tissues were performed using differential membrane vesicle centrifugation and purification in sucrose density gradient. Hydrolytic activities of the proton pumps were measured by using a colorimetric method for phosphate released through enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrates adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP and pyrophosphate (PPi. Photosynthetic parameters were analyzed as physiological markers of the different stages of plant detoxification. Such analysis demonstrated that, three days after herbicide application (DAA, mesotrione induced a reduction in the photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm ratio, but no significant effect could be found after the fifth DAA. These data suggest that the treatment with mesotrione promoted a spatial and temporal regulation of the H+ pump activities. In all

  13. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2017-01-01

    of the nine letters). Finally, the alphabet of the Ars Magna together with an extensive list of pos-sible combinations and their explanations are part of the Ars Generalis Ulti-ma. Llull saw his Ars as a tool for an amiable and logical discussion among peers. The divine principles as well as the relative...... of belief, life, and God as such. Computer Science? Llull was an inspiration for later scientists, most notably Giordano Bruno, Athanasius Kirchner, Agrippa of Nettesheim and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, whose dissertation De Arte Combinatoria begins with a discussion of Llull’s Ars Magna. Umberto Eco also...... can be found in modern philosophers like e.g. Knud E. Løgstrup and Zygmunt Bauman. By using a list of commonly acknowledged principles and combinatoric rules, Llull turns missionary persuasion into a Habermasian dream of communica-tion among equals. References 1. Bonner A.: Doctor illuminatus...

  14. High Spatial Resolution 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Lunar Impact Melt Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Cameron Mark

    Impact cratering has played a key role in the evolution of the solid surfaces of Solar System bodies. While much of Earth’s impact record has been erased, its Moon preserves an extensive history of bombardment. Quantifying the timing of lunar impact events is crucial to understanding how impacts have shaped the evolution of early Earth, and provides the basis for estimating the ages of other cratered surfaces in the Solar System. Many lunar impact melt rocks are complex mixtures of glassy and crystalline “melt” materials and inherited clasts of pre-impact minerals and rocks. If analyzed in bulk, these samples can yield complicated incremental release 40Ar/39Ar spectra, making it challenging to uniquely interpret impact ages. Here, I have used a combination of high-spatial resolution 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and thermal-kinetic modeling to gain new insights into the impact histories recorded by such lunar samples. To compare my data to those of previous studies, I developed a software tool to account for differences in the decay, isotopic, and monitor age parameters used for different published 40Ar/39Ar datasets. Using an ultraviolet laser ablation microprobe (UVLAMP) system I selectively dated melt and clast components of impact melt rocks collected during the Apollo 16 and 17 missions. UVLAMP 40Ar/39Ar data for samples 77135, 60315, 61015, and 63355 show evidence of open-system behavior, and provide new insights into how to interpret some complexities of published incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar spectra. Samples 77115, 63525, 63549, and 65015 have relatively simple thermal histories, and UVLAMP 40Ar/39Ar data for the melt components of these rocks indicate the timing of impact events—spanning hundreds of millions of years—that influenced the Apollo 16 and 17 sites. My modeling and UVLAMP 40Ar/39Ar data for sample 73217 indicate that some impact melt rocks can quantitatively retain evidence for multiple melt-producing impact events, and imply that such

  15. Classical theory for the in-plane scattering of atoms from corrugated surfaces: application to the Ar-Ag(111) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2009-05-21

    A classical Wigner in-plane atom surface scattering perturbation theory within the generalized Langevin equation formalism is proposed and discussed with applications to the Ar-Ag(111) system. The theory generalizes the well-known formula of Brako as well as the "washboard model." Explicit expressions are derived for the joint angular and final momentum distributions, joint final energy, and angular distributions as well as average energy losses to the surface. The theory provides insight into the intertwining between the energy loss and angular dependence of the scattering. At low energies the energy loss in the horizontal direction is expected to be large, leading to a shift of the maximum of the angular distribution to subspecular angles, while at high energies the energy loss in the vertical direction dominates, leading to a superspecular maximum in the angular distribution. The same effect underlies the negative slope of the average final (relative) energy versus scattering angle at low energies which becomes positive at high energies. The theory also predicts that the full width at half maximum of the angular distribution varies as the square root of the temperature. We show how the theory provides insight into the experimental results for scattering of Ar from the Ag(111) surface.

  16. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed.

  17. Furfural tolerance and detoxification mechanism inCandida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Cheng, Gang; Joshua, Chijioke; He, Zijun; Sun, Xinxiao; Li, Ruimin; Liu, Lexuan; Yuan, Qipeng

    2016-01-01

    by 1.59-fold and 1.28-fold, respectively. Candida tropicalis was a robust strain with intrinsic tolerance to inhibitor furfural. The mechanism of furfural detoxification and metabolic responses were identified by multiple analyses. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1 was confirmed to be responsible for furfural detoxification. C. tropicalis showed a complex regulation system during furfural detoxification to minimize adverse effects caused by furfural. Furthermore, the mechanism we uncovered in this work was successfully applied to enhance E. coli 's furfural tolerance by heterologous expression of ctADH1 . The study provides deeper insights into strain modification for biofuel production by efficient lignocellulose fermentation.

  18. Identification of excess 40Ar by the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanphere, M.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar incremental heating experiments on igneous plagioclase, biotite, and pyroxene that contain known amounts of excess 40 Ar indicate that saddle-shaped age spectra are diagnostic of excess 40 Ar in igneous minerals as well as in igneous rocks. The minima in the age spectra approach but do not reach the crystallization age. Neither the age spectrum diagram nor the 40 Ar/ 36 Ar versus 39 Ar/ 36 Ar isochron diagram reliably reveal the crystallization age in such samples. (Auth.)

  19. The effects of acid treatment and sample preparation on 40Ar/39Ar ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.; Davidheiser, B.; Kuiper, K.; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Practitioners of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology regularly use dilute acids (typically 5-10% hydrofluoric acid (HF)) to clean mineral grains prior to irradiation (in the case of 40Ar/39Ar), and analysis (e.g. Evernden and Curtis, 1965; Dalrymple, 1967). This treatment has been shown to reduce contamination from atmospheric Ar, which consists largely of 40Ar and thus must be differentiated from radiogenic 40Ar* (Evernden and Curtis, 1965). Acid treatments can also remove fine grained material attached to mineral grains, such as glass shards or devitrified glass, which can affect analyses and is difficult to remove by other means (Evernden and Curtis, 1965). Such treatments were originally examined for their efficacy in reducing atmospheric argon contamination (Dalrymple, 1967) but were not assessed for the possibility of leaching Ar* or K differentially, which would affect both K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Indeed, Evernden and Curtis (1965) state that they are simply removing the "outer portions of the crystals" and apparently do not account for the potential for leaching of 40Ar* or K from the mass of their host mineral. Moreover, the capabilities of the K-Ar system in the 1960s was limited to a precision of ca. 3-4% on samples of 1-3 Ma (Cox and Dalrymple, 1967). Effects of smaller magnitude could not have been detected at the time. As the developments of the 40Ar/39Ar system and modern mass spectrometer technology have allowed for precision to approach 0.1%, the potential effects of acid treatment during sample preparation warrant revisiting. Additionally, the use of Calgon for sample disintegration has not previously been quantitatively assessed but is used extensively in some laboratories. Here we present a series of experiments from co-irradiated Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) and Mes-4 (Kuiper et al., 2008). FCs is used as the mineral standard following standard procedures. Mes-4 splits were treated with H2O (10 minutes, ultrasonic), Calgon (10%, overnight at 50

  20. Mutagenicity of quinones: pathways of metabolic activation and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesis, P L; Levin, D E; Smith, M T; Ernster, L; Ames, B N

    1984-01-01

    The mutagenicity of various quinones, a class of compounds widely distributed in nature, is demonstrated in the Salmonella TA104 tester strain. The metabolic pathways by which four quinones, menadione, benzo[a]pyrene 3,6-quinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and danthron, caused mutagenicity in this test system were investigated in detail as were the detoxification pathways. The two-electron reduction of these quinones by NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (DT-diaphorase) was not mutagenic, whereas the one-electron reduction, catalyzed by NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, was mutagenic, except for danthron, which was only slightly mutagenic. The mutagenicity of the quinones via this pathway was found to be attributable to the generation of oxygen radicals. The cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase also played a significant role in the detoxification and bioactivation of these quinones. For example, phenanthrenequinone was converted to a nonmutagenic metabolite in a cytochrome P-450-dependent reaction, whereas danthron was converted to a highly mutagenic metabolite. These studies show the complexity of metabolic pathways involved in the mutagenicity of quinones. PMID:6584903

  1. Action mechanism of hydrogen gas on deposition of HfC coating using HfCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yalei, E-mail: yaleipm@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Zehao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Xiong, Xiang, E-mail: xiongx@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Xiaobin [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Chen, Zhaoke; Sun, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • HfC coatings were deposited on C/C composites by LPCVD using HfCl4-CH4-H2-Ar system. • Action mechanism of H2 on structure and growth behavior of HfC coating was studied. • Increased H2 concentration leads to transformation in growth mechanism of coating. - Abstract: Hafnium carbide coatings were deposited on carbon/carbon composites by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using HfCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system. The microstructure, mechanical and ablation resistance performance of HfC coatings deposited with various H{sub 2} concentrations were investigated. The effect of hydrogen gas on the deposition of HfC coating was also discussed. Results show that all of the deposited coatings are composed of single cubic HfC phase, the hydrogen gas acted as a crucial role in determining the preferred orientation, microstructure and growth behavior of HfC coatings. During the deposition process, the gas phase supersaturation of the reaction species can be controlled by adjusting the hydrogen gas concentration. When deposited with low hydrogen gas concentration, the coating growth was dominated by the nucleation of HfC, which results in the particle-stacked structure of HfC coating. Otherwise, the coating growth was dominated by the crystal growth at high hydrogen gas concentration, which leads to the column-arranged structure of HfC coating. Under the ablation environment, the coating C2 exhibits better configurational stability and ablation resistance. The coating structure has a significant influence on the mechanical and ablation resistance properties of HfC coating.

  2. Community detoxification for alcohol dependence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Endsley, Paige; Bhatia, Urvita; Fuhr, Daniela C; Noorani, Aneesa; Naik, Aresh; Murthy, Pratima; Velleman, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Despite the potential advantages of community detoxification for alcohol dependence, in many countries the available resources are mostly focused on specialist services that are resource-intensive, and often difficult to access because of financial or geographical factors. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the existing literature about the management of alcohol detoxification in the community to examine its effectiveness, safety, acceptability and feasibility. The systematic review was guided by an a priori defined protocol consistent with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Cochrane library, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health and CINAHL databases were searched using appropriate search terms. A qualitative synthesis of the data was conducted as the heterogeneity of study designs, samples and outcomes measured precluded a meta-analyses. Twenty studies with a range of designs were eligible for the review. Community detoxification had high completion rates and was reported to be safe. Compared to patients undergoing facility based detoxification, those who underwent community detoxification had better drinking outcomes. Community detoxification was cheaper than facility based detoxification and generally had good acceptability by various stakeholders. For certain patients, community detoxification should be considered as a viable option to increase access to care. Although the current evidence base to some extent supports the case for community detoxification there is a need for more randomised controlled trials testing the cost effectiveness of community detoxification in comparison with inpatient detoxification. [Nadkarni A, Endsley P, Bhatia U, Fuhr DC, Noorani A, Naik A, Murthy P, Velleman R. Community detoxification for alcohol dependence: A systematic review Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:389-399]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Disentangling detoxification: gene expression analysis of feeding mountain pine beetle illuminates molecular-level host chemical defense detoxification mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A Robert

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle.

  4. Protracted deformation during cooling of the Paleoproterozoic arc system as constrained by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages of muscovite from brittle faults: the Transamazonan Bacajá Terrane, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perico, Edimar; Barros, Carlos Eduardo de Mesquita; Mancini, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Paraná – UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires, E-mail: sidneiprostirolla@gmail.com [Rosneft, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    In the Paleoproterozoic Transamazonas Province, synkinematic granitogenesis has taken place synchronously with compressive tectonic stress. The synkinematic character of the granites is marked by their WNW elongate shape, and by the presence of pervasive and concordant synmagmatic foliation. Ductile shear zones are concordant to the previous regional WNW structures, and tend to be accommodated along contacts between Rhyacian synkinematic granitoids and both Archean orthogneisses and Siderian metabasites. Locally phyllonitic shear zones and brittle-ductile shear zones with cataclasites are oriented subparallel to the preexisting ductile foliation. Late orogenic brittle faults N30E-trending strike-slip faults are either sinistral or destral. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating of muscovite developed on fault planes gave ages of 1977 ± 8 Ma and 1968 ± 11 Ma. Structural and geochronological data from rocks of the Transamazonas Province permit to conclude that most mylonites and brittle structures were controlled by preexisting structures such as geological contacts and petrographic facies boundaries. Compressive tectonic stress would have initiated at ca. 2100 Ma, since the former magmatic arc (Bacajaí complex), still present at 2070 Ma when syntectonic granites were emplaced and remained until 1975 Ma after granite plutonism and regional cooling. (author)

  5. 2015 IASc AR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    theory (CS and AS), the cancer stem cell hypothesis (AR), and the concept of intrinsically disordered proteins ..... strategic as well as commercial applications involving high temperature and high strength. A complex science is .... assimilated in policy and management decisions. The first subject of discussion was introduced.

  6. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2018-01-01

    The Ars Magna of Ramon Llull must be seen as one of the first attempts to formalise language, thought processes, and creating a basis for rational discussions. It consists of so-called principles, concepts, which are defined and combined through the use of four main figures. Llull's contribution...

  7. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Cor A J; Laheij, Robert J F; Krabbe, Paul F M

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  8. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  9. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Aim  Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  10. arXiv Photon detector system performance in the DUNE 35-ton prototype liquid argon time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.L.; Anderson, J.T.; Bagby, L.; Baird, M.; Barr, G.; Barros, N.; Biery, K.; Blake, A.; Blaufuss, E.; Boone, T.; Booth, A.; Brailsford, D.; Buchanan, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Convery, M.; Davies, J.; Dealtry, T.; DeLurgio, P.; Deuerling, G.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Eberly, B.; Freeman, J.; Glavin, S.; Gomes, R.A.; Goodman, M.C.; Graham, M.; Hahn, A.; Haigh, J.T.; Hartnell, J.; Higuera, A.; Himmel, A.; Insler, J.; Jacobsen, J.; Junk, T.; Kirby, B.; Klein, J.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Kutter, T.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Lin, S.; Martin-Albo, J.; McConkey, N.; Moura, C.A.; Mufson, S.; Nicholls, T.C.; Nowak, J.; Oberling, M.; Paley, J.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rivera, D.; Santucci, G.; Sinev, G.; Spooner, N.J. C.; Stancari, M.; Stancu, I.; Stefan, D.; Stewart, J.; Stock, J.; Strauss, T.; Sulej, R.; Sun, Y.; Thiesse, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Tsai, Y.T.; Wallbank, M.; Warburton, T.K.; Warner, D.; Whittington, D.; Wilson, R.J.; Worcester, M.; Worcester, E.; Yang, T.; Zhang, C.

    The 35-ton prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector was a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber with an integrated photon detector system, all situated inside a membrane cryostat. The detector took cosmic-ray data for six weeks during the period of February 1, 2016 to March 12, 2016. The performance of the photon detection system was checked with these data. An installed photon detector was demonstrated to measure the arrival times of cosmic-ray muons with a resolution better than 32 ns, limited by the timing of the trigger system. A measurement of the timing resolution using closely-spaced calibration pulses yielded a resolution of 15 ns for pulses at a level of 6 photo-electrons. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons was observed to be attenuated with increasing distance with a characteristic length of $155 \\pm 28$ cm.

  11. Control system for forced-air cooling of horticultural products Sistema de controle para o resfriamento com ar forçado de produtos hortícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. T. R. da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a study of the implementation of a classical controller using a tuning method referred to as IMC (Internal Model Control and aimed at the reduction of electrical energy consumption by the appropriate relation between energy consumption and the cooling time with forced air. The supervisory system installed was able to manipulate the variable of frequency of the signal power of the exhaust fan engine (forced air module, to accelerate or decelerate the loss of heat from the product to be cooled by airflow variation that passes through the mass of the produce. The results demonstrated a reduction in energy consumption from 64% and an increase of only 8% in the cooling time to the system using PI/IMC (Proportional - Integral with IMC tuning method compared with the system in its operating nominal condition. This PI/IMC control may be implemented directly in a frequency converter, without the need to purchase a computer or PLC (programmable logic controller to run the dedicated application, increasing its economical viability.Este trabalho consiste no estudo da implementação de um controlador clássico utilizando o método de sintonia denominado por Controle de Modelo Interno, visando à redução do consumo de energia elétrica que decorra na adequada relação entre este consumo e o tempo de resfriamento do processo de resfriamento com ar forçado de produtos hortícolas. Para isto, o sistema supervisório instalado manipulou a variável de frequência do sinal de alimentação do motor de indução trifásico do exaustor (módulo de ar forçado, para acelerar ou desacelerar a perda de calor do produto a ser resfriado por intermédio da variação da vazão de ar que perpassava a massa deste produto. Obteve-se como resultado uma redução no consumo de energia elétrica de 64% e um acréscimo de apenas 8% no tempo de resfriamento para o sistema utilizando um controle proporcional e integral associado ao método de sintonia promovido

  12. Ars Electronica tulekul / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    6.-11. IX toimub Austrias Linzis "Ars Electronica" festival, mille teema on "Code - The Language of Our Time". Festivali kavast, osalejatest, ava-performance'ist "Europe - A Symphonic Vision", näitusest "Cyberarts 2003. Prix Ars Electronica"

  13. Kinetics of optically pumped Ar metastables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiande; Heaven, Michael C

    2014-11-15

    Optically pumped lasers that use metastable excited states of Ar have been demonstrated using both pulsed and CW excitation. In terms of Paschen labeling of the states of Ar, the laser system uses excitation of the 2p9-1s5 transition, and lases on the 2p10-1s5 line. Collisional transfer of population from 2p9 to 2p10 is achieved using He as the buffer gas. For the purpose of modeling and developing this laser, rate constants for state-to-state transfer in Ar(2p(i))+Ar/He mixtures are needed. As the 2p10 level can radiate down to 1s4, this lower level also plays a significant role in the laser kinetics. Consequently, rate constants for the relaxation of 1s4 by Ar and He are also required. In the present study we have used pulsed laser excitation techniques to measure rate constants of relevance to the optically pumped metastable Ar laser.

  14. Detoxification is the primary task in overusing patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    Background: Common practice in patients overusing medication is to place major emphasis on detoxification.Overview: This is based on decades of disappointing experience trying to treat patients with prophylactics despite medication overuse. Several trials have shown that, when patients are taken...... off medication overuse, approximately 50% of them get so much better that prophylactic drug treatment is no longer needed. There is no doubt that detoxification by one means or another is of crucial importance in the initial steps of treating patients who have a medication overuse. The methodology...... for detoxification may vary from country to country. Likewise, it varies whether patients are placed on prophylactic treatment simultaneously with detoxification or after a drug-free period of 2 months. Only future long-term studies can show whether one approach or the other is preferable.Conclusion: Detoxification...

  15. Heavy ion reaction mechanisms: quasi-fission and complete fusion on the 220MeV 40Ar+197Au system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouichaoui, Saad.

    1976-01-01

    Deep inelastic collisions and complete fusion (followed by fission), have been studied on the 40 Ar+ 197 Au system at 1.2 times the Coulomb barrier by measuring the reaction products emitted between 20 and 90 deg lab using energy and time-of-flight techniques. The results show a good separation between completely damped collisions (quasi-fission) and the other deep inelastic collisions at forward angles far from the grazing angle of the projectile (93 deg C.M.). The separation of light quasi-fission products over the whole explored range of angles allowed to obtain their total angular distribution whose maximum is slightly forward the grazing angle. A continuous evolution of the relaxation degree of the relative motion is observed mainly in the vicinity of the grazing angle. Partially damped collisions have a total cross section of about twice the quasi-fission cross section. A clear separation is obtained at all detection angles, between the deep inelastic transfer products and the fission products resulting from the de-excitation of the compound nucleus 237 Bk. Fusion-fission cross section is the main part of the total reaction cross section (more than the half of it), while the ratio of the quasi-fission cross section over the total reaction cross section is about 0.15. These values are compared with those previously obtained in the cases of heavier and lighter systems [fr

  16. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  17. Temperature and pressure effects on 40Ar-39Ar systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozima, M.; Kaneoka, I.; Yanagisawa, M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of thermal and compressional treatment on 40 Ar- 39 Ar systematics have been investigated on three artificially heated biotite samples (heated for 1 hour at 700 0 C and 860 0 C in air and 700 0 C in vacuum respectively) and uniaxially compressed granite (p=1400 bar) and basalt samples (p=1660 bar). The 40 Ar- 39 Ar results for the disturbed samples are compared with those for undisturbed samples. Except for the vacuum-heating case, the effects of the disturbances may be interpreted as the combined effect of a partial loss of radiogenic 40 Ar from the sample and an incorporation of air Ar into the sample. Common diagnostic effects are (1) reduction of the total fusion age, (2) distortion of the age spectrum and, if the degree of the partial Ar loss is small (3) approximate preservation of the isochron age, and (4) reduction of the intercept value ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) in the isochron plot. The features observed in the age spectra of artificially disturbed samples are rather common in geologically disturbed samples, suggesting that the artificial disturbances simulate the effects of geological disturbances on 40 Ar- 39 Ar systematics. (Auth.)

  18. arXiv The MuPix System-on-Chip for the Mu3e Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, Heiko

    2017-02-11

    Mu3e is a novel experiment searching for charged lepton flavor violation in the rare decay $\\mu^+ \\rightarrow e^+e^-e^+$. Decay vertex position, decay time and particle momenta have to be precisely measured in order to reject both accidental and physics background. A silicon pixel tracker based on $50\\,\\mu$m thin high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS) in a 1 T solenoidal magnetic field provides precise vertex and momentum information. The MuPix chip combines pixel sensor cells with integrated analog electronics and a periphery with a complete digital readout. The MuPix7 is the first HV-MAPS prototype implementing all functionalities of the final sensor including a readout state machine and high speed serialization with 1.25 Gbit/s data output, allowing for a streaming readout in parallel to the data taking. The observed efficiency of the MuPix7 chip including the full readout system is $\\geq99\\%$ in a high rate test beam.

  19. Modification of stearic acid in Ar and Ar-O{sub 2} pulsed DC discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardelli, E.A.; Souza, T.; Maliska, A.M.; Kleinjohann, K.J.; Bendo, T. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Mafra, M. [Nancy-Universite (France). Institut Jean Lamour; CNRS, Nancy (France); Belmonte, T. [Federal University of Technology from Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Stearic acid (C{sub 1}8H{sub 36}O{sub 2}) was treated into Ar and Ar-O{sub 2}(10%) pulsed DC discharge created by a cathode-anode confined system. The samples were placed at the floating potential. The results show that the mass variation of the stearic acid samples after Ar-O{sub 2} plasma exposure is more important than the pure Ar plasma treatments. This comportment demonstrate that the oxygen actives species (O and O{sub 2} in all states) strongly enhance the etching process with regards to A{sup *} species, regardless of their concentration. After treatment by Ar and Ar-O{sub 2} plasma, analyses by X-ray diffraction show a significant structural modification of the samples surface, utilizing Ar-O{sub 2} plasma the modification was more pronounced. The chemical composition evolution shows that the acid function is etched preferentially in the beginning of the treatment (about 5 min) and that after 10 min the carbonic chains seems to be functionalized by oxygen. (author)

  20. Differential regulation of metabolic pathways by androgen receptor (AR) and its constitutively active splice variant, AR-V7, in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Ayesha A; Putluri, Vasanta; Arnold, James M; Tsouko, Efrosini; Maity, Suman; Roberts, Justin M; Coarfa, Cristian; Frigo, Daniel E; Putluri, Nagireddy; Sreekumar, Arun; Weigel, Nancy L

    2015-10-13

    Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is primarily an androgen-dependent disease, which is treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Tumors usually develop resistance (castration-resistant PCa [CRPC]), but remain androgen receptor (AR) dependent. Numerous mechanisms for AR-dependent resistance have been identified including expression of constitutively active AR splice variants lacking the hormone-binding domain. Recent clinical studies show that expression of the best-characterized AR variant, AR-V7, correlates with resistance to ADT and poor outcome. Whether AR-V7 is simply a constitutively active substitute for AR or has novel gene targets that cause unique downstream changes is unresolved. Several studies have shown that AR activation alters cell metabolism. Using LNCaP cells with inducible expression of AR-V7 as a model system, we found that AR-V7 stimulated growth, migration, and glycolysis measured by ECAR (extracellular acidification rate) similar to AR. However, further analyses using metabolomics and metabolic flux assays revealed several differences. Whereas AR increased citrate levels, AR-V7 reduced citrate mirroring metabolic shifts observed in CRPC patients. Flux analyses indicate that the low citrate is a result of enhanced utilization rather than a failure to synthesize citrate. Moreover, flux assays suggested that compared to AR, AR-V7 exhibits increased dependence on glutaminolysis and reductive carboxylation to produce some of the TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) metabolites. These findings suggest that these unique actions represent potential therapeutic targets.

  1. Only a minority of broad-range detoxification genes respond to a variety of phytotoxins in generalist Bemisia tabaci species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halon, Eyal; Eakteiman, Galit; Moshitzky, Pnina; Elbaz, Moshe; Alon, Michal; Pavlidi, Nena; Vontas, John; Morin, Shai

    2015-12-10

    Generalist insect can utilize two different modes for regulating their detoxification genes, the constitutive mode and the induced mode. Here, we used the Bemisia tabaci sibling species MEAM1 and MED, as a model system for studying constitutive and induced detoxification resistance and their associated tradeoffs. B. tabaci adults were allowed to feed through membranes for 24 h on diet containing only sucrose or sucrose with various phytotoxins. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses of 18 detoxification genes, indicated that relatively few transcripts were changed in both the MEAM1 and MED species, in response to the addition of phytotoxins to the diet. Induced transcription of detoxification genes only in the MED species, in response to the presence of indole-3-carbinol in the insect's diet, was correlated with maintenance of reproductive performance in comparison to significant reduction in performance of the MEAM1 species. Three genes, COE2, CYP6-like 5 and BtGST2, responded to more than one compound and were highly transcribed in the insect gut. Furthermore, functional assays showed that the BtGST2 gene encodes a protein capable of interacting with both flavonoids and glucosinolates. In conclusion, several detoxification genes were identified that could potentially be involved in the adaptation of B. tabaci to its host plants.

  2. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo, E-mail: sjung@knu.ac.kr

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  3. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F v /F m , as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H 2 O 2 production and greater increases in H 2 O 2 -decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress

  4. In vivo Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivohypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive oxygen species in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Etah Etah Nkanu, Sikirullai Olatunde Jeje, Daniel Ewa Ikpi, Gabriel Otu Ujong ...

  5. Ar-41 measurements and nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, J.J.; Rodriguez, M.; Ugarte, R.; Vigile, R.S.; Boutet, L.I.; Jordan, O.D.; Hernandez, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    During the early phase of an emergency is necessary to confirm the release of radioactivity predictions made by the operator of the nuclear plant. In this context, it has begun measuring Ar-41 in the vicinity of a research reactor. Since the Ar-41 is produced in the reactor, it has been studied as a good way to validate the air dispersion model used in nuclear emergencies and to develop a method to improve the characterization of the release. For this latter purpose a pilot experiment was conducted to determine computational and experimental methods, the flux of 1.29 MeV of Ar-41 and compared to evaluate the accuracy of the assessments made. This paper describes meteorological forecasting systems used in the experiment, the estimate of the stability class and the concentration of nuclides using a calculation code developed by the ARN, as well as the methodology and equipment used for measurement in the field. (authors) [es

  6. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L −1 ) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H 2 O 2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H + -ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H 2 O 2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H + -ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H 2 O 2 may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H + -ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the detoxification of PhACs in plants. • Results

  7. AR Signaling in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Rahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor (AR, a member of the steroid hormone receptor family status has become increasingly important as both a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. AR is expressed in up to 90% of estrogen receptor (ER positive breast cancer, and to a lesser degree, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2 amplified tumors. In the former, AR signaling has been correlated with a better prognosis given its inhibitory activity in estrogen dependent disease, though conversely has also been shown to increase resistance to anti-estrogen therapies such as tamoxifen. AR blockade can mitigate this resistance, and thus serves as a potential target in ER-positive breast cancer. In HER2 amplified breast cancer, studies are somewhat conflicting, though most show either no effect or are associated with poorer survival. Much of the available data on AR signaling is in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, which is an aggressive disease with inferior outcomes comparative to other breast cancer subtypes. At present, there are no approved targeted therapies in TNBC, making study of the AR signaling pathway compelling. Gene expression profiling studies have also identified a luminal androgen receptor (LAR subtype that is dependent on AR signaling in TNBC. Regardless, there seems to be an association between AR expression and improved outcomes in TNBC. Despite lower pathologic complete response (pCR rates with neoadjuvant therapy, patients with AR-expressing TNBC have been shown to have a better prognosis than those that are AR-negative. Clinical studies targeting AR have shown somewhat promising results. In this paper we review the literature on the biology of AR in breast cancer and its prognostic and predictive roles. We also present our thoughts on therapeutic strategies.

  8. Inpatient versus other settings for detoxification for opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E; Ison, J; Strang, J

    2005-04-18

    There are a complex range of variables that can influence the course and subjective severity of opioid withdrawal. There is a growing evidence for the effectiveness of a range of medically-supported detoxification strategies, but little attention has been paid to the influence of the setting in which the process takes place. To evaluate the effectiveness of any inpatient opioid detoxification programme when compared with all other time-limited detoxification programmes on the level of completion of detoxification, the intensity and duration of withdrawal symptoms, the nature and incidence of adverse effects, the level of engagement in further treatment post-detoxification, and the rates of relapse post-detoxification. Electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL - The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2004); MEDLINE (January 1966-March 2004); EMBASE (January 1988-March 2004); PsycInfo (January 1967-March 2004); CINAHL (January 1982-March 2004). In addition the Current Contents, Biological Abstracts, Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Index were searched. Randomised controlled clinical trials comparing inpatient opioid detoxification (any drug or psychosocial therapy) with other time-limited detoxification programmes (including residential units that are not staffed 24 hours per day, day-care facilities where the patient is not resident for 24 hours per day, and outpatient or ambulatory programmes, and using any drug or psychosocial therapy). All abstracts were independently inspected by two reviewers (ED & JI) and relevant papers were retrieved and assessed for methodological quality using Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook criteria. Only one study met the inclusion criteria. This did not explicitly report the number of participants in each group that successfully completed the detoxification process, but the published data allowed us to deduce that 7 out of 10 (70%) in the inpatient detoxification group were opioid-free on discharge

  9. Geological Dating by 40 Ar - 39 Ar method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbert Romero, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The isotope 40 K is radioactive, it decays to 40 Ar stable. The number of 40 Ar atoms produced from 40 K, permits to calculate the date of rocks and minerals. This dating technique is named 'Conventional K-Ar Dating Method'. The 40 Ar - 39 Ar dating method permits to calculate the age of rocks and minerals eliminating the limitation of the K-Ar method by calculating potassium and argon concentrations in a single measurement of the ratio of argon isotopes. In this work, the irradiation of the sample with fast neutrons in the nuclear reactor was established. 39 Ar is obtained from the induced reaction 39 K (n,p) 39 Ar. Thus the ration of 40 Ar - 39 Ar allows to obtain the date of rocks and minerals. This ratio was measured in a mass spectrometer. If the measurement of argon concentration in the sample is carried out at different increasing temperature values, it is possible to get information of paleotemperatures. The number of atoms 39 Ar is a function of the number 39 K atoms, irradiation time, neutrons flux, its energy E and the capture cross section σ of 39 K. These parameters are calculate indirectly by obtaining the so called 'J value ' by using a standard mineral with known age (HD-BI y Biot-133), this mineral is irradiated together with the unknown age sample. The values of 'J' obtained are in the interval of 2.85 a 3.03 (x 10 - 3)J/h. Rocks from 'Tres Virgenes' were dated by the method described in this work, showing an agreement with previous values of different authors. The age of this rocks are from Cenozoico era, mainly in the miocene period. (Author)

  10. Desenvolvimento e construção de fornalha para biomassa com sistema de aquecimento direto e indireto do ar = Development and construction of a furnace for biomass with system of direct and indirect air heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira Melo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Uma fornalha, com opção para aquecimento direto e indireto de ar, foiprojetada e construída para utilizar, como combustível complementar à lenha, biomassa particulada, resíduo agroindustrial abundante e desperdiçado em boa parte. No intuito de verificar o funcionamento da fornalha, na opção de aquecimento direto e indireto, foram realizados três testes preliminares utilizando somente lenha como combustível. Nestes testes, avaliaram-se as temperaturas do ar ambiente, do ar aquecido na saída da fornalha e depois do ventilador, fluxo de ar, poder calorífico inferior e eficiência térmica. Com os dados obtidos nos testes, nas opções de aquecimento direto e indireto de ar, a fornalha mostrou-se flexível na opção de aquecimento, de fácil construção e operação, não exigindo mão-de-obra qualificada.A furnace, with a system for direct and indirect air heating, was projected and constructed to use biomass, particulate biomass, abundant and largely wasted agroindustrial refuse, as complementary fuel to firewood. With the objective of verifying furnace operation, in the option of direct and indirect heating, three preliminaries tests were conducted using only firewood as fuel. In these tests, the following variables were monitored: room air temperature, heated air temperature at the exit of the furnace and after the fan; room air relative humidity; warm air flow; lower calorific power and thermal efficiency of the furnace. In the tests the results showed, for both direct and indirect air heating, the furnace was shown to be flexible in the heating option, of easy construction and operation, not requiring skilled labor.

  11. Vineyard management practices and the quality of grapes and grape products in the Pacific Northwest - USDA-ARS CRIS (Current Research Information System) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of our three program goals for this USDA-ARS-CRIS project is to determine the effects of vineyard and vine microclimate (sunlight, temperature, humidity, etc) upon fruit development, vine productivity, and fruit quality, particularly phenolic compounds. Plant phenolics are important due to their...

  12. A modeling approach to evaluate the balance between bioactivation and detoxification of MeIQx in human hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorien Delannée

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA are environmental and food contaminants that are potentially carcinogenic for humans. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx is one of the most abundant HAA formed in cooked meat. MeIQx is metabolized by cytochrome P450 1A2 in the human liver into detoxificated and bioactivated products. Once bioactivated, MeIQx metabolites can lead to DNA adduct formation responsible for further genome instability. Methods Using a computational approach, we developed a numerical model for MeIQx metabolism in the liver that predicts the MeIQx biotransformation into detoxification or bioactivation pathways according to the concentration of MeIQx. Results Our results demonstrate that (1 the detoxification pathway predominates, (2 the ratio between detoxification and bioactivation pathways is not linear and shows a maximum at 10 µM of MeIQx in hepatocyte cell models, and (3 CYP1A2 is a key enzyme in the system that regulates the balance between bioactivation and detoxification. Our analysis suggests that such a ratio could be considered as an indicator of MeIQx genotoxicity at a low concentration of MeIQx. Conclusions Our model permits the investigation of the balance between bioactivation (i.e., DNA adduct formation pathway through the prediction of potential genotoxic compounds and detoxification of MeIQx in order to predict the behaviour of this environmental contaminant in the human liver. It highlights the importance of complex regulations of enzyme competitions that should be taken into account in any further multi-organ models.

  13. Current knowledge of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Diao, Qingyun

    2017-01-01

    The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in detoxification of xenobiotics/pesticides in honey bees, from primal enzyme assays or toxicity bioassays to characterization of transcript gene expression and protein expression in response to xenobiotics/insecticides by using a global transcriptomic or proteomic approach, and even to functional characterizations. The global transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to learn that detoxification mechanisms in honey bees involve multiple genes and pathways along with changes in energy metabolism and cellular stress response. P450 genes, is highly implicated in the direct detoxification of xenobiotics/insecticides in honey bees and their expression can be regulated by honey/pollen constitutes, resulting in the tolerance of honey bees to other xenobiotics or insecticides. P450s is also a key detoxification enzyme that mediate synergism interaction between acaricides/insecticides and fungicides through inhibition P450 activity by fungicides or competition for detoxification enzymes between acaricides. With the wide use of insecticides in agriculture, understanding the detoxification mechanism of insecticides in honey bees and how honeybees fight with the xenobiotis or insecticides to survive in the changing environment will finally benefit honeybees' management.

  14. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Vapor equilibrium data for the systems Ar--N/sub 2/, Kr--Ar, Kr--N/sub 2/, and Xe--Kr, as well as the liquidus lines of solid xenon and of solid krypton in liquid air component mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastera, S.J.

    1977-01-15

    The knowledge of vapor-liquid equilibrium data of real gas mixtures makes possible a precise design of a low temperature distillation system. The noble gas isotopes Kr and Xe are formed as a result of nuclear fission. They reach the off-gas, where they must be separated by cryogenic methods, among others, in order to reduce radiological contamination of the environment. Consequently, an equilibrium apparatus was constructed inhouse, which worked according to a dynamical measurement method. The following low temperature measurements were performed with this apparatus: (1) to test the apparatus with the Ar--N/sub 2/ system, at temperatures of 80, 85, 90, 95, and 100 degrees K; (2) with the Kr--Ar system, at temperatures of 115, 116.5, 120, and 125 degrees K; (3) with the Kr--N/sub 2/ system, at temperatures of 100, 105, at 110 degrees K in the N/sub 2/-rich existence range of the liquid phase above the solubility limit, and at temperatures of 115, 120, and 125 degrees K in the entire concentration range. No data at all were previously known about this important system. (4) In the Xe-Kr system, at temperatures of 150, 155, and 160 degrees K, in the Kr-rich liquid existence range above the solubility limit, and at the temperature steps 165, 166, and 170 degrees in the entire concentration range. The consistency of the equilibrium data thus determined was tested with the computer program SYMFIT. These measurements were completed by determining the solubility limits (= liquidus lines) of solid Kr in a liquid Kr--Ar mixture or in a liquid Kr--N/sub 2/ mixture, as well as the solubility limit of solid Xe in a liquid Xe--Kr mixture. The measurement points for the liquidus lines were associated with the respective pressure and respective temperature over the entire concentration range. The experimentally determined data are displayed on tables and graphs. The utilized measurement equipment, with its glass equilibrium cell, is described.

  16. The Effect of Ar/O2 Ratio on Electrochromic Response Time of Ni Oxides Grown Using an RF Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Nah, Yoon-Chae; Yum, Jun-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2002-02-01

    The effect of Ar:O2 ratio on the electrochromic properties and the response time of NiO grown by RF sputtering were investigated by in situ transmittance measurements with continuous potential cycling and pulse potential cycling. The transmittance difference, coloration efficiency, memory effect, and cycling stability were all found to be independent of the Ar:O2 ratio. However, the transmittance of the as-deposited NiO as well as the response time were significantly affected. This may be attributed to the excess of oxygen occupied interstitial sites in the sputtered NiO that could result in the generation of Ni3+ ions and interference with proton intercalation/deintercalation.

  17. COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    1992-09-01

    The COMMIX-1AR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-1A to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a k-var-epsilon model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The input preparation and execution procedures are presented for the COMMIX-1AR/P program and several postprocessor programs which produce graphical displays of the calculated results

  18. COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    1992-09-01

    The COMMIX-1AR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-1A to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a k-[var epsilon] model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The input preparation and execution procedures are presented for the COMMIX-1AR/P program and several postprocessor programs which produce graphical displays of the calculated results.

  19. Novel metabolic biomarkers related to sulfur-dependent detoxification pathways in autistic patients of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yafee, Yusra A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y; Haq, Samina H; El-Ansary, Afaf K

    2011-11-04

    Xenobiotics are neurotoxins that dramatically alter the health of the child. In addition, an inefficient detoxification system leads to oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and immune dysfunction. The consensus among physicians who treat autism with a biomedical approach is that those on the spectrum are burdened with oxidative stress and immune problems. In a trial to understand the role of detoxification in the etiology of autism, selected parameters related to sulfur-dependent detoxification mechanisms in plasma of autistic children from Saudi Arabia will be investigated compared to control subjects. 20 males autistic children aged 3-15 years and 20 age and gender matching healthy children as control group were included in this study. Levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total (GSH+GSSG), glutathione status (GSH/GSSG), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- s-transferase (GST), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and peroxidoxins (Prxs I and III) were determined. Reduced glutathione, total glutathione, GSH/GSSG and activity levels of GST were significantly lower, GR shows non-significant differences, while, Trx, TrxR and both Prx I and III recorded a remarkably higher values in autistics compared to control subjects. The impaired glutathione status together with the elevated Trx and TrxR and the remarkable over expression of both Prx I and Prx III, could be used as diagnostic biomarkers of autism.

  20. Diurnal variation of apoplastic ascorbate in winter wheat leaves in relation to ozone detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Pang, Jing; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhu, Jianguo; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Besides stomatal closure, biological detoxification is an important protection mechanism for plants against ozone (O3). This study investigated the diurnal changes of ascorbate (a major detoxification agent) in the apoplast and leaf tissues of winter wheat grown under ambient air field conditions. Results showed the reduced ascorbate in the apoplast (ASCapo) exhibited a peak in late morning or midday, mismatching with either the maximum external O3 concentrations in mid-afternoon or the maximum stomatal O3 uptake between late morning and mid-afternoon. In contrast, the ASC in leaf tissues remained stable throughout the day. The investigations conducted in a Free-Air Concentration Elevation of O3 system confirmed that the diurnal variations of the ASCapo were induced more by the daily variations of O3 concentrations rather than the cumulative O3 effects. In conclusion, the O3-stress detoxification should be a dynamic variable rather than a fixed threshold as assumed in the stomatal flux-based O3 dose metrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant and detoxification responses of oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis in a multimetal-contaminated estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-11-01

    The contaminated oysters discovered in the Pearl River Estuary (Guangdong province, China) contained high levels of metals in their tissues, especially Cu and Zn, indicating that this large and densely urbanized estuary in Southern China suffers from serious metal pollution. The present study aimed to investigate the impacts of multimetal pollution in the Pearl River Estuary on oyster antioxidant and detoxification systems. The responses of various biochemical biomarkers in the ecologically important oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis collected from 7 sites in the Pearl River Estuary were quantified. Significant correlations were demonstrated between the accumulation of Cu and Zn and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and oxidative stress defenses (catalase, glutathione peroxidase) in the oyster gills. Significant correlations between the accumulation of Cd and Cu and detoxification (glutathione and glutathione transferase) in the gills were also documented. Interestingly, metallothionein concentrations were positively correlated with Cd, but negatively correlated with Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations in the gills. These measurements indicated that Cu in the Pearl River Estuary induced various biochemical responses in the oysters and influenced the susceptibility of oysters to environmental stress. The present study has provided the first evidence of antioxidant and detoxification responses in native contaminated oysters from a field environment seriously contaminated by metals. Coupling biomarkers with tissue metal concentration measurements was a promising approach to identify the metals causing biological impacts in a multimetal-contaminated estuary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2798-2805. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Multiple Pesticides Detoxification Function of Maize (Zea mays) GST34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongzhi; Xu, Li; Pang, Sen; Liu, Zhiqian; Zhao, Weisong; Wang, Chengju

    2017-03-08

    ZmGST34 is a maize Tau class GST gene and was found to be differently expressed between two maize cultivars differing in tolerance to herbicide metolachlor. To explore the possible role of ZmGST34 in maize development, the expression pattern and substrate specificity of ZmGST34 were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR and heterologous expression system, respectively. The results indicated that the expression level of ZmGST34 was increased ∼2-5-fold per day during the second-leaf stage of maize seedling. Chloroacetanilide herbicides or phytohormone treatments had no influence on the expression level of ZmGST34, suggesting that ZmGST34 is a constitutively expressed gene in maize seedling. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and in Arabidopsis thaliana proved that ZmGST34 can metabolize most chloroacetanilide herbicides and increase tolerance to these herbicides in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The constitutive expression pattern and broad substrate activity of ZmGST34 suggested that this gene may play an important role in maize development in addition to the detoxification of pesticides.

  3. Análise econômica do Sistema Intensivo de Suínos Criados ao Ar Livre Economic analysis of an Outdoor Pig Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denyse Maria Galvão Leite

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um Sistema Intensivo de Suínos Criados ao Ar Livre (SISCAL, na Estação Experimental de Pato Branco do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, com o objetivo de determinar os custos de implantação e produção deste sistema, na região Sudoeste do Paraná. A área do SISCAL foi dimensionada para um plantel de 14 matrizes e um reprodutor, a qual foi dividida em piquetes para separar os animais por estágios fisiológicos (reprodução, gestação e creche. O custo de implantação foi baseado nos custos de mão-de-obra e dos materiais utilizados para instalação do sistema e confecção de alguns equipamentos, como também os custos da construção da fábrica e depósito de ração e dos equipamentos para confecção das rações.O custo total de implantação do SISCAL, excluindo o valor da terra, foi de US$ 6862,80, ou seja, US$ 490,20 por matriz instalada, em julho de 1997. A construção e os equipamentos da fábrica de ração foram os itens mais caros do custo de implantação. O custo total de produção por kg de leitão desmamado produzido foi US$ 0,617, em junho de 1999. Neste período, foi possível obter 18,81% de lucro líquido por kg de leitão produzido.An Outdoor Pig Production System (SISCAL, at the Experimental Station Agronomic Institute of Paraná State was used with the objective to determine the establishment and production costs of this system in the Southwestern region of Paraná. The SISCAL area was dimensioned to a 14 sows and one boar herd, which was divided in paddocks to separate the animals per physiological stage (reproduction, gestation and nursery. The establishment cost was based on the labor, material used for the system installation and the manufacturing of some equipment, as well as the feed plant and storage construction costs and equipments for the ration production. The total establishment observed cost of the SISCAL, excluding capital value of land, was of US$ 6862.80 or US$ 490.20 per housed

  4. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  5. Current and Emerging Detoxification Therapies for Critical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A. Howell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity resulting from prescription drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants and cardioactive steroids, as well as drugs of abuse and exposure to environmental chemicals, represents a major need for detoxification treatments. Particles and colloids, antibody fragments (Fab, and indirect treatment methods such as macroemulsions, are currently being developed or employed as detoxification therapies. Colloids, particles, and protein fragments typically mitigate toxicity by binding to the toxin and reducing its concentration in vital organs. Indirect methods such as macroemulsions and sodium bicarbonate act directly on the affected organs, rather than the toxin. In this review, key design parameters (i.e. binding affinity, biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics are discussed for each type of detoxification treatment. In addition, some of the latest research in each area is reviewed.

  6. MicroRNAs as key mediators of hepatic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yemiao; Xiao, Jingfang; Zhang, Xinli; Bian, Xiuwu

    2016-08-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Many studies have extensively revealed the significance of miRNAs in mediating liver development and diseases. However, their role in hepatic detoxification processes has been explored only recently. In this review, we summarized the up-to-date knowledge about miRNA dependent regulation of enzymes involved in all three phases of the drugs and xenobiotics detoxification process. We also discussed the role of miRNA in regulating some upstream nuclear receptors involving gene expression of enzymes for detoxification process in liver. The toxicological significance of miRNAs in liver diseases and future research perspectives are finally presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ars Poetica : [luuletused] / Mats Traat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traat, Mats, 1936-

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Ars poetica ; Veepeegel ; Kontrollõed ; Mandariiniriik ; Nikolai Siamashvili (1888-1911) ; Kolmekümne kolmas aasta ; Kiri linast 1966 ; Italmaz Nuriyev ; Rudolf Rimmelile mõeldes ; Gennadi Aigi

  8. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Hélène; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mière, Arnaud; Ramage, Karim; Vermeulen, Anne; Boulanger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters , intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services, such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between ICARE, IPSL and OMP data centers and has been set up in the framework of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. ChArMEx data, either produced or used by the project, are documented and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. The website offers the usual but user-friendly functionalities: data catalog, user registration procedure, search tool to select and access data... The metadata (data description) are standardized, and comply with international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE European Directive; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) assignement procedure allows to automatically register the datasets, in order to make them easier to access, cite, reuse and verify. At present, the ChArMEx database contains about 120 datasets, including more than 80 in situ datasets (2012, 2013 and 2014 summer campaigns, background monitoring station of Ersa...), 25 model output sets (dust model intercomparison, MEDCORDEX scenarios...), a high resolution emission inventory over the Mediterranean... Many in situ datasets

  9. Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of six Apollo 15 impact melt rocks by laser step heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G. B.; Ryder, Graham

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen high resolution (21-51 step) Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra are obtained for six Apollo 15 impact melt rocks of different compositions, using a continuous laser system on submilligram subsamples and on single crystal plagioclase clasts. Four of the six samples gave reproducible age spectra with well-defined intermediate temperature plateaus over 48 percent or more of the Ar-39 released; the plateaus are interpreted as crystallization ages. Samples 15304,7,69, 15294,6,21 and 15314,26,156 gave virtually identical plateau ages whose weighted mean is 3870 + or - 6 Ma. These three melt rocks differ in composition and likely formed in three separate impact events.

  10. RadNet Air Data From Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Little Rock, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  11. Reevaluation of the Solar Wind 36Ar/38Ar Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R. H.; Schlutter, D. J.; Rider, P. E.; Pepin, R. O.

    1996-03-01

    The isotopic composition of solar wind (SW) argon is an important parameter in the modeling of the evolution of the terrestrial planet atmospheres. Anders and Grevesse assumed a 36Ar/38Ar ratio for SW of 5.31, essentially equal to that of air. Considerable evidence has since developed which indicates that this ratio is too low. Benkert et al. have reported their best estimate for the recent SW as 5.48 +/- 0.05, determined from measurements of lunar soil 71501. Based on Ar data obtained from surface oxidation of a metal separate from the Weston meteorite and from an uncontrolled etch of lunar sample 67701, reported by our group previously, we consider even this value to be too low. Since values of 5.75 to 5.85 were reported by Black for initial low temperature (fairly high SW 36Ar/38Ar ratio (in the range of ~5.6 to ~5.7), we decided to analyze Kapoeta for its light solar wind gases using the acid-etching techniques developed in our laboratory based on the CSSE procedure of Benkert et al.

  12. Detoxification of hexavalent chromate by growing Paecilomyces lilacinus XLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingjian; Xia, Lu; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2017-06-01

    In the study, the capability of Paecilomyces lilacinus XLA (CCTCC: M2012135) to reduce Cr 6+ and its main antagonistic mechanisms to Cr 6+ were experimentally evaluated. Activated growing fungus XLA efficiently reduced over 90% Cr 6+ in the media with Cr 6+ concentration below 100 mg L -1 at pH 6 after 14 days. After 1-day exposure to 100 mg L -1 Cr 6+ , nearly 50% of Cr 6+ was reduced. Moreover, SO 4 2- stimulated Cr 6+ reduction, whereas other interferential ions inhibited Cr 6+ reduction. The interaction mechanisms between XLA and Cr 6+ mainly involve biotransformation, biosorption, and bioaccumulation, as detected by electron microscopy and chemical methods. The lower concentrations of Cr 6+ (5 and 50 mg L -1 ) stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) level in XLA, respectively, but the higher concentration of Cr 6+ (150 mg L -1 ) decreased the enzymatic activities and GSH concentration. The results implied that SOD, CAT and GSH were defensive guards to the oxidant stress produced by Cr 6+ . All these extracellular/intracellular defense systems endowed XLA with the ability to resist and detoxify Cr 6+ by transforming its valent species. The fungus XLA could efficiently reduce Cr 6+ under different environmental conditions (pH, interferential ions, and concentration). Moreover, XLA could endure the high concentration of Cr 6+ probably due to its high biotransformation capability of Cr 6+ and intracellular antioxidant systems for the detoxification of ROS generated by external Cr 6+ . All these results suggested that the fungus XLA can be applied to remediation of Cr 6+ -contaminated environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [G-DRG: the for Germany modified AR-DRG system as a complete case-associated hospital reimbursement system according to section 17bKHG. Must it apply to psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, J

    2001-06-01

    The introduction of a German ("German") DRG system (G-DRG) by 01.01.2003 is to improve efficiency and transparency of hospital performance and to terminate the presently implausible variability of costs. For the first time world wide the attempt is undertaken to finance by a DRG-system--supplemented by certain additional charges and rebates--hospital costs completely. Institutions submitted to the psychiatry personnel regulation (PsychPV) are excluded. As the basis for the G-DRG-system self-administration authorities have selected the Australian AR-DRG system. The adjustment to German conditions is an extraordinary challenge: Compatibility must be achieved between the German classification of diagnoses (CGD-10) and procedures (OPS-301) and pertinent coding standards and the Australian classification systems. In the hospitals a unit cost accounting must be established, which at least approximately allows a strictly case-related calculation of actual costs. The relative cost weights of the DRGS and thus in the long run, their prices will be calculated on the basis the costs of a complete sample of cases of a representative subset of hospitals. The full-scale DRG system will confront with new risks. One is the transfer of treatment components and thus costs to Institutions not covered by the DRG system (e.g. rehabilitation hospitals, psychiatry). Thus, psychiatry will be at least indirectly involved. In addition, psychiatric patients will be directly affected if they are treated--possibly due to misallocation--in non-psychiatric institutions (e.g. internal medicine, neurology) or in psychosomatic departments not covered by the PsychPV.

  14. 42 CFR 2.34 - Disclosures to prevent multiple enrollments in detoxification and maintenance treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... detoxification and maintenance treatment programs. 2.34 Section 2.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... detoxification and maintenance treatment programs. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: Central... information about individuals applying for maintenance treatment or detoxification treatment for the purpose...

  15. Detoxification of copper fungicide using EDTA-modified cellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... detoxification of a copper fungicide (KOCIDE 101) using maize cob, a cellulosic material, was studied. Based on copper as the active agent (after a ... Made from CuSO4 and lime. Used as a spray. Copper oxychloride ..... feasible when there is contact between the maize cob and the Cu(II) ions. Therefore ...

  16. Modulation of central sensitisation by detoxification in MOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    detoxification. For baseline comparison, we tested 40 healthy controls. We measured cephalic and extra-cephalic pressure-pain thresholds and supra-threshold pressure-pain scores and extra-cephalic pain thresholds, supra-threshold pain scores and temporal summation for electrical stimulation.ResultsOf the 35...

  17. Influence of Manganese on Ochratoxin A Detoxification in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    It is clear from above that farmers could encounter problems of ochratoxin A toxicity caused by feeding animals with ochratoxin A contaminated feeds. A lot of efforts have been made to detoxify Ochratoxin A in animals. Items used for the detoxification include, phenylalanine, activated charcoal and calcium aluminosilicate.

  18. Sensing and detoxification devices in public building spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg-Borup, Steen; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Afshari, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes commonly used ventilation principles and where sensig and detoxification devices could be integrated in public buidings in an effort to warn and protect citizens against surprise attacks by toxic agents. The release of toxic agents may be outdoors, in a single indoor spot...

  19. Detoxification of copper fungicide using EDTA-modified cellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides are poisons and can be particularly dangerous when misused or carelessly disposed. The detoxification of a copper fungicide (KOCIDE 101) using maize cob, a cellulosic material, was studied. Based on copper as the active agent (after a sorption period of 1 h), the concentration of the fungicide reduced from an ...

  20. Microwave fluidized-bed detoxification of hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, R.

    1991-11-01

    Our ongoing research and development (R D) work focuses on demonstrating the technical feasibility of total detoxification of C1HC'' hazardous waste by using microwave energy. In addition, we investigated the capability of nahacolite for in-bed scavenging of HC1 and found it to be very effective. So far, detoxification of halocarbon vapor and liquid waste forms has been achieved. Microwave energy heats and activates the particulates of silicon carbide (SiC) and promotes chemical interactions, facilitating total detoxification of chlorinated hydrocarbons (TCEs) in an air-stream over SiC-fluidized beds under mild (<600{degrees}) conditions. The SiC promotes surface-enhanced reactions and also is a heating transfer medium. These microwave-assisted processes appear to be extremely energy efficient. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) team can demonstrate the microwave fluidized bed (MFB) technology for total detoxification of halocarbon waste streams. The technology is applicable for treatment of hazardous waste at DOE sites. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Opioid detoxification : from controlled clinical trial to clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Wensing, Michel; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results

  2. Influence of Manganese on Ochratoxin A Detoxification in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of manganese on ochratoxin A detoxification was studied in 3- month old female white albino rats administered with 0.00, 500 and 500μg/kg body weight of ochratoxin A intraperitoneally daily for five days. In addition to the ochratoxin A, 0.5ml of 5% Manganese (II) chloride was administered to one of the test ...

  3. Feldspar 40Ar/39Ar dating of ICDP PALEOVAN cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Jonathan Franz; Sudo, Masafumi; Stockhecke, Mona; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2017-11-01

    Volcaniclastic fall deposits in ICDP drilling cores from Lake Van, Turkey, contain sodium-rich sanidine and calcium-rich anorthoclase, which both comprise a variety of textural zoning and inclusions. An age model records the lake's history and is based on climate-stratigraphic correlations, tephrostratigraphy, paleomagnetics, and earlier 40Ar/39Ar analyses (Stockhecke et al., 2014b). Results from total fusion and stepwise heating 40Ar/39Ar analyses presented in this study allow for the comparison of radiometric constraints from texturally diversified feldspar and the multi-proxy lacustrine age model and vice versa. This study has investigated several grain-size fractions of feldspar from 13 volcaniclastic units. The feldspars show textural features that are visible in cathodoluminescence (CL) or back-scattered electron (BSE) images and can be subdivided into three dominant zoning-types: (1) compositional zoning, (2) round pseudo-oscillatory zoning and (3) resorbed and patchy zoning (Ginibre et al., 2004). Round pseudo-oscillatory zoning records a sensitive alternation of Fe and Ca that also reflects resorption processes. This is only visible in CL images. Compositional zoning reflects anticorrelated anorthite and orthoclase contents and is visible in BSE. Eleven inverse isochron ages from total fusion and three from stepwise heating analyses fit the age model. Four experiments resulted in older inverse isochron ages that do not concur with the model within 2σ uncertainties and that deviate from 1 ka to 17 ka minimum. C- and R-type zoning are interpreted as representing growth in magma chamber cupolas, as wall mushes, or in narrow conduits. Persistent compositions of PO-type crystals and abundant surfaces recording dissolution features correspond to formation within a magma chamber. C-type zoning and R-type zoning have revealed an irregular incorporation of melt and fluid inclusions. These two types of zoning in feldspar are interpreted as preferentially

  4. Characteristics of violent collisions in Ar-induced reactions at intermediaire energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivet, M.F.; Borderie, B.

    1984-01-01

    We report on two experiments performed with the Ganil facility using the 27 MeV/u Ar beam. The first one concerns an intermediate mass system, Ar + Ag. For the second one a heavier fissile system, Ar + U, was chosen. For Ar + Ag information about fusion requires the measurements of evaporation residues and fission. In the Ar + U reaction, most of the collisions lead to fission. The violence of the collision is therefore determined from the correlation angle of the coincidence fission fragments

  5. Analysis list: Ar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ar Gonad,Kidney,Prostate + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/...kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Gonad.tsv,http://dbarch...ive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Kidney.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gonad.gml,http:/

  6. Analysis list: AR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AR Blood,Breast,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/tar...get/AR.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/AR.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/AR.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/AR.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/AR.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/AR.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosci

  7. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Hélène; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Vermeulen, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters, intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between OMP and ICARE data centres and falls within the scope of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. All the data produced by or of interest for the ChArMEx community will be documented in the data catalogue and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. The database website offers different tools: - A registration procedure which enables any scientist to accept the data policy and apply for a user database account. - Forms to document observations or products that will be provided to the database in compliance with metadata international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). - A search tool to browse the catalogue using thematic, geographic and/or temporal criteria. - Sorted lists of the datasets by thematic keywords, by measured parameters, by instruments or by platform type. - A shopping-cart web interface to order in situ data files. At present datasets from the background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica and from the 2012 ChArMEx pre-campaign are available. - A user-friendly access to satellite products

  8. Widespread Chemical Detoxification of Alkaloid Venom by Formicine Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Edward G; Diebold, Peter J; Orr, Matthew R; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2015-10-01

    The ability to detoxify defensive compounds of competitors provides key ecological advantages that can influence community-level processes. Although common in plants and bacteria, this type of detoxification interaction is extremely rare in animals. Here, using laboratory behavioral assays and analyses of videotaped interactions in South America, we report widespread venom detoxification among ants in the subfamily Formicinae. Across both data sets, nine formicine species, representing all major clades, used a stereotyped grooming behavior to self-apply formic acid (acidopore grooming) in response to fire ant (Solenopsis invicta and S. saevissima) venom exposure. In laboratory assays, this behavior increased the survivorship of species following exposure to S. invicta venom. Species expressed the behavior when exposed to additional alkaloid venoms, including both compositionally similar piperidine venom of an additional fire ant species and the pyrrolidine/pyrroline alkaloid venom of a Monomorium species. In addition, species expressed the behavior following exposure to the uncharacterized venom of a Crematogaster species. However, species did not express acidopore grooming when confronted with protein-based ant venoms or when exposed to monoterpenoid-based venom. This pattern, combined with the specific chemistry of the reaction of formic acid with venom alkaloids, indicates that alkaloid venoms are targets of detoxification grooming. Solenopsis thief ants, and Monomorium species stand out as brood-predators of formicine ants that produce piperidine, pyrrolidine, and pyrroline venom, providing an important ecological context for the use of detoxification behavior. Detoxification behavior also represents a mechanism that can influence the order of assemblage dominance hierarchies surrounding food competition. Thus, this behavior likely influences ant-assemblages through a variety of ecological pathways.

  9. Simvastatin effects on detoxification mechanisms in Danio rerio embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, V; Santos, M M; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Ferreira, M

    2016-06-01

    The transcription and protein activity of defence mechanisms such as ABC transporters, phase I and II of cellular detoxification and antioxidant enzymes can be altered in the presence of emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals impacting the overall detoxification mechanism. The present work aimed to characterise the effects of simvastatin on the detoxification mechanisms of embryonic stages of Danio rerio. In a first approach, constitutive transcription of key genes involved in detoxification was determined. Embryos were collected at different developmental stages, and transcription patterns of genes coding for ABC transporters, phase I and II and oxidative stress were analysed. With exception of abcc2, all genes seem to be from maternal transfer (0-2 hpf). Embryos were then exposed to different concentrations of simvastatin (5 and 50 μg/L), verapamil and MK571 (10 μM; ABC protein inhibitors) and a combination of simvastatin and ABC inhibitors. mRNA expression levels of abcb4, abcc1, abcc2, abcg2, cyp1a, cyp3a65, gst, sod, cat was evaluated. Accumulation assays to measure ABC proteins activity and activity of EROD, GST, CAT and Cu/ZnSOD, were also undertaken. Simvastatin acted as a weak inhibitor of ABC proteins and increased EROD and GST activity, whereas Cu/ZnSOD and CAT activity were decreased. Simvastatin up-regulated abcb4 and cyp3a65 transcription (both concentrations), as well as abcc1 and abcc2 at 50 μg/L, and down-regulated gst, sod, cat at 5 μg/L. In conclusion, our data revealed the interaction of simvastatin with detoxification mechanisms highlighting the importance of monitoring the presence of this emerging contaminant in aquatic environments.

  10. The development of AR book for computer learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadung, Muneeroh; Wani, Najela; Tongmnee, Nur-aiynee

    2017-08-01

    Educators need to provide the alternative educational tools to foster learning outcomes of students. By using AR technology to create exciting edutainment experiences, this paper presents how augmented reality (AR) can be applied in the education. This study aims to develop the AR book for tenth grade students (age 15-16) and evaluate its quality. The AR book was developed based on ADDIE framework processes to provide computer learning on software computer knowledge. The content was accorded with the current Thai education curriculum. The AR book had 10 pages in three topics (the first was "Introduction," the second was "System Software" and the third was "Application Software"). Each page contained markers that placed virtual objects (2D animation and video clip). The obtained data were analyzed in terms of average and standard deviation. The validity of multimedia design of the AR book was assessed by three experts in multimedia design. A five-point Likert scale was used and the values were X¯ =4 .84 , S.D. = 1.27 which referred to very high. Moreover, three content experts, who specialize in computer teaching, evaluated the AR book's validity. The values determined by the experts were X¯ =4 .69 , S.D. = 0.29 which referred to very high. Implications for future study and education are discussed.

  11. Accumulation and detoxification dynamics of Chromium and antioxidant responses in juvenile rare minnow, Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cong; Li, Meng; Zheng, Yao; Zhou, Ying; Wu, Feili; Wang, Zaizhao

    2017-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) compounds are hazardous via all exposure routes. To explore the dynamics of Cr accumulation and elimination and to reveal the mechanisms underlying detoxification and antioxidation in juvenile Gobiocypris rarus, one-month old G. rarus larvae were exposed to 0.1mgL -1 Cr 6+ for four weeks for accumulation and subsequently placed to clean water for another week for depuration. The contents of Cr were measured weekly in the whole body of G. rarus juveniles. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), and contents of glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA), and transcripts of cat, Cu/Zn-sod, Mn-sod, gpx1, gstpi, gr, mt1, nrf2 and uba52 were determined. The results indicated that G. rarus juveniles had a strong ability to resist the Cr accumulation by Cr 6+ exposure and to remove Cr from the body in clean water. In addition, GST and MT proteins may be involved in the detoxification of Cr 6+ . Moreover, Cr 6+ -induced GST detoxification in G. rarus juveniles might be accomplished through the Nrf2-mediated regulation of gene expressions. The antioxidant enzyme systems exhibited a response mechanism of the protective enzymes in organisms when they are subjected to external environmental stress. Two weeks of Cr 6+ treatments could have led to the damage and consecutive degradation of antioxidant enzymes via ubiquitination, and MT proteins could be involved in protecting the activity of these enzymes. The capability of antioxidant enzyme systems to recover from the Cr 6+ -induced damage was strong in G. rarus juveniles after Cr 6+ was removed from the water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A poluição do ar e o sistema respiratório Air pollution and the respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Abdo Arbex

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A poluição atmosférica encontra-se presente nos mais diferentes cenários ao longo dos últimos 250 anos, desde que a Revolução Industrial acelerou o processo de emissão de poluentes que, até então, estava limitado ao uso doméstico de combustíveis vegetais e minerais e às emissões vulcânicas intermitentes. Hoje, aproximadamente 50% da população do planeta vivem em cidades e aglomerados urbanos e estão expostas a níveis progressivamente maiores de poluentes do ar. Este estudo é uma revisão não sistemática sobre os diferentes tipos e fontes de poluentes do ar e os efeitos respiratórios atribuídos à exposição a esses contaminantes. Podem ser creditados aos poluentes particulados e gasosos, emitidos por diferentes fontes, aumentos nos sintomas de doenças, na procura por atendimentos em serviços de emergência e no número de internações e de óbitos. Mais do que descompensar doenças pré-existentes, exposições crônicas têm ajudado a aumentar o número de casos novos de asma, de DPOC e de câncer de pulmão, tanto em áreas urbanas quanto em áreas rurais, fazendo com que os poluentes atmosféricos rivalizem com a fumaça do tabaco pelo papel de principal fator de risco para estas doenças. Na rotina de clínicos e pneumologistas, esperamos contribuir para consolidar a importância da investigação sobre a exposição aos poluentes do ar e o reconhecimento de que esse fator de risco merece ser levado em conta na adoção da melhor terapêutica para o controle das descompensações agudas das doenças respiratórias e para a sua manutenção entre as crises.Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and

  13. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  14. configuration of ArII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is a constant interest in the study of rare gases in connection with plasma physics, high temperature arcs and laser. The knowledge of lifetime and transition probabilities of singly ionized argon (ArII) is of great value in atomic structure stud- ies and also with regard to the above-mentioned applications. Most of the ...

  15. The SFMOMA AR Game Jam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brin, Sarah; Gangsei, Erica

    2018-01-01

    In the Summer of 2016, Pokémon Go precipitated a surge of new play experiences in museums. Cultural heritage institutions across disciplines were confronted with the sudden ubiquity of augmented reality (AR). Some museums enthusiastically integrated Pokémon into their programs, while some grappled...

  16. ARS-Media for Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel is an ion solution calculator that uses Microsoft Excel to generate recipes of salts for complex ion mixtures specified by the user. Generating salt combinations (recipes) that result in pre-specified target ion values is a linear programming problem. Thus, the recipes are genera...

  17. "Ars Electronica 2009" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    30. "Ars Electronica" festival "Human Nature" ("Inimese loomus") Linzis. Osaka ülikooli professori Hiroshi Ishiguro mehaanilis-digitaalsest nukust. Hübriidkunsti kategoorias peapreemia saanud Eduardo Kaci inimtaimest. Konverentsidest. Näitusest "See this Sound", mis oli pühendatud helile kujutavas kunstis

  18. USDA-ARS Quartlerly News

    Science.gov (United States)

    This quarterly article is an update of research going on at The USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS to be published in the Louisiana Nursery and Landscape Associations (LANLA) quarterly newsletter. This is one of three publications that I am sending out to the ...

  19. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christou, Anastasis [Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus); Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas [NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fotopoulos, Vasileios, E-mail: vassilis.fotopoulos@cut.ac.cy [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus)

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L{sup −1}) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H{sup +}-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the

  20. Kinetics of Ar isotopes during neutron irradiation: 39Ar loss from minerals as a source of error in 40Ar/39Ar dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, J.C.; Lippolt, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The loss of 39 Ar from minerals in the course of neutron activation for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating is studied by directly measuring the loss rates in vacuum-sealed ampoules. Biotite shows 39 Ar losses between 0.1% and 16%. These losses are predominantly due to diffusion processes from K-poor alteration-phase intergrowths in the biotites at the elevated temperatures during the irradiation. Estimates for the irradiation temperatures range from 150 0 to 180 0 C. Direct 39 Ar recoil loss from biotite seems to be minor compared to difussion loss of recoil-implanted 39 Ar. Precise 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of biotites therefore requires the measurement of the 39 Ar losses during irradiation. Glauconite loses not only neutron-induced Ar isotopes ( 39 Ar: 20-22%, 37 Ar: 17-19%) but also radiogenic 40 Ar(∼9%). Slight 39 Ar losses are also observed for light micas (0.2% and 0.35%), hornblendes (0.1%) and sanidines (200 and 700 ppm). 25 refs.; 4 figs.; 6 tabs

  1. Book review: Advances in 40Ar/39Ar dating: From archaeology to planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The recently published book Advances in 40Ar/39Ar Dating: From Archaeology to Planetary Sciences is a collection of 24 chapters authored by international scientists on topics ranging from decay constants to 40Ar/39Ar dating of extraterrestrial objects. As stated by the editors in their introduction, these chapters were assembled with the goal of providing technique-specific examples highlighting recent advances in the field of 40Ar/39Ar dating. As this is the first book truly dedicated to 40Ar/39Ar dating since the second edition printing of the argon geochronologist’s handbook Geochronology and Thermochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar Method (McDougall and Harrison 1999), a new collection of chapters highlighting recent advances in 40Ar/39Ar geochronology offers much to the interested reader.

  2. Coincident detection of electrons ejected at large angles and target recoil ions produced in multiply ionizing collisions for the 1-MeV/u Oq++Ar collision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaither III, C.C.; Breinig, M.; Berryman, J.W.; Hasson, B.F.; Richards, J.D.; Price, K.

    1993-01-01

    The angular distributions of energetic electrons ejected at angles between 45 degree and 135 degree with respect to the incident-beam direction have been measured in coincidence with the charge states of the target recoil ions produced in multiply ionizing collisions for the 1-MeV/u O q+ (q=4,7)+Ar collision systems. These measurements have been made for ∼179-, ∼345-, and ∼505-eV electrons. Additionally, the energy distributions of electrons ejected into specific angular regions have been measured. Ar LMM satellite Auger electrons appear as a peak in the energy spectrum of electrons ejected at all large angles. The center of this peak is found at an electron energy of ∼179 eV. Electrons with ∼179 eV energy, ejected at large angles, are preferentially produced in coincidence with recoil ions of charge state 4+. Electrons with ∼345 eV energy and ∼505 eV energy ejected at large angles are preferentially produced in coincidence with recoil ions of charge state 3+. The angular distributions for these electrons are strongly peaked in the forward direction; essentially no electrons are observed at angles larger than 90 degree. These results are consistent with the dominant production mechanism for energetic electrons ejected at large angles being a binary-encounter process. Differential cross sections have been calculated from these angular distributions. They are on the order of 10 -21 cm 2 /(eV sr)

  3. Numerical simualtion of underground 37Ar transportation to the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Ruogu; Li Hua; Liu Cheng'an; Wu Jun

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring radioactive gas 37 Ar is an important technique for the On-Site Inspection(OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. In order to establish a theoretical model that can be used to calculate the appearing time and radioactivity of 37 Ar which transports to the ground after a nuclear explosion, the rock media in the test area is assumed to be a homogeneous porous media, without consideration of gas absorption by and release from the rock media. The seepage model in the porous media is used to calculate 37 Ar transportation. Computational results give the time 37 Ar leaks to the ground and the variation of its radioactivity with time. And we can analyze and consider the computational results when we have developed OSI noble gas monitoring systems and evaluated their effectiveness. (authors)

  4. Biological detoxification of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its use in genetically engineered crops and feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Petr

    2011-08-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the major mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi in grains. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to humans and livestock. The risk can be reduced by enzymatic detoxification. Complete mineralization of DON by microbial cultures has rarely been observed and the activities turned out to be unstable. The detoxification of DON by reactions targeting its epoxide group or hydroxyl on carbon 3 is more feasible. Microbial strains that de-epoxidize DON under anaerobic conditions have been isolated from animal digestive system. Feed additives claimed to de-epoxidize trichothecenes enzymatically are on the market but their efficacy has been disputed. A new detoxification pathway leading to 3-oxo-DON and 3-epi-DON was discovered in taxonomically unrelated soil bacteria from three continents; the enzymes involved remain to be identified. Arabidopsis, tobacco, wheat, barley, and rice were engineered to acetylate DON on carbon 3. In wheat expressing DON acetylation activity, the increase in resistance against Fusarium head blight was only moderate. The Tri101 gene from Fusarium sporotrichioides was used; Fusarium graminearum enzyme which possesses higher activity towards DON would presumably be a better choice. Glycosylation of trichothecenes occurs in plants, contributing to the resistance of wheat to F. graminearum infection. Marker-assisted selection based on the trichothecene-3-O-glucosyltransferase gene can be used in breeding for resistance. Fungal acetyltransferases and plant glucosyltransferases targeting carbon 3 of trichothecenes remain promising candidates for engineering resistance against Fusarium head blight. Bacterial enzymes catalyzing oxidation, epimerization, and less likely de-epoxidation of DON may extend this list in future.

  5. Heterologous Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Lactococcus lactis for Acetaldehyde Detoxification at Low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yunbin; LaPointe, Gisèle; Zhong, Lei; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2018-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.x) can catalyze detoxification of acetaldehydes. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (istALDH) from the non-Saccharomyces yeast Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2 has been previously characterized. In this work, Lactococcus lactis with the NIsin Controlled Expression (NICE) System was applied to express the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (istALDH) in order to catalyze oxidation of acetaldehyde at low pH. A recombinant L. lactis NZ3900 was obtained and applied for the detoxification of acetaldehyde as whole-cell biocatalysts. The activity of IstALDH in L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) reached 36.4 U mL -1 when the recombinant cells were induced with 50 ng mL -1 nisin at 20 °C for 2 h. The IstALDH activity of recombinant L. lactis cells showed higher stability at 37 °C and pH 4.0 compared with the crude enzyme. L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) could convert acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 while the crude enzyme could not. Moreover, the resting cells of L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) showed a 2.5-fold higher activity and better stability in catalyzing oxidation of acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 compared with that of Escherichia coli expressing the IstALDH. Taken together, the L. lactis cells expressing recombinant IstALDH are potential whole-cell biocatalysts that can be applied in the detoxification of aldehydes.

  6. Transcriptional activity of detoxification genes is altered by ultraviolet filters in Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are compounds used to prevent the damage produced by UV radiation in personal care products, plastics, etc. They have been associated with endocrine disruption, showing anti-estrogen activity in vertebrates and altering the ecdysone pathway in invertebrates. Although they have attracted the attention of multiple research teams there is a lack of data about how animals activate detoxification systems, especially in invertebrates. Here, analysis of the effects of two UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), on the transcriptional activity of nine genes covering the three steps of the detoxification process has been performed. Four cytochrome P450 genes belonging to different members of this family, five GST genes, and the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) gene were studied by RT-PCR to analyze their transcriptional activity in fourth instar larvae exposed to the UV filters for 8 and 24h. The obtained results show a differential response with downregulation of the different Cyp450s tested by 4MBC while BP3 seems not to modify their expression. On the other hand, some of the GST genes were affected by one or other of the filters, showing a less homogenous response. Finally, MRP1 was activated by both filters but at different times. These results demonstrate for first time that UV filters alter the expression of genes involved in the different steps of the detoxification process and that they can be processed by phase I enzymes other than Cyp450s. They also suggest that UV filters affect biotransformation processes, compromising the ability of the individual to respond to chemical stress, so further research is needed to know the extent of the damage that they can produce in the resistance of the cell to chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 40Ar/39Ar dating of Pleistocene tuffs: an accurate age for the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal (MBGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, D. F.; Renne, P. R.; Morgan, L. E.; Deino, A.; Smith, V. C.; Ellis, B. S.; Pearce, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent recalibrations of the 40Ar/39Ar system [1,2] reveal inconsistencies with some previous ages inferred for the MBGR. An Ar/Ar age [3] for the Bishop Tuff (BT) (which post-dates the MBGR by at least 15.3 ± 2.2 ka [3]) recalculated [2] yields an age of 778.0 ± 3.8 ka (1σ, full systematic uncertainty). The age is c. 10 ka older than the BT zircon ID-TIMS U-Pb age [4] and places the MBGR at c. 793 ka, c. 13 and 20 ka older than astronomical ages for the MBGR of 780 ka [5] and 773 ka [6], respectively. To determine an accurate age for the MBGR, we have made a series of 40Ar/39Ar age determinations for Pleistocene tuffs from both Indonesia and North America that have direct relationships to the MBGR. Blind analyses were conducted at SUERC and BGC. We observed excellent inter-laboratory agreement and no systematic offset in data. Ar/Ar ages are reported relative to [2] (1σ, full systematic uncertainty). Drill cores from ODP Site 758 show the precise location of the MBGR. Below the MBGR are two distal tephra horizons that we have identified as products of two temporally distinct Old Toba Tuff (OTT) eruptions (layer d OTT1 and layer D OTT2). Continuous sedimentation between OTT1 (802.8 ± 0.7 ka, n = 100, MSWD 1.2) and OTT2 (796.2 ± 0.8 ka, n = 62, MSWD 1.3) allows for calculation of an accurate sedimentation rate and for extrapolation of an age from OTT2 to the MBGR. Data define an age for the MBGR of 795.2 ± 0.9 ka. Using tephra above the MBGR boundary, the Middle Toba Tuff (layer C) and Young Toba Tuff (layer A), extrapolation down core supports a MBGR age of c. 795 ka. Recent age data for BT sanidine reported relative to FCs at 28.172 Ma (767.4 ± 1.1 Ma) [7] oddly yielded an Ar/Ar age that was indistinguishable from the BT zircon U-Pb age [4], which is consistent with previous 40Ar/39Ar age measurements made relative to FCs at 28.02 Ma [3]. Thus we made a series of 40Ar/39Ar measurements on the exact same sample as used by Rivera et al. [7] and observed

  8. Utilização de sistemas de aquecimento por ar e por água quente em estufas localizadas em zonas mediterrânicas Utilisation of air and pipe heating systems in Mediterranean greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Afonso

    2007-01-01

    áticas exteriores, o sistema de aquecimento por água quente apresentou maior consumo energético que o sistema de aquecimento por ar quente, nas condições testadas.One of the main objectives of the greenhouse production is to obtain a good performance of the crops, which would not be possible outside due to adverse conditions of the environment. However, to achieve suitable internal air temperature and humidity it is usually necessary to use environmental control techniques, as ventilation or heating. The objectives of this work were: 1. to study the effect of the different heating systems, pipe and air, in the climatic conditions in a Mediterranean greenhouse and 2. to study the influence of these different heating systems on the occurrence of condensation. External and internal climatic data were collected as the occurrence of condensation on internal surface of the cover material. All data were registered in a Data Logger each 5 minutes, during several days. With air heaters, inside relative humidity was lower comparing to pipe heating. Both strategies were compared concerning the energy consumption. For the same outside conditions, pipe heating presented higher levels of energy consumption than air heaters. With air heaters, the condensation rate on the inner surface of the cover was strongly reduced.

  9. Continuous measurement of DTPA-clearance in extracorporeal detoxification circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenhagen, D; Ahrenholz, P; Roy, T; Esther, G; Kiencke, H; Klinkmann, H

    1981-01-01

    A new method for investigating clearances is described. DTPA labelled with technetium 99m (MW: 496 daltons) is used as an agent to be measured. Continuous determination of the DTPA-clearance is possible in extracorporeal detoxification circuits including dialyzers, hemofilters and hemoperfusion columns. As an example, DTPA-clearances are given for two different dialyzers. In comparison to clearance measurements of peak 7, DTPA-clearance was very similar to that obtained for peak 7.

  10. Continuous measurement of DTPA-clearance in extracorporeal detoxification circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenhagen, D.; Ahrenholz, P.; Roy, T.; Esther, G.; Kiencke, H.; Klinkmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    A new method for investigating clearances is described. DTPA labelled with technetium 99m (MW: 496 daltons) is used as an agent to be measured. Continuous determination of the DTPA-clearance is possible in extracorporeal detoxification circuits including dialyzers, hemofilters and hemoperfusion columns. As an example, DTPA-clearances are given for two different dialyzers. In comparison to clearance measurements of peak 7, DTPA-clearance was very similar to that obtained for peak 7.

  11. Danio rerio embryos on Prozac - Effects on the detoxification mechanism and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, V; Rodrigues, P; Santos, M M; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Ferreira, M

    2016-09-01

    In the past decade the presence of psychopharmaceuticals, including fluoxetine (FLU), in the aquatic environment has been associated with the increasing trend in human consumption of these substances. Aquatic organisms are usually exposed to chronic low doses and, therefore, risk assessments should evaluate the effects of these compounds in non-target organisms. Teleost fish possess an array of active defence mechanisms to cope with the deleterious effects of xenobiotics. These include ABC transporters, phase I and II of cellular detoxification and oxidative stress enzymes. Hence, the present study aimed at characterising the effect of FLU on embryo development of the model teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio) concomitantly with changes in the detoxification mechanisms during early developmental phases. Embryos were exposed to different concentrations of FLU (0.0015, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.8μM) for 80hours post fertilization. Development was screened and the impact in the transcription of key genes, i.e., abcb4, abcc1, abcc2, abcg2, cyp1a, cyp3a65, gst, sod, cat, ahr, pxr, pparα, pparβ, pparγ, rxraa, rxrab, rxrbb, rxrga, rxrgb, raraa, rarab, rarga evaluated. In addition, accumulation assays were performed to measure the activity of ABC proteins and antioxidant enzymes (CAT and Cu/ZnSOD) after exposure to FLU. Embryo development was disrupted at the lowest FLU concentration tested (0.0015μM), which is in the range of concentrations found in WWTP effluents. Embryos exposed to higher concentrations of FLU decreased Cu/Zn SOD, and increased CAT (0.0015 and 0.5μM) enzymatic activity. Exposure to higher concentrations of FLU decreased the expression of most genes belonging to the detoxification system and upregulated cat at 0.0015μM of FLU. Most of the tested concentrations downregulated pparα, pparβ, pparγ, and raraa, rxraa, rxrab, rxrbb rxrgb and ahr gene expression while pxr was significantly up regulated at all tested concentrations. In conclusion, this study

  12. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS prisons project pilot study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing dihydrocodeine and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Richard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK, there is an extensive market for the class 'A' drug heroin. Many heroin users spend time in prison. People addicted to heroin often require prescribed medication when attempting to cease their drug use. The most commonly used detoxification agents in UK prisons are buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine and methadone. However, national guidelines do not state a detoxification drug of choice. Indeed, there is a paucity of research evaluating the most effective treatment for opiate detoxification in prisons. This study seeks to address the paucity by evaluating routinely used interventions amongst drug using prisoners within UK prisons. Methods/Design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS Prisons Pilot Study will use randomised controlled trial methodology to compare the open use of buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification, given in the context of routine care, within HMP Leeds. Prisoners who are eligible and give informed consent will be entered into the trial. The primary outcome measure will be abstinence status at five days post detoxification, as determined by a urine test. Secondary outcomes during the detoxification and then at one, three and six months post detoxification will be recorded.

  13. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  14. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10μgL(-1)) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H2O2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H(+)-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H2O2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H(+)-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 40Ar-39Ar stepheating studies of clay concentrates from Irish orebodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    40 Ar- 39 Ar step heating analyses of clay concentrates from the Gortdrum and Tynagh orebodies (Ireland) previously dated by conventional K-Ar, indicate major losses of 39 Ar (32 to 45%) and rad. 40 Ar (25 to 35%) during the irradiation. The proportion of rad. 40 Ar loss, unlike that of 39 Ar, increases with J-value. The difference between 39 Ar and rad. 40 Ar proportion losses is related to the mineralogy and grain intimacy. These also affect the stepwise release patterns - the Gortdrum concentrates yield age spectra very consistent with 39 Ar recoil predictions, whereas the Tynagh concentrates in which the grains are intimately intergrown, show no clear evidence for 39 Ar recoil depletion in the K-rich phases. The difference is resolvable if illite argon release is not a simple volume diffusion type process under vacuum conditions. (author)

  16. HDR-Aggregate Read Service (ARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ARS is a SOAP web service exposed over HTTPS that provides an aggregated (report) view of HTH Survey, DMP and Census data stored in the HDR DB. ARS is deployed in...

  17. ARS - Helsinki - 2006 / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2006-01-01

    Steven Holli projekteeritud Kiasma muuseumihoonest Helsingis. Kontseptuaalkunsti näitusest ARS 06 "Reaalsustunne" Kiasmas. Eestlastest esineb Mark Raidpere. Vene kunstnikegrupi AEC+F ja vene kunstnike Juri Vassiljevi ning Aleksandr Ponomarjovi töödest näitusel. Ka Gerda Steineri & Jörg Lenzlingeri (Šveits), Martin & Munoz'i (USA, Hispaania), arvutigraafik Charles Sandisoni (SB), videokunstnik Bill Viola (USA) jt. töödest

  18. Formation and Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuciel, Radoslawa; Mazurkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    A model of reactive oxygen species metabolism is proposed as a laboratory exercise for students. The superoxide ion in this model is generated during the reaction of oxidation of xanthine, catalyzed by xanthine oxidase. The effect of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and allopurinol on superoxide ion generation and removal in this system is also…

  19. Detoxification of azo dyes in the context of environmental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Deepak; Mishra, Vandana; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    Azo dyes account for >70% of the global industrial demand (∼9 million tons). Owing to their genotoxic/carcinogenic potential, the annual disposal of ∼4,500,000 tons of dyes and/or degraded products is an environmental and socio-economic concern. In comparison to physico-chemical methods, microbe-mediated dye degradation is considered to be low-input, cost-effective and environmentally-safe. However, under different environmental conditions, interactions of chemically diverse dyes with metabolically diverse microbes produce metabolites of varying toxicity. In addition, majority of studies on microbial dye-degradation focus on decolorization with least attention towards detoxification. Therefore, the environmental significance of microbial dye detoxification research of past >3 decades is critically evaluated with reference to dye structure and the possible influence of microbial interactions in different environments. In the absence of ecosystem-based studies, the results of laboratory-based studies on dye degradation, metabolite production and their genotoxic impact on model organisms are used to predict the possible fate and consequences of azo dyes/metabolites in the environment. In such studies, the predominance of fewer numbers of toxicological assays that too at lower levels of biological organization (molecular/cellular/organismic) suggests its limited ecological significance. Based on critical evaluation of these studies the recommendations on inclusion of multilevel approach (assessment at multiple levels of biological organization), multispecies microcosm approach and native species approach in conjunction with identification of dye metabolites have been made for future studies. Such studies will bridge the gap between the fundamental knowledge on dye-microbe-environment interactions and its application to combat dye-induced environmental toxicity. Thus an environmental perspective on dye toxicity in the background of dye structure and effects of

  20. Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra of Apollo 15 impact melt rocks by laser step-heating and their bearing on the history of lunar basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G. B.; Ryder, Graham

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported on 26 high-resolution (16-51 steps) Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectra obtained on 12 Apollo-15 melt rocks of different composition using a continuous laser system on submg fragments of recrystallized melt and single-crystal plagioclase clasts from impact melt rocks collected at the Apennine Front where the Imbrium and Serenitatis basins intersect. A table is presented with the summary of the Ar-40/Ar-39 spectrum data, which represent 891 individual temperature step analyses. Also presented are 20 of the 26 age spectra along with their respective K/Ca plots. Melt rock fragments and plagioclase clasts from seven of the 12 samples analyzed yielded reproducible, intermediate-T Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum plateaus, which were interpreted as crystallization ages that represent the times of impact of bolides onto the lunar surface.

  1. Lipid peroxidation, detoxification capacity, and genome damage in mice after transplacental exposure to pharmaceutical drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Markovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on genome damage, lipid peroxidation, and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPX in newborns after transplacental exposure to xenobiotics are rare and insufficient for risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to analyze, in an animal model, transplacental genotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and detoxification disturbances caused by the following drugs commonly prescribed to pregnant women: paracetamol, fluconazole, 5-nitrofurantoin, and sodium valproate. Genome damage in dams and their newborn pups transplacentally exposed to these drugs was investigated using the in vivo micronucleus (MN assay. The drugs were administered to dams intraperitoneally in three consecutive daily doses between days 12 and 14 of pregnancy. The results were correlated, with detoxification capacity of the newborn pups measured by the levels of GPX in blood and lipid peroxidation in liver measured by malondialdehyde (HPLC-MDA levels. Sodium valproate and 5-nitrofurantoin significantly increased MN frequency in pregnant dams. A significant increase in the MN frequency of newborn pups was detected for all drugs tested. This paper also provides reference levels of MDA in newborn pups, according to which all drugs tested significantly lowered MDA levels of newborn pups, while blood GPX activity dropped significantly only after exposure to paracetamol. The GPX reduction reflected systemic oxidative stress, which is known to occur with paracetamol treatment. The reduction of MDA in the liver is suggested to be an unspecific metabolic reaction to the drugs that express cytotoxic, in particular hepatotoxic, effects associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.

  2. Herbicide targets and detoxification proteins in sugarcane: from gene assembly to structure modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd Evans, Dyfed; Joshi, Shailesh Vinay

    2017-07-01

    In a genome context, sugarcane is a classic orphan crop, in that no genome and only very few genes have been assembled. We have devised a novel exome assembly methodology that has allowed us to assemble and characterize 49 genes that serve as herbicide targets, safener interacting proteins, and members of herbicide detoxification pathways within the sugarcane genome. We have structurally modelled the products of each of these genes, as well as determining allelic, genomic, and RNA-Seq based polymorphisms for each gene. This study provides the largest collection of sugarcane structures modelled to date. We demonstrate that sugarcane genes are highly polymorphic, revealing that each genotype is evolving both uniquely and independently. In addition, we present an exome assembly system for orphan crops that can be executed on commodity infrastructure, making exome assembly practical for any group. In terms of knowledge about herbicide modes of action and detoxification, we have advanced sugarcane from a crop where no information about any herbicide-associated gene was available to the situation where sugarcane is now a species with the single largest collection of known and annotated herbicide-associated genes.

  3. Contributions of ludic care in nursing to chemical detoxification due to the use of crack cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Aparecida Pavanatto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the contributions of ludic care in nursing by stimulating the acceptance of chemical detoxification from crack on the perception of people in the detoxification process. METHODS: an exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative approach, performed with five people hospitalized for chemical detoxification from crack, from March to July 2013 in a chemical detox unit of a midsize hospital in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview and was subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Two categories emerged: Ludic care in nursing as a stimulus to the acceptance of chemical detoxification; Ludic care in nursing in the promotion for healthy living after chemical detoxification. CONCLUSION: ludic care in nursing proved to enhance the acceptance of chemical detoxification from crack in the reality investigated.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF PASSIVE DETOXIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR GOLD HEAP LEACH STOCKPILED WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Belykh; A.Yu. Chikin; S.V. Petrov; N.L. Belkova

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The processes of biopassive detoxication are of special interest for the solution of environmental issues of detoxification of gold heap leach cyanide-bearing wastes whose detoxification period is unlimited. These processes are based on spontaneous degradation of cyanides under the influence of natural factors including the action of autochthonous bacterial community. The purpose of the work is to develop a biopassive detoxification technology of heap leach stockpiled wastes. Methods...

  5. Functional Characterization and Expression of Molluscan Detoxification Enzymes and Transporters Involved in Dietary Allelochemical Resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whalen, Kristen E

    2008-01-01

    .... Inhibition of Cyphoma GST activity by gorgonian extracts and selected allelochemicals (i.e., prostaglandins) indicated that gorgonian diets contain substrates for molluscan detoxification enzymes...

  6. Agency-level financial incentives and electronic reminders to improve continuity of care after discharge from residential treatment and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Andrea; Lee, Margaret T; Garnick, Deborah W; Horgan, Constance M; Ritter, Grant A; Panas, Lee; Campbell, Kevin; Bean-Mortinson, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Despite the importance of continuity of care after detoxification and residential treatment, many clients do not receive further treatment services after discharged. This study examined whether offering financial incentives and providing client-specific electronic reminders to treatment agencies lead to improved continuity of care after detoxification or residential treatment. Residential (N = 33) and detoxification agencies (N = 12) receiving public funding in Washington State were randomized into receiving one, both, or none (control group) of the interventions. Agencies assigned to incentives arms could earn financial rewards based on their continuity of care rates relative to a benchmark or based on improvement. Agencies assigned to electronic reminders arms received weekly information on recently discharged clients who had not yet received follow-up treatment. Difference-in-difference regressions controlling for client and agency characteristics tested the effectiveness of these interventions on continuity of care. During the intervention period, 24,347 clients received detoxification services and 20,685 received residential treatment. Overall, neither financial incentives nor electronic reminders had an effect on the likelihood of continuity of care. The interventions did have an effect among residential treatment agencies which had higher continuity of care rates at baseline. Implementation of agency-level financial incentives and electronic reminders did not result in improvements in continuity of care, except among higher performing agencies. Alternative strategies at the facility and systems levels should be explored to identify ways to increase continuity of care rates in specialty settings, especially for low performing agencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated metabolic spatial-temporal model for the prediction of ammonia detoxification during liver damage and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliess, Freimut; Hoehme, Stefan; Henkel, Sebastian G; Ghallab, Ahmed; Driesch, Dominik; Böttger, Jan; Guthke, Reinhard; Pfaff, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Gebhardt, Rolf; Häussinger, Dieter; Drasdo, Dirk; Zellmer, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    The impairment of hepatic metabolism due to liver injury has high systemic relevance. However, it is difficult to calculate the impairment of metabolic capacity from a specific pattern of liver damage with conventional techniques. We established an integrated metabolic spatial-temporal model (IM) using hepatic ammonia detoxification as a paradigm. First, a metabolic model (MM) based on mass balancing and mouse liver perfusion data was established to describe ammonia detoxification and its zonation. Next, the MM was combined with a spatial-temporal model simulating liver tissue damage and regeneration after CCl4 intoxication. The resulting IM simulated and visualized whether, where, and to what extent liver damage compromised ammonia detoxification. It allowed us to enter the extent and spatial patterns of liver damage and then calculate the outflow concentrations of ammonia, glutamine, and urea in the hepatic vein. The model was validated through comparisons with (1) published data for isolated, perfused livers with and without CCl4 intoxication and (2) a set of in vivo experiments. Using the experimentally determined portal concentrations of ammonia, the model adequately predicted metabolite concentrations over time in the hepatic vein during toxin-induced liver damage and regeneration in rodents. Further simulations, especially in combination with a simplified model of blood circulation with three ammonia-detoxifying compartments, indicated a yet unidentified process of ammonia consumption during liver regeneration and revealed unexpected concomitant changes in amino acid metabolism in the liver and at extrahepatic sites. The IM of hepatic ammonia detoxification considerably improves our understanding of the metabolic impact of liver disease and highlights the importance of integrated modeling approaches on the way toward virtual organisms. © 2014 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors suppress the AR-V7-mediated transcription and selectively inhibit cell growth in AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Daisuke; Koyama, Ryokichi; Nakayama, Kazuhide; Kitazawa, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Hara, Takahito

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, including AR-V7, play a pivotal role in resistance to androgen blockade in prostate cancer treatment. The development of new therapeutic agents that can suppress the transcriptional activities of AR splice variants has been anticipated as the next generation treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. High-throughput screening of AR-V7 signaling inhibitors was performed using an AR-V7 reporter system. The effects of a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitor, LY-2090314, on endogenous AR-V7 signaling were evaluated in an AR-V7-positive cell line, JDCaP-hr, by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relationship between AR-V7 signaling and β-catenin signaling was assessed using RNA interference. The effect of LY-2090314 on cell growth in various prostate cancer cell lines was also evaluated. We identified GSK3 inhibitors as transcriptional suppressors of AR-V7 using a high-throughput screen with an AR-V7 reporter system. LY-2090314 suppressed the reporter activity and endogenous AR-V7 activity in JDCaP-hr cells. Because silencing of β-catenin partly rescued the suppression, it was evident that the suppression was mediated, at least partially, via the activation of β-catenin signaling. AR-V7 signaling and β-catenin signaling reciprocally regulate each other in JDCaP-hr cells, and therefore, GSK3 inhibition can repress AR-V7 transcriptional activity by accumulating intracellular β-catenin. Notably, LY-2090314 selectively inhibited the growth of AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro. Our findings demonstrate the potential of GSK3 inhibitors in treating advanced prostate cancer driven by AR splice variants. In vivo evaluation of AR splice variant-positive prostate cancer models will help illustrate the overall significance of GSK3 inhibitors in treating prostate cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Critical role for complement receptor C5aR2 in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppelaars, Felix; van Werkhoven, Maaike B; Kotimaa, Juha; Veldhuis, Zwanida J; Ausema, Albertina; Broeren, Stefan G M; Damman, Jeffrey; Hempel, Julia C.; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Daha, Mohamed R; van Son, Willem J; van Kooten, Cees; van Os, Ronald P; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Seelen, Marc A

    The complement system, and specifically C5a, is involved in renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The 2 receptors for complement anaphylatoxin C5a (C5aR1 and C5aR2) are expressed on leukocytes as well as on renal epithelium. Extensive evidence shows that C5aR1 inhibition protects kidneys from IR

  10. The ideal imaging AR waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, David J.

    2017-06-01

    Imaging waveguides are a key development that are helping to create the Augmented Reality revolution. They have the ability to use a small projector as an input and produce a wide field of view, large eyebox, full colour, see-through image with good contrast and resolution. WaveOptics is at the forefront of this AR technology and has developed and demonstrated an approach which is readily scalable. This paper presents our view of the ideal near-to-eye imaging AR waveguide. This will be a single-layer waveguide which can be manufactured in high volume and low cost, and is suitable for small form factor applications and all-day wear. We discuss the requirements of the waveguide for an excellent user experience. When enhanced (AR) viewing is not required, the waveguide should have at least 90% transmission, no distracting artifacts and should accommodate the user's ophthalmic prescription. When enhanced viewing is required, additionally, the waveguide requires excellent imaging performance, this includes resolution to the limit of human acuity, wide field of view, full colour, high luminance uniformity and contrast. Imaging waveguides are afocal designs and hence cannot provide ophthalmic correction. If the user requires this correction then they must wear either contact lenses, prescription spectacles or inserts. The ideal imaging waveguide would need to cope with all of these situations so we believe it must be capable of providing an eyebox at an eye relief suitable for spectacle wear which covers a significant range of population inter-pupillary distances. We describe the current status of our technology and review existing imaging waveguide technologies against the ideal component.

  11. Scopolamine detoxification technique for heroin dependence: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Longhui; Shen, Wenwen; Shen, Xueyong; Yang, Guodong; Zhou, Wenhua

    2013-12-01

    Easing psychological symptoms associated with heroin use and heroin relapse are important goals in the treatment of heroin dependence. However, most detoxification methods are designed to decrease withdrawal-related discomfort and complications, but not to reduce the psychological effects of heroin addiction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of scopolamine detoxification technique (SDT) relative to standard methadone detoxification (MD) to treat heroin withdrawal and psychological symptoms associated with heroin use and relapse. In this 10-week randomized, controlled trial, treatment-seeking heroin-dependent participants were enrolled consecutively from Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center, Ningbo, China. Opioid dependence was confirmed by a naloxone challenge test. Participants were included if they met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria for opioid dependence, were without major comorbid psychiatric illness, and were not allergic to scopolamine and chlorpromazine. Participants (N = 91; 18-50 years) were admitted to inpatient beds for 15 days and randomly assigned to receive either SDT (N = 46) or MD (N = 45) prior to being discharged and undergoing 8 weeks of outpatient treatment. During the inpatient stay, all participants received methadone during days 1-3. Those in the MD group then underwent a 10-day gradual dose-reduction regimen. Those in the SDT group underwent an SDT, such that subjects were given scopolamine (0.03-0.05 mg/kg, intravenously) and chlorpromazine (0.6-1.0 mg/kg, intravenously) under light anesthesia for 4-6 h once per day on days 4-6 or 4-7, depending on the severity of opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms were assessed each day during the in-patient treatment phase. Heroin craving (assessed using a visual analog scale), Beck Depression Inventory, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and working memory and attention tests (assessed using the

  12. The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Regulates a Xenobiotic Detoxification Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz Robles, Maria Teresa; Case, Ashley; Chong, Jean-Leon; Leone, Gustavo; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb) regulates cell cycle entry, progression and exit by controlling the activity of the E2F-family of transcription factors. During cell cycle exit pRb acts as a transcriptional repressor by associating with E2F proteins and thereby inhibiting their ability to stimulate the expression of genes required for S phase. Indeed, many tumors harbor mutations in the RB gene and the pRb-E2F pathway is compromised in nearly all types of cancers. In this report we show that both pRb and its interacting partners, the transcriptional factors E2F1-2-3, act as positive modulators of detoxification pathways important for metabolizing and clearing xenobiotics—such as toxins and drugs—from the body. Using a combination of conventional molecular biology techniques and microarray analysis of specific cell populations, we have analyzed the detoxification pathway in murine samples in the presence or absence of pRb and/or E2F1-2-3. In this report, we show that both pRb and E2F1-2-3 act as positive modulators of detoxification pathways in mice, challenging the conventional view of E2F1-2-3 as transcriptional repressors negatively regulated by pRb. These results suggest that mutations altering the pRb-E2F axis may have consequences beyond loss of cell cycle control by altering the ability of tissues to remove toxins and to properly metabolize anticancer drugs, and might help to understand the formation and progression rates of different types of cancer, as well as to better design appropriate therapies based on the particular genetic composition of the tumors. PMID:22022495

  13. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    . In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings...

  14. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments....

  15. Incremental heating of Bishop Tuff sanidine reveals preeruptive radiogenic Ar and rapid remobilization from cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nathan L; Jicha, Brian R; Singer, Brad S; Hildreth, Wes

    2017-11-21

    Accurate and precise ages of large silicic eruptions are critical to calibrating the geologic timescale and gauging the tempo of changes in climate, biologic evolution, and magmatic processes throughout Earth history. The conventional approach to dating these eruptive products using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar method is to fuse dozens of individual feldspar crystals. However, dispersion of fusion dates is common and interpretation is complicated by increasingly precise data obtained via multicollector mass spectrometry. Incremental heating of 49 individual Bishop Tuff (BT) sanidine crystals produces 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates with reduced dispersion, yet we find a 16-ky range of plateau dates that is not attributable to excess Ar. We interpret this dispersion to reflect cooling of the magma reservoir margins below ∼475 °C, accumulation of radiogenic Ar, and rapid preeruption remobilization. Accordingly, these data elucidate the recycling of subsolidus material into voluminous rhyolite magma reservoirs and the effect of preeruptive magmatic processes on the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar system. The youngest sanidine dates, likely the most representative of the BT eruption age, yield a weighted mean of 764.8 ± 0.3/0.6 ka (2σ analytical/full uncertainty) indicating eruption only ∼7 ky following the Matuyama-Brunhes magnetic polarity reversal. Single-crystal incremental heating provides leverage with which to interpret complex populations of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar sanidine and U-Pb zircon dates and a substantially improved capability to resolve the timing and causal relationship of events in the geologic record.

  16. Incremental heating of Bishop Tuff sanidine reveals preeruptive radiogenic Ar and rapid remobilization from cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nathan L.; Jicha, Brian R.; Singer, Brad S.; Hildreth, Wes

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and precise ages of large silicic eruptions are critical to calibrating the geologic timescale and gauging the tempo of changes in climate, biologic evolution, and magmatic processes throughout Earth history. The conventional approach to dating these eruptive products using the 40Ar/39Ar method is to fuse dozens of individual feldspar crystals. However, dispersion of fusion dates is common and interpretation is complicated by increasingly precise data obtained via multicollector mass spectrometry. Incremental heating of 49 individual Bishop Tuff (BT) sanidine crystals produces 40Ar/39Ar dates with reduced dispersion, yet we find a 16-ky range of plateau dates that is not attributable to excess Ar. We interpret this dispersion to reflect cooling of the magma reservoir margins below ˜475 °C, accumulation of radiogenic Ar, and rapid preeruption remobilization. Accordingly, these data elucidate the recycling of subsolidus material into voluminous rhyolite magma reservoirs and the effect of preeruptive magmatic processes on the 40Ar/39Ar system. The youngest sanidine dates, likely the most representative of the BT eruption age, yield a weighted mean of 764.8 ± 0.3/0.6 ka (2σ analytical/full uncertainty) indicating eruption only ˜7 ky following the Matuyama‑Brunhes magnetic polarity reversal. Single-crystal incremental heating provides leverage with which to interpret complex populations of 40Ar/39Ar sanidine and U-Pb zircon dates and a substantially improved capability to resolve the timing and causal relationship of events in the geologic record.

  17. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H2O2 production and greater increases in H2O2-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Otimização de sistema de autoaspiração de ar tipo Venturi para tratamento de água ferruginosa Optimization of auto-aspiration aeration system type Venturi for the treatment of ferruginous water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson S. Piccin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Na confecção deste trabalho se utilizou a metodologia de superfície de resposta para otimizar o efeito do número de Reynolds, tempo de floculação e concentração de hipoclorito de sódio sobre a oxidação/floculação do ferro presente em águas subterrâneas em um sistema de aeração com autoaspiração de ar. O sistema se compunha de um vaso tipo Venturi, acoplado a um tubo de mistura para promover a oxigenação da água através da sucção do ar atmosférico. O mapeamento hidrodinâmico permitiu verificar as condições de operação no qual o sistema apresentou melhor eficiência de sucção de ar e menor consumo de energia, além de compará-las com as melhores condições a campo. Os resultados observados demonstraram que foi possível a remoção de 98,7% do ferro presente (residual ferro de 0,06 mg L-1 quando o sistema operou com número de Reynolds no estrangulamento do Venturi de 5,39 x 10(4, concentrações de hipoclorito de sódio de 38,4 mg L-1 e tempo de floculação 30 min. A metodologia de superfície de resposta foi satisfatória e permitiu otimizar as variáveis operacionais citadas.In this study the response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of Reynolds number, flocculation time and sodium hypochlorite concentration on the iron oxidation/flocculation present in groundwaters in an aeration system with air auto-aspiration. This system was composed of a recipient type Venturi coupled to a mixture tube to promote the oxygenation of the water through the suction of the atmospheric air. The hydrodynamic mapping allowed the verification of the operation conditions in which the system presented the best air suction efficiency and energy consumption, and the comparison of the best field conditions. The observed results demonstrated that it was possible to remove 98.7% of present iron (residual iron of 0.06 mg L-1 when the system operated with Reynolds number of 5.39 x 10(4, sodium hypochlorite

  19. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Late Cretaceous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylor, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the wider European GTS Next project, I propose new constraints on the ages of the Late Cretaceous, derived from a multitude of geochronological techniques, and successful stratigraphic interpretations from Canada and Japan. In the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, we propose a new constraint on the age of the K/Pg boundary in the Red Deer River section (Alberta, Canada). We were able to cyclo-stratigraphically tune sediments in a non-marine, fluvial environment utilising high-resolution proxy records suggesting a 11-12 precession related cyclicity. Assuming the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar method is inter-calibrated with the cyclo-stratigraphy, the apparent age for C29r suggests that the K/Pg boundary falls between eccentricity maxima and minima, yielding an age of the C29r between 65.89 ± 0.08 and 66.30 ± 0.08 Ma. Assuming that the bundle containing the coal horizon represents a precession cycle, the K/Pg boundary is within the analytical uncertainty of the youngest zircon population achieving a revised age for the K/Pg boundary as 65.75 ± 0.06 Ma. The Campanian - Maastrichtian boundary is preserved in the sedimentary succession of the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and has been placed 8 m below Coal nr. 10. Cyclo-stratigraphic studies show that the formation of these depositional sequences (alternations) of all scales are influenced directly by sea-level changes due to precession but more dominated by eccentricity cycles proved in the cyclo-stratigraphic framework and is mainly controlled by sand horizons, which have been related by auto-cyclicity in a dynamic sedimentary setting. Our work shows that the Campanian - Maastrichtian boundary in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin coincides with 2.5 eccentricity cycles above the youngest zircon age population at the bottom of the section and 4.9 Myr before the Cretaceous - Palaeogene boundary (K/Pg), and thus corresponds to an absolute age of 70.65 ± 0.09 Ma producing an 1.4 Myr younger age than recent published ages

  20. Possible Roles of Plant Sulfurtransferases in Detoxification of Cyanide, Reactive Oxygen Species, Selected Heavy Metals and Arsenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Most

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have evolved various potential mechanisms to surmount the adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity. Plants possess low molecular weight compounds containing sulfhydryl groups (-SH that actively react with toxic metals. For instance, glutathione (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly is a sulfur-containing tripeptide thiol and a substrate of cysteine-rich phytochelatins (γ-Glu-Cys2–11-Gly (PCs. Phytochelatins react with heavy metal ions by glutathione S-transferase in the cytosol and afterwards they are sequestered into the vacuole for degradation. Furthermore, heavy metals induce reactive oxygen species (ROS, which directly or indirectly influence metabolic processes. Reduced glutathione (GSH attributes as an antioxidant and participates to control ROS during stress. Maintenance of the GSH/GSSG ratio is important for cellular redox balance, which is crucial for the survival of the plants. In this context, sulfurtransferases (Str, also called rhodaneses, comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in all phyla, paving the way for the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors, at least in vitro. The best characterized in vitro reaction is the transfer of a sulfane sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of sulfite and thiocyanate. Plants as well as other organisms have multi-protein families (MPF of Str. Despite the presence of Str activities in many living organisms, their physiological role has not been clarified unambiguously. In mammals, these proteins are involved in the elimination of cyanide released from cyanogenic compounds. However, their ubiquity suggests additional physiological functions. Furthermore, it is speculated that a member of the Str family acts as arsenate reductase (AR and is involved in arsenate detoxification. In summary, the role of Str in detoxification processes is still not well understood but seems to be a major function in the organism.

  1. Metabolism of Zearalenone by Genetically Modified Organisms Expressing the Detoxification Gene from Clonostachys rosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Ohsato, Shuichi; Shibata, Takehiko; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Kimura, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is converted to a nontoxic product by a lactonohydololase encoded by zhd101. An enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was fused to zhd101 (i.e., egfp::zhd101) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Both recombinant ZHD101 and EGFP::ZHD101 were purified to homogeneity and characterized. Maximal activity of ZHD101 toward ZEN was measured at approximately 37 to 45°C and pH 10.5 (kcat at 30°C, 0.51 s−1). The enzyme was irreversibly inactivated at pH values below 4.5 or by treatment with serine protease inhibitors. ZHD101 was also active against five ZEN cognates, although the efficiencies were generally low; e.g., the kcat was highest with zearalanone (1.5 s−1) and lowest with β-zearalenol (0.075 s−1). EGFP::ZHD101 had properties similar to those of the individual proteins with regard to the EGFP fluorescence and lactonohydrolase activity. Fortuitously, EGFP::ZHD101 exhibited a good correlation between the fluorescence intensity and reaction velocity under various pH conditions. We therefore used egfp::zhd101 to visually monitor the lactonohydrolase activity in genetically modified organisms and evaluated the usefulness of zhd101 for in vivo detoxification of ZEN. While recombinant E. coli and transgenic rice calluses exhibited strong EGFP fluorescence and completely degraded ZEN in liquid media, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave poor fluorescence and did not eliminate all the toxicity of the mycotoxin in the medium; i.e., the rest of ZEN was transformed into an unfavorable substrate, β-zearalenol, by an as-yet-unidentified reductase and remained in the medium. Even so, as much as 75% of ZEN was detoxified by the yeast transformant, which is better than the detoxification system in which food-grade Lactobacillus strains are used (H. El-Nezami, N. Polychronaki, S. Salminen, and H. Mykkuäne, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:3545-3549, 2002). An appropriate combination of a candidate host microbe and the codon-optimized synthetic gene

  2. Metabolism of zearalenone by genetically modified organisms expressing the detoxification gene from Clonostachys rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Ohsato, Shuichi; Shibata, Takehiko; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Kimura, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is converted to a nontoxic product by a lactonohydololase encoded by zhd101. An enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was fused to zhd101 (i.e., egfp::zhd101) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Both recombinant ZHD101 and EGFP::ZHD101 were purified to homogeneity and characterized. Maximal activity of ZHD101 toward ZEN was measured at approximately 37 to 45 degrees C and pH 10.5 (k(cat) at 30 degrees C, 0.51 s(-1)). The enzyme was irreversibly inactivated at pH values below 4.5 or by treatment with serine protease inhibitors. ZHD101 was also active against five ZEN cognates, although the efficiencies were generally low; e.g., the k(cat) was highest with zearalanone (1.5 s(-1)) and lowest with beta-zearalenol (0.075 s(-1)). EGFP::ZHD101 had properties similar to those of the individual proteins with regard to the EGFP fluorescence and lactonohydrolase activity. Fortuitously, EGFP::ZHD101 exhibited a good correlation between the fluorescence intensity and reaction velocity under various pH conditions. We therefore used egfp::zhd101 to visually monitor the lactonohydrolase activity in genetically modified organisms and evaluated the usefulness of zhd101 for in vivo detoxification of ZEN. While recombinant E. coli and transgenic rice calluses exhibited strong EGFP fluorescence and completely degraded ZEN in liquid media, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave poor fluorescence and did not eliminate all the toxicity of the mycotoxin in the medium; i.e., the rest of ZEN was transformed into an unfavorable substrate, beta-zearalenol, by an as-yet-unidentified reductase and remained in the medium. Even so, as much as 75% of ZEN was detoxified by the yeast transformant, which is better than the detoxification system in which food-grade Lactobacillus strains are used (H. El-Nezami, N. Polychronaki, S. Salminen, and H. Mykkuäne, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:3545-3549, 2002). An appropriate combination of a candidate host microbe and the codon

  3. Fusion-fission in Ar-heavy nuclei collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaric, Alexandre

    1984-01-01

    Fusion-fission products have been studied for three reactions: Ar + Au, Ar + Bi and Ar + U (5.25-7.5 MeV/u). By measuring symmetric fragmentation components (fission-like events), cross sections for fusion were deduced and compared with the prediction of static and dynamic models. With increasing projectile energy, the width of the mass distributions strongly increases for the two lighter systems. By contrast, for Ar + U it remains essentially constant at a very large value. These results clearly demonstrate that the large increase of the width of the mass distribution cannot be attributed simply to large values of the angular momentum. However, they can be explained by the occurrence of a different dissipative process, fast fission, which can be expected if there is no barrier to fission. For the reaction Ar + Au, the total kinetic-energy distributions were also studied in detail. In this case fast fission occurs only at high incident energy. The average total kinetic energy (TKE) was found to be constant with increasing energy. (author) [fr

  4. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  5. Metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in mycorrhizal Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2017-12-01

    Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil. Our results suggest that the sequestration on the cell wall is the main detoxification mechanism in white birch exposed to acute chronic metal-stress, while phytochelatins play a role mitigating metal toxicity inside the cells. Given its high Mn and Zn root-to-shoot translocation rate, Betula pubescens is a very promising species for the phytoremediation of soils polluted with these metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 8: Aerothermodynamics Automation and Robotics (A/R) systems sensors, high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings presented at the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on aerothermodynamics, automation and robotics systems, sensors, and high-temperature superconductivity are included. Topics covered include: aerothermodynamics; aerobraking; aeroassist flight experiment; entry technology for probes and penetrators; automation and robotics; artificial intelligence; NASA telerobotics program; planetary rover program; science sensor technology; direct detector; submillimeter sensors; laser sensors; passive microwave sensing; active microwave sensing; sensor electronics; sensor optics; coolers and cryogenics; and high temperature superconductivity

  7. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 8: Aerothermodynamics Automation and Robotics (A/R) systems sensors, high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings presented at the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on aerothermodynamics, automation and robotics systems, sensors, and high-temperature superconductivity are included. Topics covered include: aerothermodynamics; aerobraking; aeroassist flight experiment; entry technology for probes and penetrators; automation and robotics; artificial intelligence; NASA telerobotics program; planetary rover program; science sensor technology; direct detector; submillimeter sensors; laser sensors; passive microwave sensing; active microwave sensing; sensor electronics; sensor optics; coolers and cryogenics; and high temperature superconductivity.

  8. Client Impact Study of Six Detoxification Centers ("Sub-Acute Receiving Centers").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven E.; And Others

    Results are reported of a study to determine the effects of detoxification centers on the people who use their services. A detoxification center is "a social rehabilitation facility established for the purpose of facilitating access into care and rehabilitation by detoxifying and evaluating the person and providing entrance into the continuum…

  9. 21 CFR 1304.24 - Records for maintenance treatment programs and detoxification treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records for maintenance treatment programs and detoxification treatment programs. 1304.24 Section 1304.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION... treatment programs and detoxification treatment programs. (a) Each person registered or authorized (by...

  10. Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) applied in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ta-Ko; Yang, Chi-Hsun; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Hung, Chun-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    The OSCE is a reliable evaluation method to estimate the preclinical examination of dental students. The most ideal assessment for OSCE is used the augmented reality simulator to evaluate. This literature review investigated a recently developed in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) starting of the dental history to the progress of the dental skill. As result of the lacking of technology, it needs to depend on other device increasing the success rate and decreasing the risk of the surgery. The development of tracking unit changed the surgical and educational way. Clinical surgery is based on mature education. VR and AR simultaneously affected the skill of the training lesson and navigation system. Widely, the VR and AR not only applied in the dental training lesson and surgery, but also improved all field in our life. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  11. Augmented reality (AR and virtual reality (VR applied in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Ko Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The OSCE is a reliable evaluation method to estimate the preclinical examination of dental students. The most ideal assessment for OSCE is used the augmented reality simulator to evaluate. This literature review investigated a recently developed in virtual reality (VR and augmented reality (AR starting of the dental history to the progress of the dental skill. As result of the lacking of technology, it needs to depend on other device increasing the success rate and decreasing the risk of the surgery. The development of tracking unit changed the surgical and educational way. Clinical surgery is based on mature education. VR and AR simultaneously affected the skill of the training lesson and navigation system. Widely, the VR and AR not only applied in the dental training lesson and surgery, but also improved all field in our life. Keywords: OSCE, Dental simulator, Augmented reality, Virtual reality, Dentistry

  12. Proton scattering on unstable nuclei: study of {sup 40}S(p,p`) and {sup 43}Ar(p,p`) reactions, development of detection system MUST; Diffusion de protons par des noyaux instables: Etudes des reactions {sup 40}S(p,p`) et {sup 43}Ar(p,p`), developpement du systeme de detection MUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F

    1998-02-06

    We measured for the first time the elastic and inelastic proton scattering on the {sup 40}S unstable nucleus. The experiment was performed in inverse kinematics at the NSCL AT Michigan State University with a {sup 40}S secondary beam bombarding a CH{sub 2} target at 30 MeV/A. We obtained the elastic scattering angular distribution and two points of the inelastic distribution to the first 2{sup +} excited state found to be located at 860{+-}90 KeV. With a coupled channel analysis, the {beta}{sub 2} quadrupolar deformation parameter is found to be equal to 0.35{+-}0.05. This value can be compared to 0.28{+-}0.02 obtained by coulomb excitation. A macroscopic analysis allowed us to extract the neutron and proton transition matrix element ratio M{sub n}/M{sub p} which is equal to 1.88{+-}0.38. This value, greater than N/Z, could indicate an isovector effect in the first 2{sup +} state excitation which could be due to a difference between the neutron and proton vibrations. The microscopic analysis gives the possibility to test the densities and the transition densities to the first 2{sup +} state. The calculated densities for the {sup 40}S nucleus show a neutron skin. However the microscopic analysis yields a M{sub n}/M{sub p} ratio of 1.40{+-}0.20. A similar elastic and inelastic proton scattering experiment allowed us to get a deformation parameter of 0.25{+-}0.03 for the {sup 43}Ar nucleus. To develop the study of direct reactions induced by radioactive beams at GANIL, we have developed and built, in collaboration with the CEA-Saclay and the CEA-Bruyeres, the new detector MUST.It is based on the silicon strip technology, and is dedicated to the measurement of recoiling light particles emitted in these reactions. The results obtained with a {sup 40}Ar beam at 77 Me V/A, have shown the good performances of the detector for the particle identification as well as for the resolutions, and allow us to consider now a large experimental programme concerning these direct

  13. arXiv Probing Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, E.J.; Dev, P.S.B.; Drewes, M.; Fong, C.S.; Garbrecht, B.; Hambye, T.; Harz, J.; Hernández, P.; Kim, C.S.; Molinaro, E.; Nardi, E.; Racker, J.; Rius, N.; Zamora-Saa, J.

    2018-02-28

    The focus of this chapter lies on the possible experimental tests of leptogenesis scenarios. We consider both leptogenesis generated from oscillations, as well as leptogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays. As the Akhmedov-Rubakov-Smirnov (ARS) mechanism allows for heavy neutrinos in the GeV range, this opens up a plethora of possible experimental tests, e.g. at neutrino oscillation experiments, neutrinoless double beta decay, and direct searches for neutral heavy leptons at future facilities. In contrast, testing leptogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays is a quite difficult task. We comment on the necessary conditions for having successful leptogenesis at the TeV-scale. We further discuss possible realizations and their model specific testability in extended seesaw models, models with extended gauge sectors, and supersymmetric leptogenesis. Not being able to test high-scale leptogenesis directly, we present a way to falsify such scenarios by focusing on their washout processes. This is discussed specific...

  14. An integrated network analysis identifies how ArcAB enables metabolic oscillations in the nitric oxide detoxification network of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Sarah A; Adolfsen, Kristin J; Brynildsen, Mark P

    2017-08-01

    The virulences of many pathogens depend on their abilities to detoxify the immune antimicrobial nitric oxide (NO•). The functions of bacterial NO• detoxification machinery depend on oxygen (O 2 ), with O 2 inhibiting some enzymes, whereas others use it as a substrate. Previously, Escherichia coli NO• detoxification was found to be highly attenuated under microaerobic conditions and metabolic oscillations were observed. The oscillations in [NO•] and [O 2 ] were found to result from the inhibitory action of NO• on aerobic respiration, the catalytic inactivation of NO• by Hmp (an NO• dioxygenase), and an imbalanced competition for O 2 between Hmp and cytochrome terminal oxidase activity. Here the authors investigated the role of the ArcAB two component system (TCS) in microaerobic NO• detoxification. The authors observed that wild-type, ΔarcA, and ΔarcB had comparable initial NO• clearance times; however, the mutant cultures failed to exhibit [NO•] and [O 2 ] oscillations. Using an approach that employed experimentation and computational modeling, the authors found that the loss of oscillations in ΔarcA was due to insufficient induction of cytochrome bd-I expression. Collectively, these results establish ArcAB as a TCS that influences NO• detoxification in E. coli within the physiologically-relevant microaerobic regime. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A model for meteoritic and lunar 40Ar/39Ar age spectra: Addressing the conundrum of multi-activation energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, P.; Harrison, T. Mark; Heizler, M. T.; Warren, P. H.

    2016-11-01

    Results of whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analyses of extra-terrestrial materials have been used to constrain the timing of impacts in the inner solar system, solidification of the lunar magma ocean, and development of planetary magnetic fields. Despite the importance of understanding these events, the samples we have in hand are non-ideal due to mixed provenance, isotopic disturbances from potentially multiple heating episodes, and laboratory artifacts such as nuclear recoil. Although models to quantitatively assess multi-domain, diffusive 40Ar* loss have long been applied to terrestrial samples, their use on extra-terrestrial materials has been limited. Here we introduce a multi-activation energy, multi-diffusion domain model and apply it to 40Ar/39Ar temperature-cycling, step-heating data for meteoritic and lunar samples. We show that age spectra of extra-terrestrial materials, the Jilin chondrite (K-4) and Apollo 16 lunar breccia (67514 , 43), yielding seemingly non-ideal behavior commonly interpreted as either laboratory artifacts or localized shock heating of pyroxene, are meaningful and can be understood in context of the presence of multi-diffusion domains containing multiple activation energies. Internally consistent results from both the meteoritic and lunar samples reveal high-temperature/short duration thermal episodes we interpret as due to moderate shock heating.

  16. GPS-Based AR Games Development Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Alvin Raditya Santoso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of new technologies in a game is not a new thing. One example is the application of Augmented Reality (AR technology in game. Many people do not know the application of AR technology in game, although the application of this technology is able to produce a game with unique gameplay. In addition, since AR game is GPS-based, it offers new gaming experience, that is, playing outdoors in which the real world becomes the game arena. This advantage gives the AR technology a huge potential to be developed into a game

  17. A performance measure for continuity of care after detoxification: relationship with outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Margaret T; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Acevedo, Andrea; Panas, Lee; Ritter, Grant A; Dunigan, Robert; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Bidorini, Alfred; Campbell, Kevin; Haberlin, Karin; Huber, Alice; Lambert-Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Reynolds, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Administrative data from five states were used to examine whether continuity of specialty substance abuse treatment after detoxification predicts outcomes. We examined the influence of a 14-day continuity of care process measure on readmissions. Across multiple states, there was support that clients who received treatment for substance use disorders within 14-days after discharge from detoxification were less likely to be readmitted to detoxification. This was particularly true for reducing readmissions to another detoxification that was not followed with treatment and when continuity of care was in residential treatment. Continuity of care in outpatient treatment was related to a reduction in readmissions in some states, but not as often as when continuity of care occurred in residential treatment. A performance measure for continuity of care after detoxification is a useful tool to help providers monitor quality of care delivered and to alert them when improvement is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Performance Measure for Continuity of Care After Detoxification: Relationship With Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Margaret T.; Horgan, Constance M.; Garnick, Deborah W.; Acevedo, Andrea; Panas, Lee; Ritter, Grant A.; Dunigan, Robert; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Bidorini, Alfred; Campbell, Kevin; Haberlin, Karin; Huber, Alice; Lambert-Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Reynolds, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Administrative data from five states were used to examine whether continuity of specialty substance abuse treatment after detoxification predicts outcomes. We examined the influence of a 14-day continuity of care process measure on readmissions. Across multiple states, there was support that clients who received treatment for substance use disorders within 14-days after discharge from detoxification were less likely to be readmitted to detoxification. This was particularly true for reducing readmissions to another detoxification that was not followed with treatment and when continuity of care was in residential treatment. Continuity of care in outpatient treatment was related to a reduction in readmissions in some states, but not as often as when continuity of care occurred in residential treatment. A performance measure for continuity of care after detoxification is a useful tool to help providers monitor quality of care delivered and to alert them when improvement is needed. PMID:24912862

  19. arXiv The prototype of the HL-LHC magnets monitoring system based on Recurrent Neural Networks and adaptive quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Wielgosz, Maciej; Skoczeń, Andrzej

    This paper focuses on an examination of an applicability of Recurrent Neural Network models for detecting anomalous behavior of the CERN superconducting magnets. In order to conduct the experiments, the authors designed and implemented an adaptive signal quantization algorithm and a custom GRU-based detector and developed a method for the detector parameters selection. Three different datasets were used for testing the detector. Two artificially generated datasets were used to assess the raw performance of the system whereas the 231 MB dataset composed of the signals acquired from HiLumi magnets was intended for real-life experiments and model training. Several different setups of the developed anomaly detection system were evaluated and compared with state-of-the-art OC-SVM reference model operating on the same data. The OC-SVM model was equipped with a rich set of feature extractors accounting for a range of the input signal properties. It was determined in the course of the experiments that the detector, a...

  20. Arsenic Uptake, Toxicity, Detoxification, and Speciation in Plants: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Murtaza, Behzad; Bibi, Irshad; Shahid, Muhammad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Amjad, Muhammad; Hussain, Munawar

    2018-01-02

    Environmental contamination with arsenic (As) is a global environmental, agricultural and health issue due to the highly toxic and carcinogenic nature of As. Exposure of plants to As, even at very low concentration, can cause many morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes. The recent research on As in the soil-plant system indicates that As toxicity to plants varies with its speciation in plants (e.g., arsenite, As(III); arsenate, As(V)), with the type of plant species, and with other soil factors controlling As accumulation in plants. Various plant species have different mechanisms of As(III) or As(V) uptake, toxicity, and detoxification. This review briefly describes the sources and global extent of As contamination and As speciation in soil. We discuss different mechanisms responsible for As(III) and As(V) uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants, at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. This review highlights the importance of the As-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as their damaging impacts on plants at biochemical, genetic, and molecular levels. The role of different enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (salicylic acid, proline, phytochelatins, glutathione, nitric oxide, and phosphorous) substances under As(III/V) stress have been delineated via conceptual models showing As translocation and toxicity pathways in plant species. Significantly, this review addresses the current, albeit partially understood, emerging aspects on (i) As-induced physiological, biochemical, and genotoxic mechanisms and responses in plants and (ii) the roles of different molecules in modulation of As-induced toxicities in plants. We also provide insight on some important research gaps that need to be filled to advance our scientific understanding in this area of research on As in soil-plant systems.

  1. The effects of retrograde reactions and of diffusion on 39Ar-40Ar ages of micas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allaz, Julien; Engi, Martin; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Effects of metamorphic reactions occurring during decompression were explored to understand their influence on 39Ar-40Ar ages of micas. Monometamorphic metasediments from the Lepontine Alps (Switzerland) were studied. Collected samples reached lower amphibolite facies during the Barrovian metamor...

  2. A Refined Astronomically Calibrated 40Ar/39Ar Age for Fish Canyon Sanidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Zeeden, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) neutron fluence...... monitor, by multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometry, through cross-calibration with A1 tephra sanidines (A1Ts) of the direct astronomically tuned Faneromeni section (Crete). The astronomically intercalibrated 40Ar/39Ar age of FCs of 28.172±0.028 Ma (2σ, external errors) is within the uncertainty of......, but more precise (±0.10%) than, the previous 40Ar/39Ar age determined by intercalibration with astronomically tuned tephras from the Melilla Basin (Morocco). Using this proposed age for FCs, combined with measurements using the A1Ts as the neutron fluence monitor, a weighted mean Bishop Tuff 40Ar/39Ar...

  3. 40Ar-39Ar method for age estimation: principles, technique and application in orogenic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmejer, R.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of the K-Ar method for age estimation by 40 Ar/ 39 Ar recently developed is described. This method doesn't require direct analysis of potassium, its content is calculated as a function of 39 Ar, which is formed from 39 K under neutron activation. Errors resulted from interactions between potassium and calcium nuclei with neutrons are considered. The attention is paid to the technique of gradual heating, used in 40 Ar- 39 Ar method, and of obtaining age spectrum. Aplicabilities of isochronous diagram is discussed for the case of presence of excessive argon in a sample. Examples of 40 Ar- 39 Ar method application for dating events in orogenic regions are presented

  4. 39Ar/Ar measurements using ultra-low background proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Jeter; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco M.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Day, Anthony R.; Humble, Paul H.; Mace, Emily K.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Age-dating groundwater and seawater using the 39 Ar/Ar ratio is an important tool to understand water mass-flow rates and mean residence time. Low-background proportional counters developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory use mixtures of argon and methane as counting gas. We demonstrate sensitivity to 39 Ar by comparing geological (ancient) argon recovered from a carbon dioxide gas well and commercial argon. The demonstrated sensitivity to the 39 Ar/Ar ratio is sufficient to date water masses as old as 1000 years. - Highlights: • 39 Ar/Ar age dating is important for understanding environmental water migration. • Ultra low background proportional counters have been developed. • 39 Ar is detected in atmospheric argon at a rate of 70.3 counts per day. The demonstrated background is 166 counts per day. • Age dating is possible for water with underground residence time of up to 1000 years.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and archaeal arsC gene sequences suggests an ancient, common origin for arsenate reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugas Sandra L

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ars gene system provides arsenic resistance for a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. The arsC gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance and transforms arsenate into arsenite, which is extruded from the cell. A survey of GenBank shows that arsC appears to be phylogenetically widespread both in organisms with known arsenic resistance and those organisms that have been sequenced as part of whole genome projects. Results Phylogenetic analysis of aligned arsC sequences shows broad similarities to the established 16S rRNA phylogeny, with separation of bacterial, archaeal, and subsequently eukaryotic arsC genes. However, inconsistencies between arsC and 16S rRNA are apparent for some taxa. Cyanobacteria and some of the γ-Proteobacteria appear to possess arsC genes that are similar to those of Low GC Gram-positive Bacteria, and other isolated taxa possess arsC genes that would not be expected based on known evolutionary relationships. There is no clear separation of plasmid-borne and chromosomal arsC genes, although a number of the Enterobacteriales (γ-Proteobacteria possess similar plasmid-encoded arsC sequences. Conclusion The overall phylogeny of the arsenate reductases suggests a single, early origin of the arsC gene and subsequent sequence divergence to give the distinct arsC classes that exist today. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA and arsC phylogenies support the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT in the evolution of arsenate reductases, with a number of instances of HGT early in bacterial arsC evolution. Plasmid-borne arsC genes are not monophyletic suggesting multiple cases of chromosomal-plasmid exchange and subsequent HGT. Overall, arsC phylogeny is complex and is likely the result of a number of evolutionary mechanisms.

  6. Detoxification with titration and tapering in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependent patients : The Dutch GHB monitor project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Kamal, Rama; van Noorden, Martijn S; de Haan, Hein; Loonen, Anton J.M.; De Jong, Cor A J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) detoxification procedures have been insufficiently studied for effectiveness and safety. Based on case reports, benzodiazepines are generally regarded as first-choice agents in GHB detoxification. Detoxification by titration and tapering (DeTiTap)

  7. Re-Evaluation of Ar-39 - Ar-40 Ages for Apollo Lunar Rocks 15415 and 60015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Shih, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    We re-analyzed 39Ar-40Ar ages of Apollo lunar highland samples 15415 and 60015, two ferroan anorthosites analyzed previously in the 1970 s, with a more detailed approach and with revised decay constants. From these samples we carefully prepared 100-200 mesh mineral separates for analysis at the Noble Gas Laboratory at NASA-Johnson Space Center. The Ar-39-Ar-40 age spectra for 15415 yielded an age of 3851 +/- 38 Ma with 33-99% of Ar39 release, roughly in agreement with previously reported Ar-Ar ages. For 60015, we obtained an age of 3584 +/- 152 Ma in 23-98% of Ar39 release, also in agreement with previously reported Ar-Ar ages of approximately 3.5 Ga. Highland anorthosites like these are believed by many to be the original crust of the moon, formed by plagioclase floatation atop a magma ocean, however the Ar-Ar ages of 15415 and 60015 are considerably younger than lunar crust formation. By contrast, recently recovered lunar anorthosites such as Dhofar 489, Dhofar 908, and Yamato 86032 yield older Ar-Ar ages, up to 4.35 Ga, much closer to time of formation of the lunar crust. It follows that the Ar-Ar ages of the Apollo samples must have been reset by secondary heating, and that this heating affected highland anorthosites at both the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 landing sites but did not affect lunar highland meteorites. One obvious consideration is that while the Apollo samples were collected from the near side of the moon, these lunar meteorites are thought to have originated from the lunar far side

  8. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANEY, T.

    2000-01-01

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated

  9. Plasma application for detoxification of Jatropha phorbol esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongmany, S.; Matsuura, H.; Furuta, M.; Okuda, S.; Imamura, K.; Maeda, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generated by helium gas at high voltage and input power of about 50 W was first applied to detoxification of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters (J. PEs) as well as standard phorbol ester (4β-12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in water and methanol. Plasma irradiation on the solution sample was conducted for 15 min. In aqueous solution, only 16% of TPA was degraded and complete degradation of J. PEs was observed. On the contrary, complete degradation of both TPA and J. PEs in methanol was achieved by the same plasma irradiation condition. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) generated by plasma irradiation of the solution is expected as the main radical inducing the degradation of PEs.

  10. Detoxification Mechanisms of Mercury Toxicity in Plants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Shrivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the earth’s crust. It has been considered as environmental pollutant because of its potent toxicity to plants and humans. In this review, we discuss mercury toxicity responses on plant metabolism and its detoxification mechanism by phytochelatins and antioxidant enzymes. Some light is also shed on selenium antagonistic study with mercury. Due to its potential toxicity, it has attracted attention in fields of soil science and plant nutrition. Mercury has harmful toxic effects on the molecular and physiobiochemical behavior of plants. Mostly research work has been done on seed germination, and shoot, root, and leaf morphology. Enzyme responses with respect to mercury as a result Hg accumulated in food chain is also reviewed here. Hence, this review may provide a compiled data for other researches in this direction, to provide a better mechanism or details about mercury’s noxious effect in the ecosystem.

  11. Solar photocatalytic degradation and detoxification of EU priority substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincapie, M. [Facultad de Ingeniera Ambiental, Universidad de Medellin, Carrera 87 No. 30-65, P.O. Box 1983, Medellin (Colombia); Maldonado, M.I.; Oller, I.; Gernjak, W.; Malato, S. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Carretera Senes km4, 04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain); Sanchez-Perez, J.A.; Ballesteros, M.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Almeria Crta de Sacramento s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    Several different pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron, isoproturon and pentachlorophenol) considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission and dissolved in water at 50mg/L (or at maximum water solubility) have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using photo-Fenton and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis driven by solar energy. Two different iron concentrations (2 and 55mg/L) and TiO{sub 2} at 200mg/L have been tested and discussed, using mainly TOC mineralisation for comparison of treatment effectiveness. Vibrio fischeri (Microtox{sup (}R)) toxicity assays were also employed for evaluating the photocatalytic treatments, and comparison between these results and parent compound disappearance, TOC evolution and anion (or ammonia) release were discussed. Almost complete mineralisation and total detoxification were always attained. It has been demonstrated that evolution of chloride could be a key-parameter for predicting toxicity of chlorinated compounds.

  12. Detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents by bacterial phosphotriesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Eman; Raushel, Frank M.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphates have been widely used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents. The health risks associated with these agents have necessitated the need for better detoxification and bioremediation tools. Bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing the lethal organophosphate nerve agents are of special interest. Phosphotriesterase (PTE) isolated from the soil bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta displays a significant rate enhancement and substrate promiscuity for the hydrolysis of organophosphate triesters. Directed evolution and rational redesign of the active site of PTE have led to the identification of new variants with enhanced catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity toward the hydrolysis of organophosphate neurotoxins. PTE has been utilized to protect against organophosphate poisoning in vivo. Biotechnological applications of PTE for detection and decontamination of insecticides and chemical warfare agents are developing into useful tools. In this review, the catalytic properties and potential applications of this remarkable enzyme are discussed

  13. Technical Procedures Management in Gas-Phase Detoxification Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona Garcia, A. I.; Sanchez Cabrero, B.

    2000-01-01

    The natural cycle of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) has been disturbed by the industrial and socioeconomic activities of human beings. This imbalance in the environment has affected the ecosystems and the human health. Initiatives have been planned to mitigate these adverse effects. In order to minimize the hazardous effects, initiatives have been proposed for the treatment of gaseous emissions. The solar photo catalysis appears as a clear and renewable technology in front of the conventional ones.In CIEMAT this line is being investigated as the base of a future implementation at a pre industrial scale.Technical procedures are written in this document for testing Gas-Phase detoxification at lab scale in the Renewable Energy Department (DER) CIEMAT- Madrid to eliminate the VOCs by using the solar photo catalysis technology. (Author) 34 refs

  14. Evolution in an ancient detoxification pathway is coupled with a transition to herbivory in the drosophilidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, Andrew D; Vassão, Daniel G; Hailey, Alexander L; Nelson Dittrich, Anna C; Schramm, Katharina; Reichelt, Michael; Rast, Timothy J; Weichsel, Andrzej; Cravens, Matthew G; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Montfort, William R; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-09-01

    Chemically defended plant tissues present formidable barriers to herbivores. Although mechanisms to resist plant defenses have been identified in ancient herbivorous lineages, adaptations to overcome plant defenses during transitions to herbivory remain relatively unexplored. The fly genus Scaptomyza is nested within the genus Drosophila and includes species that feed on the living tissue of mustard plants (Brassicaceae), yet this lineage is derived from microbe-feeding ancestors. We found that mustard-feeding Scaptomyza species and microbe-feeding Drosophila melanogaster detoxify mustard oils, the primary chemical defenses in the Brassicaceae, using the widely conserved mercapturic acid pathway. This detoxification strategy differs from other specialist herbivores of mustard plants, which possess derived mechanisms to obviate mustard oil formation. To investigate whether mustard feeding is coupled with evolution in the mercapturic acid pathway, we profiled functional and molecular evolutionary changes in the enzyme glutathione S-transferase D1 (GSTD1), which catalyzes the first step of the mercapturic acid pathway and is induced by mustard defense products in Scaptomyza. GSTD1 acquired elevated activity against mustard oils in one mustard-feeding Scaptomyza species in which GstD1 was duplicated. Structural analysis and mutagenesis revealed that substitutions at conserved residues within and near the substrate-binding cleft account for most of this increase in activity against mustard oils. Functional evolution of GSTD1 was coupled with signatures of episodic positive selection in GstD1 after the evolution of herbivory. Overall, we found that preexisting functions of generalized detoxification systems, and their refinement by natural selection, could play a central role in the evolution of herbivory. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  15. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sehlmeyer

    2010-05-01

    and the functional characterization of a further member of this enzyme family shed light on this almost uncharacterized detoxification system in insects.

  16. Ar I as a tracer of ionization evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladilo, G.; Centurión, M.; D'Odorico, V.; Péroux, C.

    2003-05-01

    We present a study of Ar abundances in 15 damped Ly alpha systems (DLAs) in the redshift interval 2.3 HIRES/Keck observations). The majority of DLAs show significant underabundances of Ar relative to other alpha -capture elements with common nucleosynthetic origin. We show that neither dust depletion nor intervening H Ii regions inside DLAs offer a viable justification to these underabundances. A natural explanation is found in the framework of photoionization models of H I regions embedded in an ionizing continuum with varying spectral distribution. At z ~ 2.5 the observed Ar deficiencies are large, [Ar/alpha ] =~ -0.6/-0.8 dex, suggestive of a hard, QSO-dominated spectrum. At z >~ 3 the deficiencies are instead small, suggestive of a soft, stellar-type spectrum, though more data are needed to generalize this high-z result. Should the change of Ar abundances with redshift be governed by the evolution of the UV stellar emission internal to DLAs, a synchronization of the star formation in DLAs would be required, with a strong stellar emission at z > 3, but weak at z external background must become softer at z > 3. The former requirement is consistent with the modest evolution of DLAs abundances and the lack of Ly alpha and H alpha emissions associated with DLAs. The latter requirement is consistent with the observed evolution of Si Iv/C Iv ratios in the IGM, the claims of high escape fraction of UV photons from Ly-break galaxies at z >~ 3, and the recent finding that the He Ii re-ionization seems to occur between z ~ 3.4 and z ~ 3. Comparison with results from local interstellar studies indicates that Ar abundances can be used to trace the evolution of the ionization history of the universe down to z=0, where [Ar/alpha ] ~ -0.2 dex. We predict a rise of Ar abundances in the redshift range from z =~ 2.3 to z=0, at the epoch at which the metagalactic field of galaxies overcomes that of quasars. Based on observations made with the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen telescope operated on

  17. BOA detoxification of four summer weeds during germination and seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    A recent greenhouse study revealed a significant reduction of germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) by rye mulch, whereas velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) were not suppressed. Since BOA detoxification by metabolic alteration may influence the relation between the benzoxazinoid content of the soil mulch and weed suppression, we tested the dynamics in BOA detoxification in different plant organs of three and 10-day-old seedlings of four warm season weeds incubated with five BOA concentrations (4, 20, 40, 80, and 200 μmol g(-1) fresh weight). In addition, germination and length of 3-day-old seedlings were measured after exposure to 0, 0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μmol BOA. Finally, we tested the influence of the MDR translocator inhibitors verapamil, nifedipine, and the GST inhibitor ethycrynic acid on BOA accumulation and detoxification activity. Due to BOA-detoxification, all weeds were able to grow in environments with low BOA contents. At higher contents, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album had a better chance to survive because of highly active mechanisms that avoided the uptake of BOA (A. theophrasti) and of efficient detoxification activities in youngest seedlings (C. album). The interpretation of all of the data gave the following sequence of increasing sensitivity: A. theophrasti detoxification of BOA influences the survival of certain weeds in environments enriched with this allelochemical. Therefore, detoxification processes affect the potential for weed suppression by soil allelochemicals in sustainable weed management.

  18. Mothers' experiences of their children's detoxification in the home: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2012-07-01

    Detoxification from alcohol and/or drugs and the achievement of abstinence without formal treatment is often preferred using community-based supports from local GPs and family. Family members are often involved in the sourcing of information on detoxification and treatment options, user advocacy and provision of remedial supports while detoxifying within the family home. The aim of the research was to describe and explore family experiences of self-detoxification processes from the perspectives of mothers in the Mid West of Ireland. A convenience sample of adult mothers who had experienced their child detoxifying in the home (n=9) were interviewed. The findings illustrated varied personal definitions of detoxification. Addiction stigma and costly experiences of treatment and after care pathways facilitated home detoxification attempts. A lack of GP advice, support and information around safe home detoxification was observed to contribute to information and support seeking from friends, family and community members with home detoxification experience. Self-medication of both licit and illicit substances while detoxifying, and relapse cycles were common. The research highlights the need for inclusive health and social supports provided by GPs, community nurses, RGNs and district nurses for families and individuals detoxifying in the home setting.

  19. 40Ar/39Ar age spectra from the KBS Tuff, Koobi Fora Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.

    1981-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectra on anorthoclase phenocrysts from three pumice clasts in the KBS Tuff yield nearly ideal flat patterns, providing good evidence that the samples have remained undisturbed since crystallization. The ages are concordant at 1.88 = 0.02 Myr, and confirm that the KBS Tuff, a key marker bed in the Koobi Fora Formation, northern Kenya, is now very well dated. These results resolve the conflict between earlier 40 Ar/ 39 Ar and conventional K-Ar dating measurements on the KBS Tuff. (author)

  20. 40Ar/39Ar age spectra from the KBS Tuff, Koobi Fora Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Ian

    1981-11-12

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectra on anorthoclase phenocrysts from three pumice clasts in the KBS Tuff yield nearly ideal flat patterns, providing good evidence that the samples have remained undisturbed since crystallization. The ages are concordant at 1.88±0.02 Myr, and confirm that the KBS Tuff, a key marker bed in the Koobi Fora Formation, northern Kenya, is now very well dated. These results resolve the conflict between earlier 40 Ar/ 39 Ar and conventional K-Ar dating measurements on the KBS Tuff.

  1. Photodissociation dynamics of Ar2(+) and Ar3(+) excited by 527 nm photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepère, V; Picard, Y J; Barat, M; Fayeton, J A; Lucas, B; Béroff, K

    2009-05-21

    The photofragmentation dynamics of Ar(2)(+) and Ar(3)(+) clusters has been investigated at a 527 nm wavelength (2.35 eV) using a setup that allows simultaneous detection of the ionic and neutral fragments in a coincidence experiment. Measurement of positions and times of flight enables in principle a complete description of the fragmentation dynamics. The photofragmentation dynamics of Ar(3)(+) clusters is similar to that of Ar(2)(+) with, in addition, the ejection of a third fragment that can be neutral or ionized via a resonant electron capture. This is attributed to the triangular geometry of the Ar(3)(+) ion.

  2. Buprenorphine versus dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification in primary care: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Clive E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many drug users present to primary care requesting detoxification from illicit opiates. There are a number of detoxification agents but no recommended drug of choice. The purpose of this study is to compare buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for detoxification from illicit opiates in primary care. Methods Open label randomised controlled trial in NHS Primary Care (General Practices, Leeds, UK. Sixty consenting adults using illicit opiates received either daily sublingual buprenorphine or daily oral dihydrocodeine. Reducing regimens for both interventions were at the discretion of prescribing doctor within a standard regimen of not more than 15 days. Primary outcome was abstinence from illicit opiates at final prescription as indicated by a urine sample. Secondary outcomes during detoxification period and at three and six months post detoxification were recorded. Results Only 23% completed the prescribed course of detoxification medication and gave a urine sample on collection of their final prescription. Risk of non-completion of detoxification was reduced if allocated buprenorphine (68% vs 88%, RR 0.58 CI 0.35–0.96, p = 0.065. A higher proportion of people allocated to buprenorphine provided a clean urine sample compared with those who received dihydrocodeine (21% vs 3%, RR 2.06 CI 1.33–3.21, p = 0.028. People allocated to buprenorphine had fewer visits to professional carers during detoxification and more were abstinent at three months (10 vs 4, RR 1.55 CI 0.96–2.52 and six months post detoxification (7 vs 3, RR 1.45 CI 0.84–2.49. Conclusion Informative randomised trials evaluating routine care within the primary care setting are possible amongst drug using populations. This small study generates unique data on commonly used treatment regimens.

  3. 37Ar and 39Ar in meteorites and the spatial cosmic ray gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusser, G.; Schaeffer, O.A.

    1977-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-produced 37 Ar (tsub(1/2) = 35 days), and 39 Ar (tsub(1/2) = 269 years) in the Fe-Ni phase of meteorites have been studied in connection with their implications for the radial gradient of cosmic ray particles. For the chondrite, Canon City, which fell on October 27, 1973, 20.1 +- 1.5 dpm/kg FeNi of 37 Ar and 22.5 +- 1.4 dpm/kg FeNi of 39 Ar was found. Usually, the 37 Ar/ 39 Ar ratio is used to deduce a spatial gradient. However, 37 Ar data reported in the literature are inconsistent. They fluctuate much more than could be accounted for by different orbits and the anticipated correlation with the cosmic ray neutron registrations is rather weak. Consequently, the 37 Ar/ 39 Ar-derived gradient has a low confidence level. On the other hand, 39 Ar activities group close to a mean value of 22.5 dpm/kg FeNi and appear to be almost independent of the different meteoroid orbits. A comparison of measured 39 Ar activities in meteorites with those calculated for orbits obtained from fireball data shows that a gradient of 10%/Au or less is reconcilable with the experimental findings. The average gradient (E > 200 MeV) during the last 500 years was probably not much larger than that measured presently by the Pioneer 10 and 11, and Helios spacecrafts. (Auth.)

  4. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia; Santos, Miguel M.; Rocha, Maria João; Rocha, Eduardo; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  5. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina, E-mail: catarinarcruzeiro@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Lopes-Marques, Mónica, E-mail: monicaslm@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Ruivo, Raquel, E-mail: ruivo.raquel@gmail.com [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia, E-mail: nadia.oliveira@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Santos, Miguel M., E-mail: santos@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Maria João, E-mail: mjsrocha@netcabo.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo, E-mail: erocha@icbas.up.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C., E-mail: filipe.castro@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  6. Evidence of interatomic Coulombic decay in ArKr after Ar 2p Auger decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Y; Saito, N; Suzuki, I H; Fukuzawa, H; Liu, X-J; Sakai, K; Pruemper, G; Ueda, K; Iwayama, H; Nagaya, K; Yao, M; Kreidi, K; Schoeffler, M; Jahnke, T; Schoessler, S; Doerner, R; Weber, T; Harries, J; Tamenori, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have identified interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) processes in the ArKr dimer following Ar 2p Auger decay, using momentum-resolved electron-ion-ion coincidence spectroscopy and simultaneously determining the kinetic energy of the ICD electron and the KER between Ar 2+ and Kr + . We find that the spin-conserved ICD processes in which Ar 2+ (3p -3 3d) 1 P and 3 P decay to Ar 2+ (3p -2 ) 1 D and 3 P, respectively, ionizing the Kr atom, are significantly stronger than the spin-flip ICD processes in which Ar 2+ (3p -3 3d) 1 P and 3 P decay to Ar 2+ (3p -2 ) 3 P and 1 D, respectively

  7. Ar-40/Ar-39 laser-probe dating of diamond inclusions from the Premier kimberlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D.; Onstott, T. C.; Harris, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The results of Ar-40/Ar-39 laser-probe analyses of individual eclogitic clinopyroxene inclusions from Premier diamonds are reported which yield a mean age of 1198 + or - 14 Myr. This age agrees well with Sm-Nd and Ar-40/Ar-39 analyses on similar Premier inclusions and is indistinguishable from the inferred time of emplacement of the host kimberlite, which implies that diamond formation was essentially synchronous with kimberlite generation. The extrapolated nonradiogenic Ar-40/Ar-36 ratio of 334 + or - 102 is similar to the present-day atmospheric composition. This value is inconsistent with Sr and Nd isotopic signatures from Premier eclogite inclusions, which suggest a depleted mantle source. Preentrapment equilibration of the inclusions with an Ar-36-rich fluid is the most probable explanation for the low nonradiogenic composition.

  8. Detoxification of medication-overuse headache by a multidisciplinary treatment programme is highly effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    the acceptability, feasibility and outcome of these two regimes in a non-randomised open-label study. Methods: Patients able to undergo outpatient detoxification, with medication-overuse headache that had previously been unsuccessfully treated by specialists and without significant co-morbidities were treated...... and only 61.9% of these patients needed prophylactics after two months compared with 84.8% in programme A. Conclusions: Both structured detoxification programmes proved highly effective with one-year close follow-up in previously treatment-resistant patients with medication-overuse headache. We suggest...... multidisciplinary education for patients in groups and delaying initiation of prophylactics until after the detoxification....

  9. Collisional excitation of ArH+ by hydrogen atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2018-03-01

    The rotational excitation of the 36ArH+ ion in collisions with hydrogen atoms is investigated in this work. The potential energy surface (PES) describing the 36ArH+-H interaction, with the ion bond length r fixed at the average of r over the radial v = 0 vibrational state distribution, was obtained with a coupled cluster method that included single, double, and (perturbatively) triple excitations [RCCSD(T)]. A deep minimum (De = 3135 cm-1) in the PES was found in linear H-ArH+ geometry at an ion-atom separation Re = 4.80a0. Energy-dependent cross sections and rate coefficients as a function of temperature for this collision pair were computed in close-coupling (CC) calculations. Since the PES possesses a deep well, this is a good system to test the performance of the quantum statistical (QS) method developed by Manolopoulos and co-workers as a more efficient method to compute the cross sections. Good agreement was found between rate coefficients obtained by the CC and QS methods at several temperatures. In a simple application, the excitation of ArH+ is simulated for conditions under which this ion is observed in absorption.

  10. StAR Enhances Transcription of Genes Encoding the Mitochondrial Proteases Involved in Its Own Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Assaf; Perlberg, Shira; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Lauria, Ines; Langer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. StAR activity facilitates the supply of cholesterol substrate into the inner mitochondrial membranes where conversion of the sterol to a steroid is catalyzed. Mitochondrial import terminates the cholesterol mobilization activity of StAR and leads to mounting accumulation of StAR in the mitochondrial matrix. Our studies suggest that to prevent mitochondrial impairment, StAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, ie, the matrix LON protease and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 and AFG3L2:SPG7/paraplegin. Gonadotropin administration to prepubertal rats stimulated ovarian follicular development associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial protein quality control system. In addition, enrichment of LON and AFG3L2 is evident in StAR-expressing ovarian cells examined by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, reporter studies of the protease promoters examined in the heterologous cell model suggest that StAR expression stimulates up to a 3.5-fold increase in the protease gene transcription. Such effects are StAR-specific, are independent of StAR activity, and failed to occur upon expression of StAR mutants that do not enter the matrix. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the presence of a novel regulatory loop, whereby acute accumulation of an apparent nuisance protein in the matrix provokes a mitochondria to nucleus signaling that, in turn, activates selected transcription of genes encoding the enrichment of mitochondrial proteases relevant for enhanced clearance of StAR. PMID:24422629

  11. On mechanism of Ar(3p54p) states excitation in low-energy Ar-Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurskov, S Y; Kashuba, A S

    2009-01-01

    The present work is devoted to study of Ar(3p 5 4p) states excitation in binary low-energy Ar-Ar collisions. The results of the experimental investigation of excitation cross sections of Ar I 4p'[l/2] 1 , 4p'[3/2] 1 , 4p'[3/2] 2 and 4p[3/2] 2 levels in the collision energy range from threshold up to 500 eV (cm) and degree of polarization for 4s[3/2] 2 0 -4p'[l/2] 1 and 4s[3/2] 2 0 -4p[3/2] 2 transitions in this energy range are represented.

  12. Temperature Dependences of the Quantum-Mechanical and Semi-Classical Spectral-Line Widths and the Separation 0 of the Impact and Non-Impact Regions for an Ar-Perturbed/K-Radiator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Kreye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-mechanical and semi-classical spectral-line shapes are computed at =400, 800, and 1000 K for the line core of the 5802 Å line of the Ar-Perturbed/K-Radiator system. HWHMs ('s are measured from computed full spectral-line shapes. The final-state pseudopotential is for the 721/2 state, and the initial-state potential is for the 423/2,3/2 state. Three high-pressure (P log(—versus—log( curves, corresponding to the non-impact region, intersect a similar set of low-P, impact-region curves at intersections, 0's. Similarly, for two sets of log(—versus—log( curves, which yield intersections, 0's, where is the perturber density. These 0's and 0's separate the two regions and represent the upper limits of the impact regions. A specific validity condition for the impact region is given by the equation ≤0. From an earlier spectroscopic, Fabry-Perot paper, expt=0.021 cm−1 at =400 K and =10 torr. Two theoretical values, theor=0.025 and 0.062 cm−1 corresponding to two different pseudo-potentials, are reported. Two -dependent figures are given, in which the first shows an increase in the impact region with , based on as the basic parameter, and the second which shows a decrease in the impact region with , based on as the basic parameter.

  13. Characterization of the biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification capacity of a bacterial consortium able to degrade the fungicide thiabendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchon, Chiara; Pantoleon, Anastasios; Veroutis, Dimitrios; Gallego-Blanco, Sara; Martin-Laurent, F; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2017-12-01

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a persistent fungicide used in the post-harvest treatment of fruits. Its application results in the production of contaminated effluents which should be treated before their environmental discharge. In the absence of efficient treatment methods in place, biological systems based on microbial inocula with specialized degrading capacities against TBZ could be a feasible treatment approach. Only recently the first bacterial consortium able to rapidly transform TBZ was isolated. This study aimed to characterize its biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification potential. The capacity of the consortium to mineralize 14 C-benzyl-ring labelled TBZ was initially assessed. Subsequent tests evaluated its degradation capacity under various conditions (range of pH, temperatures and TBZ concentration levels) and relevant practical scenarios (simultaneous presence of other postharvest compounds) and its bioaugmentation potential in soils contaminated with increasing TBZ levels. Finally cytotoxicity assays explored its detoxification potential. The consortium effectively mineralized the benzoyl ring of the benzimidazole moiety of TBZ and degraded spillage level concentrations of the fungicide in aqueous cultures (750 mg L -1 ) and in soil (500 mg kg -1 ). It maintained its high degradation capacity in a wide range of pH (4.5-7.5) and temperatures (15-37 °C) and in the presence of other pesticides (ortho-phenylphenol and diphenylamine). Toxicity assays using the human liver cancer cell line HepG2 showed a progressive decrease in cytotoxicity, concomitantly with the biodegradation of TBZ, pointing to a detoxification process. Overall, the bacterial consortium showed high potential for future implementation in bioremediation and biodepuration applications.

  14. Ars Baltica-verkoston puheenjohtajuus Suomeen Risto Ruohoselle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1990. a. loodud võrgustiku Ars Baltica sekretariaat (Ars Baltica Contact Point & Communication Center) tuleb Kielist Tallinnasse Eesti kultuuriministeeriumi kuni aastani 2002 (Suur-Karja 23). Ars Baltica (ühendus)

  15. Ar-40/Ar-39 Studies of Martian Meteorite RBT 04262 and Terrestrial Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Turrin, B.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J. S.; Swisher, C. C., III; Nagao, K.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2014-01-01

    Park et al. recently presented an Ar-40/Ar-39 dating study of maskelynite separated from the Martian meteorite RBT 04262. Here we report an additional study of Ar-40/Ar-39 patterns for smaller samples, each consisting of only a few maskelynite grains. Considered as a material for Ar-40/Ar-39 dating, the shock-produced glass maskelynite has both an important strength (relatively high K concentration compared to other mineral phases) and some potentially problematic weaknesses. At Rutgers, we have been analyzing small grains consisting of a single phase to explore local effects that might be averaged and remain hidden in larger samples. Thus, to assess the homogeneity of the RBT maskelynite and for comparison with the results of, we analyzed six approx. 30 microgram samples of the same maskelynite separate they studied. Furthermore, because most Ar-40/Ar-39 are calculated relative to the age of a standard, we present new Ar-40/Ar-39 age data for six standards. Among the most widely used standards are sanidine from Fish Canyon (FCs) and various hornblendes (hb3gr, MMhb-1, NL- 25), which are taken as primary standards because their ages have been determined by independent, direct measurements of K and A-40.

  16. Geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar age of Early Carboniferous dolerite sills in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Motuza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Early Carboniferous magmatic event in the southern Baltic Sea is manifested by dolerite intrusions. The presumable area in which the dolerite intrusions occur ranges from 30 to 60 km in east–west direction, and is about 100 km in north–south direction. The dolerites were sampled in well D1-1 and investigated by applying chemical analysis and 40Ar/39Ar step-heating dating. Dolerites are classified as alkali and sodic, characterized by high TiO2 (3.92, 3.99 wt% and P2O5 (1.67, 1.77 wt% and low MgO (4.89, 4.91 wt% concentrations, enriched in light rare earth elements, originated from an enriched mantle magma source and emplaced in a continental rift tectonic setting. The 351 ± 11 Ma 40Ar/39Ar plateau age for groundmass plagioclase indicates a considerable age gap with the 310–250 Ma magmatism in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany. The magmatic rocks in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin are coeval with alkaline intrusions of NE Poland. Both magmatic provinces lie in the northwestward prolongation of the Pripyat–Dnieper–Donetsk Rift (370–359 Ma and may constitute a later phase of magmatic activity of this propagating rift system.

  17. 77 FR 72752 - Opioid Drugs in Maintenance and Detoxification Treatment of Opiate Addiction; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... and Detoxification Treatment of Opiate Addiction; Proposed Modification of Dispensing Restrictions for... of a patient's responsibility and stability to receive opioid addiction treatment medication. Opioid... addiction. The special authorization is required under federal law because these medications can be abused...

  18. Esterase detoxification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors by human or rat liver in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methylcarbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but differences in metabolism and detoxification can influence potency of these pesticides across and within species. Carboxylesterase (CaE) and A-esterase (paraoxonase, PON) are considered...

  19. Detoxification and oxidative stress responses along with microcystins accumulation in Japanese quail exposed to cyanobacterial biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pašková, Veronika; Adamovský, Ondřej; Pikula, J.; Skočovská, B.; Bandouchová, H.; Horáková, J.; Babica, Pavel; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Hilscherová, Klára

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 398, 1-3 (2008), s. 34-47 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacteria * detoxification * quails Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2008

  20. "Ars Ornata" Mediterrania / Kadri Mälk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälk, Kadri, 1958-

    1999-01-01

    VI rahvusvaheline ehtekunstinäitus "Ars Ornata" juuni lõpus Barcelonas. Konverentsist, peanäitusest (osalejad Eestist), ehtekunstiõpetust andvast kõrgkoolist Escola Massana'st Barcelonas, õppejõude. Eesti ehtekunsti tulevikust.

  1. Ars ornata / Kadri Mälk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälk, Kadri, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    V rahvusvaheline ehtekunsti konverents 'Ars ornata Europeana' juuni lõpus Stockholmis. New Yorgis elava kuraatori Charon Kranseni ja prantsuse ehtekunstniku Christophe Burger' juhitud vestlusringidest. 1997. a. Pariisis loodud International Craft Design Association'ist (ICDA).

  2. ARS 01 Helsingi Kiasmas / Tarmo Virki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Virki, Tarmo

    2001-01-01

    Helsingis Kiasmas avatud rahvusvahelisest kunstinäitusest ARS 01 alapealkirjaga "Avanevaid perspektiive", kus esines oma töödega ka Marko Mäetamm. Näituse raames toimuvast Santiago Sierra kunstiprojektist kodututega

  3. Complete detoxification is the most effective treatment of medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Louise Ninett; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-01-01

    Background There is lack of evidence on how to detoxify medication-overuse headache. Aim To compare the effect of complete stop of acute medication with restricted intake. Methods Medication-overuse headache patients were included in a prospective, outpatient study and randomized to two months' d...... Both detoxification programs were very effective. Detoxification without analgesics or acute migraine-medication was the most effective program. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02903329)....

  4. The AR Sandbox: Augmented Reality in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Kellogg, L. H.; Reed, S.; Hsi, S.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Schladow, G.; Segale, H.; Chan, L.

    2016-12-01

    The AR Sandbox is a combination of a physical box full of sand, a 3D (depth) camera such as a Microsoft Kinect, a data projector, and a computer running open-source software, creating a responsive and interactive system to teach geoscience concepts in formal or informal contexts. As one or more users shape the sand surface to create planes, hills, or valleys, the 3D camera scans the surface in real-time, the software creates a dynamic topographic map including elevation color maps and contour lines, and the projector projects that map back onto the sand surface such that real and projected features match exactly. In addition, users can add virtual water to the sandbox, which realistically flows over the real surface driven by a real-time fluid flow simulation. The AR Sandbox can teach basic geographic and hydrologic skills and concepts such as reading topographic maps, interpreting contour lines, formation of watersheds, flooding, or surface wave propagation in a hands-on and explorative manner. AR Sandbox installations in more than 150 institutions have shown high audience engagement and long dwell times of often 20 minutes and more. In a more formal context, the AR Sandbox can be used in field trip preparation, and can teach advanced geoscience skills such as extrapolating 3D sub-surface shapes from surface expression, via advanced software features such as the ability to load digital models of real landscapes and guiding users towards recreating them in the sandbox. Blueprints, installation instructions, and the open-source AR Sandbox software package are available at http://arsandbox.org .

  5. AR Scorpii: a New White Dwarf in the Ejector State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskrovnaya, N. G.; Ikhsanov, N. R.

    2017-06-01

    Marsh et al. (2016) have recently reported the discovery of a radio-pulsing white dwarf in the cataclysmic variable AR Sco. The period of pulsations which are also seen in the optical and UV is about 117 seconds. High intensity of pulsing radiation and non-thermal character of its spectrum leave little room for doubt that the white dwarf in AR Sco operates as a spin-powered pulsar and, therefore, is in the ejector state. We show that this system is very much resembling a well-known object AE Aqr. In both systems the compact components are spin-powered and have relatively strong surface magnetic field of order of 100-500 MG. They originated due to accretion spin-up in the previous epoch during which the magnetic field of the white dwarf had substantially evolved being initially buried by the accreted matter and recovered to its initial value after the spin-up phase had ended.

  6. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes.

  7. Oxazaphosphorine bioactivation and detoxification: the role of xenobiotic receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxazaphosphorines, with the most representative members including cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and trofosfamide, constitute a class of alkylating agents that have a broad spectrum of anticancer activity against many malignant ailments including both solid tumors such as breast cancer and hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma. Most oxazaphosphorines are prodrugs that require hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes to generate active alkylating moieties before manifesting their chemotherapeutic effects. Meanwhile, oxazaphosphorines can also be transformed into non-therapeutic byproducts by various drug-metabolizing enzymes. Clinically, oxazaphosphorines are often administered in combination with other chemotherapeutics in adjuvant treatments. As such, the therapeutic efficacy, off-target toxicity, and unintentional drug–drug interactions of oxazaphosphorines have been long-lasting clinical concerns and heightened focuses of scientific literatures. Recent evidence suggests that xenobiotic receptors may play important roles in regulating the metabolism and clearance of oxazaphosphorines. Drugs as modulators of xenobiotic receptors can affect the therapeutic efficacy, cytotoxicity, and pharmacokinetics of coadministered oxazaphosphorines, providing a new molecular mechanism of drug–drug interactions. Here, we review current advances regarding the influence of xenobiotic receptors, particularly, the constitutive androstane receptor, the pregnane X receptor and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, on the bioactivation and detoxification of oxazaphosphorines, with a focus on cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide.

  8. Azoreductase and dye detoxification activities of Bacillus velezensis strain AB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafana, Amit; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Devi, Sivanesan Saravana

    2008-01-01

    Azo dyes are known to be a very important and widely used class of toxic and carcinogenic compounds. Although lot of research has been carried out for their removal from industrial effluents, very little attention is given to changes in their toxicity and mutagenicity during the treatment processes. Present investigation describes isolation of a Bacillus velezensis culture capable of degrading azo dye Direct Red 28 (DR28). Azoreductase enzyme was isolated from it, and its molecular weight was found to be 60 kDa. The enzyme required NADH as cofactor and was oxygen-insensitive. Toxicity and mutagenicity of the dye during biodegradation was monitored by using a battery of carefully selected in vitro tests. The culture was found to degrade DR28 to benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl, both of which are potent mutagens. However, on longer incubation, both the compounds were degraded further, resulting in reduction in toxicity and mutagenicity of the dye. Thus, the culture seems to be a suitable candidate for further study for both decolourization and detoxification of azo dyes, resulting in their safe disposal.

  9. A study of high peroxynitrite generated in purge head outlet of charger with continuous supply of superior purification CDA system for 193 nm ArF reticle haze prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fu-Sheng; Chiou, Shean-Hwan

    2008-05-01

    In this study, A phenomenon of high peroxynitrite generated in purge gas in purge head outlet of RSP SMIF-POD Charger was found. A superior purification CDA("CDA" is abbreviated from Clean Dry Air) continuous purge system has been used in 193nm ArF reticle chemical free preservation process for mask Haze control. Ion Chromatography(IC) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry(thermal desorber GC-MS) methods are used to analyze and verify inorganic ion and volatility organic compound cleanliness of purge gas, respectively. After IC analysis, high nitrate ion concentration was detected in UPW("UPW" is abbreviated from Ultra-Purification Water). As a result of this study, It is confident of presuming that high peroxynitrite contamination in purge gas in purge head outlet was caused by the blow type in-line gas ionizer, high potential(approximate 2KV) needle discharge influence on the inside of purge piping of Charger. After bypass in-line gas ionizer apparatus, the IC analysis result has a tendency towards a diminution in peroxynitrite that nitrate ion was not detected in UPW at all. At the same operation condition, if purge gas replace by superior purification AN2(A Class Nitrogen) and the inference conjectured that high ammonium ion response in UPW would take place. According to our study, superior purification CDA passed through the emitter tip of blow type in-line gas ionizers and under high potential needle discharge influence, high peroxynitrite concentration was generated in purge gas in purge head outlet of Charger. Due to the generation of peroxynitrite ion contamination in purge gas, it was not suitable to apply in the prevention of ESD damage of mask pattern in superior purification CDA(Clean Dry Air) continuous purge system. In this study, we also unexpectedly find that the blow type in-line gas ionizer with thermoplastic conductive tube resulted in purge gas a large number of volatility organic compounds(VOCs) contamination. VOC outgassing was generated

  10. Age measurements of potassium-bearing sulfide minerals by the 40Ar/39Ar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czamanske, G.K.; Lanphere, M.A.; Erd, R.C.; Blake, M.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    K-Ar ages have been determined for sulfide minerals for the first time. The occurrence of adequate amounts of potassium-bearing sulfides with ideal compositions K 3 Fe 10 S 14 (approximately 10 wt.% K) and KFe 2 S 3 (approximately 16 wt.% K) in samples from a mafic alkalic diatreme at Coyote Peak, California, prompted an attempt to date these materials. K 3 Fe 10 S 14 , a massive mineral with conchoidal fracture, gives an age of 29.4 +- 0.5 m.y. ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar), indistinguishable from the 28.3 +- 0.4 m.y. ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar) and 30.2 +- 1.0 m.y. (conventional K-Ar) ages obtained for associated phlogopite (8.7 wt.% K). KFe 2 S 3 , a bladed, fibrous sulfide, gives a younger age, 26.5 +- 0.5 m.y. ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar), presumably owing to Ar loss. (Auth.)

  11. 40Ar/39Ar systematics and argon diffusion in amber: implications for ancient earth atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G.P.; Snee, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    Argon isotope data indicate retained argon in bulk amber (matrix gas) is radiogenic [40Ar/39Ar ???32o] than the much more abundant surface absorbed argon [40Ar/39Ar ???295.5]. Neutron-induced 39Ar is retained in amber during heating experiments to 150?? -250??C, with no evidence of recoiled 39Ar found after irradiation. A maximum permissible volume diffusion coefficient of argon in amber (at ambient temperature) D???1.5 x 10-17 cm2S-1 is calculated from 39Ar retention. 40Ar/39Ar age calculations indicate Dominican Republic amber is ??? 45 Ma and North Dakota amber is ??? 89 Ma, both at least reasonable ages for the amber based upon stratigraphic and paleontological constraints and upon the small amount of radiogenic 40Ar. To date, over 300 gas analyses of ambers and resins of Cretaceous to Recent age that are geographically distributed among fifteen noted world locations identify mixtures of gases in different sites within amber (Berner and Landis, 1988). The presence of multiple mixing trends between compositionally distinct end-members gases within the same sample and evidence for retained radiogenic argon within the amber argue persuasivley against rapid exchange by diffusion of amber-contained gases with moder air. Only gas in primary bubbles entrapped between successive flows of tree resin has been interpreted as original "ancient air", which is an O2-rich end-member gas with air-like N2/Ar ratios. Gas analyses of these primary bubbles indicate atmospheric O2 levels in the Late Cretaceous of ??? 35%, and that atmospheric O2 dropped by early Tertiary time to near a present atmospheric level of 21% O2. A very low argon diffusion coefficient in amber persuasively argues for a gas in primary bubbles trapped in amber being ancient air (possibly modified only by O2 reaction with amber). ?? 1991.

  12. Resetting of Neoarchaean hornblendes from the Murmansk Terrane (Kola Peninsula, Russia) revealed by a combined 40Ar/39Ar and Rb-Sr analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, K.; Timmerman, M. J.; Cliff, R. A.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Daly, J. S.; Balagansky, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    We present isotope data from amphiboles from the 2.6--2.8 Ga Murmansk Terrane in the northern foreland of the 1.9 Ga Lapland-Kola Orogen of northern Fennoscandia. Most amphiboles are zoned with tschermakitic cores that progressively change to actinolite in 5--10 μm wide areas in rims, defect zones or adjacent to biotite. Biotite chiefly occurs along cleavages, fractures and grain boundaries of amphibole, showing that its hydration and fluid ingress are confined to lattice imperfections. Furnace step heating of hornblende separate MT-11 gave spectra with increasing apparent ages and Ca/K ratios (a proxy for 37ArCa/39Ar_K). Hornblende is intergrown with biotite that also occurs in the matrix. Yet, laser step heating of single hornblende grain MT-11 yielded flat spectra with Neoarchaean apparent ages and constant Ca/K ratios. This suggests that the hornblende grain that was drilled from a thin section and which was not affected by biotite growth retained its Neoarchaean age. In contrast, the hornblende separate with intergrown biotite from this sample has a partially reset Neoarchaean isotope system. Hornblende MT-27 has Neoarchaean apparent ages and lacks low Ca/K ratios in both single grain and mineral separate spectra; it is not affected by biotite growth and this mineral is also absent from the matrix. Age spectra of other hornblende separates have increasing apparent ages to 2.56--2.65 Ga during final 39Ar release; their Ca/K ratio spectra similarly increase. Low Ca/K ratios for gas release below 950^oC imply degassing of included biotite. Apparent ages of the first heating increments may be as young as 1.8 Ga, comparable to the K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the youngest biotites. Hornblende-plagioclase pairs from aliquots used for 40Ar/39Ar furnace step heating yielded sharply discordant Rb-Sr ages. MT-11 yielded an 1881 ± 23 Ma Rb-Sr age that compares well with the K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of biotite in the sample. In contrast, hornblende of sample MT-27 has a

  13. Impact of Dietary Fibers on Nutrient Management and Detoxification Organs: Gut, Liver, and Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Martin, Roy J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-11-01

    Increased dietary fiber (DF) intake elicits a wide range of physiologic effects, not just locally in the gut, but systemically. DFs can greatly alter the gut milieu by affecting the gut microbiome, which in turn influences the gut barrier, gastrointestinal immune and endocrine responses, and nitrogen cycling and microbial metabolism. These gut-associated changes can then alter the physiology and biochemistry of the body's other main nutrient management and detoxification organs, the liver and kidneys. The molecular mechanisms by which DF alters the physiology of the gut, liver, and kidneys is likely through gut-localized events (i.e., bacterial nitrogen metabolism, microbe-microbe, and microbe-host cell interactions) coupled with specific factors that emanate from the gut in response to DF, which signal to or affect the physiology of the liver and kidneys. The latter may include microbe-derived xenometabolites, peptides, or bioactive food components made available by gut microbes, inflammation signals, and gut hormones. The intent of this review is to summarize how DF alters the gut milieu to specifically affect intestinal, liver, and kidney functions and to discuss the potential local and systemic signaling networks that are involved. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Impact of Dietary Fibers on Nutrient Management and Detoxification Organs: Gut, Liver, and Kidneys12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Martin, Roy J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-01-01

    Increased dietary fiber (DF) intake elicits a wide range of physiologic effects, not just locally in the gut, but systemically. DFs can greatly alter the gut milieu by affecting the gut microbiome, which in turn influences the gut barrier, gastrointestinal immune and endocrine responses, and nitrogen cycling and microbial metabolism. These gut-associated changes can then alter the physiology and biochemistry of the body’s other main nutrient management and detoxification organs, the liver and kidneys. The molecular mechanisms by which DF alters the physiology of the gut, liver, and kidneys is likely through gut-localized events (i.e., bacterial nitrogen metabolism, microbe-microbe, and microbe–host cell interactions) coupled with specific factors that emanate from the gut in response to DF, which signal to or affect the physiology of the liver and kidneys. The latter may include microbe-derived xenometabolites, peptides, or bioactive food components made available by gut microbes, inflammation signals, and gut hormones. The intent of this review is to summarize how DF alters the gut milieu to specifically affect intestinal, liver, and kidney functions and to discuss the potential local and systemic signaling networks that are involved. PMID:28140328

  15. COMMIX-1AR/P: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems. Volume 2, User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, P.L.; Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    1992-09-01

    The COMMIX-1AR/P computer program is designed for analyzing the steady-state and transient aspects of single-phase fluid flow and heat transfer in three spatial dimensions. This version is an extension of the modeling in COMMIX-1A to include multiple fluids in physically separate regions of the computational domain, modeling descriptions for pumps, radiation heat transfer between surfaces of the solids which are embedded in or surround the fluid, a k-{var_epsilon} model for fluid turbulence, and improved numerical techniques. The porous-medium formulation in COMMIX allows the program to be applied to a wide range of problems involving both simple and complex geometrical arrangements. The input preparation and execution procedures are presented for the COMMIX-1AR/P program and several postprocessor programs which produce graphical displays of the calculated results.

  16. Characteristics and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Erdenet Cu-Mo deposit, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalieris, Imants; Khashgerel, Bat-Erdene; Morgan, Leah; Undrakhtamir, Alexander; Borohul, Adiya

    2017-01-01

    50 to 200 m from the granodiorite porphyry contact, although D veins (and chalcopyrite) extend outward to the propylitic zone.The Erdenet porphyry system, was overprinted by advanced argillic alteration, which outcrops 2 km northwest of the pit, and forms a lithocap that extends over 10 × 2.5 km. It is characterized by residual quartz, andalusite, Na-Ca and K-alunite, diaspore, pyrophyllite, zunyite, topaz, dickite, and kaolinite. The upper part of the porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (removed by mining), comprised a bornite-chalcocite enriched zone up to 300 m thick with an average grade of 0.7 wt % Cu and up to 5 wt % Cu locally. Based on hypogene bornite-chalcocite mineral textures and high-sulfidation state mineralogy, the enriched zone is inferred to be of hypogene origin, but modified by supergene processes. Consequently, it may be related to formation of the lithocap.Previous Re-Os dates of 240.4 and 240.7 ± 0.8 Ma for molybdenite in quartz veins are comparable to new 40Ar/39Ar dates of 239.7 ± 1.6 and 240 ± 2 Ma for muscovite that envelops D veins. One 40Ar/39Ar date on K-alunite from the lithocap of 223.5 ± 1.9 Ma suggests that it may be about 16 m.y. younger than Erdenet, but this result needs to be verified by further dating.

  17. Detoxification and elimination of nicotine by nectar-feeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch-Henning, S; Du Rand, E E; Nicolson, S W

    2017-05-01

    Many dilute nectars consumed by bird pollinators contain secondary metabolites, potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants as defences against herbivores. Consequently, nectar-feeding birds are challenged not only by frequent water excess, but also by the toxin content of their diet. High water turnover, however, could be advantageous to nectar consumers by enabling them to excrete secondary metabolites or their transformation products more easily. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences osmoregulation in white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens. We also examined the metabolic fate of nicotine in these two species to shed more light on the post-ingestive mechanisms that allow nectar-feeding birds to tolerate nectar nicotine. A high concentration of nicotine (50 µM) decreased cloacal fluid output and increased its osmolality in both species, due to reduced food intake that led to dehydration. White-eyes excreted a higher proportion of the ingested nicotine-containing diet than sunbirds. However, sugar concentration did not affect nicotine detoxification and elimination. Both species metabolised nicotine, excreting very little unchanged nicotine. Cape white-eyes mainly metabolised nicotine through the cotinine metabolic pathway, with norcotinine being the most abundant metabolite in the excreta, while white-bellied sunbirds excreted mainly nornicotine. Both species also utilized phase II conjugation reactions to detoxify nicotine, with Cape white-eyes depending more on the mercapturic acid pathway to detoxify nicotine than white-bellied sunbirds. We found that sunbirds and white-eyes, despite having a similar nicotine tolerance, responded differently and used different nicotine-derived metabolites to excrete nicotine.

  18. Gossypol toxicity and detoxification in Helicoverpa armigera and Heliothis virescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempl, Corinna; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna M; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo Hugo; Reichelt, Michael; Menezes, Riya Christina; Boland, Wilhelm; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G; Joußen, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Gossypol is a polyphenolic secondary metabolite produced by cotton plants, which is toxic to many organisms. Gossypol's aldehyde groups are especially reactive, forming Schiff bases with amino acids of proteins and cross-linking them, inhibiting enzyme activities and contributing to toxicity. Very little is known about gossypol's mode of action and its detoxification in cotton-feeding insects that can tolerate certain concentrations of this compound. Here, we tested the toxicity of gossypol and a gossypol derivative lacking free aldehyde groups (SB-gossypol) toward Helicoverpa armigera and Heliothis virescens, two important pests on cotton plants. Larval feeding studies with these two species on artificial diet supplemented with gossypol or SB-gossypol revealed no detectable toxicity of gossypol, when the aldehyde groups were absent. A cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP6AE14, is upregulated in H. armigera feeding on gossypol, and has been claimed to directly detoxify gossypol. However, using in vitro assays with heterologously expressed CYP6AE14, no metabolites of gossypol were detected, and further studies suggest that gossypol is not a direct substrate of CYP6AE14. Furthermore, larvae feeding on many other plant toxins also upregulate CYP6AE14. Our data demonstrate that the aldehyde groups are critical for the toxicity of gossypol when ingested by H. armigera and H. virescens larvae, and suggest that CYP6AE14 is not directly involved in gossypol metabolism, but may play a role in the general stress response of H. armigera larvae toward plant toxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A refined astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar age for Fish Canyon sanidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, T.A.; Storey, M.; Zeeden, C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Kuiper, K.

    2011-01-01

    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the FishCanyon sanidine (FCs) neutron fluence monitor,

  20. Activation of Nrf2 attenuates carbonyl stress induced by methylglyoxal in human neuroblastoma cells: Increase in GSH levels is a critical event for the detoxification mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Shoichi; Koike, Shin; Inoue, Naho; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ogasawara, Yuki

    2017-02-05

    The present study focused on the methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification mechanism in neuroblastoma cells. The involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway as a defense response against the formation of MG-modified proteins, which is well-known evidence of carbonyl stress, was also examined. We found that MG treatment resulted in accumulation of modified proteins bearing the structure of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from MG in SH-SY5Y cells. This accumulation was suppressed by activation of the Nrf2 pathway prior to MG exposure via pre-treatment with an Nrf2 activator, carnosic acid and CDDO-Im, confirming the involvement of the Nrf2 pathway in MG detoxification. Although pre-treatment with the Nrf2 activator did not affect mRNA levels of GLO1, AKR1B1, and AKR7A2, the expressions of GCL and xCT mRNA, involved in GSH synthesis, were induced prior to increase in GSH levels. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a GSH synthesis inhibitor eliminated the MG detoxification effect derived from pretreatment with the Nrf2 activator. These results indicated that increase in GSH levels, induced by pre-treatment with carnosic acid, promoted the formation of the GLO1 substrate, hemithioacetal, thereby accelerating MG metabolism via the glyoxalase system and suppressing its toxicity. It was, therefore, determined that promotion of GSH synthesis via the Nrf2/Keap1pathway is important in the MG detoxification mechanism against neuronal MG-induced carbonyl stress, and Nrf2 activators contribute to reduction in the accumulation and toxic expression of carbonyl proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ARDOSE: a PC program for stack design and the PRR-1 41Ar effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopando, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    General atomics (GA) calculated the rate of release of 41 Ar in the safety analysis report it prepared for TRIGA conversion of the PRR-1 (TR-86-01, 1987), and PNRI attempted to calculate the exposure dose to the public from the rate of release and meteorological data for the reactor site (Palattao et al., 1989) The former calculation is not completely applicable now, because the physical configurations of the irradiation facilities and ventilation system have changed. The result of the latter calculation is in doubt because the 41 Ar release rate it claimed to use is not in agreement with TR-86-01, 1987. AR DOSE was written to replace both of these calculations with one program for the PC. AR DOSE is a companion program to DBA DOSE (The Nucleus, 1989), a program written to calculate the exposure dose from the release of fission products during the design basis accident (DBA). The PRR-1 uses the same stack for DBA release as for the routine release of 41 Ar elluent. The source code of AR DOSE contains approximately 1100 lines of FORTRAN-77 (written for the Microsoft Fortran 4.10 compiler) and 300 lines of Assembler. AR D OSE.EXE is only 50 kB in size and needs only about 54 kB of RAM to run. A math-coprocessor is not needed but will speed up runs considerably. 7 refs., 1 tab

  2. Cerebral artery alpha-1 AR subtypes: high altitude long-term acclimatization responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Goyal

    Full Text Available In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (α1 - adrenergic receptor (AR subtypes (α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-AR. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH, contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific α1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m. Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n = 5; P<0.05 in the maximum tension achieved by 10-5 M phenylephrine (PHE. LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05 inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific α1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05 α1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by α1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on α1-AR subtype expression and function.

  3. Qualidade do ar em ambientes internos hospitalares

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros, Marina Eller

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Ambiental. A qualidade de vida das pessoas é grandemente influenciada pela qualidade do ar que respiram. Em centros urbanos, mais de 80% do tempo é passado em ambientes internos. No caso específico de unidades de saúde, a qualidade do ar pode exercer influência direta no tempo de recuperação dos pacientes e na ocorrência de infecções hospitalares. O objetivo deste tr...

  4. Phenolic extract of Dialium guineense pulp enhances reactive oxygen species detoxification in aflatoxin B₁ hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Abdulwasiu O; Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Iliasu, Ganiyat A; Abdussalam, Folakemi A; Balogun, Abdulazeez; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Yakubu, Musa T

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of Dialium guineense pulp phenolic extract on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging potentials of free and bound phenolic extract of D. guineense (0.2-1.0 mg/mL) were investigated in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical, and ferric ion reducing system. In the in vivo study, 35 animals were randomized into seven groups of five rats each. Free and bound phenolic extract (1 mg/mL) produced 66.42% and 93.08%, 57.1% and 86.0%, 62.0% and 90.05%, and 60.11% and 72.37% scavenging effect on DPPH radical, O2(-) radical, H2O2, and hydroxyl radical, while ferric ion was significantly reduced. An AFB1-mediated decrease in the activities of ROS detoxifying enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase) was significantly attenuated (P<.05). AFB1-mediated elevation in the concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers; malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and percentage DNA fragmentation were significantly lowered by D. guineense phenolic extract (P<.05). Overall, the in vitro and in vivo effects suggest that D. guineense phenolic extract elicited ROS scavenging and detoxification potentials, as well as the capability of preventing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA fragmentation.

  5. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates genes responsible for detoxification in intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutuzova, Galina D.; DeLuca, Hector F.

    2007-01-01

    1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 ), the biologically active form of vitamin D 3 , not only plays a major role in mammalian calcium and phosphorous homeostasis but also exerts pleiotropic effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and the immune system. Further, vitamin D is believed to play a significant role in the prevention of colon, prostate, and breast cancer and in reducing the risk of autoimmune diseases. To gain insight into the mechanism whereby vitamin D can have such diverse actions, we have employed microarray technology. We studied the effect of a single dose of 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 on gene expression in the intestine of vitamin D-deficient rats. Within 6 h, 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 stimulates the expression of several phase I and phase II biotransformation genes. There is also an increased expression of antioxidant genes. These results support the idea that vitamin D is a significant factor in detoxification and protection against environmental toxins

  6. Detoxification of sulfur mustard by enzyme-catalyzed oxidation using chloroperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, S; Nawała, J

    2013-10-10

    One of the most interesting methods for the detoxification of sulfur mustard is enzyme-catalyzed oxidation. This study examined the oxidative destruction of a sulfur mustard by the enzyme chloroperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.10). Chloroperoxidase (CPO) belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various organic compounds by peroxide in the presence of a halide ion. The enzymatic oxidation reaction is affected by several factors: pH, presence or absence of chloride ion, temperature, the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and enzyme and aqueous solubility of the substrate. The optimum reaction conditions were determined by analyzing the effects of all factors, and the following conditions were selected: solvent, Britton-Robinson buffer (pH=3) with tert-butanol (70:30 v/v); CPO concentration, 16U/mL; hydrogen peroxide concentration, 40mmol/L; sodium chloride concentration, 20mmol/L. Under these reaction conditions, the rate constant for the reaction is 0.006s(-1). The Michaelis constant, a measure of the affinity of an enzyme for a particular substrate, is 1.87×10(-3)M for this system. The Michaelis constant for enzymes with a high affinity for their substrate is in the range of 10(-5) to 10(-4)M, so this value indicates that CPO does not have a very high affinity for sulfur mustard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ESTUDO TEÓRICO DO RESFRIAMENTO COM AR FORÇADO DE FRUTAS DE GEOMETRIAS DIFERENTES THEORETICAL STUDY OF FRUITS COOLING WITH DIFFERENT FORMS GEOMETRICAL IN THE FORCED-AIR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara TERUEL

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se um estudo numérico para a obtenção das curvas de resfriamento de laranja Valência, (Citrus sinensis O. e banana prata (Mussa balbisiana Colla, em posições diferentes ao longo do leito e acondicionadas em embalagens com 40% de área efetiva de abertura. Os frutos foram resfriados num sistema de circulação com ar forçado (1.933m³/h, à temperatura de 1°C e 7°C, umidade relativa de 88,4 ± 2,0% e velocidade do ar em torno de 1m/s. Um modelo matemático bidimensional, em coordenadas esferoidais prolato, foi aplicado para predizer a condução de calor transiente dentro das frutas, assumindo-se condição de contorno convectiva na superfície do corpo. As equações geradas foram resolvidas numericamente pelo método de volumes finitos e o coeficiente convectivo de transferência de calor foi obtido aplicando o método de ajuste do erro quadrático mínimo, entre os dados experimentais e numéricos. A análise comparativa das curvas teóricas e experimentais mostrou uma concordância satisfatória, com valores de erro entre 5% e 7%. Notou-se que o coeficiente de transferência de calor varia com a posição dos frutos no leito e que o tempo de resfriamento apresenta uma variação de aproximadamente 38% entre os diferentes pontos. A distribuição espacial de temperatura no interior dos frutos, para três instantes de tempo, demonstrou a existência de um diferencial de temperatura entre o centro e a superfície de aproximadamente 30%. O modelo matemático prediz que a taxa de resfriamento nas bananas é muito mais alta nas pontas que nas outras regiões do fruto. O número de Bi e de Fo mostraram-se adequados e representativos do processo estudado, caracterizando adequadamente o resfriamento de corpos em qualquer relação de área/volume diferente.This paper presents a numerical study for obtaining cooling curves of orange Valência (Citrus sinensis O. and banana Prata (Mussa Balbisiana Colla, in different

  8. 40Ar-39Ar age clustering in the active phonolitic Cadamosto Seamount (Cape Verdes): Indications for periodic magmatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrock, L. K.; Hansteen, T. H.; Wartho, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Cape Verde archipelago is situated 400-800 km off the west coast of Africa and is comprised of a northern and southern chain of islands and seamounts. Morphological observations and previous radiometric dating of the islands indicate a slow age progression, over 22 Ma, from east to west (Holm et al. 2008). We present the first radiometric ages for Cadamosto Seamount, which is composed of complex evolved volcanics and is situated at the southwestern tip of the Cape Verde archipelago (e.g. Barker et al. 2012). We analyzed five different submarine phonolites that were sampled by remotely operated vehicles (ROV) Kiel 6000 and dredging during the RV Meteor (M80/3) and RV Poseidon (POS320/2) cruises. Fresh sanidine, nepheline, and biotite grains were selected and carefully prepared for 40Ar-39Ar single grain total fusion analysis. Sanidine single grain 40Ar-39Ar ages from 5 samples range from 11.5 ± 6.5 ka to 349.0 ± 20.4 ka (2σ errors), and cluster in several age groupings (using the decay constant and atmospheric air ratio of Steiger & Jäger (1977), and age standard TCS2 (27.87 ± 0.04 Ma; 1σ; M.A. Lanphere, pers. comm.)). Three age groups can be identified within the youngest (0-170 ka) sanidines, which are separated by periods of 52-54 ka. Nepheline grains from one sample yielded much older ages of 169.5 ± 16.5 ka to 1521.5 ± 8.3 ka (2σ). Our data suggests young ages for the Cadamosto Seamount, which is in accordance with recorded seismic activity (Grevemeyer et al. 2010), and its position adjacent to the recently active islands of Fogo (last eruption in 2014/2015) and Brava (recent seismic activity). The different sub-groups of sanidine 40Ar-39Ar ages can be used to identify different activity maxima corresponding to cycles of magmatic productivity in a long-lived magmatic system. Ongoing petrologic investigations will be used to identify the relative importance of processes such as mantle melting rates, magma replenishment and magma chamber processes

  9. Detoxification of cruciferous phytoalexins in Botrytis cinerea: spontaneous dimerization of a camalexin metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Hossain, Sajjad; Snitynsky, Ryan B

    2011-02-01

    Phytopathogenic fungi are able to overcome plant chemical defenses through detoxification reactions that are enzyme mediated. As a result of such detoxifications, the plant is quickly depleted of its most important antifungal metabolites and can succumb to pathogen attack. Understanding and predicting such detoxification pathways utilized by phytopathogenic fungi could lead to approaches to control plant pathogens. Towards this end, the inhibitory activities and metabolism of the cruciferous phytoalexins camalexin, brassinin, cyclobrassinin, and brassilexin by the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. (teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana) was investigated. Brassilexin was the most antifungal of the phytoalexins, followed by camalexin, cyclobrassinin and brassinin. Although B. cinerea is a species phylogenetically related to the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary, contrary to S. sclerotiorum, detoxification of strongly antifungal phytoalexins occurred via either oxidative degradation or hydrolysis but not through glucosylation, suggesting that glucosyl transferases are not involved. A strongly antifungal bisindolylthiadiazole that B. cinerea could not detoxify was discovered, which resulted from spontaneous oxidative dimerization of 3-indolethiocarboxamide, a camalexin detoxification product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contrasting metal detoxification in polychaetes, bivalves and fish from a contaminated bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Xu, Zhizhen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-02-01

    Jinzhou Bay in Bohai, Northern China, is historically contaminated with metals, but the organisms living in such contaminated environments are much less well studied. In this study, we contrasted the different subcellular and detoxification responses of polychaetes, bivalves and fish collected from different contaminated sites in Jinzhou Bay. In polychaete Neanthes japonica, metal-rich granule (MRG) was the main biologically detoxified metal compartment, and metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) detoxified a relatively smaller fraction of accumulated metals. The importance of MRG increased whereas that of MTLP decreased with increasing metal bioaccumulation. Detoxification in the two bivalves was similar to that in the polychaetes. However, the MRG appeared to play only a minor role in metal binding and detoxification in the gills and livers of fish, whereas MTLP was the dominating detoxification pool. Cellular debris was an important pool binding with metals in the three marine animals. Our study highlighted the contrasting cellular binding and detoxification among different marine organisms living in contaminated environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between knockdown resistance, metabolic detoxification and organismal resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daibin; Chang, Xuelian; Zhou, Guofa; He, Zhengbo; Fu, Fengyang; Yan, Zhentian; Zhu, Guoding; Xu, Tielong; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Wang, Mei-Hui; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is the most important vector of malaria in Southeast Asia, including China. Currently, the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission relies on vector control through the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. Extensive use of insecticides poses strong selection pressure on mosquito populations for resistance. Resistance to insecticides can arise due to mutations in the insecticide target site (target site resistance), which in the case of pyrethroids is the para-type sodium channel gene, and/or the catabolism of the insecticide by detoxification enzymes before it reaches its target (metabolic detoxification resistance). In this study, we examined deltamethrin resistance in An. sinensis from China and investigated the relative importance of target site versus metabolic detoxification mechanisms in resistance. A high frequency (>85%) of nonsynonymous mutations in the para gene was found in populations from central China, but not in populations from southern China. Metabolic detoxification as measured by the activity of monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) was detected in populations from both central and southern China. Monooxygenase activity levels were significantly higher in the resistant than the susceptible mosquitoes, independently of their geographic origin. Stepwise multiple regression analyses in mosquito populations from central China found that both knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations and monooxygenase activity were significantly associated with deltamethrin resistance, with monooxygenase activity playing a stronger role. These results demonstrate the importance of metabolic detoxification in pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis, and suggest that different mechanisms of resistance could evolve in geographically different populations.

  12. A Stage I Pilot Study of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Methadone Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L.; Green, Charles; Masuda, Akihiko; Grabowski, John; Wilson, Kelly; Northrup, Thomas; Moeller, F. Gerard; Schmitz, Joy

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND While agonist replacement therapies are effective for managing opioid dependence, community treatment programs are increasingly choosing detoxification. Unfortunately, success rates for opioid detoxification are very low, in part, due to physical and psychological symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. Few behavior therapies specifically address the distressing experiences specific to opioid withdrawal. A novel behavioral treatment, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), works from the premise that the avoidance of unpleasant private experiences (thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations) is ubiquitous yet may be pathogenic, resulting in treatment drop-out and further drug use. METHODS This Stage I pilot study developed and tested an ACT-based opioid detoxification behavioral therapy. Opioid dependent patients (N = 56) who were attending a licensed methadone clinic were randomized to receive either 24 individual therapy sessions of ACT or Drug Counseling (DC) in the context of a 6-month methadone dose reduction program. RESULTS While no difference was found on opioid use during treatment, 37% of participants in the ACT condition were successfully detoxified at the end of treatment compared to 19% of those who received DC. Fear of detoxification was also reduced across time in the ACT condition relative to DC. CONCLUSION This first study of ACT to assist opioid detoxification indicates promise. Research is needed to refine specific treatment strategies for this population to further strengthen effects. PMID:22425411

  13. Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wenwen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113 undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

  14. Coulomb excitation of proton rich nuclei 32Ar and 34Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepyoshkina, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In the present thesis an investigation of the low-lying strength in the proton-rich nuclei 32 Ar and 34 Ar is reported. The earlier observation of low-lying dipole strength in neutron-rich nuclei and its interpretation with respect to basic nuclear properties (symmetry energy, skin thickness) initiated the investigation of this phenomenon in proton-rich nuclei. Macroscopically this so-called Pygmy strength could be interpreted with the resonant dipole oscillation of a proton-skin against an isospin-symmetric core. For nuclei like 32 Ar the occurrence of pronounced dipole strength is predicted in the lowenergy region between 8-10 MeV excitation energy. For the 34 Ar the pygmy strength is expected to drop sharply and vanish entirely for the N=Z nucleus 36 Ar. Using the Coulomb excitation method in inverse and complete kinematics at the LAND/R3B setup at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt, Germany, an experiment using radioactive 32 Ar and 34 Ar beams has been performed. The isotopes were obtained via fragmentation of a 825 AMeV primary 36 Ar beam on a 6.347g/cm 2 Be target. The produced proton-rich projectiles with a similar mass-to-charge ratio were separated from the primary beam and from other reaction products in flight using the Fragment Separator FRS. The selected and identified proton rich isotopes with a remaining energy of 650 AMeV were subsequently directed to a lead target of the LAND/R3B setup placed in Cave C. In order to determine the excitation energy after projectile excitation on the Pb target, all the products of the decay from the resonance are detected and identified (fragments, protons and gammas). The reconstruction of the excitation energy for one- and two-proton emission channels for 32 Ar and 34 Ar were derived from the particles momenta using the invariant mass technique in an event-by-event mode, allowing for an investigation of dipole strength appearance. After the experiment, all the detectors have been

  15. Plutonium fallout at Fayetteville, AR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.N.; Essien, I.O.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is well established that atmospheric Pu fallout has its origin in the testing of nuclear devices and satellite accidents. Monitoring injections of Pu during the testing of nuclear devices can be useful in characterizing the detonation and subsequently tagging its global fallout. Since Pu uptake pathway into humans is mainly through the respiratory and digestive systems, it is important to know about the behavior of Pu in the atmosphere. Snow and rain samples were collected between Jan 1981 and April 1983, and analyzed for plutonium

  16. Effects of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and adoptive transfer of immune cells in the Lew.1AR1-iddm rat and in its coisogenic LEW.1AR1 background strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Dirk; Weiss, Heike; Jörns, Anne; Lenzen, Sigurd; Tiedge, Markus; Hedrich, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-06-01

    The importance of the cellular immune system for the development of T1DM in the LEW.1AR1-iddm rat was investigated by use of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) and by adoptive transfer of concanavalin A (Con A) activated lymphocytes from diabetic LEW.1AR1-iddm rats and the coisogenic LEW.AR1 background strain. Poly I:C treatment induced diabetes, characterized morphologically by a diffuse infiltration of the pancreas, in up to 20% of the animals of the coisogenic LEW.1AR1 background strain. It did not increase the diabetes incidence of 30% of the LEW.1AR1-iddm strain. In contrast Poly I:C treatment induced diabetes in up to 80% of the animals of the Mhc congenic LEW.1WR1 strain. Adoptive transfer of lymphocytes activated by the T-cell mitogen Con A from diabetic donors doubled the incidence of diabetes, characterized morphologically by a focal insulitis, in diabetes prone LEW.1AR1-iddm recipients. In contrast, animals of the LEW.1AR1 background strain did not develop diabetes after adoptive transfer. Moreover, adoptive transfer of Con A activated lymphocytes from LEW.1AR1 rats to LEW.1AR1-iddm rats with 30 or 60% diabetes incidence, significantly decreased the incidence of diabetes in LEW.1AR1-iddm rats with 60% diabetes incidence. The results show that autoreactive lymphocytes induce beta cell destruction in the LEW.1AR1-iddm rat, while the LEW.AR1 background strain apparently contains regulatory potential, which is able to counteract the autoimmune response.

  17. Prioritization of Malus accessions for collection cryopreservation at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a grafted collection of apple accessions representing 49 taxa in Geneva, NY. Dormant buds of many of these accessions have been routinely cryopreserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, C...

  18. High power Ar-Xe laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.; Gielkens, S.W.A.; Tskhai, V.N.; Peters, P.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The discharge conditions of the multi-atmospheric e-beam sustained Ar-Xe laser are investigated. It is observed that the quasi-stationary period of a laser pulse depends on the e-beam current, the discharge power deposition and the gas density. The laser efficiency can be as high as 8%. The pulse

  19. Ars Artium, Vol. 5, January 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Ars Artium is an international research journal of humanities and social sciences that aims at providing a forum for teachers and researchers for publishing quality research papers in the fields of English language and literature, American literature, Commonwealth literature, World literature, comparative literature, linguistics, translation studies, cultural studies, philosophy, spirituality, economics, history, anthropology, sociology, psychology, political science, geography, human rights,...

  20. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No. TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed in HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  1. "ARS 01", perspektiivide avamine / Helen Kivisoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivisoo, Helen

    2001-01-01

    30. IX 2001-20. I 2002 Kiasmas kuuendat korda toimuvast rahvusvahelisest näitusest "ARS", kus Eestist osaleb Marko Mäetamm. Kuraatorid Tuula Arkio, Maaretta Jaukkuri, Patrik Nyberg, Jari-Pekka Vanhala. Teemaks "kolmas ruum". Näituse kajastamisest.

  2. Detoxification mechanisms of honey bees (Apis mellifera) resulting in tolerance of dietary nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rand, Esther E; Smit, Salome; Beukes, Mervyn; Apostolides, Zeno; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W

    2015-07-02

    Insecticides are thought to be among the major factors contributing to current declines in bee populations. However, detoxification mechanisms in healthy, unstressed honey bees are poorly characterised. Alkaloids are naturally encountered in pollen and nectar, and we used nicotine as a model compound to identify the mechanisms involved in detoxification processes in honey bees. Nicotine and neonicotinoids have similar modes of action in insects. Our metabolomic and proteomic analyses show active detoxification of nicotine in bees, associated with increased energetic investment and also antioxidant and heat shock responses. The increased energetic investment is significant in view of the interactions of pesticides with diseases such as Nosema spp which cause energetic stress and possible malnutrition. Understanding how healthy honey bees process dietary toxins under unstressed conditions will help clarify how pesticides, alone or in synergy with other stress factors, lead to declines in bee vitality.

  3. Detoxification mechanisms of honey bees (Apis mellifera) resulting in tolerance of dietary nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Esther E. du; Smit, Salome; Beukes, Mervyn; Apostolides, Zeno; Pirk, Christian W.W.; Nicolson, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticides are thought to be among the major factors contributing to current declines in bee populations. However, detoxification mechanisms in healthy, unstressed honey bees are poorly characterised. Alkaloids are naturally encountered in pollen and nectar, and we used nicotine as a model compound to identify the mechanisms involved in detoxification processes in honey bees. Nicotine and neonicotinoids have similar modes of action in insects. Our metabolomic and proteomic analyses show active detoxification of nicotine in bees, associated with increased energetic investment and also antioxidant and heat shock responses. The increased energetic investment is significant in view of the interactions of pesticides with diseases such as Nosema spp which cause energetic stress and possible malnutrition. Understanding how healthy honey bees process dietary toxins under unstressed conditions will help clarify how pesticides, alone or in synergy with other stress factors, lead to declines in bee vitality. PMID:26134631

  4. Outcomes of adult heroin users v. abstinent users four years after presenting for heroin detoxification treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zureida Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no studies in South Africa (SA on the outcomes following detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation of heroin-dependent patients. Objective. To compare the demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data of active heroin users v. users who were abstinent at the time of interview 4 years after attending the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape Province, SA.  Method. Participants included patients above the age of 16 years who had been admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital for heroin detoxification between July 2006 and June 2007. Participants were individually interviewed (either in person or tele­phonically using a structured self-report questionnaire to collect demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data 4 years following heroin detoxification treatment at this unit.  Results. Of the participants, 60% were abstinent and a large portion (34% attributed this to social support. Furthermore, there was a significant (p=0.04 difference in the longest period of abstinence between the past user group and active users, with more participants in the past user group being abstinent for 18 months or longer (n=24, 57% than in the active users group (n=8, 29%. Active users (n=18, 64% had significantly (p=0.03 more legal problems than abstinent users (n=14, 33%. Most participants (n=38, 54% relapsed within 3 months after index detoxification and rehabilitation.  Conclusion. Active users had more legal problems than abstinent users, with social support structures playing a pivotal role in abstinence. Future research should assess the impact of interventions such as post-discharge social support programmes on criminality and heroin use in those that relapse following treatment.

  5. Ethanol from lignocellulose - Fermentation inhibitors, detoxification and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Simona

    2000-07-01

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulose by first hydrolysing the material to sugars, and then fermenting the hydrolysate with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis using dilute sulphuric acid has advantages over other methods, however, compounds which inhibit fermentation are generated during this kind of hydrolysis. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds was investigated. The generation of inhibitors during hydrolysis was studied using Norway spruce as raw material. It was concluded that the decrease in the fermentability coincided with increasing harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. The decrease in fermentability was not correlated solely to the content of aliphatic acids or furan derivatives. To increase the fermentability, detoxification is often employed. Twelve detoxification methods were compared with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrolysate and the fermentability after treatment. The most efficient detoxification methods were anion-exchange at pH 10.0, overliming and enzymatic detoxification with the phenol-oxidase laccase. Detailed analyses of ion exchange revealed that anion exchange and unspecific hydrophobic interactions greatly contributed to the detoxification effect, while cation exchange did not. The comparison of detoxification methods also showed that phenolic compounds are very important fermentation inhibitors, as their selective removal with laccase had a major positive effect on the fermentability. Selected compounds; aliphatic acids, furans and phenolic compounds, were characterised with respect to their inhibitory effect on ethanolic fermentation by S. cerevisiae. When aliphatic acids or furans were compared, the inhibitory effects were found to be in the same range, but the phenolic compounds displayed widely different inhibitory effects. The possibility of genetically engineering S. cerevisiae to achieve increased inhibitor resistance was explored by heterologous expression of

  6. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis reveals rapid and extensive nicotine detoxification ability in honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rand, Esther E; Human, Hannelie; Smit, Salome; Beukes, Mervyn; Apostolides, Zeno; Nicolson, Susan W; Pirk, Christian W W

    2017-03-01

    Despite potential links between pesticides and bee declines, toxicology information on honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera) is scarce and detoxification mechanisms in this development stage are virtually unknown. Larvae are exposed to natural and synthetic toxins present in pollen and nectar through consumption of brood food. Due to the characteristic intensive brood care displayed by honey bees, which includes progressive feeding throughout larval development, it is generally assumed that larvae rely on adults to detoxify for them and exhibit a diminished detoxification ability. We found the opposite. We examined the proteomic and metabolomic responses of in vitro reared larvae fed nicotine (an alkaloid found in nectar and pollen) to understand how larvae cope on a metabolic level with dietary toxins. Larvae were able to effectively detoxify nicotine through an inducible detoxification mechanism. A coordinated stress response complemented the detoxification processes, and we detected significant enrichment of proteins functioning in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as in development pathways, suggesting that nicotine may promote larval growth. Further exploration of the metabolic fate of nicotine using targeted mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that, as in adult bees, formation of 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid, the result of 2'C-oxidation of nicotine, is quantitatively the most significant pathway of nicotine metabolism. We provide conclusive evidence that larvae are capable of effectively catabolising a dietary toxin, suggesting that increased larval sensitivity to specific toxins is not due to diminished detoxification abilities. These findings broaden the current understanding of detoxification biochemistry at different organizational levels in the colony, bringing us closer to understanding the capacity of the colony as a superorganism to tolerate and resist toxic compounds, including pesticides, in the environment. Copyright © 2017

  7. VLA radio observations of AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, E. R.; Marsh, T. R.; Chote, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: AR Scorpii is unique amongst known white dwarf binaries in showing powerful pulsations extending to radio frequencies. Here we aim to investigate the multi-frequency radio emission of AR Sco in detail, in order to constrain its origin and emission mechanisms. Methods: We present interferometric radio frequency imaging of AR Sco at 1.5, 5 and 9 GHz, analysing the total flux and polarization behaviour of this source at high time resolution (10, 3 and 3 s), across a full 3.6 h orbital period in each band. Results: We find strong modulation of the radio flux on the orbital period and the orbital sideband of the white dwarf's spin period (also known as the "beat" period). This indicates that, like the optical flux, the radio flux arises predominantly from on or near the inner surface of the M-dwarf companion star. The beat-phase pulsations of AR Sco decrease in strength with decreasing frequency. They are strongest at 9 GHz and at an orbital phase 0.5. Unlike the optical emission from this source, radio emission from AR Sco shows weak linear polarization but very strong circular polarization, reaching 30% at an orbital phase 0.8. We infer the probable existence of a non-relativistic cyclotron emission component, which dominates at low radio frequencies. Given the required magnetic fields, this also likely arises from on or near the M-dwarf. A table of the flux time series is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A66

  8. A study on the etch characteristics of HfAlO{sub 3} dielectric thin film in Cl{sub 2}/Ar gas chemistry using inductively coupled plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Chang; Ha, Tae-Kyung; Um, Doo-Seung [School of Electrical and Electrics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Juyun; Kang, Yong-Cheol [Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Il, E-mail: cikim@cau.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electrics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Thin films of HfAlO{sub 3}, a high-k material, were etched using inductively-coupled plasma. The dry etching mechanism of the HfAlO{sub 3} thin film was studied by varying the Cl{sub 2}/Ar gas mixing ratio, RF power, direct current bias voltage, and process pressure. The maximum etch rate of the HfAlO{sub 3} thin film was 16.9 nm/min at a C1{sub 2}/(C1{sub 2} + Ar) ratio of 80%. Our results showed that the highest etch rate of the HfAlO{sub 3} thin films was achieved by reactive ion etching using Cl radicals, due to the high volatility of the metal-chlorides. Consequently, the increased chemical effect caused an increase in the etch rate of the HfAlO{sub 3} thin film. Surface analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed evidence that Hf, Al and O reacted with Cl and formed nonvolatile metal-oxide compounds and volatile metal-chlorides. This effect may be related to the concurrence of chemical and physical pathways in the ion-assisted chemical reaction.

  9. ArControl: An Arduino-Based Comprehensive Behavioral Platform with Real-Time Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinfeng; Li, Haohong

    2017-01-01

    Studying animal behavior in the lab requires reliable delivering stimulations and monitoring responses. We constructed a comprehensive behavioral platform (ArControl: Arduino Control Platform) that was an affordable, easy-to-use, high-performance solution combined software and hardware components. The hardware component was consisted of an Arduino UNO board and a simple drive circuit. As for software, the ArControl provided a stand-alone and intuitive GUI (graphical user interface) application that did not require users to master scripts. The experiment data were automatically recorded with the built in DAQ (data acquisition) function. The ArControl also allowed the behavioral schedule to be entirely stored in and operated on the Arduino chip. This made the ArControl a genuine, real-time system with high temporal resolution (<1 ms). We tested the ArControl, based on strict performance measurements and two mice behavioral experiments. The results showed that the ArControl was an adaptive and reliable system suitable for behavioral research.

  10. ArControl: An Arduino-Based Comprehensive Behavioral Platform with Real-Time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying animal behavior in the lab requires reliable delivering stimulations and monitoring responses. We constructed a comprehensive behavioral platform (ArControl: Arduino Control Platform that was an affordable, easy-to-use, high-performance solution combined software and hardware components. The hardware component was consisted of an Arduino UNO board and a simple drive circuit. As for software, the ArControl provided a stand-alone and intuitive GUI (graphical user interface application that did not require users to master scripts. The experiment data were automatically recorded with the built in DAQ (data acquisition function. The ArControl also allowed the behavioral schedule to be entirely stored in and operated on the Arduino chip. This made the ArControl a genuine, real-time system with high temporal resolution (<1 ms. We tested the ArControl, based on strict performance measurements and two mice behavioral experiments. The results showed that the ArControl was an adaptive and reliable system suitable for behavioral research.

  11. Neutron spectroscopic factors of 34Ar and 46Ar from (p,d) transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jenny; Tsang, M.B.; Bazin, D.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Lynch, W. G.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Youngs, M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; Shapira, D.; O'Malley, P.; Peters, W. A.; Chae, K. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Single-neutron-transfer measurements using (p,d) reactions have been performed at 33 MeV per nucleon with proton-rich 34 Ar and neutron-rich 46 Ar beams in inverse kinematics. The extracted spectroscopic factors are compared to the large-basis shell-model calculations. Relatively weak quenching of the spectroscopic factors is observed between 34 Ar and 46 Ar. The experimental results suggest that neutron correlations have a weak dependence on the asymmetry of the nucleus over this isotopic region. The present results are consistent with the systematics established from extensive studies of spectroscopic factors and dispersive optical-model analyses of 40-49 Ca isotopes. They are, however, inconsistent with the trends obtained in knockout-reaction measurements.

  12. Support for the Astronomically Calibrated 40Ar/39Ar Age of Fish Canyon Sanidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Zeeden, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) is the neutron fluence monitor most widely used in Cenozoic argon geochronology. Recommend published ages for FCs have been determined through various intercalibration techniques, but have varied by up to 2% over the last three decades. The robust quality of the astrono......Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) is the neutron fluence monitor most widely used in Cenozoic argon geochronology. Recommend published ages for FCs have been determined through various intercalibration techniques, but have varied by up to 2% over the last three decades. The robust quality....... Thus, the astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar age for FCs provides concordant ages for a Quaternary tuff across multiple dating techniques. Single and multi-crystal 40Ar/39Ar experiments were conducted on a Nu Instruments Noblesse multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer. The use of the multi...

  13. 40Ar-39Ar age of a lava flow from the Bhimashankar Formation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report here a 40Ar-39Ar age of 66.0 ± 0.9Ma (2 ) for a reversely magnetised tholeiitic lava flow from the Bhimashankar Formation (Fm.), Giravali Ghat, western Deccan province, India. This age is consistent with the view that the 1.8–2km thick bottom part of the exposed basalt flow sequence in the Western Ghats was ...

  14. 40Ar-39Ar age of carbonatite-alkaline magmatism in Sung Valley ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40Ar-39Ar analyses of one alkali pyroxenite whole rock and two phlogopite separates of calcite carbonatites from the Sung Valley carbonatite-alkaline complex, which is believed to be a part of the Rajmahal-Bengal-Sylhet (RBS) ood basalt province, yielded indistinguishable plateau ages of 108.8 ± 2.0 Ma, 106:4 ± 1.3 Ma ...

  15. 40Ar-39Ar age studies for tectonics of the Gondwana land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigami, Yutaka; Sugiura, Naoji.

    1997-01-01

    40 Ar- 39 Ar age studies have been performed for samples from Antarctica and India which were parts of the Gondwana land at Mesozoic and Paleozoic time in order to investigate their thermal history and tectonic movement. From the both areas, ages of about 500 Ma which have been considered to be the age of Pan-African Orogeny were obtained, which represents that this thermal event spread widely over the Gondwana land. (author)

  16. An 40 Ar- 39 Ar study of the Cape Verde hot spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Grandvuinet, Tanja; Wilson, James Richard

    2008-01-01

    The 40Ar-39Ar analyses of 28 groundmass separates from volcanic rocks from the islands of Santiago, Sal, and São Vicente, Cape Verde archipelago, are presented. The new age data record the volcanic evolution for Santiago from 4.6 to 0.7 Ma, for Sal from around 15 to 1.1 Ma, and for São Vicente from...

  17. ^<40>Ar-^<39>Ar Age Studies for Tectonics of the Gondwana Land

    OpenAIRE

    Takigami, Yutaka; Sugiura, Naoji

    1997-01-01

    ^Ar-^Ar age studies have been performed for samples from Antarctica and India which were parts of the Gondwana land at Mesozoic and Paleozoic time in order to investigate their thermal history and tectonic movement. From the both areas, ages of about 500 Ma which have been considered to be the age of Pan-African Orogeny were obtained, which represents that this thermal event spread widely over the Gondwana land.

  18. Detoksifikasi Mikotoksin Melalui Optimalisasi Fungsi Rumen dengan Pemberian Ragi (MYCOTOXIN DETOXIFICATION THROUGH OPTIMIZATION THE RUMEN FUNCTION BY YEAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadik Pantaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by some fungal species commonly found in food and feed,particularly in cereals. In intensive production systems, dairy cattle are commonly fed with cereal-richdiets and, consequently, are more exposed to micotoxins. Besides, such diet is often associated with ahigher risk of rumen acidosis which can also affect the performance and the helath of animal. In addition,the efficacy of microbial detoxification can be reduced during acidosis. For instance, some authors observeda decrease in the number of protozoa that are responsible for the degradation of some mycotoxins. Anotherconsequence of acidosis is the potential modification of ruminal absorption of mycotoxins, which until nowhas received scarce attention. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, probiotic additives have been shown toreduce the post-feeding drop in rumen pH and to increase the number of ruminal protozoa. This effect canbe positive in reducing the absorption and toxicity of mycotoxins in ruminantia.

  19. A re-examination of petrogenesis and 40Ar/39Ar systematics in the Chain of Ponds K-feldspar: "diffusion domain" archetype versus polyphase hygrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Alex N.; Villa, Igor M.; Hanchar, John M.; Wirth, Richard

    2014-05-01

    K-feldspar (Kfs) from the Chain of Ponds Pluton (CPP) is the archetypal reference material, upon which thermochronological modeling of Ar diffusion in discrete "domains" was founded. We re-examine the CPP Kfs using cathodoluminescence and back-scattered electron imaging, transmission electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. 40Ar/39Ar stepwise heating experiments on different sieve fractions, and on handpicked and unpicked aliquots, are compared. Our results reproduce the staircase-shaped age spectrum and the Arrhenius trajectory of the literature sample, confirming that samples collected from the same locality have an identical Ar isotope record. Even the most pristine-looking Kfs from the CPP contains successive generations of secondary, metasomatic/retrograde mineral replacements that post-date magmatic crystallization. These chemically and chronologically distinct phases are responsible for its staircase-shaped age spectra, which are modified by handpicking. While genuine within-grain diffusion gradients are not ruled out by these data, this study demonstrates that the most important control on staircase-shaped age spectra is the simultaneous presence of heterochemical, diachronous post-magmatic mineral growth. At least five distinct mineral species were identified in the Kfs separate, three of which can be traced to external fluids interacting with the CPP in a chemically open system. Sieve fractions have size-shifted Arrhenius trajectories, negating the existence of the smallest "diffusion domains." Heterochemical phases also play an important role in producing nonlinear trajectories. In vacuo degassing rates recovered from Arrhenius plots are neither related to true Fick's Law diffusion nor to the staircase shape of the age spectra. The CPP Kfs used to define the "diffusion domain" model demonstrates the predominance of metasomatic alteration by hydrothermal fluids and recrystallization in establishing the natural Ar distribution among different

  20. The 1982 ultraviolet eclipse of the symbiotic binary AR Pav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Cowley, A. P.; Ake, T. B.; Imhoff, C. L.

    1983-01-01

    Observations with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) of the symbiotic binary AR Pav through its 1982 eclipse show that the hot star is not eclipsed. The hot star is associated with an extended region of continuum emission which is partially eclipsed. The eclipsed radiation is hotter near to its center, with a maximum temperature of about 9000 K. The uneclipsed flux is hotter than this. UV emission lines are not measurably eclipsed and presumably arise in a much larger region than the continuum. These data provide new constraints on models of the system but also are apparently in contradiction to those based on ground-based data.

  1. Alcohol Detoxification Completion, Acceptance of Referral to Substance Abuse Treatment, and Entry into Substance Abuse Treatment Among Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ursula Running; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.; Manson, Spero M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). Methods The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit. Three multiple logistic regression models estimated the adjusted associations of each outcome separately with demographic/psychosocial characteristics, clinical characteristics, use related behaviors, and health care utilization. Results Seventy-five percent completed detoxification treatment. Higher global assessment functioning scores, longer lengths of stay, and older ages of first alcohol use were associated with completing detoxification. A secondary drug diagnosis was associated with not completing detoxification. Thirty-six percent accepted a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification. Men, those with legal problems, and those with a longer length of stay were more likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment. Fifty-eight percent had a confirmed entry into a substance abuse treatment program at discharge. Length of stay was the only variable associated with substance abuse treatment entry. Conclusions Services like motivational interviewing, counseling, development of therapeutic alliance, monetary incentives, and contingency management are effective in linking patients to services after detoxification. These should be considered, along with the factors associated with each point on the continuum of care when linking patients to follow-up services. PMID:27705843

  2. High-Precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Deccan Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprain, C. J.; Renne, P. R.; Fendley, I.; Pande, K.; Self, S.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Richards, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Almost forty years ago it was first hypothesized that greenhouse gases emitted from the Deccan Traps (DT) played a role in the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB) mass extinction (McLean 1979, 1980, 1985). At that time, this hypothesis was dismissed due to insufficient geochronology and new evidence that a bolide impact coincided with the KPB. Since then, evidence such as records of protracted extinction and climate change in the Late Cretaceous, in addition to new high-precision geochronology of the DT, has bolstered the Deccan hypothesis. Recently, many models have been produced to simulate how DT volcanism may have perturbed global ecosystems. However, modeled outcomes are largely dependent upon variables such as the amount and species of gas released and the tempo of eruptions, which are not well constrained (Self et al., 2014). To better constrain climatic models and better understand the role DT volcanism played in the KPB extinction, we developed a high-precision geochronologic framework defining the timing and tempo of DT eruptions within the Western Ghats using high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Our new results show that the DT erupted relatively continuously starting 66.4 Ma and extending to at least 65.3 Ma with no hiatuses longer than 50 ka, invalidating the concept of three discrete eruption pulses in the Western Ghats (Chenet et al., 2007, 2009; Keller et al., 2008). Our new data further provide the first precise location of the KPB within the DT sequence and place this boundary at or near the Lonavala-Wai subgroup transition, roughly coincident with major changes in eruption frequency, flow-field volumes, and extent of crustal magma contamination. Taken together, these results suggest that a state shift occurred in the DT magmatic system around the time of the Chicxulub impact, consistent with the impact triggering hypothesis of Richards et al. (2015). Our work further shows that over 80% of the estimated volume of the DT within the Western

  3. Avaliação de Coberturas de Cabanas de Maternidade em Sistema Intensivo de Suínos Criados ao Ar Livre (Siscal, no Verão Maternity Hut Covering Evaluation in Outdoor Pig Production System, Summer Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Giovanni de Abreu

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as condições térmicas ambientais de diferentes materiais de cobertura de cabana de maternidade, no verão, utilizando os seguintes tratamentos: 1 cabana de maternidade coberta com fécula de isopor 2 cabana de maternidade coberta com isolamento de alumínio 3 cabana de maternidade coberta com tela e capim na cobertura 4 cabana de maternidade coberta com lona e capim na cobertura 5 ambiente ao ar livre e 6 à sombra da árvore. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com 6 tratamentos nas parcelas, 5 horas nas subparcelas e 3 repetições. A categoria animal utilizada foi porcas lactantes, Landrace x Large White, distribuídas aleatoriamente por ordem de parto. Foi determinada a Umidade Relativa do Ar (UR, a Velocidade do Ar, a Temperatura Ambiente (Ta e foram calculados o Índice de Temperatura de Globo e Umidade (ITGU e a Carga Térmica Radiante (CTR. Apesar de os materiais utilizados como cobertura de maternidade terem melhorado o conforto térmico das porcas em relação as condições ambientais, ainda, não foram suficientes em atender as condições ideais de conforto térmico.The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental thermal conditions of different maternity hut covering materials, in the summer period through the following treatments: 1 maternity hut with polystyrene fecula covering 2 maternity hut with isolation of aluminum covering 3 maternity hut with screen and grass covering 4 maternity hut with canvas and grass covering 5 outdoor environment 6 under shade a tree. The six treatments were arranged in a randomized split-plot design where the six treatments were in the plot with five schedules hours in the subplots and three replicates. Sow lactantes Landrace x Large White were alloted at random considering farrowing order. Relative Humidity Air (RH, Air Speed, and Environmental Temperature (Te data were determined

  4. K/Ar dating of diagenetic illite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusaki, A.M.P.; Anjos, S.M.C. dos; Costa, M.G.F. da; Wanderley Filho, J.R.; Lima, M.P. de; Silva, O.B. da; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    Ascertaining the potassium/argon (K/Ar) age of diagenetic illite yields important information for hydrocarbon exploration since the growth of this mineral in the pores of sandstone reservoir and oil migration are inter linked events in the diagenetic evolution of rocks. Illite was mechanically separated by repeating a series of ultrasonic baths and ultrasonic probes followed by high-speed centrifuging. Resultant fractions were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry to measure the illite content of each sample. The separated illite material was found to be composed of illite and ordered mixed layer illite-smectite with 80% illite layers. Separated fractions were dated radiometrically by the K/Ar method. Preliminary results indicate an average age of some 200 m.y., which marks the end of the diagenetic development of the illite of this area. (author)

  5. Utilización de Sistemas Basados en Reglas y en Casos para diseñar transmisiones por tornillo sinfín // Use of rules based systems and cases based systems for worm gear design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Laureano Moya‐Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas de Inteligencia Artificial se aplican hoy en día a diferentes problemas de Ingeniería,especialmente los Sistemas Basados en el Conocimiento. Entre estos últimos los más comunes son losSistemas Basados en Patrones, los Sistemas Basados en Reglas, los Sistemas Basados en Casos y losSistemas Híbridos. Los Sistemas Basados en Casos parten de problemas resueltos en un dominio deaplicación y mediante un proceso de adaptación, encuentran la solución a un nuevo problema. Estossistemas pueden ser usados con éxito para el diseño de engranajes, particularmente para el diseño detransmisiones por tornillo sin fin, sin embargo ello constituye un campo de las aplicaciones de laInteligencia Artificial aún inexplorada. En el presente trabajo se hace una comparación del uso de losSistemas Basados en Regla y los Sistemas Basados en Casos para el diseño de transmisiones portornillo sin fin y se muestran los resultados de la aplicación de los sistemas basados en regla al diseñoparticular de una transmisión por tornillo sin fin.Palabras claves: tornillo sin fin, engranajes, sistemas basados en casos, sistemas basados en reglas,inteligencia artificial.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractNowadays Artificial Intelligence techniques are applied successfully to different engineering problems,especially the “Knowledge Based Systems”. Among them the most common are the “Frame basedSystems”, “Rules Based Systems”, “Case Based Systems” and "Hybrid Systems". The “Case BasedSystems” (CBS analyze solved problems in an application domain and by means of a process ofadaptation; they find the solution to a new problem. These systems can be used successfully for thedesign of gears, particularly for designing worm gears; nevertheless it constitutes a field of the applicationsof artificial intelligence even unexplored. A comparison of the use of “Rules Based System” and

  6. Emergency preparedness with Ar-41 measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, Juan J.; Rodriguez, Monica; Ugarte, Ricardo; Vigile, Sebastian; Boutet, Luis; Jordan, Osvaldo; Hernandez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina is training their intervention group in the forecast of radiological consequences in case of a radiological or nuclear accident. In this context it has begun the measurement of Ar-41 near the research reactor RA3. It is well known the Ar-41 production inside research reactor, and it has been studied like a good mean to validate atmosphere dispersion model occurrence, or to develop method to improve the estimation of the characteristic of the emission. The measurements were made in two laboratories of ARN, Gamma measurement Laboratory, and CTC (Total Body Counter) Laboratory near the research reactor RA3. The emission of Ar-41 were determined by Measurements Group of Environmental Control Division inside the research reactor. The laboratories are at SE and ESE direction from the reactor. After the passage of a cold front, the wind flown from SE, in this situation and if the reactor is operating we could detect the presence of Ar-41 in the environment. This meteorological situation can be forecast by information submitted by National Meteorological Service of Argentina (SMN) in a meteograma. To correlate and evaluate the concentration in this laboratory, first it was determined the direction and persistence of wind in the site using the forecast of the National Meteorological Service (SMN) of Argentina to establish when the detectors were irradiated, during the radiological measurements, the real time wind direction an velocities measurement were did, with a site meteorological tower. With this information and cloudiness we determined de stability class and concentration. To determine concentration we used the code Hotspot and our code SEDA developed in ARN. In this paper are present the calibration of GeH detectors, and the location of them. We present several measurements did in this experience. We analyze the capacity developed by our teams to predict changes in wind direction and concentrations

  7. AR Alternative Splicing and Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2009;69:2912–8. 15. Culig Z, Bartsch G. Androgen axis in prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem...such as MLPA are useful for identifying deletions or duplications that involve probe-binding sites, this study has illustrated that unbiased...the AR locus is illustrated at the top. Paired-end sequence reads were mapped to the hg19 build of the human genome using Burrows --Wheeler Alignment

  8. Adsorption and photocatalytic detoxification of diazinon using iron and nanotitania modified activated carbons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, A F.; Elhadidy, Hassan; Abdel-Mohsen, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 75, JUN (2017), s. 299-306 ISSN 1876-1070 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Detoxification * Diazinon * Flamboyant pods * Photocatalyst * Characterization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.217, year: 2016

  9. Aflatoxin B1 detoxification by cell-free extracts of Rhodococcus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risa, Anita; Divinyi, Dalma Maja; Baka, Erzsébet; Krifaton, Csilla

    2017-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus molds is a genotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. For the elimination of mycotoxins from food and feed, biodetoxification can be a successful tool. The aim of this study was to reveal biodetoxification with the cell-free extracts of Rhodococcus erythropolis NI1 and Rhodococcus rhodochrous NI2, which have been already proved to detoxify AFB1. Extracellular matrices of cultures and also intracellular extracts were applied for detoxification. In both cases, media containing constitutively produced and AFB1-induced enzymes were tested, respectively. The pH tolerance of enzymes in the detoxification was examined at pH 7, 7.5, and 8. The remained genotoxicity was detected by SOS-Chromotest and the AFB1 concentration was measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In the extracellular matrix, no reduction of genotoxicity was observed. However, detoxification was completed by intracellular enzymes. In intracellular extracts of both strains, genotoxicity was ceased by the constitutive enzymes within 6 h but induced and constitutive enzymes collectively achieved this result within minutes. Moreover, total biodetoxification was observed at every pH adjustment. Analytical results confirmed >84% degradation potential in each sample. Our results indicate a uniquely fast way for the detoxification of AFB1 with intracellular enzymes of R. erythropolis NI1 and R. rhodochrous NI2.

  10. Forager bees (Apis mellifera) highly express immune and detoxification genes in tissues associated with nectar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannette, Rachel L; Mohamed, Abbas; Johnson, Brian R

    2015-11-09

    Pollinators, including honey bees, routinely encounter potentially harmful microorganisms and phytochemicals during foraging. However, the mechanisms by which honey bees manage these potential threats are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the expression of antimicrobial, immune and detoxification genes in Apis mellifera and compare between forager and nurse bees using tissue-specific RNA-seq and qPCR. Our analysis revealed extensive tissue-specific expression of antimicrobial, immune signaling, and detoxification genes. Variation in gene expression between worker stages was pronounced in the mandibular and hypopharyngeal gland (HPG), where foragers were enriched in transcripts that encode antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and immune response. Additionally, forager HPGs and mandibular glands were enriched in transcripts encoding detoxification enzymes, including some associated with xenobiotic metabolism. Using qPCR on an independent dataset, we verified differential expression of three AMP and three P450 genes between foragers and nurses. High expression of AMP genes in nectar-processing tissues suggests that these peptides may contribute to antimicrobial properties of honey or to honey bee defense against environmentally-acquired microorganisms. Together, these results suggest that worker role and tissue-specific expression of AMPs, and immune and detoxification enzymes may contribute to defense against microorganisms and xenobiotic compounds acquired while foraging.

  11. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDITO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Rudito, Suwarto, Azkiyah L, Witono Y, Saragih B, Arung ET. 2017. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 99-103. Finding of local food sources to enhance food security areas. This study focuses on the characteristics of growth Dayak Borneo yam observation, toxic substances and detoxification techniques development of non nutritional. The objective of the research was to find out a more concrete picture, as well as comparing it with Java yam non nutritional components as a basis for further exploration of alternative food. Observations indicate that the plant growth of Dayak Borneo yam had specific characteristics, and can be grown in intercropping with other crops. Yam tubers have negative image due to the toxins contained by this commodity, as well as technology management (detoxification and processing of yam products that have not been controlled by the community. But based on the results of physical and chemical detoxification, indicates that the Dayak Borneo yam can be exploited further as food. Dayak Borneo yam need to be developed modification process in raw materials of Dayak Borneo yam as modified starch through fermentation techniques which also intended to obtain intermediate product from which Dayak Borneo yam has a larger functionality as a food ingredient.

  12. Reinstatement of serum pregnanolone isomers and progesterone during alcohol detoxification therapy in premenopausal women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hill, M.; Popov, P.; Havlíková, H.; Kancheva, L.; Vrbíková, J.; Meloun, M.; Kancheva, R.; Cibula, D.; Pouzar, Vladimír; Černý, Ivan; Stárka, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2005), s. 1010-1017 ISSN 0145-6008 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : pregnanolone * progesterone * detoxification therapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.636, year: 2005

  13. Decolorization and detoxification of reactive industrial dyes by immobilized fungi Trametes pubescens and Pleurotus ostreatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caiseri, L.; Varese, G.C.; Anastasi, A.; Prigione, V.; Svobodová, Kateřina; Marchisio, V.F.; Novotný, Čeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2008), s. 44-52 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6020411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : decolorization * detoxification * trametes pubescens Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  14. Esterase detoxification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors using human liver samples in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methylcarbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but differences in metabolism and detoxification can influence potency of these pesticides across and within species. Carboxylesterase (CaE) and A-esterase (paraoxonase, PON1) are consider...

  15. ASSESSING DETOXIFICATION AND DEGRADATION OF WOOD PRESERVING AND PETROLEUM WASTES IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate in-situ soil bioremediation processes, including degradation and detoxification, for two types of wood preserving wastes and two types of petroleum refining wastes at high concentrations in an unacclimated soil. The soil solid phase, water so...

  16. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  17. Characterization of a Prototype Compact High Gradient Magnetic Separator Device for Blood Detoxification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, H.; Kaminski, M. D.; Stepp, Patricia Caviness; Holtzman, S.; Rosengart, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 9 (2009), s. 1954-1969 ISSN 0149-6395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : magnetic separation * magnetic separator * detoxification * nanotechnology Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.028, year: 2009

  18. Genomic Analysis of Detoxification Supergene Families in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. The recently published An. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Analysis of the An. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 31 glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and 50 choline/carboxylesterases (CCEs). The gene number was similar to that in An. gambiae, but represented a decrease of 29% and 42% compared with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The considerable contraction in gene number in Anopheles mosquitoes mainly occurred in two detoxification supergene families, P450s and CCEs. The available An. sinensis transcriptome was also re-analyzed to further identify key resistance-associated detoxification genes. Among 174 detoxification genes, 124 (71%) were detected. Several candidate genes overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) were identified as belonging to the CYP4 or CYP6 family of P450s and the Delta GST class. These generated data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated genes of An. sinensis at the molecular level.

  19. Heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for medication-assisted treatment after inpatient detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Bailey, Genie L; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification. Participants (N=397) were interviewed at the start of brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of background characteristics, depressed mood, and perceived heroin refusal self-efficacy with preference for MAT. Controlling for other covariates, depressed mood and lower perceived refusal self-efficacy were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of expressing preference for MAT (versus no MAT). Perceived ability to refuse heroin after leaving detox is inversely associated with a heroin user's desire for MAT. An effective continuum of care model may benefit from greater attention to patient's perceived refusal self-efficacy during detoxification which may impact preference for MAT and long-term recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Treatment outcome of alcohol use disorder outpatients with or without medically assisted detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, Maarten J. M.; Schippers, Gerard M.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; de Wildt, Wencke A. J. M.; Vedel, Ellen; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the incremental effects of medically assisted detoxification on outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to compare drinking outcomes in a psychosocial treatment program between two groups of heavy drinking patients who had an alcohol use

  1. Use of Ultra Rapid Opioid Detoxification in the Treatment of US Military Burn Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    often extremely fragmented in patients with a chronic pain history and opioid addiction. Before hospital discharge, both nonopioid adjunct treat...116. 12. Collins ED, Kleber HD, Whittington RA, Heitler NE. Anesthesia- assisted vs buprenorphine - or clonidine-assisted heroin detoxification and

  2. The role of pH in heavy metal detoxification by biosorption from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high level of toxic metal pollution in the environment is a result of increased human activities. The hydrogen ion concentration of solutions has been known to affect reactions in solutions. The role of pH in As(V), Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions detoxification by bio-sorption from aqueous solutions using coconut fiber and sawdust ...

  3. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

  4. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  5. K/Ar dating of diagenetic illites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusaki, A.M.P.; Anjos, S.M.C. dos; Costa, M.G.F. da; Silva, O.B. da; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    Ascertaining the potassium/argon (K/Ar) age of diagenetic illites yields important information for hydrocarbon exploration since the growth of this mineral in the pores of sandstone reservoir and oil migration are interlinked events in the diagenetic evolution of rocks. Illite growth ceases as soon as hydrocarbons completely fill in rock pores, displacing interstitial water. By providing an estimate of the period when the illite formed, K/Ar dating can indirectly tells us when hydrocarbons entered the reservoir. Samples of oil-saturated sandstones collected from Carboniferous reservoirs of the Solimoes Basin reveal a diagenetic evolution consisting predominantly of quartz, calcite, and illite overgrowths. In the present study, illite was mechanically separated by repeating a series of ultrasonic baths and ultrasonic probes followed by high-speed centrifuging. Resultant fractions were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry to measure the illite content of each sample. The separated illite material was found to be composed of illite and ordered mixed layer illite-smectite with 80% illite layers. Separated fractions were dated radiometrically by the K/Ar method. Preliminary results indicate an average age of some 200 m.y., which marks the end of the diagenetic development of the illites of this area. (author)

  6. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHMS AND GLVQ TO TRACK AN OBJECT USING AR.DRONE CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nanda Kurniawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research, Parrot AR.Drone as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV was used to track an object from above. Development of this system utilized some functions from OpenCV library and Robot Operating System (ROS. Techniques that were implemented in the system are image processing al-gorithm (Centroid-Contour Distance (CCD, feature extraction algorithm (Principal Component Analysis (PCA and an artificial neural network algorithm (Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLVQ. The final result of this research is a program for AR.Drone to track a moving object on the floor in fast response time that is under 1 second.

  7. Chromosomal context and replication properties of ARS plasmids in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... mously Replicating Sequence (ARS) elements (reviewed in Campbell and Newlon 1991) function as replication origins in plasmids as well as in chromosomes. ARS elements can be identified by cloning and transformation analysis (also called ARS assay) as plasmids bearing them transform yeast cells.

  8. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  9. Comparative bacterial degradation and detoxification of model and kraft lignin from pulp paper wastewater and its metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Amar; Dwivedi, Ashish; Tandan, Neeraj; Kumar, Urwashi

    2017-05-01

    Continuous discharge of lignin containing colored wastewater from pulp paper mill into the environment has resulted in building up their high level in various aquatic systems. In this study, the chemical texture of kraft lignin in terms of pollution parameters (COD, TOC, BOD, etc.) was quite different and approximately twofold higher as compared to model lignin at same optical density (OD 3.7 at 465 nm) and lignin content (2000 mg/L). For comparative bacterial degradation and detoxification of model and kraft lignin two bacteria Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens were isolated, screened and applied in axenic and mixed condition. Bacterial mixed culture was found to decolorize 87 and 70 % model and kraft lignin (2000 mg/L), respectively; whereas, axenic culture Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens decolorized 64, 60 % model and 50, 55 % kraft lignin, respectively, at optimized condition (34 °C, pH 8.2, 140 rpm). In addition, the mixed bacterial culture also showed the removal of 76, 61 % TOC; 80, 67 % COD and 87, 65 % lignin from model and kraft lignin, respectively. High pollution parameters (like TOC, COD, BOD, sulphate) and toxic chemicals slow down the degradation of kraft lignin as compared to model lignin. The comparative GC-MS analysis has suggested that the interspecies collaboration, i.e., each bacterial strain in culture medium has cumulative enhancing effect on growth, and degradation of lignin rather than inhibition. Furthermore, toxicity evaluation on human keratinocyte cell line after bacterial treatment has supported the degradation and detoxification of model and kraft lignin.

  10. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar age constraints on the timing of regional deformation, south coast of New South Wales, Lachlan Fold Belt: problems and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, C.L.; Phillips, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four slate samples from subduction complex rocks exposed on the south coast of New South Wales, south of Batemans Bay, were analysed by K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar step-heating methods, One sample contains relatively abundant detrital muscovite flakes that are locally oblique to the regional cleavage in the rock, whereas the remaining samples appear to contain sparse detrital muscovite. Separates of detrital muscovite yielded plateau ages of 505 + 3 Ma and 513 + 3 Ma indicating that inheritance has not been eliminated by metamorphism and recrystallisation. Step-heating analyses of whole-rock chips from all four slate samples produced discordant apparent age spectra with 'saddle shapes' following young apparent ages at the lowest temperature increments. Elevated apparent ages associated with the highest temperature steps are attributed to the presence of variable quantities of detrital muscovite ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar integrated ages of ca 455Ma, which are some 15-30 million years older than K-Ar ages for the same samples. These discrepancies suggest that the slates have also been affected by recoil loss/redistribution of 39 Ar, Ieading to anomalously old 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages. Two other samples, from slaty tectonic melange and intensely cleaved slate, yielded average 40 Ar/ 39 Ar integrated ages of ca 424Ma, which are closer to associated mean K-Ar ages of 423 + 4Ma and 409 + 16Ma, respectively. Taking into account the potential influences of recoil loss/redistribution of 39 Ar and inheritance, the results from the latter samples suggest a maximum age of ca 440 Ma for deformation/metamorphism. The current results indicate that recoil and inheritance problems may also have affected whole-rock 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data reported from other regions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Therefore, until these effects are adequately quantified, models for the evolution of the Lachlan Fold Belt, that are based on such whole-rock 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data, should be treated with caution. Copyright (2001) Geological

  11. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchynka, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report.

  12. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchynka, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report

  13. Functions, Evolution, and Application of the Supramolecular Machines of Hg Detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Susan M.

    2009-11-27

    The bacterial mercury resistance (mer) operon functions in Hg biogeochemistry and bioremediation by converting reactive inorganic [Hg(II)] and organic [RHg(I)] mercurials to relatively inert monoatomic mercury vapor, Hg(0). Its genes regulate expression (MerR, MerD, MerOP), import Hg(II) (MerT, MerP, and MerC), and demethylate (MerB) and reduce (MerA) mercurials. We focus on how these components interact with each other and with the host cell to allow cells to survive and detoxify Hg compounds. Understanding how this ubiquitous detoxification system fits into the biology and ecology of its bacterial host is essential to guide interventions that support and enhance Hg remediation. At a more basic level, studies of interactions between the metal ion trafficking proteins in this pathway provide insights into general mechanisms used by proteins in pathways involved in trafficking of other metal ions in cells of all types of organisms, including pathways for essential metal ions such as Cu and Zn and other toxic metal ions such as Cd. In this project we focused on investigations of proteins from mer operons found in gamma-proteobacteria with specific objectives to use biophysical and biochemical approaches to detect and define (1) interactions between the structural components of the key detoxifying mer operon enzyme, mercuric ion reductase (MerA), (2) interactions between the components of MerA and the other mer operon enzyme, organomercurial lyase (MerB), and (3) to investigate the structure and interactions of integral membrane transport proteins, MerT and MerC, with MerA.

  14. The thermal history of the Lhasa Block, South Tibetan Plateau based on FTD and Ar-Ar dating

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, T F; Lo Chong Huah; Chung, S L; Tien, R L; Xu, R; Deng, W

    1999-01-01

    Twelve basement samples were collected from South Tibet Plateau for FTD and Ar-Ar analysis to demonstrate their uplifting history since Cenozoic era. The preliminary results from different minerals with different closure temperatures, including apatite and zircon for fission-track dating, and K-feldspar, biotite for Ar-Ar dating, show that at least four stages of thermal history can be recognized in the studied area.

  15. Cadomian vs. Variscan evolution of the Ossa-Morena zone (SW Iberia): field and 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral age constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmeyer, R. D.; Quesada, C.

    1992-12-01

    Six hornblende and ten muscovite concentrates have been dated from three contrasting tectonic units exposed within the Ossa-Morena zone of the Iberian Massif. These include: (1) the Obejo-Valsequillo domain (north of the Badajoz-Córdoba shear zone); (2) the Sierra Albarrana structural unit (immediately south of the Badajoz-Córdoba shear zone); and (3) the thermal some exposed within the Olivenza-Monesterio antiform (Zafra-Monesterio domain). Hornblende from foliated amphibolite in the Obejo-Valsequillo domain (Siera Negra unit) displays internally discordant 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectra as a result of both intracrystalline contamination with extraneous argon and slight rejuvenation. 36Ar/ 40Ar vs. 39Ar/ 40Ar isotope-correlations are generally well-defined and yield ages of c. 550-560 Ma. These are interpreted to date cooling following late Precambrian-early Paleozoic (Cadomian) tectonothermal activity. This was followed by slight Variscan rejuvenation at c. 375-400 Ma. Muscovite from this unit displays internally discordant age spectra which reflect more extensive Variscan rejuvenation of intracrystalline argon systems which had initially cooled below appropriate blocking temperatures at c. 560 Ma. Hornblende and muscovite from the Sierra Albarrana domain (Sierra Albarrana Group) record 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau and isotope-correlation ages which range between c. 392 Ma and 351 Ma. These results indicate that complete Variscan rejuvenation was followed by relatively rapid post-metamorphic cooling. Hornblende separated from various lithologie elements exposed in the Olivenza-Monesterio Antiform yield variable results. Hornblende within a mafic xenolith in the Monesterio Granodiorite records an isotope-correlation age of c. 553 Ma which is interpreted to date the last cooling through appropriate argon retention temperatures. Hornblende within amphibolite of the Montemolin Series (lower Serie Negra) records internally discordant age spectra which reflect extensive Variscan (c

  16. Direct 40Ar/39Ar age determination of fluid inclusions using in-vacuo¬ stepwise crushing - Example of garnet from the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunk, Bertram; Postma, Onno; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2017-04-01

    Metamorphic minerals and veins commonly trap attending hydrous fluids in fluid inclusions, which yield a wealth of information on the history of the hosting metamorphic system. When these fluids are sufficiently saline, the KCl in the inclusions can be used as a K/Ar geochronologic system, potentially dating inclusion incorporation. Whilst primary fluid inclusions (PFIs) can date fluid incorporation during mineral or vein growth, secondary fluid inclusion trails (SFIs) can provide age constraints on later fluid flow events. At VU Amsterdam, a new in-vacuo crushing apparatus has been designed to extract fluid inclusions from minerals for 40Ar/39Ar analysis. Separates are crushed inside a crusher tube connected to a purification line and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In-vacuo crushing is achieved by lifting and dropping a steel pestle using an externally controlled magnetic field. As the gas can be analyzed between different crushing steps, the setup permits stepwise crushing experiments. Additionally, crushed powder can be heated by inserting the crusher tube in an externally controlled furnace. Dating by 40Ar/39Ar stepwise crushing has the added advantage that, during neutron irradiation to produce 39Ar from 39K, 38Ar and 37Ar are also produced from 38Cl and 40Ca, respectively. Simultaneous analysis of these argon isotopes permits constraining the chemistry of the argon source sampled during the experiment. This allows a distinction between different fluid or crystal lattice sources. Garnet from three samples of the HP metamorphic Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece was stepwise crushed to obtain fluid inclusion ages. Initial steps for all three experiments yield significant components of excess argon, which are interpreted to originate from grain boundary fluids and secondary fluid inclusions trails. During subsequent steps, age results stabilize to a plateau age. One garnet from North Syros yields an unusually old 80 Ma plateau age. However, isochrons

  17. Electric efficiency in lighting system and air conditioners replacement and automation of air conditioners split type in public buildings; Eficiencia eletrica na substituicao do sistema de iluminacao e de condicionadores de ar e automacao do sistema de condicionadores de ar tipo split em predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Apolonio, Roberto; Silva, Luciana Oliveira da; Gomes, Fernanda Leles [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), MT (Brazil); Malheiro, Teresa Irene Ribeiro de Carvalho [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso (IFMT), MT (Brazil); Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction in expenditure on electricity is a major benefit not only consumers but also to utilities. In this context, this article examines the process of replacing the system of internal lighting, window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners from buildings of public institutions of the state of Mato Grosso during 2009 year and verifies the reduction in annual consumption of electric power and demand active power. Thus, measurements and calculations performed are presented for the interior lighting systems and air conditioners of these buildings before and after implementation of the process of replacing the system of internal lighting and window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners. This work is the result of integration among the Dealer Network Energy Rede Cemat, the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT) and the Administration of all public buildings, where the academy answered these real issues, solving the specific problem presented. (author)

  18. Solar water detoxification: state of the art of the research in Spain; Detoxificacion solar de aguas residuales y desinfeccion: estado actual de la investigacion en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martinez, M.; Cuesta Santianes, J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.; Garcia Garcia, D.; Trevino Sanchez, A. C.; Berges Garcia, A.

    2010-07-01

    The CIEMAT's Foresight and Technology Watch Unit, whose technology watch management system is certified by Aenor as per standards UNE 16006:2006, has developed this study in order to review the state of the art of national research on solar water detoxification. to reach this goal, data bases of scientific publications, research projects and patents have been used. The technology watch information management solution VICUBO, developed by E-intelligent, was used as support tool for the afore-mentioned standard. (Author) 3 refs.

  19. Legacy K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data from the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, Lisa L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2018-04-06

    Sample descriptions and analytical data for more than 200 K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses from rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska are reported here. Samples were collected over a period of 20 years by Bruce R. Reed and Marvin A. Lanphere (both U.S. Geological Survey) as part of their studies of the batholith.

  20. Calibration of an ultra-low-background proportional counter for measuring 37Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, A.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Bowyer, T. W.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Haas, D. A.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; Humble, P. H.; Keillor, M. E.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-low-background proportional counter design has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using clean materials, primarily electro-chemically-purified copper. This detector, along with an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS), was developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (30 meters water-equivalent) at PNNL. The ULBCS design includes passive neutron and gamma shielding, along with an active cosmic-veto system. This system provides a capability for making ultra-sensitive measurements to support applications like age-dating soil hydrocarbons with 14 C/ 3 H, age-dating of groundwater with 39 Ar, and soil-gas assay for 37 Ar to support On-Site Inspection (OSI). On-Site Inspection is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclides created by an underground nuclear explosion are valuable signatures of a Treaty violation. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37 Ar, produced from neutron interactions with calcium in soil, provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This work describes the calibration techniques and analysis methods developed to enable quantitative measurements of 37 Ar samples over a broad range of proportional counter operating pressures. These efforts, along with parallel work in progress on gas chemistry separation, are expected to provide a significant new capability for 37 Ar soil gas background studies

  1. Ar + NO microwave plasmas for Escherichia coli sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso, Jose L; Rico, Victor J; Cotrino, Jose; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Frias, Jose E

    2008-01-01

    Ar + NO microwave discharges are used for sterilization and the results are compared with additional experiments with Ar, O 2 and N 2 -O 2 plasma mixtures. The NO * species produced in the Ar-NO mixtures remain up to long distances from the source, thus improving the sterilization efficiency of the process. E. coli individuals exposed to the Ar + NO plasma undergo morphological damage and cell lysis. Combined effects of etching (by O * and Ar * species) and UV radiation (from deactivation of NO * species) are responsible for the higher activity found for this plasma mixture. (fast track communication)

  2. Ar + NO microwave plasmas for Escherichia coli sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueso, Jose L; Rico, Victor J; Cotrino, Jose; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Frias, Jose E [Instituto de BioquImica Vegetal y FotosIntesis (IBVF-CSIC). Centro de Investigaciones CientIficas Isla de la Cartuja. Avda Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: jhueso@icmse.csic.es

    2008-05-07

    Ar + NO microwave discharges are used for sterilization and the results are compared with additional experiments with Ar, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma mixtures. The NO{sup *} species produced in the Ar-NO mixtures remain up to long distances from the source, thus improving the sterilization efficiency of the process. E. coli individuals exposed to the Ar + NO plasma undergo morphological damage and cell lysis. Combined effects of etching (by O{sup *} and Ar{sup *} species) and UV radiation (from deactivation of NO{sup *} species) are responsible for the higher activity found for this plasma mixture. (fast track communication)

  3. A Model of White Dwarf Pulsar AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Bing; Huang, Yong-Feng

    2016-11-01

    A 3.56 hr white dwarf (WD)-M dwarf (MD) close binary system, AR Scorpii, was recently reported to show pulsating emission in radio, IR, optical, and UV, with a 1.97 minute period, which suggests the existence of a WD with a rotation period of 1.95 minutes. We propose a model to explain the temporal and spectral characteristics of the system. The WD is a nearly perpendicular rotator, with both open field line beams sweeping the MD stellar wind periodically. A bow shock propagating into the stellar wind accelerates electrons in the wind. Synchrotron radiation of these shocked electrons can naturally account for the broadband (from radio to X-rays) spectral energy distribution of the system.

  4. Laser /39/Ar-/40/Ar dating of two clasts from consortium breccia 73215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Schaeffer, O. A.; James, O. B.; Mueller, H. W.

    1978-01-01

    A laser Ar-39-Ar-40 study of the components of an ANT-suite anorthositic gabbro and a black aphanite from a consortium breccia is reported. A wide range of K-Ar ages is found for the plagioclase in the anorthositic gabbro; at the centers of the largest grains is material showing the greatest age (older than 4.11 billion years) while the youngest material (3.81-3.88 billion years) is found near the grain margins. Partial outgassing of the clasts upon incorporation into the breccia could account for the age patterns. The black aphanite clast appears to be cogenetic with the aphanite that forms the breccia matrix. The time of crystallization of a lunar granite has also been measured by the laser technique.

  5. Timing and processes for exhumation of HP/LT rocks of the southern Brooks Range (AK): Insight from combined geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of white mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T.; Miller, E. L.; Grove, M. J.; Hayden, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The obduction of an island arc onto the Arctic Alaska continental margin in the Jura-Cretaceous led to southward subduction of continental crust and high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) epidote-blueschist facies metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range (BR). A regionally developed greenschist facies normal-sense shear zone system along the southern margin of the BR suggests that extensional faulting had an influential role in the exhumation of the metamorphic core. To better constrain the exhumation history of the metamorphic core of the BR, samples were collected from a N-S transect through the metamorphic core of the orogen. Electron microprobe (EMP) analyses of white micas reveal that they are composed of phengite (Si > 3.0 pfu) or a combination of phengite + paragonite. Si-content of phengites reveal a southward increase in Si from 3.1 to 3.4 pfu (corresponding to an increase in pressure). Si-contents in higher-P phengites are scattered, reflecting subsequent muscovite growth. The Si trend is matched by a southward increase in the 40Ar/39Ar total gas ages of white micas. Phengite from the north are characterized by younger ages (~115 Ma) and flatter 40Ar/39Ar spectra. Farther south, phengites and paragonites yield older 40Ar/39Ar ages. These samples yield convex, staircase 40Ar/39Ar spectra that initiate ~115-120 Ma and flatten-out ~130-138 Ma. Modeling using MacArgon proposes that an initial cooling of HP/LT metamorphism occurred ~130-138 Ma, recorded in the high-Si phengites and paragonites. Following initial cooling, modeling suggests HP/LT rocks stalled in the greenschist facies field before subsequent exhumation, resulting in the staircase 40Ar/39Ar spectra. Flatter 40Ar/39Ar spectra recorded by the northern samples and modeling of 40Ar/39Ar results from the southern samples suggest that these rocks from metamorphic core of the BR were exhumed to temperatures < 300°C by ~115 Ma.

  6. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Liang [Department of Urology, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Department of Urology, Civil Aviation General Hospital/Civil Aviation Medical College of Peking University, Beijing 100123 (China); Li, Mingyang [Department of Gastroenterology, Nan Lou Division, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Feng, Fan [Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yang, Yutao [Beijing Institute for Neuroscience, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Hang, Xingyi [National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health, Beijing 100730 (China); Cui, Jiajun, E-mail: cuijn@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Cancer and Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Gao, Jiangping, E-mail: jpgao@163.com [Department of Urology, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein–protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: • A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. • Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. • MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. • MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells.

  7. Biological and physical controls on O2/Ar, Ar and pCO2 variability at the Western Antarctic Peninsula and in the Drake Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveleth, R.; Cassar, N.; Doney, S. C.; Munro, D. R.; Sweeney, C.

    2017-05-01

    Using simultaneous sub-kilometer resolution underway measurements of surface O2/Ar, total O2 and pCO2 from annual austral summer surveys in 2012, 2013 and 2014, we explore the impacts of biological and physical processes on the O2 and pCO2 system spatial and interannual variability at the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). In the WAP, mean O2/Ar supersaturation was (7.6±9.1)% and mean pCO2 supersaturation was (-28±22)%. We see substantial spatial variability in O2 and pCO2 including sub-mesoscale/mesoscale variability with decorrelation length scales of 4.5 km, consistent with the regional Rossby radius. This variability is embedded within onshore-offshore gradients. O2 in the LTER grid region is driven primarily by biological processes as seen by the median ratio of the magnitude of biological oxygen (O2/Ar) to physical oxygen (Ar) supersaturation anomalies (%) relative to atmospheric equilibrium (2.6), however physical processes have a more pronounced influence in the southern onshore region of the grid where we see active sea-ice melting. Total O2 measurements should be interpreted with caution in regions of significant sea-ice formation and melt and glacial meltwater input. pCO2 undersaturation predominantly reflects biological processes in the LTER grid. In contrast we compare these results to the Drake Passage where gas supersaturations vary by smaller magnitudes and decorrelate at length scales of 12 km, in line with latitudinal changes in the regional Rossby radius. Here biological processes induce smaller O2/Ar supersaturations (mean (0.14±1.3)%) and pCO2 undersaturations (mean (-2.8±3.9)%) than in the WAP, and pressure changes, bubble and gas exchange fluxes drive stable Ar supersaturations.

  8. Patterns of co-occurring addictions, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depressive disorder in detoxification treatment seekers: Implications for improving detoxification treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, RaeAnn E; Hruska, Bryce; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2018-03-01

    Poly-substance use and psychiatric comorbidity are common among individuals receiving substance detoxification services. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are the most common co-occurring psychiatric disorders with substance use disorder (SUD). Current treatment favors a one-size-fits-all approach to treating addiction focusing on one substance or one comorbidity. Research examining patterns of substance use and comorbidities can inform efforts to effectively identify and differentially treat individuals with co-occurring conditions. Using latent class analysis, the current study identified four patterns of PTSD, MDD, and substance use among 375 addiction treatment seekers receiving medically supervised detoxification. The four identified classes were: 1) a PTSD-MDD-Poly SUD class characterized by PTSD and MDD occurring in the context of opioid, cannabis, and tobacco use disorders; 2) an MDD-Poly SUD class characterized by MDD and alcohol, opioid, tobacco, and cannabis use disorders; 3) an alcohol-tobacco class characterized by alcohol and tobacco use disorders; and 4) an opioid-tobacco use disorder class characterized by opioid and tobacco use disorders. The observed classes differed on gender and clinical characteristics including addiction severity, trauma history, and PTSD/MDD symptom severity. The observed classes likely require differing treatment approaches. For example, people in the PTSD-MDD-Poly SUD class would likely benefit from treatment approaches targeting anxiety sensitivity and distress tolerance, while the opioid-tobacco class would benefit from treatments that incorporate motivational interviewing. Appropriate matching of treatment to class could optimize treatment outcomes for polysubstance and comorbid psychiatric treatment seekers. These findings also underscore the importance of well-developed referral networks to optimize outpatient psychotherapy for detoxification treatment-seekers to enhance long

  9. 40Ar-39Ar laser probe dating of individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier eclogitic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.; Turner, G.; Laurenzi, M.; Harris, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The ages of seven individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier diamonds of eclogitic association have been determined using the 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating technique. Syngenetic inclusions weighing between 10 and 130 μg were exposed on cleaved surfaces of the diamonds and analysed using a laser probe. The inclusion ages were found to be in the range 1111±35 to 1254±38 Ma with an average of 1185±94 Ma. The ages obtained are in good agreement with previous determinations made on aggregates of eclogitic inclusions from Premier diamonds and demonstrate the applicability of the laser probe to dating individual diamond inclusions. (orig.)

  10. Argon in hornblende, biotite and muscovite in geologic cooling - Ar-40/Ar-39-investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittman, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the Ar-40/Ar-39 studies are discussed under the aspect of whether the age data of the minerals indicate a cooling process. The author hopes that isotope dating of minerals with different closing temperatures will describe the temperature/time history of an area in the temperature range of 600 to 200 0 C. The findings are analyzed under three aspects: How much do they contribute to the initial methodological question, what do they contribute to the regional geology of the areas investigated, and in what respects do they extent the present knowledge of the geochronological analysis, i.e. its techniques and interpretation. (orig.) [de

  11. Consortium breccia 73255 - Laser /Ar-39/-/Ar-40/ dating of aphanite samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Schaeffer, O. A.; Mcgee, J. J.; James, O. B.

    1979-01-01

    Laser (Ar-39)-(Ar-40) studies of clasts and groundmass in breccia 73255 are presented. They show a variety of ages indicating that some materials lost argon from sites that outgas at low temperature, while other materials have retained argon generated before the breccia-forming event. The estimate for the time of the breccia-forming event from thermal release studies is compared to the upper limit of the event from the laser studies; this work also shows that ages in excess of 4.0 G.y. determined on rocks containing devitrified maskelynite clasts probably have no chronological significance.

  12. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology at the Instituto de Geociencias, USP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, P.M; Onoe, A.T.; Kawashita, K; Soares, A.J; Teixeira, W

    2001-01-01

    The recent construction of the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laboratory facility at CPGeo/USP and the establishment of a cooperation agreement between USP and the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas (IPEN), facilitating access to the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, provides the South American geological community with a new powerful geochronological tool. We will present a full description of the new CPGeo/USP laboratory installations, equipment, analytical procedures, and results of calibration tests and analyses of standards. We will also discuss future developments for the laboratory (au)

  13. Advancements in cosmogenic 38Ar exposure dating of terrestrial rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostingh, K. F.; Jourdan, F.; Danišík, M.; Evans, N. J.

    2017-11-01

    Cosmogenic exposure dating of Ca-rich minerals using 38Ar on terrestrial rocks could be a valuable new dating tool to determine timescales of geological surface processes on Earth. Here, we show that advancement in analytical precision, using the new generation multi-collector ARGUSVI mass spectrometer on irradiated pyroxene and apatite samples, allows determination of cosmogenic 38Ar abundances above background values, as well as discrimination of 38Ar/36Ar ratios (1σ absolute precision of ±0.3%) from the non-cosmogenic background value. Four statistically significant cosmochron (38Ar/36Ar vs37Ar/36Ar) diagrams could be constructed for southeast Australian pyroxene samples from the Mt Elephant scoria cone for which a combined apparent exposure age of 313 ± 179 ka (2σ) was obtained when using a 38Ar production rate (Ca) of 250 atoms /g Ca/ yr. This exposure age overlaps within error with the known 40Ar/39Ar eruption age of 184 ± 15 ka (2σ). Although apatite shows much larger 38Ar abundances than pyroxene, our modelling and analyses of unirradiated apatite suggest that apatite suffers from both natural and reactor-derived chlorogenic as well as natural nucleogenic contributions of 38Ar. Hence, we suggest that cosmogenic 38Ar exposure dating on irradiated Ca-rich (and eventually K-rich), but Cl-free, terrestrial minerals is a potential valuable and accessible tool to determine geological surface processes on timescales of a few Ma. Calculations show that with the new generation multi-collector mass spectrometers an analytical uncertainty better than 5% (2σ) can be achieved on samples with expected exposure ages of >4 Ma.

  14. Comparative analysis of the heat transfer rates in constant (CAV) and variable (VAV) volumes type multi zone acclimation system operating in hot and humid climate; Analise comparativa das taxas transferencia de calor em sistemas de climatizacao do tipo volume de ar constante (CAV) e volume de ar variavel (VAV) multizona operando em clima quente e umido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Cesar A.G.; Correa, Jorge E. [Para Univ., Belem (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: gsantos@ufpa.br; jecorrea@amazon.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This work performs a comparative analysis among the constant and variable air volume multi zones acclimation systems, used for provide the thermal comfort in buildings. The work used the simulation HVAC2KIT computer program. The results of sensible and latent heats transfer rates on the cooling and dehumidification, inflating fan capacity, and heat transfer on the final heating condenser were obtained and analysed for the climate conditions of the Brazilian city of Belem from Para State, presenting hot and humid climate during all the year.

  15. Characterization of 41Ar production in air at a PET cyclotron facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicoria, Gianfranco; Cesarini, Francesco; Infantino, Angelo; Vichi, Sara; Zagni, Federico; Marengo, Mario

    2017-06-01

    In the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) nuclides at a medical cyclotron facility 41Ar (T1/2 = 109.34 m) is produced by the activation of air due to the neutron flux, according to the 40Ar(n, γ)41Ar reaction. In this work, we describe a relatively inexpensive and readily reproducible methodology of air sampling that can be used for quantification of 41Ar during the routine production of PET nuclides. We report the results of an extensive measurement campaign in the cyclotron bunker and in the ducts of the ventilation system, before and after final filtering of the extracted air. Air Samples were analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with HPGe detector, with proper correction of the efficiency calibration to account for the samples density. The results of measurement were then used to evaluate the Total Effective Dose (TED) to the population living in the surrounding areas, due to routine emissions in the operation of the cyclotron. The average 41Ar saturation yield per one liter of air emitted in the environment resulted to be (0.044 ± 0.007) Bq/(μA ṡ dm3). The maximum value of TED for the critical group of the population, even considering an overestimated workload, was less than 0.19 μSv/year, well below the level of radiological relevance.

  16. A Fault Diagnosis Approach for Gears Based on IMF AR Model and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An accurate autoregressive (AR model can reflect the characteristics of a dynamic system based on which the fault feature of gear vibration signal can be extracted without constructing mathematical model and studying the fault mechanism of gear vibration system, which are experienced by the time-frequency analysis methods. However, AR model can only be applied to stationary signals, while the gear fault vibration signals usually present nonstationary characteristics. Therefore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD, which can decompose the vibration signal into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, is introduced into feature extraction of gear vibration signals as a preprocessor before AR models are generated. On the other hand, by targeting the difficulties of obtaining sufficient fault samples in practice, support vector machine (SVM is introduced into gear fault pattern recognition. In the proposed method in this paper, firstly, vibration signals are decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions, then the AR model of each IMF component is established; finally, the corresponding autoregressive parameters and the variance of remnant are regarded as the fault characteristic vectors and used as input parameters of SVM classifier to classify the working condition of gears. The experimental analysis results show that the proposed approach, in which IMF AR model and SVM are combined, can identify working condition of gears with a success rate of 100% even in the case of smaller number of samples.

  17. AUTONOMOUS DETECTION AND TRACKING OF AN OBJECT AUTONOMOUSLY USING AR.DRONE QUADCOPTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futuhal Arifin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, there are many robotic applications being developed to do tasks autonomously without any interactions or commands from human. Therefore, developing a system which enables a robot to do surveillance such as detection and tracking of a moving object will lead us to more advanced tasks carried out by robots in the future. AR.Drone is a flying robot platform that is able to take role as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Usage of computer vision algorithm such as Hough Transform makes it possible for such system to be implemented on AR.Drone. In this research, the developed algorithm is able to detect and track an object with certain shape and color. Then the algorithm is successfully implemented on AR.Drone quadcopter for detection and tracking.

  18. Transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for three detoxification gene families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The genomes of three major mosquito vectors of human diseases, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, have been previously sequenced. C. p. quinquefasciatus has the largest number of predicted protein-coding genes, which partially results from the expansion of three detoxification gene families: cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCE). However, unlike An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, which have large amounts of gene expression data, C. p. quinquefasciatus has limited transcriptomic resources. Knowledge of complete gene expression information is very important for the exploration of the functions of genes involved in specific biological processes. In the present study, the three detoxification gene families of C. p. quinquefasciatus were analyzed for phylogenetic classification and compared with those of three other dipteran insects. Gene expression during various developmental stages and the differential expression responsible for parathion resistance were profiled using the digital gene expression (DGE) technique. Results A total of 302 detoxification genes were found in C. p. quinquefasciatus, including 71 CCE, 196 P450, and 35 cytosolic GST genes. Compared with three other dipteran species, gene expansion in Culex mainly occurred in the CCE and P450 families, where the genes of α-esterases, juvenile hormone esterases, and CYP325 of the CYP4 subfamily showed the most pronounced expansion on the genome. For the five DGE libraries, 3.5-3.8 million raw tags were generated and mapped to 13314 reference genes. Among 302 detoxification genes, 225 (75%) were detected for expression in at least one DGE library. One fourth of the CCE and P450 genes were detected uniquely in one stage, indicating potential developmentally regulated expression. A total of 1511 genes showed different expression levels between a parathion-resistant and a susceptible strain. Fifteen

  19. An industrial approach to design compelling VR and AR experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richir, Simon; Fuchs, Philippe; Lourdeaux, Domitile; Buche, Cédric; Querrec, Ronan

    2013-03-01

    The convergence of technologies currently observed in the field of VR, AR, robotics and consumer electronic reinforces the trend of new applications appearing every day. But when transferring knowledge acquired from research to businesses, research laboratories are often at a loss because of a lack of knowledge of the design and integration processes in creating an industrial scale product. In fact, the innovation approaches that take a good idea from the laboratory to a successful industrial product are often little known to researchers. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the work of several research teams that have finalized a working method for researchers and manufacturers that allow them to design virtual or augmented reality systems and enable their users to enjoy "a compelling VR experience". That approach, called "the I2I method", present 11 phases from "Establishing technological and competitive intelligence and industrial property" to "Improvements" through the "Definition of the Behavioral Interface, Virtual Environment and Behavioral Software Assistance". As a result of the experience gained by various research teams, this design approach benefits from contributions from current VR and AR research. Our objective is to validate and continuously move such multidisciplinary design team methods forward.

  20. Synergy of Histone-Deacetylase Inhibitor AR-42 with Cisplatin in Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David R; Zhang, Hanwei; Peek, Elizabeth; Wang, Song; Du, Lin; Li, Gang; Chin, Arnold I

    2015-08-01

    Cisplatin based chemotherapy regimens form the basis of systemic bladder cancer treatment, although they show limited response rates and efficacy. Recent molecular analysis of bladder cancer revealed a high incidence of mutations in chromatin regulatory genes, suggesting a therapeutic avenue for histone deacetylase inhibitors. We investigated the ability of the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 to synergize with cisplatin in preclinical models of bladder cancer. We assessed the ability of the pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 with and without cisplatin to destroy bladder cancer cells by survival and apoptosis assays in vitro, and by growth and differentiation in an in vivo xenograft model. We also assessed the response to the bladder cancer stem cell population by examining the effect of AR-42 on the CD44(+)CD49f(+) population with and without cisplatin. Synergy was calculated using combination indexes. The AR-42 and cisplatin combination synergistically destroyed bladder cancer cells via apoptosis and it influenced tumor growth and differentiation in vivo. When tested in the CD44(+)CD49f(+) bladder cancer stem cell population, AR-42 showed greater efficacy with and without cisplatin. AR-42 may be an attractive novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with activity against bladder cancer. Its efficacy in bladder cancer stem cells and synergy with cisplatin warrant further clinical investigation. Our in vitro and animal model studies provide preclinical evidence that AR-42 may be administered in conjunction with cisplatin based chemotherapy to improve the treatment of bladder cancer in patients. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution of ALDH1A1 isozyme to detoxification of aldehydes present in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołobodowska, Sylwia; Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Wolinowska, Renata; Wroczyński, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Even though food awareness is so developed and more and more people pay attention to what their diet is composed of, it is not possible to exclude all potentially dangerous substances present in our diet. One group of such compounds may be aldehydes as several studies indicate that they can be mutagenic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic. These relatively reactive organic molecules are natural constituents of food. They are also extensively used by food industry as additives giving aroma and taste. Fortunately many enzyme systems were developed to protect us against these toxic compounds, one of which is aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme superfamily. As mouth is the first part of digestive system it seems crucial for detoxifying toxic substances introduced with our diet. The only ALDH isozyme present in saliva is ALDH3A1, which has very high affinity towards aromatic aldehydes commonly found in food. However, because of hyposalivation, which is not uncommon nowadays, the effectiveness of this barrier can be drastically diminished. As another member of this enzyme family, isozyme ALDH1A1 is also present in digestive system its possible contribution to detoxification of "food" aldehydes was addressed. Kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax) of recombinant ALDH1A1 towards several aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes occurring in food products (vanillin, citral, furfural, cinnamaldehyde, anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde and trans-hexenal) were determined by measuring the increase of NADH fluorescence after adding various concentrations of aldehyde substrates. Rates were used to construct the Lineweaver-Burk plot from which Km and Vmax (measured relative to that of benzaldehyde which was assigned the value of 100) values were calculated. The following results were obtained: 0.04 +/- 0.06 microM and 277 +/- 81 for anisaldehyde, 0.86 +/- 0.03 mciroM and 50 +/- 3 for vanillin, 0.18 +/- 0.05 mciroM and 93 +/- 9 for trans-2-hexenal, 0.17 +/- 0.03 microM and 201 +/- 32 for cinnamaldehyde, 5

  2. 40Ar/39Ar age of the Rotoiti Breccia and Rotoehu Ash, Okataina Volcanic Complex, New Zealand, and identification of heterogeneously distributed excess 40Ar in supercooled crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flude, Stephanie; Storey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    correlation diagrams due to mixing between three reservoirs of 40Ar (radiogenic, atmospheric and excess). This excess 40Ar component is common, but not ubiquitous, and an age population unmixing algorithm applied to single-crystal fusion data identifies a younger group of K-feldspar and biotite crystals...

  3. High-resolution 40Ar/39Ar chronology of multiple intrusion igneous complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland, K. A.; Chen, J.-F.; Linder, J. S.; Henderson, C. M. B.; Whillans, I. M.

    1989-06-01

    The Mount Brome complex of the Monteregian province of southern Quebec, Canada, consits of several major intrusions ranging compositionally from gabbro to syenite. The relative ages of these intrusives have been investigated with high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar analyses, including a specially designed irradiation configuration to cancel the effects of fluence gradients. Small yet distinct apparent age differences are observed. While a number of analytical and geological factors could be proposed to explain the small variations, evaluation of these suggests the age differences reflect those in emplacement times. The gabbro and nepheline diorite were emplaced within a short span 123.1 Ma ago. Generally more evolved lithologies (biotite monzodiorite, pulaskite, nordmarkite) appear to have been emplaced within a restricted interval 1.4±0.3 Ma later. Whole-rock Rb-Sr systematics do not give acceptable isochrons because of significant scatter interpreted to reflect initial 87Sr/86Sr heterogeneities resulting from crustal contamination. Considering the variations in initial ratio, the Rb-Sr data are consistent with the 40Ar/39Ar age.

  4. The 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating of lavas from the Hilo 1-km core hole, Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W.D.; Turrin, B.D.; Renne, P.R.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mauna Kea lava flows cored in the HilIo hole range in age from based on 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and K-Ar analyses of 16 groundmass samples and one coexisting plagioclase. The lavas, all subaerially deposited, include a lower section consisting only of tholeiitic basalts and an upper section of interbedded alkalic, transitional tholeiitic, and tholeiitic basalts. The lower section has yielded predominantly complex, discordant 40Ar/39Ar age spectra that result from mobility of 40Ar and perhaps K, the presence of excess 40Ar, and redistribution of 39Ar by recoil. Comparison of K-Ar ages with 40Ar/39Ar integrated ages indicates that some of these samples have also lost 39Ar. Nevertheless, two plateau ages of 391 ?? 40 and 400 ?? 26 ka from deep in the hole, combined with data from the upper section, show that the tholeiitic section accumulated at an average rate of about 7 to 8 m/kyr and has an mean recurrence interval of 0.5 kyr/flow unit. Samples from the upper section yield relatively precise 40Ar/39Ar plateau and isotope correlation ages of 326 ?? 23, 241 ?? 5, 232 ?? 4, and 199 ?? 9 ka for depths of -415.7 m to -299.2 m. Within their uncertainty, these ages define a linear relationship with depth, with an average accumulation rate of 0.9 m/kyr and an average recurrence interval of 4.8 kyr/flow unit. The top of the Mauna Kea sequence at -280 m must be older than the plateau age of 132 ?? 32 ka, obtained for the basal Mauna Loa flow in the corehole. The upward decrease in lava accumulation rate is a consequence of the decreasing magma supply available to Mauna Kea as it rode the Pacific plate away from its magma source, the Hawaiian mantle plume. The age-depth relation in the core hole may be used to test and refine models that relate the growth of Mauna Kea to the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle plume.

  5. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project: An open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCTN07752728

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheard Laura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heroin is a synthetic opioid with an extensive illicit market leading to large numbers of people becoming addicted. Heroin users often present to community treatment services requesting detoxification and in the UK various agents are used to control symptoms of withdrawal. Dissatisfaction with methadone detoxification 8 has lead to the use of clonidine, lofexidine, buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine; however, there remains limited evaluative research. In Leeds, a city of 700,000 people in the North of England, dihydrocodeine is the detoxification agent of choice. Sublingual buprenorphine, however, is being introduced. The comparative value of these two drugs for helping people successfully and comfortably withdraw from heroin has never been compared in a randomised trial. Additionally, there is a paucity of research evaluating interventions among drug users in the primary care setting. This study seeks to address this by randomising drug users presenting in primary care to receive either dihydrocodeine or buprenorphine. Methods/design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project is a pragmatic randomised trial which will compare the open use of buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for illicit opiate detoxification, in the UK primary care setting. The LEEDS project will involve consenting adults and will be run in specialist general practice surgeries throughout Leeds. The primary outcome will be the results of a urine opiate screening at the end of the detoxification regimen. Adverse effects and limited data to three and six months will be acquired.

  6. Evaluation of white-rot fungi for detoxification and decolorization of effluents from the green olive debittering process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aggelis, G.; Ehaliotis, C.; Nerud, František; Stoychev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2002), s. 353-360 ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : white * rot * detoxification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2002

  7. Complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine on admission chest radiographs of substance abuse detoxification patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, L.B.; Alterman, D.D.; Israel, G.M.; Haramati, N.; Mallavurapu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine (anterior wedging and fish vertebrae) of patients admitted for substance abuse detoxification. Design and patients. We retrospectively identified 150 sequential patients admitted to our drug and alcohol detoxification ward in whom posteroanterior and lateral admission chest radiographs and clinical charts were available for review. There were 116 men and 34 women with a mean age of 37 years (range 19-67 years). Thirty-eight patients were admitted for drug detoxification, 37 for alcohol detoxification, and 75 for drug and alcohol detoxification. These patients were compared with 66 age- and sex-matched controls from our hospital's employee health service. Two radiologists reviewed all chest radiographs for the presence of anterior wedging and fish vertebrae in the thoracic spine and other nonspinal fractures. Serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels were recorded for the substance abuse detoxification patients. Results. Forty-nine percent (n=73) of detoxification patients had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine including: anterior wedging (n=47), fish vertebrae (n=21), or both (n=5). Twenty-four percent (n=36) of patients had an elevated serum inorganic phosphorus level and one patient had an elevated serum calcium level. Patients with anterior wedging or fish vertebrae included: 45% (n=45) of patients below age 40 years, 35% (n=12) of women, 41% (n=15) of drug detoxification patients, 58% (n=22) of alcohol detoxification patients, 48% (n=36) of drug and alcohol detoxification patients, and 47% (n=17) of patients with elevated serum inorganic phosphorus (P=NS). Six percent (n=9) of our study population had nonspinal fractures on their chest radiographs. Twenty-one percent (n=14) of controls had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine (all anterior wedging). This prevalence differed significantly (P<0.05, chi-squared) from the study population

  8. Complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine on admission chest radiographs of substance abuse detoxification patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haramati, L.B.; Alterman, D.D.; Israel, G.M.; Haramati, N. [Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Mallavurapu, R. [Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine (anterior wedging and fish vertebrae) of patients admitted for substance abuse detoxification. Design and patients. We retrospectively identified 150 sequential patients admitted to our drug and alcohol detoxification ward in whom posteroanterior and lateral admission chest radiographs and clinical charts were available for review. There were 116 men and 34 women with a mean age of 37 years (range 19-67 years). Thirty-eight patients were admitted for drug detoxification, 37 for alcohol detoxification, and 75 for drug and alcohol detoxification. These patients were compared with 66 age- and sex-matched controls from our hospital`s employee health service. Two radiologists reviewed all chest radiographs for the presence of anterior wedging and fish vertebrae in the thoracic spine and other nonspinal fractures. Serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels were recorded for the substance abuse detoxification patients. Results. Forty-nine percent (n=73) of detoxification patients had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine including: anterior wedging (n=47), fish vertebrae (n=21), or both (n=5). Twenty-four percent (n=36) of patients had an elevated serum inorganic phosphorus level and one patient had an elevated serum calcium level. Patients with anterior wedging or fish vertebrae included: 45% (n=45) of patients below age 40 years, 35% (n=12) of women, 41% (n=15) of drug detoxification patients, 58% (n=22) of alcohol detoxification patients, 48% (n=36) of drug and alcohol detoxification patients, and 47% (n=17) of patients with elevated serum inorganic phosphorus (P=NS). Six percent (n=9) of our study population had nonspinal fractures on their chest radiographs. Twenty-one percent (n=14) of controls had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine (all anterior wedging). This prevalence differed significantly (P<0.05, chi-squared) from the study population

  9. High efficient detoxification of mustard gas surrogate based on nanofibrous fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuebo; Du, Xinyu; Wang, Jiaona; Yin, Yingying; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Shuyu; Li, Nianwu; Li, Congju

    2018-04-05

    In recent years, people pay more attention to the protection against chemical warfare agents, due to the increase in the probability of usage of these chemical warfare agents in wars or terrorist attacks. In this work, MgO nanoparticles were in-situ growth on the surface of poly(m-phenylene Isophthalamide) (PMIA) forming a flexible and breathable fabric for the detoxification of mustard gas surrogate. The as-prepared nanofibrous membrane possesses a "flower-like" structure of which endows not only increase the specific surface area of the composite but also prevent the agglomeration of the MgO nanoparticles. The detoxification ability of the PMIA@MgO nanofibrous fabric was demonstrated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). It is found that after 20 h of reaction time, 70.56% of the mustard gas surrogate have been decomposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-Acting Injectable Naltrexone Induction: A Randomized Trial of Outpatient Opioid Detoxification With Naltrexone Versus Buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maria; Bisaga, Adam; Pavlicova, Martina; Choi, C Jean; Mishlen, Kaitlyn; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Levin, Frances R; Dakwar, Elias; Mariani, John J; Nunes, Edward V

    2017-05-01

    At present there is no established optimal approach for transitioning opioid-dependent adults to extended-release injection naltrexone (XR-naltrexone) while preventing relapse. The authors conducted a trial examining the efficacy of two methods of outpatient opioid detoxification for induction to XR-naltrexone. Participants were 150 opioid-dependent adults randomly assigned 2:1 to one of two outpatient detoxification regimens, naltrexone-assisted detoxification or buprenorphine-assisted detoxification, followed by an injection of XR-naltrexone. Naltrexone-assisted detoxification lasted 7 days and included a single day of buprenorphine followed by ascending doses of oral naltrexone along with clonidine and other adjunctive medications. Buprenorphine-assisted detoxification included a 7-day buprenorphine taper followed by a week-long delay before administration of XR-naltrexone, consistent with official prescribing information for XR-naltrexone. Participants from both groups received behavioral therapy focused on medication adherence and a second dose of XR-naltrexone. Compared with participants in the buprenorphine-assisted detoxification condition, participants assigned to naltrexone-assisted detoxification were significantly more likely to be successfully inducted to XR-naltrexone (56.1% compared with 32.7%) and to receive the second injection at week 5 (50.0% compared with 26.9%). Both models adjusted for primary type of opioid use, route of opioid administration, and morphine equivalents at baseline. These results demonstrate the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of low-dose naltrexone, in conjunction with single-day buprenorphine dosing and adjunctive nonopioid medications, for initiating adults with opioid dependence to XR-naltrexone. This strategy offers a promising alternative to the high rates of attrition and relapse currently observed with agonist tapers in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

  11. Biotic interaction between earthworms and pesticide degrading bacteria - Impact on the detoxification service of soil

    OpenAIRE

    Monard, Cécile; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Binet, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms are efficient soil engineers that change the physical and chemical properties of soil and act in turn on soil microbial communities. Earthworm bioturbation will thus impact microbial processes in soil and also the generated ecosystemic services such as detoxification function. By using RNA based Stable Isotope Probing we demonstrated that the bacterial communities responsive to 13 C enrichments in earthworm casts were different from those in bulk soil resulting in different degrada...

  12. Climate change increases the risk of herbicide-resistant weeds due to enhanced detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzrafi, Maor; Seiwert, Bettina; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Rubin, Baruch; Peleg, Zvi

    2016-12-01

    Global warming will increase the incidence of metabolism-based reduced herbicide efficacy on weeds and, therefore, the risk for evolution of non-target site herbicide resistance. Climate changes affect food security both directly and indirectly. Weeds are the major biotic factor limiting crop production worldwide, and herbicides are the most cost-effective way for weed management. Processes associated with climatic changes, such as elevated temperatures, can strongly affect weed control efficiency. Responses of several grass weed populations to herbicides that inhibit acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) were examined under different temperature regimes. We characterized the mechanism of temperature-dependent sensitivity and the kinetics of pinoxaden detoxification. The products of pinoxaden detoxification were quantified. Decreased sensitivity to ACCase inhibitors was observed under elevated temperatures. Pre-treatment with the cytochrome-P450 inhibitor malathion supports a non-target site metabolism-based mechanism of herbicide resistance. The first 48 h after herbicide application were crucial for pinoxaden detoxification. The levels of the inactive glucose-conjugated pinoxaden product (M5) were found significantly higher under high- than low-temperature regime. Under high temperature, a rapid elevation in the level of the intermediate metabolite (M4) was found only in pinoxaden-resistant plants. Our results highlight the quantitative nature of non-target-site resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence for temperature-dependent herbicide sensitivity based on metabolic detoxification. These findings suggest an increased risk for the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds under predicted climatic conditions.

  13. Overexpression of multiple detoxification genes in deltamethrin resistant Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén, is one of the major rice pests in Asia and has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Understanding resistance mechanisms is essential to the management of this pest. Biochemical and molecular assays were performed in this study to systematically characterize deltamethrin resistance mechanisms with laboratory-selected resistant and susceptible strains of SBPH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Deltamethrin resistant strains of SBPH (JH-del were derived from a field population by continuously selections (up to 30 generations in the laboratory, while a susceptible strain (JHS was obtained from the same population by removing insecticide pressure for 30 generations. The role of detoxification enzymes in the resistance was investigated using synergism and enzyme activity assays with strains of different resistant levels. Furthermore, 71 cytochrome P450, 93 esterases and 12 glutathione-S-transferases cDNAs were cloned based on transcriptome data of a field collected population. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR screening analysis of 176 identified detoxification genes demonstrated that multiple P450 and esterase genes were overexpressed (>2-fold in JH-del strains (G4 and G30 when compared to that in JHS, and the results of quantitative PCR coincided with the semi-quantitative RT-PCR results. Target mutation at IIS3-IIS6 regions encoded by the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was ruled out for conferring the observed resistance. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As the first attempt to discover genes potentially involved in SBPH pyrethroid resistance, this study putatively identified several candidate genes of detoxification enzymes that were significantly overexpressed in the resistant strain, which matched the synergism and enzyme activity testing. The biochemical and molecular evidences suggest that the high level pyrethroid resistance in L. striatellus could be due to

  14. Evidence of species-specific detoxification processes for trace elements in shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Cosson, Richard P; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated sub-lethal effects and detoxification processes activated in free-ranging Red Knots (RKs) (Calidris canutus) from the Pertuis Charentais on the Atlantic coast of France, and compared the results with previous data obtained on another shorebird species, the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa). The concentrations of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were assessed in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers. Stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen were carried out to determine whether differences in diet explained variations in elemental uptake. The mRNA expression of relevant genes (cytochrome c oxidase 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutase, catalase, metallothionein, malic enzyme), antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase), and metallothionein (MT) levels were investigated to shed light on trace element detoxification and toxic effects. Although Red Knots were characterized by elevated As and Se concentrations which were potentially toxic, most elements were usually below toxicity threshold levels. The results strongly suggested a dietary specialization of Red Knots, with individuals feeding on higher trophic status prey experiencing higher As, Hg and Se burdens. Red Knots and Godwits also showed discrepancies in elemental accumulation and detoxification processes. Higher As and Se concentrations in Red Knots enhanced catalase gene expression and enzyme activity, while Godwits had higher Ag, Cu, Fe and Zn levels and showed higher MT production and GPx activity. The results strongly suggest that detoxification pathways are essentially trace element- and species-specific.

  15. Toxicity of Plant Secondary Metabolites Modulating Detoxification Genes Expression for Natural Red Palm Weevil Pesticide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed AlJabr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the larvicidal and growth-inhibiting activities, and underlying detoxification mechanism of red palm weevil against phenylpropanoids, an important class of plant secondary metabolites. Toxicity of α-asarone, eugenol, isoeugenol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, coumarin, coumarin 6, coniferyl aldehyde, diniconazole, ethyl cinnamate, and rosmarinic acid was evaluated by incorporation into the artificial diet. All of the phenylpropanoids exhibited dose- and time-dependent insecticidal activity. Among all the tested phenylpropanoids, coumarin exhibited the highest toxicity by revealing the least LD50 value (0.672 g/L. In addition, the most toxic compound (coumarin observed in the current study, deteriorated the growth resulting tremendous reduction (78.39% in efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD, and (ECI efficacy of conversion of ingested food (70.04% of tenth-instar red palm weevil larvae. The energy-deficient red palm weevil larvae through their intrinsic abilities showed enhanced response to their digestibility resulting 27.78% increase in approximate digestibility (AD compared to control larvae. The detoxification response of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae determined by the quantitative expression of cytochrome P450, esterases, and glutathione S-transferase revealed enhanced expression among moderately toxic and ineffective compounds. These genes especially cytochrome P450 and GST detoxify the target compounds by enhancing their solubility that leads rapid excretion and degradation resulting low toxicity towards red palm weevil larvae. On the other hand, the most toxic (coumarin silenced the genes involved in the red palm weevil detoxification mechanism. Based on the toxicity, growth retarding, and masking detoxification activities, coumarin could be a useful future natural red palm weevil-controlling agent.

  16. Toxicity of Plant Secondary Metabolites Modulating Detoxification Genes Expression for Natural Red Palm Weevil Pesticide Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed; Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan

    2017-01-20

    This study aimed to explore the larvicidal and growth-inhibiting activities, and underlying detoxification mechanism of red palm weevil against phenylpropanoids, an important class of plant secondary metabolites. Toxicity of α-asarone, eugenol, isoeugenol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, coumarin, coumarin 6, coniferyl aldehyde, diniconazole, ethyl cinnamate, and rosmarinic acid was evaluated by incorporation into the artificial diet. All of the phenylpropanoids exhibited dose- and time-dependent insecticidal activity. Among all the tested phenylpropanoids, coumarin exhibited the highest toxicity by revealing the least LD 50 value (0.672 g/L). In addition, the most toxic compound (coumarin) observed in the current study, deteriorated the growth resulting tremendous reduction (78.39%) in efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD), and (ECI) efficacy of conversion of ingested food (70.04%) of tenth-instar red palm weevil larvae. The energy-deficient red palm weevil larvae through their intrinsic abilities showed enhanced response to their digestibility resulting 27.78% increase in approximate digestibility (AD) compared to control larvae. The detoxification response of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae determined by the quantitative expression of cytochrome P450 , esterases , and glutathione S-transferase revealed enhanced expression among moderately toxic and ineffective compounds. These genes especially cytochrome P450 and GST detoxify the target compounds by enhancing their solubility that leads rapid excretion and degradation resulting low toxicity towards red palm weevil larvae. On the other hand, the most toxic (coumarin) silenced the genes involved in the red palm weevil detoxification mechanism. Based on the toxicity, growth retarding, and masking detoxification activities, coumarin could be a useful future natural red palm weevil-controlling agent.

  17. RNA interference revealed the roles of two carboxylesterase genes in insecticide detoxification in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqin; Li, Daqi; Ge, Pingting; Yang, Meiling; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2013-10-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play key roles in metabolism of specific hormones and detoxification of dietary and environmental xenobiotics in insects. We sequenced and characterized CarE cDNAs putatively derived from two different genes named LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, one of the most important agricultural pests in the world. The full-length cDNAs of LmCesA1 (1892 bp) and LmCesA2 (1643 bp) encode 543 and 501 amino acid residues, respectively. The two deduced CarEs share a characteristic α/β-hydrolase structure, including a catalytic triad composed of Ser-Glu (Asp)-His and a consensus sequence GQSAG, which suggests that both CarEs are biologically active. Phylogenetic analysis grouped both LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 into clade A which has been suggested to be involved in dietary detoxification. Both transcripts were highly expressed in all the nymphal and adult stages, but only slightly expressed in eggs. Analyses of tissue-dependent expression and in situ hybridization revealed that both transcripts were primarily expressed in gastric caeca. RNA interference (RNAi) of LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 followed by a topical application of carbaryl or deltamethrin did not lead to a significantly increased mortality with either insecticide. However, RNAi of LmCesA1 and LmCesA2 increased insect mortalities by 20.9% and 14.5%, respectively, when chlorpyrifos was applied. These results suggest that these genes might not play a significant role in detoxification of carbaryl and deltamethrin but are most likely to be involved in detoxification of chlorpyrifos in L. migratoria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicokinetic Profiles of Alpha-ketoglutarate Cyanohydrin, a Cyanide Detoxification Product, following Exposure to Potassium Cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    cyanide poisoning with cobinamide renders -KgCN an ineffective diagnostic marker. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 May...Toxicokinetics -Ketoglutarate a b s t r a c t Poisoning by cyanide can be verified by analysis of the cyanide detoxification product...potentially be used to verify cyanide exposure, limited toxicokinetic data in cyanide - poisoned animals are available. We, therefore

  19. Benzo(a)pyrene activation and detoxification by human pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.V.; McLemore, T.L.; Martin, R.R.; Marshall, M.H.; Wray, N.P.; Busbee, D.L.; Cantrell, E.T.; Arnott, M.S.; Griffin, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and circulating lymphocytes from five smokers and five nonsmokers for their ability to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography were carried out. Utilizing this approach, further investigation of activation and detoxification by several human cell types could provide the basis for more precise and comprehensive studies of carcinogen and drug metabolism in the human lung, and for a better assessment of cancer risk in selected populations

  20. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Growth Suppression of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chae Kim

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR mediates the developmental, physiologic, and pathologic effects of androgens including 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT. However, the mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells are not well understood, though they are central to prostate development, homeostasis, and neoplasia. Here, we identify androgen-responsive genes that restrain cell cycle progression and proliferation of human prostate epithelial cell lines (HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, and we investigate the mechanisms through which AR regulates their expression. DHT inhibited proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, and cell cycle analysis revealed a prolonged G1 interval. In the cell cycle, the G1/S-phase transition is initiated by the activity of cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK complexes, which relieve growth suppression. In HPr-1AR, cyclin D1/2 and CDK4/6 mRNAs were androgen-repressed, whereas CDK inhibitor, CDKN1A, mRNA was androgen-induced. The regulation of these transcripts was AR-dependent, and involved multiple mechanisms. Similar AR-mediated down-regulation of CDK4/6 mRNAs and up-regulation of CDKN1A mRNA occurred in PC3-Lenti-AR. Further, CDK4/6 overexpression suppressed DHT-inhibited cell cycle progression and proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, whereas CDKN1A overexpression induced cell cycle arrest. We therefore propose that AR-mediated growth suppression of HPr-1AR involves cyclin D1 mRNA decay, transcriptional repression of cyclin D2 and CDK4/6, and transcriptional activation of CDKN1A, which serve to decrease CDK4/6 activity. AR-mediated inhibition of PC3-Lenti-AR proliferation occurs through a similar mechanism, albeit without down-regulation of cyclin D. Our findings provide insight into AR-mediated regulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation.

  1. Development of a Control and Vision Interface for an AR.Drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheema Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The AR.Drone is a remote controlled quadcopter which is low cost, and readily available for consumers. Therefore it represents a simple test-bed on which control and vision research may be conducted. However, interfacing with the AR.Drone can be a challenge for new researchers as the AR.Drone's application programming interface (API is built on low-level, bit-wise, C instructions. Therefore, this paper will demonstrate the use of an additional layer of abstraction on the AR.Drone’s API via the Robot Operating System (ROS. Using ROS, the construction of a high-level graphical user interface (GUI will be demonstrated, with the explicit aim of assisting new researchers in developing simple control and vision algorithms to interface with the AR.Drone. The GUI, formally known as the Control and Vision Interface (CVI is currently used to research and develop computer vision, simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM, and path planning algorithms by a number of postgraduate and undergraduate students at the school of Aeronautical, Mechanical, and Mechatronics Engineering (AMME in The University of Sydney.

  2. Complete detoxification of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate by mixed two bacteria, Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 and Arthrobacter sp. strain PY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shouji; Obana, Yuki; Okada, Shohei; Abe, Katsumasa; Kera, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a flame retardant, is regarded as a potentially toxic and persistent environmental contaminant. We previously isolated a TDCPP-degrading bacterium, Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1, which, however, produced a toxic metabolite: 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP). This study was undertaken to develop a technique for complete TDCPP detoxification using strain TCM1 with a 1,3-DCP-degrading bacterium, Arthrobacter sp. strain PY1. For efficient detoxification, we designed a resting cell system and examined the effect of freezing and lyophilization treatments for preparation of their resting cells. Results show that treatments had no marked adverse effect on their activities. The TDCPP dephosphorylation by TCM1 resting cells was optimal at 30°C and pH 8.5. Also, 1,3-DCP dehalogenation by strain PY1 resting cells was optimal at 35°C and pH 9.5. Under those respective conditions, the activities were 2.48 μmol h⁻¹·OD₆₆₀⁻¹ for TDCPP and 0.95 μmol h⁻¹·OD₆₆₀⁻¹ for 1,3-DCP. Based on these results, we set the reaction temperature to 30°C and pH to 9.0. Then we examined the detoxification of 50 μM TDCPP using mixed resting cells at a final OD(660) of 0.05 for strain TCM1 and 0.2 for strain PY1. In these conditions, TDCPP was eliminated after 1h, but some of the resulting 1,3-DCP remained at a constant level. The increase in strain PY1 cells to a final OD₆₆₀ of 4.0 decreased the TDCPP dephosphorylation rate of strain TCM1 cells but achieved complete detoxification of TDCPP during 12 h of reaction. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gulf War Illness-Evaluation of an Innovative Detoxification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    of symptoms, now known as Gulf War Illness, characterized by chronic pain, fatigue, insomnia, gastrointestinal symptoms and altered nervous system...East Campus, 5 University Place, Room A217, Rensselaer, NY 12144-3429 PH : 518-525-2660 FX: 518-525-2665 www.albany.edu/ihe FINAL REPORT: GW0930766...insomnia, gastrointestinal symptoms and altered nervous system function. Although the cause of Gulf War Illness remains uncertain, exposure to toxic

  4. Bacterial epimerization as a route for deoxynivalenol detoxification: the influence of growth and environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wei eHe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several Fusarium species that infest wheat and corn. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to both humans and livestock and form a major barrier for international trade. Microbial detoxification represents an alternative approach to the physical and chemical detoxification methods of DON-contaminated grains. The present study details the characterization of a novel bacterium, Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8, that is capable of transforming DON to a non-toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol under aerobic conditions, mild temperature (25-30 oC, and neutral pH. The biotransformation takes place in the presence of rich sources of organic nitrogen and carbon without the need of DON to be the sole carbon source. The process is enzymatic in nature and endures a high detoxification capacity (3 µg DON/h/108 cells. The above conditions collectively suggest the possibility of utilizing the isolated bacterium as a feed treatment to address DON contamination under empirical field conditions.

  5. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  6. Detoxification of wood preserving waste under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, M.S.; Brown, K.W.; Dale, B.E.; Donnelly, K.C.; He, L.Y.; Markiewicz, K.V. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Detoxification of pentachlorophenol-containing wood preserving waste was monitored under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions for genotoxicity and parent compound removal. Samples were collected throughout the treatment periods and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane and methanol with the Tecator Soxtec apparatus. The organic extracts were analyzed on GC/ECD and GC/MS. The extract mutagenic and genotoxic potentials were evaluated with and without metabolic activation with the Salmonella Microsomal and E. coli Prophage Induction assays. The Salmonella mutagenic responses of extracts from Weswood soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under ambient conditions were 2.0, 34.6 and 2.4 times greater than the solvent control on days 0, 540 and 1,200 respectively. Organic extracts of soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under enhanced conditions in a solid-phase rotating drum bioreactor had mutagenic potentials of 3.4, 4.9 and 3.5 on days 0, 14 and 30, respectively. Extracts from wood preserving waste sludge treated with potassium polyethylene glycol were shown to have mutagenic potentials of 2.8, 6.1 and 3.8 at 0, 10 and 30 minutes. The results indicate that the initial products of the wood preserving waste detoxification under all treatment conditions appear to have greater genotoxic potentials than the starting material. The results also suggest that a more rapid detoxification occurs under enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions.

  7. Home-based detoxification for neonatal abstinence syndrome reduces length of hospital admission without prolonging treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirk, Cameron L; Bowman, Ellen; Doyle, Lex W; Kamlin, Omar

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome, secondary to in utero chemical exposure and characterised by tremor, irritability and feed intolerance. It often requires prolonged hospital treatment and separation of families. Outpatient therapy may reduce this burden, but current literature is sparse. This review aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of our home-based detoxification programme and compare it with standard inpatient care. Infants requiring treatment for NAS between January 2004 and December 2010 were reviewed. Data on demographics, drug exposure, length of stay and type of therapy were compared between infants selected for home-based therapy and those treated conventionally. Of the 118 infants who were admitted for treatment of NAS, 38 (32%) were managed at home. Infants receiving home-based detoxification had shorter hospital stays (mean 19 days vs. 39 days), with no increase in total duration of treatment (mean 36 days vs. 41 days), and were more likely to be breastfeeding on discharge from hospital care (45% vs. 22%). In selected infants, home-based detoxification is associated with reduced hospital stays and increased rates of breastfeeding, without prolonging therapy. Safety of the infants remains paramount, which precludes many from entering such a programme. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; Melo, E.J.T. de; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10 5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH) 2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  9. Progress on using deuteron-deuteron fusion generated neutrons for 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Renne, Paul R.; Becker, Tim; Waltz, Cory; Ayllon Unzueta, Mauricio; Zimmerman, Susan; Hidy, Alan; Finkel, Robert; Bauer, Joseph D.; Bernstein, Lee; van Bibber, Karl

    2017-04-01

    We present progress on the development and proof of concept of a deuteron-deuteron fusion based neutron generator for 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation. Irradiation with deuteron-deuteron fusion neutrons is anticipated to reduce Ar recoil and Ar production from interfering reactions. This will allow dating of smaller grains and increase accuracy and precision of the method. The instrument currently achieves neutron fluxes of ˜9×107 cm-2s-1 as determined by irradiation of indium foils and use of the activation reaction 115In(n,n')115mIn. Multiple foils and simulations were used to determine flux gradients in the sample chamber. A first experiment quantifying the loss of 39Ar is underway and will likely be available at the time of the presentation of this abstract. In ancillary experiments via irradiation of K salts and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis we determined the cross-sections of the 39K(n,p)39Ar reaction at ˜2.8 MeV to be 160 ± 35 mb (1σ). This result is in good agreement with bracketing cross-section data of ˜96 mb at ˜2.45 MeV and ˜270 mb at ˜4 MeV [Johnson et al., 1967; Dixon and Aitken, 1961 and Bass et al. 1964]. Our data disfavor a much lower value of ˜45 mb at 2.59 MeV [Lindström & Neuer, 1958]. In another ancillary experiment the cross section for 39K(n,α)36Cl at ˜2.8 MeV was determined as 11.7 ± 0.5 mb (1σ), which is significant for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology due to subsequent decay to 36Ar as well as for the determination of production rates of cosmogenic 36Cl. Additional experiments resolving the cross section functions on 39K between 1.5 and 3.6 MeV are on their way using the LICORNE neutron source of the IPN Orsay tandem accelerator. Results will likely be available at the time of the presentation of this abstract. While the neutron generator is designed for fluxes of ˜109 cm-2s-1, arcing in the sample chamber currently limits the power—straightforwardly correlated to the neutron flux—the generator can safely be run at. Further

  10. Multiple capture investigated by coincident electron spectroscopy in X{sup 7+}+Ar, at 70 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. Collisions-Agregats-Reactivite

    1999-11-01

    The multiple electron capture in N{sup 7+} + Ar and F{sup 7+}(1s{sup 2}) + Ar systems is investigated at 70 keV with a new electron-recoil ion charge coincidence experiment. The whole electron energy range has been studied. Up to six electrons are found to be captured into autoionizing states. The recoil ion charge distribution associated with the emission of electrons is similar for both systems and found to be in good agreement with the prediction of Niehaus`s model roughly adapted to take into account autoionizing cascades. New findings for the coincident double and triple captures are briefly discussed. A capture of an inner L-shell electron of Ar into the K-shell of the projectile is also observed in N{sup 7+} + Ar collisions. (orig.) 10 refs.

  11. Ar-37 in the Atmospheric and Sub-Soil Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtschert, R.; Raghoo, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    On-site inspection of the radioactive noble gas isotope 37Ar is a definitive and unambiguous indicator of an underground nuclear explosion. 37Ar is produced underground by neutron activation of calcium by the reaction 40Ca(n,α)37Ar. In the atmosphere, 37Ar is produced by the spallation reaction 40Ar(n,4n)37Ar. Periodic measurements over the last six years on air collected in Bern revealed a background level in the order of 1-5 mBq/m 3 air in agreement with former findings and theoretical calculations. Those calculations also indicated that the intrusion of stratospheric air masses may lead to elevated tropospheric 37Ar concentrations up to 8-10 mBq/m 3 air. Selected samples taken up to now in the vicinity of nuclear power plants revealed no significant deviation from the natural background. In order to distinguish between natural and artificially elevated 37Ar the location-specific 37Ar activity range in soils, rocks and the atmosphere were identified. From CARIBIC flights, a passenger aircraft with a special air freight container filled with scientific equipment in the cargo compartment, tropospheric air samples were analyzed for 37Ar and 85Kr. The natural 37Ar production in soils and the rock basement underlying the alluvium is investigated by means of in situ measurements of different isotopes, theoretical calculations and irradiation experiments on selected rock samples. This will help resolve the temporal evolution and/or constancy of the natural 37Ar background and allow for an interpretation in terms of the identification of clandestine nuclear explosions. (author)

  12. Cross sections of the 36Ar(d,α)34mCl, 40Ar(d,α)38Cl, and 40Ar(d,p)41Ar nuclear reactions below 8.4 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, J W; Severin, G W; Barnhart, T E; Knutson, L D; Nickles, R J

    2012-02-01

    We have measured the cross section for production of the medically interesting isotope (34m)Cl, along with (38)Cl and (41)Ar, using deuteron bombardments of (36)Ar and (40)Ar below 8.4 MeV. ALICE/ASH analytical codes were employed to determine the shape of nuclear excitation functions, and experiments were performed using the University of Wisconsin tandem electrostatic accelerator to irradiate thin targets of argon gas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross Sections of the 36Ar(d,α)34mCl, 40Ar(d,α)38Cl and 40Ar(d,p)41Ar Nuclear Reactions below 8.4 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, J W; Severin, G W; Barnhart, T E; Knutson, L D; Nickles, R J

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the cross section for production of the medically interesting isotope 34mCl, along with 38Cl and 41Ar, using deuteron bombardments of 36Ar and 40Ar below 8.4 MeV. ALICE/ASH analytical codes were employed to determine the shape of nuclear excitation functions, and experiments were performed using the University of Wisconsin tandem electrostatic accelerator to irradiate thin targets of argon gas. PMID:22041299

  14. Electron relaxation properties of Ar magnetron plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinjing, CAI; Xinxin, WANG; Xiaobing, ZOU

    2018-03-01

    An understanding of electron relaxation properties in plasmas is of importance in the application of magnetrons. An improved multi-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation is employed to study electron transport and relaxation properties in plasmas. Elastic, inelastic and nonconservative collisions between electrons and neutral particles are considered. The expressions for the transport coefficients are obtained using the expansion coefficients and the collision operator term. Numerical solutions of the matrix equations for the expansion coefficients are also investigated. Benchmark calculations of the Reid model are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the improved multi-term approximation. It is shown that the two-term approximation is generally not accurate enough and the magnetic fields can reduce the anisotropy of the velocity distribution function. The electron relaxation properties of Ar plasmas in magnetrons for various magnetic fields are studied. It is demonstrated that the energy parameters change more slowly than the momentum parameters.

  15. Beta Plant Introductions from the USDA-ARS NPGS evaluated for resistance to Cercospora beticola, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty Plant Introductions (PIs) from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) Beta Collection were evaluated for resistance to Cercospora beticola in an artificially produced epiphytotic environment. In addition, three entries resulting from crossing of previous years (2011-2014) PIs wit...

  16. Sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Huanhu; Jing Hua; Ma Aiping; Kang Xiuli; Yang Liping; Huang Mingjing; Ma Buzhou; Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan

    2005-01-01

    The sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation was studied. The results showed that the survival rate of 21 wheat varieties (strains) at the dose of 6 x 10 16 Ar + /cm 2 could be divided into five groups: surplus sensitive varieties (strains), sensitive varieties (strains), transitional varieties (strains), obtuse varieties (strains) and surplus obtuse varieties (strains). The sensibility of wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + injection is high-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > medium-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > dry land wheat varieties (strains). The study has provided theoretical basis in induced mutation medial lethal dose of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation. (authors)

  17. Detoxification of chromium (VI) in coastal water using lignocellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of new economically feasible eco-friendly products from natural plants/agricultural wastes for removal of pollutants from coastal aquaculture systems is the objective of our continued research. In the present study, attempts have been made to harness lignocellulosic agricultural waste material (bagasse) for the ...

  18. Differential spontaneous recovery across cognitive abilities during detoxification period in alcohol-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    Full Text Available There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD, and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons. Our study further focused on the 2-3 week phase of alcohol detoxification that is already known to positively affect many biological, emotional, motivational, as well as neural variables, followed by longer-term therapies for which good cognitive functioning is needed.41 AD inpatients undergoing a detoxification program, and 41 matched controls, were evaluated twice in terms of five cognitive functions (i.e., short-term memory, working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency within a three-week interval [on the first day (T1 and the 18th day (T2 of abstinence for AD patients]. Emotional (positive and negative affectivity and depression and motivational (craving variables were also measured at both evaluation times.Although verbal fluency, short-term memory, and cognitive flexibility did not appear to be affected, the patients exhibited impaired inhibition and working memory at T1. While no recovery of inhibition was found to occur, the average working memory performance of the patients was comparable to that of the controls at T2. Improvements in emotional and motivational dimensions were also observed, although they did not correlate with the ones in working memory. Individual analysis showed that not all participants were impaired or recover the same functions.While inhibition deficits appear to persist after 18 days of detoxification, deficits in working memory, which is a central component of

  19. Nuclear-pumped He/3/-Ar laser modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Deyoung, R. J.; Harries, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    A first-order model of He(3)-Ar 1.79-micron laser is developed, compared to experimental results, and used to explain the qualitative features of this system. Results indicate that direct excitation of the argon upper level is at best very inefficient for population inversion. For argon concentrations which give the most efficient laser operation, the He-3(n,p)He-3(n,p)He-3 energy is used to produce atomic He ions that quickly convert into He molecular ions. These molecular ions subsequently form argon atomic ions through charge transfer. The dominant pumping mechanism is collisional-radiative recombination of the argon atomic ion and subsequent radiative cascading into the upper laser level.

  20. Differential unroofing within the central metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Orogen: constraints from 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, Michael A.; Essene, Eric J.; Kunk, Michael J.; Sutter, John F.

    1992-04-01

    An 40Ar/39Ar thermochronological investigation of upper greenschist to granulite facies gneiss, amphibolite and marble was conducted in the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB), Ontario, to constrain its cooling history. Incremental 40Ar/39Ar release spectra indicate that substantial differential unroofing occurred in the CMB between ˜ 1000 and ˜ 600 Ma. A consistent pattern of significantly older hornblende and phlogopite 40Ar/3Ar cooling ages on the southeast sides of major northeast striking shear zones is interpreted to reflect late displacement due to extensional deformation. Variations in hornblende 40Ar/39Ar age plateaus exceeding 200 Ma occur over distances less than 50 km with major age discontinuities occurring across the Robertson Lake shear zone and the Sharbot Lake mylonite zone which separate the Sharbot Lake terrane from the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes. Extensional displacements of up to 14 km are inferred between the Frontenac and Elzevir terranes of the CMB. No evidence for significant post argon-closure vertical displacement is indicated in the vicinity of the Perth Road mylonite within the Frontenac terrane. Variations of nearly 100 Ma in phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages occur in undeformed marble on either side of the Bancroft Shear Zone. Phlogopites from sheared and mylonitized marble within the shear zone yield 40Ar/39Ar diffusional loss profiles, but have older geologically meaningless ages thought to reflect incorporation of excess argon. By ˜ 900 Ma, southeast directed extension was occurring throughout the CMB, possibly initiated along previous zones of compressional shearing. An easterly migration of active zones of extension is inferred, possibly related to an earlier, overall easterly migration of active zones of regional thrusting and easterly migration of an ancient subduction zone. The duration of extensional shearing is not well constrained, but must have ceased before ˜ 600 Ma as required by the deposition of overlying

  1. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS): ARS300 operations manual, software version 2.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-25

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a nondestructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The ARS technique is a fast, safe, and nonintrusive technique that is particularly useful when a large number of objects need to be tested. Any physical object, whether solid, hollow, or fluid filled, has many modes of vibration. These modes of vibration, commonly referred to as the natural resonant modes or resonant frequencies, are determined by the object`s shape, size, and physical properties, such as elastic moduli, speed of sound, and density. If the object is mechanically excited at frequencies corresponding to its characteristic natural vibrational modes, a resonance effect can be observed when small excitation energies produce large amplitude vibrations in the object. At other excitation frequencies, i.e., vibrational response of the object is minimal.

  2. Laser probe /Ar-39/-/Ar-40/ dating of materials from consortium breccia 73215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, H. W.; Schaeffer, O. A.; Plieninger, T.; James, O. B.

    1977-01-01

    The unique capacity of the laser-probe (Ar-39)-(Ar-40) method to determine ages of constituents in a rock sample which are only of the order of 100 microns apart has been applied to measure ages of the different constituents of consortium breccia 73215. Evidence is given that the age of the melt-derived ground mass, 4.01 + or - 0.05 billion years, has no chronological significance. Instead, the best estimate for the age of the breccia-forming event, about 3.90 billion years, comes from the study of two clasts only a few hundred micrometers in size. The interpretation of this age as the age of the breccia-forming event is also supported by the studies of other consortium members and suggests a reinterpretation of the ages of most of the other Apollo 17 highland breccias.

  3. Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Ilse; De Mets, Laura; De Boevre, Marthe; Uka, Valdet; Di Mavungu, José Diana; De Saeger, Sarah; De Gelder, Leen; Audenaert, Kris

    2017-02-13

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed. A dose-response analysis revealed significant inhibition in the growth of L. minor exposed to DON concentrations of 0.25 mg/L and higher. Concentrations above 1 mg/L were lethal for the plant. This bioassay is far more sensitive than previously described systems. The bioassay was implemented to screen microbial enrichment cultures, originating from rumen fluid, soil, digestate and activated sludge, on their biotransformation and detoxification capability of DON. The enrichment cultures originating from soil and activated sludge were capable of detoxifying and degrading 5 and 50 mg/L DON. In addition, the metabolites 3-epi-DON and the epimer of de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1) were found as biotransformation products of both consortia. Our work provides a new valuable tool to screen microbial cultures for their detoxification capacity.

  4. Detoxification of ammonia in mouse cortical GABAergic cell cultures increases neuronal oxidative metabolism and reveals an emerging role for release of glucose-derived alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse K; Anker, Malene; Melø, Torun M; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Ott, Peter; Portela, Luis V; Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2011-04-01

    Cerebral hyperammonemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a debilitating condition arising due to acute or chronic liver disease. In the brain, ammonia is thought to be detoxified via the activity of glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme. Moreover, it has been suggested that cerebral tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism is inhibited and glycolysis enhanced during hyperammonemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the ammonia-detoxifying mechanisms as well as the effects of ammonia on energy-generating metabolic pathways in a mouse neuronal-astrocytic co-culture model of the GABAergic system. We found that 5 mM ammonium chloride affected energy metabolism by increasing the neuronal TCA cycle activity and switching the astrocytic TCA cycle toward synthesis of substrate for glutamine synthesis. Furthermore, ammonia exposure enhanced the synthesis and release of alanine. Collectively, our results demonstrate that (1) formation of glutamine is seminal for detoxification of ammonia; (2) neuronal oxidative metabolism is increased in the presence of ammonia; and (3) synthesis and release of alanine is likely to be important for ammonia detoxification as a supplement to formation of glutamine.

  5. Optical characteristics of a RF DBD plasma jet in various {Ar}/ {O}_{2}Ar/O2 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahat, A.; Ganjovi, A.; Taraz, M.; Ravari, M. N. Rostami; Shahedi, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, using the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique, the optical characteristics of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma jet are examined. The Ar/O2 mixture is taken as the operational gas and, the Ar percentage in the Ar/O2 mixture is varied from 70% to 95%. Using the optical emission spectrum analysis of the RF plasma jet, the excitation temperature is determined based on the Boltzmann plot method. The electron density in the plasma medium of the RF plasma jet is obtained by the Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer H_{β }. It is mostly seen that, the radiation intensity of Ar 4p→ 4s transitions at higher argon contributions in Ar/O2 mixture is higher. It is found that, at higher Ar percentages, the emission intensities from atomic oxygen (O) are higher and, the line intensities from the argon atoms and ions including O atoms linearly increase. It is observed that the quenching of Ar^{*} with O2 results in higher O species with respect to O2 molecules. In addition, at higher percentages of Ar in the Ar/O2 mixture, while the excitation temperature is decreased, the electron density is increased.

  6. 40Ar-39Ar age of a lava flow from the Bhimashankar Formation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Ar age of 66.0 ± 0.9 Ma (2σ) for a reversely magnetised tholeiitic lava flow from the Bhimashankar Formation (Fm.), Giravali Ghat, western Deccan province, India. This age is consistent with the view that the 1.8–2 km thick bottom part of the exposed basalt flow sequence in the Western Ghats was extruded very close to 67.4 ...

  7. Implementation of Image Processing Algorithms and Glvq to Track an Object Using Ar.drone Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Muhammad Nanda; Widiyanto, Didit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this research, Parrot AR.Drone as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was used to track an object from above. Development of this system utilized some functions from OpenCV library and Robot Operating System (ROS). Techniques that were implemented in the system are image processing al-gorithm (Centroid-Contour Distance (CCD)), feature extraction algorithm (Principal Component Analysis (PCA)) and an artificial neural network algorithm (Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLV...

  8. Spatial autocorrelation method using AR model; Kukan jiko sokanho eno AR model no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Obuchi, T.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Examination was made about the applicability of the AR model to the spatial autocorrelation (SAC) method, which analyzes the surface wave phase velocity in a microtremor, for the estimation of the underground structure. In this examination, microtremor data recorded in Morioka City, Iwate Prefecture, was used. In the SAC method, a spatial autocorrelation function with the frequency as a variable is determined from microtremor data observed by circular arrays. Then, the Bessel function is adapted to the spatial autocorrelation coefficient with the distance between seismographs as a variable for the determination of the phase velocity. The result of the AR model application in this study and the results of the conventional BPF and FFT method were compared. It was then found that the phase velocities obtained by the BPF and FFT methods were more dispersed than the same obtained by the AR model. The dispersion in the BPF method is attributed to the bandwidth used in the band-pass filter and, in the FFT method, to the impact of the bandwidth on the smoothing of the cross spectrum. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Effective detoxification of Abrus precatorius Linn. seeds by Shodhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani H Barve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, which is one of the traditional systems of medicine of India, reports the seeds of Abrus precatorius (family: Fabaceae can be used therapeutically after shodhana process, which removes the toxin. The main objective was to scientifically study the shodhana process by evaluating the safety and efficacy of A. precatorius seeds. Aqueous extract (A1 and detoxified extract (A2 of the seeds were prepared by a process described in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC method was developed for the two extracts using different solvent systems. Identical spots were obtained in A1 with reference values (Rf 0.27, 0.47, and 0.79, whereas A2 showed the absence of spot having Rf value 0.47, which could possibly be the toxin found in the intact seed. A1 and A2 were evaluated for their safety and efficacy. The acute toxicity studies for A1 and A2 revealed that A1 was toxic, whereas A2 was safe at the dose of 2 g/kg. Absence of toxicity in the detoxified extract suggests removal of toxic material in processed seeds. The results obtained for hair growth activity of both the extracts were comparable to that of the standard. However, A2 showed better results in comparison to A1. Thus, the shodhana process described in Ayurveda helps in removing the toxin, while retaining the efficacy at the same time. The statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance.

  10. Emprego de bomba multifásica como unidade geradora de microbolhas de ar em sistema de flotação aplicado ao pré-tratamento de efluente têxtil Multiphase pump as microbubble generator for flotation system applied to pre-treatment of textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Pioltine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de bomba multifásica (mistura de ar e água aplicada em substituição à câmara de saturação, em sistema de flotação localizado em uma indústria têxtil. Na unidade piloto (taxa de aplicação superficial de clarificação igual a 128,6 ± 10 m.d-1, foi verificado que os melhores resultados em termos de eficiência de remoção de turbidez e cor aparente (eficiência de remoção superior a 95% foram obtidos nos ensaios realizados com razão de recirculação em torno de 30% associada à composição volumétrica de ar de 13%.This paper presents the results of a research carried out that aims to evaluate the performance of a multiphase pump (mixture of air and water applied to replace the saturator chamber in a flotation system located in a textile industry. In the pilot unit (hydraulic surface loading equal to 128.6 ± 10 m.d-1, it was verified that the best results in terms of removal efficiency of turbidity and apparent color (efficiency removal over 95% were obtained for the essays performed with recirculation ratio equal to 30% and air supply of 13%.

  11. Study of a clusters in 40Ca and 40Ar through nuclear break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Nuclei are complex self-bound systems formed by nucleons. Conjointly to a mean-field picture in which nucleons can be regarded as independent particles, few nucleons might self-organize into compact objects, called clusters, inside the nucleus. It is theoretically predicted that it should manifest itself most strikingly for N = Z nuclei close to the emission thresholds and has been studied extensively in this region. We propose to study α-clusterization in the ground state of the N = Z 40 20 Ca 20 nucleus and the N (different of) Z 40 18 Ar 22 nucleus. We have studied the nuclear break-up of 40 Ca when the 40 Ar projectile passes by. If α clusters are preformed in 40 Ca, the probability of α-emission through nuclear break-up will be enhanced as compared to 40 Ar N (different of) Z nuclei.The nuclear break-up of 40 Ca was studied with an 40 Ar beam produced at GANIL at 35 MeV/A. The SPEG spectrometer was used to detect the heavy projectile with accurate resolution. The MUST2 Silicon detectors were placed around the target to measure the emitted α and the EXL calorimeter prototype was used to identify the γ rays from the decay of the residual 36 Ar and 36 S. A theoretical approach based on Time-Dependent Schroedinger Equation (TDSE) theory has been used to reproduce some experimental results like angular distributions. From the data analysis, we reconstructed excitation energy spectra and angular distributions which are compared to TDSE theory to extract some spectroscopic factors S α . These factors show that there is no more clusterization state in the ground state of the 40 Ca than in the ground state of 40 Ar. (author)

  12. New 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Clearwater Lake impact structures (Québec, Canada) - Not the binary asteroid impact it seems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Martin; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Tohver, Eric; Buchner, Elmar; Hopp, Jens; Osinski, Gordon R.

    2015-01-01

    clasts of Ordovician sedimentary rocks are seemingly absent in the impact breccia lens of the East Clearwater Lake impact structure, which is overlain by >100 m of post-impact sandstones, shales and carbonates. No resolvable impactor contamination has so far been detected in the West Clearwater impact melt rocks, whereas East Clearwater carries a distinct ordinary (possibly L-) chondritic impactor signature in its melt rocks. East Clearwater Lake might thus represent one among a long list of Ordovician impact structures in North America and northern Europe that were presumably formed in response to the L-chondrite asteroid breakup event ∼470 Ma ago. Paleogeographic reconstructions show that the Ordovician East Clearwater impact probably occurred in a near-coastal to shallow marine setting, while the Permian West Clearwater impact hit continental Pangaea. Along with the new 40Ar/39Ar data, the paleomagnetic, sedimentologic, and geochemical findings suggest that the close spatial arrangement of the two Clearwater Lakes is most likely pure coincidence. The two impact structures seem to represent a 'false doublet' struck by impacts separated by ∼180 million years in time. The new results for the Clearwater Lake impact structures have major implications for the reliable identification of doublet impact craters and the rate of binary asteroid impacts on Earth and on other planetary bodies in the inner Solar System.

  13. Using benzodiazepine detoxification and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy in the treatment of a patient with generalized anxiety disorder comorbid with high-dose zolpidem dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Hua Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, literature has shown that zolpidem dependence is not uncommon in the clinical practice, but there is no standard guideline for treatment of zolpidem dependence. Benzodiazepine detoxification has been widely used for alcohol detoxification, which is also an inhibitory substance. We would like to share the experience of benzodiazepine detoxification and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy in a patient with high-dose zolpidem dependence comorbid with generalized anxiety disorder.

  14. Ovarian expressed microsomal epoxide hydrolase: Role in detoxification of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and regulation by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi, E-mail: poulomib@iastate.edu [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sen, Nivedita, E-mail: nsen@email.arizona.edu [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B., E-mail: Hoyer@u.arizona.edu [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is a metabolite of 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) which has the potential to be formed in the ovary through CYP2E1 activity. VCD specifically destroys primordial and small primary follicles in the rodent ovary. Mouse ovaries exposed to VCD demonstrate increased mRNA and protein expression of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), and an inactive tetrol metabolite (4-(1,2-dihydroxy)ethyl-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexane) can be formed in mouse ovarian follicles, potentially through detoxification action of mEH. In contrast, mEH can bioactivate another ovotoxic chemical, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to a more toxic compound, DMBA-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide. Thus, the present study evaluated a functional role for mEH during detoxification of VCD. Additionally, because inhibition of the phosphatidyinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in a previous study protected primordial follicles from VCD-induced destruction, but accelerated DMBA-induced ovotoxicity, a role for PI3K in ovarian mEH regulation was evaluated. Using a post-natal day (PND) 4 Fischer 344 rat whole ovary culture system inhibition of mEH using cyclohexene oxide during VCD exposure resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) loss of primordial and small primary follicles relative to VCD-treated ovaries. Also, relative to controls, meh mRNA was increased (P < 0.05) on day 4 of VCD (30 μM) exposure, followed by increased (P < 0.05) mEH protein after 6 days. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K signaling increased mEH mRNA and protein expression. Thus, these results support a functional role for mEH in the rat ovary, and demonstrate the involvement of PI3K signaling in regulation of ovarian xenobiotic metabolism by mEH. -- Highlights: ► Ovarian mEH functions to metabolize VCD to a less toxic compound. ► mEH expression is increased in a temporal pattern in response to VCD exposure. ► PI3K signaling is involved in regulation of ovarian mEH expression.

  15. 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the activity of the Temsamane extensional detachment (eastern Rif, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaloy Sánchez, A.; Booth-Rea, G.; Azdimousa, A.; Asebriy, L.; Vázquez-Vílchez, M.; Martínez-Martínez, J. M.; Gabites, J.

    2012-04-01

    The subducted North Maghrebian passive margin was exhumed by an upper crustal brittle-ductile extensional detachment and brittle low-angle normal faults in a continental subduction transform setting. The Temsamane detachment in the eastern Rif is defined by a ductile shear zone approximately 100 m thick with a low-angle ramp geometry that cuts down into the Temsamane fold-nappe stack. The shear zone shows southwestward kinematics and separates epizone metapelites of the Temsamane units below from the epizone to diagenetic rocks of the Tanger-Ketama-Aknoul units above. To the east, the detachment becomes brittle, branching into a listric-fan that cuts through 10-6 Ma sediments and volcanoclastics in the Tres Forcas cape. New 40Ar/39Ar radiometric ages on amphiboles and micas from the footwall of the Temsamane detachment indicate that the metamorphic peak was reached in the footwall (Temsamane units) at ca. 21 Ma, producing the amphibolite epidote facies in the Ras Afrou Unit. The cooling of the footwall rocks below the 325 °C occurred between the 16 and 13 Ma, while apatite fission track ages indicate that the cooling below the 120 °C occurred at ca. 11 Ma. The 40Ar/39Ar radiometric ages on amphiboles and micas of the metamorphic klippes over the Temsamene units (Ait-Amrâne massif) indicates that the Jurassic marbles of the Tanger-Ketama Unit reached their metamorphic peak at ca. 80 Ma, in agreement with previously published K/Ar ages in micas. The rocks of the Tanger-Ketama Unit cooled below the 120 °C between 17.0 ± 2.4 Ma and 13.9 ± 1.8 Ma. We interpret the increase of cooling rates of the footwall rocks between 15-13 Ma and 11 Ma as due to the activity of the Temsamane detachment fault. Thus, both the North Maghrebian and the South Iberian subducted passive margins were exhumed in the Betic and Rif branches of the Gibraltar arc by SW-directed brittle-ductile detachments during the Late Miocene in an oblique collisional setting.

  16. Aspects of What Makes or Breaks a Museum AR Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus B.; Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Morrison, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The paper critically evaluates central aspects of an iPad AR application developed for a museum context. The application is designed for children aged 8 to 12 and mixes AR and mini-game elements to convey dramatized historical events. The game has been deployed for roughly 3 months and the findin...

  17. ARS2 is a general suppressor of pervasive transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasillo, Claudia; Schmid, Manfred; Yahia, Yousra; Maqbool, Muhammad A; Descostes, Nicolas; Karadoulama, Evdoxia; Bertrand, Edouard; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2017-09-29

    Termination of transcription is important for establishing gene punctuation marks. It is also critical for suppressing many of the pervasive transcription events occurring throughout eukaryotic genomes and coupling their RNA products to efficient decay. In human cells, the ARS2 protein has been implicated in such function as its depletion causes transcriptional read-through of selected gene terminators and because it physically interacts with the ribonucleolytic nuclear RNA exosome. Here, we study the role of ARS2 on transcription and RNA metabolism genome wide. We show that ARS2 depletion negatively impacts levels of promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II at protein-coding (pc) genes. Moreover, our results reveal a general role of ARS2 in transcription termination-coupled RNA turnover at short transcription units like snRNA-, replication-dependent histone-, promoter upstream transcript- and enhancer RNA-loci. Depletion of the ARS2 interaction partner ZC3H18 mimics the ARS2 depletion, although to a milder extent, whereas depletion of the exosome core subunit RRP40 only impacts RNA abundance post-transcriptionally. Interestingly, ARS2 is also involved in transcription termination events within first introns of pc genes. Our work therefore establishes ARS2 as a general suppressor of pervasive transcription with the potential to regulate pc gene expression. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Chromosomal context and replication properties of ARS plasmids in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... ImageJ and Adobe Photoshop 7 soft-wares. 3. Results and discussion. To study the effect of the chromosomal context on replication origin activity and replication timing of ars2004 and ars727, our first goal was to make context specific clones containing the ura4 gene as a selectable marker. This was ...

  19. Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Pizzino

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Continuous exposure at relatively low concentrations of heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents.

  20. Molecular Genetics of Metal Detoxification: Prospects for Phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow, David W. ow@pgec.ams.usda.gov

    2000-09-01

    Unlike compounds that can be broken down, the remediation of most heavy metals and radionuclides requires physical extraction from contaminated sources. Plants can extract inorganics, but effective phytoextraction requires plants that produce high biomass, grow rapidly and possess high capacity-uptake for the inorganic substance. Either hyperaccumulator plants must be bred for increased growth and biomass or hyperaccumulation traits must be engineered into fast growing, high biomass plants. This latter approach requires fundamental knowledge of the molecular mechanisms in the uptake and storage of inorganics. Much has been learned in recent years on how plants and certain fungi chelate and transport selected heavy metals. This progress has been facilitated by the use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model system. The use of a model organism for study permits rapid characterization of the molecular process. As target genes are identified in a model organism, their sequences can be modified for expression in a heterologous host or aid in the search of homologous genes in more complex organisms. Moreover, as plant nutrient uptake is intrinsically linked to the association with rhizospheric fungi, elucidating metal sequestration in this fungus permits additional opportunities for engineering rhizospheric microbes to assist in phytoextraction.

  1. Applied studies in solar photocatalytic detoxification: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, S.; Blanco, J.; Vidal, A.; Alarcon, D.; Maldonado, M.I.; Caceres, J.; Gernjak, W. [CIEMAT - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Spain)

    2003-10-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic degradation of four water-soluble pesticides (diuron, imidacloprid, formetanate and methomyl) have been studied at pilot scale in two well-defined systems which are of special interest because natural-solar UV light can be used for them: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton. The pilot plant is made up of compound parabolic collectors specially designed for solar photocatalytic applications. The initial concentration tested with imidacloprid, formetanate and methomyl was 50 and 30 mg/l with diuron, and the catalyst concentrations were 200 mg/l and 0.05 mM with TiO{sub 2} and iron, respectively. Total disappearance of the parent compounds, 90% mineralisation and toxicity reduction below the threshold (EC{sub 50}) have been attained with all pesticides tested. All these results have contributed to an evaluation of photocatalytic treatment capacity and comments on the main parameters of TiO{sub 2} and Fe separation from the treated water. (author)

  2. Influence of different systems of minimum ventilation on air quality in broiler houses Influência de diferentes sistemas de ventilação mínima na qualidade do ar de galpões para frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Menegali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a competitive development of the Brazilian aviculture, some measures must be taken to enable the identification and reduction of risks to the health of birds, as well as for the physical environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three different systems of minimum ventilation (positive pressure - SVMP, negative pressure - SVMN and natural ventilation - SVMNat in the air quality during the first 21 days of life of broiler chicks, during winter. Three points were selected along the length to verify ammonia, carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations at 3a.m., 9a.m., 3p.m. and 9p.m., by the respiration level of birds and workers. The averages of pollutant gases did not exceed the tolerance levels for the three minimum ventilation systems evaluated, which is 20 and 10ppm for the birds level and 20 and 39ppm for the workers level, for ammonia and carbon monoxide, respectively. It was evident that the minimum ventilation systems were appropriately sized for the required minimum ambient air renovation, in respect to ventilation rates applied for the SVMN and SVMP systems, and with air velocity at levels that do not stress the chicks, including for the SVMNat. The three studied systems of minimum ventilation allowed the birds to externalize their productive performance, with values close to the ones considered satisfactory for all evaluated parameters, in accordance with the Brazilian aviculture standards.Para a manutenção de um desenvolvimento competitivo da avicultura brasileira, demandam-se medidas que possibilitem a identificação e a redução de riscos à saúde das aves, bem como do meio físico ambiental. Sendo assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficiência de três diferentes sistemas de ventilação mínima (pressão positiva - SVMP, pressão negativa - SVMN e por via natural - SVMNat, na qualidade do ar durante os primeiros 21 dias de vida de pintos de corte, na fase de

  3. 76 FR 27077 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form AR-11 and Form AR-11SR, Extension of an Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...: Extension of a currently approved information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Alien's Change... Registration requirements, to submit their change of address to USCIS within 10 days from the date of change... Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection under Review: Form AR- 11 and Form AR-11SR, Alien...

  4. Carbon isotope stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar age of the Cretaceous South Atlantic coast, Namibe Basin, Angola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strganac, Christopher; Salminen, Johanna; Jacobs, Louis L.; Polcyn, Michael J.; Ferguson, Kurt M.; Mateus, Octávio; Schulp, Anne S.; Morais, Maria Luísa; Tavares, Tatiana da Silva; Gonçalves, António Olímpio

    2014-01-01

    We present the δ13C and paleomagnetic stratigraphy for marine strata at the coast of southern Angola, anchored by an intercalated basalt with a whole rock 40Ar/39Ar radiometric age of 84.6 ± 1.5 Ma, being consistent with both invertebrate and vertebrate biostratigraphy. This is the first African

  5. Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Maurya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purificati