WorldWideScience

Sample records for arrival timing-insensitive technique

  1. A FIFO based neutron arrival time collection technique for assay of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, R.; Saisubalakshmi, D.; Venkatasubramani, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    The system assays plutonium by counting the time correlated neutrons emitted by the spontaneous fissions of the even-even Pu isotopes in the presence of random neutron background, originating principally from (a,n) reactions in the material. The correlation technique discussed in this paper utilizes twofold neutron coincidence counting but the system is proposed to be enhanced for neutron multiplicity counting. A microcontroller based data acquisition system has been developed using a couple of fast FIFO 2kX9 bit memory ICs and a 16 bit counter for identifying time-correlated neutrons. Since the neutron pulses are arriving at a rapid rate, the incoming pulses are buffered in the FIFO and then transferred to PC by the microcontroller through the parallel port. The correlation analysis based on this time arrival information is done in the PC off-line. (author)

  2. Direction of Arrival Estimation Accuracy Enhancement via Using Displacement Invariance Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Fayad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for improving Direction of Arrival Estimation (DOAE accuracy has been carried out. Two contributions are introduced. First, Doppler frequency shift that resulted from the target movement is estimated using the displacement invariance technique (DIT. Second, the effect of Doppler frequency is modeled and incorporated into ESPRIT algorithm in order to increase the estimation accuracy. It is worth mentioning that the subspace approach has been employed into ESPRIT and DIT methods to reduce the computational complexity and the model’s nonlinearity effect. The DOAE accuracy has been verified by closed-form Cramér-Rao bound (CRB. The simulation results of the proposed algorithm are better than those of the previous estimation techniques leading to the estimator performance enhancement.

  3. A method for detecting crack wave arrival time and crack localization in a tunnel by using moving window technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Chul; Park, Tae Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Source localization in a dispersive medium has been carried out based on the time-of-arrival-differences (TOADs) method: a triangulation method and a circle intersection technique. Recent signal processing advances have led to calculation TOAD using a joint time-frequency analysis of the signal, where a short-time Fourier transform(STFT) and wavelet transform can be included as popular algorithms. The time-frequency analysis method is able to provide various information and more reliable results such as seismic-attenuation estimation, dispersive characteristics, a wave mode analysis, and temporal energy distribution of signals compared with previous methods. These algorithms, however, have their own limitations for signal processing. In this paper, the effective use of proposed algorithm in detecting crack wave arrival time and source localization in rock masses suggest that the evaluation and real-time monitoring on the intensity of damages related to the tunnels or other underground facilities is possible. Calculation of variances resulted from moving windows as a function of their size differentiates the signature from noise and from crack signal, which lead us to determine the crack wave arrival time. Then, the source localization is determined to be where the variance of crack wave velocities from real and virtual crack localization becomes a minimum. To validate our algorithm, we have performed experiments at the tunnel, which resulted in successful determination of the wave arrival time and crack localization.

  4. Application on technique of joint time-frequency analysis of seismic signal's first arrival estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chaoyang; Liu Junmin; Fan Yanfang; Ji Guohua

    2008-01-01

    Joint time-frequency analysis is conducted to construct one joint density function of time and frequency. It can open out one signal's frequency components and their evolvements. It is the new evolvement of Fourier analysis. In this paper, according to the characteristic of seismic signal's noise, one estimation method of seismic signal's first arrival based on triple correlation of joint time-frequency spectrum is introduced, and the results of experiment and conclusion are presented. (authors)

  5. Applications of multiscale waveform inversion to marine data using a flooding technique and dynamic early-arrival windows

    KAUST Repository

    Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot

    2010-11-01

    A recently developed time-domain multiscale waveform tomography (MWT) method is applied to synthetic and field marine data. Although the MWT method was already applied to synthetic data, the synthetic data application leads to a development of a hybrid method between waveform tomography and the salt flooding technique commonly use in subsalt imaging. This hybrid method can overcome a convergence problem encountered by inversion with a traveltime velocity tomogram and successfully provides an accurate and highly resolved velocity tomogram for the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model. In the application of MWT to the field data, the inversion process is carried out using a multiscale method with a dynamic early-arrival muting window to mitigate the local minima problem of waveform tomography and elastic effects. With the modified MWT method, reasonably accurate results as verified by comparison of migration images and common image gathers were obtained. The hybrid method with the salt flooding technique is not used in this field data example because there is no salt in the subsurface according to our interpretation. However, we believe it is applicable to field data applications. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. A Novel Differential Time-of-Arrival Estimation Technique for Impact Localization on Carbon Fiber Laminate Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Marino Merlo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composite material structures are commonly used in many industrial sectors (aerospace, automotive, transportation, and can operate in harsh environments where impacts with other parts or debris may cause critical safety and functionality issues. This work presents a method for improving the accuracy of impact position determination using acoustic source triangulation schemes based on the data collected by piezoelectric sensors attached to the structure. A novel approach is used to estimate the Differential Time-of-Arrival (DToA between the impact response signals collected by a triplet of sensors, overcoming the limitations of classical methods that rely on amplitude thresholds calibrated for a specific sensor type. An experimental evaluation of the proposed technique was performed with specially made circular piezopolymer (PVDF sensors designed for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM applications, and compared with commercial piezoelectric SHM sensors of similar dimensions. Test impacts at low energies from 35 mJ to 600 mJ were generated in a laboratory by free-falling metal spheres on a 500 mm × 500 mm × 1.25 mm quasi-isotropic Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP laminate plate. From the analysis of many impact signals, the resulting localization error was improved for all types of sensors and, in particular, for the circular PVDF sensor an average error of 20.3 mm and a standard deviation of 8.9 mm was obtained.

  7. Applications of multiscale waveform inversion to marine data using a flooding technique and dynamic early-arrival windows

    KAUST Repository

    Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot; Schuster, Gerard T.; Valasek, Paul A.; Cao, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    an accurate and highly resolved velocity tomogram for the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model. In the application of MWT to the field data, the inversion process is carried out using a multiscale method with a dynamic early-arrival muting window to mitigate the local

  8. A near-optimal low complexity sensor fusion technique for accurate indoor localization based on ultrasound time of arrival measurements from low-quality sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Argyreas, Nick D.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2009-05-01

    A fusion-based localization technique for location-based services in indoor environments is introduced herein, based on ultrasound time-of-arrival measurements from multiple off-the-shelf range estimating sensors which are used in a market-available localization system. In-situ field measurements results indicated that the respective off-the-shelf system was unable to estimate position in most of the cases, while the underlying sensors are of low-quality and yield highly inaccurate range and position estimates. An extensive analysis is performed and a model of the sensor-performance characteristics is established. A low-complexity but accurate sensor fusion and localization technique is then developed, which consists inof evaluating multiple sensor measurements and selecting the one that is considered most-accurate based on the underlying sensor model. Optimality, in the sense of a genie selecting the optimum sensor, is subsequently evaluated and compared to the proposed technique. The experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion method exhibits near-optimal performance and, albeit being theoretically suboptimal, it largely overcomes most flaws of the underlying single-sensor system resulting in a localization system of increased accuracy, robustness and availability.

  9. Arrival metering fuel consumption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Arrival metering is a method of time-based traffic management that is used by the Federal Aviation Administration to plan and manage streams of arrival traffic during periods of : high demand at busy airports. The Traffic Management Advisor is an aut...

  10. Tourist Arrivals to Sabah by Using Fuzzy Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudi Zamali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the existing tourist trend arrival in Sabah based on fuzzy approach. It focuses on the latest 12 years (2002 – 2013 visitors arrival based on their nationality for forecasting purposes. Based on Sabah Tourism Board’s data, the tourist arrival continue to grow annually but with an inconsistent number of arrival. This can be seen from the trend of tourist arrival from 2011 to 2012. There is an increase in the number of arrival but only at 1.1 % compared to the other years which are in the rank of 10 – 18% increase in number of arrival per year. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to predict the number of tourist arrival to Sabah. The study employs the modification of Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM and utilizes the flexibility of triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs as well as fuzzy averaging to deal with the yearly inconsistency numbers of visitor’s arrival. Then, the trio levels of alpha (α-cut was used via linguistic variables to assess the confidence of decision made and to overcome the uncertainty of the input data sets. The analysis was carried out using fully data sets obtained from the official website of Sabah tourism board. Results show that our proposed forecasting approach offers a new dimension technique as compared to the traditional statistical method. It also derived more confident decision and precision forecast for Sabah tourism authority planning purposes.

  11. Equilibrium Arrival Times to Queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Jesper; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    We consider a non-cooperative queueing environment where a finite number of customers independently choose when to arrive at a queueing system that opens at a given point in time and serves customers on a last-come first-serve preemptive-resume (LCFS-PR) basis. Each customer has a service time...... requirement which is identically and independently distributed according to some general probability distribution, and they want to complete service as early as possible while minimizing the time spent in the queue. In this setting, we establish the existence of an arrival time strategy that constitutes...... a symmetric (mixed) Nash equilibrium, and show that there is at most one symmetric equilibrium. We provide a numerical method to compute this equilibrium and demonstrate by a numerical example that the social effciency can be lower than the effciency induced by a similar queueing system that serves customers...

  12. Expert AE signal arrival detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlada, Milan; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, 3/4 (2011), s. 191-205 ISSN 1741-8410. [NDT in PROGRESS /4./. Praha, 05.11.2007-07.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274; GA ČR GA101/07/1518 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission * signal arrival detection Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?mainAction=search& action =record&rec_id=43215&prevQuery=&ps=10&m=or

  13. Modelling tourists arrival using time varying parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciptawati, P.; Sukarsa, K. G.; Kencana, Eka N.

    2017-06-01

    The importance of tourism and its related sectors to support economic development and poverty reduction in many countries increase researchers’ attentions to study and model tourists’ arrival. This work is aimed to demonstrate time varying parameter (TVP) technique to model the arrival of Korean’s tourists to Bali. The number of Korean tourists whom visiting Bali for period January 2010 to December 2015 were used to model the number of Korean’s tourists to Bali (KOR) as dependent variable. The predictors are the exchange rate of Won to IDR (WON), the inflation rate in Korea (INFKR), and the inflation rate in Indonesia (INFID). Observing tourists visit to Bali tend to fluctuate by their nationality, then the model was built by applying TVP and its parameters were approximated using Kalman Filter algorithm. The results showed all of predictor variables (WON, INFKR, INFID) significantly affect KOR. For in-sample and out-of-sample forecast with ARIMA’s forecasted values for the predictors, TVP model gave mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) as much as 11.24 percent and 12.86 percent, respectively.

  14. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  15. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable grounds...

  16. Modelling Chinese Inbound Tourism Arrivals into Christchurch

    OpenAIRE

    Fieger, Peter; Rice, John

    2016-01-01

    New data and modelling approaches are improving the usefulness of internet search data for forecasting inbound tourist arrivals. This short paper provides evidence of the usefulness of Baidu search data in predicting Chinese inbound tourist arrivals into a specific region in New Zealand. It also compares three modelling approaches, finding a Vector Autoregressive approach the most useful.

  17. STS-114: Discovery Crew Arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    George Diller of NASA Public Affairs narrates the STS-114 Crew arrival at Kennedy Space Center aboard a Gulf Stream aircraft. They were greeted by Center Director Jim Kennedy. Commander Eileen Collins introduced each of her crew members and gave a brief description of their roles in the mission. Mission Specialist 3, Andrew Thomas will be the lead crew member on the inspection on flight day 2; he is the intravehicular (IV) crew member that will help and guide Mission Specialists Souichi Noguchi and Stephen Robinson during their spacewalks. Pilot James Kelly will be operating the shuttle systems in flying the Shuttle; he will be flying the space station robotic arm during the second extravehicular activity and he will be assisting Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence during the other two extravehicular activities; he will be assisting on the rendezvous on flight day three, and landing of the shuttle. Commander Collins also mentioned Pilot Kelly's recent promotion to Colonel by the United States Air Force. Mission Specialist 1, Souichi Noguchi from JAXA (The Japanese Space Agency) will be flying on the flight deck for ascent; he will be doing three spacewalks on day 5, 7, and 9; He will be the photo/TV lead for the different types of cameras on board to document the flight and to send back the information to the ground for both technical and public affairs reasons. Mission Specialist 5, Charles Camada will be doing the inspection on flight day 2 with Mission Specialist Thomas and Pilot Kelly; he will be transferring the logistics off the shuttle and onto the space station and from the space station back to the shuttle; He will help set up eleven lap tops on board. Mission Specialist 4, Wendy Lawrence will lead the transfer of logistics to the space station; she is the space station arm operator during extravehicular activities 1 and 3; she will be carrying the 6,000 pounds of external storage platform from the shuttle payload bay over to the space station; she is also

  18. X-36 arrival at Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel steady the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft following arrival at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The aircraft is being hoisted out of it's shipping crate. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds

  19. Computing angle of arrival of radio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, John J.; Steele, David K.

    2017-11-07

    Various technologies pertaining to computing angle of arrival of radio signals are described. A system that is configured for computing the angle of arrival of a radio signal includes a cylindrical sheath wrapped around a cylindrical object, where the cylindrical sheath acts as a ground plane. The system further includes a plurality of antennas that are positioned about an exterior surface of the cylindrical sheath, and receivers respectively coupled to the antennas. The receivers output measurements pertaining to the radio signal. A processing circuit receives the measurements and computes the angle of arrival of the radio signal based upon the measurements.

  20. Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the conduct of a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) in 2012 and 2013, the Mosaic ATM team first developed the Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool concept, or...

  1. TOURIST ARRIVALS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SARAWAK

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Evan; Oh, Swee-Ling; Hu, Sing-Sing

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the comovements and the causality relationship between tourist arrivals and economic growth in Sarawak during the period of 1972 to 2004. The empirical evidence clearly shows that the long run causality running from tourist arrivals to economic growth in the estimation period. As one of the income generator for Sarawak, the findings are consistent with economic theory and proffer important policy conclusions.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Launch-Arrival Space Study: A Pork Chop Plot Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Powell, Richard; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    2006-01-01

    Launch-Arrival, or "pork chop", plot analysis can provide mission designers with valuable information and insight into a specific launch and arrival space selected for a mission. The study begins with the array of entry states for each pair of selected Earth launch and Mars arrival dates, and nominal entry, descent and landing trajectories are simulated for each pair. Parameters of interest, such as maximum heat rate, are plotted in launch-arrival space. The plots help to quickly identify launch and arrival regions that are not feasible under current constraints or technology and also provide information as to what technologies may need to be developed to reach a desired region. This paper provides a discussion of the development, application, and results of a pork chop plot analysis to the Mars Science Laboratory mission. This technique is easily applicable to other missions at Mars and other destinations.

  3. Quantum arrival times and operator normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerfeldt, Gerhard C.; Seidel, Dirk; Gonzalo Muga, J.

    2003-01-01

    A recent approach to arrival times used the fluorescence of an atom entering a laser illuminated region, and the resulting arrival-time distribution was close to the axiomatic distribution of Kijowski, but not exactly equal, neither in limiting cases nor after compensation of reflection losses by normalization on the level of expectation values. In this paper we employ a normalization on the level of operators, recently proposed in a slightly different context. We show that in this case the axiomatic arrival-time distribution of Kijowski is recovered as a limiting case. In addition, it is shown that Allcock's complex potential model is also a limit of the physically motivated fluorescence approach and connected to Kijowski's distribution through operator normalization

  4. Managing customer arrivals with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Jiang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing container traffic and mega-ships, many seaports face challenges of huge amounts of truck arrivals and congestion problem at terminal gates, which affect port efficiency and generate serious air pollution. To solve this congestion problem, we propose a solution of managing truck...... arrivals with time windows based on the truck-vessel service relationship, specifically trucks delivering containers for the same vessel share one common time window. Time windows can be optimized with different strategies. In this paper, we first propose a framework for installing this solution...

  5. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R.; Krishna Mohan, R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  6. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Krishna Mohan, R., E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.ed [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  7. [Getting qi and arrival of qi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nong-Yu

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the inter-relationship between getting qi and arrival of qi, the relevant theory in the Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor is re-considered, and then the relationship of the two concepts by combining with some opinions from scholars is compared and analyzed. Getting qi is the signal of acupuncture at an acupoint; also it is a sign of arrival of qi at an acupoint; what's more, it is the premise for reinforcing or reducing manipulation. The sensation of arrival of qi comes from both doctors and patients, characterized with explicit symptoms including "tight and swift", "sunken, sticky and tight", "light, loose and slow", "warm at the acupoint" or "cold at the acupoint" as well as implicit symptom including "qi moving along the meridians"; also there is the condition of qi regulation that is characterized with "paced and harmony" stomach qi. The arrival of qi could be divided into "qi moving to the needles" and "qi traveling to the diseases". The "qi moving to the needles" has similar meaning to getting qi. The "qi traveling to the diseases" is reflected as "qi arrival with efficacy" and characterized as an immediate effect or a delayed effect. There are differences between the concepts of getting qi and arrival of qi. Getting qi focuses on the importance of the doctor during acupuncture processes (differentiate the nature of qi, guard qi, manipulate qi), which also suggests the clinical significance of implicit getting qi. "Arrival of qi" emphasizes "qi arrival with efficacy", and indicates that during treatment the differences of the exterior or interior and deficit or surplus should be distinguished. For external and shallow diseases involving myofascia-related diseases, miu needling and shallow needling can achieve an immediate treatment effect; for deep, internal and deficient diseases, reinforcing or reducing manipulation should be used to achieve stomach qi, which has delayed effects but can be used as an indicator. It is believed that pulse

  8. The Measurement and Interpretation of Surface Wave Group Arrival Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, G.; Kane, D.; Morrow, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have recently developed an efficient technique for measuring the relative group arrival times of surface waves by using cross-correlation and cluster analysis of waveform envelope functions. Applying the analysis to minor arc Love and Rayleigh waves in the frequency band 7 to 35 mHz for all events over magnitude 5.5 results in a dataset of over 200,000 measurements at each frequency for long period Rayleigh waves (frequency less than 25 mHz) and about 100,000 measurements at the shorter periods. Analysis of transverse components results in about half as many Love wave measurements. Simple ray theory inversions of the relative arrival times for apparent group velocity produce maps which are accurate representations of the data (often over 90% variance reduction of the relative arrival times) and which show features strongly correlated with tectonics and crustal thickness. The apparent group velocity variations can be extremely large: 30% velocity variations for 20 mHz Rayleigh waves and 40% variations for 30 mHz Rayleigh waves and can have abrupt lateral changes. This raises the concern that non-ray theory effects could be important. Indeed, a recent analysis by Dahlen and Zhou (personal communication) suggests that the group arrival times should be a functions of both the group velocity AND the phase velocity. The simplest way to test the interpretation of the measurements is to perform the analysis on synthetic seismograms computed for a realistic model of the Earth. Here, we use the SEM with a model which incorporates realistic crust and mantle structure. We are currently computing synthetics for a suite of roughly 1000 events recorded globally that extend to a period of 18 seconds. We shall present the results of applying both ray-based and finite frequency inversions to the synthetic data as well as evaluating the effects of off path propagation at short periods using surface wave ray tracing.

  9. Control and synchronisation in switched arrival systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, B.; Armbruster, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    A chaotic model of a production flow called the switched arrival system is extended to include switching times and maintenance. The probability distribution of the chaotic return times is calculated. Scheduling maintenance, loss of production due to switching, and control of the chaotic dynamics is

  10. GMTI Direction of Arrival Measurements from Multiple Phase Centers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar attempts to detect and locate targets with unknown motion. Very slow-moving targets are difficult to locate in the presence of surrounding clutter. This necessitates multiple antenna phase centers (or equivalent) to offer independent Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements. DOA accuracy and precision generally remains dependent on target Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Clutter-toNoise Ratio (CNR), scene topography, interfering signals, and a number of antenna parameters. This is true even for adaptive techniques like Space-Time-AdaptiveProcessing (STAP) algorithms.

  11. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  12. FORECASTING TOURIST ARRIVALS TO LANGKAWI ISLAND MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarul Ariffin MANSOR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is the act of travelling for a person or group of people from their own locality to a specific destination in a short term or long term period either for leisure or business purposes. Tourism is an important sector in the Malaysian economy where tourism development will lead to the positive economic development of the country and in general improve the quality of life for all citizens. Therefore, forecasting tourist arrivals with high accuracy becomes important since it may ensure the development and the readiness of all tourism related industries such as hotels, transportation, food and services industries and their best shape. This study focuses on tourist arrivals in Langkawi Island as one of the major tourist attractions situated in the northerly region of Peninsular Malaysia. Importantly, this paper attempts to measure and compare the performance of forecasting with Exponential Smoothing, ARIMA and ARFIMA models using the R software package.

  13. FORECASTING TOURIST ARRIVALS TO LANGKAWI ISLAND MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarul Ariffin MANSOR; Wan Irham ISHAK

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is the act of travelling for a person or group of people from their own locality to a specific destination in a short term or long term period either for leisure or business purposes. Tourism is an important sector in the Malaysian economy where tourism development will lead to the positive economic development of the country and in general improve the quality of life for all citizens. Therefore, forecasting tourist arrivals with high accuracy becomes important since it may ensure t...

  14. The first American magnet has arrived!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 21 January the first US-built LHC magnet arrived at CERN, after a journey of 6000 km by land and sea, an event hailed on both sides of the Atlantic. This 10-m long, 4.7-tonne dipole magnet was manufactured over a period of nine months by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Single-aperture magnets of this type will be installed on either side of the ALICE and LHCb experiments and will deviate the beams in order to provoke their interaction and subsequent separation. Brookhaven will be supplying 19 other dipoles for the insertion regions, including four of the same type as the one which has just arrived. «These magnets are based on a technology developed by Brookhaven Laboratory for its own RHIC accelerator,» explains Ranko Ostojic. LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans adds «our Brookhaven colleagues have done a fantastic job in completing the USA's first superconducting magnet for the LHC to specification and on schedule. Other deliveries will shortly be arriving from Brookhaven but also from Fermilab and the ...

  15. Forecasting tourist arrivals to balearic islands using genetic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosselló-Nadal, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, univariate time-series models have largely dominated forecasting for international tourism demand. In this paper, the ability of a Genetic Program (GP to predict monthly tourist arrivals from UK and Germany to Balearic Islands (Spain is explored. GP has already been employed satisfactorily in different scientific areas, including economics. The technique shows different advantages regarding to other forecasting methods. Firstly, it does not assume a priori a rigid functional form of the model. Secondly, it is more robust and easy-to-use than other non-parametric methods. Finally, it provides explicitly a mathematical equation which allows a simple ad hoc interpretation of the results. Comparing the performance of the proposed technique against other method commonly used in tourism forecasting (no-change model, Moving Average and ARIMA, the empirical results reveal that GP can be a valuable tool in this field.

  16. Arrival-Time Detection and Ultrasonic Flow-Meter Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, Morten; Soendergaard, Peter; Latino, Carl; Voss, Frands; Andersen, Niels Lervad; Brokate, Martin; Bounaim, Aicha

    2006-01-01

    The Danfoss problem on ultrasonic flow measurement has been separated into three parts each handled by a subgroup of the authors listed above. The first subgroup deals with a presentation of modelling equations describing the physics of ultrasonic flow meters employing reciprocal ultrasonic transducer systems. The mathematical model presented allows the electrical output signal to be determined corresponding to any time-dependent electrical input signal. The transducers modelled consist of a piezoceramic material layer and a passive acoustic matching layer. The second subgroup analyzes the possibility of coding the input signal so as to simplify arrival-time detection by re.nding the coded input sequence in the received signal. The narrow-band nature of the transducers makes this problem non-trivial but suggestions for improvement are proposed. The analysis given is based on traditional autoand cross-correlation techniques. The third subgroup attempts to improve existing correlation methods in determining arrival-time detection of signals. A mathematical formulation of the problem is given and the application to a set of real signals provided by Danfoss A/S is performed with good results

  17. A key component of the Globe arrives

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The first component of the Palais de l'Equilibre arrived at CERN last week. Renamed the Globe of Innovation, this elegant wooden sphere will be inaugurated in October 2004. The convoy transporting the first component of the Palais de l'Equilibre, the keystone of the famous wooden globe, arrived at CERN on the night of 28th August in the middle of a violent storm and dramatic flashes of lightning. Erected in Neuchâtel last year for the EXPO.02 exhibition, the Palais de l'Equilibre was a gift to the Laboratory from the Swiss Confederation (see Bulletin 25/2003). The gift of the structure and 4 million Swiss francs, together with help from the Swiss army for the reassembly work, received the final approval of the Swiss Federal Council on 20th August 2003. Renamed the Globe of Innovation, the 27-metre-high sphere measuring 40 metres in diameter will house the Laboratory's new exhibition centre in 2005. The keystone, known as the "central vertex", is a crown measuring 6.5 m in diameter and 4.5 m high, located a...

  18. First SCT Barrel arrives at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R

    Mid-January saw the arrival at CERN of Barrel #3, the first of four SCT barrels. The barrels are formed as low-mass cylinders of carbon fibre skins on a honeycomb carbon core. They are manufactured in industry and then have all the final precision supports added and the final geometric metrology carried out at Geneva University. Barrel #3, complete with its 384 silicon detector modules, arrived by road from Oxford University in England where the modules were mounted using a purpose-built robot. The modules had been selected from the output of all four barrel module building clusters (in Japan, Scandinavia, USA and the UK). Since Barrel #3 will be exposed to high radiation levels within the tracker volume, these modules, representing over half a million readout channels, have been extensively tested at their operational temperature of around -25 degrees Celcius and at voltages of up to 500V. The dangers of shipping such a fragile component of ATLAS were apparent to all and considerable attention was focused...

  19. LHCb Calorimeter modules arrive at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Two of the three components of the LHCb Calorimeter system have started to arrive from Russia. Members of the LHCb Calorimeter group with the ECAL and HCAL modules that have just arrived at CERN. The first two of the 56 Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) modules and 1200 of the 3300 modules of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have reached CERN from Russia. The third part of the system, the Preshower detector, is still being prepared in Russia. The calorimeter system identifies and triggers on high-energy particles, namely electrons, hadrons and photons by measuring their positions and energies. The HCAL is going to be a pure trigger device. The ECAL will also be used in the triggering, but in addition it will reconstruct neutral pions and photons from B meson decays. One of the major aims of the LHCb experiment is to study CP violation through B meson decays including Bs mesons with high statistics in different decay modes. CP violation (violation of charge and parity) is necessary to explain why the Universe...

  20. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinya [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Rauchenstein, Lynn T. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Carlson, Thomas J. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on received measurements from sensors is an important research area that is attracting much research interest. In this paper, we present localization algorithms using time of arrivals (TOA) and time difference of arrivals (TDOA) to achieve high accuracy under line-of-sight conditions. The circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) location systems both use nonlinear equations that relate the locations of the sensors and tracked objects. These nonlinear equations can develop accuracy challenges because of the existence of measurement errors and efficiency challenges that lead to high computational burdens. Least squares-based and maximum likelihood-based algorithms have become the most popular categories of location estimators. We also summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various positioning algorithms. By improving measurement techniques and localization algorithms, localization applications can be extended into the signal-processing-related domains of radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  1. ON THE ARRIVAL TRAFFIC FLOW ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Assorov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about air traffic flow organization, ICAO regulations describe the organizing of traffic flow as one of the purposes of air traffic control, but they don’t state exactly at what point the flow has to be organized and metered. The flight phase, where air traffic controller interferes with his instructions in order to begin organizing of all aircraft landing at a certain airport depends on the actual traffic volume per hour, airspace capacity and design.The example of air traffic situation in Moscow Domodedovo airport is described in the article, with runway 32 right in use, no significant weather, real usage of STARs, considering all the ICAO and Russian Federation regulations regarding speed control with the restrictions mentioned in AIP of Moscow Domodedovo. The purpose of the experiment is to prove the need of metering the air traffic flow on the entry points in Moscow TMA, because in case of unorganized air traffic flow approach controllers will have additional unnecessary workload.The conducted calculations show, that only 3 aircraft entering TMA on the same distance from initial approach point can be handled using only speed control and existing standard arrival procedures, in all other cases vectoring or holding areas should be used.In order to avoid such situations and increase the number of the aircraft that can be handled by the approach controller with less instructions, all the traffic arriving on the TMA entry point has to be metered by area control centre, because the air traffic control unit has much more space and time for long term speed control modifications, e.g. ±0,02 Mach. In conclusion a simple rule comes to mind – the bigger inbound traffic is, the earlier one has to organize it, in order to do it speed control, radar vectors, miles-in-trail can be used. Also new equipment and technology can help air traffic controller with this task, e.g. AMAN (arrival manager, in addition to this, the experience of

  2. Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski arrives at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski notes the time on his watch upon his late arrival aboard a T-38 jet at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Parazynski's first plane experienced problems at the stop at Tyndall AFB and he had to wait for another jet and pilot to finish the flight to KSC. He joined other crewmembers Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), for final pre-launch preparations. STS-95 is expected to launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and land at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  3. The Stardust spacecraft arrives at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    After arrival at the Shuttle Landing Facility in the early morning hours, the crated Stardust spacecraft waits to be unloaded from the aircraft. Built by Lockheed Martin Astronautics near Denver, Colo., for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) NASA, the spacecraft Stardust will use a unique medium called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of comet Wild 2 in January 2004, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. Stardust will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7426 rocket from Complex 17, Cape Canaveral Air Station, targeted for Feb. 6, 1999. The collected samples will return to Earth in a re- entry capsule to be jettisoned from Stardust as it swings by in January 2006.

  4. Arrival time and incidence angle distributions of extensive air showers (EAS) muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.M.; Duma, M.; Vulpescu, B.; Foeller, M.; Rebel, H.; Voelker, G.; Chilingarian, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The arrival time distributions of the muons can be related to the longitudinal EAS development and may provide additional information about the nature of the primary. Based on EAS simulations using the Monte-Carlo code CORSIKA, the correlations between arrival time and incidence angle distributions have been investigated in a case of a set of ideal detectors (10 m x 10 m) placed at various distances from the shower core. Applying advanced statistical techniques based on Bayes decision rule and non-parametric multivariate analysing methods it turns out that the correlations of muon arrival time and incidence angle at various separating distances of about 50 m exhibit promising features for mass discrimination (author)

  5. State dependent arrival in bulk retrial queueing system with immediate Bernoulli feedback, multiple vacations and threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, S. P.; Chandrasekaran, V. M.; Indhira, K.

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse state dependent arrival in bulk retrial queueing system with immediate Bernoulli feedback, multiple vacations, threshold and constant retrial policy. Primary customers are arriving into the system in bulk with different arrival rates λ a and λ b . If arriving customers find the server is busy then the entire batch will join to orbit. Customer from orbit request service one by one with constant retrial rate γ. On the other hand if an arrival of customers finds the server is idle then customers will be served in batches according to general bulk service rule. After service completion, customers may request service again with probability δ as feedback or leave from the system with probability 1 - δ. In the service completion epoch, if the orbit size is zero then the server leaves for multiple vacations. The server continues the vacation until the orbit size reaches the value ‘N’ (N > b). At the vacation completion, if the orbit size is ‘N’ then the server becomes ready to provide service for customers from the main pool or from the orbit. For the designed queueing model, probability generating function of the queue size at an arbitrary time will be obtained by using supplementary variable technique. Various performance measures will be derived with suitable numerical illustrations.

  6. The arrival time distribution of muons in extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was done to investigate the lateral dependence of the muon arrival time distribution in extensive air showers at small core distances. In the present experiment the muon arrival time distribution was investigated by measuring the relative arrival times between single muons in five fast Cerenkov detectors beneath 500g/cm 2 of concrete and at an atmospheric depth of 880g/cm 2 . It is shown that, although it is not possible to determine the arrival time distribution as such, it is possible to interpret the relative arrival times between muons in terms of the differences between the order statistics of a sample drawn from the arrival time distribution. The relationship between the arrival time distribution of muons relative to the first detected muon and the muon arrival time distribution is also derived. It was found that the dispersion of the muon arrival time distribution does not increase significantly with increasing core distance between 10m and 60m from the core. A comparison with theoretical distributions obtained from model calculations for proton initiated showers indicate that 1. the mean delay of muons with respect to the first detected muon is significantly larger than that expected from the model and 2. the observed dispersion is also significantly larger than the predicted dispersion for core distances between 10m and 60m

  7. Automatic first-arrival picking based on extended super-virtual interferometry with quality control procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shengpei; Hu, Tianyue; Liu, Yimou; Peng, Gengxin; Liang, Xianghao

    2017-12-01

    Static correction is a crucial step of seismic data processing for onshore play, which frequently has a complex near-surface condition. The effectiveness of the static correction depends on an accurate determination of first-arrival traveltimes. However, it is difficult to accurately auto-pick the first arrivals for data with low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), especially for those measured in the area of the complex near-surface. The technique of the super-virtual interferometry (SVI) has the potential to enhance the SNR of first arrivals. In this paper, we develop the extended SVI with (1) the application of the reverse correlation to improve the capability of SNR enhancement at near-offset, and (2) the usage of the multi-domain method to partially overcome the limitation of current method, given insufficient available source-receiver combinations. Compared to the standard SVI, the SNR enhancement of the extended SVI can be up to 40%. In addition, we propose a quality control procedure, which is based on the statistical characteristics of multichannel recordings of first arrivals. It can auto-correct the mispicks, which might be spurious events generated by the SVI. This procedure is very robust, highly automatic and it can accommodate large data in batches. Finally, we develop one automatic first-arrival picking method to combine the extended SVI and the quality control procedure. Both the synthetic and the field data examples demonstrate that the proposed method is able to accurately auto-pick first arrivals in seismic traces with low SNR. The quality of the stacked seismic sections obtained from this method is much better than those obtained from an auto-picking method, which is commonly employed by the commercial software.

  8. 7 CFR 319.8-4 - Notice of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for the Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs, a notice of such arrival, on a form provided for... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of arrival. 319.8-4 Section 319.8-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...

  9. 7 CFR 319.75-6 - Arrival notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plant Protection and Quarantine of the arrival by such means as a manifest, Customs entry document... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arrival notification. 319.75-6 Section 319.75-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  10. Arrival first queueing networks with applications in kanban production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, R.J.; Chao, X.; Miyazawa, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of queueing networks called {\\it arrival first networks}. We characterise its transition rates and derive the relationship between arrival rules, linear partial balance equations, and product form stationary distributions. This model is motivated by production

  11. Arrival first queueing networks with applications in kanban production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Chao, X.; Miyazawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new class of queueing networks called arrival first networks. We characterise its transition rates and derive the relationship between arrival rules, linear partial balance equations, and product form stationary distributions. This model is motivated by production

  12. Forecasting Tourist Arrivals and Supply and Demand Gap Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to forecast the long term behavior of tourist arrivals and analyze the gap between supply and demand for the hotel/accommodation sector of the city of Addis Ababa. It also intends to provide vital information in regards to the sparse knowledge in the subject of forecasting tourist arrivals in Ethiopia.

  13. 14 CFR 93.29 - International Arrival Authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Arrival Authorizations. 93.29... at Chicago O'Hare International Airport § 93.29 International Arrival Authorizations. (a) Except as... marketing arrangement unless the flight was predominately marketed, by contract, under the control of...

  14. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the elephant...

  15. Causes and Consequences of Late Arrival in Labour | Aziken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The outcome of labour depends to a large extent on the quality of intrapartum care given. Prompt arrival in hospital is essential for optimal care of parturient women. The causes and consequences of late arrival in labour have not been analysed in our setting. Objective: To determine the causes and ...

  16. Optimal control of arrival and service rates in tandem queues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, M.S.

    1995-08-01

    We consider n M/M/1 queues in series. At queue one the arrival and service rates are chosen in pair from a finite set whenever there are arrivals or service completions at any queue. Customers arriving to queue L (L=1,2,...,n-1) must go on to queue L+1 after finishing service at server L. Customers arriving to queue n leave the system after finishing service at the last server. At queues 2 to n arrival and service rates are fixed. The objective is to minimize the expected discounted cost of the system over finite and infinite horizons. We show that the optimal policy is of threshold type. In order to establish the result, we formulate the optimal control problem as a Linear Programming. (author). 9 refs

  17. Retinal fluorescein contrast arrival time of young patients with the hepatosplenic form of the Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Delgado de Souza

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni is responsible for lesions that can alter the hemodinamic of the portal venous circulation, lung arterial and venous sistemic systems. Therefore, hemodinamic changes in the ocular circulation of mansonic schistosomotic patients with portal hypertension and hepatofugal venous blood flow is also probable. The purpose of this study was to determine the fluorescein contrast arrival time at the retina of young patients with the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis, clinically and surgically treated. The control group included 36 non schistosomotic patients, mean age of 17.3 years, and the case group was represented by 25 schistosomotic patients, mean age of 18.2 years, who were cared for at The University Hospital (Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, from 1990 to 2001. They underwent digital angiofluoresceinography and were evaluated for the contrast arrival time at the early retinal venous phase of the exam. Both groups were ophthalmologically examined at the same hospital (Altino Ventura Foundation, Recife, Brazil, using the same technique. There was retardation of the retinal contrast arrival time equal or more than 70 sec in the eyes of three schistosomotic patients (12% and in none of the control group, however, the mean contrast arrival time between the two groups were not statistically different. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that there could be a delay of the eye venous blood flow drainage.

  18. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) after 2020. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area, in a terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crews and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the primary operation and variations are described.

  19. Overview of contaminant arrival distributions as general evaluation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental consequences of subsurface contamination problems can be completely and effectively evaluated by fulfilling the following five requirements: Determine each present or future outflow boundary of contaminated groundwater; provide the location/arrival-time distributions; provide the location/outflow-quantity distributions; provide these distributions for each individual chemical or biological constituent of environmental importance; and use the arrival distributions to determine the quantity and concentration of each contaminant that will interface with the environment as time passes. The arrival distributions on which these requirements are based provide a reference point for communication among scientists and public decision makers by enabling complicated scientific analyses to be presented as simple summary relationships

  20. Narrowband direction of arrival estimation for antenna arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Foutz, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to narrowband array signal processing, classical and subspace-based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation with an extensive discussion on adaptive direction of arrival algorithms. The book begins with a presentation of the basic theory, equations, and data models of narrowband arrays. It then discusses basic beamforming methods and describes how they relate to DOA estimation. Several of the most common classical and subspace-based direction of arrival methods are discussed. The book concludes with an introduction to subspace tracking and shows how subspace tr

  1. R6 FIFRA e-Notice of Arrival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This database processes approximately 3,000 Notice of Arrival (NOA) reporting forms from importers and exporters of pesticide products. This is an electronic version...

  2. True Time API Link (real time arrival info)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This link will take you to the site where you can create an account to access Port Authority's real time arrival information. To request access to Port Authority's...

  3. Obtaining contaminant arrival distributions for steady flow in heterogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a field example involving land drainage in heterogeneous porous materials. Though the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are complicated because of the material heterogeneity encountered in the field problem, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the minimal amount of data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield a single graph or tabular set of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems. Accordingly, public control authorities would be well advised to request that the results of subsurface pollution investigations be provided in the form of arrival distributions and the resulting simpler summary curve or tabulation. Such an objective is most easily accomplished through compliance with the requirements for assuring a complete subsurface evaluation

  4. Astronauts Armstrong and Scott arrive at Hickam Field, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (center), command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot, arrive at Hickam Field, Hawaii on their way from Naha, Okinawa, to Cape Kennedy, Florida. Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr. is at extreme left.

  5. Estimating bus passenger waiting times from incomplete bus arrivals data

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of estimating bus passenger waiting times at bus stops using incomplete bus arrivals data. This is of importance to bus operators and regulators as passenger waiting time is a key performance measure. Average waiting times are usually estimated from bus headways, that is, time gaps between buses. It is both time-consuming and expensive to measure bus arrival times manually so methods using automatic vehicle location systems are attractive; however, these syste...

  6. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sauerbrey Mauricio; Hopkins Adrian; Gustavsen Ken

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen...

  7. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars. [T.D. 70-121, 35 FR 8215, May 26, 1970, as amended by T.D. 82-145, 47 FR 35478, Aug. 16, 1982] ...

  8. Order of arrival affects competition in two reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geange, Shane W; Stier, Adrian C

    2009-10-01

    Many communities experience repeated periods of colonization due to seasonally regenerating habitats or pulsed arrival of young-of-year. When an individual's persistence in a community depends upon the strength of competitive interactions, changes in the timing of arrival relative to the arrival of a competitor can modify competitive strength and, ultimately, establishment in the community. We investigated whether the strength of intracohort competitive interactions between recent settlers of the reef fishes Thalassoma hardwicke and T. quinquevittatum are dependent on the sequence and temporal separation of their arrival into communities. To achieve this, we manipulated the sequence and timing of arrival of each species onto experimental patch reefs by simulating settlement pulses and monitoring survival and aggressive interactions. Both species survived best in the absence of competitors, but when competitors were present, they did best when they arrived at the same time. Survival declined as each species entered the community progressively later than its competitor and as aggression by its competitor increased. Intraspecific effects of resident T. hardwicke were similar to interspecific effects. This study shows that the strength of competition depends not only on the identity of competitors, but also on the sequence and timing of their interactions, suggesting that when examining interaction strengths, it is important to identify temporal variability in the direction and magnitude of their effects. Furthermore, our findings provide empirical evidence for the importance of competitive lotteries in the maintenance of species diversity in demographically open marine systems.

  9. Locating Microseism Sources Using Spurious Arrivals in Intercontinental Noise Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retailleau, Lise; Boué, Pierre; Stehly, Laurent; Campillo, Michel

    2017-10-01

    The accuracy of Green's functions retrieved from seismic noise correlations in the microseism frequency band is limited by the uneven distribution of microseism sources at the surface of the Earth. As a result, correlation functions are often biased as compared to the expected Green's functions, and they can include spurious arrivals. These spurious arrivals are seismic arrivals that are visible on the correlation and do not belong to the theoretical impulse response. In this article, we propose to use Rayleigh wave spurious arrivals detected on correlation functions computed between European and United States seismic stations to locate microseism sources in the Atlantic Ocean. We perform a slant stack on a time distance gather of correlations obtained from an array of stations that comprises a regional deployment and a distant station. The arrival times and the apparent slowness of the spurious arrivals lead to the location of their source, which is obtained through a grid search procedure. We discuss improvements in the location through this methodology as compared to classical back projection of microseism energy. This method is interesting because it only requires an array and a distant station on each side of an ocean, conditions that can be met relatively easily.

  10. Aspergillus serology: Have we arrived yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Malcolm D; Page, Iain D

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillosis presents in various clinical forms, among them chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, which is a spectrum of disease entities including aspergilloma, chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, and chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also contributes to fungal allergy and sensitization. Analysis of the immune response to Aspergillus and its antigens is an integral part of the diagnosis of these diseases. Over the past half century, the techniques used to determine antibody titers have evolved from testing for precipitating and agglutinating antibodies by agar gel double diffusion and immunolectrophoresis to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant proteins as capture antigens. A resurgence of interest in the detection of immunoglobulins, primarily Aspergillus-specific IgG, has hinted at the possibility of distinguishing between colonization and invasion in immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis. Even though there appears to be a greater degree of discrimination between the clinical forms of aspergillosis there is still a long way to travel. This review presents illustrative examples of where new diagnostic platforms and technologies have been applied to this intriguing spectrum of diseases. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. First ATLAS Barrel Toroid coil casing arrives at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first of eight 25-metre long coil casings for the ATLAS experiment's barrel toroid magnet system arrived at CERN on Saturday 2 March by road from Heidelberg. This structure will be part of the largest superconducting toroid magnet ever made.   The first coil casing for the toroidal magnets of Atlas arrives at Building 180. This is the start of an enormous three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle. Each of the eight sets of double pancake coils will be housed inside aluminium coil casings, which in turn will be held inside a stainless steel vacuum vessel. A huge construction, the casing that arrived at CERN measures 25 metres in length and 5 metres in width. It weighs 20 tones. And this is just the beginning of the toroid jigsaw: by early April a batch of four double pancake coils, which altogether weighs 65 tones, will arrive from Ansaldo in Italy. The first vacuum vessel will also be arriving from Felguera in Spain this month. It will take about two years for all these 25 m long structures of casings, coils a...

  12. Strengthening economy through tourism sector by tourist arrival prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriatna, A.; Subartini, B.; Hertini, E.; Sukono; Rumaisha; Istiqamah, N.

    2018-03-01

    Tourism sector has a tendency to be proposed as a support for national economy to many countries with various of natural resources, such as Indonesia. The number of tourist is very related with the success rate of a tourist attraction, since it is also related with planning and strategy. Hence, it is important to predict the climate of tourism in Indonesia, especially the number of domestic or international tourist in the future. This study uses Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) time series method to predict the number of tourist arrival to tourism strategic areas in Nusa Tenggara Barat. The prediction was done using the international and domestic tourist arrival to Nusa Tenggara Barat data from January 2008 to June 2016. The established SARIMA method was (0,1,1)(0,0,2)12 with MAPE error of 15.76. The prediction for the next six time periods showed that the highest number of tourist arrival is during September 2016 with 330,516 tourist arrivals. Prediction of tourist arrival hopefully might be used as reference for local and national government to make policies to strengthen national economy for a long period of time

  13. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time-dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. Accordingly, the public control authorities would be able to use these results to choose alternatives or initiate corrective actions, depending on the indicated environmental consequences

  14. Healthcare system information at language schools for newly arrived immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tynell, Lena Lyngholt; Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Jervelund, Signe Smith

    2017-01-01

    a language school in Copenhagen in 2012 received either a course or written information on the Danish healthcare system and subsequently evaluated this quantitatively. Results: The evaluation revealed a positive appraisal of the course/information provided. Conclusion: In times of austerity, incorporating......Objective: In most European countries, immigrants do not systematically learn about the host countries’ healthcare system when arriving. This study investigated how newly arrived immigrants perceived the information they received about the Danish healthcare system. Method: Immigrants attending...... healthcare information into an already existing language programme may be pertinent for providing immigrants with knowledge on the healthcare system....

  15. 7 CFR 319.37-11 - Arrival notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... article at a port of entry, the importer shall notify the Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs of the... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arrival notification. 319.37-11 Section 319.37-11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  16. Single-server queues with spatially distributed arrivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Dirk; Schmidt, Volker

    1994-01-01

    Consider a queueing system where customers arrive at a circle according to a homogeneous Poisson process. After choosing their positions on the circle, according to a uniform distribution, they wait for a single server who travels on the circle. The server's movement is modelled by a Brownian motion

  17. At the Bridging Point: Tutoring Newly Arrived Students in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, tutoring in the mother tongue is a special support measure primarily intended for newly arrived students to facilitate their transition into the Swedish school system. Tutoring is premised on the collaboration between the class teacher, responsible for subject-related expertise, and the tutor, who contributes with knowledge of the…

  18. Itinerary for Prof. Nitash Balsara Arrival in Mumbai, November 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RV

    2014-11-11

    Arrival in Mumbai, November 4. November 4-10 in and around Mumbai, will give lecture in IIT Bombay. November 11-15, in and around Kanpur, Prof Ashutosh Sharma will organize program. November 11, 2014. Mumbai-Lucknow: Air India AI-625; departs 10:30, reaches. 12:40. November 15, 2014. Lucknow-Bangalore.

  19. 8 CFR 258.3 - Action upon arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., docks, or real estate; possible environmental contamination; or possible injury or death to a person, a... OF LONGSHORE WORK BY ALIEN CREWMEN § 258.3 Action upon arrival. (a) The master or agent of the vessel... so. (b) If nonimmigrant crewmen will perform longshore work, the master or agent of the vessel shall...

  20. Original Research Factors associated with hospital arrival time after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research. Factors associated with hospital arrival time after the onset of stroke symptoms: A cross-sectional study at two teaching hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe .... hypertension causing small vessel disease which outweigh the causes of ..... Stroke Mechanism in Atherosclerotic Middle Cerebral Artery Disease:.

  1. Quantum arrival-time distributions from intensity functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarz, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    is similar in nature to other time-dependent arrival-type processes occurring, e.g., in population biology or queue theory. A simple but illustrative example related to the well-known Wigner discussion of the time-energy uncertainty relation is given and the numerical results obtained are compared...

  2. Hypoxaemia on arrival in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit | de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is, however, potentially preventable. Objective. To determine the incidence of hypoxaemia on arrival in a tertiary multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) and to identify risk factors for this complication. Method. A retrospective observational study was conducted at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, from May ...

  3. 8 CFR 251.1 - Arrival manifests and lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... List, in accordance with the instructions contained thereon. (2) Longshore work notations. The master... master, captain, or agent shall prepare as a part of the manifest, when one is required for presentation... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arrival manifests and lists. 251.1 Section...

  4. Arrival Processes for Vessels in a Port Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asperen (Eelco); R. Dekker (Rommert); M. Polman (Mark); H. de Swaan Arons; L. Waltman (Ludo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPorts provide jetty facilities for ships to load and unload their cargo. Jetty capacity is costly and therefore limited, causing delays for arriving ships. However, ship delays are also costly, so terminal operators attempt to min imize their number and duration. Here, simulation has

  5. Direction of arrival estimation based on information geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutiño Minguez, M.A.; Pribic, R; Leus, G.J.T.; Dong, Min; Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new direction of arrival (DOA) estimation approach is devised using concepts from information geometry (IG). The proposed method uses geodesic distances in the statistical manifold of probability distributions parametrized by their covariance matrix to estimate the direction of

  6. Spectral information for detection of acoustic time to arrival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Russo, Frank A.; MacDonald, Ewen

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase of intensity for an approaching sound source provides salient information for a listener to make judgments of time to arrival (TTA). Specifically, a listener will experience a greater rate of increasing intensity for higher than for lower frequencies during a sound source...

  7. Estimating epidemic arrival times using linear spreading theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lawrence M.; Holzer, Matt; Shapiro, Anne

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a spatially structured model of worldwide epidemics and formulate predictions for arrival times of the disease at any city in the network. The model is composed of a system of ordinary differential equations describing a meta-population susceptible-infected-recovered compartmental model defined on a network where each node represents a city and the edges represent the flight paths connecting cities. Making use of the linear determinacy of the system, we consider spreading speeds and arrival times in the system linearized about the unstable disease free state and compare these to arrival times in the nonlinear system. Two predictions are presented. The first is based upon expansion of the heat kernel for the linearized system. The second assumes that the dominant transmission pathway between any two cities can be approximated by a one dimensional lattice or a homogeneous tree and gives a uniform prediction for arrival times independent of the specific network features. We test these predictions on a real network describing worldwide airline traffic.

  8. Late arrival in hospital during labour: any correlation with materno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Late arrival in labour is a common occurrence in my centre, It has been said to be associated with poor maternal and foetal outcome because of the lack of intrapartum materno-foetal monitoring. It gave me a great concern why booked patients should deliver in vehicles in 21st century. Objectives: Is to ...

  9. Estimating Radar Velocity using Direction of Arrival Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Horndt, Volker [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bickel, Douglas Lloyd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naething, Richard M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements, as with a monopulse antenna, can be compared against Doppler measurements in a Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) image to determine an aircraft's forward velocity as well as its crab angle, to assist the aircraft's navigation as well as improving high - performance SAR image formation and spatial calibration.

  10. Two parallel finite queues with simultaneous services and Markovian arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Chakravarthy

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a finite capacity single server queueing model with two buffers, A and B, of sizes K and N respectively. Messages arrive one at a time according to a Markovian arrival process. Messages that arrive at buffer A are of a different type from the messages that arrive at buffer B. Messages are processed according to the following rules: 1. When buffer A(B has a message and buffer B(A is empty, then one message from A(B is processed by the server. 2. When both buffers, A and B, have messages, then two messages, one from A and one from B, are processed simultaneously by the server. The service times are assumed to be exponentially distributed with parameters that may depend on the type of service. This queueing model is studied as a Markov process with a large state space and efficient algorithmic procedures for computing various system performance measures are given. Some numerical examples are discussed.

  11. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Airborne radar ice sounding is challenged by surface clutter masking the depth signal of interest. Surface clutter may even be prohibitive for potential space-based ice sounding radars. To some extent the radar antenna suppresses the surface clutter, and a multi-phase-center antenna in combination...... with coherent signal processing techniques can improve the suppression, in particular if the direction of arrival (DOA) of the clutter signal is estimated accurately. This paper deals with data-driven DOA estimation. By using P-band data from the ice shelf in Antarctica it is demonstrated that a varying...

  12. Tsunami Arrival Detection with High Frequency (HF Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Barrick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time observations of a tsunami have been limited to deep-water, pressure-sensor observations of changes in the sea surface elevation and observations of sea level fluctuations at the coast, which are essentially point measurements. Constrained by these data, models have been used for predictions and warning of the arrival of a tsunami, but to date no system exists for local detection of an actual incoming wave with a significant warning capability. Networks of coastal high frequency (HF-radars are now routinely observing surface currents in many countries. We report here on an empirical method for the detection of the initial arrival of a tsunami, and demonstrate its use with results from data measured by fourteen HF radar sites in Japan and USA following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake off Sendai, Japan, on 11 March 2011. The distance offshore at which the tsunami can be detected, and hence the warning time provided, depends on the bathymetry: the wider the shallow continental shelf, the greater this time. We compare arrival times at the radars with those measured by neighboring tide gauges. Arrival times measured by the radars preceded those at neighboring tide gauges by an average of 19 min (Japan and 15 min (USA The initial water-height increase due to the tsunami as measured by the tide gauges was moderate, ranging from 0.3 to 2 m. Thus it appears possible to detect even moderate tsunamis using this method. Larger tsunamis could obviously be detected further from the coast. We find that tsunami arrival within the radar coverage area can be announced 8 min (i.e., twice the radar spectral time resolution after its first appearance. This can provide advance warning of the tsunami approach to the coastline locations.

  13. Does pet arrival trigger prosocial behaviors in individuals with autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Grandgeorge

    Full Text Available Alteration of social interactions especially prosocial behaviors--an important aspect of development--is one of the characteristics of autistic disorders. Numerous strategies or therapies are used to improve communication skills or at least to reduce social impairments. Animal-assisted therapies are used widely but their relevant benefits have never been scientifically evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the presence or the arrival of pets in families with an individual with autism and the changes in his or her prosocial behaviors. Of 260 individuals with autism--on the basis of presence or absence of pets--two groups of 12 individuals and two groups of 8 individuals were assigned to: study 1 (pet arrival after age of 5 versus no pet and study 2 (pet versus no pet, respectively. Evaluation of social impairment was assessed at two time periods using the 36-items ADI-R algorithm and a parental questionnaire about their child-pet relationships. The results showed that 2 of the 36 items changed positively between the age of 4 to 5 (t(0 and time of assessment (t(1 in the pet arrival group (study 1: "offering to share" and "offering comfort". Interestingly, these two items reflect prosocial behaviors. There seemed to be no significant changes in any item for the three other groups. The interactions between individuals with autism and their pets were more--qualitatively and quantitatively--reported in the situation of pet arrival than pet presence since birth. These findings open further lines of research on the impact of pet's presence or arrival in families with an individual with autism. Given the potential ability of individuals with autism to develop prosocial behaviors, related studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the development of such child-pet relationship.

  14. Does pet arrival trigger prosocial behaviors in individuals with autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgeorge, Marine; Tordjman, Sylvie; Lazartigues, Alain; Lemonnier, Eric; Deleau, Michel; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of social interactions especially prosocial behaviors--an important aspect of development--is one of the characteristics of autistic disorders. Numerous strategies or therapies are used to improve communication skills or at least to reduce social impairments. Animal-assisted therapies are used widely but their relevant benefits have never been scientifically evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the presence or the arrival of pets in families with an individual with autism and the changes in his or her prosocial behaviors. Of 260 individuals with autism--on the basis of presence or absence of pets--two groups of 12 individuals and two groups of 8 individuals were assigned to: study 1 (pet arrival after age of 5 versus no pet) and study 2 (pet versus no pet), respectively. Evaluation of social impairment was assessed at two time periods using the 36-items ADI-R algorithm and a parental questionnaire about their child-pet relationships. The results showed that 2 of the 36 items changed positively between the age of 4 to 5 (t(0)) and time of assessment (t(1)) in the pet arrival group (study 1): "offering to share" and "offering comfort". Interestingly, these two items reflect prosocial behaviors. There seemed to be no significant changes in any item for the three other groups. The interactions between individuals with autism and their pets were more--qualitatively and quantitatively--reported in the situation of pet arrival than pet presence since birth. These findings open further lines of research on the impact of pet's presence or arrival in families with an individual with autism. Given the potential ability of individuals with autism to develop prosocial behaviors, related studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the development of such child-pet relationship.

  15. Estimation of direction of arrival of a moving target using subspace based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ripul; Das, Utpal; Akula, Aparna; Kumar, Satish; Sardana, H. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, array processing techniques based on subspace decomposition of signal have been evaluated for estimation of direction of arrival of moving targets using acoustic signatures. Three subspace based approaches - Incoherent Wideband Multiple Signal Classification (IWM), Least Square-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotation Invariance Techniques (LS-ESPRIT) and Total Least Square- ESPIRIT (TLS-ESPRIT) are considered. Their performance is compared with conventional time delay estimation (TDE) approaches such as Generalized Cross Correlation (GCC) and Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). Performance evaluation has been conducted on experimentally generated data consisting of acoustic signatures of four different types of civilian vehicles moving in defined geometrical trajectories. Mean absolute error and standard deviation of the DOA estimates w.r.t. ground truth are used as performance evaluation metrics. Lower statistical values of mean error confirm the superiority of subspace based approaches over TDE based techniques. Amongst the compared methods, LS-ESPRIT indicated better performance.

  16. Experimental Results for Direction of Arrival Estimation with a Single Acoustic Vector Sensor in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Bereketli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the performances of several computationally efficient and simple techniques for estimating direction of arrival (DOA of an underwater acoustic source using a single acoustic vector sensor (AVS in shallow water. Underwater AVS is a compact device, which consists of one hydrophone and three accelerometers in a packaged form, measuring scalar pressure and three-dimensional acceleration simultaneously at a single position. A very controlled experimental setup is prepared to test how well-known techniques, namely, arctan-based, intensity-based, time domain beamforming, and frequency domain beamforming methods, perform in estimating DOA of a source in different circumstances. Experimental results reveal that for almost all cases beamforming techniques perform best. Moreover, arctan-based method, which is the simplest of all, provides satisfactory results for practical purposes.

  17. Some performance measures for vacation models with a batch Markovian arrival process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrac K. Matendo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server infinite capacity queueing system, where the arrival process is a batch Markovian arrival process (BMAP. Particular BMAPs are the batch Poisson arrival process, the Markovian arrival process (MAP, many batch arrival processes with correlated interarrival times and batch sizes, and superpositions of these processes. We note that the MAP includes phase-type (PH renewal processes and non-renewal processes such as the Markov modulated Poisson process (MMPP.

  18. Applying the ARRIVE Guidelines to an In Vivo Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Karp

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE guidelines were developed to address the lack of reproducibility in biomedical animal studies and improve the communication of research findings. While intended to guide the preparation of peer-reviewed manuscripts, the principles of transparent reporting are also fundamental for in vivo databases. Here, we describe the benefits and challenges of applying the guidelines for the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC, whose goal is to produce and phenotype 20,000 knockout mouse strains in a reproducible manner across ten research centres. In addition to ensuring the transparency and reproducibility of the IMPC, the solutions to the challenges of applying the ARRIVE guidelines in the context of IMPC will provide a resource to help guide similar initiatives in the future.

  19. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables

  20. Does the arrival index predict physiological stress reactivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge about children's stress reactivity and its correlates is mostly based on one stress task, making it hard to assess the generalizability of the results. The development of an additional stress paradigm for children, that also limits stress exposure and test time, could greatly advance this field of research. Research in adults may provide a starting point for the development of such an additional stress paradigm, as changes in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) over a 1-h pre-stress period in the laboratory correlated strongly with subsequent reactivity to stress task (Balodis et al., 2010, Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:1363-73). The present study examined whether such strong correlations could be replicated in 9- to 11-year-old children. Cortisol and sAA samples were collected from 158 children (83 girls) during a 2.5-h visit to the laboratory. This visit included a 1-h pre-stress period in which children performed some non-stressful tasks and relaxed before taking part in a psychosocial stress task (TSST-C). A higher cortisol arrival index was significantly and weakly correlated with a higher AUCg but unrelated to cortisol reactivity to the stressor. A higher sAA arrival index was significantly and moderately related to lower stress reactivity and to a lower AUCi. Children's personality and emotion regulation variables were unrelated to the cortisol and sAA arrival indices. The results of this study do not provide a basis for the development of an additional stress paradigm for children. Further replications in children and adults are needed to clarify the potential meaning of an arrival index.

  1. Health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena

    2017-07-01

    The number of migrants and refugees in Europe in the past few years has increased dramatically due to war, violence or prosecutions in their homeland. Migration may affect physical, mental and social health. The objective of this article is to assess migrants and refugees' health problems, and to recommend appropriate interventions. A PubMed search of published articles on health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees was conducted from 2003 through 2016, focusing on the current refugee crisis in Europe. In addition to communicable diseases, such as respiratory, gastrointestinal and dermatologic infections, non-communicable diseases, including chronic conditions, mental and social problems, account for a significant morbidity burden in newly arrived migrants and refugees. Vaccine-preventable diseases are also of outmost importance. The appropriate management of newly arrived refugees and migrants' health problems is affected by barriers to access to health care including legal, communication, cultural and bureaucratic difficulties. There is diversity and lack of integration regarding health care provision across Europe due to policy differences between health care systems and social services. There is a notable burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases among newly arrived migrants and refugees. Provision of health care at reception and temporary centres should be integrated and provided by a multidisciplinary team Appropriate health care of migrants and refugees could greatly enhance their health and social status which will benefit also the host countries at large. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. STS-82 Pilot Scott Horowitz arrives for TCDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz arrives at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility in a T-38 jet from Houston, TX. Horowitz and the other six crew members are at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. The crew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-82 will conduct the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. The 10-day flight is targeted for a Feb. 11 liftoff.

  3. NASA's ATM Technology Demonstration-1: Integrated Concept of Arrival Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Swenson, Harry N.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) demonstration will integrate three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to touchdown. It also enables aircraft to conduct Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and implantation into an operational environment. Goals of the ATD-1 demonstration include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  4. Empirical estimation of the arrival time of ICME Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Mosalam

    Empirical estimation of the arrival time of ICME Shocks Mosalam Shaltout1 ,M.Youssef 1and R.Mawad2 1 National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) ,Helwan -Cairo-Egypt Email: mosalamshaltout@hotmail.com 2 Faculty of Science-Monifiia University-Physics Department-Shiben Al-Koum -Monifiia-Egypt We are got the Data of the SSC events from Preliminary Reports of the ISGI (Institut de Physique du Globe, France) .Also we are selected the same CME interval 1996-2005 from SOHO/LASCO/C2.We have estimated the arrival time of ICME shocks during solar cycle 23rd (1996-2005), we take the Sudden storm commencement SSC as a indicator of the arrival of CMEs at the Earth's Magnetosphere (ICME).Under our model ,we selected 203 ICME shock-SSC associated events, we got an imperial relation between CME velocity and their travel time, from which we obtained high correlation between them, R=0.75.

  5. Design Principles and Algorithms for Air Traffic Arrival Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Itoh, Eri

    2014-01-01

    This report presents design principles and algorithms for building a real-time scheduler of arrival aircraft based on a first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling protocol. The algorithms provide the conceptual and computational foundation for the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) of the Center/terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) automation system, which comprises a set of decision support tools for managing arrival traffic at major airports in the United States. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high-altitude airspace far away from the airport and low-altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time. This report is a revision of an earlier paper first presented as part of an Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) lecture series in September 1995. The authors, during vigorous discussions over the details of this paper, felt it was important to the air-trafficmanagement (ATM) community to revise and extend the original 1995 paper, providing more detail and clarity and thereby allowing future researchers to understand this foundational work as the basis for the TMA's scheduling algorithms.

  6. Direction of Arrival Estimation with a Novel Single-Port Smart Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel direction of arrival (DOA estimation technique that uses the conventional multiple-signal classification (MUSIC algorithm with periodic signals is applied to a single-port smart antenna. Results show that the proposed method gives a high-resolution (1 degree DOA estimation in an uncorrelated signal environment. The novelty lies in that the MUSIC algorithm is applied to a simplified antenna configuration. Only 1 analogue-to-digital converter (ADC is used in this antenna, which features low power consumption, low cost, and ease of fabrication. Modifications to the conventional MUSIC algorithm do not bring much additional complexity. The proposed technique is also free from the negative influence by the mutual coupling among antenna elements. Therefore, it offers an economical way to extensively implement smart antennas into the existing wireless mobile communications systems, especially at the power consumption limited mobile terminals such as laptops in wireless networks.

  7. Reduced-Complexity Direction of Arrival Estimation Using Real-Valued Computation with Arbitrary Array Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Gang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-complexity algorithm is presented to dramatically reduce the complexity of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm for direction of arrival (DOA estimation, in which both tasks of eigenvalue decomposition (EVD and spectral search are implemented with efficient real-valued computations, leading to about 75% complexity reduction as compared to the standard MUSIC. Furthermore, the proposed technique has no dependence on array configurations and is hence suitable for arbitrary array geometries, which shows a significant implementation advantage over most state-of-the-art unitary estimators including unitary MUSIC (U-MUSIC. Numerical simulations over a wide range of scenarios are conducted to show the performance of the new technique, which demonstrates that with a significantly reduced computational complexity, the new approach is able to provide a close accuracy to the standard MUSIC.

  8. A Comparison of High Frequency Angle of Arrival and Ionosonde Data During a Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippling, K.; Nava, O.; Emmons, D. J., II; Dao, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    Geolocation techniques are used to track the source of uncooperative high frequency emitters. Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) make geolocation particularly difficult due to large perturbations in the local ionospheric electron density profiles. Angle of arrival(AoA) and ionosonde virtual height measurements collected at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico in January, 2014 are analyzed during a medium scale TID (MSTID). MSTID characteristics are extracted from the measurements, and a comparison between the data sets is performed, providing a measure of the correlation as a function of distance between the ionosonde and AoA circuit midpoints. The results of this study may advance real-time geolocation techniques through the implementation of a time varying mirror model height.

  9. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  10. Double-Capon and double-MUSICAL for arrival separation and observable estimation in an acoustic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzé, Grégoire Le; Nicolas, Barbara; Mars, Jérôme I.; Roux, Philippe; Oudompheng, Benoit

    2012-12-01

    Recent developments in shallow water ocean acoustic tomography propose the use of an original configuration composed of two source-receiver vertical arrays and wideband sources. The recording space thus has three dimensions, with two spatial dimensions and the frequency dimension. Using this recording space, it is possible to build a three-dimensional (3D) estimation space that gives access to the three observables associated with the acoustic arrivals: the direction of departure, the direction of arrivals, and the time of arrival. The main interest of this 3D estimation space is its capability for the separation of acoustic arrivals that usually interfere in the recording space, due to multipath propagation. A 3D estimator called double beamforming has already been developed, although it has limited resolution. In this study, the new 3D high-resolution estimators of double Capon and double MUSICAL are proposed to achieve this task. The ocean acoustic tomography configuration allows a single recording realization to estimate the cross-spectral data matrix, which is necessary to build high-resolution estimators. 3D smoothing techniques are thus proposed to increase the rank of the matrix. The estimators developed are validated on real data recorded in an ultrasonic tank, and their detection performances are compared to existing 2D and 3D methods.

  11. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  12. Automated Conflict Resolution, Arrival Management and Weather Avoidance for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.; Lauderdale, Todd A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a unified solution to three types of separation assurance problems that occur in en-route airspace: separation conflicts, arrival sequencing, and weather-cell avoidance. Algorithms for solving these problems play a key role in the design of future air traffic management systems such as NextGen. Because these problems can arise simultaneously in any combination, it is necessary to develop integrated algorithms for solving them. A unified and comprehensive solution to these problems provides the foundation for a future air traffic management system that requires a high level of automation in separation assurance. The paper describes the three algorithms developed for solving each problem and then shows how they are used sequentially to solve any combination of these problems. The first algorithm resolves loss-of-separation conflicts and is an evolution of an algorithm described in an earlier paper. The new version generates multiple resolutions for each conflict and then selects the one giving the least delay. Two new algorithms, one for sequencing and merging of arrival traffic, referred to as the Arrival Manager, and the other for weather-cell avoidance are the major focus of the paper. Because these three problems constitute a substantial fraction of the workload of en-route controllers, integrated algorithms to solve them is a basic requirement for automated separation assurance. The paper also reviews the Advanced Airspace Concept, a proposed design for a ground-based system that postulates redundant systems for separation assurance in order to achieve both high levels of safety and airspace capacity. It is proposed that automated separation assurance be introduced operationally in several steps, each step reducing controller workload further while increasing airspace capacity. A fast time simulation was used to determine performance statistics of the algorithm at up to 3 times current traffic levels.

  13. STS-90 Pilot Scott Altman arrives at KSC for TCDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Pilot Scott Altman poses in the cockpit of his T-38 jet trainer aircraft after arriving at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility along with other members of the crew from NASAs Johnson Space Center to begin Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight to provide crews with the opportunity to participate in simulated countdown activities. Columbia is targeted for launch of STS-90 on April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EST and will be the second mission of 1998. The mission is scheduled to last nearly 17 days.

  14. Evaluating predictions of ICME arrival at Earth and Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Taktakishvili, A.; Pulkkinen, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) propagation to Earth and Mars. Because of the significant space weather hazard posed by ICMEs, understanding and predicting their arrival and impact at Mars is important for current and future robotic and manned missions...... to the planet. We compare running ENLILv2.6 with coronal mass ejection (CME) input parameters from both a manual and an automated method. We analyze shock events identified at Mars in Mars Global Surveyor data in 2001 and 2003, when Earth and Mars were separated by...

  15. Time of arrival based location estimation for cooperative relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Çelebi, Hasari Burak

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a cooperative relay network performing location estimation through time of arrival (TOA). We derive Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the location estimates using the relay network. The analysis is extended to obtain average CRLB considering the signal fluctuations in both relay and direct links. The effects of the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of the relay node on average CRLB are investigated. Simulation results show that the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of relay node affect the accuracy of TOA based location estimation. ©2010 IEEE.

  16. Time of arrival based location estimation for cooperative relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ç elebi, Hasari Burak; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a cooperative relay network performing location estimation through time of arrival (TOA). We derive Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the location estimates using the relay network. The analysis is extended to obtain average CRLB considering the signal fluctuations in both relay and direct links. The effects of the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of the relay node on average CRLB are investigated. Simulation results show that the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of relay node affect the accuracy of TOA based location estimation. ©2010 IEEE.

  17. Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Georgia A; Sangster, Katrina J; Maxwell, Ellen L; McBride, Catherine R J; Drewe, Ross H

    2012-01-01

    To document the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases and susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases in Karen refugees in Australia. Retrospective audit of pathology results. Community based cohort in Melbourne over the period July 2006-October 2009. 1136 Karen refugee children and adults, representing almost complete local area settlement and 48% of total Victorian Karen humanitarian intake for the time period. Prevalence of positive test results for refugee health screening, with breakdown by age group (Karen refugees have high rates of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases and may be susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases. These data support the need for post-arrival health screening and accessible, funded catch-up immunisation.

  18. An Important Arrival: The Anatomy of a Vintage Advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Hudson, Ph.D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reproduces an advertisement that appeared in national magazines in 1957. It depicts a couple arriving at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Boston, after a flight on American Airlines. The related discussion provides a deconstruction and analysis of its elements, considers the related evolution of the airline and hotel industries, offers a glimpse of advertising agencies during a formative period, and reflects on some related issues in marketing. This will hopefully appeal to scholars and enthusiasts of brand heritage, transportation history, advertising history, or travel ephemera.

  19. 3D first-arrival traveltime tomography with modified total variation regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenbin; Zhang, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic surveys have become a major tool in the exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons. 3D seismic first-arrival traveltime tomography is a robust method for near-surface velocity estimation. A common approach for stabilizing the ill-posed inverse problem is to apply Tikhonov regularization to the inversion. However, the Tikhonov regularization method recovers smooth local structures while blurring the sharp features in the model solution. We present a 3D first-arrival traveltime tomography method with modified total variation (MTV) regularization to preserve sharp velocity contrasts and improve the accuracy of velocity inversion. To solve the minimization problem of the new traveltime tomography method, we decouple the original optimization problem into two following subproblems: a standard traveltime tomography problem with the traditional Tikhonov regularization and a L2 total variation problem. We apply the conjugate gradient method and split-Bregman iterative method to solve these two subproblems, respectively. Our synthetic examples show that the new method produces higher resolution models than the conventional traveltime tomography with Tikhonov regularization. We apply the technique to field data. The stacking section shows significant improvements with static corrections from the MTV traveltime tomography.

  20. The pattern of ambulance arrivals in the emergency department of an acute care hospital in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Seow, E; Wong, H; Phe, A

    2001-01-01

    Methods—All (13 697) ambulance arrivals in 1996 to the ED of Tan Tock Seng Hospital were studied and where relevant compared with the walk in and total arrivals of the same year. The following data were obtained from computer records: (a) patients' demographic data; (b) number of ambulance arrivals by hour; (c) the classification of the ambulance arrivals by emergency or non-emergency, trauma or non-trauma; (d) cause of injury for trauma cases; (e) discharge status.

  1. 7 CFR 319.40-9 - Inspection and other requirements at port of first arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... port of arrival of the date of expected arrival. The address and telephone number of the APHIS Officer... quantity of the regulated articles; the expected date of arrival; the country of origin of the regulated... Charge may be obtained from the Administrator, c/o Port Operations, Plant Protection and Quarantine...

  2. 77 FR 24381 - Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... channel's entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai... entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai Harbor...

  3. Arrival and Departure Patterns of Public Sector Employees before and after Implementation of Flexitime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Simcha

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effects of a flexible working hours schedule on the arrival and departure times of 162 public sector employees. Results indicated that workers, when scheduling their own workday, deviate only moderately from their preflexitime arrival/departure times; and they tend to develop relatively stable arrival/departure patterns. (Author/RC)

  4. Networks of ·/G/∞ queues with shot-noise-driven arrival intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, D.T.; Boxma, O.J.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2017-01-01

    We study infinite-server queues in which the arrival process is a Cox process (or doubly stochastic Poisson process), of which the arrival rate is given by a shot-noise process. A shot-noise rate emerges naturally in cases where the arrival rate tends to exhibit sudden increases (or shots) at random

  5. Adaptive Backoff Synchronization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Percentage of synchronization and non- synchronisation references that cause invalidations in directory schemes with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 64 pointers...processors to arrive. The slight relative increase of synchronisation overhead in all cases when going from two to five pointers is because synchronization ...MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY VLSI PUBLICATIONS q~JU VLSI Memo No. 89-547 It July 1989 Adaptive Backoff Synchronization Techniques Anant

  6. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Ken; Hopkins, Adrian; Sauerbrey, Mauricio

    2011-10-25

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela), onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

  7. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrey Mauricio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela, onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

  8. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid; Chaabane, Sondes; Tahon, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  9. Stochastic Resonance and First Arrival Time for Excitable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duki, Solomon Fekade; Taye, Mesfin Asfaw

    2018-06-01

    We study the noise induced thermally activated barrier crossing of Brownian particles that hop in a piecewise linear potential. Using the exact analytic solutions and via numerical simulations not only we explore the dependence for the first passage time of a single particle but also we calculate the first arrival time for one particle out of N particles. The first arrival time decreases as the number of particles increases as expected. We then explore the thermally activated barrier crossing rate of the system in the presence of time varying signal. The dependence of signal to noise ratio SNR as well as the power amplification (η ) on model parameters is explored. η and SNR depict a pronounced peak at particular noise strength. In the presence of N particles, η is considerably amplified as N steps up showing the weak periodic signal plays a vital role in controlling the noise induced dynamics of the system. Moreover, for the sake of generality, the viscous friction γ is considered to decrease exponentially when the temperature T of the medium increases (γ =Be^{-A T}) as proposed originally by Reynolds (Philos Trans R Soc Lond 177:157, 1886).

  10. JUST ARRIVED... and already an expert on CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The induction programme has just changed. Although the programme has been providing practical information to newcomers in their first months at CERN since 1996, it has just been renewed to help new arrivals right from day one. The first group of new arrivals to experience the new induction programme, along with members of the induction team, outside building 33. Until 1996, most newcomers at CERN were easy to identify: they always carried a map with them, often got lost, and were confused with the names of Divisions and groups. This was because an induction programme for new staff had not yet been created. Since then, induction sessions have taken place every trimester and have been much appreciated. However some newcomers find themselves waiting several weeks before being invited to a briefing session. This is about to change! At the beginning of June, HR Division ran a new-style pilot induction session designed to change the global structure of the programme. From now on, as soon as newcomers take their f...

  11. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-10-21

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  12. Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

  13. The incorporation of fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times and arrival polarizations into seismic tomography: Application to the Parkfield, California area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a 3D P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the Parkfield region that utilizes existing P-wave arrival time data, including fault zone head waves (FZHW), plus new data from direct wave secondary arrivals (DWSA). The first-arrival and DWSA travel times are obtained as the global and local minimum travel time paths, respectively. The inclusion of DWSA results in as much as a 10% increase in the across-fault velocity contrast for the Vp model at Parkfield relative to Thurber et al. (2006). Viewed along strike, three pronounced velocity contrast regions are observed: a pair of strong positive velocity contrasts (SW fast), one NW of the 1966 Parkfield hypocenter and the other SE of the 2004 Parkfield hypocenter, and a strong negative velocity contrast (NE fast) between the two hypocenters. The negative velocity contrast partially to entirely encompasses peak coseismic slip estimated in several slip models for the 2004 earthquake, suggesting that the negative velocity contrast played a part in defining the rupture patch of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We expand on this work by modifying our seismic tomography algorithm to incorporate arrival polarizations (azimuths). Synthetic tests will be presented to demonstrate the improvements in velocity structure when arrival polarizations are incorporated. These tests will compare the synthetic model recovered when FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data are inverted to that recovered with the same dataset with the inclusion of arrival polarizations. We plan to extend this work to carry out a full scale seismic tomography/relocation inversion at Parkfield, CA utilizing arrival polarizations from all first-P arrivals, and FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data. This effort requires the determination of polarization data for all P-waves and FZHW's at Parkfield. To this end, we use changes in the arrival azimuth from fault normal to source-receiver direction to identify FZHW and

  14. Timing analysis for embedded systems using non-preemptive EDF scheduling under bounded error arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Short

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems consist of one or more processing units which are completely encapsulated by the devices under their control, and they often have stringent timing constraints associated with their functional specification. Previous research has considered the performance of different types of task scheduling algorithm and developed associated timing analysis techniques for such systems. Although preemptive scheduling techniques have traditionally been favored, rapid increases in processor speeds combined with improved insights into the behavior of non-preemptive scheduling techniques have seen an increased interest in their use for real-time applications such as multimedia, automation and control. However when non-preemptive scheduling techniques are employed there is a potential lack of error confinement should any timing errors occur in individual software tasks. In this paper, the focus is upon adding fault tolerance in systems using non-preemptive deadline-driven scheduling. Schedulability conditions are derived for fault-tolerant periodic and sporadic task sets experiencing bounded error arrivals under non-preemptive deadline scheduling. A timing analysis algorithm is presented based upon these conditions and its run-time properties are studied. Computational experiments show it to be highly efficient in terms of run-time complexity and competitive ratio when compared to previous approaches.

  15. Quasi-Birth-and-Death Processes with Rational Arrival Process Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Nigel G.; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    to develop an analytic method for such a process, that parallels the analysis of a traditional QBD. We demonstrate the analysis by considering a queue where the arrival process and the sequence of service times are derived from two different RAPs that are not just Markovian Arrival processes. We also...... introduce an element of correlation between the arrival process and the sequence of service times.......In this paper we introduce the concept of a Quasi-Birth-and-Death process (QBD) with Rational Arrival Process components. We use the physical interpretation of a Rational Arrival Process (RAP), developed by Asmussen and Bladt, to consider such a Markov process. We exploit this interpretation...

  16. Blind Direction-of-Arrival Estimation with Uniform Circular Array in Presence of Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A blind direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation algorithm based on the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT is proposed for a uniform circular array (UCA when strong electromagnetic mutual coupling is present. First, an updated UCA model with mutual coupling in a discrete Fourier transform (DFT beam space is deduced, and the new manifold matrix is equal to the product of a centrosymmetric diagonal matrix and a Vandermonde-structure matrix. Then we carry out blind DOA estimation through a modified ESPRIT method, thus avoiding the need for spatial angular searching. In addition, two mutual coupling parameter estimation methods are presented after the DOAs have been estimated. Simulation results show that the new algorithm is reliable and effective especially for closely spaced signals.

  17. Pedro Duque arrives at KSC for the STS-95 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), arrives at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet as part of final preparations for launch. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC on Nov. 7. The other STS-95 crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA).

  18. Determination of P – wave arrival time of acoustic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Petružálek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The new approach to the P-wave arrival time determination based on acoustic emission data from loading experiments is tested.The algorithm used in this paper is built on the STA/LTA function computed by a convolution that speeds up the computation processvery much. The picking process makes use of shifting of temporary onset until certain conditions are fulfill and as a main decisioncriterion on the threshold exceeding of the STA/LTA derivation function is used. The P-wave onset time is determined in a selectedinterval that corresponds to the theoretical propagation of elastic wave in the rock sample. Results obtained by our algorithm werecorrelated with data acquired manually and a high order statistic software as well.

  19. Early arrival waveform inversion of shallow seismic land data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2013-09-22

    We estimate the near-surface velocity distribution over Wadi Qudaid in Saudi Arabia by applying early arrival waveform inversion (EWI) to shallow seismic land data collected with source-receiver offsets no longer than 232 m. The main purpose is to characterize the shallow subsurface for its water storage and reuse potential. To enhance the accuracy of EWI, we extracted a natural source wavelet from the data, and also corrected for the attenuation effects with an estimated factor Q. Results suggest that, compared to traveltime tomography, EWI can generate a highly resolved velocity tomogram from shallow seismic data. The more accurate EWI tomogram can make an economically important difference in assessing the storage potential of this wadi; in this case we find an increase of 18% of storage potential in the EWI tomogram relative to the traveltime tomogram. This approach suggests that FWI might be a more accurate means for economically characterizing the water storage potential for wadis’ throughout the world.

  20. Radar velocity determination using direction of arrival measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.; Naething, Richard M.; Horndt, Volker

    2017-12-19

    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing direction of arrival (DOA) data to determine various flight parameters for an aircraft A plurality of radar images (e.g., SAR images) can be analyzed to identify a plurality of pixels in the radar images relating to one or more ground targets. In an embodiment, the plurality of pixels can be selected based upon the pixels exceeding a SNR threshold. The DOA data in conjunction with a measurable Doppler frequency for each pixel can be obtained. Multi-aperture technology enables derivation of an independent measure of DOA to each pixel based on interferometric analysis. This independent measure of DOA enables decoupling of the aircraft velocity from the DOA in a range-Doppler map, thereby enabling determination of a radar velocity. The determined aircraft velocity can be utilized to update an onboard INS, and to keep it aligned, without the need for additional velocity-measuring instrumentation.

  1. An Airbus arrives at KSC with third MPLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    An Airbus '''Beluga''' air cargo plane, The Super Transporter, arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility from the factory of Alenia Aerospazio in Turin, Italy. Its cargo is the Italian Space Agency's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Donatello, the third of three for the International Space Station. The module will be transported to the Space Station Processing Facility for processing. Among the activities for the payload test team are integrated electrical tests with other Station elements in the SSPF, leak tests, electrical and software compatibility tests with the Space Shuttle (using the Cargo Integrated Test equipment) and an Interface Verification Test once the module is installed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay at the launch pad. The most significant mechanical task to be performed on Donatello in the SSPF is the installation and outfitting of the racks for carrying the various experiments and cargo.

  2. Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski arrives late at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The T-38 jet aircraft arrives at the Shuttle Landing Facility carrying STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski (second seat). The pilot is astronaut Kent Rominger. Parazynski's first plane experienced problems at the stop at Tyndall AFB and he had to wait for another jet and pilot to finish the flight to KSC. He joined other crewmembers Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), for final pre-launch preparations. STS-95 is expected to launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and land at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  3. ORGANIZATION OF CHILDREN OPPORTUNE VACCINATION OF ARRIVING IN KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Aleksandrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vacationists on resorts of Krasnodar region exceeded 12 million in 2007 year. More then 500 thousands of vacationists were children in organized groups. Because of well coordinated work of hygiene and disease prevention and pediatric services of region the number of cases of pertussis, measles, rubella, epidemic parotiditis, hepatitis A and B and other infectious diseases, dirigible with specific prophylactic measures, was greatly decreased. The opportunity of vaccinal prevention of varicella appears by 2008 year. It's advisable to make a hepatitis a vaccination of children, arriving from endemic regions, domiciliary. «Delivered» cases of disease cause significant economical damage to the budget of public health service of Krasnodar region. Preliminary planning of a journey and assumption of prophylactic measures can greatly decrease the risk of negative influence of trip on child's health.Key words: children, vaccination, prophylaxis, infectious disease.

  4. Moral panic in Icelandic society: Arrival of ecstasy to Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónas Orri Jónasson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of illegal drugs has often been shown to ignite fear and insecurity in society. When a new drug appears the media typically reports on this drug and the risk it poses. Soon after ecstasy appeared in Iceland in the 1990s its use created a major public uproar and insecurity in Icelandic society. In the article the theory of moral panic will be used to examine if the arrival of ecstasy to Iceland ignited a moral panic. Media reports on ecstasy, public reactions, interest groups and government institutions will be analysed. Discourse analysis is employed on newspaper reporting on ecstasy between 1985 and 1997 to detect signs of moral panic. The main conclusion is that evidence suggests that a moral panic existed in Iceland as described in well-known theories on the subject.

  5. Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin L.

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

  6. Multi-Professional Panics in the Aftermath of Refugee Arrivals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta; Øland, Trine

    the organisations’ websites. Older material has been retrieved from the library collection of education and educational research at Aarhus University, Emdrup, Copenhagen, and from The Collection of Pamphlets and Corporate Publications at the Royal Library, Copenhagen.Articles, announcements, job adds, etc......In the Summer of 2015, in all European welfare nation-states professionals, policy makers, administrators, and civil society organisations were in highest alert over the major refugee arrivals from Afghanistan, Syria, and the African continent. In Denmark, in particular, the government responded...... four major welfare professions; teacher, social educators, nurses, and social workers. The refugee family as a shared object of problematisation and intervention is what binds these professional groups together in the historical educational practices under investigation. For example, professionals...

  7. Poetic Arrivals and Departures: Bodying the Ethnographic Field in Verse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Chawla

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, social research has engaged the "linguistic turn," which was considered revolutionary in the ways that scholars began to reframe reality, knowledge, and representation. Among ethnographers, this turn was robustly embraced, especially at the level of intersubjectivity, reflexivity, and positionality in field practices. More recently, the performance paradigm reframed the field, the ethnographer, and her participants as embodied persons and places with bodied terrains and topographies. In my recent ethnographic life history study about Indian women's experiences in Hindu arranged marriages, I entered my field equipped theoretically with some knowledge of and keen awareness about the positional and performative contingencies that would unravel in the field because I was working with women who had made very disparate choices from my own. However, when it arrived, my own crisis of representation was material, textual, epistemological, and theoretical. My experiences in the field radically reconfigured my relationship to ethnographic representation—the textual, the performed, and the performative. In this paper, I show my arrivals and departures in and out of theory, text, and performance as I re-envision my fieldwork as a site of bodied and embodied "material performances"—both my own and my participants'. I turn specifically to a symbolic analysis of a poem, which came upon me during fieldwork in the form of a performance text. I refer to this poem as a sideways mystory which in its poetic form allowed me to shift from an interpreter of tales to a cultural critic who wants to uncover hidden truths and provoke the audience to think about complex realities and act. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802248

  8. Factors Delaying Hospital Arrival Aftr Acute Stroke Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasian M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Optimal time of referral aftr stroke and the use of new therapies, such as r-tPA and blood pressure control, could accelerate symptoms recovery aftr stroke. Th aim of this study was to investigate factors contributing to the delay in referral to hospitals aftr the occurrence of acute stroke. Methods: Ths analytic-descriptive study included 425 patients, who had referred to the Hamadan Farshchian hospital during years 2015 and 2016. Demographic data, time of referring to medical center, the time of occurrence of stroke, risk factors, clinical symptoms of stroke, way of referring, distance from medical center and type of stroke by using a questionnaire and checklist were recorded. Th SPSS (version 16 softare was used for all calculations. Results: Th mean age of patients in this study was 70.12 years old. Overall, 260 patients (61.2% were male and 85.6% had ischemic stroke. Mean time of referral to fist treatment center and Farshchian hospital was 2.06 and 4.77 hours, respectively. A total of 36.2% patients arrived to Farshchian hospital, within less than 2 hours. Factors that prolonged time to presentation were male gender, ischemic stroke, low education, being at a location far from the medical center, referral from other medical centers, being single, having no witness during stroke, and having a stroke at home, and during night. Th most common symptoms in patients who were referred within less than two hours were confusion and loss of consciousness with frequency of 29.2%. Th most common risk factor in 61.4% of patients, who were referred within less than 2 hours, was high blood pressure. Conclusion: Ths study showed mean time of referral for treatment aftr stroke was high. Inflential elements that could possibly delay hospital arrival include, being at a location far from the medical center, no adequate knowledge about stroke symptom, having stroke at night, not referring directly to the medical center, being single, and no

  9. Formulation de la tomographie des temps de première arrivée à partir d'une méthode de gradient : un pas vers une tomographie interactive

    OpenAIRE

    Taillandier , Cédric

    2008-01-01

    First arrival traveltime tomography aims at inferring a seismic wave propagation velocity model from first arrival traveltimes picked on seismograms. The velocity model inferred can be used directly to perform a structural interpretation of the subsurface or as an initial model for another seismic imaging method. This technique can be applied at different scales from geotechnical studies to seismology through oil exploration. The geophysicist know-how plays an important role in the difficult ...

  10. HF Radio Angle-of-Arrival Measurements and Ionosonde Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chih Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a 2nd generation NOAA MF/HF radar, also referred to as the VIPIR ionosonde, has been operated at Hualien, Taiwan (23.8973°N, 121.5503°E. The Hualien VIPIR ionosonde is a modern ionospheric radar, fully digitizing complex signal records and using multiple parallel receiver channels for simultaneous signal measurements from multiple spaced receiving antennas. This paper considers radio direction finding based on interferometric phase measurements from a horizontal antenna array in the Hualien VIPIR ionosonde system. We applied the Hermite normal form method to solve the phase-measurement aliasing and least squares problems and improve the radio angle-of-arrival (AOA measurements. Backward ray-tracing simulation has been proposed to determine radio transmitter position. This paper presents a numerical, step by step ray-tracing method based on the IGRF superimposed onto a phenomenological ionospheric electron density model, the TaiWan Ionospheric Model (TWIM. The proposed methodology is successfully applied to locate two experimental HF radio transmitters at Longquan and Chungli with distance errors within 5 km and less than 5% of the great circle distances.

  11. Health status of refugees settled in Alberta: changes since arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Katerina; Krahn, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    This paper sought to examine which pre- and post-migration factors might be associated with changes in refugees' health status. Using linear regression, the associations between pre- and post-migration factors and changes in self-rated mental and physical health status were examined in 525 refugees from the 1998 Settlement Experiences of Refugees in Alberta study. Having spent time in a refugee camp and having held professional/managerial jobs in one's home country were associated with a greater decline in mental health status since arrival in Canada. Having completed a university degree in one's home country was associated with a greater decline in physical health status. Being employed was associated with greater improvements in mental health status. Perceived economic hardship was associated with greater declines in physical health status. A higher number of settlement services received during the first year in Canada was associated with greater improvements in both mental and physical health status. Longer residence in Canada was associated with greater declines in physical health status but not in mental health status. While little can be done to alter refugees' pre-migration experiences, public policies can affect many post-migration experiences in order to mitigate the negative health consequences associated with resettlement. Results of this study point to the need for continued provision of settlement services to assist refugees with job training, labour market access, and credential recognition, as well as counseling for refugees who experienced the trauma of living in a refugee camp.

  12. Small-scale engagement model with arrivals: analytical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engi, D.

    1977-04-01

    This report presents an analytical model of small-scale battles. The specific impetus for this effort was provided by a need to characterize hypothetical battles between guards at a nuclear facility and their potential adversaries. The solution procedure can be used to find measures of a number of critical parameters; for example, the win probabilities and the expected duration of the battle. Numerical solutions are obtainable if the total number of individual combatants on the opposing sides is less than 10. For smaller force size battles, with one or two combatants on each side, symbolic solutions can be found. The symbolic solutions express the output parameters abstractly in terms of symbolic representations of the input parameters while the numerical solutions are expressed as numerical values. The input parameters are derived from the probability distributions of the attrition and arrival processes. The solution procedure reduces to solving sets of linear equations that have been constructed from the input parameters. The approach presented in this report does not address the problems associated with measuring the inputs. Rather, this report attempts to establish a relatively simple structure within which small-scale battles can be studied

  13. Pleistocene megafaunal interaction networks became more vulnerable after human arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Mathias M; Koch, Paul L; Fariña, Richard A; de Aguiar, Marcus A M; dos Reis, Sérgio F; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2015-09-07

    The end of the Pleistocene was marked by the extinction of almost all large land mammals worldwide except in Africa. Although the debate on Pleistocene extinctions has focused on the roles of climate change and humans, the impact of perturbations depends on properties of ecological communities, such as species composition and the organization of ecological interactions. Here, we combined palaeoecological and ecological data, food-web models and community stability analysis to investigate if differences between Pleistocene and modern mammalian assemblages help us understand why the megafauna died out in the Americas while persisting in Africa. We show Pleistocene and modern assemblages share similar network topology, but differences in richness and body size distributions made Pleistocene communities significantly more vulnerable to the effects of human arrival. The structural changes promoted by humans in Pleistocene networks would have increased the likelihood of unstable dynamics, which may favour extinction cascades in communities facing extrinsic perturbations. Our findings suggest that the basic aspects of the organization of ecological communities may have played an important role in major extinction events in the past. Knowledge of community-level properties and their consequences to dynamics may be critical to understand past and future extinctions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. First Half Of The ATLAS Vacuum Chamber Arrives

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, built to observe and record the products of head-on collisions of protons in the Large Hadron Collider, is one of the largest and most elaborate particle physics experiments ever designed. It is the product of a world-wide effort by over 1800 scientists from more than 150 laboratories and institutions in 34 countries. With the detector due to begin operation in 2005, its various components have started to arrive from their manufacturers around the world, the most recent being the first of the two vacuum chambers for the two end cap toroid magnets. As it is too big to transport all at once it is comes in two halves. Each half of the vacuum chamber weighs 40 tonnes and is about 11x5.5x5 cubic meters in size. The huge 500 cubic meter vacuum vessles are an in kind contribution to ATLAS from NIKHEF (the Netherlands Institute for High Energy Physics) following a design by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. The chamber was built and delivered by the Royal Schelde Exotech shipyards i...

  15. Estimated time of arrival and debiasing the time saving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Gabriella; Patten, Christopher J D; Svenson, Ola; Eriksson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The time saving bias predicts that the time saved when increasing speed from a high speed is overestimated, and underestimated when increasing speed from a slow speed. In a questionnaire, time saving judgements were investigated when information of estimated time to arrival was provided. In an active driving task, an alternative meter indicating the inverted speed was used to debias judgements. The simulated task was to first drive a distance at a given speed, and then drive the same distance again at the speed the driver judged was required to gain exactly 3 min in travel time compared with the first drive. A control group performed the same task with a speedometer and saved less than the targeted 3 min when increasing speed from a high speed, and more than 3 min when increasing from a low speed. Participants in the alternative meter condition were closer to the target. The two studies corroborate a time saving bias and show that biased intuitive judgements can be debiased by displaying the inverted speed. Practitioner Summary: Previous studies have shown a cognitive bias in judgements of the time saved by increasing speed. This simulator study aims to improve driver judgements by introducing a speedometer indicating the inverted speed in active driving. The results show that the bias can be reduced by presenting the inverted speed and this finding can be used when designing in-car information systems.

  16. CAT-PUMA: CME Arrival Time Prediction Using Machine learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Ye, Yudong; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Erdélyi, Robert

    2018-04-01

    CAT-PUMA (CME Arrival Time Prediction Using Machine learning Algorithms) quickly and accurately predicts the arrival of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) of CME arrival time. The software was trained via detailed analysis of CME features and solar wind parameters using 182 previously observed geo-effective partial-/full-halo CMEs and uses algorithms of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) to make its predictions, which can be made within minutes of providing the necessary input parameters of a CME.

  17. Obtaining location/arrival-time and location/outflow-quantity distributions for steady flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A steady, two-dimensional flow system is used to demonstrate the application of location/arrival-time and location/outflow-quantity curves in determining the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. The subsurface geologic and hydrologic evaluations needed to obtain the arrival results involve a sequence of four phases: system identification, new potential determination, flow systems kinematics, and contaminant transport analysis. Once these phases are completed, they are effectively summarized and easily used to evaluate environmental consequences through the arrival distributions

  18. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses

  19. Fault zone structure determined through the analysis of earthquake arrival times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelini, A.

    1991-10-01

    This thesis develops and applies a technique for the simultaneous determination of P and S wave velocity models and hypocenters from a set of arrival times. The velocity models are parameterized in terms of cubic B-splines basis functions which permit the retrieval of smooth models that can be used directly for generation of synthetic seismograms using the ray method. In addition, this type of smoothing limits the rise of instabilities related to the poor resolving power of the data. V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratios calculated from P and S models display generally instabilities related to the different ray-coverages of compressional and shear waves. However, V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratios are important for correct identification of rock types and this study introduces a new methodology based on adding some coupling (i.e., proportionality) between P and S models which stabilizes the V{sub P}/V{sub S} models around some average preset value determined from the data. Tests of the technique with synthetic data show that this additional coupling regularizes effectively the resulting models.

  20. Fault zone structure determined through the analysis of earthquake arrival times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelini, Alberto [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This thesis develops and applies a technique for the simultaneous determination of P and S wave velocity models and hypocenters from a set of arrival times. The velocity models are parameterized in terms of cubic B-splines basis functions which permit the retrieval of smooth models that can be used directly for generation of synthetic seismograms using the ray method. In addition, this type of smoothing limits the rise of instabilities related to the poor resolving power of the data. VP/VS ratios calculated from P and S models display generally instabilities related to the different ray-coverages of compressional and shear waves. However, VP/VS ratios are important for correct identification of rock types and this study introduces a new methodology based on adding some coupling (i.e., proportionality) between P and S models which stabilizes the VP/VS models around some average preset value determined from the data. Tests of the technique with synthetic data show that this additional coupling regularizes effectively the resulting models.

  1. LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION ISSUES RELATED TO MIGRANTS ARRIVING TO HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Miklos Komives

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration flows appearing in the recent years have gained central relevance in Hungary. Previously people were having no opinion about the current situation of issues related to migration but the increased media attention lead to the development of mixed attitudes among people. Some people feel sorry for the families who are coming from the war zones and lost their homes, others have fear of losing their position at work, or their families because of the acts they have heard from the media and they are hostile to the issue of integration whether it is about education or the labour market. According to the statistical data; in the third quarter of 2015, more than hundred thousand asylum-seekers arrived to Hungary, which dropped drastically in the fourth quarter caused by the significant transformation of the asylum process. This study is intended to serve two objectives: first describe the comprehensive picture of labour market attitudes towards migrants and secondly to identify factors that affect the employment of foreigners in Hungary using secondary data sources. Based on this analysis those questions can be formulated, which may constitute a basis for further labour market researches for the integration of migrants. From our point of view there are vital aspects of the migrants’ successful social integration; we have to integrate the migrants who are coming to our country and plan to stay for a longer time to the field of education and the labour market. The social integration of migrants in a country is closely linked to employment, to the integration into the labour market, and in many cases one of the obstacles in this regard is the prejudiced behaviour and negative attitudes towards migrants which manifests itself as the discrimination in the labour market. The results of the European Commission confirm that in Hungary the ethnicity as a variable appears to be the second on the list of the most serious discrimination factors

  2. Automatic detection of P- and S-wave arrival times: new strategies based on the modified fractal method and basic matching pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Durán, R. K.; Comte, D.; Diaz, M. A.; Silva, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, new strategies for automatic identification of P- and S-wave arrival times from digital recorded local seismograms are proposed and analyzed. The database of arrival times previously identified by a human reader was compared with automatic identification techniques based on the Fourier transformation in reduced time (spectrograms), fractal analysis, and the basic matching pursuit algorithm. The first two techniques were used to identify the P-wave arrival times, while the third was used for the identification of the S-wave. For validation, the results were compared with the short-time average over long-time average (STA/LTA) of Rietbrock et al., Geophys Res Lett 39(8), (2012) for the database of aftershocks of the 2010 Maule Mw = 8.8 earthquake. The identifiers proposed in this work exhibit good results that outperform the STA/LTA identifier in many scenarios. The average difference from the reference picks (times obtained by the human reader) in P- and S-wave arrival times is 1 s.

  3. Interferometer angle-of-arrival determination using precalculated phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, J. P.; Reid, I. M.

    2017-09-01

    A method has been developed to determine the angle of arrival (AoA) of incident radiation using precomputed lookup tables. The phase difference between two receiving antennas can be used to infer AoA as measured from the pair baseline, but there will be more than one possible solution for antenna spacings greater than or equal to half a wavelength. Larger spacings are preferable to minimize mutual coupling of elements in the receive array and to decrease the relative uncertainty in measured phase difference. We present a solution that uses all unique antenna pairs to determine probabilities for all possible azimuth and zenith values. Prior to analysis, the expected phase differences for all AoAs are calculated for each antenna pair. For a received signal, histograms of possible AoAs for each antenna pair phase difference are extracted and added to produce a two-dimensional probability density array that will maximize at the true value of the AoA. A benefit of this method is that all possible antenna pairs are utilized rather than the restriction to specific pairs along baselines used by some interferometer algorithms. Numerical simulations indicate that performance of the suggested algorithm exceeds that of existing methods, with the benefit of additional flexibility in antenna placement. Meteor radar data have been used to test this method against existing methods, with excellent agreement between the two approaches. This method of AoA determination will allow the construction of low-cost interferometric direction finding arrays with different layouts, including construction of difficult terrain and three-dimensional antenna arrangements.

  4. Estimating Angle of Arrival (AOA for Wideband Signal by Sensor Delay Line (SDL and Tapped Delay Line (TDL Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassim Sayed Mohammed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angle of arrival (AOA estimation for wideband signal becomes more necessary for modern communication systems like Global System for Mobile (GSM, satellite, military applications and spread spectrum (frequency hopping and direct sequence. Most of the researchers are focusing on how to cancel the effects of signal bandwidth on AOA estimation performance by using a transversal filter (tap delay line (TDL. Most of the researchers were using two elements array antenna to study these effects. In this research, a general case of proposed (M array elements is used. A transversal filter (TDL in phase adaptive array antenna system is used to calculate the optimum number of taps required to compensate these effect. The proposed system uses a phase adaptive array antenna in conjunction with LMS algorithm to work an angle of arrival (AOA estimator for wideband signals rather than interference canceller. An alternative solution to compensate for the effect of signal bandwidth is proposed by using sensor delay line (SDL instead of fixed delay unit since it has variable time sampling in the time domain and not fixed time delay, depending on the angle of arrival of received signals. The proposed system has the ability to estimate two parameters for received signals simultaneously (the output Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and AOA, unlike others systems which estimate AOA only. The comparison of the simulation results with Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC technique showed that the proposed system gives good results for estimating AOA and the output SNR for wideband signals. (SDL processor shows better performance result than (TDL processor. MUSIC technique with both (SDL and (TDL processors shows unacceptable results for estimating (AOA for the wideband signal.

  5. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately upon...

  6. 7 CFR 319.55-5 - Notice of arrival by permittee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arrival, the permittee or his agent shall submit a notice, in duplicate, to the Plant Protection and... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of arrival by permittee. 319.55-5 Section 319.55-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  7. Staffing a call center with uncertain non-stationary arrival rate and flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, S.; van Delft, C.; Jouini, O.; Koole, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a multi-period staffing problem in a single-shift call center. The call center handles inbound calls, as well as some alternative back-office jobs. The call arrival process is assumed to follow a doubly non-stationary stochastic process with a random mean arrival rate. The inbound calls

  8. Analysis on the Impact of Pop-Up Flight Occurrence when Extending the Arrival Management Horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Westerveld, E

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of pop-up flights negatively affects the (extended) arrival manager. This issue is known already for a long time by operational experts, but the extent thereof has now been assessed during experiments. An arrival manager research model was developed and integrated in BlueSky, an

  9. Longitudinal Observations of Infants' Daily Arrivals at a Day Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E. Anne; Ricciuti, Henry N.

    This longitudinal study was concerned with infants' reactions to being greeted by a caregiver upon arrival at the nursery, being left by the parent with the caregiver, and to reunion with the parents. Observations were made twice weekly in the natural setting of the nursery foyer where parents normally arrive with their infants. An affectivity…

  10. Analysis of an M/G/1 queue with customer impatience and an adaptive arrival process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Prabhu, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study an M/G/1 queue with impatience and an adaptive arrival process. The rate of the arrival process changes according to whether an incoming customer is accepted or rejected. We analyse two different models for impatience : (i) based on workload, and (ii) based on queue length. For the

  11. Risk factors associated with short term mortality changes over time, after arrival to the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Camilla Nørgaard; Brabrand, Mikkel; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    , 0-2 day, 3-7 day and 8-30 day mortality. The degree of acuteness at arrival defined by urgency-level, physician-assisted transfer to the Emergency Department and abnormal vital parameters are associated with 0-2 day mortality. High temperature at arrival shows no association in either mortality...

  12. 75 FR 13293 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ..., Carriers, Government Agencies, and the Travel and Tourism Industry I-94 (Arrival and Departure Record... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...

  13. On-line scheduling of two-machine open shops where jobs arrive over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.; Vestjens, A.P.A.; Woeginger, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the problem of on-line scheduling two-machine open shops with the objective of minimizing the makespan.Jobs arrive independently over time, and the existence of a job is not known until its arrival. In the clairvoyant on-line model, the processing requirement of every job becomes

  14. Modelling the volatility in short and long haul Japanese tourist arrivals to New Zealand and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C. Lim (Christine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the effects of short and long haul volatility (or risk) in monthly Japanese tourist arrivals to Taiwan and New Zealand, respectively. In order to model appropriately the volatilities of international tourist arrivals, we use symmetric and asymmetric conditional

  15. Modelling the Volatility in Short and Long Haul Japanese Tourist Arrivals to New Zealand and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C. Lim (Christine)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the effects of short and long haul volatility (or risk) in monthly Japanese tourist arrivals to Taiwan and New Zealand, respectively. In order to model appropriately the volatilities of international tourist arrivals, we use symmetric and asymmetric conditional

  16. Predictive analytics for truck arrival time estimation : a field study at a European distribution center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spoel, Sjoerd; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Distribution centres (DCs) are the hubs connecting transport streams in the supply chain. The synchronisation of coming and going cargo at a DC requires reliable arrival times. To achieve this, a reliable method to predict arrival times is needed. A literature review was performed to find the

  17. 33 CFR 401.60 - Listening watch and notice of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Listening watch and notice of arrival. 401.60 Section 401.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT....60 Listening watch and notice of arrival. (a) Vessels shall be on radio listening watch on the...

  18. Precise and accurate train run data: Approximation of actual arrival and departure times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Troels; Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    with the approximated actual arrival and departure times. As a result, all future statistics can now either be based on track circuit data with high precision or approximated actual arrival times with a high accuracy. Consequently, performance analysis will be more accurate, punctuality statistics more correct, KPI...

  19. 19 CFR 12.112 - Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. 12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.112 Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. (a) General. An importer desiring to import pesticides or devices into the...

  20. Improvement to Airport Throughput Using Intelligent Arrival Scheduling and an Expanded Planning Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Patricia C.

    2012-01-01

    The first phase of this study investigated the amount of time a flight can be delayed or expedited within the Terminal Airspace using only speed changes. The Arrival Capacity Calculator analysis tool was used to predict the time adjustment envelope for standard descent arrivals and then for CDA arrivals. Results ranged from 0.77 to 5.38 minutes. STAR routes were configured for the ACES simulation, and a validation of the ACC results was conducted comparing the maximum predicted time adjustments to those seen in ACES. The final phase investigated full runway-to-runway trajectories using ACES. The radial distance used by the arrival scheduler was incrementally increased from 50 to 150 nautical miles (nmi). The increased Planning Horizon radii allowed the arrival scheduler to arrange, path stretch, and speed-adjust flights to more fully load the arrival stream. The average throughput for the high volume portion of the day increased from 30 aircraft per runway for the 50 nmi radius to 40 aircraft per runway for the 150 nmi radius for a traffic set representative of high volume 2018. The recommended radius for the arrival scheduler s Planning Horizon was found to be 130 nmi, which allowed more than 95% loading of the arrival stream.

  1. An Exact Solution of the Gamma Ray Burst Arrival Time Analysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    An Exact Solution of the Gamma Ray Burst Arrival Time Analysis. Problem. S. Sinha ISRO Satellite Center, Bangalore 560 017, India. Abstract. An analytical solution of the GRB arrival time analysis is presented. The errors in the position of the GRB resulting from timing and position errors of different satellites are calculated.

  2. Automatic pickup of arrival time of channel wave based on multi-channel constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Li

    2018-03-01

    Accurately detecting the arrival time of a channel wave in a coal seam is very important for in-seam seismic data processing. The arrival time greatly affects the accuracy of the channel wave inversion and the computed tomography (CT) result. However, because the signal-to-noise ratio of in-seam seismic data is reduced by the long wavelength and strong frequency dispersion, accurately timing the arrival of channel waves is extremely difficult. For this purpose, we propose a method that automatically picks up the arrival time of channel waves based on multi-channel constraints. We first estimate the Jaccard similarity coefficient of two ray paths, then apply it as a weight coefficient for stacking the multichannel dispersion spectra. The reasonableness and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified in an actual data application. Most importantly, the method increases the degree of automation and the pickup precision of the channel-wave arrival time.

  3. Detection Performance of Packet Arrival under Downclocking for Mobile Edge Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile edge computing (MEC enables battery-powered mobile nodes to acquire information technology services at the network edge. These nodes desire to enjoy their service under power saving. The sampling rate invariant detection (SRID is the first downclocking WiFi technique that can achieve this objective. With SRID, a node detects one packet arrival at a downclocked rate. Upon a successful detection, the node reverts to a full-clocked rate to receive the packet immediately. To ensure that a node acquires its service immediately, the detection performance (namely, the miss-detection probability and the false-alarm probability of SRID is of importance. This paper is the first one to theoretically study the crucial impact of SRID attributes (e.g., tolerance threshold, correlation threshold, and energy ratio threshold on the packet detection performance. Extensive Monte Carlo experiments show that our theoretical model is very accurate. This study can help system developers set reasonable system parameters for WiFi downclocking.

  4. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation with Coarray ESPRIT for Coprime Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengwei; Zhou, Jinfang

    2017-08-03

    A coprime array is capable of achieving more degrees-of-freedom for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation than a uniform linear array when utilizing the same number of sensors. However, existing algorithms exploiting coprime array usually adopt predefined spatial sampling grids for optimization problem design or include spectrum peak search process for DOA estimation, resulting in the contradiction between estimation performance and computational complexity. To address this problem, we introduce the Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (ESPRIT) to the coprime coarray domain, and propose a novel coarray ESPRIT-based DOA estimation algorithm to efficiently retrieve the off-grid DOAs. Specifically, the coprime coarray statistics are derived according to the received signals from a coprime array to ensure the degrees-of-freedom (DOF) superiority, where a pair of shift invariant uniform linear subarrays is extracted. The rotational invariance of the signal subspaces corresponding to the underlying subarrays is then investigated based on the coprime coarray covariance matrix, and the incorporation of ESPRIT in the coarray domain makes it feasible to formulate the closed-form solution for DOA estimation. Theoretical analyses and simulation results verify the efficiency and the effectiveness of the proposed DOA estimation algorithm.

  5. First-arrival traveltime tomography for anisotropic media using the adjoint-state method

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2016-05-27

    Traveltime tomography using transmission data has been widely used for static corrections and for obtaining near-surface models for seismic depth imaging. More recently, it is also being used to build initial models for full-waveform inversion. The classic traveltime tomography approach based on ray tracing has difficulties in handling large data sets arising from current seismic acquisition surveys. Some of these difficulties can be addressed using the adjoint-state method, due to its low memory requirement and numerical efficiency. By coupling the gradient computation to nonlinear optimization, it avoids the need for explicit computation of the Fréchet derivative matrix. Furthermore, its cost is equivalent to twice the solution of the forward-modeling problem, irrespective of the size of the input data. The presence of anisotropy in the subsurface has been well established during the past few decades. The improved seismic images obtained by incorporating anisotropy into the seismic processing workflow justify the effort. However, previous literature on the adjoint-state method has only addressed the isotropic approximation of the subsurface. We have extended the adjoint-state technique for first-arrival traveltime tomography to vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media. Because δ is weakly resolvable from surface seismic alone, we have developed the mathematical framework and procedure to invert for vNMO and η. Our numerical tests on the VTI SEAM model demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to invert for near-surface model parameters and reveal the accuracy achievable by the algorithm.

  6. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Coprime Array Using Compressive Sensing Based Array Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation using array interpolation is proposed in this paper to increase the number of resolvable sources and improve the DOA estimation performance for coprime array configuration with holes in its virtual array. The virtual symmetric nonuniform linear array (VSNLA of coprime array signal model is introduced, with the conventional MUSIC with spatial smoothing algorithm (SS-MUSIC applied on the continuous lags in the VSNLA; the degrees of freedom (DoFs for DOA estimation are obviously not fully exploited. To effectively utilize the extent of DoFs offered by the coarray configuration, a compressing sensing based array interpolation algorithm is proposed. The compressing sensing technique is used to obtain the coarse initial DOA estimation, and a modified iterative initial DOA estimation based interpolation algorithm (IMCA-AI is then utilized to obtain the final DOA estimation, which maps the sample covariance matrix of the VSNLA to the covariance matrix of a filled virtual symmetric uniform linear array (VSULA with the same aperture size. The proposed DOA estimation method can efficiently improve the DOA estimation performance. The numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Based on Sparse Recovery with Second-Order Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation techniques perform Nyquist-rate sampling of the received signals and as a result they require high storage. To reduce sampling ratio, we introduce level-crossing (LC sampling which captures samples whenever the signal crosses predetermined reference levels, and the LC-based analog-to-digital converter (LC ADC has been shown to efficiently sample certain classes of signals. In this paper, we focus on the DOA estimation problem by using second-order statistics based on the LC samplings recording on one sensor, along with the synchronous samplings of the another sensors, a sparse angle space scenario can be found by solving an $ell_1$ minimization problem, giving the number of sources and their DOA's. The experimental results show that our proposed method, when compared with some existing norm-based constrained optimization compressive sensing (CS algorithms, as well as subspace method, improves the DOA estimation performance, while using less samples when compared with Nyquist-rate sampling and reducing sensor activity especially for long time silence signal.

  8. First-arrival traveltime tomography for anisotropic media using the adjoint-state method

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Flagg, Garret; Yarman, Can Evren

    2016-01-01

    Traveltime tomography using transmission data has been widely used for static corrections and for obtaining near-surface models for seismic depth imaging. More recently, it is also being used to build initial models for full-waveform inversion. The classic traveltime tomography approach based on ray tracing has difficulties in handling large data sets arising from current seismic acquisition surveys. Some of these difficulties can be addressed using the adjoint-state method, due to its low memory requirement and numerical efficiency. By coupling the gradient computation to nonlinear optimization, it avoids the need for explicit computation of the Fréchet derivative matrix. Furthermore, its cost is equivalent to twice the solution of the forward-modeling problem, irrespective of the size of the input data. The presence of anisotropy in the subsurface has been well established during the past few decades. The improved seismic images obtained by incorporating anisotropy into the seismic processing workflow justify the effort. However, previous literature on the adjoint-state method has only addressed the isotropic approximation of the subsurface. We have extended the adjoint-state technique for first-arrival traveltime tomography to vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media. Because δ is weakly resolvable from surface seismic alone, we have developed the mathematical framework and procedure to invert for vNMO and η. Our numerical tests on the VTI SEAM model demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to invert for near-surface model parameters and reveal the accuracy achievable by the algorithm.

  9. Getting ready for the arrival of Sentinel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro Perez, Maria Pilar

    2013-04-01

    satellites to be launched at the end of 2013 is Sentinel-1. This is a radar mission and will be engaged in wide range of land and ocean surveillance tasks, such as oil-spill monitoring and earthquake hazard assessment. It will be followed early next year by Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3, dedicated mainly to the mapping of the Earth's surface and to the monitoring of ocean temperature and colour. The arrival of the first Sentinel data will provide systematic continuity of data already widely used within the science and application communities. It will also ensure long-term operational commitment and data consistency. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added as a new GMES service and cross-cuts all these domains. This session aims at informing users about the current programme's overall status and its potential for users in the services and scientific fields, in particular, in view of the upcoming launch of the first in the fleet of Sentinel satellites.

  10. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in it's hangar at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its arrival on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of

  11. Stroke Mortality, Clinical Presentation and Day of Arrival: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. O'Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies report that acute stroke patients who present to the hospital on weekends have higher rates of 28-day mortality than similar patients who arrive during the week. However, how this association is related to clinical presentation and stroke type has not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results. We examined the association between day of arrival and 28-day mortality in 929 validated stroke events in the ARIC cohort from 1987–2004. Weekend arrival was defined as any arrival time from midnight Friday until midnight Sunday. Mortality was defined as all-cause fatal events from the day of arrival through the 28th day of followup. The presence or absence of thirteen stroke signs and symptoms were obtained through medical record review for each event. Binomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI for the association between weekend arrival and 28-day mortality for all stroke events and for stroke subtypes. The overall risk of 28-day mortality was 9.6% for weekday strokes and 10.1% for weekend strokes. In models controlling for patient demographics, clinical risk factors, and event year, weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day mortality (0.87; 0.51, 1.50. When stratified by stroke type, weekend arrival was not associated with increased odds of mortality for ischemic (1.17, 0.62, 2.23 or hemorrhagic (0.37; 0.11, 1.26 stroke patients. Conclusions. Presence or absence of thirteen signs and symptoms was similar for weekday patients and weekend patients when stratified by stroke type. Weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day all-cause mortality or differences in symptom presentation for strokes in this cohort.

  12. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Woo Shin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.

  13. Amplitude and angle of arrival measurements on a 28.56 GHz Earth-space path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasirvatham, D. M. J.; Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The amplitude and angle of arrival measurements on an Earth-space path using the 28.56 GHz COMSTAR D3 satellite beacon are described. These measurements were made by the Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory during the period September 1978 to September 1979. Monthly, quarterly, and annual distributions of attenuation, angle of arrival, and variance of both these parameters are reported. During this period, fades exceeding 29 dB for .00% of the time and angle of arrival fluctuations exceeding .12 degrees for .01% of the time were observed.

  14. Replacement policy in a system under shocks following a Markovian arrival process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia; Perez-Ocon, Rafael; Carmen Segovia, Maria del

    2009-01-01

    We present a system subject to shocks that arrive following a Markovian arrival process. The system is minimally repaired. It is replaced when a certain number of shocks arrive. A general model where the replacements are governed by a discrete phase-type distribution is studied. For this system, the Markov process governing the system is constructed, and the interarrival times between replacements and the number of replacements are calculated. A special case of this system is when it can stand a prefixed number of shocks. For this new system, the same performance measures are calculated. The systems are considered in transient and stationary regime

  15. Replacement policy in a system under shocks following a Markovian arrival process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Jaen (Spain); Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)], E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es; Carmen Segovia, Maria del [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    We present a system subject to shocks that arrive following a Markovian arrival process. The system is minimally repaired. It is replaced when a certain number of shocks arrive. A general model where the replacements are governed by a discrete phase-type distribution is studied. For this system, the Markov process governing the system is constructed, and the interarrival times between replacements and the number of replacements are calculated. A special case of this system is when it can stand a prefixed number of shocks. For this new system, the same performance measures are calculated. The systems are considered in transient and stationary regime.

  16. Effect of a checklist on advanced trauma life support workflow deviations during trauma resuscitations without pre-arrival notification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleher, D.C.; Jagadeesh Chandra Bose, R.P.; Waterhouse, L.J.; Carter, E.A.; Burd, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma resuscitations without pre-arrival notification are often initially chaotic, which can potentially compromise patient care. We hypothesized that trauma resuscitations without pre-arrival notification are performed with more variable adherence to ATLS protocol and that

  17. Quasi-Birth-and-Death Processes with Rational Arrival Process Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Nigel G.; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a Quasi-Birth-and-Death process (QBD) with Rational Arrival Process (RAP) components. We use the physical interpretation of the prediction process of the RAP, developed by Asmussen and Bladt, and develop an analysis that parallels the analysis of a traditional...... QBD. Further, we present an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of the matrix G. As an example, we consider two queues where the arrival process and the sequence of service times are taken from two dependent RAPs, that are not Markovian Arrival Processes......This paper introduces the concept of a Quasi-Birth-and-Death process (QBD) with Rational Arrival Process (RAP) components. We use the physical interpretation of the prediction process of the RAP, developed by Asmussen and Bladt, and develop an analysis that parallels the analysis of a traditional...

  18. A review of the decoherent histories approach to the arrival time problem in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yearsley, James M

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress in understanding the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, from the point of view of the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory. We begin by discussing the arrival time problem, focussing in particular on the role of the probability current in the expected classical solution. After a brief introduction to decoherent histories we review the use of complex potentials in the construction of appropriate class operators. We then discuss the arrival time problem for a particle coupled to an environment, and review how the arrival time probability can be expressed in terms of a POVM in this case. We turn finally to the question of decoherence of the corresponding histories, and we show that this can be achieved for simple states in the case of a free particle, and for general states for a particle coupled to an environment.

  19. A finite capacity queue with Markovian arrivals and two servers with group services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chakravarthy

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a finite capacity queuing system in which arrivals are governed by a Markovian arrival process. The system is attended by two exponential servers, who offer services in groups of varying sizes. The service rates may depend on the number of customers in service. Using Markov theory, we study this finite capacity queuing model in detail by obtaining numerically stable expressions for (a the steady-state queue length densities at arrivals and at arbitrary time points; (b the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the stationary waiting time distribution of an admitted customer at points of arrivals. The stationary waiting time distribution is shown to be of phase type when the interarrival times are of phase type. Efficient algorithmic procedures for computing the steady-state queue length densities and other system performance measures are discussed. A conjecture on the nature of the mean waiting time is proposed. Some illustrative numerical examples are presented.

  20. Traffic Incident Clearance Time and Arrival Time Prediction Based on Hazard Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang beibei Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of incident duration is not only important information of Traffic Incident Management System, but also an effective input for travel time prediction. In this paper, the hazard based prediction models are developed for both incident clearance time and arrival time. The data are obtained from the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads’ STREAMS Incident Management System (SIMS for one year ending in November 2010. The best fitting distributions are drawn for both clearance and arrival time for 3 types of incident: crash, stationary vehicle, and hazard. The results show that Gamma, Log-logistic, and Weibull are the best fit for crash, stationary vehicle, and hazard incident, respectively. The obvious impact factors are given for crash clearance time and arrival time. The quantitative influences for crash and hazard incident are presented for both clearance and arrival. The model accuracy is analyzed at the end.

  1. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-02-05

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment.

  2. A Model of Bus Bunching under Reliability-based Passenger Arrival Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fonzone, Achille; Schmöcker, Jan-Dirk; Liu, Ronghui

    2015-01-01

    If bus service departure times are not completely unknown to the passengers, non-uniform passenger arrival patterns can be expected. We propose that passengers decide their arrival time at stops based on a continuous logit model that considers the risk of missing services. Expected passenger waiting times are derived in a bus system that allows also for overtaking between bus services. We then propose an algorithm to derive the dwell time of subsequent buses serving a stop in order to illustr...

  3. Syndrome of Acute Anxiety Among Marines After Recent Arrival at High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Naval Health Research Center Syndrome of Acute Anxiety Among Marines After Recent Arrival at High Altitude Michael K. Sracic Darren Thomas...Allen Pate Jacob Norris Marc Norman, Jeffrey H. Gertsch Report No. 13-29 The views expressed in this article are those of the authors...MEDICINE, 179, 5:559, 2014 Syndrome of Acute Anxiety Among Marines After Recent Arrival at High Altitude LT Michael K. Sracic, MC USN*; LT Darren Thomas

  4. Controlled time of arrival windows for already initiated energy-neutral continuous descent operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Continuous descent operations with controlled times of arrival at one or several metering fixes could enable environmentally friendly procedures without compromising terminal airspace capacity. This paper focuses on controlled time of arrival updates once the descent has been already initiated, assessing the feasible time window (and associated fuel consumption) of continuous descent operations requiring neither thrust nor speed-brake usage along the whole descent (i.e. only elevator control ...

  5. Prediction of late/early arrivals in container terminals - A qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pani, C.; Vanelslander, T.; Fancello, G.; Cannas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vessel arrival uncertainty in ports has become a very common problem worldwide. Although ship operators have to notify the Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) at predetermined time intervals, they frequently have to update the latest ETA due to unforeseen circumstances. This causes a series of inconveniences that often impact on the efficiency of terminal operations, especially in the daily planning scenario. Thus, for our study we adopted a machine learning approach in order to provide a qualita...

  6. Climate and the complexity of migratory phenology: sexes, migratory distance, and arrival distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmynowski, Dena P.; Root, Terry L.

    2007-05-01

    The intra- and inter-season complexity of bird migration has received limited attention in climatic change research. Our phenological analysis of 22 species collected in Chicago, USA, (1979 2002) evaluates the relationship between multi-scalar climate variables and differences (1) in arrival timing between sexes, (2) in arrival distributions among species, and (3) between spring and fall migration. The early migratory period for earliest arriving species (i.e., short-distance migrants) and earliest arriving individuals of a species (i.e., males) most frequently correlate with climate variables. Compared to long-distance migrant species, four times as many short-distance migrants correlate with spring temperature, while 8 of 11 (73%) of long-distance migrant species’ arrival is correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While migratory phenology has been correlated with NAO in Europe, we believe that this is the first documentation of a significant association in North America. Geographically proximate conditions apparently influence migratory timing for short-distance migrants while continental-scale climate (e.g., NAO) seemingly influences the phenology of Neotropical migrants. The preponderance of climate correlations is with the early migratory period, not the median of arrival, suggesting that early spring conditions constrain the onset or rate of migration for some species. The seasonal arrival distribution provides considerable information about migratory passage beyond what is apparent from statistical analyses of phenology. A relationship between climate and fall phenology is not detected at this location. Analysis of the within-season complexity of migration, including multiple metrics of arrival, is essential to detect species’ responses to changing climate as well as evaluate the underlying biological mechanisms.

  7. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  8. Sport as a context for integration:newly arrived immigrant children in Sweden drawing sporting experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Hertting, Krister; Karlefors, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Sport is a global phenomenon, which can make sport an important arena for integration into new societies. However, sport is also an expression of national culture and identities. The aim of this study is to explore images and experiences that newly-arrived immigrant children in Sweden have about sport in their country of origin, and challenges that can arise in processes of integration through sport. We asked 20 newly arrived children aged 10 to 13 to make drawings about sporting experiences ...

  9. Method for Establishing Direction of Arrival by Use of Signals of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-29

    digital converter (ADC). The analog-to-digital converter sampling process that locks the relative time features of the digital signal processing...path and is sampled by the ADC. The ADC sampling process locks the relative time properties of the individual signals components arriving at...that signal. For each wave vector, the angles that define the direction of arrival are assumed to be identical at each RF port phase center in the

  10. Aggregation, Heterogeneous Autoregression and Volatility of Daily International Tourist Arrivals and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTourism is a major source of service receipts for many countries, including Taiwan. The two leading tourism countries for Taiwan, comprising a high proportion of world tourist arrivals to Taiwan, are Japan and USA, which are sources of short and long haul tourism, respectively. As it is well known that a strong domestic currency can have adverse effects on international tourist arrivals, daily data from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008 are used to model the world price and US$ /...

  11. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of tourist arrivals using municipal data: A Serbian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Uglješa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial autocorrelation methodologies can be used to reveal patterns and temporal changes of different spatial variables, including tourism arrivals. The research adopts a GIS-based approach to spatially analyse tourist arrivals in Serbia, using Global Moran's I and Anselin's Local Moran's I statistics applied on the level of municipalities. To assess feasibility of this approach the article discusses spatial changes of tourist arrivals in order to identify potentially significant trends of interest for tourism development policy in Serbia. There is a significant spatial inequality in the distribution of tourism arrivals in Serbia that is not adequately addressed in tourism development plans. The results of global autocorrelation suggest the existence of low and decreasing spatial clustering for domestic tourist arrivals and high, relatively stable spatial clustering for international tourists. Local autocorrelation statistics revealed different of domestic and international tourism arrivals. In order to assess feasibility of this approach these results are discussed in their significance to tourism development policy in Serbia.

  12. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  13. Natural selection for earlier male arrival to breeding grounds through direct and indirect effects in a migratory songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velmala, William; Helle, Samuli; Ahola, Markus P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Lehikoinen, Esa; Rainio, Kalle; Sirkia, Paivi M.; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    For migratory birds, the earlier arrival of males to breeding grounds is often expected to have fitness benefits. However, the selection differential on male arrival time has rarely been decomposed into the direct effect of male arrival and potential indirect effects through female traits. We

  14. Arriving at the age of pest insect transgenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Peter W.; O'Brochta, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Technologies that enable the stable genetic transformation of insects other than the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, have been sought since D. melanogaster was initially transformed using the P transposable element (Rubin and Spradling 1982). D. melanogaster transformation can now be achieved by using Type II eukaryotic transposable elements such as P, hobo, Hermes, mariner, Minos and piggyBac (Blackman et al. 1989, Lidholm et al. 1993, Loukeris et al. 1995a, O'Brochta et al. 1996, Rubin and Spadling 1982, A. M. Handler, personal communication). The success of this strategy led to many attempts to extend it into non-drosophilid insects and this approach has recently been successful with the use of four different transposable elements to transform two non-drosophilid insect species, the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. and the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Coates et al. 1998, Handler et al. 1998, Jasinskiene et al. 1998, Loukeris et al. 1995b). The generation of these transgenic insects has, in part, arisen through the adoption of two approaches. One has been the isolation of new transposable elements from non-drosophilid insects. The second has been the implementation of mobility assays that have quickly enabled the mobility properties of these new elements in the target pest species to be determined. The success of these approaches will most likely be extended to other pest insect species over the next five years and will increase our ability to use modern genetic techniques to develop new strategies to control pest insects

  15. Arterial spin labelling reveals prolonged arterial arrival time in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachari, Sarah; Parkes, Laura M; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Hanby, Martha F; Tharaken, Vivek; Leroi, Iracema; Emsley, Hedley C A

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, yet effective disease modifying treatments are still lacking. Neurodegeneration involves multiple interacting pathological pathways. The extent to which neurovascular mechanisms are involved is not well defined in IPD. We aimed to determine whether novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including arterial spin labelling (ASL) quantification of cerebral perfusion, can reveal altered neurovascular status (NVS) in IPD. Fourteen participants with IPD (mean ± SD age 65.1 ± 5.9 years) and 14 age and cardiovascular risk factor matched control participants (mean ± SD age 64.6 ± 4.2 years) underwent a 3T MRI scan protocol. ASL images were collected before, during and after a 6 minute hypercapnic challenge. FLAIR images were used to determine white matter lesion score. Quantitative images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT) were calculated from the ASL data both at rest and during hypercapnia. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) images were calculated, depicting the change in CBF and AAT relative to the change in end-tidal CO2. A significant (p = 0.005) increase in whole brain averaged baseline AAT was observed in IPD participants (mean ± SD age 1532 ± 138 ms) compared to controls (mean ± SD age 1335 ± 165 ms). Voxel-wise analysis revealed this to be widespread across the brain. However, there were no statistically significant differences in white matter lesion score, CBF, or CVR between patients and controls. Regional CBF, but not AAT, in the IPD group was found to correlate positively with Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores. These findings provide further evidence of alterations in NVS in IPD.

  16. Improved ESPRIT Method for Joint Direction-of-Arrival and Frequency Estimation Using Multiple-Delay Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic pairing joint direction-of-arrival (DOA and frequency estimation is presented to overcome the unsatisfactory performances of estimation of signal parameter via rotational invariance techniques- (ESPRIT- like algorithm of Wang (2010, which requires an additional pairing. By using multiple-delay output of a uniform linear antenna arrays (ULA, the proposed algorithm can estimate joint angles and frequencies with an improved ESPRIT. Compared with Wang’s ESPRIT algorithm, the angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is greatly improved. The frequency estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is same with that of Wang’s ESPRIT algorithm. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can obtain automatic pairing DOA and frequency parameters, and it has a comparative computational complexity in contrast to Wang’s ESPRIT algorithm. By the way, this proposed algorithm can also work well for nonuniform linear arrays. The useful behavior of this proposed algorithm is verified by simulations.

  17. Improved arrival-date estimates of Arctic-breeding Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Andrew C.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Stricker, Craig A.; Yezerinac, Stephen M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes in animal ecology depends on accurate descriptions of isotope dynamics within individuals. The prevailing assumption that laboratory-derived isotopic parameters apply to free-living animals is largely untested. We used stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) in whole blood from migratory Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola) to estimate an in situ turnover rate and individual diet-switch dates. Our in situ results indicated that turnover rates were higher in free-living birds, in comparison to the results of an experimental study on captive Dunlin and estimates derived from a theoretical allometric model. Diet-switch dates from all 3 methods were then used to estimate arrival dates to the Arctic; arrival dates calculated with the in situ turnover rate were later than those with the other turnover-rate estimates, substantially so in some cases. These later arrival dates matched dates when local snow conditions would have allowed Dunlin to settle, and agreed with anticipated arrival dates of Dunlin tracked with light-level geolocators. Our study presents a novel method for accurately estimating arrival dates for individuals of migratory species in which return dates are difficult to document. This may be particularly appropriate for species in which extrinsic tracking devices cannot easily be employed because of cost, body size, or behavioral constraints, and in habitats that do not allow individuals to be detected easily upon first arrival. Thus, this isotopic method offers an exciting alternative approach to better understand how species may be altering their arrival dates in response to changing climatic conditions.

  18. An Erlang Loss Queue with Time-Phased Batch Arrivals as a Model for Traffic Control in Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Ho Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiserver queueing model that does not have a buffer but has batch arrival of customers is considered. In contrast to the standard batch arrival, in which the entire batch arrives at the system during a single epoch, we assume that the customers of a batch (flow arrive individually in exponentially distributed times. The service time is exponentially distributed. Flows arrive according to a stationary Poisson arrival process. The flow size distribution is geometric. The number of flows that can be simultaneously admitted to the system is under control. The loss of any customer from an admitted flow, with a fixed probability, implies termination of the flow arrival. Analysis of the sojourn time and loss probability of an arbitrary flow is performed.

  19. Predictors of early arrival at the emergency department in acute ischaemic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curran, C

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: A requirement of an effective acute stroke service is the early arrival of patients to the hospital emergency department (ED). This will allow the possible use of thrombolytic therapy or other acute interventions within a limited time window. AIMS: We investigated the predictors of early arrival in a single hospital serving a mixed urban and rural catchment area. METHODS: A retrospective review of all case notes for 1 year was performed. RESULTS: Of 105 acute strokes, 91 were cerebral infarcts and a total of 71 cases presenting initially to the ED had timing available for analysis. 39.4% presented within 3 h, and 12.7% were potentially suitable for thrombolysis. Those living closer to the hospital were not more likely to arrive within 3 h (Z = -0.411, p = 0.68). Presenting directly to the hospital by emergency services (or private transport) was significantly associated with early arrival in a univariate comparison (p < 0.001), and in a multivariate model. CONCLUSION: The only independent predictor of early arrival to the ED is direct presentation. Improved public education of the importance of recognition of stroke symptoms and rapid contact with the emergency services will improve the early attendance following acute stroke, allowing increased use of acute stroke treatments.

  20. A study on the impact of prioritising emergency department arrivals on the patient waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockstal, Ellen; Maenhout, Broos

    2018-05-03

    In the past decade, the crowding of the emergency department has gained considerable attention of researchers as the number of medical service providers is typically insufficient to fulfil the demand for emergency care. In this paper, we solve the stochastic emergency department workforce planning problem and consider the planning of nurses and physicians simultaneously for a real-life case study in Belgium. We study the patient arrival pattern of the emergency department in depth and consider different patient acuity classes by disaggregating the arrival pattern. We determine the personnel staffing requirements and the design of the shifts based on the patient arrival rates per acuity class such that the resource staffing cost and the weighted patient waiting time are minimised. In order to solve this multi-objective optimisation problem, we construct a Pareto set of optimal solutions via the -constraints method. For a particular staffing composition, the proposed model minimises the patient waiting time subject to upper bounds on the staffing size using the Sample Average Approximation Method. In our computational experiments, we discern the impact of prioritising the emergency department arrivals. Triaging results in lower patient waiting times for higher priority acuity classes and to a higher waiting time for the lowest priority class, which does not require immediate care. Moreover, we perform a sensitivity analysis to verify the impact of the arrival and service pattern characteristics, the prioritisation weights between different acuity classes and the incorporated shift flexibility in the model.

  1. Cancellation of spurious arrivals in Green's function extraction and the generalized optical theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, R.; Van Wijk, K.; Haney, M.; Calvert, R.

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of the Green's function by cross correlation of waves recorded at two receivers nowadays finds much application. We show that for an arbitrary small scatterer, the cross terms of scattered waves give an unphysical wave with an arrival time that is independent of the source position. This constitutes an apparent inconsistency because theory predicts that such spurious arrivals do not arise, after integration over a complete source aperture. This puzzling inconsistency can be resolved for an arbitrary scatterer by integrating the contribution of all sources in the stationary phase approximation to show that the stationary phase contributions to the source integral cancel the spurious arrival by virtue of the generalized optical theorem. This work constitutes an alternative derivation of this theorem. When the source aperture is incomplete, the spurious arrival is not canceled and could be misinterpreted to be part of the Green's function. We give an example of how spurious arrivals provide information about the medium complementary to that given by the direct and scattered waves; the spurious waves can thus potentially be used to better constrain the medium. ?? 2008 The American Physical Society.

  2. An automatic microseismic or acoustic emission arrival identification scheme with deep recurrent neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Lu, Jiren; Peng, Suping; Jiang, Tianqi

    2018-02-01

    The conventional arrival pick-up algorithms cannot avoid the manual modification of the parameters for the simultaneous identification of multiple events under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Therefore, in order to automatically obtain the arrivals of multiple events with high precision under different SNRs, in this study an algorithm was proposed which had the ability to pick up the arrival of microseismic or acoustic emission events based on deep recurrent neural networks. The arrival identification was performed using two important steps, which included a training phase and a testing phase. The training process was mathematically modelled by deep recurrent neural networks using Long Short-Term Memory architecture. During the testing phase, the learned weights were utilized to identify the arrivals through the microseismic/acoustic emission data sets. The data sets were obtained by rock physics experiments of the acoustic emission. In order to obtain the data sets under different SNRs, this study added random noise to the raw experiments' data sets. The results showed that the outcome of the proposed method was able to attain an above 80 per cent hit-rate at SNR 0 dB, and an approximately 70 per cent hit-rate at SNR -5 dB, with an absolute error in 10 sampling points. These results indicated that the proposed method had high selection precision and robustness.

  3. Feasibility Criteria for Interval Management Operations as Part of Arrival Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ian M.; Weitz, Lesley A.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Castle, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is a future airborne spacing concept that aims to provide more precise inter-aircraft spacing to yield throughput improvements and greater use of fuel efficient trajectories for arrival and approach operations. To participate in an IM operation, an aircraft must be equipped with avionics that provide speeds to achieve and maintain an assigned spacing interval relative to another aircraft. It is not expected that all aircraft will be equipped with the necessary avionics, but rather that IM fits into a larger arrival management concept developed to support the broader mixed-equipage environment. Arrival management concepts are comprised of three parts: a ground-based sequencing and scheduling function to develop an overall arrival strategy, ground-based tools to support the management of aircraft to that schedule, and the IM tools necessary for the IM operation (i.e., ground-based set-up, initiation, and monitoring, and the flight-deck tools to conduct the IM operation). The Federal Aviation Administration is deploying a near-term ground-automation system to support metering operations in the National Airspace System, which falls within the first two components of the arrival management concept. This paper develops a methodology for determining the required delivery precision at controlled meter points for aircraft that are being managed to a schedule and aircraft being managed to a relative spacing interval in order to achieve desired flow rates and adequate separation at the meter points.

  4. Laser warning receiver to identify the wavelength and angle of arrival of incident laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair; Michael B.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-03-23

    A laser warning receiver is disclosed which has up to hundreds of individual optical channels each optically oriented to receive laser light from a different angle of arrival. Each optical channel has an optical wedge to define the angle of arrival, and a lens to focus the laser light onto a multi-wavelength photodetector for that channel. Each multi-wavelength photodetector has a number of semiconductor layers which are located in a multi-dielectric stack that concentrates the laser light into one of the semiconductor layers according to wavelength. An electrical signal from the multi-wavelength photodetector can be processed to determine both the angle of arrival and the wavelength of the laser light.

  5. Operator-normalized quantum arrival times in the presence of interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerfeldt, G.C.; Seidel, D.; Muga, J.G.; Navarro, B.

    2004-01-01

    We model ideal arrival-time measurements for free quantum particles and for particles subject to an external interaction by means of a narrow and weak absorbing potential. This approach is related to the operational approach of measuring the first photon emitted from a two-level atom illuminated by a laser. By operator normalizing the resulting time-of-arrival distribution, a distribution is obtained which for freely moving particles not only recovers the axiomatically derived distribution of Kijowski for states with purely positive momenta but is also applicable to general momentum components. For particles interacting with a square barrier the mean arrival time and corresponding 'tunneling time' obtained at the transmission side of the barrier become independent of the barrier width (Hartman effect) for arbitrarily wide barriers, i.e., without the transition to the ultraopaque, classical-like regime dominated by wave packet components above the barrier

  6. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... into groups and assigning different time windows to the groups. The proposed VDTWs method includes three steps: (1) predicting truck arrivals based on the time window assignment, (2) estimating the queue length of trucks, and (3) optimizing the arrangement of time windows to minimize the total cost...

  7. [Discussion on needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response (Deqi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Hong-Du

    2012-12-01

    The current appointed teaching material of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion holds that there is no difference among the needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response. However, the author has a different understanding. Therefore, Neijing (Internal Classic), its annotation, exposition and understandings of ancient and modern famous experts are cited to analyze their meanings. And the result indicates that the needling sensation is subjective feelings and perceived responses of doctors and patients. Arrival of qi is the healing process of the organ through activating the anti-pathogenic qi to expel the pathogens. The needling response is the final aim of acupuncture therapy. Thus, the meaning of needling sensation, arrival of qi, and needling response are different. And an accurate understanding can better guide acupuncture treatment.

  8. First impression at stroke onset plays an important role in early hospital arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Wada, Kuniyasu; Shibazaki, Kensaku; Inoue, Takeshi; Ueno, Yuji; Yamashita, Shinji; Kimura, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Treatment for acute ischemic stroke should be administered as soon as possible after symptom onset. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the patient's and bystander's first impression at stroke onset was associated with hospital arrival time. To investigate the factors influencing the prehospital delay, we prospectively interviewed consecutive stroke patients and bystanders about their first impression at the stroke onset and assessed the methods of transportation, and clinical characteristics. Early arrival was defined as a hospital arrival of within 2 h from stroke onset. One hundred thirty patients were enrolled: 82% were ischemic stroke and 18% were cerebral hemorrhage. The median interval between symptom onset and the hospital arrival was 7.5 h and 30% of patients presented within 2 h of stroke onset. First impression of stroke (odds ratios [OR] 4.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-13.5, p=0.006), presence of consciousness disturbance (OR 4.29, CI 1.39-13.3, p=0.011), arrival through other facilities (OR 0.25, CI 0.08-0.76, p=0.015), a history of diabetes (OR 0.23, CI 0.06-0.80, p=0.028) and nocturnal onset (OR 0.19, CI 0.04-0.88, p=0.042) independently contributed to the early arrival. The first impression of patients and bystanders at stroke onset is important in order to reach hospital earlier in Japan. Public educational systems such as those, which advertise stroke warning signs, are necessary.

  9. The relationship between drought and tourist arrivals: A case study of Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fhumulani I. Mathivha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available National parks around the world have been recognised as important sources of nature experiences for both local and international visitors. In South Africa, national parks are similarly important recreational and nature tourism attractions. They offer visitors an unparalleled diversity of tourism opportunities, including game viewing, bush walks and exposure to culture and history. South African National Parks (SANParks, established in 1926, is one of the world’s leading conservation and scientific research bodies and a leading agent in maintaining the country’s indigenous natural environment. The study aims to analyse the correlation between drought and the number of tourist arrivals to the Kruger National Park (KNP. Rainfall data, as well as data on tourist arrivals at KNP for the period from 1963 to 2015 were obtained from the South African Weather Services (SAWS and SANParks, respectively. Rainfall data were used to determine the drought years at the KNP through computing the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI for various stations around the park. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used as a statistical measure of the strength of a linear relationship between drought and tourist arrivals. The results showed that KNP experienced both negative and positive tourist arrivals, although the former was the case, tourist arrivals showed an increasing trend. The correlation relationship showed that 19.36% of the drought years corresponded to a negative change in tourist arrivals to the park. The results obtained confirm that the tourism industry is a fragile industry which is prone to environmental, social and economic state of a region.

  10. Implementing guidelines on reporting research using animals (ARRIVE etc.): new requirements for publication in BJP

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John C; Lilley, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    The ARRIVE guidelines have been implemented in BJP for 4 years with the aim of increasing transparency in reporting experiments involving animals. BJP has assessed our success in implementing them and concluded that we could do better. This editorial discusses the issues and explains how we are changing our requirements for authors to report their findings in experiments involving animals. This is one of a series of editorials discussing updates to the BJP Instructions to Authors Video To view the video on the ARRIVE guidelines, visit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYXoUAnhoPM PMID:25964986

  11. Scandinavian exceptionalism? Civic integration and labour market activation for newly arrived immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    models have been resilient: Based on an in-depth historical and comparative analysis of labour market activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark since the early 1990s, the article contributes to the overall question: To what extent do the institutional pathways...... of the Scandinavian welfare states prevail when confronted with newcomers? Activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants exemplifies how the ambition of states to promote functional, individual autonomy is also an important, ongoing process in diverse policy areas of the welfare state and not restricted...

  12. Distribution of arrival times of muons with energy greater than 10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badino, G.; Bianco, P.; Dardo, M.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Periale, L.; Saavedra, O.

    1982-01-01

    Recent data on the arrival time distribution of EAS of primary energy >=10 14 eV, and of high energy muons detected at great depth (5000 mwe), seem to indicate an excess of short time intervals. We are using an apparatus, installed at 40 mwe underground, and a surface shower array to investigate the distributions of a) the time intervals between muon groups and b) the arrival times of muons with respect to the front of air showers. Preliminary results of this search are presented

  13. A descriptive study on public transport user behaviour from Live Bus Arrivals

    OpenAIRE

    Dell’Amico, M.; Hadjidimitriou, S.; Kaparias, I.

    2014-01-01

    In order to offer public transport that meet citizens’ needs for transport and further increase the use of bus services, Public Authorities need to analyse and understand travellers behaviour. Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) data provide information on the observed time of arrival and departure of a bus at each stop. These data are fed into an algorithm to provide information to users on the expected time of arrival at the bus stop by an on-line service. In the city of London this service is...

  14. Advanced spring arrival of avian migrants on Tipperne, western Denmark, during 1929-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Troels Leuenhagen; Meltofte, Hans; Tøttrup, Anders Peter Them

    2012-01-01

    to specific species groups. In the present study, we analysed temporal patterns in spring arrival of 43 taxonomically diverse Fennoscandian bird species based on a long-term data series covering 80 years (1929-2008) from the Tipperne reserve in westernmost Denmark. Furthermore, we assessed how spring arrival......During the last decade, phenological studies have increased our knowledge on climate-induced changes in timing of avian migration. Much work has been done using long-term, standardised data. However, the vast majority of previous studies have focused on data covering 3-4 decades and limited...

  15. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  16. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Thursday 6 October 2005, members of the CERN Management welcomed recently recruited staff members and fellows at the quarterly session of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Enrico CHIAVERI, Head of HR Department).

  17. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Thursday 18 September 2008, members of the CERN Management welcomed recently recruited staff members and fellows at the second part of the Induction Programme. They are photographed here with Enrico Chiaveri, Head of the Human Resources Department.

  18. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    On Tuesday 20 March 2012, at the second part of the Induction Programme, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows (photographed here with Jean-Marc Saint-Viteux, Deputy Head of HR Department and Vincent Vuillemin, CERN Ombuds).  

  19. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On Monday 22 June 2009, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows at the second part of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Enrico Chiaveri, Head of HR Department).

  20. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    On Tuesday 24 November 2009, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows at the second part of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Anne-Sylvie CATHERIN, Head of HR Department).

  1. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    On Tuesday 20 March 2012, in the second part of the Induction Programme, members of the CERN Management welcomed recently recruited Staff Members and Fellows (photographed here with Jean-Marc Saint-Viteux, Deputy Head of HR Department, and Vincent Vuillemin, CERN Ombuds).  

  2. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    On Tuesday 4 September 2012, in the second part of the Induction Programme, members of the CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows (photographed here with Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the HR Department and Vincent Vuillemin, the CERN Ombuds).  

  3. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    On Thursday 10 June 2010, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows at the second part of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Anne-Sylvie CATHERIN, Head of HR Department).

  4. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On Thursday 29 January 2009, members of the CERN Management welcomed recently recruited staff members and fellows during the second part of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Enrico Chiaveri, Head of HR Department).

  5. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    On Thursday 9 December 2010, at the second part of the Induction Programme, members of the CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows (photographed here with Jean-Marc Saint-Viteux, Deputy Head of HR Department, and Vincent Vuillemin, CERN Ombuds).

  6. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

      On Tuesday 6 September 2011, at the second part of the Induction Programme, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows (photographed here with Jean-Marc Saint-Viteux, Deputy Head of HR Department and Vincent Vuillemin, CERN Ombuds).

  7. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday 15 December 2011, at the second part of the Induction Programme, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows (photographed here with Jean-Marc Saint-Viteux, Deputy Head of HR Department and Vincent Vuillemin, CERN Ombuds).  

  8. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    On Thursday 24 March 2011, at the second part of the Induction Programme, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited Staff Members and Fellows (photographed here with Jean-Marc Saint-Viteux, Deputy Head of HR Department and Vincent Vuillemin, CERN Ombuds).  

  9. New arrivals

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    On Tuesday 7 September 2010, at the second part of the Induction Programme, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows (photographed here with Jean-Marc Saint-Viteux, Deputy Head of HR Department).

  10. New arrivals

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On Monday 22 September, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows at the trimester session of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Werner Zapf, Human Resources Division Leader).

  11. New arrivals

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    On Thursday 18 September 2008, members of CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows at the second part of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Enrico CHIAVERI, Chief of Human Resources department).

  12. New arrivals

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    On Tuesday 9 March 2004, representatives of the CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows at the trimester session of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Werner Zapf, Head of the Human Resources Department).

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBERS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ARRIVALS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE ASEAN-8: PANEL DATA APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraeni, Garnis Nur

    2017-01-01

    In an open economy, economic growth is not only supported by international trade but may also be supported through the development of tourism. We can use international tourist arrivals as one of indicators of international tourism. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence international tourist arrivals as well as to analyze the relationship between the number of international tourist arrivals and economic growth in the Southeast Asian regions. This study uses panel data regressi...

  14. Modeling mixed retention and early arrivals in multidimensional heterogeneous media using an explicit Lagrangian scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Baeumer, Boris; LaBolle, Eric M.

    2015-08-01

    This study develops an explicit two-step Lagrangian scheme based on the renewal-reward process to capture transient anomalous diffusion with mixed retention and early arrivals in multidimensional media. The resulting 3-D anomalous transport simulator provides a flexible platform for modeling transport. The first step explicitly models retention due to mass exchange between one mobile zone and any number of parallel immobile zones. The mobile component of the renewal process can be calculated as either an exponential random variable or a preassigned time step, and the subsequent random immobile time follows a Hyper-exponential distribution for finite immobile zones or a tempered stable distribution for infinite immobile zones with an exponentially tempered power-law memory function. The second step describes well-documented early arrivals which can follow streamlines due to mechanical dispersion using the method of subordination to regional flow. Applicability and implementation of the Lagrangian solver are further checked against transport observed in various media. Results show that, although the time-nonlocal model parameters are predictable for transport with retention in alluvial settings, the standard time-nonlocal model cannot capture early arrivals. Retention and early arrivals observed in porous and fractured media can be efficiently modeled by our Lagrangian solver, allowing anomalous transport to be incorporated into 2-D/3-D models with irregular flow fields. Extensions of the particle-tracking approach are also discussed for transport with parameters conditioned on local aquifer properties, as required by transient flow and nonstationary media.

  15. An econometric analysis of SARS and Avian flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); B-W. Huang (Bing-Wen); H-I. Kuo (Hsiao-I); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper compares the impacts of SARS and human deaths arising from Avian Flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia. The effects of SARS and human deaths from Avian Flu will be compared directly according to human deaths. The nature of the short run and long run relationship is

  16. Sequencing games with Just-in-Time arrival, and related games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmann, E.R.M.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Slikker, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper sequencing situations with Just-in-Time (JiT) arrival are introduced. This new type of one-machine sequencing situations assumes that a job is available to be handled by the machine as soon as its predecessor is finished. A basic predecessor dependent set-up time is incorporated in the

  17. Arrival at CERN of the first MB4 DT chambers from Turin

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcos Fernandez Garcia

    2005-01-01

    The largest DT chambers to be installed into the outermost station of the CMS barrel muon detector (MB4) are built by INFN-Turin. The first batch of four chambers, out of 40, arrived at the CERN ISR area on February 2005.

  18. Algorithm Indicating Moment of P-Wave Arrival Based on Second-Moment Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Sokolowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The moment of P-wave arrival can provide us with many information about the nature of a seismic event. Without adequate knowledge regarding the onset moment, many properties of the events related to location, polarization of P-wave, and so forth are impossible to receive. In order to save time required to indicate P-wave arrival moment manually, one can benefit from automatic picking algorithms. In this paper two algorithms based on a method finding a regime switch point are applied to seismic event data in order to find P-wave arrival time. The algorithms are based on signals transformed via a basic transform rather than on raw recordings. They involve partitioning the transformed signal into two separate series and fitting logarithm function to the first subset (which corresponds to pure noise and therefore it is considered stationary, exponent or power function to the second subset (which corresponds to nonstationary seismic event, and finding the point at which these functions best fit the statistic in terms of sum of squared errors. Effectiveness of the algorithms is tested on seismic data acquired from O/ZG “Rudna” underground copper ore mine with moments of P-wave arrival initially picked by broadly known STA/LTA algorithm and then corrected by seismic station specialists. The results of proposed algorithms are compared to those obtained using STA/LTA.

  19. 7 CFR 319.41-4 - Notice of arrival by permittee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs, through the U.S. Collector of Customs, or, in the case of Guam... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of arrival by permittee. 319.41-4 Section 319.41-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  20. Prevalence and prognosis of acutely ill patients with organ failure at arrival to hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Bank; Hrobjartsson, Asbjorn; Nielsen, Daniel Lykke

    2017-01-01

    undifferentiated patients, at arrival to hospital. The result of the review will assist physicians working in an ED, when assessing patients' risk of organ failure and their associated prognosis. METHODS: The information sources used are electronic databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and CINAHL...

  1. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A.; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S. Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L.; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    Background: The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school…

  2. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  3. time of arrival 3-d position estimation using minimum ads-b receiver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    The location from which a signal is transmitted can be estimated using the time it takes to be detected at a receiver. The difference between transmission time and the detection time is known as time of arrival (TOA). In this work, an algorithm for 3-dimensional (3-D) position estimation (PE) of an emitter using the minimum ...

  4. Young Children in Day and Night Care: Negotiating and Constructing Belonging during Daily Arrivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Eija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Sevón, Eija

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at understanding the processes related to young children's belonging during daily arrivals at day and night care. Two aspects of a child's belonging are considered: membership and sense of belonging. Data were gathered by ethnographic observation of 8 children aged from 20 to 36 months in two Finnish day care centres offering day…

  5. First arrival time picking for microseismic data based on DWSW algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Wang, Yue; Lin, Hongbo; Zhong, Tie

    2018-03-01

    The first arrival time picking is a crucial step in microseismic data processing. When the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low, however, it is difficult to get the first arrival time accurately with traditional methods. In this paper, we propose the double-sliding-window SW (DWSW) method based on the Shapiro-Wilk (SW) test. The DWSW method is used to detect the first arrival time by making full use of the differences between background noise and effective signals in the statistical properties. Specifically speaking, we obtain the moment corresponding to the maximum as the first arrival time of microseismic data when the statistic of our method reaches its maximum. Hence, in our method, there is no need to select the threshold, which makes the algorithm more facile when the SNR of microseismic data is low. To verify the reliability of the proposed method, a series of experiments is performed on both synthetic and field microseismic data. Our method is compared with the traditional short-time and long-time average (STA/LTA) method, the Akaike information criterion, and the kurtosis method. Analysis results indicate that the accuracy rate of the proposed method is superior to that of the other three methods when the SNR is as low as - 10 dB.

  6. Performance analysis of parallel identical machines with a generalized shortest queue arrival mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, Geert-Jan; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Wessels, J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    In this paper we study a production system consisting of a group of parallel machines producing multiple job types. Each machine has its own queue and it can process a restricted set of job types only. On arrival a job joins the shortest queue among all queues capable of serving that job. Under the

  7. 78 FR 53671 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Security Zones: Dignitary Arrival/Departure and United Nations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... waters of the Bronx Kill southeast of the Bronx Kill Rail Road Bridge (mile 0.6) (NAD 1983). (3) Marine... zone on the waters of the East River and Bronx Kill during the arrival and departure of the President... River and Bronx Kill in the vicinity of Randalls and Wards Islands. The RNA is approximately 2,150 yards...

  8. 77 FR 55777 - Security Zones; Dignitary Arrival/Departure and United Nations Meetings, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... (Port Morris Stacks), and all waters of the Bronx Kill southeast of the Bronx Kill Rail Road Bridge... a permanent security zone on the waters of the East River and Bronx Kill, in the vicinity of... portion of the East River and Bronx Kill when public officials are scheduled to arrive and depart the area...

  9. Evaluation of the Terminal Sequencing and Spacing System for Performance Based Navigation Arrivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Jung, Jaewoo; Swenson, Harry N.; Martin, Lynne; Lin, Melody; Nguyen, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    NASA has developed the Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSS) system, a suite of advanced arrival management technologies combining timebased scheduling and controller precision spacing tools. TSS is a ground-based controller automation tool that facilitates sequencing and merging arrivals that have both current standard ATC routes and terminal Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) routes, especially during highly congested demand periods. In collaboration with the FAA and MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD), TSS system performance was evaluated in human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations with currently active controllers as participants. Traffic scenarios had mixed Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) equipage, where the more advanced RNP-equipped aircraft had preferential treatment with a shorter approach option. Simulation results indicate the TSS system achieved benefits by enabling PBN, while maintaining high throughput rates-10% above baseline demand levels. Flight path predictability improved, where path deviation was reduced by 2 NM on average and variance in the downwind leg length was 75% less. Arrivals flew more fuel-efficient descents for longer, spending an average of 39 seconds less in step-down level altitude segments. Self-reported controller workload was reduced, with statistically significant differences at the p less than 0.01 level. The RNP-equipped arrivals were also able to more frequently capitalize on the benefits of being "Best-Equipped, Best- Served" (BEBS), where less vectoring was needed and nearly all RNP approaches were conducted without interruption.

  10. Maximum Likelihood Time-of-Arrival Estimation of Optical Pulses via Photon-Counting Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Many optical imaging, ranging, and communications systems rely on the estimation of the arrival time of an optical pulse. Recently, such systems have been increasingly employing photon-counting photodetector technology, which changes the statistics of the observed photocurrent. This requires time-of-arrival estimators to be developed and their performances characterized. The statistics of the output of an ideal photodetector, which are well modeled as a Poisson point process, were considered. An analytical model was developed for the mean-square error of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, demonstrating two phenomena that cause deviations from the minimum achievable error at low signal power. An approximation was derived to the threshold at which the ML estimator essentially fails to provide better than a random guess of the pulse arrival time. Comparing the analytic model performance predictions to those obtained via simulations, it was verified that the model accurately predicts the ML performance over all regimes considered. There is little prior art that attempts to understand the fundamental limitations to time-of-arrival estimation from Poisson statistics. This work establishes both a simple mathematical description of the error behavior, and the associated physical processes that yield this behavior. Previous work on mean-square error characterization for ML estimators has predominantly focused on additive Gaussian noise. This work demonstrates that the discrete nature of the Poisson noise process leads to a distinctly different error behavior.

  11. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of Newly Arrived Children from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing Chan, Yu; Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    The research reported here investigated pre-service English language teachers' perceptions of newly arrived immigrant children from Mainland China in Hong Kong. Seventeen participants, who had at least 10 weeks of experience working with these immigrant children during teaching practicum, participated in focus group discussions and shared their…

  12. Aggregation, Heterogeneous Autoregression and Volatility of Daily International Tourist Arrivals and Exchange Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTourism is a major source of service receipts for many countries, including Taiwan. The two leading tourism countries for Taiwan, comprising a high proportion of world tourist arrivals to Taiwan, are Japan and USA, which are sources of short and long haul tourism, respectively. As it is

  13. 33 CFR 401.79 - Advance notice of arrival, vessels requiring inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., vessels requiring inspection. 401.79 Section 401.79 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY... Reports § 401.79 Advance notice of arrival, vessels requiring inspection. Every vessel shall provide at... reinspection of the ship is required. [70 FR 12973, Mar. 17, 2005] ...

  14. The effects of single bit quantization on direction of arrival estimation of UHF RFID tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiting, J.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2016-01-01

    Phased arrays can be used to estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of UHF RFID tags. To save on energy consumption and hardware costs, in this paper we explore the possibility of using single bit analog-to-digital converters for our phased array setup. This setup consists of an off-the-shelf

  15. Integrating truck arrival management into tactical operation planning at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Gang; Song, Dong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Truck arrival management (TAM) has been recognized as an effective solution to alleviate the gate congestion at container terminals. To further utilize TAM in improving the overall terminal performance, this study integrates TAM with the other terminal operations at a tactical level. An integrated...

  16. 77 FR 2019 - Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... vessel SAFARI EXPLORER to its intended berth in the harbor. Entry into the temporary security zone is... operation of the SAFARI EXPLORER into Molokai has been voluntarily suspended by the operating company...

  17. Application of weighted early-arrival waveform inversion to shallow land data

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Zhang, Dongliang; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    predictions and shows that the effects of noise and unpredicted amplitude variations in the inversion are reduced using this weighted early arrival waveform inversion (WEWI). We also apply this method to a 2D land data set for estimating the near

  18. 77 FR 49057 - Categorical Exclusion From Further Environmental Review for Standard Terminal Arrival Route...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Environmental Review for Standard Terminal Arrival Route Procedures for Ronald Reagan Washington National... Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA). As required by the National Environmental Policy Act, an...), TRUPS1 (RNAV), and NUMMY. Location: Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA). This project...

  19. Simple approximations for the batch-arrival MX/G/1 queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we consider the MX/G/I queueing system with batch arrivals. We give simple approximations for the waiting-time probabilities of individual customers. These approximations are checked numerically and they are found to perform very well for a wide variety of batch-size and service-timed

  20. Newly Arrived Migrant Students in German Schools: Exclusive and Inclusive Structures and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhart, Henrike; von Dewitz, Nora

    2018-01-01

    Newly arrived migrant students in German schools are currently the centre of attention. In 2015 and 2016 the incoming number of migrant children and adolescents of school-age has risen. Schools, the education administration as well as politics need to take action with regard to this. In the on-going debate on new immigrant students in school,…

  1. An Approximate Dynamic Programming Approach to Urban Freight Distribution with Batch Arrivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Corman, Francesco; Voβ, Stefan; Negenborn, Rudy R.

    2015-01-01

    We study an extension of the delivery dispatching problem (DDP) with time windows, applied on LTL orders arriving at an urban consolidation center. Order properties (e.g., destination, size, dispatch window) may be highly varying, and directly distributing an incoming order batch may yield high

  2. From Deficit to Diversity: How Teachers of Recently Arrived Emergent Bilinguals Negotiate Ideological and Pedagogical Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Although the number and diversity of emergent bilingual students is rising, this population is viewed as homogeneous rather than vibrant and eclectic. This case study explores how two secondary teachers of English as a new language uncover the diversity of their recently arrived emergent bilingual population by implementing translanguaging…

  3. Direction-of-Arrival Analysis of Airborne Ice Depth Sounder Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Yan, Jie-Bang; Gogineni, Sivaprasad

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the direction-of arrival(DOA) of the ice-sheet data collected over Jakobshavn Glacier with the airborne Multichannel Radar Depth Sounder (MCRDS) during the 2006 field season. We extracted weak ice–bed echoes buried in signals scattered by the rough surface of the fast...

  4. Equilibrium arrival times to queues with general service times and non-linear utility functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    by a general utility function which is decreasing in the waiting time and service completion time of each customer. Applications of such queueing games range from people choosing when to arrive at a grand opening sale to travellers choosing when to line up at the gate when boarding an airplane. We develop...

  5. Postcolonial Issues and Colonial Closures: Portrayals of Ambivalence in Shaun Tan’s The Arrival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lucena Dalmaso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p63 This article aims to investigate the visual representation of the connection between immigration and the construction of an Australian identity as a nation in Shaun Tan’s graphic novel The Arrival (2006. Based on the debate about imagined communities and the ambivalence on the narration of a nation, proposed by Benedict Anderson and Homi Bhabha, we will discuss how The Arrival creates moments for the appearance of the ambivalence of cultural difference at the same time that it also constructs a horizontal imagined community. On these terms, The Arrival depicts some of the liminal positionality that immigrants have to deal when they arrive in a new place, but also constructs a cohesive and homogeneous narrative that entails the assimilation of the immigrants. In other words, this work offers a closure that can be read as an assimilation of the colonial discourse for a series post-colonial issues.

  6. Predictors of Death in Trauma Patients who are Alive on Arrival at Hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtveld, R.A.; Panhuizen, I.F.; Smit, R.B.J.; Holtslag, H.R.; Werken, C. van der

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine which factors predict death occurring in trauma patients who are alive on arrival at hospital Design Prospective cohort study Method Data were collected from 507 trauma patients with multiple injuries, with a Hospital Trauma Index–Injury Severity Score of 16 or more, who

  7. Families in motion : changes with the arrival of a second child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabó, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present dissertation was to examine the causes and consequences of the arrival of the second child—from both family systems and evolutionary perspectives. Chapter 2 compared parent–child interaction in dyadic and triadic settings and examined how parental warmth and investment change

  8. 7 CFR 361.4 - Inspection at the port of first arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) indicates that the screenings are being imported for processing or manufacturing purposes; (4) Seed that is... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.4 Inspection at the port of first arrival. (a) All agricultural seed, vegetable seed, and...

  9. Estimating the impact of newly arrived foreign-born persons on tuberculosis in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yecai Liu

    Full Text Available Among approximately 163.5 million foreign-born persons admitted to the United States annually, only 500,000 immigrants and refugees are required to undergo overseas tuberculosis (TB screening. It is unclear what extent of the unscreened nonimmigrant visitors contributes to the burden of foreign-born TB in the United States.We defined foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States as "newly arrived", and utilized data from U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and World Health Organization to estimate the incidence of TB among newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. During 2001 through 2008, 11,500 TB incident cases, including 291 multidrug-resistant TB incident cases, were estimated to occur among 20,989,738 person-years for the 1,479,542,654 newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. Of the 11,500 estimated TB incident cases, 41.6% (4,783 occurred among immigrants and refugees, 36.6% (4,211 among students/exchange visitors and temporary workers, 13.8% (1,589 among tourists and business travelers, and 7.3% (834 among Canadian and Mexican nonimmigrant visitors without an I-94 form (e.g., arrival-departure record. The top 3 newly arrived foreign-born populations with the largest estimated TB incident cases per 100,000 admissions were immigrants and refugees from high-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of ≥100 cases/100,000 population/year; 235.8 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% confidence interval [CI], 228.3 to 243.3, students/exchange visitors and temporary workers from high-incidence countries (60.9 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 58.5 to 63.3, and immigrants and refugees from medium-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of 15-99 cases/100,000 population/year; 55.2 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 51.6 to 58.8.Newly arrived nonimmigrant visitors contribute substantially to the burden of

  10. Estimating the impact of newly arrived foreign-born persons on tuberculosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Painter, John A; Posey, Drew L; Cain, Kevin P; Weinberg, Michelle S; Maloney, Susan A; Ortega, Luis S; Cetron, Martin S

    2012-01-01

    Among approximately 163.5 million foreign-born persons admitted to the United States annually, only 500,000 immigrants and refugees are required to undergo overseas tuberculosis (TB) screening. It is unclear what extent of the unscreened nonimmigrant visitors contributes to the burden of foreign-born TB in the United States. We defined foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States as "newly arrived", and utilized data from U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and World Health Organization to estimate the incidence of TB among newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. During 2001 through 2008, 11,500 TB incident cases, including 291 multidrug-resistant TB incident cases, were estimated to occur among 20,989,738 person-years for the 1,479,542,654 newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. Of the 11,500 estimated TB incident cases, 41.6% (4,783) occurred among immigrants and refugees, 36.6% (4,211) among students/exchange visitors and temporary workers, 13.8% (1,589) among tourists and business travelers, and 7.3% (834) among Canadian and Mexican nonimmigrant visitors without an I-94 form (e.g., arrival-departure record). The top 3 newly arrived foreign-born populations with the largest estimated TB incident cases per 100,000 admissions were immigrants and refugees from high-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of ≥100 cases/100,000 population/year; 235.8 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% confidence interval [CI], 228.3 to 243.3), students/exchange visitors and temporary workers from high-incidence countries (60.9 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 58.5 to 63.3), and immigrants and refugees from medium-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of 15-99 cases/100,000 population/year; 55.2 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 51.6 to 58.8). Newly arrived nonimmigrant visitors contribute substantially to the burden of foreign

  11. Periodicity analysis of tourist arrivals to Banda Aceh using smoothing SARIMA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahuddin, Helida, Desri; Sofyan, Hizir

    2017-11-01

    Forecasting the number of tourist arrivals who enters a region is needed for tourism businesses, economic and industrial policies, so that the statistical modeling needs to be conducted. Banda Aceh is the capital of Aceh province more economic activity is driven by the services sector, one of which is the tourism sector. Therefore, the prediction of the number of tourist arrivals is needed to develop further policies. The identification results indicate that the data arrival of foreign tourists to Banda Aceh to contain the trend and seasonal nature. Allegedly, the number of arrivals is influenced by external factors, such as economics, politics, and the holiday season caused the structural break in the data. Trend patterns are detected by using polynomial regression with quadratic and cubic approaches, while seasonal is detected by a periodic regression polynomial with quadratic and cubic approach. To model the data that has seasonal effects, one of the statistical methods that can be used is SARIMA (Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average). The results showed that the smoothing, a method to detect the trend pattern is cubic polynomial regression approach, with the modified model and the multiplicative periodicity of 12 months. The AIC value obtained was 70.52. While the method for detecting the seasonal pattern is a periodic regression polynomial cubic approach, with the modified model and the multiplicative periodicity of 12 months. The AIC value obtained was 73.37. Furthermore, the best model to predict the number of foreign tourist arrivals to Banda Aceh in 2017 to 2018 is SARIMA (0,1,1)(1,1,0) with MAPE is 26%.

  12. Urban sprawl and delayed ambulance arrival in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Gurka, Matthew J; O'Connor, Robert E

    2009-11-01

    Minimizing emergency medical service (EMS) response time is a central objective of prehospital care, yet the potential influence of built environment features such as urban sprawl on EMS system performance is often not considered. This study measures the association between urban sprawl and EMS response time to test the hypothesis that features of sprawling development increase the probability of delayed ambulance arrival. In 2008, EMS response times for 43,424 motor-vehicle crashes were obtained from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System, a national census of crashes involving > or =1 fatality. Sprawl at each crash location was measured using a continuous county-level index previously developed by Ewing et al. The association between sprawl and the probability of a delayed ambulance arrival (> or =8 minutes) was then measured using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for correlation among crashes from the same county. Urban sprawl is significantly associated with increased EMS response time and a higher probability of delayed ambulance arrival (p=0.03). This probability increases quadratically as the severity of sprawl increases while controlling for nighttime crash occurrence, road conditions, and presence of construction. For example, in sprawling counties (e.g., Fayette County GA), the probability of a delayed ambulance arrival for daytime crashes in dry conditions without construction was 69% (95% CI=66%, 72%) compared with 31% (95% CI=28%, 35%) in counties with prominent smart-growth characteristics (e.g., Delaware County PA). Urban sprawl is significantly associated with increased EMS response time and a higher probability of delayed ambulance arrival following motor-vehicle crashes in the U.S. The results of this study suggest that promotion of community design and development that follows smart-growth principles and regulates urban sprawl may improve EMS performance and reliability.

  13. ARRIVAL TIME DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS DUE TO GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryuichi [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan)

    2017-01-20

    In this study we demonstrate that general relativity predicts arrival time differences between gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) signals caused by the wave effects in gravitational lensing. The GW signals can arrive earlier than the EM signals in some cases if the GW/EM signals have passed through a lens, even if both signals were emitted simultaneously by a source. GW wavelengths are much larger than EM wavelengths; therefore, the propagation of the GWs does not follow the laws of geometrical optics, including the Shapiro time delay, if the lens mass is less than approximately 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}( f /Hz){sup −1}, where f is the GW frequency. The arrival time difference can reach ∼0.1 s ( f /Hz){sup −1} if the signals have passed by a lens of mass ∼8000 M {sub ⊙}( f /Hz){sup −1} with the impact parameter smaller than the Einstein radius; therefore, it is more prominent for lower GW frequencies. For example, when a distant supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) in a galactic center is lensed by an intervening galaxy, the time lag becomes of the order of 10 days. Future pulsar timing arrays including the Square Kilometre Array and X-ray detectors may detect several time lags by measuring the orbital phase differences between the GW/EM signals in the SMBHBs. Gravitational lensing imprints a characteristic modulation on a chirp waveform; therefore, we can deduce whether a measured arrival time lag arises from intrinsic source properties or gravitational lensing. Determination of arrival time differences would be extremely useful in multimessenger observations and tests of general relativity.

  14. A fast and automatically paired 2-D direction-of-arrival estimation with and without estimating the mutual coupling coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Tansu; Tuncer, T. Engin

    2010-06-01

    A new technique is proposed for the solution of pairing problem which is observed when fast algorithms are used for two-dimensional (2-D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. Proposed method is integrated with array interpolation for efficient use of antenna elements. Two virtual arrays are generated which are positioned accordingly with respect to the real array. ESPRIT algorithm is used by employing both the real and virtual arrays. The eigenvalues of the rotational transformation matrix have the angle information at both magnitude and phase which allows the estimation of azimuth and elevation angles by using closed-form expressions. This idea is used to obtain the paired interpolated ESPRIT algorithm which can be applied for arbitrary arrays when there is no mutual coupling. When there is mutual coupling, two approaches are proposed in order to obtain 2-D paired DOA estimates. These blind methods can be applied for the array geometries which have mutual coupling matrices with a Toeplitz structure. The first approach finds the 2-D paired DOA angles without estimating the mutual coupling coefficients. The second approach estimates the coupling coefficients and iteratively improves both the coupling coefficients and the DOA estimates. It is shown that the proposed techniques solve the pairing problem for uniform circular arrays and effectively estimate the DOA angles in case of unknown mutual coupling.

  15. Application of small-size antennas for estimation of angles of arrival of HF signals scattered by ionospheric irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Galushko, Volodymyr G.; Zalizovski, Andriy V.; Kashcheyev, Sergiy B.; Zheng, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A modification of the Doppler Interferometry Technique is suggested to enable estimating angles of arrival of comparatively broadband HF signals scattered by random irregularities of the ionospheric plasma with the use of small-size weakly directional antennas. The technique is based on the measurements of cross-spectra phases of the probe radiation recorded at least in three spatially separated points. The developed algorithm has been used to investigate the angular and frequency-time characteristics of HF signals propagating at frequencies above the maximum usable one (MUF) for the direct radio path Moscow-Kharkiv. The received signal spectra show presence of three families of spatial components attributed, respectively, to scattering by plasma irregularities near the middle point of the radio path, ground backscatter signals and scattering of the sounding signals by the intense plasma turbulence associated with auroral activations. It has been shown that the regions responsible for the formation of the third family components are located well inside the auroral oval. The drift velocity and direction of the auroral ionosphere plasma have been determined. The obtained estimates are consistent with the classical conception of the ionospheric plasma convection at high latitudes and do not contradict the results of investigations of the auroral ionosphere dynamics using the SuperDARN network.

  16. Academic Achievement among Recently Arrived Chinese Adolescent Migrants: The Role of Social Support, School Belonging, and Acculturative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ngai Kwan Nicole; Schweitzer, Robert D.; Khawaja, Nigar G.

    2017-01-01

    Factors contributing to academic achievement among recently arrived Chinese adolescents in Australia remain relatively underexplored. Previous studies focused on Asian migrants, including Chinese, but did not distinguish Chinese from other Asian migrants. The current study specifically looks at Chinese migrants who have recently arrived, as…

  17. Early arrival is not associated with more extra-pair fertilizations in a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomotani, Barbara M.; Caglar, Ezra; de la Hera, Iván; Mateman, A. Christa; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    When assessing the benefits of early arrival date of migratory birds, a hidden and often ignored component of males’ fitness is the higher chance of early-arriving birds to obtain extra-pair fertilizations. Here we investigated how extra-pair paternity might affect the relationship between male

  18. Healthcare System Information at Language Schools for Newly Arrived Immigrants: A Pertinent Setting in Times of Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynell, Lena Lyngholt; Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Jervelund, Signe Smith

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In most European countries, immigrants do not systematically learn about the host countries' healthcare system when arriving. This study investigated how newly arrived immigrants perceived the information they received about the Danish healthcare system. Methods: Immigrants attending a language school in Copenhagen in 2012 received…

  19. Analysis of queueing system with discrete autoregressive arrivals having DML as marginal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze DAR(1/D/s Queue with Discrete Mittag-Leffler [DML(α] as marginal distribution. Simulation study of the sample path of the arrival process is conducted. For this queueing system, the stationary distribution of the system size and the waiting time distribution of an arbitrary packet is obtained with the help of matrix analytic methods and Markov regenerative theory. The quantitative effect of the stationary distribution on system size, waiting time and  the autocorrelation function as well as the parameters of the input traffic is illustrated empirically. The model is applied to a real data on the passenger arrivals at a subway bus terminal in Santiago de Chile and is established that the model well suits this data.

  20. Human-in-the-Loop Assessment of Alternative Clearances in Interval Management Arrival Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Johnson, William C.; Roper, Roy D.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Goess, Paul A.; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) was a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment conducted to explore the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) Concept of Operations (ConOps), which combines advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted, efficient arrival streams into a high-density terminal airspace. Interval Management (IM) is designed to support the ATD-1 concept by having an "Ownship" (IM-capable) aircraft achieve or maintain a specific time or distance behind a "Target" (preceding) aircraft. The IM software uses IM clearance information and the Ownship data (route of flight, current location, and wind) entered by the flight crew, and the Target aircraft's Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast state data, to calculate the airspeed necessary for the IM-equipped aircraft to achieve or maintain the assigned spacing goal.

  1. On measurement of acoustic pulse arrival angles using a vertical array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    We consider a recently developed method to analyze the angular structure of pulsed acoustic fields in an underwater sound channel. The method is based on the Husimi transform that allows us to approximately link a wave field with the corresponding ray arrivals. The advantage of the method lies in the possibility of its practical realization by a vertical hydrophone array crossing only a small part of the oceanic depth. The main aim of the present work is to find the optimal parameter values of the array that ensure good angular accuracy and sufficient reliability of the algorithm to calculate the arrival angles. Broadband pulses with central frequencies of 80 and 240 Hz are considered. It is shown that an array with a length of several hundred meters allows measuring the angular spectrum with an accuracy of up to 1 degree. The angular resolution is lowered with an increase of the sound wavelength due to the fundamental limitations imposed by the uncertainty relation.

  2. Spiral-shaped piezoelectric sensors for Lamb waves direction of arrival (DoA) estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, L.; Testoni, N.; Marzani, A.

    2018-04-01

    A novel strategy to design piezoelectric sensors suited for direction of arrival (DoA) estimation of incoming Lamb waves is presented in this work. The designed sensor is composed by two piezoelectric patches (P1, P2) bonded on the structure to be inspected. In particular, by exploiting the Radon transform, the proposed procedure computes the shape of P2 given the shape of P1 so that the difference in time of arrival (DToA) of the Lamb waves at the two patches is linearly related to the DoA while being agnostic of the waveguide dispersion curves. With a dedicated processing procedure, the waveforms acquired from the two electrodes and digitized can be used to retrieve the DoA information. Numerical and experimental results show that DoA estimation performed by means of the proposed shaped transducers is extremely robust.

  3. A discrete single server queue with Markovian arrivals and phase type group services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attahiru Sule Alfa

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single-server discrete queueing system in which arrivals occur according to a Markovian arrival process. Service is provided in groups of size no more than M customers. The service times are assumed to follow a discrete phase type distribution, whose representation may depend on the group size. Under a probabilistic service rule, which depends on the number of customers waiting in the queue, this system is studied as a Markov process. This type of queueing system is encountered in the operations of an automatic storage retrieval system. The steady-state probability vector is shown to be of (modified matrix-geometric type. Efficient algorithmic procedures for the computation of the rate matrix, steady-state probability vector, and some important system performance measures are developed. The steady-state waiting time distribution is derived explicitly. Some numerical examples are presented.

  4. An Arrival and Departure Time Predictor for Scheduling Communication in Opportunistic IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozza, Riccardo; Georgoulas, Stylianos; Moessner, Klaus; Nati, Michele; Gluhak, Alexander; Krco, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an Arrival and Departure Time Predictor (ADTP) for scheduling communication in opportunistic Internet of Things (IoT) is presented. The proposed algorithm learns about temporal patterns of encounters between IoT devices and predicts future arrival and departure times, therefore future contact durations. By relying on such predictions, a neighbour discovery scheduler is proposed, capable of jointly optimizing discovery latency and power consumption in order to maximize communication time when contacts are expected with high probability and, at the same time, saving power when contacts are expected with low probability. A comprehensive performance evaluation with different sets of synthetic and real world traces shows that ADTP performs favourably with respect to previous state of the art. This prediction framework opens opportunities for transmission planners and schedulers optimizing not only neighbour discovery, but the entire communication process. PMID:27827909

  5. An Arrival and Departure Time Predictor for Scheduling Communication in Opportunistic IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozza, Riccardo; Georgoulas, Stylianos; Moessner, Klaus; Nati, Michele; Gluhak, Alexander; Krco, Srdjan

    2016-11-04

    In this article, an Arrival and Departure Time Predictor (ADTP) for scheduling communication in opportunistic Internet of Things (IoT) is presented. The proposed algorithm learns about temporal patterns of encounters between IoT devices and predicts future arrival and departure times, therefore future contact durations. By relying on such predictions, a neighbour discovery scheduler is proposed, capable of jointly optimizing discovery latency and power consumption in order to maximize communication time when contacts are expected with high probability and, at the same time, saving power when contacts are expected with low probability. A comprehensive performance evaluation with different sets of synthetic and real world traces shows that ADTP performs favourably with respect to previous state of the art. This prediction framework opens opportunities for transmission planners and schedulers optimizing not only neighbour discovery, but the entire communication process.

  6. Monitoring molecular interactions using photon arrival-time interval distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Ted A [Livermore, CA; Weiss, Shimon [Los Angels, CA

    2009-10-06

    A method for analyzing/monitoring the properties of species that are labeled with fluorophores. A detector is used to detect photons emitted from species that are labeled with one or more fluorophores and located in a confocal detection volume. The arrival time of each of the photons is determined. The interval of time between various photon pairs is then determined to provide photon pair intervals. The number of photons that have arrival times within the photon pair intervals is also determined. The photon pair intervals are then used in combination with the corresponding counts of intervening photons to analyze properties and interactions of the molecules including brightness, concentration, coincidence and transit time. The method can be used for analyzing single photon streams and multiple photon streams.

  7. Information arrival and volatility: Evidence from the Saudi Stock Exchange (Tadawul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the validation of the Mixture of Distributions Hypothesis (MDH using trading volume and number of trades as contemporaneous proxies for information arrival in 15 sector indices of the Saudi Stock Exchange (Tadawul using the TGARCH model. Findings provide strong evidence for the validity of the MDH for the Saudi market. Volatility persistence decreases when the trading volume and the number of trades are included in the conditional variance equation. The most striking finding is that contemporaneous number of trades is a better proxy for information arrival than trading volume, interacting with volatility in a manner anticipated under the MDH. This can be attributed to the unique characteristic of the Saudi equity market where only domestic investors are allowed to execute trade transactions. Further, the results reveal that the leverage effect was amplified, indicating a more pronounced asymmetric effect of bad news on volatility.

  8. Highly Automated Arrival Management and Control System Suitable for Early NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation of previously published work conducted in the development of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) system. Included are concept and technical descriptions of the TAPSS system and results from human in the loop simulations conducted at Ames Research Center. The Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing system has demonstrated through research and extensive high-fidelity simulation studies to have benefits in airport arrival throughput, supporting efficient arrival descents, and enabling mixed aircraft navigation capability operations during periods of high congestion. NASA is currently porting the TAPSS system into the FAA TBFM and STARS system prototypes to ensure its ability to operate in the FAA automation Infrastructure. NASA ATM Demonstration Project is using the the TAPSS technologies to provide the ground-based automation tools to enable airborne Interval Management (IM) capabilities. NASA and the FAA have initiated a Research Transition Team to enable potential TAPSS and IM Technology Transfer.

  9. Patterns in emergency-department arrivals and length of stay: Input for visualizations of crowding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Crowding is common in emergency departments (EDs) and increases the risk of medical errors, patient dissatisfaction, and clinician stress. The aim of this study is to investigate patterns in patient visits and bottlenecks in ED work in order to discuss the prospects of visualizing such patterns...... (mornings, boom days), patient throughput (staff work hours, linear workflows, manual data entry, overview of patient progress, personal competences), and patient output (no admissions at night, scheduling patient transfers, home transports). The patterns in patient arrivals and length of stay capture...... to help manage crowding. We analyze two years of data from a Danish ED for patterns in the patient visits and interview six clinicians from the ED about bottlenecks in their work. The hour of the day explains 50% of the variance in the number of patient arrivals. In addition, there are weekly and yearly...

  10. Uncertainty in Bus Arrival Time Predictions: Treating Heteroscedasticity With a Metamodel Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Sullivan, Aidan; Pereira, Francisco Camara; Zhao, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Arrival time predictions for the next available bus or train are a key component of modern traveler information systems (TISs). A great deal of research has been conducted within the intelligent transportation system community in developing an assortment of different algorithms that seek...... sources. In this paper, we tackle the issue of uncertainty in bus arrival time predictions using an alternative approach. Rather than endeavor to develop a superior method for prediction, we take existing predictions from a TIS and treat the algorithm generating them as a black box. The presence...... of heteroscedasticity in the predictions is demonstrated and then a metamodel approach is deployed, which augments existing predictive systems using quantile regression to place bounds on the associated error. As a case study, this approach is applied to data from a real-world TIS in Boston. This method allows bounds...

  11. Quantum-nondemolition measurement of photon arrival using an atom-cavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Kunihiro; Tomita, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    A simple and efficient quantum-nondemolition measurement (QND) scheme is proposed in which the arrival of a signal photon is detected without affecting the qubit state. The proposed QND scheme functions even if the ancillary photon is replaced with weak light composed of vacuum and one-photon states. Although the detection scheme is designed for entanglement sharing applications, it is also suitable for general purification of a single-photon state

  12. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Unpredictable checks of yellow fever vaccination certificates upon arrival in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenberger, Selina; Hatz, Christoph; Bühler, Silja

    2016-05-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne disease, which can be prevented by vaccination. While YF vaccination (YFV) is not generally recommended for travellers to Tanzania, proof of YFV may be required upon arrival. In April 2013, the World Health Organization concluded that one dose of YFV confers lifelong protection and countries have started to adapt their entry requirements. The traveller's consultant has to balance the risk of YFV and the risk of encountering problems when entering a country without a valid YFV, especially because countries are slowly implementing the requirements. We performed a survey among 421 travellers to Tanzania with a pre-travel consultation at the Travel Clinic of the University of Zurich about their experiences with YFV certificate inspections upon arrival in Tanzania between January and November 2015. There were three main findings: (i) most vaccine card checks were done while crossing the land border of Tanzania. Inspections were frequently conducted at Arusha airport, less often in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar. In the latter a significantly larger percentage of individuals arriving by ferry/boat were checked than those arriving by plane. (ii) Checks appeared to be non-systematic. They were also performed in travellers who did not enter Tanzania from a YF-endemic country. No seasonal or daytime pattern could be identified; the thoroughness of checks varied widely. (iii) In the case of travel without valid YFV, an exemption certificate was always accepted. In travellers with neither a valid YFV nor an exemption certificate, travellers reported forced YF vaccination and fines before entry was granted. We recommend YFV or a YF exemption certificate for all travellers to Tanzania until further notice. The decision of whether to vaccinate against YF or to issue an exemption should be based on exposure risk to YF infection in other countries during travel. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by

  14. High incidence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in newly arrived Eritrean refugees in Sweden since May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonden, K; Castro, E; Törnnberg, L; Stenstrom, C; Tegnell, A; Farnert, A

    2014-09-04

    Since May 2014, an increase in Plasmodium vivax malaria has been observed in Sweden. As of 31 August 2014, 105 malaria cases have been reported in newly arrived Eritrean refugees, 84 of them P. vivax. The patients were mainly young men and reported migration through Ethiopia and/or Sudan. Severe anaemia and long symptom duration reflect inadequate healthcare during migration. Countries currently hosting Eritrean refugees need to consider P. vivax malaria in this group of migrants.

  15. The Effects of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on the Educational Outcomes of Undocumented Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin, Amy; Ortega, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) is the first large-scale immigration reform to affect undocumented immigrants in the United States in decades and offers eligible undocumented youth temporary relief from deportation and renewable work permits. While DACA has improved the economic conditions and mental health of undocumented immigrants, we do not know how DACA improves the social mobility of undocumented immigrants through its effect on educational attainment. This paper uses admi...

  16. The Effects of DACAmentation: The Impact of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on Unauthorized Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Nolan G.

    2016-01-01

    As the largest immigration policy in 25 years, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) made deportation relief and work authorization available to 1.7 million unauthorized immigrants. This paper looks at how DACA affects DACA-eligible immigrants' labor market outcomes. I use a difference-in-differences design for unauthorized immigrants near the criteria cutoffs for DACA eligibility. I find DACA increases the likelihood of working by increasing labor force participation and decreasing t...

  17. Can Authorization Reduce Poverty among Undocumented Immigrants? Evidence from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the impact of authorization on the poverty exposure of households headed by undocumented immigrants. The identification strategy makes use of the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provided a temporary work authorization and reprieve from deportation to eligible immigrants. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compare DACA-eligible to DACA-ineligible likely unauthorized immigrants, before and after the program implementation. We find that DA...

  18. Determinants of tourist arrivals in Africa: a panel data regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim; Saayman, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Africa’s tourism potential is acknowledged to be significant but underdeveloped. This paper uses both cross-section data and panel data for the period 1996–2000 to identify the determinants of tourism arrivals in 43 African countries, taking into account tourists’ country of origin. The results strongly suggest that political stability, tourism infrastructure, marketing and information, and the level of development at the destination are key determinants of travel to Africa. Typical ‘devel...

  19. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  20. Challenges Surrounding the Injection and Arrival of Targets at LIFE Fusion Chamber Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Spaeth, M; Manes, K; Amendt, P; Tabak, M; Bond, T; Kucheyev, S; Latkowski, J; Loosmore, G; Bliss, E; Baker, K; Bhandarkar, S; Petzoldt, R; Alexander, N; Tillack, M; Holdener, D

    2010-12-01

    IFE target designers must consider several engineering requirements in addition to the physics requirements for successful target implosion. These considerations include low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, the ability of the target to survive the injection into the fusion chamber and arrive in a condition and physical position consistent with proper laser-target interaction and ease of post-implosion debris removal. This article briefly describes these considerations for the Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) targets currently being designed.

  1. AIMBAT: A Python/Matplotlib Tool for Measuring Teleseismic Arrival Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, X.; van der Lee, S.; Lloyd, S.

    2013-12-01

    Python is an open-source, platform-independent, and object-oriented scripting language. It became more popular in the seismologist community since the appearance of ObsPy (Beyreuther et al. 2010, Megies et al. 2011), which provides a powerful framework for seismic data access and processing. This study introduces a new Python-based tool named AIMBAT (Automated and Interactive Measurement of Body-wave Arrival Times) for measuring teleseismic body-wave arrival times on large-scale seismic event data (Lou et al. 2013). Compared to ObsPy, AIMBAT is a lighter tool that is more focused on a particular aspect of seismic data processing. It originates from the widely used MCCC (Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation) method developed by VanDecar and Crosson (1990). On top of the original MCCC procedure, AIMBAT is automated in initial phase picking and is interactive in quality control. The core cross-correlation function is implemented in Fortran to boost up performance in addition to Python. The GUI (graphical user interface) of AIMBAT depends on Matplotlib's GUI-neutral widgets and event-handling API. A number of sorting and (de)selecting options are designed to facilitate the quality control of seismograms. By using AIMBAT, both relative and absolute teleseismic body-wave arrival times are measured. AIMBAT significantly improves efficiency and quality of the measurements. User interaction is needed only to pick the target phase arrival and to set a time window on the array stack. The package is easy to install and use, open-source, and is publicly available. Graphical user interface of AIMBAT.

  2. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.

  3. Daily Tourist Arrivals, Exchange Rates and Voatility for Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Michael Mcaleer

    2009-01-01

    Both domestic and international tourism are a major source of service export receipts for many countries worldwide, and is also increasingly important in Taiwan. One of the three leading tourism source countries for Taiwan is the Republic of Korea, which is a source of short haul tourism. Daily data from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008 are used to model the Korean Won / New Taiwan $ exchange rate and tourist arrivals from Korea to Taiwan, as well as their associated volatility. The sample ...

  4. Daily Tourist Arrivals, Exchange Rates and Volatility for Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C-L.; McAleer, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBoth domestic and international tourism are a major source of service export receipts for many countries worldwide, and is also increasingly important in Taiwan. One of the three leading tourism source countries for Taiwan is the Republic of Korea, which is a source of short haul tourism. Daily data from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008 are used to model the Korean Won / New Taiwan $ exchange rate and tourist arrivals from Korea to Taiwan, as well as their associated volatility....

  5. There is no evidence for a temporal link between pathogen arrival and frog extinctions in north-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben L Phillips

    Full Text Available Pathogen spread can cause population declines and even species extinctions. Nonetheless, in the absence of tailored monitoring schemes, documenting pathogen spread can be difficult. In the case of worldwide amphibian declines the best present understanding is that the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has recently spread, causing amphibian declines and extinction in the process. However, good evidence demonstrating pathogen arrival followed by amphibian decline is rare, and analysis of putative evidence is often inadequate. Here we attempt to examine the relationship between Bd arrival and amphibian decline across north-eastern Australia, using sites where a wave-like pattern of amphibian decline was first noticed and at which intensive research has since been conducted. We develop an analytical framework that allows rigorous estimation of pathogen arrival date, which can then be used to test for a correlation between the time of pathogen arrival and amphibian decline across sites. Our results show that, with the current dataset, the earliest possible arrival date of Bd in north-eastern Australia is completely unresolved; Bd could have arrived immediately before sampling commenced or may have arrived thousands of years earlier, the present data simply cannot say. The currently available data are thus insufficient to assess the link between timing of pathogen arrival and population decline in this part of the world. This data insufficiency is surprising given that there have been decades of research on chytridiomycosis in Australia and that there is a general belief that the link between Bd arrival and population decline is well resolved in this region. The lack of data on Bd arrival currently acts as a major impediment to determining the role of environmental factors in driving the global amphibian declines, and should be a major focus of future research.

  6. Two Coupled Queues with Vastly Different Arrival Rates: Critical Loading Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Knessl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider two coupled queues with a generalized processor sharing service discipline. The second queue has a much smaller Poisson arrival rate than the first queue, while the customer service times are of comparable magnitude. The processor sharing server devotes most of its resources to the first queue, except when it is empty. The fraction of resources devoted to the second queue is small, of the same order as the ratio of the arrival rates. We assume that the primary queue is heavily loaded and that the secondary queue is critically loaded. If we let the small arrival rate to the secondary queue be O(ε, where 0≤ε≪1, then in this asymptotic limit the number of customers in the first queue will be large, of order O(ε-1, while that in the second queue will be somewhat smaller, of order O(ε-1/2. We obtain a two-dimensional diffusion approximation for this model and explicitly solve for the joint steady state probability distribution of the numbers of customers in the two queues. This work complements that in (Morrison, 2010, which the second queue was assumed to be heavily or lightly loaded, leading to mean queue lengths that were O(ε-1 or O(1, respectively.

  7. Scandinavian exceptionalism? Civic integration and labour market activation for newly arrived immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidahl, Karen N

    2017-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, a wide range of so-called new civic integration policies aimed at civilizing or disciplining newcomers have been introduced. Consequently, migration scholars have discussed whether a converging restrictive 'civic turn' has taken place in Western Europe or whether national models have been resilient: Based on an in-depth historical and comparative analysis of labour market activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark since the early 1990s, the article contributes to the overall question: To what extent do the institutional pathways of the Scandinavian welfare states prevail when confronted with newcomers? Activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants exemplifies how the ambition of states to promote functional, individual autonomy is also an important, ongoing process in diverse policy areas of the welfare state and not restricted to early integration instruments. While the Scandinavian welfare states differ on a number of counts with respect to immigration control, national integration philosophies and citizenship policies, the article outlines how activation policies aimed at newly arrived immigrants share several features. One of the key factors in this turn involves path dependency from, among others, a lengthy tradition for strong state involvement and norms about employment. Another factor in this turn involves transnational policy learning. On some points, national versions of these policies are also found due to country-specific citizenship traditions, integration philosophies and party political constellations.

  8. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-02-01

    The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school success of these youth. The study used the 4-phase priority-setting method of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. In the final stage, 132 researchers, service providers, educators, and policymakers based in the United States were asked to rate the importance of 36 research options. The highest priority research options (range 1 to 5) were: evaluating newcomer programs (mean = 4.44, SD = 0.55), identifying how family and community stressors affect newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents' functioning in school (mean = 4.40, SD = 0.56), identifying teachers' major stressors in working with this population (mean = 4.36, SD = 0.72), and identifying how to engage immigrant and refugee families in their children's education (mean = 4.35, SD = 0.62). These research priorities emphasize the generation of practical knowledge that could translate to immediate, tangible benefits for schools. Funders, schools, and researchers can use these research priorities to guide research for the highest benefit of schools and the newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents they serve. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  9. Is Universal Screening Necessary? Incidence of Tuberculosis among Tibetan Refugees Arriving in Calgary, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rachel; Jarand, Julie; Field, Stephen K; Fisher, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Background . Canadian policy requires refugees with a history of tuberculosis (TB) or abnormal chest radiograph to be screened after arrival for TB. However, Tibetan refugees are indiscriminately screened, regardless of preimmigration assessment. We sought to determine the incidence of latent (LTBI) and active TB, as well as treatment-related outcomes and associations between preimmigration factors and TB infection among Tibetan refugees arriving in Calgary, Alberta. Design . Retrospective cohort study including Tibetan refugees arriving between 2014 and 2016. Associations between preimmigration factors and incidence of latent and active TB were determined using Chi-square tests. Results . Out of 180 subjects, 49 percent had LTBI. LTBI was more common in migrants 30 years of age or older ( P = 0.009). Treatment initiation and completion rates were high at 90 percent and 76 percent, respectively. No associations between preimmigration factors and treatment completion were found. A case of active TB was detected and treated. Conclusion . Within this cohort, the case of active TB would have been detected through the usual postsurveillance process due to a history of TB and abnormal chest radiograph. Forty-nine percent had LTBI, compared to previously quoted rates of 97 percent. Tibetan refugees should be screened for TB in a similar manner to other refugees resettling in Canada.

  10. The problem of arriving at a phenomenological description of memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, W; Clinton, M

    1997-07-01

    This paper discusses a methodological difficulty that arose when uncovering the conscious experience of being nurtured as an in-patient with depression on a psychiatric ward. It considers the problem of arriving at a phenomenological description of memory loss in a patient who had undergone electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The paper begins by describing the prevalence of depression and its significance for nurses working in in-patient settings. Examples of empirical research into memory loss in depression are used to show what researchers must set aside if they are to arrive at a phenomenological description of memory loss. The choice of a phenomenological approach to the wider study from which the methodological problem discussed here arose is then justified. The phenomena of memory is introduced to show the methodological significance of attempting to arrive at a phenomenological description of the statement made by one of the participants, a woman being treated as an in-patient for major depression. A possible description of the phenomena of memory loss based on the existential phenomenology of Sartre is offered to call into question the ability of researchers to bracket their assumptions. The significance for nurses of the wider study from which our example is taken is then described. Finally it is argued that despite the methodological difficulty described, a phenomenological perspective based on the philosophy of Husserl can point nurses in the direction of meeting the human needs of their patients.

  11. Arrival in the labour ward in second stage of labour--any prognostic significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkyekyer, K

    1998-05-01

    A comparative descriptive study was carried out to determine whether, in uncomplicated term pregnancies with the foetus in vertex presentation, there were any differences in maternal or foetal outcome between women who arrived in the labour ward in second stage of labour and those who arrived in early active phase. There were two hundred and seventeen women each in the study and comparison groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups as regards age, parity, marital status and level of education. Women in the comparison group were better antenatal clinic attendants. Those in the study group were more likely to have indicated that they had problems with transportation. They also had considerably shorter labours and all achieved spontaneous vaginal deliveries; a significant proportion (10.6%) of the comparison group had interventional deliveries. The incidence of episiotomies, lower genital tract injuries, manual removal of placenta and postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery were not different between the two groups. Babies born to mothers in the study group were significantly lighter, by about 170 gms, and had a lower incidence of low one-minute Apgar scores. There were no significant differences in the rates of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit or in early neonatal deaths. Arrival in the labour ward in second stage of labour prognosticates non-interventional delivery without any increased risk of adverse outcome to the mother or her baby.

  12. Framework for determining airport daily departure and arrival delay thresholds: statistical modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, Ronald; Nabugoomu, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    The study derives a framework for assessing airport efficiency through evaluating optimal arrival and departure delay thresholds. Assumptions of airport efficiency measurements, though based upon minimum numeric values such as 15 min of turnaround time, cannot be extrapolated to determine proportions of delay-days of an airport. This study explored the concept of delay threshold to determine the proportion of delay-days as an expansion of the theory of delay and our previous work. Data-driven approach using statistical modelling was employed to a limited set of determinants of daily delay at an airport. For the purpose of testing the efficacy of the threshold levels, operational data for Entebbe International Airport were used as a case study. Findings show differences in the proportions of delay at departure (μ = 0.499; 95 % CI = 0.023) and arrival (μ = 0.363; 95 % CI = 0.022). Multivariate logistic model confirmed an optimal daily departure and arrival delay threshold of 60 % for the airport given the four probable thresholds {50, 60, 70, 80}. The decision for the threshold value was based on the number of significant determinants, the goodness of fit statistics based on the Wald test and the area under the receiver operating curves. These findings propose a modelling framework to generate relevant information for the Air Traffic Management relevant in planning and measurement of airport operational efficiency.

  13. Arrival of radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Pérez, M.; Ramos-López, R.; Perestelo, Nayra R.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Bustos, J.J.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Hernández-Armas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two weeks after the accident at the Fukushima-Daichi nuclear power plant, 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activities were measured in two different stations located in Tenerife (Canary Islands), situated at 300 (FIMERALL) and 2400 (IZAÑA) m.a.s.l, respectively. Peak measured activity concentrations were: 1.851 mBq/m3 (131I); 0.408 mBq/m3 (137Cs) and 0.382 mBq/m3 (134Cs). The activities measured at the FIMERALL station were always higher than at IZAÑA station, suggesting that the radioactive plume arrived to the island associated with low altitude air masses. Simulations of potential dispersion of the radioactive cloud (137Cs) after the nuclear accident in reactor Fukushima I show that radioactive pollution reached remote regions such as the Canary Islands in the Eastern subtropical North Atlantic. The corresponding effective dose to the local population was 1.17 nSv, a value less than one millionth of the annual limit for the general public. Therefore, there was no risk to public health. - Highlights: ► Arrival of radionuclides to Tenerife following the accident of Fukushima. ► The atmospheric concentration of radionuclides was always higher at low altitude. ► After reaching the peak concentration a sharp decrease of radionuclides was observed. ► Air mass forward trajectory analysis confirms the potential arrival of radionuclides to Tenerife.

  14. Time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival in acute ischemic stroke patients in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Yan, Weihong; Jiang, Guo-Xin; Li, Wei; Cheng, Qi

    2011-02-01

    To observe the time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival (time-to-hospital) in acute ischemic stroke patients and analyze its putatively associated factors. During the period from November 1, 2006 to August 31, 2008, patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted consecutively to the Department of Neurology, Ninth Hospital, Shanghai, were enrolled in the study. Information of the patients was registered including the time-to-hospital, demographic data, history of stroke, season at attack, neurological symptom at onset, etc. Characteristics of the patients were analyzed and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the time-to-hospital. There were 536 patients in the study, 290 (54.1%) males and 246 (45.9%) females. The median time-to-hospital was 8h (ranged from 0.1 to 300 h) for all patients. Within 3h after the onset of stroke, 162 patients (30.2%) arrived at our hospital; and within 6h, 278 patients (51.9%). Patients with a history of stroke, unconsciousness at onset, or a high NIHSS score at admission had significantly less time-to-hospital. The time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival was importance of seeking immediate medical help after stroke onset of patients and their relatives could significantly influence their actions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth recovery in newly arrived international adoptees in Italy: relation to parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzi, Elena; Rosnati, Rosa; Miller, Laurie C

    2018-04-12

    Following initial adversities, most internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but research about risk or protective factors is still limited. Even less is known about the relationship between growth recovery and the quality of the family environment. 28 children in 26 adoptive families were involved in this longitudinal study. A comprehensive evaluation (including anthropometry, cognitive assessment [using the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised], and completion by both parents of the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form) was done at arrival of the child, and 1 year later. Results evidenced that on arrival nearly half of children had growth measurements in the normal range. All the children showed a significant recovery in height and weight at 6 and 12 months post-placement. Initial and follow up growth measurements correlated strongly. Growth recovery was related to the age of the child at adoption, the proportion of time the child had resided in institutional care, as well as parenting stress. Results suggested that the higher the parenting stress experienced the less improvements occurred in children: for mothers for height and weight, for fathers for all the growth indicators. Results suggested the critical importance of family factor in influencing children's growth recovery.

  16. Application of weighted early-arrival waveform inversion to shallow land data

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-03-01

    Seismic imaging of deep land targets is usually difficult since the near-surface velocities are not accurately estimated. Recent studies have shown that inverting traces weighted by the energy of the early-arrivals can improve the accuracy of estimating shallow velocities. In this work, it is explained by showing that the associated misfit gradient function tends to be sensitive to the kinetics of wave propagation and insensitive to the dynamics. A synthetic example verifies the theoretical predictions and shows that the effects of noise and unpredicted amplitude variations in the inversion are reduced using this weighted early arrival waveform inversion (WEWI). We also apply this method to a 2D land data set for estimating the near-surface velocity distribution. The reverse time migration images suggest that, compared to the tomogram inverted directly from the early arrival waveforms, the WEWI tomogram provides a more convincing velocity model and more focused reflections in the deeper part of the image. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Two-Step Time of Arrival Estimation for Pulse-Based Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vincent Poor

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In cooperative localization systems, wireless nodes need to exchange accurate position-related information such as time-of-arrival (TOA and angle-of-arrival (AOA, in order to obtain accurate location information. One alternative for providing accurate position-related information is to use ultra-wideband (UWB signals. The high time resolution of UWB signals presents a potential for very accurate positioning based on TOA estimation. However, it is challenging to realize very accurate positioning systems in practical scenarios, due to both complexity/cost constraints and adverse channel conditions such as multipath propagation. In this paper, a two-step TOA estimation algorithm is proposed for UWB systems in order to provide accurate TOA estimation under practical constraints. In order to speed up the estimation process, the first step estimates a coarse TOA of the received signal based on received signal energy. Then, in the second step, the arrival time of the first signal path is estimated by considering a hypothesis testing approach. The proposed scheme uses low-rate correlation outputs and is able to perform accurate TOA estimation in reasonable time intervals. The simulation results are presented to analyze the performance of the estimator.

  18. Fluid approximation analysis of a call center model with time-varying arrivals and after-call work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Important features to be included in queueing-theoretic models of the call center operation are multiple servers, impatient customers, time-varying arrival process, and operator’s after-call work (ACW. We propose a fluid approximation technique for the queueing model with these features by extending the analysis of a similar model without ACW recently developed by Liu and Whitt (2012. Our model assumes that the service for each quantum of fluid consists of a sequence of two stages, the first stage for the conversation with a customer and the second stage for the ACW. When the duration of each stage has exponential, hyperexponential or hypo-exponential distribution, we derive the time-dependent behavior of the content of fluid in each stage of service as well as that in the waiting room. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the system performance for the cases in which the input rate and/or the number of servers vary in sinusoidal fashion as well as in adaptive ways and in stationary cases.

  19. 2-D unitary ESPRIT-like direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for coherent signals with a uniform rectangular array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shiwei; Ma, Xiaochuan; Yan, Shefeng; Hao, Chengpeng

    2013-03-28

    A unitary transformation-based algorithm is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of coherent signals. The problem is solved by reorganizing the covariance matrix into a block Hankel one for decorrelation first and then reconstructing a new matrix to facilitate the unitary transformation. By multiplying unitary matrices, eigenvalue decomposition and singular value decomposition are both transformed into real-valued, so that the computational complexity can be reduced significantly. In addition, a fast and computationally attractive realization of the 2-D unitary transformation is given by making a Kronecker product of the 1-D matrices. Compared with the existing 2-D algorithms, our scheme is more efficient in computation and less restrictive on the array geometry. The processing of the received data matrix before unitary transformation combines the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT)-Like method and the forward-backward averaging, which can decorrelate the impinging signalsmore thoroughly. Simulation results and computational order analysis are presented to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Disease surveillance among newly arriving refugees and immigrants--Electronic Disease Notification System, United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deborah; Philen, Rossanne; Wang, Zanju; McSpadden, Pamela; Posey, Drew L; Ortega, Luis S; Weinberg, Michelle S; Brown, Clive; Zhou, Weigong; Painter, John A

    2013-11-15

    Approximately 450,000 legal permanent immigrants and 75,000 refugees enter the United States annually after receiving required medical examinations by overseas panel physicians (physicians who follow the CDC medical screening guidelines provided to the U.S. Department of State). CDC has the regulatory responsibility for preventing the introduction, transmission, and spread of communicable diseases into the United States as well as for developing the guidelines, known as technical instructions, for the overseas medical examinations. Other conditions that are not infectious might preclude an immigrant or refugee from entering the United States and also are reported as part of the medical examination. After arrival in the United States, all refugees are recommended to obtain a medical assessment by a health-care provider or a health department within 30 days. In addition, immigrants with certain medical conditions such as noninfectious tuberculosis at the time of the original medical examination are recommended to be evaluated after arrival to ensure that appropriate prevention or treatment measures are instituted. Health departments need timely and accurate notifications of newly arriving immigrants, refugees, and persons with other visa types to facilitate these evaluations. Notifications for all newly arriving refugees (with or without medical conditions) and immigrants with medical conditions are provided by CDC's Electronic Disease Notification (EDN) system. This is the first report describing EDN. This report summarizes notifications by the EDN system during January-December 2009. The EDN system is a centralized electronic reporting system that collects health information on newly arriving refugees and immigrants with Class A and Class B medical conditions. Class A conditions render applicants inadmissible and require a waiver for entry; Class B conditions are admissible but might require treatment or follow-up. Information in the EDN system is used to notify

  1. Evaluation of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing System for Performance-Based Navigation Arrivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Swenson, Harry; Thipphavong, Jane; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Chen, Liang; Nguyen, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    The growth of global demand for air transportation has put increasing strain on the nation's air traffic management system. To relieve this strain, the International Civil Aviation Organization has urged all nations to adopt Performance-Based Navigation (PBN), which can help to reduce air traffic congestion, decrease aviation fuel consumption, and protect the environment. NASA has developed a Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) system that can support increased use of PBN during periods of high traffic, while supporting fuel-efficient, continuous descent approaches. In the original development of this system, arrival aircraft are assigned fuel-efficient Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Terminal Arrival Routes before their initial descent from cruise, with routing defined to a specific runway. The system also determines precise schedules for these aircraft that facilitate continuous descent through the assigned routes. To meet these schedules, controllers are given a set of advisory tools to precisely control aircraft. The TAPSS system has been evaluated in a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) air traffic simulations during 2010 and 2011. Results indicated increased airport arrival throughput up to 10 over current operations, and maintained fuel-efficient aircraft decent profiles from the initial descent to landing with reduced controller workload. This paper focuses on results from a joint NASA and FAA HITL simulation conducted in 2012. Due to the FAA rollout of the advance terminal area PBN procedures at mid-sized airports first, the TAPSS system was modified to manage arrival aircraft as they entered Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON). Dallas-Love Field airport (DAL) was selected by the FAA as a representative mid-sized airport within a constrained TRACON airspace due to the close proximity of a major airport, in this case Dallas-Ft Worth International Airport, one of the busiest in the world. To address this constraint, RNAV routes and

  2. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  3. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  4. Are arrival date and body mass after spring migration influenced by large-scale environmental factors in a migratory seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lesley eSzostek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing of migratory events have been observed recently in many migratory species, most likely in response to climatic change. In the common tern Sterna hirundo we examined such changes in spring arrival date and body mass based on a 19 year individual-based longitudinal data from a transponder marked colony from 1994 - 2012. Although no long-term trend was observed in either trait, strong inter-annual and age-specific variation in arrival date and mass was evident. We investigated whether environmental factors such as (i global climate phenomena North Atlantic and Southern Oscillation Indices NAOI and SOI, or (ii local factors, such as food abundance in the wintering and breeding area, represented by fish stock or marine primary productivity, could explain this variation. We found that 2-year-old birds on their first spring migration advanced arrival relative to spring NAOI and delayed arrival relative to sprat Sprattus sprattus abundance. The arrival date of 3-year-olds also advanced in relation to NAOI and delayed in relation to winter SOI. In contrast, adults delayed arrival with NAOI and advanced relative to SOI. Within age groups, earlier annual arrival coincided with higher mass, indicating that a fast and/or early migration did not come at a cost to body condition. Changes in arrival mass relative to environmental covariates were found only in 2-year-olds on their first spring migration: in these birds arrival mass was positively related to herring Clupea harengus and sprat abundance in the breeding area as well as spring NAOI and negatively related to SOI. In conclusion, traits related to migration of common terns were linked with environmental conditions, but showed no long-term trends over the past two decades. Age-related differences were marked, suggesting that common terns might be subject to differing environmental constraints or respond differently to conditions during their annual cycle depending on age.

  5. Pipe Wall Thinning Evaluation through the Arrival Time Delay of A0 Lamb Wave Using Magnetostrictive Patch Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Kwon, Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Guided wave technology is advantageous for fast inspection of pipe wall thinning since the guided wave propagates long distance. In this investigation, the method to evaluate gradual wall thinning in a pipe based on the arrival time delay with magnetostrictive patch transducers is presented. Low frequency A0 Lamb waves were generated and measured by the present transducer and it was applied to arrival time delay measurement experiments on a test pipe having gradual wall thinnings artificially manufactured. From experiments, consistent results that wall thinning increases the arrival time delay of A0 waves were obtained. Consequently, the feasibility of the magnetostrictive patch transducers to evaluate wall thinning was verified

  6. Pipe Wall Thinning Evaluation through the Arrival Time Delay of A0 Lamb Wave Using Magnetostrictive Patch Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Kwon, Hyu Sang; Ahn, Bong Young; Lee, Seung Seok

    2008-01-01

    Guided wave technology is advantageous for fast inspection of pipe wall thinning since the guided wave propagates long distance. In this investigation, the method to evaluate gradual wall thinning in a pipe based on the arrival time delay with magnetostrictive patch transducers is presented. Low frequency A0 Lamb waves were generated and measured by the present transducer and it was applied to arrival time delay measurement experiments on a test pipe having gradual wall thinnings artificially manufactured. From experiments, consistent results that wall thinning increases the arrival time delay of A0 waves were obtained. Consequently, the feasibility of the magnetostrictive patch transducers to evaluate wall thinning was verified

  7. Evaluating the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. IV. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. 4 refs

  8. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  9. Determinants of health in recently arrived young migrants and refugees: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pfarrwaller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: adolescent migrants are in a state of double vulnerability because of their age and migration experience. The purpose of this review was to identify risk and protective factors serving as a base for health promotion of young recent migrants.

    Methods: we assessed 95 papers identified through a MEDLINE search. Thirty-five papers were retained for review and analysed within the following themes: general health, mental health, cigarette smoking and sexual health.

    Results: young migrants’ health was considered good at arrival, but deteriorated with length of stay due to factors linked to migration. Mental health was determined by pre-migration factors, such as violence, and was strongly related to post-migration factors, such as asylum procedures, discrimination and low socio-economic status. Social support and family cohesion were identified as protective factors. We found a lack in epidemiologic data about tobacco use and sexual health issues. Results from North America indicated less frequent smoking in certain groups of immigrants. Some data suggested more frequent teenage pregnancies and abortions in young refugee women as compared to the host population. We also found some evidence about increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS in certain immigrant populations.

    Conclusions: migrant adolescents are generally healthy at arrival. The migration process and social inequalities after arrival influence their long-term health. A comprehensive approach to health promotion is necessary, taking into account risk and protective factors. More research is needed, in order to obtain more specific epidemiologic data about adolescent migrants, as well as longitudinal and qualitative data.

  10. Tunisian Migrant Journeys: Human Rights Concerns for Tunisians Arriving by Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maegan Hendow

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In part due to its location on the North African coast, in conjunction with its history of being a former French protectorate, Tunisia has become an important country of emigration to the European Union. In particular, maritime arrivals have become a concern for European states, for both humanitarian and security reasons. The experiences of Tunisian irregular migrants arriving to the EU by sea, who are then detained and returned, highlights the multitude of human rights issues that arise across their journey as they interact with the various stakeholders involved—Tunisian and Libyan smugglers, EU and Tunisian authorities and NGOs, amongst others. The situation for these migrants at sea and during rescue and interception operations can most directly involve such issues as the right to life, access to food and water, access to emergency healthcare and access to information. The next stages of detention and return (either immediately or when later identified on EU territory can most directly involve human rights issues related to the identification and referral mechanisms for groups at risk, access to information and legal remedy, the right of “non-refoulement” and prohibition of torture, inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment. By examining Tunisian migrant experiences along the entirety of their trajectory, one can see the specific human rights issues that arise at each stage for maritime arrivals—from departure to return. The article will examine these human rights concerns in the context of the Tunisian migrant journey, focusing on the four identified stages of the situation at sea, rescue or interception, detention and return. The article will present results from qualitative in-depth interviews conducted for the EU Fundamental Rights Agency in 2011 with 15 Tunisian migrants who had arrived by sea to Italy between 2005 and 2011 and were returned to Tunisia between 2008 and 2011, complemented by interviews with two Tunisian

  11. [Arrived in Germany: When Children Who have Fled Tell their Stories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerarts, Katharina; Andresen, Sabine; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Klasen, Fionna

    2016-12-01

    Arrived in Germany: When Children Who have Fled Tell their Stories For this study, we listened to children who had fled with their families. We made a very conscious decision to focus on accompanied minors who have been displaced, because they go through the standard asylum system with their parent/guardian, which is why they often remain "invisible" as regards their own needs and their specific situation. We gave accompanied children who had fled a space where they could tell their stories and asked them to talk about their memories of their countries of origin, their experiences during their journey and on arrival in Germany, and their lives here, their concerns, but also their hopes and desires. The children presented here come from Afghanistan, Eritrea, Iran, Kosovo, Serbia and Syria. They therefore represent the countries from which people have set out on the always difficult, often life-threatening journey to Germany. And they represent the diversity of experiences of flight and arrival. Those responsible for this study come from various academic disciplines and areas of work. This was important to us in order to focus on the complexity of being a child and a child's everyday life under the conditions experienced while on the run. In view of the vulnerability of children, many challenges are regarded in a different light from previously, for example concerning the organisation of initial reception centres, education and care provisions, medical care, protected spaces and privacy. We want to encourage you to see these spaces, the bureaucratic procedures and coping with everyday life through the eyes of a child.

  12. A New Tool for CME Arrival Time Prediction using Machine Learning Algorithms: CAT-PUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Ye, Yudong; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Erdélyi, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are arguably the most violent eruptions in the solar system. CMEs can cause severe disturbances in interplanetary space and can even affect human activities in many aspects, causing damage to infrastructure and loss of revenue. Fast and accurate prediction of CME arrival time is vital to minimize the disruption that CMEs may cause when interacting with geospace. In this paper, we propose a new approach for partial-/full halo CME Arrival Time Prediction Using Machine learning Algorithms (CAT-PUMA). Via detailed analysis of the CME features and solar-wind parameters, we build a prediction engine taking advantage of 182 previously observed geo-effective partial-/full halo CMEs and using algorithms of the Support Vector Machine. We demonstrate that CAT-PUMA is accurate and fast. In particular, predictions made after applying CAT-PUMA to a test set unknown to the engine show a mean absolute prediction error of ∼5.9 hr within the CME arrival time, with 54% of the predictions having absolute errors less than 5.9 hr. Comparisons with other models reveal that CAT-PUMA has a more accurate prediction for 77% of the events investigated that can be carried out very quickly, i.e., within minutes of providing the necessary input parameters of a CME. A practical guide containing the CAT-PUMA engine and the source code of two examples are available in the Appendix, allowing the community to perform their own applications for prediction using CAT-PUMA.

  13. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  14. Arrival and expansion of the invasive foraminifera Trochammina hadai Uchio in Padilla Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Mary; Grossman, Eric E.; Takesue, Renee K.; Penttila, Dan; Walsh, John P.; Corbett, Reide

    2012-01-01

    Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifera native to Japanese estuaries, was first identified as an invasive in 1995 in San Francisco Bay and later in 16 other west coast estuaries. To investigate the timing of the arrival and expansion of this invasive species in Padilla Bay, Washington, we analyzed the distribution of foraminifera in two surface samples collected in 1971, in nine surface samples collected by Scott in 1972–1973, as well as in two cores (Padilla Flats 3 and Padilla V1/V2) obtained in 2004. Trochanimina hadai, originally identified as the native Trochammina pacifica Cushman in several early foraminiferal studies, dominates the assemblage of most of the surface samples. In the Padilla V1/V2 and Padilla Flats 3 cores, the species' abundance follows a pattern of absence, first appearance, rapid expansion commonly seen shortly after the arrival of a successful biological invasion, setback, and second expansion. Using Q-mode cluster analysis, pre-expansion and expansion assemblages were identified. Pb-210 dating of these cores proved unsuccessful. However, based on T. hadai's first appearance occurring stratigraphically well above sedimentological changes in the cores that reflect deposition of sediments in the bay due to previous diversions of the Skagit River, and its dominance in the early 1970s surface samples, we conclude that the species arrived in Padilla Bay somewhere between the late 1800s and 1971. Trochammina hadai may have been introduced into the bay in the 1930s when oyster culturing began there or, at a minimum, ten years prior to its appearance in San Francisco Bay.

  15. Arrival-time picking method based on approximate negentropy for microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Ni, Zhuo; Tian, Yanan

    2018-05-01

    Accurate and dependable picking of the first arrival time for microseismic data is an important part in microseismic monitoring, which directly affects analysis results of post-processing. This paper presents a new method based on approximate negentropy (AN) theory for microseismic arrival time picking in condition of much lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). According to the differences in information characteristics between microseismic data and random noise, an appropriate approximation of negentropy function is selected to minimize the effect of SNR. At the same time, a weighted function of the differences between maximum and minimum value of AN spectrum curve is designed to obtain a proper threshold function. In this way, the region of signal and noise is distinguished to pick the first arrival time accurately. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AN method, we make many experiments on a series of synthetic data with different SNR from -1 dB to -12 dB and compare it with previously published Akaike information criterion (AIC) and short/long time average ratio (STA/LTA) methods. Experimental results indicate that these three methods can achieve well picking effect when SNR is from -1 dB to -8 dB. However, when SNR is as low as -8 dB to -12 dB, the proposed AN method yields more accurate and stable picking result than AIC and STA/LTA methods. Furthermore, the application results of real three-component microseismic data also show that the new method is superior to the other two methods in accuracy and stability.

  16. Migration challenges among Zimbabwean refugees before, during and post arrival in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhabor Sunday Idemudia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zimbabweans are immigrating to South Africa with a commonly cited reason being economic opportunities. Prospects of finding employment may be a significant reason to leave behind family, friends, and community, sources that buffer and offer social support against life’s challenges. Currently, there is a dearth of research examining the motivators for Zimbabweans immigrating and the experiences encountered along the way and after arrival in South Africa. Such research is essential as large numbers of Zimbabweans may be at risk for emotional and physical trauma during this process. METHODS: Two gender specific focus group discussions, each lasting 90-minutes and consisting of homeless Zimbabwean refugees, were conducted in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A semi-structured interview assessed for experiences in and reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, as well as experiences en-route and within South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using consensual qualitative research and a constant comparison qualitative method. RESULTS: Three temporal themes were identified and included challenges and trauma experienced in Zimbabwe (pre-migration, during the immigration journey (mid-migration, and upon arrival in South Africa (post-migration. While there were some experiential differences, Zimbabwean men and women shared numerous traumatic commonalities. In addition to the themes, three subthemes contributing to reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, two subthemes of negative and traumatic experiences incurred mid-migration, and two post-migration subthemes of challenges were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the difficulties encountered in their homeland, newly arrived Zimbabweans in South Africa may be exchanging old struggles for a new array of foreign and traumatic challenges. Reasons to immigrate and the psychological and physical toll of migration exacted at the individual and community levels are discussed

  17. Migration challenges among Zimbabwean refugees before, during and post arrival in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idemudia, Erhabor Sunday; Williams, John K; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-01-01

    Zimbabweans are immigrating to South Africa with a commonly cited reason being economic opportunities. Prospects of finding employment may be a significant reason to leave behind family, friends, and community, sources that buffer and offer social support against life's challenges. Currently, there is a dearth of research examining the motivators for Zimbabweans immigrating and the experiences encountered along the way and after arrival in South Africa. Such research is essential as large numbers of Zimbabweans may be at risk for emotional and physical trauma during this process. Two gender specific focus group discussions, each lasting 90-minutes and consisting of homeless Zimbabwean refugees, were conducted in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A semi-structured interview assessed for experiences in and reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, as well as experiences en-route and within South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using consensual qualitative research and a constant comparison qualitative method. Three temporal themes were identified and included challenges and trauma experienced in Zimbabwe (pre-migration), during the immigration journey (mid-migration), and upon arrival in South Africa (post-migration). While there were some experiential differences, Zimbabwean men and women shared numerous traumatic commonalities. In addition to the themes, three subthemes contributing to reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, two subthemes of negative and traumatic experiences incurred mid-migration, and two post-migration subthemes of challenges were identified. Despite the difficulties encountered in their homeland, newly arrived Zimbabweans in South Africa may be exchanging old struggles for a new array of foreign and traumatic challenges. Reasons to immigrate and the psychological and physical toll of migration exacted at the individual and community levels are discussed. Recommendations advocating for culturally congruent mental health research

  18. STS-95 Payload Specialist Duque arrives at KSC to participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, who represents the European Space Agency (ESA), waves after arriving in a T-38 jet aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility at KSC. He is joining other STS-95 crew members in a familiarization tour of the SPACEHAB module and the equipment that will fly with them on the Space Shuttle Discovery scheduled to launch Oct. 29, 1998. The mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  19. The Effect of Integration Policies on the Time until Regular Employment of Newly Arrived Immigrants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Heinesen, Eskil; Hummelgaard, Hans

    We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich...... administrative data from Denmark. We find substantial lock-in effects of participation in active labour-market programmes. Post programme effects on the hazard rate to regular employment are significantly positive for wage subsidy programmes, but not for other types of programmes. For language course...... participants, improvement in language proficiency has significant and substantial positive effects on the hazard rate to employment....

  20. A semiclassical analysis of high energy electron diffraction by stacking faults: arrival at the classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.E.; Chadderton, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    In a recent note the authors summarised results for an extension of Berry's theory to cover the one-dimensional problem of systematic reflections (planes) for a thin crystal sandwich consisting of two identical slabs of lattice parameter 'a' with a relative horizontal displacement 'f'. The diffraction amplitudes at the lower surface of the crystal were shown to depend on a double summation over the various transverse energy states in the upper and lower slab respectively, and on the transitions between them. In this report the authors demonstrate the arrival at the classical limit for the problem and, in particular, indicate briefly the nature of the topologically different classical paths. (Auth.)

  1. A Wavelet Support Vector Machine Combination Model for Singapore Tourist Arrival to Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafidah, A.; Shabri, Ani; Nurulhuda, A.; Suhaila, Y.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, wavelet support vector machine model (WSVM) is proposed and applied for monthly data Singapore tourist time series prediction. The WSVM model is combination between wavelet analysis and support vector machine (SVM). In this study, we have two parts, first part we compare between the kernel function and second part we compare between the developed models with single model, SVM. The result showed that kernel function linear better than RBF while WSVM outperform with single model SVM to forecast monthly Singapore tourist arrival to Malaysia.

  2. Prediction of the Critical Curvature for LX-17 with the Time of Arrival Data from DNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, Laurence E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moss, William C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We extract the detonation shock front velocity, curvature and acceleration from time of arrival data measured at grid points from direct numerical simulations of a 50mm rate-stick lit by a disk-source, with the ignition and growth reaction model and a JWL equation of state calibrated for LX-17. We compute the quasi-steady (D, κ) relation based on the extracted properties and predicted the critical curvatures of LX-17. We also proposed an explicit formula that contains the failure turning point, obtained from optimization for the (D, κ) relation of LX-17.

  3. A Model of Path Arrival Rate for In-Room Radio Channels with Directive Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels

    and orientation are picked uniformly at random we derive an exact expression of the mean arrival rate for a rectangular room predicted by the mirror source theory. The rate is quadratic in delay, inversely proportional to the room volume, and proportional to the product of beam coverage fractions...... that the power-delay spectrum is unaffected by the antenna directivity. However, Monte Carlo simulations show that antenna directivity does indeed play an important role for the distribution of instantaneous mean delay and rms delay spread....

  4. Search for small-scale angular correlations of neutrino arrival directions in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimp, Michael; Glagla, Martin; Haack, Christian; Leuermann, Martin; Raedel, Leif; Reimann, Rene; Schoenen, Sebastian; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Recently, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory discovered a diffuse flux of extra-terrestrial high-energy neutrinos. The identification of their astrophysical sources is one of the goals of current investigations. This analysis is based on the expansion of muon neutrino arrival directions in spherical harmonics, which is sensitive to angular correlations. A large number of point sources distributed over the sky would leave an imprint on the spectrum of observed expansion coefficients, even if the sources are too weak to be detected individually. We present the analysis method and discuss possible astrophysical interpretations for the observation or non-observation of such a correlation.

  5. Functional Analysis for an Integrated Capability of Arrival/Departure/Surface Management with Tactical Runway Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Okuniek, Nikolai; Lohr, Gary W.; Schaper, Meilin; Christoffels, Lothar; Latorella, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    The runway is a critical resource of any air transport system. It is used for arrivals, departures, and for taxiing aircraft and is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity for both surface and airspace operations. It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment as well as the timing and sequencing of the traffic is paramount to the efficient traffic flows. Both the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and NASA have developed concepts and tools to improve atomic aspects of coordinated arrival/departure/surface management operations and runway configuration management. In December 2012, NASA entered into a Collaborative Agreement with DLR. Four collaborative work areas were identified, one of which is called "Runway Management." As part of collaborative research in the "Runway Management" area, which is conducted with the DLR Institute of Flight Guidance, located in Braunschweig, the goal is to develop an integrated system comprised of the three DLR tools - arrival, departure, and surface management (collectively referred to as A/D/S-MAN) - and NASA's tactical runway configuration management (TRCM) tool. To achieve this goal, it is critical to prepare a concept of operations (ConOps) detailing how the NASA runway management and DLR arrival, departure, and surface management tools will function together to the benefit of each. To assist with the preparation of the ConOps, the integrated NASA and DLR tools are assessed through a functional analysis method described in this report. The report first provides the highlevel operational environments for air traffic management (ATM) in Germany and in the U.S., and the descriptions of the DLR's A/D/S-MAN and NASA's TRCM tools at the level of details necessary to compliment the purpose of the study. Functional analyses of each tool and a completed functional analysis of an integrated system design are presented next in the report. Future efforts to fully

  6. STS-89 crew arrives at KSC's SLF and speaks to the press

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-89 crew speak with the press after arriving at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility in preparation for launch later this week. From left to right the crew include Commander Terrence Wilcutt; Pilot Joe Edwards Jr.; and Mission Specialists Bonnie Dunbar, Ph.D.; Salizhan Sharipov with the Russian Space Agency; Michael Anderson; James Reilly, Ph.D.; and Andrew Thomas, Ph.D. (at microphone). Dr. Thomas will succeed David Wolf, M.D., on the Russian Space Station Mir. Launch is scheduled for January 22 at 9:48 p.m. EST.

  7. Analysis of Queues with Rational Arrival Process Components - A General Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Nigel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In a previous paper we demonstrated that the well known matrix-geometric solution of Quasi-Birth-and-Death processes is valid also if we introduce Rational Arrival Process (RAP) components. Here we extend those results and we offer an alternative proof by using results obtained by Tweedie. We prove...... the matrix-geometric form for a certain kind of operators on the stationary measure for discrete time Markov chains of GI/M/1 type. We apply this result to an embedded chain with RAP components. We then discuss the straight- forward modification of the standard algorithms for calculating the matrix R...

  8. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN TOURIST ARRIVALS IN PORTUGAL AND ROMANIA 2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese PANYIK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Free movement of persons within the EU and the modernization of infrastructure in most states are factors that favor the development of tourism. Different trajectories taken up in 1989 by the former communist countries, the policies applied to them, both during the Cold War and after 1990 influenced the development of tourism in these countries. Based on these considerations, this paper offers a comparative view on an old and the new EU member states regarding foreign tourist arrivals: Portugal (joined the EU in 1986 and Romania (joined the EU in 2007. Are analyzed the evolutions of the main indicators of tourist traffic in the two countries during 2004 - 2012

  9. Application of Cyclostationary Signal Selectivity to the Carry-On Multi-Platform GPS Assisted Time Difference of Arrival System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Streight, David

    1997-01-01

    .... The Applied Research Lab at the University of Texas at Austin (ARL:UT) has developed a prototype TDOA system, the Carry-on Multi-platform GPS Assisted Time Difference of Arrival System for the Naval Information Warfare Activity...

  10. Psychrophilic and psychrotolerant fungi on bats and the presence of Geomyces spp. on bat wings prior to the arrival of white nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynnaun J A N; Miller, Andrew N; McCleery, Robert A; McClanahan, Rod; Kath, Joseph A; Lueschow, Shiloh; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Since 2006, Geomyces destructans, the causative agent of white nose syndrome (WNS), has killed over 5.7 million bats in North America. The current hypothesis suggests that this novel fungus is an invasive species from Europe, but little is known about the diversity within the genus Geomyces and its distribution on bats in the United States. We documented the psychrophilic and psychrotolerant fungal flora of hibernating bats prior to the arrival of WNS using culture-based techniques. A total of 149 cultures, which were obtained from 30 bats in five bat hibernacula located in four caves and one mine, were sequenced for the entire internal transcribed spacer (ITS) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) region. Approximately 53 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity were recovered from bat wings, with the community dominated by fungi within the genera Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geomyces, Mortierella, Penicillium, and Trichosporon. Eleven Geomyces isolates were obtained and placed in at least seven distinct Geomyces clades based on maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses. Temperature experiments revealed that all Geomyces strains isolated are psychrotolerant, unlike G. destructans, which is a true psychrophile. Our results confirm that a large diversity of fungi, including several Geomyces isolates, occurs on bats prior to the arrival of WNS. Most of these isolates were obtained from damaged wings. Additional studies need to be conducted to determine potential ecological roles of these abundant Geomyces strains isolated from bats.

  11. Accurate ocean bottom seismometer positioning method inspired by multilateration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzouz, Omar; Pinheiro, Luis M.; Matias, Luis M. A.; Afilhado, Alexandra; Herold, Daniel; Haines, Seth S.

    2018-01-01

    The positioning of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) is a key step in the processing flow of OBS data, especially in the case of self popup types of OBS instruments. The use of first arrivals from airgun shots, rather than relying on the acoustic transponders mounted in the OBS, is becoming a trend and generally leads to more accurate positioning due to the statistics from a large number of shots. In this paper, a linearization of the OBS positioning problem via the multilateration technique is discussed. The discussed linear solution solves jointly for the average water layer velocity and the OBS position using only shot locations and first arrival times as input data.

  12. What prevents phenological adjustment to climate change in migrant bird species? Evidence against the ``arrival constraint'' hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Anne E.; Hart, Adam G.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Phenological studies have demonstrated changes in the timing of seasonal events across multiple taxonomic groups as the climate warms. Some northern European migrant bird populations, however, show little or no significant change in breeding phenology, resulting in synchrony with key food sources becoming mismatched. This phenological inertia has often been ascribed to migration constraints (i.e. arrival date at breeding grounds preventing earlier laying). This has been based primarily on research in The Netherlands and Germany where time between arrival and breeding is short (often as few as 9 days). Here, we test the arrival constraint hypothesis over a 15-year period for a U.K. pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca) population where laying date is not constrained by arrival as the period between arrival and breeding is substantial and consistent (average 27 ± 4.57 days SD). Despite increasing spring temperatures and quantifiably stronger selection for early laying on the basis of number of offspring to fledge, we found no significant change in breeding phenology, in contrast with co-occurring resident blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus). We discuss possible non-migratory constraints on phenological adjustment, including limitations on plasticity, genetic constraints and competition, as well as the possibility of counter-selection pressures relating to adult survival, longevity or future reproductive success. We propose that such factors need to be considered in conjunction with the arrival constraint hypothesis.

  13. What prevents phenological adjustment to climate change in migrant bird species? Evidence against the "arrival constraint" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Anne E; Hart, Adam G; Elliot, Simon L

    2011-01-01

    Phenological studies have demonstrated changes in the timing of seasonal events across multiple taxonomic groups as the climate warms. Some northern European migrant bird populations, however, show little or no significant change in breeding phenology, resulting in synchrony with key food sources becoming mismatched. This phenological inertia has often been ascribed to migration constraints (i.e. arrival date at breeding grounds preventing earlier laying). This has been based primarily on research in The Netherlands and Germany where time between arrival and breeding is short (often as few as 9 days). Here, we test the arrival constraint hypothesis over a 15-year period for a U.K. pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) population where laying date is not constrained by arrival as the period between arrival and breeding is substantial and consistent (average 27 ± 4.57 days SD). Despite increasing spring temperatures and quantifiably stronger selection for early laying on the basis of number of offspring to fledge, we found no significant change in breeding phenology, in contrast with co-occurring resident blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We discuss possible non-migratory constraints on phenological adjustment, including limitations on plasticity, genetic constraints and competition, as well as the possibility of counter-selection pressures relating to adult survival, longevity or future reproductive success. We propose that such factors need to be considered in conjunction with the arrival constraint hypothesis.

  14. Timing of initial arrival at the breeding site predicts age at first reproduction in a long-lived migratory bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter H.; Dittmann, Tobias; Ludwigs, Jan-Dieter; Limmer, Bente; Ludwig, Sonja C.; Bauch, Christina; Braasch, Alexander; Wendeln, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    In long-lived vertebrates, individuals generally visit potential breeding areas or populations during one or more seasons before reproducing for the first time. During these years of prospecting, they select a future breeding site, colony, or mate and improve various skills and their physical condition to meet the requirements of reproduction. One precondition of successful reproduction is arrival in time on the breeding grounds. Here, we study the intricate links among the date of initial spring arrival, body mass, sex, and the age of first breeding in the common tern Sterna hirundo, a long-lived migratory colonial seabird. The study is based on a unique, individual-based, long-term dataset of sexed birds, marked with transponders, which allow recording their individual arrival, overall attendance, and clutch initiation remotely and automatically year by year over the entire lifetime at the natal colony site. We show that the seasonal date of initial arrival at the breeding grounds predicts the individual age at first reproduction, which mostly occurs years later. Late first-time arrivals remain delayed birds throughout subsequent years. Our findings reveal that timing of arrival at the site of reproduction and timing of reproduction itself are coherent parameters of individual quality, which are linked with the prospects of the breeding career and may have consequences for fitness. PMID:18711134

  15. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim when...

  16. Sex differences in accuracy and precision when judging time to arrival: data from two Internet studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Geoff; Sinclair, Kamila

    2011-12-01

    We report two Internet studies that investigated sex differences in the accuracy and precision of judging time to arrival. We used accuracy to mean the ability to match the actual time to arrival and precision to mean the consistency with which each participant made their judgments. Our task was presented as a computer game in which a toy UFO moved obliquely towards the participant through a virtual three-dimensional space on route to a docking station. The UFO disappeared before docking and participants pressed their space bar at the precise moment they thought the UFO would have docked. Study 1 showed it was possible to conduct quantitative studies of spatiotemporal judgments in virtual reality via the Internet and confirmed reports that men are more accurate because women underestimate, but found no difference in precision measured as intra-participant variation. Study 2 repeated Study 1 with five additional presentations of one condition to provide a better measure of precision. Again, men were more accurate than women but there were no sex differences in precision. However, within the coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) literature, of those studies that report sex differences, a majority found that males are both more accurate and more precise than females. Noting that many CAT studies report no sex differences, we discuss appropriate interpretations of such null findings. While acknowledging that CAT performance may be influenced by experience we suggest that the sex difference may have originated among our ancestors with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting and women for gathering.

  17. Opportunistic maintenance considering non-homogenous opportunity arrivals and stochastic opportunity durations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong Ba, H.; Cholette, M.E.; Borghesani, P.; Zhou, Y.; Ma, L.

    2017-01-01

    Many systems and manufacturing processes undergo intermittent operation due to external factors (e.g. weather, low market prices), offering opportunities to conduct maintenance with reduced production losses. Making use of appropriate opportunities can thus lead to significant reduction in the total cost of maintenance and improvement in productivity. In this paper, an opportunistic maintenance (OM) model is developed considering two critical properties of real world opportunities: (i) non-homogeneous opportunity arrivals and (ii) stochastic opportunity duration. The model enables exploiting downtime cost savings from “partial” opportunities (stops shorter than the required maintenance time) thus extending the potential benefit of OM. The criteria for accepting maintenance opportunities are found by minimizing the single-cycle total cost. A closed form expression of the single-cycle total cost is derived for a given PM/OM policy and then a Genetic Algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. Numerical results are presented to assess the benefit of opportunistic maintenance and the marginal benefit of considering partial opportunities. Results indicate that significant savings can be achieved by considering OM. Moreover, it is shown that the novel consideration of partial opportunities significantly increase the benefit of OM. - Highlights: • Opportunistic and time-based preventive maintenance jointly optimized. • Non-homogeneous opportunity arrivals and stochastic durations considered. • “Partial” opportunities considered for the first time. • Opportunity duration thresholds used as a decision criterion. • Numerical study conducted to evaluate benefit of optimized policy.

  18. Effective Acceleration Model for the Arrival Time of Interplanetary Shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paouris, Evangelos; Mavromichalaki, Helen

    2017-12-01

    In a previous work (Paouris and Mavromichalaki in Solar Phys. 292, 30, 2017), we presented a total of 266 interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) with as much information as possible. We developed a new empirical model for estimating the acceleration of these events in the interplanetary medium from this analysis. In this work, we present a new approach on the effective acceleration model (EAM) for predicting the arrival time of the shock that preceds a CME, using data of a total of 214 ICMEs. For the first time, the projection effects of the linear speed of CMEs are taken into account in this empirical model, which significantly improves the prediction of the arrival time of the shock. In particular, the mean value of the time difference between the observed time of the shock and the predicted time was equal to +3.03 hours with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 18.58 hours and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 22.47 hours. After the improvement of this model, the mean value of the time difference is decreased to -0.28 hours with an MAE of 17.65 hours and an RMSE of 21.55 hours. This improved version was applied to a set of three recent Earth-directed CMEs reported in May, June, and July of 2017, and we compare our results with the values predicted by other related models.

  19. An unreliable group arrival queue with k stages of service, retrial under variant vacation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, J.; Indhira, K.; Chandrasekaran, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this research work we considered repairable retrial queue with group arrival and the server utilize the variant vacations. A server gives service in k stages. Any arriving group of units finds the server free, one from the group entering the first stage of service and the rest are joining into the orbit. After completion of the i th stage of service, the customer may have the option to choose (i+1)th stage of service with probability θi , with probability pi may join into orbit as feedback customer or may leave the system with probability {q}i=≤ft\\{\\begin{array}{l}1-{p}i-{θ }i,i=1,2,\\cdots k-1\\ 1-{p}i,i=k\\end{array}\\right\\}. If the orbit is empty at the service completion of each stage service, the server takes modified vacation until at least one customer appears in the orbit on the server returns from a vacation. Busy server may get to breakdown and the service channel will fail for a short interval of time. By using the supplementary variable method, steady state probability generating function for system size, some system performance measures are discussed.

  20. New arrivals to New York City: vulnerability to HIV among urban migrant young gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrak, Paul; Ponce, Rafael; Zielony, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study explored the social experiences and HIV-related sexual practices of 30 young gay and bisexual men who moved to New York City in the past 3 years from other countries or elsewhere in the United States. For many migrants, a key basis of vulnerability to HIV was their engagement with New York City's unfamiliar sexual culture. Many recent arrivals migrated from places with small gay communities and low HIV prevalence, and some came with a practice of limited condom use. Participants described encountering an abundance of sexual opportunity in New York City, accessible to even the newest arrivals through internet sex sites. Some migrants expressed surprise that few men they met were interested in dating or establishing trust before having sex. Although frequent HIV testing was common, HIV status, testing history, and condom use were seldom discussed with sex partners for some men even with new partners or before sex without condoms. International and in-country migrants who are beginning to navigate New York City's gay sexual culture may be more vulnerable to HIV infection than established residents if they are inexperienced in encountering vast sexual opportunity, are less practiced in local norms of sexual communication, or if their lack of economic resources or social connections encourages them to have sex for money or shelter. This article suggests HIV prevention interventions for urban migrants and other men who have sex with men.

  1. Ready...go: Amplitude of the FMRI signal encodes expectation of cue arrival time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cui

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available What happens when the brain awaits a signal of uncertain arrival time, as when a sprinter waits for the starting pistol? And what happens just after the starting pistol fires? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we have discovered a novel correlate of temporal expectations in several brain regions, most prominently in the supplementary motor area (SMA. Contrary to expectations, we found little fMRI activity during the waiting period; however, a large signal appears after the "go" signal, the amplitude of which reflects learned expectations about the distribution of possible waiting times. Specifically, the amplitude of the fMRI signal appears to encode a cumulative conditional probability, also known as the cumulative hazard function. The fMRI signal loses its dependence on waiting time in a "countdown" condition in which the arrival time of the go cue is known in advance, suggesting that the signal encodes temporal probabilities rather than simply elapsed time. The dependence of the signal on temporal expectation is present in "no-go" conditions, demonstrating that the effect is not a consequence of motor output. Finally, the encoding is not dependent on modality, operating in the same manner with auditory or visual signals. This finding extends our understanding of the relationship between temporal expectancy and measurable neural signals.

  2. SOUND-SPEED TOMOGRAPHY USING FIRST-ARRIVAL TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND FOR A RING ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG, LIANJIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; QUAN, YOULI [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-31

    Sound-speed tomography images can be used for cancer detection and diagnosis. Tumors have generally higher sound speeds than the surrounding tissue. Quality and resolution of tomography images are primarily determined by the insonification/illumination aperture of ultrasound and the capability of the tomography method for accurately handling heterogeneous nature of the breast. We investigate the capability of an efficient time-of-flight tomography method using transmission ultrasound from a ring array for reconstructing sound-speed images of the breast. The method uses first arrival times of transmitted ultrasonic signals emerging from non-beamforming ultrasound transducers located around a ring. It properly accounts for ray bending within the breast by solving the eikonal equation using a finite-difference scheme. We test and validate the time-of-flight transmission tomography method using synthetic data for numerical breast phantoms containing various objects. In our simulation, the objects are immersed in water within a ring array. Two-dimensional synthetic data are generated using a finite-difference scheme to solve acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media. We study the reconstruction accuracy of the tomography method for objects with different sizes and shapes as well as different perturbations from the surrounding medium. In addition, we also address some specific data processing issues related to the tomography. Our tomography results demonstrate that the first-arrival transmission tomography method can accurately reconstruct objects larger than approximately five wavelengths of the incident ultrasound using a ring array.

  3. Thermal-hydraulic behaviors of vapor-liquid interface due to arrival of a pressure wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Akira; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    In the vapor explosion, a pressure wave (shock wave) plays a fundamental role for triggering, propagation and enhancement of the explosion. Energy of the explosion is related to the magnitude of heat transfer rate from hot liquid to cold volatile one. This is related to an increasing rate of interface area and to an amount of transient heat flux between the liquids. In this study, the characteristics of transient heat transfer and behaviors of vapor film both on the platinum tube and on the hot melt tin drop, under same boundary conditions have been investigated. It is considered that there exists a fundamental mechanism of the explosion in the initial expansion process of the hot liquid drop immediately after arrival of pressure wave. The growth rate of the vapor film is much faster on the hot liquid than that on the solid surface. Two kinds of roughness were observed, one due to the Taylor instability, by rapid growth of the explosion bubble, and another, nucleation sites were observed at the vapor-liquid interface. Based on detailed observation of early stage interface behaviors after arrival of a pressure wave, the thermal fragmentation mechanism is proposed.

  4. Assessing the burden of intestinal parasites affecting newly arrived immigrants in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Ismail, Ahmed; Boughattas, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    In the last decades, the enormous influx of immigrants to industrialized countries has led to outbreaks of parasitic diseases, with enteric infections being amongst the most frequently encountered. In its strategy to control such infection, Qatar has established the Pre-Employment Certificate (PEC) program which requires medical inspection before arrival in Qatar and which is mandatory for immigrant workers travelling to the country. To assess the reliability of the PEC, we conducted a survey of intestinal parasites, based on examination of stool samples provided by immigrant workers (n = 2,486) recently arrived in Qatar. Overall prevalence of helminths was 7.0% and that of protozoa was 11.7%. Prevalence of combined helminths was highest among the western Asians and the highest prevalence of combined protozoan parasites was among workers from North to Saharan Africa. Analysis of temporal changes showed an increasing trend of protozoan infections over the investigated 3 years. A major contribution to this temporal change in prevalence came from Blastocystis hominis as well as from other protozoan species: Giardia duodenalis and Endolimax nana. Analysis of the temporal trend in species richness of the protozoan species showed a significant increase in the mean number of species harboured per subject across this period. The increase of protozoan infections over recent years raises some concerns. It suggests that screening protocols for applicants for visas/work permits needs to be revised giving more careful attention to the intestinal protozoan infections that potential immigrants may harbor.

  5. THE NANOGRAV NINE-YEAR DATA SET: EXCESS NOISE IN MILLISECOND PULSAR ARRIVAL TIMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, M. T.; Jones, M. L.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Pennucci, T. T. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S. [Department of Astronomy and Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Arzoumanian, Z. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology and X-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Crowter, K.; Fonseca, E.; Gonzalez, M. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Demorest, P. B. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM, 87801 (United States); Dolch, T. [Department of Physics, Hillsdale College, 33 E. College Street, Hillsdale, MI 49242 (United States); Ellis, J. A [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA, 91109 (United States); Ferdman, R. D. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue Universite, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Jones, G. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Levin, L. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Madison, D. R.; Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Shannon, R. M., E-mail: michael.lam@mail.wvu.edu [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); and others

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational wave (GW) astronomy using a pulsar timing array requires high-quality millisecond pulsars (MSPs), correctable interstellar propagation delays, and high-precision measurements of pulse times of arrival. Here we identify noise in timing residuals that exceeds that predicted for arrival time estimation for MSPs observed by the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves. We characterize the excess noise using variance and structure function analyses. We find that 26 out of 37 pulsars show inconsistencies with a white-noise-only model based on the short timescale analysis of each pulsar, and we demonstrate that the excess noise has a red power spectrum for 15 pulsars. We also decompose the excess noise into chromatic (radio-frequency-dependent) and achromatic components. Associating the achromatic red-noise component with spin noise and including additional power-spectrum-based estimates from the literature, we estimate a scaling law in terms of spin parameters (frequency and frequency derivative) and data-span length and compare it to the scaling law of Shannon and Cordes. We briefly discuss our results in terms of detection of GWs at nanohertz frequencies.

  6. Cost analysis of measles in refugees arriving at Los Angeles International Airport from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Margaret S; Burke, Heather M; Welstead, Bethany L; Mitchell, Tarissa; Taylor, Eboni M; Shapovalov, Dmitry; Maskery, Brian A; Joo, Heesoo; Weinberg, Michelle

    2017-05-04

    Background On August 24, 2011, 31 US-bound refugees from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL) arrived in Los Angeles. One of them was diagnosed with measles post-arrival. He exposed others during a flight, and persons in the community while disembarking and seeking medical care. As a result, 9 cases of measles were identified. Methods We estimated costs of response to this outbreak and conducted a comparative cost analysis examining what might have happened had all US-bound refugees been vaccinated before leaving Malaysia. Results State-by-state costs differed and variously included vaccination, hospitalization, medical visits, and contact tracing with costs ranging from $621 to $35,115. The total of domestic and IOM Malaysia reported costs for US-bound refugees were $137,505 [range: $134,531 - $142,777 from a sensitivity analysis]. Had all US-bound refugees been vaccinated while in Malaysia, it would have cost approximately $19,646 and could have prevented 8 measles cases. Conclusion A vaccination program for US-bound refugees, supporting a complete vaccination for US-bound refugees, could improve refugees' health, reduce importations of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States, and avert measles response activities and costs.

  7. Investigation, Modeling, and Analysis of Integrated Metroplex Arrival and Departure Coordination Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John-Paul B.; Brooks, James; McClain, Evan; Paladhi, Anwesha Roy; Li, Leihong; Schleicher, David; Saraf, Aditya; Timar, Sebastian; Crisp, Don; Bertino, Jason; hide

    2012-01-01

    This work involves the development of a concept that enhances integrated metroplex arrival and departure coordination, determines the temporal (the use of time separation for aircraft sharing the same airspace resources) and spatial (the use of different routes or vertical profiles for aircraft streams at any given time) impact of metroplex traffic coordination within the National Airspace System (NAS), and quantifies the benefits of the most desirable metroplex traffic coordination concept. Researching and developing metroplex concepts is addressed in this work that broadly applies across the range of airspace and airport demand characteristics envisioned for NextGen metroplex operations. The objective of this work is to investigate, formulate, develop models, and analyze an operational concept that mitigates issues specific to the metroplex or that takes advantage of unique characteristics of metroplex airports to improve efficiencies. The concept is an innovative approach allowing the NAS to mitigate metroplex interdependencies between airports, optimize metroplex arrival and departure coordination among airports, maximize metroplex airport throughput, minimize delay due to airport runway configuration changes, increase resiliency to disruptions, and increase the tolerance of the system to degrade gracefully under adverse conditions such as weather, traffic management initiatives, and delays in general.

  8. Mitochondrial haplogroup H1 in north Africa: an early holocene arrival from Iberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ottoni

    Full Text Available The Tuareg of the Fezzan region (Libya are characterized by an extremely high frequency (61% of haplogroup H1, a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup that is common in all Western European populations. To define how and when H1 spread from Europe to North Africa up to the Central Sahara, in Fezzan, we investigated the complete mitochondrial genomes of eleven Libyan Tuareg belonging to H1. Coalescence time estimates suggest an arrival of the European H1 mtDNAs at about 8,000-9,000 years ago, while phylogenetic analyses reveal three novel H1 branches, termed H1v, H1w and H1x, which appear to be specific for North African populations, but whose frequencies can be extremely different even in relatively close Tuareg villages. Overall, these findings support the scenario of an arrival of haplogroup H1 in North Africa from Iberia at the beginning of the Holocene, as a consequence of the improvement in climate conditions after the Younger Dryas cold snap, followed by in situ formation of local H1 sub-haplogroups. This process of autochthonous differentiation continues in the Libyan Tuareg who, probably due to isolation and recent founder events, are characterized by village-specific maternal mtDNA lineages.

  9. Extinction and recolonization of coastal megafauna following human arrival in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Catherine J; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Prost, Stefan; Anderson, Christian N K; Knapp, Michael; Scofield, R Paul; Robertson, Bruce C; Smith, Ian; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Chilvers, B Louise; Waters, Jonathan M

    2014-07-07

    Extinctions can dramatically reshape biological communities. As a case in point, ancient mass extinction events apparently facilitated dramatic new evolutionary radiations of surviving lineages. However, scientists have yet to fully understand the consequences of more recent biological upheaval, such as the megafaunal extinctions that occurred globally over the past 50 kyr. New Zealand was the world's last large landmass to be colonized by humans, and its exceptional archaeological record documents a vast number of vertebrate extinctions in the immediate aftermath of Polynesian arrival approximately AD 1280. This recently colonized archipelago thus presents an outstanding opportunity to test for rapid biological responses to extinction. Here, we use ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis to show that extinction of an endemic sea lion lineage (Phocarctos spp.) apparently facilitated a subsequent northward range expansion of a previously subantarctic-limited lineage. This finding parallels a similar extinction-replacement event in penguins (Megadyptes spp.). In both cases, an endemic mainland clade was completely eliminated soon after human arrival, and then replaced by a genetically divergent clade from the remote subantarctic region, all within the space of a few centuries. These data suggest that ecological and demographic processes can play a role in constraining lineage distributions, even for highly dispersive species, and highlight the potential for dynamic biological responses to extinction. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of MUSIC algorithm for angle of arrival estimation in wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohanna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart Antennas are phased array antennas with smart signal processing algorithms used to identify the angle of arrival (AOA of the signal, which can be used subsequently to calculate beam-forming vectors needed to track and locate the intended mobile set. This concept is called space division multiple access (SDMA which enables a higher capacity and data rates for all modern wireless communications by focusing the antenna beam on the intended user. This enables wide coverage and very low interference and also adding new applications like location based services. MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC is a well-known high resolution eigen structure method, extensively used to estimate the number of signals, and their angles of arrival. In this paper we investigate the possibility of optimization of some key parameters of the MUSIC algorithm that can enhance the performance of the estimation process. This leads to an increased accuracy in determining the directions of multiple users and beam-forming (Gross, 2005.

  11. Marginal Bayesian nonparametric model for time to disease arrival of threatened amphibian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haiming; Hanson, Timothy; Knapp, Roland

    2015-12-01

    The global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the extinction of hundreds of amphibian species worldwide. It has become increasingly important to be able to precisely predict time to Bd arrival in a population. The data analyzed herein present a unique challenge in terms of modeling because there is a strong spatial component to Bd arrival time and the traditional proportional hazards assumption is grossly violated. To address these concerns, we develop a novel marginal Bayesian nonparametric survival model for spatially correlated right-censored data. This class of models assumes that the logarithm of survival times marginally follow a mixture of normal densities with a linear-dependent Dirichlet process prior as the random mixing measure, and their joint distribution is induced by a Gaussian copula model with a spatial correlation structure. To invert high-dimensional spatial correlation matrices, we adopt a full-scale approximation that can capture both large- and small-scale spatial dependence. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with delayed rejection is proposed for posterior computation, and an R package spBayesSurv is provided to fit the model. This approach is first evaluated through simulations, then applied to threatened frog populations in Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Positioning performance analysis of the time sum of arrival algorithm with error features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feng-xun; Ma, Yan-qiu

    2018-03-01

    The theoretical positioning accuracy of multilateration (MLAT) with the time difference of arrival (TDOA) algorithm is very high. However, there are some problems in practical applications. Here we analyze the location performance of the time sum of arrival (TSOA) algorithm from the root mean square error ( RMSE) and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) environment. The TSOA localization model is constructed. Using it, the distribution of location ambiguity region is presented with 4-base stations. And then, the location performance analysis is started from the 4-base stations with calculating the RMSE and GDOP variation. Subsequently, when the location parameters are changed in number of base stations, base station layout and so on, the performance changing patterns of the TSOA location algorithm are shown. So, the TSOA location characteristics and performance are revealed. From the RMSE and GDOP state changing trend, the anti-noise performance and robustness of the TSOA localization algorithm are proved. The TSOA anti-noise performance will be used for reducing the blind-zone and the false location rate of MLAT systems.

  13. Relationship between coronal holes and high speed streams at L1: arrival times, durations, and intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Bu, X.; Liu, S.; Gong, J.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal holes are sources of high-speed steams (HSS) of solar wind. When coronal holes appear at mid/low latitudes on the Sun, consequential HSSs may impact Earth and cause recurrent geospace environment disturbances, such as geomagnetic storms, relativistic electron enhancements at the geosynchronous orbit, and thermosphere density enhancements. Thus, it is of interests for space weather forecasters to predict when (arrival times), how long (time durations), and how severe (intensities) HSSs may impact Earth when they notice coronal holes on the sun and are anticipating their geoeffectiveness. In this study, relationship between coronal holes and high speed streams will be statistically investigated. Several coronal hole parameters, including passage times of solar central meridian, coronal hole longitudinal widths, intensities reflected by mean brightness, are derived using Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images for years 2011 to 2016. These parameters will be correlated with in-situ solar wind measurements measured at the L1 point by the ACE spacecraft, which can give some results that are useful for space weather forecaster in predicting the arrival times, durations, and intensities of coronal hole high-speed streams in about 3 days advance.

  14. The Young-Feynman two-slits experiment with single electrons: Build-up of the interference pattern and arrival-time distribution using a fast-readout pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frabboni, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-Institute of Nanoscience-S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Gabrielli, Alessandro [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Institute of Nanoscience-S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Giorgi, Filippo [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Matteucci, Giorgio [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Pozzi, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.pozzi@unibo.it [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cesari, Nicola Semprini; Villa, Mauro; Zoccoli, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    The two-slits experiment for single electrons has been carried out by inserting in a conventional transmission electron microscope a thick sample with two nano-slits fabricated by Focused Ion Beam technique and a fast recording system able to measure the electron arrival-time. The detector, designed for experiments in future colliders, is based on a custom CMOS chip equipped with a fast readout chain able to manage up to 10{sup 6} frames per second. In this way, high statistic samples of single electron events can be collected within a time interval short enough to measure the distribution of the electron arrival-times and to observe the build-up of the interference pattern. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the first results obtained regarding the two-slits Young-Feynman experiment with single electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use two nano-slits fabricated by Focused Ion Beam technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We insert in the transmission electron microscope a detector, designed for experiments in future colliders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We record the build-up of high statistic single electron interference patterns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measure the time distribution of electron arrivals.

  15. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Bender, C.E.; James, E.M.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.A.; Broderick, D.F.; Welch, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  16. Improved modified energy ratio method using a multi-window approach for accurate arrival picking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minho; Byun, Joongmoo; Kim, Dowan; Choi, Jihun; Kim, Myungsun

    2017-04-01

    To identify accurately the location of microseismic events generated during hydraulic fracture stimulation, it is necessary to detect the first break of the P- and S-wave arrival times recorded at multiple receivers. These microseismic data often contain high-amplitude noise, which makes it difficult to identify the P- and S-wave arrival times. The short-term-average to long-term-average (STA/LTA) and modified energy ratio (MER) methods are based on the differences in the energy densities of the noise and signal, and are widely used to identify the P-wave arrival times. The MER method yields more consistent results than the STA/LTA method for data with a low signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. However, although the MER method shows good results regardless of the delay of the signal wavelet for signals with a high S/N ratio, it may yield poor results if the signal is contaminated by high-amplitude noise and does not have the minimum delay. Here we describe an improved MER (IMER) method, whereby we apply a multiple-windowing approach to overcome the limitations of the MER method. The IMER method contains calculations of an additional MER value using a third window (in addition to the original MER window), as well as the application of a moving average filter to each MER data point to eliminate high-frequency fluctuations in the original MER distributions. The resulting distribution makes it easier to apply thresholding. The proposed IMER method was applied to synthetic and real datasets with various S/N ratios and mixed-delay wavelets. The results show that the IMER method yields a high accuracy rate of around 80% within five sample errors for the synthetic datasets. Likewise, in the case of real datasets, 94.56% of the P-wave picking results obtained by the IMER method had a deviation of less than 0.5 ms (corresponding to 2 samples) from the manual picks.

  17. Predicting Ambulance Time of Arrival to the Emergency Department Using Global Positioning System and Google Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Ross J.; Lundquist, Mark; Jui, Jonathan; Newgard, Craig D.; Warden, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a model that accurately predicts ambulance arrival time that could be implemented as a Google Maps web application. Methods This was a retrospective study of all scene transports in Multnomah County, Oregon, from January 1 through December 31, 2008. Scene and destination hospital addresses were converted to coordinates. ArcGIS Network Analyst was used to estimate transport times based on street network speed limits. We then created a linear regression model to improve the accuracy of these street network estimates using weather, patient characteristics, use of lights and sirens, daylight, and rush-hour intervals. The model was derived from a 50% sample and validated on the remainder. Significance of the covariates was determined by p times recorded by computer-aided dispatch. We then built a Google Maps-based web application to demonstrate application in real-world EMS operations. Results There were 48,308 included transports. Street network estimates of transport time were accurate within 5 minutes of actual transport time less than 16% of the time. Actual transport times were longer during daylight and rush-hour intervals and shorter with use of lights and sirens. Age under 18 years, gender, wet weather, and trauma system entry were not significant predictors of transport time. Our model predicted arrival time within 5 minutes 73% of the time. For lights and sirens transports, accuracy was within 5 minutes 77% of the time. Accuracy was identical in the validation dataset. Lights and sirens saved an average of 3.1 minutes for transports under 8.8 minutes, and 5.3 minutes for longer transports. Conclusions An estimate of transport time based only on a street network significantly underestimated transport times. A simple model incorporating few variables can predict ambulance time of arrival to the emergency department with good accuracy. This model could be linked to global positioning system data and an automated Google Maps web

  18. Comparison of Muon Arrival Time Distributions measured in KASCADE Experiment with Monte Carlo Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badea, A.F.; Brancus, I.M.; Haeusler, R.; Rebel, H.

    2000-01-01

    The muon arrival time distributions of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) have been studied in KASCADE experiment by data collected in the period October 1997 - April 1999 with more than 3.4 millions of reconstructed showers. The radial distance of the shower center from the central detector has been selected smaller than 110 m. The experimental muon arrival time distributions are compared with simulations of the air shower development, calculated with the Monte Carlo air shower simulation program CORSIKA. The actual calculations are based on the QGSJET model and cover an energy range of 5·10 14 - 3.06·10 16 eV (divided in 7 overlapping energy bins) and a zenith angle range of 0 angle - 40 angle. They are performed for three mass groups: H = light group, O = CNO group, Fe = heavy group) with an energy distribution of a spectral index of -2.7. The simulations comprise a set of ≅ 2000$ showers for each case, except for the bins of the highest energies (6.51·10 15 - 1.82·10 16 eV with ≅1000$ simulated showers and 1.09·10 16 - 3.06·10 16 eV with ≅ 500 simulated showers). The response of the KASCADE detector system and the timing qualities have been simulated using the CRES program, dedicatedly developed by the KASCADE group on the basis of the GEANT code. The particles of the simulated EAS are tracked through the detector setup and the timing response of the detectors are recorded for various core distances from the central detector facilities. Particularly, it should be noted that the timing depends on the energy deposit in the scintillation detectors and on the multiplicities of the muon samples spanning the arrival time distributions of the single EAS. Such effects slightly distorts the measured time distributions and have been corrected by introducing a corresponding correction procedure. The dependence of the experimental and simulated median time values on the N μ tr range, as being proportional to the primary energy, is presented. The good agreement of the

  19. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  20. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Julián Ernesto Nicolás; Rocco, Daniela Marisa; García-Bournissen, Facundo

    2015-11-01

    Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%). Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction.

  1. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Ernesto Nicolás Gulin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%. Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction.

  2. The optimal control in batch arrival queue with server vacations, startup and breakdowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Jau-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the N policy M[x]/G/1 queue with server vacations; startup and breakdowns, where arrivals form a compound Poisson process and service times are generally distributed. The server is turned off and takes a vacation whenever the system is empty. If the number of customers waiting in the system at the instant of a vacation completion is less than N, the server will take another vacation. If the server returns from a vacation and finds at least N customers in the system, he is immediately turned on and requires a startup time before providing the service until the system is empty again. It is assumed that the server breaks down according to a Poisson process whose repair time has a general distribution. The system characteristics of such a model are analyzed and the total expected cost function per unit time is developed to determine the optimal threshold of N at a minimum cost.

  3. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Coherent Sources via Sparse Bayesian Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Meng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatial filtering-based relevance vector machine (RVM is proposed in this paper to separate coherent sources and estimate their directions-of-arrival (DOA, with the filter parameters and DOA estimates initialized and refined via sparse Bayesian learning. The RVM is used to exploit the spatial sparsity of the incident signals and gain improved adaptability to much demanding scenarios, such as low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, limited snapshots, and spatially adjacent sources, and the spatial filters are introduced to enhance global convergence of the original RVM in the case of coherent sources. The proposed method adapts to arbitrary array geometry, and simulation results show that it surpasses the existing methods in DOA estimation performance.

  4. Newly arrived elderly immigrants: a concept analysis of "aging out of place".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Tina R; Jun, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Newcomer elderly immigrants, defined as adults older than the age of 65 who have arrived in the United States in the last 10 years, represent a growing sector of the American population. Newcomers who experience limited English proficiency, financial strain, and acculturative stress are at considerable risk of developing poor health outcomes. Nursing's focus on healthy aging and aging in place has largely ignored the experiences of these older adults, who are said to be "aging out of place." This concept analysis uses Rodgers's evolutionary method to define "aging out of place" and illustrates why existing theories of elderly migration do not necessarily apply to this population. The challenge for nurses is incorporating the family, with whom conflict may arise, into the care of these elders. Community-based strategies that enable social integration and create a greater division of labor in the care of newcomer elders are called for. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Absence of Loa loa Microfilaremia among Newly Arrived Congolese Refugees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montour, Jessica; Lee, Deborah; Snider, Cathy; Jentes, Emily S; Stauffer, William

    2017-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that refugees at risk of Loa loa infection be tested for microfilaria before treatment with ivermectin. We report observational results of this approach in African refugees in Texas. Daytime blood smears were performed for microfilaria on at-risk African refugees who arrived in Texas from July 1, 2014 through December 30, 2016. Clinics were asked if there were any adverse events reported among those who received ivermectin. Of the 422 persons screened, 346 (82%) were born in L. loa -endemic countries, with 332 (96%) of these being born in the Democratic Republic of Congo. No smears detected microfilaria, and all received presumptive ivermectin with no reports of significant adverse events. In this investigation, the prevalence of significant microfilarial load in sub-Saharan African refugees appeared to be low, and ivermectin treatment was safe and well tolerated.

  6. Diabetes among refugee populations: what newly arriving refugees can learn from resettled Cambodians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Berthold, S Megan; Buckley, Thomas; Kong, Sengly; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that cardiometabolic disease generally and type 2 diabetes specifically are problems among refugee groups. This paper reviews rates of cardiometabolic disease and type 2 diabetes among refugees and highlights their unique risk factors including history of malnutrition, psychiatric disorders, psychiatric medications, lifestyle changes toward urbanization and industrialization, social isolation, and a poor profile on the social determinants of health. Promising interventions are presented for preventing and treating diabetes in these groups. Such interventions emphasize well-coordinated medical and mental health care delivered by cross-cultural and multidisciplinary teams including community health workers that are well integrated into the community. Finally, recommendations for service, policy, and research are made. The authors draw on local data and clinical experience of our collective work with Cambodian American refugees whose 30-year trajectory illustrates the consequences of ignoring diabetes and its risk factors in more recent, and soon to be arriving, refugee cohorts.

  7. A Robust Real Time Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Method for Sequential Movement Events of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Baoqing; Yuan, Xiaobing; Zhou, Qianwei; Huang, Jingchang

    2018-03-27

    Parameters estimation of sequential movement events of vehicles is facing the challenges of noise interferences and the demands of portable implementation. In this paper, we propose a robust direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method for the sequential movement events of vehicles based on a small Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) microphone array system. Inspired by the incoherent signal-subspace method (ISM), the method that is proposed in this work employs multiple sub-bands, which are selected from the wideband signals with high magnitude-squared coherence to track moving vehicles in the presence of wind noise. The field test results demonstrate that the proposed method has a better performance in emulating the DOA of a moving vehicle even in the case of severe wind interference than the narrowband multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method, the sub-band DOA estimation method, and the classical two-sided correlation transformation (TCT) method.

  8. Acoustic multipath arrivals in the horizontal plane due to approaching nonlinear internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiey, Mohsen; Katsnelson, Boris G; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Lynch, James F

    2011-04-01

    Simultaneous measurements of acoustic wave transmissions and a nonlinear internal wave packet approaching an along-shelf acoustic path during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment are reported. The incoming internal wave packet acts as a moving frontal layer reflecting (or refracting) sound in the horizontal plane. Received acoustic signals are filtered into acoustic normal mode arrivals. It is shown that a horizontal multipath interference is produced. This has previously been called a horizontal Lloyd's mirror. The interference between the direct path and the refracted path depends on the mode number and frequency of the acoustic signal. A mechanism for the multipath interference is shown. Preliminary modeling results of this dynamic interaction using vertical modes and horizontal parabolic equation models are in good agreement with the observed data.

  9. Ship Lock as General Queuing System with Batch Arrivals and Batch Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Radmilović

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The real lock operations with ships and barge convoys areconsidered dependent on the transport technologies applied, ormore precisely, the kinds of ships/convoys requiring thelockage. The fleet can be divided as follows: (1 groups of singleships, (2 pushed and pulled tows of barges and (3 differentcombinations of previous systems (1 and (2. The groups ofships and tows passing through the lock have extremely stochasticcharacteristics thus forming various arrivals and setvicetime patterns. It means that uniform navigation or strongscheduling between locks and lock operations are not possibleeven though highly sophisticated equipment is at disposal.Therefore, in this paper an analytical method was developedusing bulk queuing systems for the analysis and planning oflock requirements supporting it with numerical example. Thedeveloped methodology can be applied to determine the meanqueue length of ships - convoys at lock anchorage, withoutblocking behaviour between upstream and downstream navigationfor single-lane traffic.

  10. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  11. Tracking Positioning Algorithm for Direction of Arrival Based on Direction Lock Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of poor real-time performance, low accuracy and high computational complexity in the traditional process of locating and tracking of Direction of Arrival (DOA of moving targets, this paper proposes a DOA algorithm based on the Direction Lock Loop (DILL which adopts Lock Loop structure to realize the estimation and location of DOA and can adjust the direction automatically along with the changes of a signal’s angular variation to track the position of the signal. Meanwhile, to reduce the influence of nonlinearity and noise on its performance, the UKF filter is designed for eliminating interference of the estimated target signal to improve accuracy of the signal tracking and stability of the system. Simulation results prove that the algorithm can not only get a high resolution DOA estimate signal, but can also locate and track multiple mobile targets effectively with enhanced accuracy, efficiency and stability.

  12. Novel Diagonal Reloading Based Direction of Arrival Estimation in Unknown Non-Uniform Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nested array can expand the degrees of freedom (DOF from difference coarray perspective, but suffering from the performance degradation of direction of arrival (DOA estimation in unknown non-uniform noise. In this paper, a novel diagonal reloading (DR based DOA estimation algorithm is proposed using a recently developed nested MIMO array. The elements in the main diagonal of the sample covariance matrix are eliminated; next the smallest MN-K eigenvalues of the revised matrix are obtained and averaged to estimate the sum value of the signal power. Further the estimated sum value is filled into the main diagonal of the revised matrix for estimating the signal covariance matrix. In this case, the negative effect of noise is eliminated without losing the useful information of the signal matrix. Besides, the degrees of freedom are expanded obviously, resulting in the performance improvement. Several simulations are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. From forced migration to forced arrival: the campization of refugee accommodation in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreichauf, René

    2018-01-01

    In the aftermath of large refugee arrivals in 2015, EU regulations and national asylum laws were tightened, especially those regarding reception and accommodation. The current contribution introduces the concept of "campization" to explain the impact of law and policy changes on the socio-spatial configuration and functions of refugee accommodation in European capital regions. Based on qualitative research concerning case studies for Athens, Berlin, and Copenhagen, I argue that refugee accommodation has increasingly been transformed into large, camp-like structures with lowered living standards and a closed character. This is shown by the structural, functional, and socio-spatial characteristics of the accommodation in the three case studies, as well as the political and administrative objectives that determine the campization of accommodation. The contribution lastly highlights changing notions and forms of containment, exclusion, and temporality as part of campization, and links this process to current trends in asylum and urban development.

  14. Outer Radiation Belt Dropout Dynamics Following the Arrival of Two Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Souza, V. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Jauer, P. R.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Walsh, B. M.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Marchezi, J. P.; Rockenbach, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions are recognized as the two primary mechanisms for losses of electrons from the outer radiation belt. We investigate these mechanisms, sing satellite observations both in interplanetary space and within the magnetosphere and particle drift modeling. Two interplanetary shocks sheaths impinged upon the magnetopause causing a relativistic electron flux dropout. The magnetic cloud (C) and interplanetary structure sunward of the MC had primarily northward magnetic field, perhaps leading to a concomitant lack of substorm activity and a 10 day long quiescent period. The arrival of two shocks caused an unusual electron flux dropout. Test-particle simulations have shown 2 to 5 MeV energy, equatorially mirroring electrons with initial values of L 5.5can be lost to the magnetosheath via magnetopause shadowing alone. For electron losses at lower L-shells, coherent chorus wave-driven pitch angle scattering and ULF wave-driven radial transport have been shownto be viable mechanisms.

  15. Stephen K. Robinson arrives at KSC for the STS-95 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, arrives at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet as part of final preparations for launch. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC on Nov. 7. The other STS-95 crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA).

  16. Exploring the mental health effects of political trauma with newly arrived refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patricia J; Wieling, Elizabeth; McCleary, Jennifer Simmelink; Becher, Emily

    2015-04-01

    We explored the mental health effects of war trauma and torture as described by 111 refugees newly arrived in the United States. We used ethnocultural methodologies to inform 13 culture-specific focus groups with refugees from Bhutan (34), Burma (23), Ethiopia (27), and Somalia (27). Contrary to the belief that stigma prevents refugees from discussing mental health distress, participants readily described complex conceptualizations of degrees of mental health distress informed by political context, observation of symptoms, cultural idioms, and functional impairment. Recommendations for health care providers include assessment processes that inquire about symptoms in their political context, the degree of distress as it is culturally conceptualized, and its effect on functioning. Findings confirm the cross-cultural recognition of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; however, refugees described significant cultural variation in expressions of distress, indicating the need for more research on culture-bound disorders and idioms of distress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Augmented Lagrange Programming Neural Network for Localization Using Time-Difference-of-Arrival Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zifa; Leung, Chi Sing; So, Hing Cheung; Constantinides, Anthony George

    2017-08-15

    A commonly used measurement model for locating a mobile source is time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA). As each TDOA measurement defines a hyperbola, it is not straightforward to compute the mobile source position due to the nonlinear relationship in the measurements. This brief exploits the Lagrange programming neural network (LPNN), which provides a general framework to solve nonlinear constrained optimization problems, for the TDOA-based localization. The local stability of the proposed LPNN solution is also analyzed. Simulation results are included to evaluate the localization accuracy of the LPNN scheme by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods and the optimality benchmark of Cramér-Rao lower bound.

  18. A single-server Markovian queuing system with discouraged arrivals and retention of reneged customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer impatience has a very negative impact on the queuing system under investigation. If we talk from business point of view, the firms lose their potential customers due to customer impatience, which affects their business as a whole. If the firms employ certain customer retention strategies, then there are chances that a certain fraction of impatient customers can be retained in the queuing system. A reneged customer may be convinced to stay in the queuing system for his further service with some probability, say q and he may abandon the queue without receiving the service with a probability p(=1− q. A finite waiting space Markovian single-server queuing model with discouraged arrivals, reneging and retention of reneged customers is studied. The steady state solution of the model is derived iteratively. The measures of effectiveness of the queuing model are also obtained. Some important queuing models are derived as special cases of this model.

  19. Pickup design for high bandwidth bunch arrival-time monitors in free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar; Penirschke, Andreas; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik; Kuhl, Alexander; Schnepp, Sascha [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Graduate School of Computational Engineering; Bock, Marie Kristin; Bousonville, Michael; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2012-07-01

    The increased demands for low bunch charge operation mode in the free-electron lasers (FELs) require an upgrade of the existing synchronization equipment. As a part of the laser-based synchronization system, the bunch arrival-time monitors (BAMs) should have a sub-10 femtosecond precision for high and low bunch charge operation. In order to fulfill the resolution demands for both modes of operation, the bandwidth of such a BAM should be increased up to a cutoff frequency of 40 GHz. In this talk, we present the design and the realization of high bandwidth cone-shaped pickup electrodes as a part of the BAM for the FEL in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). The proposed pickup was simulated with CST STUDIO SUITE, and a non-hermetic model was built up for radio frequency (rf) measurements.

  20. Novel Direction Of Arrival Estimation Method Based on Coherent Accumulation Matrix Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on coherent accumulation matrix reconstruction, a novel Direction Of Arrival (DOA estimation decorrelation method of coherent signals is proposed using a small sample. First, the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR is improved by performing coherent accumulation operation on an array of observed data. Then, according to the structure characteristics of the accumulated snapshot vector, the equivalent covariance matrix, whose rank is the same as the number of array elements, is constructed. The rank of this matrix is proved to be determined just by the number of incident signals, which realize the decorrelation of coherent signals. Compared with spatial smoothing method, the proposed method performs better by effectively avoiding aperture loss with high-resolution characteristics and low computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Effect of milk sample delivery methods and arrival conditions on bacterial contamination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, R P; English, P B; Matthews, J C; Sears, P M

    1990-07-01

    A cross sectional study was performed of factors believed to contribute to the contamination of bovine milk sample cultures submitted to the Ithaca Regional Laboratory of the Quality Milk Promotion Services/New York State Mastitis Control. Of 871 samples entered in the study, 137 (15.7%) were contaminated. There were interactions between the sample source (veterinarian vs dairyman), delivery method, and time between sample collection and arrival at the laboratory. If only those samples collected and hand delivered by the dairyman within 1 day of collection were compared to a like subset of samples collected and hand delivered by veterinarians, no statistically significant differences in milk sample contamination rate (MSCR) were found. Samples were delivered to the laboratory by hand, US Postal Service, United Parcel Service, via the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine Diagnostic Laboratory, or Northeast Dairy Herd Improvement Association Courier. The MSCR was only 7.6% for hand delivered samples, while 26% of Postal Service samples were contaminated. These rates differed significantly from other delivery methods (P less than 0.0001). The USPS samples arrived a longer time after sampling than did samples sent by other routes, and time had a significant effect on MSCR (0 to 1 day, 8.9%; greater than 1 day, 25.9%; P less than 0.01). Samples packaged with ice packs sent by routes other than the Postal Service had a lower MSCR than those not packaged with ice packs, but ice packs did not reduce the MSCR for samples sent by the Postal Service.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. A Study of the Interplanetary Signatures of Earth-Arriving CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Makela, P. A.; Kay, C.

    2017-12-01

    We studied interplanetary (IP) signatures associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to reach Earth. In order to find Earth- arriving CMEs, we started with disk-center CMEs originating within 30 degrees from the central meridian and the equator. Using the side-view images from the STEREO mission, we excluded CMEs that faded out before reaching the Earth orbit, or were captured by other CMEs, or erupted away from the ecliptic plane. We found 61 Earth- arriving CMEs during 2009/10/01 - 2012/07/31 (inclusive). Though all events were observed to reach Earth in the STEREO/HI2 field of view, only 34 out of 61 events (56%) were associated with magnetic cloud (MC) or ejecta (EJ) observed by ACE or Wind. We compared the CME characteristics associated with 9 MCs, 25 EJs, and 27 no- clear- signature (NCS) events to find out what might cause the difference in the IP signatures. To avoid projection effects, we used coronagraph images obtained by the STEREO mission. The average speed (width) of CMEs associated with MCs, EJs, and NCSs are 484 km/s (104°), 663 km/s (135°), and 595 km/s (144°), respectively. CMEs associated with MCs tend to be less energetic than other types in our dataset. We also checked the coronal holes (CHs) near the CME source to examine the effect of the CME deflection. In the case of MCs and EJs, only 22% (2/9) and 28% (7/25) events have CHs near the source, while 48% (13/27) NCS events have nearby CHs. We discuss what factors near the Sun cause the observed differences at Earth.

  3. An ESS treatment of the pattern of female arrival at the mating site in the yellow dung fly scathophaga stercoraria (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter; Ward; Blanckenhorn

    1998-12-07

    In most previous work on the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.), as on other species, adaptive explanations have been sought for male behaviour whereas female behaviour has not been examined in similar detail. Here, the arrival of females at the mating site, fresh cattle droppings, is investigated. While almost all males are present shortly after pat deposition females arrive at a low, decreasing rate over an interval of about 5 hours. We propose that the distribution of female arrival times represents a mixed Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS), formed by different trade-offs between costs and benefits of early and late arrival. Early arrival could be favoured by advantages due to better conditions for oviposition, faster egg development of reduced larval competition. Late arrival could be favoured by negative effects on females of male-male competition being weaker later after deposition. Computer simulations with distributions of arrival times deviating from the natural one were performed to "measure" the costs for females arriving at different times. These costs were compared with estimated benefits corresponding to the females' arrival times. This procedure revealed that females coming to the pat later in a population of females arriving shortly after deposition would be favoured. In a population arriving according to a uniform distribution, early females would have fitness advantages. Thus, evolution should lead to an intermediate distribution of arrival times, as in nature, i.e. female arrival behaviour is probably adaptive. The simulations also revealed that the intensity of sexual selection though male-male competition is highest with the natural pattern of female arrival. Therefore, natural selection generating this pattern amplifies the intensity of male-male interaction as a by-product. Copyright 1998 Academic Press

  4. Impact of Tourist and One-Day Visitor Arrivals on Economic Growth. Case Study of the Cayman Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podhorodecka Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cayman Islands are one of the SISODs, located in the Caribbean Sea, with a high number of foreign visitor arrivals and a GDP based to a large extent on tourism. They are also considered to be SITE islands and may even be characteristic of the subtype, PROFIT-SITE islands. The aim of the article is to provide an answer to the question of whether the increase in the number of tourist and one-day visitor arrivals1 had a positive impact on the creation of GDP in the Cayman Islands during the period 1983-2011. The hypothesis was that such a correlation should exist and it should be a strong positive correlation, but only between the increase in number of tourist arrivals and increase in GDP. The second question was: which year is the most economically affected by the increase in tourist and visitor arrivals (the same or the following year? The hypothesis was that the biggest impact is recorded in the year in which the increase in tourist and visitor arrivals occurs (not in the following year. The third question was: has the global economic crisis affected the tourism sector in the Cayman Islands? The hypothesis was that the Cayman Islands were not as badly affected by the global economic crisis as other SISOD countries. The methods used by the author were literature analysis, data analysis and the Spearman correlation ratio.

  5. Mars Internal Structure: Seismic Predictions for Core Phase Arrivals in Anticipation of the InSight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R. C.; Banerdt, W. B.; Lognonne, P. H.; Hempel, S.; Panning, M. P.; Schmerr, N. C.; Garcia, R.; Shiro, B.; Gudkova, T.

    2016-12-01

    We present a methodology to constrain the seismic structure of the Martian core in preparation for the return of data from the InSight mission. Expected amplitudes for marsquakes assuming a medium seismicity model support the likely observation of core reflections of P and S energy for events with magnitude greater than MW 4.5. For the mission duration, we would expect to record on the order of 10 events of at least this magnitude. Our method predicts the ray density of core reflected (PcP, ScS) and transmitted (PKP, SKS) phases for various core sizes with core-mantle boundary depths between 1650 and 2100 km. Ray density is defined as the fraction of rays in a small source-receiver interval normalized by the total number of rays over a great circle slice through the planet. The ray density of a given phase is scaled by predicted amplitudes calculated considering attenuation, geometric spreading and reflection/transmission coefficients at discontinuities along the ray path. Maximum PcP/ScS amplitudes are expected at epicentral distances of 40-100 degrees. Thus, if present, strong seismicity in the Hellas and Tharsis region may facilitate core detection. For events with MW above 4.5, ScS and SKS signals are expected to lie above the lander noise, but PcP and PKP signals may barely be visible. The resolution of these phases can be improved by applying stacking techniques to account for expected background noise, scattering, and interfering seismic phases. These techniques were successfully applied to Apollo seismograms to infer the radial structure of the lunar core. Even if source depth and location have large uncertainties during a single-station mission to Mars, different phases can be distinguished by their slownesses. Prior to the summation of the traces of individual events, signals are aligned to a reference phase, e.g. the PcP onset assuming various core radii. A maximum in signal coherency corresponds to the best fitting core radius. In the case of lunar

  6. Neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  7. GEOM/GEOM[a]/1/ queue with late arrival system with delayed access and delayed multiple working vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a discrete-time bulk-service queue with infinite buffer space and delay multiple working vacations. Considering a late arrival system with delayed access (LAS-AD, it is assumed that the inter-arrival times, service times, vacation times are all geometrically distributed. The server does not take a vacation immediately at service complete epoch but keeps idle period. According to a bulk-service rule, at least one customer is needed to start a service with a maximum serving capacity 'a'. Using probability analysis method and displacement operator method, the queue length and the probability generating function of waiting time at pre-arrival epochs are obtained. Furthermore, the outside observer’s observation epoch queue length distributions are given. Finally, computational examples with numerical results in the form of graphs and tables are discussed.

  8. Flow time analysis of load management late arrival discrete time queueing system with dual service rate using hypo geometrical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Shah, W.; Shaikh, F.K.

    2012-01-01

    Flow time analysis is a powerful concept to analyze the flow time of any arriving customer in any system at any instant. A load management mechanism can be employed very effectively in any queueing system by utilizing a system which provides probability of dual service rate. In this paper, we develop and demonstrate the flow and service processes transition diagram to determine the flow time of a customer in a load management late arrival state dependent finite discrete time queueing system with dual service rate where customers are hypo geometrically distributed. We compute the probability mass function of each starting state and total probability mass function. The obtained analytical results are validated with simulation results for varying values of arrival and service probabilities. (author)

  9. Has reporting of methods in animal studies in psychiatric research improved since the introduction of the ARRIVE guidelines?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danborg, Pia Brandt; Simonsen, Anders L; Hrobjartsson, Asbjørn

    Objective: Animal research has been dominated by poor methodology or poor reporting. The ARRIVE guidelines were introduced in 2010 to increase the quality of reporting in animal research. An evaluation by Baker et al (2014) reported inadequate adherence to the ARRIVE guidelines by researchers...... and journal editors. We are undertaking two systematic reviews to investigate harms from exposure to psychiatric drugs; one on long-term behavioral harms from previous exposure to psychiatric drugs after a drug-free period and one on abnormal development of reproductive organs from exposure to ADHD medication....... Method: Two independent observers assessed risk of bias due to randomization and blinding in studies included in either of the two systematic reviews and published in 2011 or later. We used the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting and the risk of bias tool presented by the Systematic Review Centre for Animal...

  10. Stochastic continuum simulation of mass arrival using a synthetic data set. The effect of hard and soft conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung Chen Shan; Wen Xian Huan; Cvetkovic, V.; Winberg, A.

    1992-06-01

    The non-parametric and parametric stochastic continuum approaches were applied to a realistic synthetic exhaustive hydraulic conductivity field to study the effects of hard and soft conditioning. From the reference domain, a number of data points were selected, either in a random or designed fashion, to form sample data sets. Based on established experimental variograms and the conditioning data, 100 realizations each of the studied domain were generated. The flow field was calculated for each realization, and particle arrival time and arrival position along the discharge boundary were evaluated. It was shown that conditioning on soft data reduces the uncertainty of solute arrival time, and that conditioning on soft data suggests an improvement in characterizing channeling effects. It was found that the improvement in the prediction of the breakthrough was moderate when conditioning on 25 hard and 100 soft data compared to 25 hard data only. (au)

  11. The Significance of the Influence of the CME Deflection in Interplanetary Space on the CME Arrival at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Siqing; Wang, Jingjing; Pan, Zonghao; Li, Huimin; Liu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    As one of the most violent astrophysical phenomena, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have strong potential space weather effects. However, not all Earth-directed CMEs encounter the Earth and produce geo-effects. One reason is the deflected propagation of CMEs in interplanetary space. Although there have been several case studies clearly showing such deflections, it has not yet been statistically assessed how significantly the deflected propagation would influence the CME’s arrival at Earth. We develop an integrated CME-arrival forecasting (iCAF) system, assembling the modules of CME detection, three-dimensional (3D) parameter derivation, and trajectory reconstruction to predict whether or not a CME arrives at Earth, and we assess the deflection influence on the CME-arrival forecasting. The performance of iCAF is tested by comparing the two-dimensional (2D) parameters with those in the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) Data Center catalog, comparing the 3D parameters with those of the gradual cylindrical shell model, and estimating the success rate of the CME Earth-arrival predictions. It is found that the 2D parameters provided by iCAF and the CDAW catalog are consistent with each other, and the 3D parameters derived by the ice cream cone model based on single-view observations are acceptable. The success rate of the CME-arrival predictions by iCAF with deflection considered is about 82%, which is 19% higher than that without deflection, indicating the importance of the CME deflection for providing a reliable forecasting. Furthermore, iCAF is a worthwhile project since it is a completely automatic system with deflection taken into account.

  12. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  13. Particle deposition from aqueous suspensions in turbulent pipe flow - a comparison of observed deposition rates and predicted arrival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodliffe, R.S.

    1979-11-01

    At the present time, there appear to be only four adequately controlled and characterised experimental studies of particle deposition from single phase water in turbulent pipe flow. These are used to illustrate the ranges of applicability of methods for predicting particle arrival rates at tube walls. Arrival rates are predicted from mass transfer correlations and the theory of Reeks and Skyrme (1976) when transport is limited by Brownian diffusion and inertial behaviour, respectively. The regimes in which finite particle size limits the application of these methods are defined and preliminary consideration is given to the conditions under which gravitational settling may make a contribution to deposition in vertically mounted tubes. (author)

  14. Impact of Tourist and One-Day Visitor Arrivals on Economic Growth. Case Study of the Cayman Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Podhorodecka Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The Cayman Islands are one of the SISODs, located in the Caribbean Sea, with a high number of foreign visitor arrivals and a GDP based to a large extent on tourism. They are also considered to be SITE islands and may even be characteristic of the subtype, PROFIT-SITE islands. The aim of the article is to provide an answer to the question of whether the increase in the number of tourist and one-day visitor arrivals1 had a positive impact on the creation of GDP in the Cayman Islands during the ...

  15. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  16. The effect of patients’ time of arrival at the hospital on the rate of Thrombolytic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toba Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The honorable editor-in-chief of the Journal of ARYA We read with interest the article of Dr. Maleki that has recently been published.1 We conducted a similar study in Birjand Vali-e-Asr Hospital in 2009-2010. This study was done on 125 patients with STEMI with a mean age of 59.2 ± 11.9 years. In this study, 65.6% of patients underwent thrombolytic therapy. This showed a crucial increase compared to the previous study in Birjand in 2003 that showed 17.3% of patients underwent thrombolytic therapy.2 Mean door to needle time was 74.8 ± 42.7 minutes (median 60 minutes. Thrombolytic therapy showed no difference for difference in sex (69.4% in males, and 51.9% in females, P = 0.08. However, in working staff (86.7% in employees, and 51.2% in farmers/workers, P = 0.003, in highly educated individuals (92.3% at university level, and 45.5% illiterate, P < 0.001, and in citizens (73.2% in urban, and 51.2% in rural citizens, P = 0.01 there was a higher percentage of thrombolytic therapy. The main reason for this difference between them is earlier arrival to the hospital since the onset of symptoms. The arrival time in the city's residents was 166.7 ± 179.6 minutes, but for villagers it was 221.6 ± 112 minutes (P = 0.001. Furthermore, the rate of thrombolytic therapy during the night was not significantly different compared to the rest of the day (73% during morning, 62.9% during afternoon, and 62.3% during night, P = 0.52. The patient's arrival time to the hospital at night was not different compared to the rest of the day (166.9 ± 174.7 minutes in the morning shift, and 148.2 ± 85.2 minutes during the night shift, P = 0.63. Visiting patients during the night shift was similar to other shifts; visit by intern was 12.3 ± 9.1 minutes during the morning shift, and 14.1 ± 9.3 minutes during the night shift (P = 0.73. The rate of thrombolytic therapy in our study was similar to the study by Dr. Maleki;1 however, door to needle time was longer. In our

  17. GPR attenuation analyses using spectral ratios of primary and multiple arrivals: examples from Welsh peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A.; Carless, D.; Kulessa, B.

    2014-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is widely applied to qualitative and quantitative interpretation of near-surface targets. Surface deployments of GPR most widely characterise physical properties in terms of some measure of GPR wavelet velocity. Wavelet amplitude is less-often considered, potentially due to difficulties in measuring this quantity: amplitudes are distorted by the anisotropic radiation pattern of antennas, and the ringy GPR wavelet can make successive events difficult to isolate. However, amplitude loss attributes could provide a useful means of estimating the physical properties of a target. GPR energy loss is described by the bandwidth-limited quality factor Q* which, for low-loss media, is proportional to the ratio of dielectric permittivity, ɛ, and electrical conductivity, σ. Comparing the frequency content of two arrivals yields an estimate of interval Q*, but only if they are sufficiently distinct. There may be sufficient separation between a primary reflection and its long-path multiple (i.e. a 'repeat path' of the primary reflection) therefore a dataset that is rich in multiples may be suitable for robust Q* analysis. The Q* between a primary and multiple arrival describes all frequency-dependent loss mechanisms in the interval between the free-surface and the multiple-generating horizon: assuming that all reflectivity is frequency-independent, Q* can be used to estimate ɛ and/or σ. We measure Q* according to the spectral ratio method, for synthetic and real GPR datasets. Our simulations are performed using the finite-difference algorithm GprMax, and represent our example data of GPR acquisitions over peat bogs. These data are a series of 100 MHz GPR acquisitions over sites in the Brecon Beacons National Park of South Wales. The base of the bogs (the basal peat/mineral soil contact) is often a strong multiple-generating horizon. As an example, data from Waun Ddu bog show these events lagging by ~75 ns: GPR velocity is measured here at 0

  18. The First Interstellar Explorer: What should it do when it Arrives at its Destination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A.; Alkalai, L.

    2017-12-01

    Imagine that we have decided to embark on mankind's most ambitious project: a 40-year duration mission to visit a habitable-zone planet orbiting one of our nearest stellar neighbors. To plan our mission we must consider altogether 6 mission phases: I. Accelerate out of our Solar System; II. Survive Cruise to Proxima Centauri; III. Decelerate on Approach; IV. Adjust Trajectory for Close Encounter; V. Acquire Data; VI. Return Information to Earth. Most papers on this topic address only the first two phases. This paper addresses Phases III-VI - what would we want our interstellar spacecraft to do when it arrives at its destination, and how should it be configured when it gets there? Should the mission be a simple flyby, collecting data on the planetary system as it swings by in a few short days? Or should it attempt orbit insertion around the target star, so that it can spend longer in the system? Categories of information that we might want returned to Earth include: images; spectral signatures from the surface; detailed atmospheric composition; a moon count; the magnetosphere characteristics. These will only be of interest if we have not been able to discern this information remotely, i.e. observing from our own solar system during the 40 years it takes to arrive at the destination. This means that the questions we seek to answer may be refined en route from basic discovery questions to perhaps more process-oriented ones. This brings us to a central point of this paper - that the spacecraft that leaves our solar system will not be configured appropriately for mission Phases III-VI, especially given that those phases may occur nearly 40 years after solar system escape. The ability to reconfigure itself, perhaps even cannibalize itself, should be built into the design of an interstellar explorer from the start, which would allow us to send hardware and software upgrades that mirror technologies developed on Earth during the long cruise. Should the spacecraft carry a 3

  19. Phylogeny and chronology of the major lineages of New World hystricognath rodents: insights on the biogeography of the Eocene/Oligocene arrival of mammals in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloch, Carolina M; Vilela, Julio F; Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Schrago, Carlos G

    2013-04-22

    The hystricognath rodents of the New World, the Caviomorpha, are a diverse lineage with a long evolutionary history, and their representation in South American fossil record begins with their occurrence in Eocene deposits from Peru. Debates regarding the origin and diversification of this group represent longstanding issues in mammalian evolution because early hystricognaths, as well as Platyrrhini primates, appeared when South American was an isolated landmass, which raised the possibility of a synchronous arrival of these mammalian groups. Thus, an immediate biogeographic problem is posed by the study of caviomorph origins. This problem has motivated the analysis of hystricognath evolution with molecular dating techniques that relied essentially on nuclear data. However, questions remain about the phylogeny and chronology of the major caviomorph lineages. To enhance the understanding of the evolution of the Hystricognathi in the New World, we sequenced new mitochondrial genomes of caviomorphs and performed a combined analysis with nuclear genes. Our analysis supports the existence of two major caviomorph lineages: the (Chinchilloidea + Octodontoidea) and the (Cavioidea + Erethizontoidea), which diverged in the late Eocene. The Caviomorpha/phiomorph divergence also occurred at approximately 43 Ma. We inferred that all family-level divergences of New World hystricognaths occurred in the early Miocene. The molecular estimates presented in this study, inferred from the combined analysis of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear data, are in complete agreement with the recently proposed paleontological scenario of Caviomorpha evolution. A comparison with recent studies on New World primate diversification indicate that although the hypothesis that both lineages arrived synchronously in the Neotropics cannot be discarded, the times elapsed since the most recent common ancestor of the extant representatives of both groups are different.

  20. Astrophysical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchin, C R

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: detectors (optical and infrared detection; radio and microwave detection; X-ray and gamma-ray detection; cosmic ray detectors; neutrino detectors; gravitational radiation); imaging (photography; electronic imaging; scanning; interferometry; speckle interferometry; occultations; radar); photometry and photometers; spectroscopy and spectroscopes; other techniques (astrometry; polarimetry; solar studies; magnetometry). Appendices: magnitudes and spectral types of bright stars; north polar sequence; standard stars for the UBV photometric system; standard stars for the UVBY photometric system; standard stars for MK spectral types; standard stars for polarimetry; Julian date; catalogues; answers to the exercises.

  1. Llizarov technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankman, S.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Frankel, V.; Golyakhovsky, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper illustrates the radiographic manifestations of the Ilizarov distraction technique for the correction of short and deformed limbs. The radiographs of 130 patients who underwent Ilizarov distraction at 160 sites since December 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Reasons for correction included fracture nonunion and malunion idiopathic leg length discrepancy, achondroplasia, and neurofibromatosis with tibial pseudarthrosis. Ninety patients were adults, and 40 were children. In order to assess cortical bone development during the fixation phase, CT of the regenerate bone was performed in 17 patients. Conventional tomograms were obtained in 20 patients for the evaluation of delayed or hypoplastic union at the distraction site

  2. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  3. Sparse Method for Direction of Arrival Estimation Using Denoised Fourth-Order Cumulants Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yangyu; Wang, Jianshu; Du, Rui; Lv, Guoyun

    2018-06-04

    Fourth-order cumulants (FOCs) vector-based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation methods of non-Gaussian sources may suffer from poor performance for limited snapshots or difficulty in setting parameters. In this paper, a novel FOCs vector-based sparse DOA estimation method is proposed. Firstly, by utilizing the concept of a fourth-order difference co-array (FODCA), an advanced FOCs vector denoising or dimension reduction procedure is presented for arbitrary array geometries. Then, a novel single measurement vector (SMV) model is established by the denoised FOCs vector, and efficiently solved by an off-grid sparse Bayesian inference (OGSBI) method. The estimation errors of FOCs are integrated in the SMV model, and are approximately estimated in a simple way. A necessary condition regarding the number of identifiable sources of our method is presented that, in order to uniquely identify all sources, the number of sources K must fulfill K ≤ ( M 4 - 2 M 3 + 7 M 2 - 6 M ) / 8 . The proposed method suits any geometry, does not need prior knowledge of the number of sources, is insensitive to associated parameters, and has maximum identifiability O ( M 4 ) , where M is the number of sensors in the array. Numerical simulations illustrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

  4. CERN Shuttles – TRAM arrival – Two additional shuttles as from 2 May 2011

    CERN Document Server

    General Infrastructure Services Department

    2011-01-01

    With the TRAM’s arrival at CERN and to facilitate mobility inside CERN, the GS Department is reinforcing CERN's shuttle services and will provide users with two additional shuttles from/to Building 33 (CERN Reception) as from Monday 2 May: Circuit No. 5: serving the Meyrin site (approx. every 15 minutes) •\tfrom 7·30 to 9·15 •\tfrom 11·30 to 13·28 (serving restaurants Nos.1 and 2) •\tfrom 16·30 to 18·35   Circuit No. 6: serving the Prevessin site (approx. every 20 minutes) •\tfrom 7·30 to 9·10 •\tfrom 11·30 to 13·28 (serving restaurants Nos. 1, 2 and 3) •\tfrom 16·30 to 18·23 For further details, please consult the timetable for these circuits at the following url: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/SEM/ls/ShuttleService/ Please do not hesitate to give us your feedback...

  5. Pricing Zero-Coupon Catastrophe Bonds Using EVT with Doubly Stochastic Poisson Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and severity of climate abnormal change displays an irregular upward cycle as global warming intensifies. Therefore, this paper employs a doubly stochastic Poisson process with Black Derman Toy (BDT intensity to describe the catastrophic characteristics. By using the Property Claim Services (PCS loss index data from 2001 to 2010 provided by the US Insurance Services Office (ISO, the empirical result reveals that the BDT arrival rate process is superior to the nonhomogeneous Poisson and lognormal intensity process due to its smaller RMSE, MAE, MRPE, and U and larger E and d. Secondly, to depict extreme features of catastrophic risks, this paper adopts the Peak Over Threshold (POT in extreme value theory (EVT to characterize the tail characteristics of catastrophic loss distribution. And then the loss distribution is analyzed and assessed using a quantile-quantile (QQ plot to visually check whether the PCS index observations meet the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD assumption. Furthermore, this paper derives a pricing formula for zero-coupon catastrophe bonds with a stochastic interest rate environment and aggregate losses generated by a compound doubly stochastic Poisson process under the forward measure. Finally, simulation results verify pricing model predictions and show how catastrophic risks and interest rate risk affect the prices of zero-coupon catastrophe bonds.

  6. Upper mantle seismic velocity anomaly beneath southern Taiwan as revealed by teleseismic relative arrival times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Fei; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Chiao, Ling-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Probing the lateral heterogeneity of the upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath southern and central Taiwan is critical to understanding the local tectonics and orogeny. A linear broadband array that transects southern Taiwan, together with carefully selected teleseismic sources with the right azimuth provides useful constraints. They are capable of differentiating the lateral heterogeneity along the profile with systematic coverage of ray paths. We implement a scheme based on the genetic algorithm to simultaneously determine the relative delayed times of the teleseismic first arrivals of array data. The resulting patterns of the delayed times systematically vary as a function of the incident angle. Ray tracing attributes the observed variations to a high velocity anomaly dipping east in the mantle beneath the southeast of Taiwan. Combining the ray tracing analysis and a pseudo-spectral method to solve the 2-D wave propagations, we determine the extent of the anomaly that best fits the observations via the forward grid search. The east-dipping fast anomaly in the upper mantle beneath the southeast of Taiwan agrees with the results from several previous studies and indicates that the nature of the local ongoing arc-continent collision is likely characterized by the thin-skinned style.

  7. Babies born before arrival to hospital and maternity unit closures in Queensland and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildea, Sue; McGhie, Alexandra C; Gao, Yu; Rumbold, Alice; Rolfe, Margaret

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests the closure of maternity units is associated with an increase in babies born before arrival (BBA). To explore the association between the number of maternity units in Australia and Queensland by birthing numbers, BBA rate and geographic remoteness of the health district where the mother lives. A retrospective study utilised routinely collected perinatal data (1992-2011). Pearson correlation tested the relationship between BBA rate and number of maternity units. Linear regression examined this association over time. During 1992-2011, the absolute numbers (N=22,814) of women having a BBA each year in Australia increased by 47% (N=836-1233); and 206% (n=140-429) in Queensland. This coincided with a 41% reduction in maternity units in Australia (N=623-368=18 per year) and a 28% reduction in Queensland (n=129-93). BBA rates increased significantly across Australia, r=0.837, n=20 years, pmaternity units in Australia, r=-0.804, n=19 years, pmaternity units over a 20-year period across Australia and Queensland is significantly associated with increased BBA rates. The distribution is not limited to rural and remote areas. Given the high risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with BBA, it is time to revisit the closure of units. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid estimation of earthquake magnitude from the arrival time of the peak high‐frequency amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shunta; Yamamoto, Shunroku; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple approach to measure earthquake magnitude M using the time difference (Top) between the body‐wave onset and the arrival time of the peak high‐frequency amplitude in an accelerogram. Measured in this manner, we find that Mw is proportional to 2logTop for earthquakes 5≤Mw≤7, which is the theoretical proportionality if Top is proportional to source dimension and stress drop is scale invariant. Using high‐frequency (>2  Hz) data, the root mean square (rms) residual between Mw and MTop(M estimated from Top) is approximately 0.5 magnitude units. The rms residuals of the high‐frequency data in passbands between 2 and 16 Hz are uniformly smaller than those obtained from the lower‐frequency data. Top depends weakly on epicentral distance, and this dependence can be ignored for distances earthquake produces a final magnitude estimate of M 9.0 at 120 s after the origin time. We conclude that Top of high‐frequency (>2  Hz) accelerograms has value in the context of earthquake early warning for extremely large events.

  9. Time difference of arrival estimation of microseismic signals based on alpha-stable distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui-Sheng; Gong, Yue; Peng, Yan-Jun; Sun, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Xing-Li; Lu, Xin-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Microseismic signals are generally considered to follow the Gauss distribution. A comparison of the dynamic characteristics of sample variance and the symmetry of microseismic signals with the signals which follow α-stable distribution reveals that the microseismic signals have obvious pulse characteristics and that the probability density curve of the microseismic signal is approximately symmetric. Thus, the hypothesis that microseismic signals follow the symmetric α-stable distribution is proposed. On the premise of this hypothesis, the characteristic exponent α of the microseismic signals is obtained by utilizing the fractional low-order statistics, and then a new method of time difference of arrival (TDOA) estimation of microseismic signals based on fractional low-order covariance (FLOC) is proposed. Upon applying this method to the TDOA estimation of Ricker wavelet simulation signals and real microseismic signals, experimental results show that the FLOC method, which is based on the assumption of the symmetric α-stable distribution, leads to enhanced spatial resolution of the TDOA estimation relative to the generalized cross correlation (GCC) method, which is based on the assumption of the Gaussian distribution.

  10. Improving perfusion quantification in arterial spin labeling for delayed arrival times by using optimized acquisition schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramme, Johanna; Diehl, Volker; Madai, Vince I.; Sobesky, Jan; Guenther, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The improvement in Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion quantification, especially for delayed bolus arrival times (BAT), with an acquisition redistribution scheme mitigating the T1 decay of the label in multi-TI ASL measurements is investigated. A multi inflow time (TI) 3D-GRASE sequence is presented which adapts the distribution of acquisitions accordingly, by keeping the scan time constant. The MR sequence increases the number of averages at long TIs and decreases their number at short TIs and thus compensating the T1 decay of the label. The improvement of perfusion quantification is evaluated in simulations as well as in-vivo in healthy volunteers and patients with prolonged BATs due to age or steno-occlusive disease. The improvement in perfusion quantification depends on BAT. At healthy BATs the differences are small, but become larger for longer BATs typically found in certain diseases. The relative error of perfusion is improved up to 30% at BATs > 1500 ms in comparison to the standard acquisition scheme. This adapted acquisition scheme improves the perfusion measurement in comparison to standard multi-TI ASL implementations. It provides relevant benefit in clinical conditions that cause prolonged BATs and is therefore of high clinical relevance for neuroimaging of steno-occlusive diseases.

  11. Automatic arrival time detection for earthquakes based on Modified Laplacian of Gaussian filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Omar M.; Shalaby, Ahmed; Samy, Lotfy; Sayed, Mohammed S.

    2018-04-01

    Precise identification of onset time for an earthquake is imperative in the right figuring of earthquake's location and different parameters that are utilized for building seismic catalogues. P-wave arrival detection of weak events or micro-earthquakes cannot be precisely determined due to background noise. In this paper, we propose a novel approach based on Modified Laplacian of Gaussian (MLoG) filter to detect the onset time even in the presence of very weak signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The proposed algorithm utilizes a denoising-filter algorithm to smooth the background noise. In the proposed algorithm, we employ the MLoG mask to filter the seismic data. Afterward, we apply a Dual-threshold comparator to detect the onset time of the event. The results show that the proposed algorithm can detect the onset time for micro-earthquakes accurately, with SNR of -12 dB. The proposed algorithm achieves an onset time picking accuracy of 93% with a standard deviation error of 0.10 s for 407 field seismic waveforms. Also, we compare the results with short and long time average algorithm (STA/LTA) and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), and the proposed algorithm outperforms them.

  12. Maximum likelihood-based analysis of single-molecule photon arrival trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdziona, Marta; Molski, Andrzej

    2011-02-01

    In this work we explore the statistical properties of the maximum likelihood-based analysis of one-color photon arrival trajectories. This approach does not involve binning and, therefore, all of the information contained in an observed photon strajectory is used. We study the accuracy and precision of parameter estimates and the efficiency of the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in selecting the true kinetic model. We focus on the low excitation regime where photon trajectories can be modeled as realizations of Markov modulated Poisson processes. The number of observed photons is the key parameter in determining model selection and parameter estimation. For example, the BIC can select the true three-state model from competing two-, three-, and four-state kinetic models even for relatively short trajectories made up of 2 × 103 photons. When the intensity levels are well-separated and 104 photons are observed, the two-state model parameters can be estimated with about 10% precision and those for a three-state model with about 20% precision.

  13. Maximum likelihood-based analysis of single-molecule photon arrival trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdziona, Marta; Molski, Andrzej

    2011-02-07

    In this work we explore the statistical properties of the maximum likelihood-based analysis of one-color photon arrival trajectories. This approach does not involve binning and, therefore, all of the information contained in an observed photon strajectory is used. We study the accuracy and precision of parameter estimates and the efficiency of the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in selecting the true kinetic model. We focus on the low excitation regime where photon trajectories can be modeled as realizations of Markov modulated Poisson processes. The number of observed photons is the key parameter in determining model selection and parameter estimation. For example, the BIC can select the true three-state model from competing two-, three-, and four-state kinetic models even for relatively short trajectories made up of 2 × 10(3) photons. When the intensity levels are well-separated and 10(4) photons are observed, the two-state model parameters can be estimated with about 10% precision and those for a three-state model with about 20% precision.

  14. Early Identification of the Patient with Endotheliopathy of Trauma by Arrival Serum Albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Erika Gonzalez; Cardenas, Jessica C; Lopez, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Traumatic endotheliopathy (EoT) is associated with glycocalyx breakdown and capillary leak resulting in the extravasation of proteins. We hypothesized that lower serum albumin levels are associated with EoT, poor outcomes, and can be used for early EoT screening in trauma patients. MET...... with leakage of albumin from the intravascular compartment, which reemphasizes that arrival albumin may be a novel and timely approach to the identification of patients needing endothelial rescue therapy.......OBJECTIVE: Traumatic endotheliopathy (EoT) is associated with glycocalyx breakdown and capillary leak resulting in the extravasation of proteins. We hypothesized that lower serum albumin levels are associated with EoT, poor outcomes, and can be used for early EoT screening in trauma patients....... METHODS: We enrolled severely injured trauma patients with serum albumin levels available on admission. Syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin were quantified from plasma by ELISA. Demographic and clinical data were obtained. We evaluated the association of serum albumin and EoT+ (syndecan-1 level ≥40 ng...

  15. Immigrant Arrival and Tuberculosis among Large Immigrant- and Refugee-Receiving Countries, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary White

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Tuberculosis control in foreign-born populations is a major public health concern for Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States, large immigrant- and refugee-receiving countries that comprise the Immigration and Refugee Health Working Group (IRHWG. Identifying and comparing immigration and distribution of foreign-born tuberculosis cases are important for developing targeted and collaborative interventions. Methods. Data stratified by year and country of birth from 2005 to 2009 were received from these five countries. Immigration totals, tuberculosis case totals, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB case totals from source countries were analyzed and compared to reveal similarities and differences for each member of the group. Results. Between 2005 and 2009, there were a combined 31,785,002 arrivals, 77,905 tuberculosis cases, and 888 MDR TB cases notified at the federal level in the IRHWG countries. India, China, Vietnam, and the Philippines accounted for 41.4% of the total foreign-born tuberculosis cases and 42.7% of the foreign-born MDR tuberculosis cases to IRHWG. Interpretation. Collaborative efforts across a small number of countries have the potential to yield sizeable gains in tuberculosis control for these large immigrant- and refugee-receiving countries.

  16. Undocumented students pursuing medical education: The implications of deferred action for childhood arrivals (DACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-Medina Anaya, Yohualli; del Rosario, Mithi; Doyle, Lawrence Hy; Hayes-Bautista, David E

    2014-12-01

    There are about 1.8 million young immigrants in the United States who came or were brought to the country without documentation before the age of 16. These youth have been raised and educated in the United States and have aspirations and educational achievements similar to those of their native-born peers. However, their undocumented status has hindered their pursuit of higher education, especially in medical and other graduate health sciences. Under a new discretionary policy, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), many of these young immigrants are eligible to receive permission to reside and work in the United States. DACA defers deportation of eligible, undocumented youth and grants lawful presence in the United States, work permits, Social Security numbers, and, in most states, driver's licenses. These privileges have diminished the barriers undocumented students traditionally have faced in obtaining higher education, specifically in pursuing medicine. With the advent of DACA, students are slowly matriculating into U.S. medical schools and residencies. However, this applicant pool remains largely untapped. In the face of a physician shortage and the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, an increase in matriculation of qualified undocumented students would be greatly beneficial. This Perspective is intended to begin discussion within the academic medicine community of the implications of DACA in reducing barriers for the selection and matriculation of undocumented medical students and residents. Moreover, this Perspective is a call to peers in the medical community to support undocumented students seeking access to medical school, residency, and other health professions.

  17. Health status of newly arrived refugees in Toronto, Ont: Part 1: infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redditt, Vanessa J; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among newly arrived refugee patients and whether there is variation by key demographic factors. Retrospective chart review. Primary care clinic for refugee patients in Toronto, Ont. A total of 1063 refugee patients rostered at the clinic from December 2011 to June 2014. Demographic information (age, sex, and region of birth); prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Strongyloides, Schistosoma, intestinal parasites, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis infections; and varicella immune status. The median age of patients was 29 years and 56% were female. Refugees were born in 87 different countries. Approximately 33% of patients were from Africa, 28% were from Europe, 14% were from the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 14% were from Asia, and 8% were from the Americas (excluding 4% born in Canada or the United States). The overall rate of HIV infection was 2%. The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 4%, with a higher rate among refugees from Asia (12%, P refugees (64%, P refugees from Africa (6%, P = .003). Schistosoma infection was identified in 15% of patients from Africa. Intestinal parasites were identified in 16% of patients who submitted stool samples. Approximately 8% of patients were varicella nonimmune, with higher rates in patients from the Americas (21%, P refugee patients to provide timely preventive and curative care. Our data also point to possible policy and clinical implications, such as targeted screening approaches and improved access to vaccinations and therapeutics. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  18. Arrival of the last cryostat for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M; Oberlack, H

    On Wednesday, 4th June the last cryostat for the ATLAS LAr calorimeter (end-cap A) arrived at CERN and was immediately unloaded from the truck in building 180 (see Figures 1 and 2), where the integration of the LAr calorimeters into their cryostats takes place. The transport from the Italian company SIMIC, where both end-cap calorimeters have been produced took longer than expected due to delays because of the G8 summit. Thanks to the great effort by the CERN Host State office and the French-German steering group that supplies the end-cap cryostat as an in-kind contribution to the LAr collaboration, an exceptional convoy was finally available and the cryostat could make its way to CERN. Fig.1 (left): Truck with the end-cap cryostat. Fig.2 (right): Unloading the cryostat in bldg. 180. Each end-cap cryostat will contain an electromagnetic calorimeter wheel, two wheels of a hadronic calorimeter, and a forward calorimeter. The design of the cryostat as a double vessel structure made of Aluminum fulfills t...

  19. Broadband implementation of coprime linear microphone arrays for direction of arrival estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Dane; Xiang, Ning

    2015-07-01

    Coprime arrays represent a form of sparse sensing which can achieve narrow beams using relatively few elements, exceeding the spatial Nyquist sampling limit. The purpose of this paper is to expand on and experimentally validate coprime array theory in an acoustic implementation. Two nested sparse uniform linear subarrays with coprime number of elements ( M and N) each produce grating lobes that overlap with one another completely in just one direction. When the subarray outputs are combined it is possible to retain the shared beam while mostly canceling the other superfluous grating lobes. In this way a small number of microphones ( N+M-1) creates a narrow beam at higher frequencies, comparable to a densely populated uniform linear array of MN microphones. In this work beampatterns are simulated for a range of single frequencies, as well as bands of frequencies. Narrowband experimental beampatterns are shown to correspond with simulated results even at frequencies other than the arrays design frequency. Narrowband side lobe locations are shown to correspond to the theoretical values. Side lobes in the directional pattern are mitigated by increasing bandwidth of analyzed signals. Direction of arrival estimation is also implemented for two simultaneous noise sources in a free field condition.

  20. Enhancing the estimation of blood pressure using pulse arrival time and two confounding factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Ko Keun; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Boreom; Park, Kwang Suk

    2010-01-01

    A new method of blood pressure (BP) estimation using multiple regression with pulse arrival time (PAT) and two confounding factors was evaluated in clinical and unconstrained monitoring situations. For the first analysis with clinical data, electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG) and invasive BP signals were obtained by a conventional patient monitoring device during surgery. In the second analysis, ECG, PPG and non-invasive BP were measured using systems developed to obtain data under conditions in which the subject was not constrained. To enhance the performance of BP estimation methods, heart rate (HR) and arterial stiffness were considered as confounding factors in regression analysis. The PAT and HR were easily extracted from ECG and PPG signals. For arterial stiffness, the duration from the maximum derivative point to the maximum of the dicrotic notch in the PPG signal, a parameter called TDB, was employed. In two experiments that normally cause BP variation, the correlation between measured BP and the estimated BP was investigated. Multiple-regression analysis with the two confounding factors improved correlation coefficients for diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure to acceptable confidence levels, compared to existing methods that consider PAT only. In addition, reproducibility for the proposed method was determined using constructed test sets. Our results demonstrate that non-invasive, non-intrusive BP estimation can be obtained using methods that can be applied in both clinical and daily healthcare situations

  1. Enhancing the estimation of blood pressure using pulse arrival time and two confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Ko Keun; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Boreom; Park, Kwang Suk

    2010-02-01

    A new method of blood pressure (BP) estimation using multiple regression with pulse arrival time (PAT) and two confounding factors was evaluated in clinical and unconstrained monitoring situations. For the first analysis with clinical data, electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG) and invasive BP signals were obtained by a conventional patient monitoring device during surgery. In the second analysis, ECG, PPG and non-invasive BP were measured using systems developed to obtain data under conditions in which the subject was not constrained. To enhance the performance of BP estimation methods, heart rate (HR) and arterial stiffness were considered as confounding factors in regression analysis. The PAT and HR were easily extracted from ECG and PPG signals. For arterial stiffness, the duration from the maximum derivative point to the maximum of the dicrotic notch in the PPG signal, a parameter called TDB, was employed. In two experiments that normally cause BP variation, the correlation between measured BP and the estimated BP was investigated. Multiple-regression analysis with the two confounding factors improved correlation coefficients for diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure to acceptable confidence levels, compared to existing methods that consider PAT only. In addition, reproducibility for the proposed method was determined using constructed test sets. Our results demonstrate that non-invasive, non-intrusive BP estimation can be obtained using methods that can be applied in both clinical and daily healthcare situations.

  2. First-arrival Tomography Using the Double-square-root Equation Solver Stepping in Subsurface Offset

    KAUST Repository

    Serdyukov, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Double-square-root (DSR) equation can be viewed as a Hamilton-Jacobi equation describing kinematics of downward data continuation in depth. It describes simultaneous propagation of source and receiver rays assuming that they are nowhere horizontal. Thus it is not suitable for describing diving waves. This equation can be rewritten in a new form when stepping is made in subsurface offset instead of depth. In this form it can be used for describing traveltimes of diving waves in prestack seismic data. This equation can be solved using WENO-RK numerical scheme. Prestack traveltimes (for multiple sources) can be computed in one run thus speeding up solution of the forward problem. We derive linearized version of this new DSR equation that can be used for tomographic inversion of first-arrival traveltimes. Here we used a ray-based tomographic inversion consisting of the following steps: get numerical solution of the offset DSR equation in the background velocity model, back trace DSR rays connecting receivers to sources, update velocity model using truncated SVD pseudoinverse. This approach was tested on a synthetic model generating diving waves.

  3. Maximum likelihood-based analysis of photon arrival trajectories in single-molecule FRET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waligorska, Marta [Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Chemistry, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Molski, Andrzej, E-mail: amolski@amu.edu.pl [Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Chemistry, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study model selection and parameter recovery from single-molecule FRET experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the maximum likelihood-based analysis of two-color photon trajectories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The number of observed photons determines the performance of the method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For long trajectories, one can extract mean dwell times that are comparable to inter-photon times. -- Abstract: When two fluorophores (donor and acceptor) are attached to an immobilized biomolecule, anti-correlated fluctuations of the donor and acceptor fluorescence caused by Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) report on the conformational kinetics of the molecule. Here we assess the maximum likelihood-based analysis of donor and acceptor photon arrival trajectories as a method for extracting the conformational kinetics. Using computer generated data we quantify the accuracy and precision of parameter estimates and the efficiency of the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in selecting the true kinetic model. We find that the number of observed photons is the key parameter determining parameter estimation and model selection. For long trajectories, one can extract mean dwell times that are comparable to inter-photon times.

  4. Efficient Computation of Separation-Compliant Speed Advisories for Air Traffic Arriving in Terminal Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Davis, Damek; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    A class of problems in air traffic management asks for a scheduling algorithm that supplies the air traffic services authority not only with a schedule of arrivals and departures, but also with speed advisories. Since advisories must be finite, a scheduling algorithm must ultimately produce a finite data set, hence must either start with a purely discrete model or involve a discretization of a continuous one. The former choice, often preferred for intuitive clarity, naturally leads to mixed-integer programs, hindering proofs of correctness and computational cost bounds (crucial for real-time operations). In this paper, a hybrid control system is used to model air traffic scheduling, capturing both the discrete and continuous aspects. This framework is applied to a class of problems, called the Fully Routed Nominal Problem. We prove a number of geometric results on feasible schedules and use these results to formulate an algorithm that attempts to compute a collective speed advisory, effectively finite, and has computational cost polynomial in the number of aircraft. This work is a first step toward optimization and models refined with more realistic detail.

  5. Refracted arrival waves in a zone of silence from a finite thickness mixing layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao; Lele, Sanjiva K

    2002-02-01

    Refracted arrival waves which propagate in the zone of silence of a finite thickness mixing layer are analyzed using geometrical acoustics in two dimensions. Here, two simplifying assumptions are made: (i) the mean flow field is transversely sheared, and (ii) the mean velocity and temperature profiles approach the free-stream conditions exponentially. Under these assumptions, ray trajectories are analytically solved, and a formula for acoustic pressure amplitude in the far field is derived in the high-frequency limit. This formula is compared with the existing theory based on a vortex sheet corresponding to the low-frequency limit. The analysis covers the dependence on the Mach number as well as on the temperature ratio. The results show that both limits have some qualitative similarities, but the amplitude in the zone of silence at high frequencies is proportional to omega(-1/2), while that at low frequencies is proportional to omega(-3/2), omega being the angular frequency of the source.

  6. An application of multiscale early arrival waveform inversion to shallow seismic data

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the near surface velocity distribution by applying multiscale early arrival waveform inversion (MEWI) to shallow seismic land data. This data set is collected at Wadi Qudaid in western Saudi Arabia with the purpose of characterizing the shallow subsurface for its water storage and reuse potential. To enhance the accuracy of MEWI, we correct for the attenuation effects with an estimated factor Q, and also extract a natural source wavelet from the data. We then applied MEWI to invert the processed data for tomograms on different scales starting from a traveltime tomogram as our initial velocity model. Results suggest that, compared to traveltime tomography, MEWI can generate a more highly resolved velocity tomogram from shallow seismic data by inverting its low-frequency components on coarse grids and its high-frequency components on fine grids. The estimated water table in the MEWI tomogram is generally consistent with, but 9% deeper than, the traveltime tomogram, showing that the water storage in this wadi might be less than expected from the traveltime tomogram. We believe that the more accurate MEWI tomogram will make an economically important difference in assessing the storage potential of this wadi and wadis throughout the world. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  7. Effectiveness of border screening for detecting influenza in arriving airline travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Patricia C; Jennings, Lance C; Duncan, Alasdair R; Brunton, Cheryl R; Baker, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    We measured symptom and influenza prevalence, and the effectiveness of symptom and temperature screening for identifying influenza, in arriving international airline travelers. This cross-sectional study collected data from travelers to Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, in winter 2008, via a health questionnaire, temperature testing, and respiratory sampling. Forms were returned by 15 976 (68%) travelers. Of these, 17% reported at least 1 influenza symptom, with runny or blocked nose (10%) and cough (8%) most common. Respiratory specimens were obtained from 3769 travelers. Estimated prevalence of influenza was 1.1% (4% among symptomatic, 0.2% among asymptomatic). The sensitivity of screening criteria ranged from 84% for "any symptom" to 3% for a fever of 37.8 °C or greater. The positive predictive value was low for all criteria. Border screening using self-reported symptoms and temperature testing has limitations for preventing pandemic influenza from entering a country. Using "any symptom" or cough would lead to many uninfected people being investigated, yet some infected people would remain undetected. If more specific criteria such as fever were used, most infected people would enter the country despite screening.

  8. [Effectiveness of border screening for detecting Influenza in arriving airline travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Patricia C; Jennings, Lance C; Duncan, Alasdair R; Brunton, Cheryl R; Baker, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    We measured symptom and influenza prevalence, and the effectiveness of symptom and temperature screening for identifying influenza, in arriving international airline travelers. This cross-sectional study collected data from travelers to Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, in winter 2008, via a health questionnaire, temperature testing, and respiratory sampling. Forms were returned by 15 976 (68%) travelers. Of these, 17% reported at least 1 influenza symptom, with runny or blocked nose (10%) and cough (8%) most common. Respiratory specimens were obtained from 3769 travelers. Estimated prevalence of influenza was 1.1% (4% among symptomatic, 0.2% among asymptomatic). The sensitivity of screening criteria ranged from 84% for "any symptom" to 3% for a fever of 37.8 ºC or greater. The positive predictive value was low for all criteria. Border screening using self-reported symptoms and temperature testing has limitations for preventing pandemic influenza from entering a country. Using "any symptom" or cough would lead to many uninfected people being investigated, yet some infected people would remain undetected. If more specific criteria such as fever were used, most infected people would enter the country despite screening.

  9. Angle-of-arrival-based gesture recognition using ultrasonic multi-frequency signals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hui

    2017-11-02

    Hand gestures are tools for conveying information, expressing emotion, interacting with electronic devices or even serving disabled people as a second language. A gesture can be recognized by capturing the movement of the hand, in real time, and classifying the collected data. Several commercial products such as Microsoft Kinect, Leap Motion Sensor, Synertial Gloves and HTC Vive have been released and new solutions have been proposed by researchers to handle this task. These systems are mainly based on optical measurements, inertial measurements, ultrasound signals and radio signals. This paper proposes an ultrasonic-based gesture recognition system using AOA (Angle of Arrival) information of ultrasonic signals emitted from a wearable ultrasound transducer. The 2-D angles of the moving hand are estimated using multi-frequency signals captured by a fixed receiver array. A simple redundant dictionary matching classifier is designed to recognize gestures representing the numbers from `0\\' to `9\\' and compared with a neural network classifier. Average classification accuracies of 95.5% and 94.4% are obtained, respectively, using the two classification methods.

  10. Value of shear wave arrival time contour display in shear wave elastography for breast masses diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bang-Guo; Wang, Dan; Ren, Wei-Wei; Li, Xiao-Long; He, Ya-Ping; Liu, Bo-Ji; Wang, Qiao; Chen, Shi-Gao; Alizad, Azra; Xu, Hui-Xiong

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of shear wave arrival time contour (SWATC) display for the diagnosis of breast lesions and to identify factors associated with the quality of shear wave propagation (QSWP) in breast lesions. This study included 277 pathologically confirmed breast lesions. Conventional B-mode ultrasound characteristics and shear wave elastography parameters were computed. Using the SWATC display, the QSWP of each lesion was assigned to a two-point scale: score 1 (low quality) and score 2 (high quality). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with QSWP. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for QSWP to differentiate benign from malignant lesions was 0.913, with a sensitivity of 91.9%, a specificity of 90.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 74.0%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.5%. Compared with using the standard deviation of shear wave speed (SWS SD ) alone, SWS SD combined with QSWP increased the sensitivity from 75.8% to 93.5%, but decreased the specificity from 95.8% to 89.3% (P breast lesions.

  11. Participation in Black Lives Matter and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Modern Activism among Black and Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Elan C.; Keels, Micere; Durkee, Myles I.

    2016-01-01

    Political activism is one way racially/ethnically marginalized youth can combat institutional discrimination and seek legislative change toward equality and justice. In the current study, we examine participation in #BlackLivesMatter (BLM) and advocacy for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) as political activism popular among youth.…

  12. The Effect of Music Therapy Services on Classroom Behaviours of Newly Arrived Refugee Students in Australia--A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Felicity; Jones, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of a short-term music therapy program on the classroom behaviours of newly arrived refugee students who were attending an intensive "English as a Second Language" secondary school. A cross-over design with two five-week intervention periods was employed with group music therapy sessions conducted one…

  13. 75 FR 76997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security ACTION: 30-Day notice...

  14. 76 FR 44349 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security ACTION: 30-day notice...

  15. Factors associated with arrival densities of grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and baird's sparrow (A. bairdii) in the upper great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlering, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Faaborg, John

    2009-01-01

    Although critical to habitat and population management, the proximate cues that birds use to establish territories are largely unknown. Understanding these cues is important for birds, such as many grassland birds, that exhibit high annual variability in population density and make new habitat-selection decisions annually. Identifying the actual cues used is difficult in the field, but the factors associated with the arrival densities of birds can help uncover variables that are involved in or correlated with cues used for selection. During the summers of 2002–2004, we investigated how weather and local vegetation factors were related to arrival densities of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and Baird's Sparrows (A. bairdii) at three locations across North Dakota and Saskatchewan. Spring densities of Grasshopper Sparrows were positively correlated with concurrent May precipitation, whereas densities of Baird's Sparrows were negatively correlated with the previous winter's snowfall. We used a model-selection approach to evaluate the vegetation characteristics associated with arrival densities of birds. Grasshopper Sparrow densities showed a strong negative relationship to woody cover, and Baird's Sparrow densities showed a negative relationship to vegetation height and vegetation density near the ground. Our results provide a first detailed look at habitat and weather associations immediately after arrival in spring and an important first step in uncovering factors that may be involved in habitat selection in two grassland species.

  16. Primary care for refugees and newly arrived migrants in Europe : a qualitative study on health needs, barriers and wishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loenen, Tessa; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Hofmeester, Marrigje; Dowrick, Christopher; van Ginneken, Nadja; Mechili, Enkeleint Aggelos; Angelaki, Agapi; Ajdukovic, Dean; Bakic, Helena; Pavlic, Danica Rotar; Zelko, Erika; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Jirovsky, Elena; Mayrhuber, Elisabeth Sophie; Dückers, Michel; Mooren, Trudy; Gouweloos, Juul; Kolozsvári, László; Rurik, Imre; Lionis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Background: In order to provide effective primary care for refugees and to develop interventions tailored to them, we must know their needs. Little is known of the health needs and experiences of recently arrived refugees and other migrants throughout their journey through Europe. We aimed to gain

  17. Primary care for refugees and newly arrived migrants in Europe: a qualitative study on health needs, barriers and wishes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loenen, T. van; Muijsenbergh, M. van den; Hofmeester, M.; Dowrick, C.; Ginneken, N. van; Mechili E.A.; Angelaki, A.; Ajdukovic, D.; Bakic, H.; Pavlick, D.R.; Zelko, E.; Hoffmann, K.; Jirovsky, E.; Mayrhuber, E.S.; Dückers, M.; Mooren, T.; Gouweloos-Trine, J.; Kolozsvári, L.R.; Rurik, I.; Lionis, C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In order to provide effective primary care for refugees and to develop interventions tailored to them, we must know their needs. Little is known of the health needs and experiences of recently arrived refugees and other migrants throughout their journey through Europe. We aimed to gain

  18. Health Assimilation among Hispanic Immigrants in the United States: The Impact of Ignoring Arrival-cohort Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Tod G; Palermo, Tia; Green, Tiffany L

    2015-12-01

    A large literature has documented that Hispanic immigrants have a health advantage over their U.S.-born counterparts upon arrival in the United States. Few studies, however, have disentangled the effects of immigrants' arrival cohort from their tenure of U.S. residence, an omission that could produce imprecise estimates of the degree of health decline experienced by Hispanic immigrants as their U.S. tenure increases. Using data from the 1996-to-2014 waves of the March Current Population Survey, we show that the health (i.e., self-rated health) of Hispanic immigrants varies by both arrival cohort and U.S. tenure for immigrants hailing from most of the primary sending countries/regions of Hispanic immigrants. We also find evidence that acculturation plays an important role in determining the health trajectories of Hispanic immigrants. With respect to self-rated health, however, our findings demonstrate that omitting arrival-cohort measures from health assimilation models may result in overestimates of the degree of downward health assimilation experienced by Hispanic immigrants. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  19. Social Networking: Engaging Prospective and Admitted African American and Other Minority Students before They Arrive on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Forest B.

    2013-01-01

    Planning programs with learning outcomes that address diversity issues on campus can become fairly routine--a "plug and play" task--for a director of multicultural student affairs at a private, religious, predominantly white liberal arts university. However, connecting with African American and other minority students when they arrived on campus…

  20. 77 FR 71608 - Notification of the Removal of Conditions of Entry on Vessels Arriving From the Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ..., Syria, Timor-Leste, Venezuela, and Yemen. This current list is also available in the policy notice... arriving from the country of the Republic of Indonesia. DATES: The policy announced in this notice is... holidays. This policy is also available at www.homeport.uscg.mil under the Maritime Security tab...

  1. A Descriptive Analysis of Care Provided by Law Enforcement Prior to EMS Arrival in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Aaron B; Core, S Brent; Lohse, Christine M; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2018-04-01

    Study Objectives Law enforcement is increasingly viewed as a key component in the out-of-hospital chain of survival, with expanded roles in cardiac arrest, narcotic overdose, and traumatic bleeding. Little is known about the nature of care provided by law enforcement prior to the arrival of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) assets. The purpose of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of events reported to a national EMS database. This study was a descriptive analysis of the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) public release research data set, containing EMS emergency response data from 41 states. Code E09_02 1200 specifically identifies care provided by law enforcement prior to EMS arrival. A total of 25,835,729 unique events were reported. Of events in which pre-arrival care was documented, 2.0% received prior aid by law enforcement. Patients receiving law enforcement care prior to EMS arrival were more likely to be younger (52.8 [SD=23.3] years versus 58.7 [SD=23.3] years), male (54.8% versus 46.7%), and white (80.3% versus 77.5%). Basic Life Support (BLS) EMS response was twice as likely in patients receiving prior aid by law enforcement. Multiple-casualty incidents were five times more likely with prior aid by law enforcement. Compared with prior aid by other services, law enforcement pre-arrival care was more likely with motor vehicle accidents, firearm assaults, knife assaults, blunt assaults, and drug overdoses, and less likely at falls and childbirths. Cardiac arrest was significantly more common in patients receiving prior aid by law enforcement (16.5% versus 2.6%). Tourniquet application and naloxone administration were more common in the law enforcement prior aid group. Where noted, law enforcement pre-arrival care occurs in 2.0% of EMS patient encounters. The majority of cases involve cardiac arrest, motor vehicle accidents, and assaults. Better understanding of the nature of law enforcement care is

  2. The University's Statement of Goals. An Idea Whose Time Has Arrived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Brenda D.

    1986-01-01

    The need for colleges and universities to clarify goals in light of current financial constraints is discussed. The goal formulation strategies and techniques of the Institutional Goals Inventory and the Dephi technique are examined in the context of their application at the University of Ottawa. (MSE)

  3. Asylum seekers in Denmark--a study of health status and grade of traumatization of newly arrived asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmas, Tania Nicole; Møller, Eva; Buhmannr, Caecilie; Bunch, Vibeke; Jensen, Jean Hald; Hansen, Trine Nørregård; Jørgensen, Louise Møller; Kjaer, Claes; Mannstaedt, Maiken; Oxholm, Annemette; Skau, Jutta; Theilade, Lotte; Worm, Lise; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    An unknown number of asylum seekers arriving in Denmark have been exposed to torture or have experienced other traumatising events in their country of origin. The health of traumatised asylum seekers, both physically and mentally, is affected upon arrival to Denmark, and time in asylum centres leads to further deterioration in health. One hundred forty-two (N=142) newly arrived asylum seekers were examined at Center Sandholm by Amnesty International Danish Medical Group from the 1st of September until the 31st of December 2007. The asylum seekers came from 33 different countries, primarily representing Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Chechnya. Of the asylum seekers, 45 percent had been exposed to torture--approximately one-third within the year of arrival to Denmark. Unsystematic blows, personal threats or threats to family, degrading treatment, isolation, and witnessing torture of others were the main torture methods reported. The majority of the asylum seekers had witnessed armed conflict, persecution, and imprisonment. The study showed that physical symptoms were approximately twice as frequent and psychological symptoms were approximately two to three times as frequent among torture survivors as among non-tortured asylum seekers. However, even the health of non-tortured asylum seekers was affected. Among the torture survivors, 63 percent fulfilled the criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, and 30-40 percent of the torture survivors were depressed, in anguish, anxious, and tearful in comparison to 5-10 percent of the non-tortured asylum seekers. Further, 42 percent of torture survivors had torture-related scars. Torture survivors amid newly arrived asylum seekers are an extremely vulnerable group, hence examination and inquiry about the torture history is extremely important in order to identify this population to initiate the necessary medical treatment and social assistance. Amnesty International Danish Medical group is currently planning a follow

  4. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for selectively extracting and storing only krypton and xenon in the waste gases that are released from a pressurized water nuclear power reactor are described. The illustrative fluorocarbon absorption system has three separation stages: an initial gas-fluorocarbon absorber, a flash chamber and fractionator for segregating all of the absorbed gases from the loaded absorber stage fluorocarbon (save for the krypton and xenon), and a stripper that receives the partially loaded fluorocarbon liquid directly from the fractionator in order to separate only the krypton and xenon. A molecular sieve filter dries the input process gas, a cartridge type solvent filter is used to remove radiation degradation products from the loaded liquid that flows from the absorber, a cold trap gas drier is provided to remove residual solvent vapor from the separated krypton and xenon, and radiation detectors automatically activate valves to establish safe conditions in the event of an accident or plant failure. (U.S.)

  5. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  6. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  7. International adoption from Ethiopia: An overview of the health status at arrival in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kesteren, Lydia; Wojciechowski, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Ethiopia is a densely populated country with a fast growing economy. Still socioeconomic and health issues render many children parentless. One thousand and twenty eight Ethiopian children have been adopted in Belgium from September 2005 to September 2015. Little has been published about their health status at arrival. Three hundred and fifteen children adopted from Ethiopia were clinically evaluated at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp from 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2014. Epidemiological and medical data were collected and analysed retrospectively. Data about 164 boys and 151 girls with a mean age of three years were analysed. Twenty per cent was adequately vaccinated, for 66.7% of children these data were absent. About 8.6% of the children were wasted/thin, 28.9% stunted. Skin abnormalities were seen in 40.3%, especially Tinea capitis. No children tested positive for HIV, syphilis or hepatitis C. Four children had an acute or chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection, eight children had a cured HBV infection. Two children tested positive for malaria. Active pulmonary tuberculosis was found in six children. Sixty-two per cent had one or more intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia (41.9%) and Blastocystis hominis (27.0%) were most frequently isolated. There is a statistically relevant association between the number of intestinal parasites and age at presentation. In this group eosinophilia had a sensitivity of 30.2%, a specificity of 79.1% for intestinal parasites and a positive likelihood ratio of 1.44 with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.88. Apart from the high prevalence of stunting and intestinal parasites important medical problems were infrequent. A systematic clinical examination and screening for infectious diseases remain important to ensure a healthy start of a new life in Belgium.

  8. Control mechanism to prevent correlated message arrivals from degrading signaling no. 7 network performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosal, Haluk; Skoog, Ronald A.

    1994-04-01

    Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) is designed to provide a connection-less transfer of signaling messages of reasonable length. Customers having access to user signaling bearer capabilities as specified in the ANSI T1.623 and CCITT Q.931 standards can send bursts of correlated messages (e.g., by doing a file transfer that results in the segmentation of a block of data into a number of consecutive signaling messages) through SS7 networks. These message bursts with short interarrival times could have an adverse impact on the delay performance of the SS7 networks. A control mechanism, Credit Manager, is investigated in this paper to regulate incoming traffic to the SS7 network by imposing appropriate time separation between messages when the incoming stream is too bursty. The credit manager has a credit bank where credits accrue at a fixed rate up to a prespecified credit bank capacity. When a message arrives, the number of octets in that message is compared to the number of credits in the bank. If the number of credits is greater than or equal to the number of octets, then the message is accepted for transmission and the number of credits in the bank is decremented by the number of octets. If the number of credits is less than the number of octets, then the message is delayed until enough credits are accumulated. This paper presents simulation results showing delay performance of the SS7 ISUP and TCAP message traffic with a range of correlated message traffic, and control parameters of the credit manager (i.e., credit generation rate and bank capacity) are determined that ensure the traffic entering the SS7 network is acceptable. The results show that control parameters can be set so that for any incoming traffic stream there is no detrimental impact on the SS7 ISUP and TCAP message delay, and the credit manager accepts a wide range of traffic patterns without causing significant delay.

  9. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Madi Marawan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538. Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3% and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important

  10. Vitamin D status of refugees arriving in Canada: findings from the Calgary Refugee Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Michael; Weaver, Rob; Thomas, Roger; Jones, Lanice

    2013-04-01

    To determine the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) serum levels in refugee women of childbearing age and in refugee children; to compare their 25(OH)D levels with the recommended levels in order to determine the prevalence of deficiency; to compare their 25(OH)D levels with those in the general Canadian population in the appropriate age and sex groups; and to investigate the association of vitamin D deficiency with potential risk factors. Cross-sectional chart review. The Calgary Refugee Health Program, an urban family practice that serves newly arrived refugees in Calgary, Alta. A total of 1217 refugee women and children screened between June 2005 and January 2010. Serum 25(OH)D values that were measured during initial screening visits. Overall, 1217 of the 1768 eligible participants (69%) had 25(OH)D laboratory values recorded. The mean concentration of 25(OH)D was 52.0 nmol/L (95% CI 50.6 to 53.3 nmol/L). Using the Institute of Medicine guideline for adequate serum vitamin D levels (>50 nmol/L), 61% of women and 42% of children had lower-than-desirable 25(OH)D levels. Considering the Osteoporosis Canada guidelines, 88% of women and 81% of children had lower-than-desirable 25(OH)D levels (refugees between the ages of 12 and 19 years old had lower mean values of 25(OH)D than male refugees in the same age group did (P=.01). Most refugees had lower-than-desirable vitamin D levels. All age groups studied had lower mean 25(OH)D levels compared with the general Canadian population. Health care providers should be aware of this concern and consider vitamin D supplementation among refugees.

  11. Time of Arrival Estimation in Probability-Controlled Generalized CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Messer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more wireless communications systems are required to provide also a positioning measurement. In code division multiple access (CDMA communication systems, the positioning accuracy is significantly degraded by the multiple access interference (MAI caused by other users in the system. This MAI is commonly managed by a power control mechanism, and yet, MAI has a major effect on positioning accuracy. Probability control is a recently introduced interference management mechanism. In this mechanism, a user with excess power chooses not to transmit some of its symbols. The information in the nontransmitted symbols is recovered by an error-correcting code (ECC, while all other users receive a more reliable data during these quiet periods. Previous research had shown that the implementation of a probability control mechanism can significantly reduce the MAI. In this paper, we show that probability control also improves the positioning accuracy. We focus on time-of-arrival (TOA based positioning systems. We analyze the TOA estimation performance in a generalized CDMA system, in which the probability control mechanism is employed, where the transmitted signal is noncontinuous with a symbol transmission probability smaller than 1. The accuracy of the TOA estimation is determined using appropriate modifications of the Cramer-Rao bound on the delay estimation. Keeping the average transmission power constant, we show that the TOA accuracy of each user does not depend on its transmission probability, while being a nondecreasing function of the transmission probability of any other user. Therefore, a generalized, noncontinuous CDMA system with a probability control mechanism can always achieve better positioning performance, for all users in the network, than a conventional, continuous, CDMA system.

  12. Nutritional status of children from low-income countries arriving in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen-García, Moncef; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Lopez-Bernus, Amparo; Muñoz Bellido, Juan Luis; Muro, Antonio; Cordero, Miguel; Pardo-Lledias, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Nutritional problems, anaemia and infectious diseases are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents in tropical and subtropical areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status in children from low-income countries who migrated to Spain and the value of the usual biochemistry markers of nutrition in these children, as well as to evaluate the nutritional status associated with imported infectious diseases. Moreover, we evaluated the association between anaemia and nutrition problems. We prospectively evaluated immigrants younger than 18 years of age, from tropical or subtropical areas, who were referred on suspicion of or screening for imported diseases. Detailed medical records and physical and oral examinations were obtained. Blood count and biochemical measures of micronutrients and nutritional biomarkers were performed. We included microbiological methods for diagnosing imported infectious diseases according to the region of origin and clinical setting. 373 minors were evaluated, including 250 (67.0%) from sub-Saharan Africa, 67 (18.0%) from North Africa and 56 (15.0%) from Latin America. The mean BMI of the subjects was 19.8±0.2. BMI increased by 0.02 for each month of stay in Spain. Nineteen patients (6.8%) had a nutritional risk of growth problems, and 50 (17.8%) were overweight. The time since arrival was longer in patients who were overweight (pnutritional issue. A low level of ferritin is the most frequently detected nutritional problem and the main cause of anaemia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Design and Performance Evaluation on Ultra-Wideband Time-Of-Arrival 3D Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Dusl, John

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time--of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide and felt upset. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested in the Wireless Habitat Testbed which simulates the ISS module environment. In this presentation, we discuss the 3D TOA tracking algorithm and the performance evaluation based on different tracking baseline configurations. The simulation results show that two configurations of the tracking baseline are feasible. With 100 picoseconds standard deviation (STD) of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.2392 feet (about 7 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Twisted Rectangle while the average tracking error 0.9183 feet (about 28 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Slightly-Twisted Top Rectangle . The tracking accuracy can be further improved with the improvement of the STD of TOA estimates. With 10 picoseconds STD of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.0239 feet (less than 1 centimeter) can be achieved for configuration "Twisted Rectangle".

  14. New arrivals: an indicator for non-indigenous species introductions at different geographical scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Olenin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several legal and administrative instruments aimed to reduce the spread of non-indigenous species, that may pose harm to the environment, economy and/or human health, were developed in recent years at international and national levels, such as the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship’s Ballast Water and Sediments, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms, the EU Regulation on Invasive Alien Species and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the US Invasive Species Act, the Biosecurity Act of New Zealand, etc. The effectiveness of these instruments can only be measured by successes in the prevention of new introductions. We propose an indicator, the arrival of new non-indigenous species (nNIS, which helps to assess introduction rates, especially in relation to pathways and vectors of introduction, and is aimed to support management. The technical precondition for the calculation of nNIS is the availability of a global, continuously updated and verified source of information on aquatic non-indigenous species. Such a database is needed, because the indicator should be calculated at different geographical scales: 1 for a particular area, such as port or coast of a country within a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME; 2 for a whole LME; and 3 for a larger biogeographical region, including two or more neighboring LMEs. The geographical scale of nNIS helps to distinguish between a primary introduction and secondary spread, which may involve different pathways and vectors. This, in turn, determines the availability of management options, because it is more feasible to prevent a primary introduction than to stop subsequent secondary spread. The definition of environmental target, size of assessment unit and possible limitations of the indicator are also discussed.

  15. Experiences of primary care professionals providing healthcare to recently arrived migrants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Redwood, Sabi; Griffith, Laura; Teladia, Zaheera; Phillimore, Jenny

    2016-09-22

    The main objectives of the study were to explore the experiences of primary care professionals providing care to recent migrants in a superdiverse city and to elicit barriers and facilitators to meeting migrants' care needs. This paper focuses on a strong emergent theme: participants' descriptions and understandings of creating a fit between patients and practices. An exploratory, qualitative study based on the thematic analysis of semistructured interviews. A purposive sample of 10 practices. We interviewed 6 general practitioners, 5 nurses and 6 administrative staff; those based at the same practice opted to be interviewed together. 10 interviewees were from an ethnic minority background; some discussed their own experiences of migration. Creating a fit between patients and practice was complex and could be problematic. Some participants defined this in a positive way (reaching out, creating rapport) while others also focused on ways in which patients did not fit in, for example, different expectations or lack of medical records. A small but vocal minority put the responsibility to fit in on to migrant patients. Some participants believed that practice staff and patients sharing a language could contribute to achieving a fit but others outlined the disadvantages of over-reliance on language concordance. A clearly articulated, team-based strategy to create bridges between practice and patients was often seen as preferable. Although participants agreed that a fit between patients and practice was desirable, some aimed to adapt to the needs of recently arrived migrants, while others thought that it was the responsibility of migrants to adapt to practice needs; a few viewed migrant patients as a burden to the system. Practices wishing to improve fit might consider developing strategies such as introducing link workers and other 'bridging' people; however, they could also aim to foster a general stance of openness to diversity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  16. Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the southern cone of South America: new clues from mitogenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Saint Pierre

    Full Text Available With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (MTDNA variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11-13,000 years appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups.

  17. THE ARRIVAL OF ROMANIAN IMMIGRANTS IN SPAIN – “THE RETURN THE EMPEROR TRAJAN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO GUTIÉRREZ RESA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanians in Spain are the major migrant group in our country, which we symbolically refer to as the return of the Spanish Emperor Trajan. They arrived in search of work and better life conditions than in their home countries. Upon 6 to 10 years of residence in Spain, they live in rented housing and their intention is to stay here for a certain period of time and then return home. They come to work and most of them have a European Community residence card, they also work in the private sector with long term and temporary contracts. During these years their expectations have been met, especially the economic ones, and they are reasonably satisfied with their family lives, with their personal relations and less with their work and studies. During the time they have lived in our country, the migrants feel that their contribution is positive, especially in the cultural field. They preserve their traditions and customs, as long as these do not go against the Spanish legislation. They also preserve their civil and religious traditions as well as their native language (Romanian whenever this is possible. In their free time they watch TV and go out with friends as well as they listen to music and to the radio, and visit bars. Nevertheless, the Romanians spend their money especially for their homes. They do not have special integration problems or difficulties, except for unemployment and, in a lesser degree, the Spanish language or autonomic language. They tend to interact with the locals and participate sparsely in civil sports, religious, social or cultural organizations

  18. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

  19. Conceptualizing the Use of Translanguaging in Initial Content Assessments for Newly Arrived Emergent Bilingual Students. Research Report. ETS RR-17-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alexis A.; Turkan, Sultan; Guzman-Orth, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    "Translanguaging" refers to the flexible use of the bilingual repertoire. In this report, we provide a theoretical framework to support the use of translanguaging to assess the academic content knowledge of newly arrived emergent bilingual students. In this report, we argue that translanguaging offers newly arrived emergent bilingual…

  20. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…