Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee
Are U.S. immigrants' English proficiency and social outcomes the result of their cultural preferences, or of more fundamental constraints? Using 2000 Census microdata, we relate immigrants' English proficiency, marriage, fertility and residential location variables to their age at arrival in the U.S., and in particular whether that age fell within the "critical period" of language acquisition. We interpret the differences between younger and older arrivers as effects of English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for English-language skills. Two-stage-least-squares estimates suggest that English proficiency increases the likelihood of divorce and intermarriage. It decreases fertility and, for some, ethnic enclave residence. (JEL J24, J12, J13, J61). PMID:20119509
Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.
Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…
Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S; Frank, Reanne
We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636
Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby
"International student security" refers to the international student's maintenance of a stable capacity for self-determining human agency. The article focuses on the role of English-language proficiency in the security of students from English as Foreign Language countries, drawing on evidence from a program of semistructured interviews with 200…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority:...
Fortune, Tara W.; Tedick, Diane J.
This cross-sectional study used assessments developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics to examine the oral proficiency of 218 K-8 English-proficient students in 4 Spanish immersion programs. Following a comprehensive review of assessment results for English-proficient immersion learners, the article reports findings from statistical analyses.…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Faulkner-Bond, Molly
States use standards-based English language proficiency (ELP) assessments to inform relatively high-stakes decisions for English learner (EL) students. Results from these assessments are one of the primary criteria used to determine EL students' level of ELP and readiness for reclassification. The results are also used to evaluate the…
The student population in Iceland is becoming culturally and linguistically more diverse. The goal of this study was to find out whether there is a discrepancy in English proficiency between Icelandic and immigrant learners; if so, what the possible reasons for it are; and whether teachers use the same or different strategies with the two groups of students. The data were gathered by means of surveys of two groups of subjects, students and teachers. The first group consisted of sixteen Icelan...
The secondary level English proficiency (SLEP) test is a group administered 150 item multiple-test of English language proficiency that includes two subscores and eight different item types. It is designed to assess a foreign student's readiness for English medium instruction at the secondary level. This paper reports on two studies which were…
Does English proficiency affect participation in online discussion? This study polled 14 students from a postgraduate online course that require online discussion. The students are divided into groups according to their home language spoken and self-assessed English proficiency, and measure against their participation level in the required…
Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh
Full Text Available Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability. This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English language proficiency skills are still below their expectations. Therefore, this study recommends that there is a need for intervention into language teaching to improve the English language syllabus level of English proficiency at primary, secondary and tertiary level. At the same time, emphasis on the importance of English in everyday use should be inculcated without neglecting the national language of Malaysia. This will ensure that the teaching of English will be in line with globalization and current workplace demands.Keywords: English language skills proficiency, manufacturing industry employers, graduates
Freeman, Donald; Katz, Anne; Garcia Gomez, Pablo; Burns, Anne
The expansion of English teaching in state education systems places increasing demands on English language teachers and how they are trained. A major thrust of these efforts has focused on improving teachers' English language proficiency. This expectation is manifested in policy and pedagogical directives that teachers "teach English in…
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills
CLARIBELLE C. HABER
Full Text Available - The main objective of this study was to determine the learning strategies used by College Freshmen to enhance the development of English language proficiency; and to find out the extent of using them along phonology, vocabulary and grammar. The survey-results served as the basis of devising an instructional tool that would offer more learning techniques and ways that would enhance further the development of English proficiency. The descriptive method of research was applied. Survey questionnaires of two parts were used. Part 1 was a diagnostic test in English focused on phonology, vocabulary and grammar. Part 2 was an inventory of English Language learning strategies that emphasized reading and study skills, which also determined the extent of using them along the three (3 elements of English. The research venue was Camarines Sur State Agricultural College where 255 College Freshmen served as respondents. The statistical tools used were score interval, weighted mean, averaging and ranking systems. Results showed that the College freshmen are moderately proficient both on vocabulary and grammar but are hardly proficient on phonology. Varied learning strategies on reading and studying exercises are frequently used by the respondents in developing English proficiency. The extent or frequency of using learning strategies along the English language elements revealed that the respondents moderately used target learning strategies along phonology while they frequently used said strategies along vocabulary and grammar elements of English language.”Language Strategies for Better English Proficiency” was devised to offer more learning ways and techniques that would enhance English proficiency development. The teaching tool entitled “Language Strategies for Better English Proficiency” was found valid to be used in the curriculum.
Hong, O S
1. As the population of adults with limited English proficiency plays an increasingly important role in the United States workplaces, there has been a growing recognition that literacy and limited English skills affect health and safety training programs. 2. Several important principles can be used as the underlying framework to guide teaching workers with limited English proficiency: clear and vivid way of teaching; contextual curriculum based on work; using various teaching methods; and staff development. 3. Two feasible strategies were proposed to improve current situation in teaching health and safety to workers with limited English proficiency in one company: integrating safety and health education with ongoing in-house ESL instruction and developing a multilingual video program. 4. Successful development and implementation of proposed programs requires upper management support, workers' awareness and active participation, collaborative teamwork, a well structured action plan, testing of pilot program, and evaluation. PMID:11760274
Guo, Qian; Koretz, Daniel
The large number of limited English proficient (LEP) children in U.S. schools and the uncertainty about the impact of bilingual education versus English immersion on their achievement warrant rigorous investigation of the effects of "English immersion laws." We estimated the impact of "Question 2", the Massachusetts English immersion law, and…
Workers with limited English skills may suffer adverse effects in the labor market when states declare English the official language. If employers view official English laws as allowing or requiring them to adopt workplace English-only rules that lower the demand for limited-English-proficient workers, such laws may harm individuals who do not speak English very well. Using data from the 1980 and 1990 Census, I estimate whether the earnings and other labor market outcomes of workers who have ...
Ee Chop Ler
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to the rural and the ‘cultural’ and to determine their problems effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools and ethnic backgrounds responded to a questionnaire. The problems discussed by both the teacher and student respondents arose due to the rural cultural setting. The findings of this study show that 1 five major problem areas exist, namely peer pressure and motivation, attitudes towards English ,teaching methodology, school culture ,influence of Islamic teaching on the learning of English 2 the problems discussed by the teachers and students are similar and 3 most importantly all these identified problems are closely related to the rural setting. Therefore, one can conclude that rural cultural factors adversely affect English Proficiency of the rural students of this study.
There are some certain factors affecting L2 ( English) vocabulary acquisition such as L2 ( English) proficiency, readers’ purpose and the habit of reading, and the difficulty of target words and context, among which the first plays a key role. The paper, through a review of the relevant experimental researches, reaches a conclusion that L2 ( English) proficiency does influence much upon L2 vocabulary acquisition.
Molnár, Máté, 1989-
The aim of this essay is to demonstrate the differences between countries that are exposed to English, and countries that are not exposed to English in the media. The English exposure in the media of Iceland and Hungary are presented as examples of countries with a different amount of English exposure. The research on the English exposure of these two countries illustrates that Icelanders are more exposed to English than Hungarians and that Icelanders are more proficient in English. A study w...
Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test....
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI... funding under the Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Limited English Proficiency Initiative... origin, are limited in the English proficiency (LEP). Each agency is to examine the services they...
Chiswick, Barry R; Larsen, Nicholas
Compared to other immigrants to the United States, recent Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union have achieved high levels of English language proficiency and earnings. They experience disadvantages in both dimensions at arrival, but because of steeper improvements with duration in the United States, they reach parity or surpass the English proficiency and earnings of other immigrants. This pattern is seen in the most recent data, the American Community Survey, 2005 to 2009, which is ...
Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh; Julie Chuah Suan Choo
Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability. This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English languag...
Ee Chop Ler
The purpose of this study is to the rural and the ‘cultural’ and to determine their problems effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools and ethnic backgrounds responded to a questionnaire. The problems discussed by both the teacher and student respondents arose due to the rural cultural setting. The...
Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.
This document consists of the printed technical documentation that accompanies the English Language Proficiency Study (ELPS) machine-readable data file when obtained from the Bureau of the Census. The ELPS was conducted by the United States Bureau of the Census for the Department of Education to provide materials with which the Department of…
Wei, Meifen; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Du, Yi; Lin, Shu-Ping
The aim of this study was to examine the moderators of (a) general or cross-cultural advisory working alliances and (b) perceived English proficiency on the association between acculturative stress and psychological distress. A total of 143 East Asian international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression…
Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson
Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…
Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics' English proficiency and their age. The results indicate that the English proficiency of the academics on the average is far below the average of that of the international students. The academics in West Java are the highest in their English proficiency, and the English group, as expected, has the best English proficiency. In addition, there is a negative correlation between English proficiency and age
Rosenthal, Judith W.
Between 1980 and 1990, the total number of Asian, Hispanic, American Indian, and foreign undergraduates increased by more than 50% at public and private, four-year and two-year colleges. Many of these students may be of limited English proficiency, suggesting that the traditional science lecture/lab format may need modification to incorporate the theory of second language acquisition as it pertains to the practice of content instruction. Various methods exist to improve science instruction for limited English proficient undergraduates. These included the adjunct and tutorial models, sheltered or bridge science instruction, faculty development, and science instruction in the students' native language. Any plan for science education reform at the collegiate level or for increasing minority participation in science must address the needs of the growing population of undergraduates who speak English as a second language.
This book focuses on strategies and procedures for assessing the academic language ability of students entering an English-medium university, so that those with significant needs can have access to opportunities to enhance their language skills.
The study attempted to investigate the mean level of the participants' reading proficiency and identify what levels of reading comprehension questions (literal,reorganization and inferential)the participants are able to answer. A written reading comprehension test wag administered. The participants consisted of 45 students enrolled in college English class. The data obtained from a written reading comprehension test,a background questionnaire,and a structured interview which was analyzed by using SPSS. The results indicated that the participants' mean level of reading proficiency Was below the standard.
Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini
The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1) to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2) to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3) to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4) to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the I...
Infantino, Jean Anne
The purpose of this research was to learn how teachers, school division policies, and community influences facilitated the transition of middle school Limited English Proficient (LEP) students from their native language to English. The research questions are: (1) How did the content area teachers influence the LEP student with learning English? (2) How did the ESL teacher influence the LEP student with learning English? (3) How did the school division policies influence the LEP student with l...
This study investigates the relationship between proficiency in English and language-related attitudes among Swedish professionals at the English-speaking AstraZeneca R&D site in Molndal, Sweden. AstraZeneca is the result of a merger between a Swedish and a British pharmaceutical company, and the aim of the study is to see to what extent their…
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... translated materials and other programs that support the assistance of persons with limited English... Following Information Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program. OMB...
Roszainora Setia; Rozlan Abdul Rahim; Gopala Krishnan Sekharan Nair; Aileen Farida binti Mohd Adam; Norhayati Husin; Elangkeeran Sabapathy; Razita Mohamad; Shahidatul Maslina Mat So’od; Nurul Izatee Md Yusoff; Razifa Mohd Razlan; Nur Amalia Abd Jalil; Rozita Mohamed Kassim; Norhafiza Abu Seman
The major aim of this research is to determine the effectiveness of using songs in teaching English language to primary school students. This research will specifically investigate to what extent songs can contribute to the development of students’ language proficiency. The research is designed to find out whether using songs can be an effective way in creating positive attitude and motivation in language learners. The research will be carried out through the use of questionnaire. The data wi...
Become Proficient in Speaking and Writing GOOD ENGLISH. The book offers practical advice for writing proper and attractive prose. It will help improve one's communication ability and skill. The topics cover Common Errors, Confusing set of Figures of Speech, Foreign Words and Phrases and various aspects of Grammar and Syntax. The entries have adequate and appropriate examples. The topics are arranged alphabetically for easy reference. Eight Appendices are added to enrich the Vocabulary. This work is a contribution to various aspects of writing correct and good English, focusing on the requirem
Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is the study of the interaction between learning English for Specific Purposes (ESP, in particular, English for the Financial Sector, and general English proficiency. The research examines the effects of an ESP course being taught for a year on the students' general English proficiency.Two sets of tests were prepared for that purpose and administered to 30 first-year students of finance and law. The students took the placement test twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. To monitor test performance over a research period, a parallel form measuring the same competences was administered at the beginning of the second semester. In the test development process a special consideration has been paid to the level of difficulty and its relation to the students' prior educational context. Drawing on the National State Matura exams the test is set at Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR Level B2. As regards its content the test is comprised of reading comprehension tasks (multiple matching, multiple-choice cloze, gapped text and grammar tasks aiming to examine lexical and grammatical competence.There were two major assumptions in this study: 1 Learning ESP can improve students' general English proficiency, and 2 There is a more substantial improvement in lexical competence as compared to the improvement in grammatical competence.There is strong evidence in support of the first hypothesis, whereas for the second one the results were ambiguous. After major findings are presented and discussed, implications for ESP teaching are given in closing.
... English proficiency provide for the needs of those adults? 472.33 Section 472.33 Education Regulations of....33 How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of those adults? (a) Projects serving adults with limited English proficiency or no English...
This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... transmission of data. Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program Reporting. OMB...
Jun Chen; Channarong Intaraprasert
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of reading proficiency. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in southwest China. The Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading (SQBER) and the Business English Reading Comprehension Test (BERCT) were used to collect the data. The results showed that the students with good reading proficiency repor...
Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.
The Hawaii State Department of Education's compliance plan for serving the special needs of minority students of limited English proficiency includes current policies, procedures, and program implementation specifications. The procedures address: surveys of newly enrolled students, English and native language proficiency assessment, program…
PEOPLE (Pruebas de Expresion Oral y Percepcion de la Lengua Espanol) was developed as a test to help distinguish between a language difference and a language deficit in non English proficient (NEP) and limited English proficient (LEP) elementary Hispanic students. PEOPLE was developed, pilot tested in 14 school districts in Los Angeles County with…
Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn; Hernandez, Ana
This article examines the language proficiency and achievement outcomes of Latino students enrolled in a dual language programme who varied by language proficiency (Native English speakers, Current English Language Learners--ELLs, Fluent English Proficient/Previous ELLs). Most previous research has not disaggregated Latino students, especially…
The globalisation of education has meant that English medium universities are enrolling unprecedented numbers of students for whom English is not a first language. This, in turn, has put increased pressure on institutions to ensure they have in place suitable measures for screening applicants in respect of their English language proficiency and…
This paper aims to illuminate the relationship between reciting and the efficiency of English learning among Chinese college students. Through a series of experiments and tests, the research draws the conclusion that the traditional English learning strategy----reciting promotes the students’ oral English proficiency.
Chen, Jun; Intaraprasert, Channarong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of reading proficiency. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in southwest China. The Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading (SQBER) and the…
Stevens, Christine A.
Reviews variations in levels of English-language proficiency among immigrants from non-English-speaking countries to Australia. Data on 27 of the largest birthplace groups are used from the 1996 census. Discusses immigrants' motivation to learn English and be included in Australian society and Australian policies regarding immigration-selection…
Jee, Rebecca Y.
Voxy, an English-language-learning company, has developed a custom, in-house proficiency exam, the Voxy Proficiency Assessment (VPA), which is given to all learners at the beginning and end of their courses. Using Multinomial Logistic Regression (MLR), the impact of covariates, such as total learning activities completed and total number of…
Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar
Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…
The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's) as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics'...
This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms that boost the language development of limited English proficient students and examine strategies used by a successful urban arts-and-literacy prog...
Lazarus Ndiku Makewa
Full Text Available This paper looked at students’ perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky’s theory of value. Correlation design was used to describe the association between the student and teacher-related factors and students’ perceived level of English proficiency. Purposive sampling was used to select 300 form three students. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the participants. Reliability of the research instrument was determined by conducting a pilot study. Pearson Descriptive statistics and Kendall’s Tau-b were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that the students’ perceived level of proficiency in spoken English was average. The findings indicated a significant positive correlation between perceived English proficiency and attitude toward the English language, classroom activities, teacher motivation, and classroom environment. It is suggested that further studies integrate qualitative research methods to the research design in order to get an in-depth understanding of students’ perception on English proficiency.
Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku; Role, Elizabeth; Tuguta, Ellen
This paper looked at students' perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky's theory of…
Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Kutschera, P. C.; Capili, Claire Ann P.
The study focuses on the background of Social Science and Humanities students (specifically in the course General Psychology) on their English education and competence. This research aims to identify the common factors of these students in terms of their English Proficiency. The students will answer survey questions that will give us information…
The use of standards-based classroom assessments to test English learners' language proficiency is increasingly prevalent in the United States and many other countries. In a large urban school district in California, for example, a classroom assessment is used to make high-stakes decisions about English learners' progress from one level to the…
Chen, Long Hwa; Chen, Hsin-Fan
This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female...... wage earners and contribute to an equalization of the gender wage gap....
Capps, Randy; Fix, Michael; McHugh, Margie; Lin, Serena Yi-Ying
This new report by Migration Policy Institute's (MPI's) National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy examines the funding formula used to distribute Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Title II federal funds for adult education, literacy, and English as a Second Language instruction. Though all adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) are…
Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman
Due to the alarming signals of declining proficiency level among English Language learners in Malaysia, this study set out to learn more about the learners' perceptions of the teachers' code-switching in English Language classrooms. The objectives of this study were to investigate: a) learners' perceptions of teachers' code-switching, b) the…
Raqib Chowdhury; Mohammod Moninoor Roshid
Recent literature has suggested that the relationship between globalisation and the English language implicates employability in the job market. Although the effects are uneven in different occupational groups and in different countries, such relationship is growing in significance to policy makers. This paper has explored the hitherto unstudied relationship between English language proficiency and employment and the success of Bangladeshi graduates in Australia to establish how English langu...
Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min
This document summarizes a study that examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content…
Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min
This study examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content assessments. Two research questions…
Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status
Mitchell, Mary A.
This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
Full Text Available Abstract: This study was aimed at examining the students' overall proÂficiency in English composition across university-year cohorts and across academic options. The participants were undergraduate students of UniÂversitas Negeri Malang. They were asked to write persuasive essays on whether violence as exposed on TV programs should be restricted. The essays were evaluated using the ESL Composition Profile. The results showed that that there was a significant difference between the first- and fourth-year students' overall proficiency in English composition. In adÂdition, there was no significant difference between the overall proficiency in English composition of the students taking the thesis option and those taking non-thesis option. The instructional program and writing curricuÂlum appeared to play an important role in developing the students' over-all proficiency in English composition. However, the thesis prerequisite courses provided to prepare the students to write a thesis proposal did not seem to affect their overall proficiency in English composition.
Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei
To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…
Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura
The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…
Vilar Beltrán, Elina
This article reports on an empirical study designed to assess pragmatic awareness and production of 104 nonnative speakers of English of two different proficiency levels (intermediate and advanced). The paper first frames the study providing information on the users of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), a new communicative competence model that takes into account lingua franca users, and studies dealing with ELF topics. This is followed by the description of the methodology e...
Franks, Mary Susan Tomat
The purpose of this study was to develop a whole language curriculum for limited English proficient, nonreading Native American adult factory workers. The curriculum was based upon a humanistic view of the adult literacy process. Cognitive and psycholinguistic theories of learning were used as the theoretical foundation for the curriculum. Schema theory was presented as part of a reader-centered, psycholinguistic processing model of English as a Second Language reading. The curricu...
Schwartz, Geoffrey; Balas, Anna; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz
Acoustic phonetic studies examine the L1 of Polish speakers with professional level proficiency in English. The studies include two tasks, a production task carried out entirely in Polish and a phonetic code-switching task in which speakers insert target Polish words or phrases into an English carrier. Additionally, two phonetic parameters are studied: the oft-investigated VOT, as well as glottalization vs. sandhi linking of word-initial vowels. In monolingual Polish mode, L2 interference was...
Lazarus Ndiku Makewa; Elizabeth Role; Ellen Tuguta
This paper looked at students’ perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky’s theory of value. Correlation design was used to describe the association between the student and teacher-related factors and students’ perceived level of E...
Bills, Garland D.; Hudson, Alan; Chavez, Eduardo Hernandez
Examines 1990 Census data for a large sample of the Hispanic-origin population in the Southwest, exploring two possible indices of language maintenance--Spanish home language claiming and English proficiency--as these are influenced by nativity, time, and age of immigration, citizenship status of the foreign born, education, and income.…
Cabrera, Natasha J.; Shannon, Jacqueline D.; West, Jerry; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This study examined variation in mother-infant interactions, father engagement, and infant cognition as a function of country of origin, socioeconomic status, and English language proficiency in a national sample of Latino infants (age 9 months) born in the United States and living with both biological parents (N=1,099). Differences between…
Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng
This study investigated whether the modality effect of content presentation modes on students' cognitive load and listening comprehension depends on the moderating effect of the learners' language proficiencies in a mobile learning context. One hundred and sixty-two students majoring in English in a technology university used personal digital…
Chan Swee Heng
Full Text Available Any attempt to define English language proficiency can never be divorced from the theories that describe the nature of language, language acquisition and human cognition. By virtue of such theories being socially constructed, the descriptions are necessarily value-laden. Thus, a definition of language proficiency can only, at best, be described as developmental, following changes that are linguistic, pragmatic, cultural and political. In defining English proficiency for tertiary education, the context is naturally also linked to the focus on university education. The argument has been that an ‘acceptable’ level of language competence of a university applicant is anything but constant. Tremendous social changes have seen traditional values of elitism in university education giving way to the ‘massification’ of education. As Kaplan and Baldauf (1997:257 affirms, “The principal problem in tertiary education is not declining literacy standards but rather it is about meeting changed societal, cultural and informational requirements and circumstances”. In the light of these changes, this paper attempts to trace influencing factors that help define an ‘acceptable’ level of English proficiency for Malaysian tertiary education. The paper examines past and present efforts of establishing an English language policy and assessment practice for tertiary education, and concludes with some views on future development that could evolve from the current indicative pursuits of establishing language learning and ability.
This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…
Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William
The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…
The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle-to-high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children's current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires…
Arkoudis, Sophie; Baik, Chi; Bexley, Emmaline; Doughney, Lachlan
This report presents the "English Language Proficiency" (ELP) and Employability Framework", which has been designed to inform and support higher education institutions' (HEIs) policies and practices on ELP and graduate employability. The "Framework" was developed through a review of the national and international…
Patel, Sita G; Firmender, William M; Snowden, Lonnie R.
Abstract Background To meet federal requirements under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, the state of California instituted policies requiring that comprehensive mental health services in native languages be made available to limited English proficiency (LEP) populations when concentrations exceed “threshold” levels. Methods This paper builds on promising results from quantitative evaluations by re...
Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Straits, William J.
This paper presents findings from a 4-year project that developed and implemented a blended inquiry science and English Language Development (ELD) program in a large urban California school district. The sample included over 2,000 students in Kindergarten through 5th grade. Participating students' English and science achievement was compared…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners. The words: English teachers in this study refer to teachers teaching English as subject learning area but who are not native speakers of English. The word learners refer to English second language learners. Although the literature review highlights the specific features of each of the language skills namely l...
The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using English captioned videos on listening comprehension of EFL university students. Recently English captioned videos have been available and used in EFL classrooms in Japan, but only a few studies have so far been made at clarifying their long-term effects. This paper points out the advantages of using English captioned videos and summarizes previous studies conducted on the effects of using them. Next, a data-based and long-term...
Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam
This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.
Since the ICAO new aviation language requirement comes into being in 2003, several tester organizations try to develop tests for pilots. Recently CAAC has tried to develop ICAO criteria Aviation English Proficiency Test for Pilots. But, does Chinese pilots' language proficiency satisfy the ICAO requirements? How to test a pilot's language ability? How to develop ICAO standard test? To explore the keys to these questions, the paper has applied the theoretical framework in development of the test, in construction of the tests and in scoring.
Salimi, Esmaeel Ali; Farsi, Mitra
This study on evaluating an English program of studies for foreign students seeking admission to the UE Graduate School attempts to examine the prevailing conditions of foreign students in the UE Graduate School with respect to their competence and competitiveness in English proficiency. It looks into the existing English programs of studies in…
Eslami, Zohreh R.; Fatahi, Azizullah
This study examined the efficacy beliefs of nonnative English speaking (NNES) Iranian EFL teachers. EFL teachers' perceptions of their teaching efficacy in terms of personal capabilities to teach English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and their perceived English language proficiency level were examined. A modified version of the Teacher Sense of…
O'Neill, Thomas R; Tannenbaum, Richard J; Tiffen, Jennifer
When nurses who are educated internationally immigrate to the United States, they are expected to have English language proficiency in order to function as a competent nurse. The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures, the Simulated Minimally Competent Candidate (SMCC) procedure and the Examinee Paper Selection Method, were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220. Because the adoption of this standard rests entirely with the individual state, NCSBN has little more to do with implementing the standard, other than answering questions and providing documentation about the standard. PMID:16401043
The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students who enter high school in ninth grade and score proficient or advanced on their CST in English Language Arts remain proficient or advanced 2 years later in 11th grade. The effects of NCLB will be considered as a contributing factor to the difference in student scores. This study was…
Greenberg Motamedi, Jason
This Regional Educational Laboratory Northwest descriptive study examines how long it took English learner students to gain English proficiency and reclassify as former English learner students at elementary schools in seven Seattle-area school districts. Analyzing test scores of 17,733 students, the study found that the average time to…
DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Kieffer, Edith; Zickafoose, Joseph S.; DeMonner, Sonya; Valbuena, Felix; Davis, Matthew M.; Heisler, Michele
The objective of this study is to inform medical home implementation in practices serving limited English proficiency Latino families by exploring limited English proficiency Latina mothers’ experiences with, and expectations for, pediatric primary care. In partnership with a federally-qualified community health center in an urban Latino neighborhood, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 38 low-income Latina mothers. Eligible participants identified a pediatric primary care provider f...
Toh Peng Yeow; Mark Kiak Min TAN; Li-Cher LOH; Blitz, Julia
Appreciation of learning styles can be of use tohelp both educators and students to enhance theeffectiveness of an educational experience. It has beennoticed that some students at this College are not verygood at expressing themselves in either written orspoken English. Our study aimed to identify thestudent’s learning styles; assess whether there isany correlation between learning style, baselinedemographic data and self rated proficiency in Englishlanguage; and assess their associations wit...
Betancourt Joseph R; Cohen Amy; Rodriguez Fatima; Green Alexander R
Abstract Background Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) represent a growing proportion of the US population and are at risk of receiving suboptimal care due to difficulty communicating with healthcare providers who do not speak their language. Medical school curricula are required to prepare students to care for all patients, including those with LEP, but little is known about how well they achieve this goal. We used data from a survey of medical students' cross-cultural preparedn...
Mei Po Yip; Brandon Ong; Shin Ping Tu; Devora Chavez; Brooke Ike; Ian Painter; Ida Lam; Bradley, Steven M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Meischke, Hendrika W.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an effective intervention for prehospital cardiac arrest. Despite all available training opportunities for CPR, disparities exist in participation in CPR training, CPR knowledge, and receipt of bystander CPR for certain ethnic groups. We conducted five focus groups with Chinese immigrants who self-reported limited English proficiency (LEP). A bilingual facilitator conducted all the sessions. All discussions were taped, recorded, translated, and trans...
Prieto Arratíbel, Amaia
The aim of the current study was to investigate whether socio-economic background, individual effort, or motivation had more influence in English proficiency; whether there was a relation between individual effort and family background, and whether there was a relation between motivation and family background. For this purpose, a questionnaire was passed to students of 4th year of Compulsory Secondary Education at three different high schools in Navarre. The questionnaire was divided in three...
JUNAIDI MISTAR; ATIK UMAMAH
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the at- tempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners’ speaking proficiency. The data from 595 second year senior high school students from eleven schools in East Java, Indonesia were collected using a 7...
Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Romesser, Paul B.; Jalisi, Scharukh; Zaner, Ken S.; Cooley, Timothy P.; Grillone, Gregory; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Truong, Minh Tam
Objective To evaluate how limited English proficiency affects treatment outcome in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with curative intent radiation therapy (RT). Methods From 2004 to 2010, 131 patients with HNC underwent RT. Patient's self-reported primary language and race/ethnicity were obtained at hospital registration. English proficiency was categorized as being English proficient (EP) or limited English proficient (LEP). Race/ethnicity was categorized as white, black and other (Hispanics and Asians). Patients were evaluated for locoregional (LRC), distant control (DC), overall (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survival. Results Fewer LEP patients (60.0%) underwent chemoradiation compared to EP (83.8%), P = 0.028. The three-year actuarial LRC for EP and LEP patients was 82.2% and 58.3%, respectively, P = 0.038. LEP patients had an increased risk of locoregional failure on univariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio, HR 2.4, 95% CI, 1.0–5.8). No differences by English proficiency were seen for DC, OS and DFS. Race/ethnicity was not associated LRC, DC, OS and DFS. Conclusion Inferior locoregional control was observed in LEP patients receiving RT for HNC. Potential health disparities as a result of limited English proficiency require further investigation. Practice implications Patient education, use of culturally sensitive interpreter and patient navigation services, and improved patient compliance should be considered in head and neck cancer patients receiving complex multidisciplinary care. PMID:25190640
Meta-cognitive learning strategies play an important role in enhancing learner autonomy and improving English proficiency.Based on a questionnaire,a study was conducted on meta-cognitive learning strategies employed by 60 students of non-English major coming from Beijing Information Science and Technology University and the study results reveal that the high-achieving students apply meta-cognitive learning strategies to their learning more frequently than the lower-scoring ones and meta-cognitive learning s...
Full Text Available Recent literature has suggested that the relationship between globalisation and the English language implicates employability in the job market. Although the effects are uneven in different occupational groups and in different countries, such relationship is growing in significance to policy makers. This paper has explored the hitherto unstudied relationship between English language proficiency and employment and the success of Bangladeshi graduates in Australia to establish how English language skills influence the employment mechanism in the Australian job market for graduates from a non-English speaking South East Asian country. The study was carried out following an interpretive approach as its overall aim was to understand the role of English language skills of university graduates in determining their employment opportunities and career prospects in Australia. It was found that in various ways one’s English language skills influence prospects of employment, especially in contributing to the possibility of “secure” and “better” jobs. The research findings may inform educational policy planners, teacher educators, employers and career advisers to optimise English language learning programs that support increased employability through English.
Students with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) entering U.S. schools in grade 9 face a tight timeline to simultaneously learn English and graduate from high school in four or five years. This study focuses on student outcomes and progress indicators for the cohort of ninth graders new to WCPSS in 2008-09 who had limited English proficiency. Based…
This commentary reviews recent literature on a number of problematic issues arising from the use of English proficiency tests by registration bodies as the sole assessment of the professional communication skills of overseas qualified health professionals from non-English-speaking backgrounds. It discusses differences between the assessment…
This study explored the correlation between listening strategies use and listening autonomy proficiency, and aimed to find the listening strategies that can predict a higher listening autonomous achievement. 133 English majors of Yangtze University, College of Arts and Science participated in this survey. The general situation of English majors’using of listening strategies and the correlation between different listening strategies and listening autonomy proficiency were analyzed. Based on the findings, some pedagogical implications were proposed to professional English listening teaching in higher education.
The present study examines possible effects of extramural English (EE) on oral proficiency (OP) and vocabulary (VOC). The study is based on data collected from Swedish learners of ESL in grade 9 (aged 15-16; N=80; 36 boys, 44 girls) over a period of one year. EE was defined as linguistic activities that learners engage in outside the classroom in their spare time. EE was measured with the help of a questionnaire and two language diaries, each covering one week. In the diaries, the learners re...
Rivera, Charlene; Stansfield, Charles W.
This study examined the effects of linguistic simplification of fourth and sixth grade science test items on a state assessment on the achievement of English language learners, those of limited English proficiency (LEP). At each grade level, 4 parallel 10-item testlets were included on an operational statewide assessment. On each testlet, items…
Siti Hamin Stapa
Full Text Available There has been an ongoing debate among language teachers on whether to use students’ first language (L1 in second language (L2 teaching. Nevertheless, the use of L1 in L2 teaching has been advocated with grounded theory as far as it merits the situation. This research article aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of L1 to generate ideas for second language writing among low proficiency ESL learners. The study employed the experimental research design where students in the experimental group used Bahasa Melayu in generating ideas before they resumed writing their essays in English. Students in the control group used English. Two independent raters graded the essays and the scores were analysed using the paired t-test. The findings showed a marked improvement in the writing performance of students who used their first language to generate ideas before using their second language for writing. Based on the findings, we recommend that teachers encourage the use of first language before writing or composing in English especially among low-level proficiency ESL learners.
Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad
Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory...
The objective of this paper is to study the Finnish National core curriculum for basic education and its English language proficiency objectives and analyse how video games can help ninth graders to aim at these objectives and improve their English language skills. Additionally, this thesis examines if the genre of a video game played has an impact on the English language learning experience, i.e., whether playing, for instance, a role-playing game benefits the student more in terms of Englis...
Full Text Available This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the at- tempts to reveal: (1 the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2 the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners’ speaking proficiency. The data from 595 second year senior high school students from eleven schools in East Java, Indonesia were collected using a 70 item questionnaire of Oral Communication Learning Strategy (OCLS and a 10 item self-assessment of speaking proficiency. The statistical analysis revealed that gender provided significant effects on the intensity of use of six types of strategies of learning speaking skill – interactional-maintenance, self-evaluation, fluency-oriented, time gaining, compensation, and interpersonal strategies – with female learners reporting higher intensity of use. A further analysis found that four strategy types – interactional-maintenance, self-improvement, compensation, and memory strategies – greatly contribute to the speaking proficiency. These findings imply that strategies-based instruction, covering the four most influential strategies, needs to be integrated explicitly in the speaking class to help learners, particularly male learners, cope with problems in learning speaking skill.
Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.
This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.
Angela Yicely Castro Garcés
Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a research study carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English program of study at a Colombian university. It aims at identifying the communication strategies used by four pre-service English teachers with A2 and B2 levels of language proficiency and, also, at examining how these communication strategies facilitate or hinder the development of communicative skills. Data collection instruments included audio recordings of three tasks: (1 open-ended questionnaire, (2 sentence translation, and (3 picture description. The participants’ speech was transcribed and categorized allowing us to identify and examine the role played by communication strategies which varied depending on the choice the participants made of using either avoidance or compensatory strategies.
Daysal, N. Meltem; Chin, Aimee; Imberman, Scott
bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using this discontinuity as an instrument for district bilingual education provision, we find that providing bilingual education programs (relative to providing only English as a Second Language programs) does not significantly impact the standardized test......Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district provides...... scores of students with Spanish as their home language (comprised primarily of ever-LEP students). However, we find significant positive impacts on non-LEP students’ achievement, which indicates that education programs for LEP students have spillover effects to non-LEP students....
Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina
The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self-control,…
Sarkar, Madhurima; Asti, Lindsey; Nacion, Kristine M; Chisolm, Deena J
Health literacy (HL) research among Hispanics currently focuses on individuals with limited English proficiency but impacts of HL on healthcare outcomes among other English language proficiency groups is relatively unknown. Regression models assessed associations between HL and healthcare outcomes for Hispanics overall (n = 4013) and for proficiency level sub-populations using the 2007 Pew Hispanic Health Survey. Overall, Hispanics with adequate HL percieved US medical care as "excellent," were more satisfied with their doctor's help, and reported "excellent" overall health. In the sub-population analysis, "excellent" perception of US healthcare was associated with HL among the Spanish and English dominant groups. Among bilinguals, adequate HL was associated with decreased use of traditional medicine. The effect of adequate HL varied within English proficiency groups. HL research that focuses only on Spanish dominant speakers can exclude a substantial percentage of English proficient or bilingual populations who have low HL. PMID:25894535
Jackson, C.N.; Hell, J.G. van
Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch–English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line rea
This study examines the language needs of pre-service teachers of English for the Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (English) (LPATE)). More specifically, the study aims to identify 1) the language needs of pre-service teachers in terms of language difficulty(s) and 2) how different demographic backgrounds of these teachers (e.g. a major in an English language-related subject/ education and the length of stay in an English-speaking country) may affect their perceived areas of langu...
Joel M. Magogwe
Full Text Available This study explored metacognitive awareness level of University of Botswana students in the Faculty of Social Sciences. It also considered the more recent research focusing on the role of metacognitive awareness in reading and how it relates to proficiency. The following questions are addressed: (1 What are the self-reported reading proficiencies of the University of Botswana students? (2 Are the University of Botswana students aware of their metacognitive reading strategies? (3 What kind of metacognitive reading strategies are frequently used? (4 Is there a difference in metacognitive awareness of reading strategies used by high- and low-proficiency students respectively? The Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS developed by Mokhtari and Sheorey (2002, and the semi-structured interview technique were used to collect data for this study. The findings indicate that University of Botswana English as Second Language (ESL students reported high reading proficiency and high use of metacognitive strategies, but there was no vast difference in terms of proficiency. Students who reported their proficiency as high had an edge over low-proficiency ones mainly because their management and monitoring of reading was guided more by the goals they have set themselves than by the tests and assignments they were supposed to write.
Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.
Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…
Ernst, Jeremy V.; Li, Songze; Williams, Thomas O.
The ever-changing student population of engineering design graphics students necessitates broader sets of instructor adeptness. Specifically, preparedness to educate and provide adequate educational access to content for students with identified categorical disabilities and Limited English Proficiency (LEP) is now an essential readiness skill for…
Mosqueda, Eduardo; Maldonado, Saul I.
This study analyzes nationally-representative quantitative data from the first (2002) and second (2004) waves of the Educational Longitudinal Study to examine the relationship between Latina/o secondary school students' degree of English-language proficiency (ELP), mathematics course-taking measures, and 12th grade mathematics achievement.…
Wang, Tuntiga; Rajprasit, Krich
Theoretically, beliefs about English language learning have a psychological factor, such as predicting the rate of success or failure among learners in the classroom context. However, learners with different levels of language proficiency may perceive such beliefs in a different way, which may lead to the development of special needs, in terms of…
Using an argument-based approach to validation, this study examines the quality of teacher judgments in the context of a standards-based classroom assessment of English proficiency. Using Bachman's (2005) assessment use argument (AUA) as a framework for the investigation, this paper first articulates the claims, warrants, rebuttals, and backing…
Sunderman, Gretchen L.; Priya, Kanu
This study investigates the phonological nature of the lexical links in the bilingual lexicon using different-script bilinguals. Highly proficient Hindi-English bilinguals performed a translation recognition task (i.e., decide whether two words presented sequentially are a correct translation pair). For the critical trials, the second word was a…
Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing. Special Education Services.
This document outlines processes necessary for the identification of and the educational planning for limited English proficient students who may be eligible for special education programs in Michigan. The importance of avoiding inappropriate referrals and misdiagnoses due to misinterpretation of cultural and linguistic diversity is stressed. The…
Borghese, Peter; Gronau, Roger C.
Correlations and mean score differences between IQs derived from the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; Bracken & McCallum, 1998) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; Wechsler, 1991) were compared. Participants were Limited English Proficient (LEP) Mexican-American elementary school students, who were…
Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.
Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject- versus object-extractions in English. However, less-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers exhibit greater processing costs on subject-extractions relative to object-ext...
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ ENGLISH LISTENING PROFICIENCY AND INTEREST IN ENGLISH MOVIE: A LINK TO DETERMINE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ENGLISH MOVIE AS A TEACHING MATERIAL IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM
Full Text Available English movie has been proven to be an effective tool to improve English language learning process in classroom. However, very little empirical research has been carried out to determine students’ interest in this teaching material, especially in the view of the fact that high level of interest in a teaching and learning material aids motivation which is very essential for language learning. Two groups of students were selected for this study. The first group is a Masters of Art degree student in English who have studied in English medium schools since the beginning of their formal education while the second group has studied in Kannada medium school and they are currently learning spoken English in an English training institute. A survey was administered, this is followed by giving standardize English listening test which is a parameter to measure learners’ ability to comprehend English movie. Result presented in this paper shows that Indian English learners and speakers are more interested in local movie than in English movie irrespective of their level of English listening proficiency. This suggests that students’ lack of interest in English movie is an indication that English films might not be an effective tool for learning English.
Full Text Available Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement towards the colour patch in the same colour as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals.
Full Text Available In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role. MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to examine the relationship between English language proficiency test (as measured by MUET bands to predict the undergraduates academic achievement (as measured by Cumulative Grade Point Average score. It also aims to determine the recommended MUET band as an entry requirement for prospective technical programme undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM. The study was carried out among 225 final year undergraduates of five different faculties in UPM, namely Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. The data used were obtained by administering a brief questionnaire and were quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 19. The study revealed that there is a medium positive correlation between English language proficiency and academic achievement where students who have scored higher bands for MUET are the ones who obtained higher CGPA in their study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that UPM and other local universities make changes towards the minimum MUET entry requirement to help prospective undergraduates excel in their academic study.Keywords: English language proficiency, academic achievement, technical programme, MUET, CGPA
Suk, Daria Soon-Young; Lee, Yae-Sheik
Shows how lexical and conceptual representation may be structured in the lexicon of Korean English-as-a- Second-Language users of high proficiency based on the data obtained from currently-used Grade 7 English textbooks in Korea. Findings show the existence of misusage due to Korean influence on second language English. (Author/VWL)
Ana I. Moreno
Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs for publication in English (as L2 is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794 Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2. This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2 does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2 for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP research and pedagogy are discussed.
A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes
Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This
Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Contreras, Sandra; Aragón, Rebeca; Molina, Gregory B.; Baron, Melvin
In this study, the authors examined reactions of Latino adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) to a culturally and linguistically adapted depression fotonovela, titled “Secret Feelings.” Fotonovelas are popular health education tools that use posed photographs, text bubbles with simple text, and dramatic narratives to engage audiences and raise their awareness and knowledge about specific health issues. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted at an adult school program (e.g., GED cla...
Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei
This study examined whether students studying literature in complementary learning clusters would show more improvement in medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency compared to those in conventional learning clusters. Ninety-three students participated in the study (M age = 18.2 years, SD = 0.4; 36 men, 57 women). A quasi-experimental design was used over 16 weeks, with the control group (n = 47) working in conventional learning clusters and the experimental group (n = 46) working in complementary learning clusters. Complementary learning clusters were those in which individuals had complementary strengths enabling them to learn from and offer assistance to other cluster members, hypothetically facilitating the learning process. Measures included the Medical Humanities Literacy Scale, Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment, English proficiency tests, and Analytic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. The results showed that complementary learning clusters have the potential to improve students' medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency. PMID:27154372
Mei Po Yip
Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an effective intervention for prehospital cardiac arrest. Despite all available training opportunities for CPR, disparities exist in participation in CPR training, CPR knowledge, and receipt of bystander CPR for certain ethnic groups. We conducted five focus groups with Chinese immigrants who self-reported limited English proficiency (LEP. A bilingual facilitator conducted all the sessions. All discussions were taped, recorded, translated, and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed by content analysis guided by the theory of diffusion. The majority of participants did not know of CPR and did not know where to get trained. Complexity of CPR procedure, advantages of calling 9-1-1, lack of confidence, and possible liability discourage LEP individuals to learn CPR. LEP individuals welcome simplified Hands-Only CPR and are willing to perform CPR with instruction from 9-1-1 operators. Expanding the current training to include Hands-Only CPR and dispatcher-assisted CPR may motivate Chinese LEP individuals to get trained for CPR.
Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine
Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term. PMID:18341120
Latsanyphone Soulignavong; Bouangeune Souvannasy
Many English professionals do not seem to pay much attention to the use of L1 in English language classrooms, based on the tenets that English should be taught in English to expose the learners to English which would enhance their knowledge of English and accelerate their learning. While research findings have been inconsistent in relation to this position, the results of the present study found evidence to the contrary. Using 169 students of a low proficiency level, it was found that using l...
Pecoraro, Diane; Phommasouvanh, Bounlieng
The Limited English Proficient (LEP) Parent Involvement Project, a collaborative project between two state agencies, aims to help refugee and immigrant parents to be effective in their new American culture. Materials are provided that were developed for use in various adult education settings such as English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes,…
Cackley, Alicia Puente
According to Census data, more than 12 million adults in the United States report they do not speak English well or at all. Proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and understanding the English language appears to be linked to multiple dimensions of adult life in the United States, including financial literacy--the ability to make informed…
Martinez-Roldan, Carmen M.; Newcomer, Sarah
In this article, the authors share findings from a study in which immigrant students responded to the wordless text "The Arrival" in small-group, bilingual literature discussions. The interpretive processes of two of the children with different ethnic backgrounds, levels of English proficiency, and styles of response are highlighted as exemplary…
Betancourt Joseph R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP represent a growing proportion of the US population and are at risk of receiving suboptimal care due to difficulty communicating with healthcare providers who do not speak their language. Medical school curricula are required to prepare students to care for all patients, including those with LEP, but little is known about how well they achieve this goal. We used data from a survey of medical students' cross-cultural preparedness, skills, and training to specifically explore their self-rated preparedness to care for LEP patients. Methods We electronically surveyed students at one northeastern US medical school. We used bivariate analyses to identify factors associated with student self-rated preparedness to care for LEP patients including gender, training year, first language, race/ethnicity, percent LEP and minority patients seen, and skill with interpreters. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the independent effect of each factor on LEP preparedness. In a secondary analysis, we explored the association between year in medical school and self-perceived skill level in working with an interpreter. Results Of 651 students, 416 completed questionnaires (63.9% response rate. Twenty percent of medical students reported being very well or well-prepared to care for LEP patients. Of these, 40% were in their fourth year of training. Skill level working with interpreters, prevalence of LEP patients seen, and training year were correlated (p Conclusions Increasingly, medical students will need to be prepared to care for LEP patients. Our study supports two strategies to improve student preparedness: training students to work effectively with interpreters and increasing student diversity to better reflect the changing US demographics.
Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.
Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject- versus object-extractions in English. However, less-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers exhibit greater processing costs on subject-extractions relative to object-extractions, similar to previously reported findings (e.g., Dussias and Piñar, forthcoming; Juffs 2005; Juffs and Harrington 1995). These findings are discussed in light of relevant research surrounding on-line processing among L2 speakers and their ability to adopt native-like processing patterns in the L2. PMID:22888175
Objectives. We examined the association of racial discrimination and limited English proficiency with health-related quality of life among Asian Americans in California. Methods. We studied Chinese (n = 2576), Filipino (n = 1426), Japanese (n = 833), Korean (n = 1128), South Asian (n = 822), and Vietnamese (n = 938) respondents to the California Health Interview Survey in 2003 and 2005. We assessed health-related quality of life with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's measures of self-rated health, activity limitation days, and unhealthy days. Results. Overall, Asians who reported racial discrimination or who had limited English proficiency were more likely to have poor quality of life, after adjustment for demographic characteristics. South Asian participants who reported discrimination had an estimated 14.4 more activity limitation days annually than South Asians who did not report discrimination. Results were similar among other groups. We observed similar but less consistent associations for limited English proficiency. Conclusions. Racial discrimination, and to a lesser extent limited English proficiency, appear to be key correlates of quality of life among Asian ethnic groups. PMID:20299644
Pickett, Anna Lou; Safarik, Lynn; Echevarria, Jana
These instructional materials are designed to improve the performance of paraeducators working in inclusive classrooms servicing school age students with limited English proficiency. The competency-based program helps participants to learn skills they can apply immediately, to accept new practices, and to increase their understanding of education…
Man, Jonathan P; Weinkauf, Justin G; Tsang, Monica; Sin, Don D
National factor(s) influencing publication output in the highest ranked medical journals are largely unknown. We sought to examine the relationship between national research funding and English proficiency on publication output. We identified all original research articles appearing in the five highest ranked general medical journals between 1997 and 2001. Using the country of the corresponding author as the source nation for each article, we determined a standardized publication rate across developed nations. We used multiple regression techniques to determine the influence of national expenditures on research and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), a surrogate for English proficiency, on publication output. There was a significant relationship of national spending on research and TOEFL scores to publication output of developed countries (p = 0.04; p < 0.01, respectively). These two variables explained approximately 71.5% of the variation in publication rate across developed nations around the world (R = 0.85; p < 0.01). Normalized for population size, English-speaking nations and certain northern European countries such as Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden had the highest rate of publication in the five highest ranked general medical journals, while Asian countries had generally low rates of publication. Research spending and English proficiency were strongly associated with publication output in the highest ranked general medical journals. While these data cannot be considered definitive due to their observational nature, they do suggest that for English-language medical journals, research funding and English proficiency may be important determinants of publication. PMID:15469039
Papageorgiou, Spiros; Morgan, Rick; Becker, Valerie
The purpose of this study was to enhance the meaning of the scores of an English-language test by developing performance levels and descriptors for reporting overall test performance. The levels and descriptors were intended to accompany the total scale scores of TOEFL Junior® Standard, an international test of English as a second/foreign…
Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.
A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…
García Ortega, Sergio, 1976-
Abstract The aim of this essay is to study the status of English in Iceland and Spain. In order to achieve this goal, a comparative study of the media of both countries in terms of exposure is performed. As a result, it is suggested that Icelanders are considerably more exposed to English by the media than their Spanish counterparts.In addition, their education systems,regulations and government policies on English teaching are described. It is found that the Spanish education system de...
Full Text Available By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese and second-language (L2, English proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants’ reaction time distributions in the Simon task. Bilinguals’ L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in µ, and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ regardless of trial types. Bilinguals’ L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants’ age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in µ. In contrast, neither bilinguals’ L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants’ age, only (a scores in the working memory task and (b RT in incongruent trials and (c Simon effect in µ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals’ L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children’s L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies.
This is a lesson plan for a College English class in China, focusing on language skills development and American culture. Students' language competences are developed by immerging into culture context.
Dr. Ozge Razy; Nadia Mohamed Ben Amer
This study attempted to investigate foreign students feeling and behaviour towards learning English and different other languages. The study found out that there is any significant difference in the students aspects attitudes positive and negative towards learning English language inside and outside the school based on their response to 25 items. A total of participants were 18 took a questionnaire as an instrument to qualify their attitudes. The participants showed positive attitudes in the ...
Sylvén, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia
Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people’s everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as learners get ample opportunities for L2 input and scaffolded interaction in the L2. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that L2 English profi...
Siti Hamin Stapa; Abdul Hameed Abdul Majid
There has been an ongoing debate among language teachers on whether to use students’ first language (L1) in second language (L2) teaching. Nevertheless, the use of L1 in L2 teaching has been advocated with grounded theory as far as it merits the situation. This research article aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of L1 to generate ideas for second language writing among low proficiency ESL learners. The study employed the experimental research design where students in the experim...
Duruk, Eda; Özcan, Fatma Hülya
English L1 acquirers learning Romance Languages have been claimed to process the first noun or pronoun of a sentence as the agent. However, because most of the evidence is based on learners with English as an L1, it is not clearly known whether this is due to a universal strategy or is a result of L1 transfer. According to one model of input processing (VanPatten, 2007), L2 learners would initially assign agent position to the first noun and object position to the second noun (First Noun Prin...
Roshid, Mohammod Moninoor; Chowdhury, Raqib
Recent literature has suggested that the relationship between globalisation and the English language implicates employability in the job market. Although the effects are uneven in different occupational groups and in different countries, such relationship is growing in significance to policy makers. This paper has explored the hitherto unstudied…
In the United States, the ability to understand English plays an essential role in how well patients and health-care providers communicate. This article highlights the concerns of providers, differential health-care outcomes, and risk management concerns of providing health care in an increasingly diverse and polyglot population. PMID:15500018
Barrido, Evelyn L.; Romero, Loreto M.
This study is guided by the following objectives: (1) Assess entering freshmen's pragmatic oral skills in English second semester SY 2004 2005; (2) Describe the learner language respondents in terms of variability of the inter language; (3) Determine the relationship of their language performance "vis-à-vis" high school grade, high…
Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.
It has long been theorized, if not exhaustively researched, that bilingualism and biliteracy are beneficial in promoting linguistic and academic gains; but the operationalization of these constructs is confounding. In the current study, the authors worked with 118 Spanish-English bilingual Latina/o students and investigated whether Spanish-English…
Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte
A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also…
Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis
The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…
Samad Sajjadi; Majid Ahmadi; Maryam Heidarpour; Ali Salahi Yakta; Naghmeh Khadembashi; Mohammad Rafatbakhsh
Background: Despite its inevitable significance, the effect of in-service English education on medical professionals has rarely been studied longitudinally. The reason can be issues such as physicians’ heavy workload, commuting problems, inappropriate class times, and inexperienced teaching staff. Materials and Methods: A needs assessment worksheet was administered to faculty members of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran and the responses were analyzed. A project for the...
This article reports on an exploratory study that aimed at describing and comparing a range of linguistic features that characterize the reading texts used at the B2 and C1 level of the Greek State Certificate of English Language Proficiency exam (KPG1). Its ultimate purpose was to explore the contribution of such features to perceived text difficulty while at the same time examining the relationship between strategy use and test-takers’ perceived level of reading comprehension difficulty rep...
Full Text Available This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age.
Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E
OBJECTIVE To investigate the preparedness of small animal veterinary personnel to communicate with Spanish-speaking pet owners with limited English-language proficiency (LEP). DESIGN Cross-sectional telephone survey. SAMPLE Data from 383 small animal veterinary practices. PROCEDURES Telephone surveys were conducted with veterinarians and office or practice managers from a random sample of US small animal veterinary practices in 10 states to estimate the number of Spanish-speaking pet owners with LEP visiting these practices, proportion of practices that used services to facilitate communication with Spanish-speaking clients with LEP, and degree of veterinarian satisfaction with their communication with those clients. RESULTS Responses were obtained from 383 of 1,245 (31%) eligible practices, of which 340 (89%) had Spanish-speaking clients with LEP and 200 (52%) had such clients on a weekly basis. Eight percent of practices had veterinary personnel who were conversant or fluent in spoken Spanish. Veterinarians who depended on clients' friends or family to translate were significantly less satisfied with client communication than were those who could converse in Spanish with clients directly. Availability of Spanish-speaking staff and offering of Spanish-language resources were associated with an increase in the number of Spanish-speaking clients with LEP seen on a weekly basis. Industry- and practice-generated Spanish-language materials were offered at 32% (124/383) and 21% (81/383) of practices, respectively; 329 (86%) practices had no Spanish-language marketing. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Opportunities were identified for improving communication with pet owners with LEP in the veterinary clinical setting, which could ultimately positively impact patient well-being and client compliance. PMID:26953924
听力在二语习得中占据重要作用,但是国内学者鲜有研究英语听力与其他英语技能及学习信念的关系,本研究以四名英语专业大学生为例,采用个案的方式,探究了英语听力能力低下对于大学生英语学习的影响.笔者通过访谈和学习日志收集数据,并通过类属分析的方法进行数据分析.研究结果表明,英语听力能力低下不仅影响其他英语技能的提高(尤其是口语),还会让参与者产生焦虑的情绪,甚至还会影响学习者的自我效能.%Listening plays an important role in second language acquisition, however, there is few studies focusing on the relation-ship between listening, other language skills and learner belief. The current study is a case study, focusing on four English majors with low level of English listening proficiency. It is aimed at exploring the impact of low level of listening proficiency on English majors'English learning in university. Data was collected through interview and learner journal, and then analyzed with categoriza-tion. Results show that low level of listening proficiency does not only have a negative effect on other language skills (especially oral English), but also make learner feel anxious. Besides, it could do harm to learners'efficacy.
Based on the learning motivation scale designed by Wen Qiufang as questionnaire and the CET4 score, coupled with the method of interview, the influence of learning motivation to the attrition of English proficiency for non-English majors is studied. As is discovered in matched sample T-test, all participants and high-score group have significant improvement in English proficiency while low-score group have significant attrition.High-score and low score group are similar in most items of extrinsic motivation but the influences of endeavor and metacognitive strategy determine whether their English will go through attrition or not. Due to a pessimistic attitide to English learning and the belief that English learning is valueless as well as the reluctance to learn English after passing CET4 and to use English as a tool for academic study, the low-score group have a low intensity of intrinsic motivation, which results in attrition in English proficiency.%！！！！！！！！！！！！押以文秋芳制作的学习动机量表和两次四级成绩为测量工具，通过问卷调查、访谈的方式，研究了学习动机对公外学生英语水平磨蚀的影响。配对样本T检验发现：全体受试对象、高分组受试对象英语水平有显著提高，低分组有显著磨蚀。高、低分组大多数表层动机强度相似，但努力程度和元认知策略影响他们英语水平是否磨蚀。低分组学生由于对英语学习持悲观态度且认为英语学习没有价值，在通过四级后不会继续学习，加之不会将英语作为交流工具及用于学术研究而造成深层动机强度较低，从而磨蚀英语水平。
Joel M. Magogwe
This study explored metacognitive awareness level of University of Botswana students in the Faculty of Social Sciences. It also considered the more recent research focusing on the role of metacognitive awareness in reading and how it relates to proficiency. The following questions are addressed: (1) What are the self-reported reading proficiencies of the University of Botswana students? (2) Are the University of Botswana students aware of their metacognitive reading strategies? (3) What kind ...
Guven, Cahit; Islam, Asadul
This study estimates the causal effects of language proficiency on the economic and social integration of Australian immigrants. Identifying the effects of languages on socioeconomic outcomes is inherently difficult owing to the endogeneity of language skills. Using the phenomenon that younger children learn languages more easily than older children, we construct an instrumental variable for language proficiency. To achieve this, we consider the age at arrival of immigrants who came as children from Anglophone and non-Anglophone countries. We find a significant positive effect of English proficiency on wages and promotions among adults who immigrated to Australia as children. Higher levels of English proficiency are associated with increased risk-taking, more smoking, and more exercise for men, but have considerable health benefits for women. English language proficiency has a significant influence on partner choice and a number of social outcomes, as well as on children's outcomes, including their levels of academic achievement. The results are robust to alternative specifications, including accounting for between-sibling differences and alternative measures of English skills. PMID:25749486
Ribot, Krystal M.; HOFF, ERIKA
Relations between bilingual children’s patterns of conversational code-switching (responding to one language with another), the balance of their dual language input, and their expressive and receptive proficiency in two languages were examined in 115 2½-year-old simultaneous Spanish-English bilinguals in the U.S. Children were more likely to code-switch in response to Spanish than English. Children’s expressive vocabulary scores were higher in English than in Spanish, while their English and ...
The relationship between motivation and EFL proficiency is an issue of great concern in previous research on foreign language learning. However, work in this area offers inconclusive evidence with regard to the directionality of their relations. Using cross-lagged structural equation modeling, this study investigated the directionality of the…
在语言研究领域,关于语言学习和使用与自我认同的关系的研究,已经引起了不少研究者的注意,并成为语言学习研究的重要组成部分。研究以社会建构主义为理论视觉,采用问卷调查的方法,分析英语教育专业学生在英语教学实习中英语水平对自我认同建构的影响;并探索不同英语水平的研究对象对课堂人际关系的认识的变化及语言情感变化与自我认同之间的关系,为我们更好地提高英语教学质量提供一定的实践依据。%In language study and research,the study on the relationship between language learning and self-identity has attracted more and more attention of many searchers,and has become an important part.Based on the theory of social constructivism,this study explored the English language proficiency of the English education majors on the impact of their self-identity construction in the English teaching internship,investigated how they perceived their in-class relationships in their English teaching and learning,and analyzed the relationship between self-identity changes and language affect.It is hoped that the result of the study will provide a certain statistics in better improvement of our English teaching.
Shing, Richard Wong Kwok; Perry, Conrad; MacWhinney, Brian; Oi-ling, Irene Wong
There is little consensus among different early childhood education stakeholders in Hong Kong on whether it is beneficial or detrimental for children to receive an English bilingual education before the age of 6. This longitudinal study investigated the issue of potential "detrimental effects of learning English" on Hong Kong…
Corsetti, Cristiane Ruzicki
Full Text Available O presente artigo baseia-se em minha monografia do curso de especialização, cujo objetivo foi justificar a importância do desenvolvimento de atividades de conscientização pragmática, em sala de aula de inglês como língua estrangeira. O conceito de competência pragmática foi abordado e descreveu-se seu impacto no desempenho linguístico. Foram analisadas as provas de compreensão e de produção orais de um exame de proficiência britânico intitulado “Certificate of Proficiency in English”, da universidade de Cambridge. Neste artigo, irei descrever as conclusões a respeito da prova de compreensão oral. A análise foi baseada nos modelos de código e inferencial de comunicação verbal e o princípio da relevância de Sperber e Wilson (1986, e na teoria dos atos de fala de Searle (1979. Os resultados oferecem um olhar sobre as habilidades inferenciais e conhecimentos pragmáticos a serem desenvolvidos ou ensinados de forma explícita em sala de aula de inglês como língua estrangeira
Geva, Esther; Yaghoub Zadeh, Zohreh
The research examined the extent to which (a) Grade 2 English-as-a-second-language (ESL) and English-as-a-first-language (EL1) children resemble each other on word and text reading efficiency and (b) whether individual differences in word and text reading efficiency in the two language groups can be understood in terms of similar underlying…
, we mean prepositional phrases and noun phrases which represent spatial orientation and quantity separately. This study focused on ideogram characters such as Mandarin characters and phrase level to explore the mechanism of language switching with proficient Chinese-English bilinguals in picture naming task.29 undergraduates or post-graduates whose major are English participated in two experiments. They were asked to name the picture in either Chinese or English as fast and accurately as possible according to different background color in two experiments. The material of experiment 1 was prepositional phrases. The material of experiment 2 consisted two kinds of noun phrases, either having quantifier or not. All the participants were tested individually on computers. Reaction times for correct responses and error rates were analyzed by subject and item variance.The results showed that for the proficient Chinese-English bilinguals, the reaction time was shorter and the error rates were lower in non-switch condition. Typical language switching cost was found in both experiments. Furthermore, proficient bilinguals showed shorter naming latencies with their weaker language (English) than with their dominant language (Chinese) in switch condition. However, the switching costs of phrase with quantifier were not significantly different from that of phrase without quantifier. This means that the grammatical pattern and/or syntax did affect the processing of language switching but did not affect the switching cost.It is claimed that in phrase level, even the proficient bilinguals choose the mechanism of inhibition control to complete the process of word. Therefore, the asymmetry of switching costs appeared without surprise. As language information did not affect the language switching cost in phrase lexical level, we can conclude that the switching cost does not come from the word - recognition system itself but is caused by processes outside the lexicon associated with task
Tovazzi, Maddalena, 1988-
This essay reports the findings of a small survey conducted at the University of Iceland. Aims of the study were to investigate how well students think they are prepare to meet the English language requirement of the University curriculum. Not many studies have been focusing on the situations where the language of assestment is another one than the language of the textbooks. Students are also asked what they believe has been helpful in their learning of English. Although the study was a small...
Woutersen, Mirjam; And Others
A study investigated lexical decision-making among Dutch-English bilinguals in the auditory modality. Subjects, bilinguals at three proficiency levels (intermediate, high, and near-native) were presented with 40 cognate and 40 non-cognate word pairs, a similar number of English and Dutch distractors, and a similar number of nonsense words in each…
Gil, Stephanie; Hooke, Mary C; Niess, Dawn
Patients and families with limited English proficiency (LEP) face a multitude of barriers both inside and outside the hospital walls. These barriers can contribute to difficulty accessing care and understanding/adhering to treatment recommendations, ultimately placing them at higher risk for poorer outcomes than their English-speaking counterparts. The LEP Patient Family Advocate role was created with the aim of improving access, promoting effective communication, and equalizing care for children with cancer from families with LEP. The goal of this mixed methods study was to describe the level of satisfaction and experiences of parents and health care providers who used the LEP Patient Family Advocate while receiving or providing care. Twelve parents and 15 health care providers completed quantitative surveys and an open-ended question about their experiences. High levels of satisfaction were reported. Themes about the role from qualitative responses included its positive effect on communication, trust, and connectedness between parents and staff. Continuity of care and safety were improved, and parents thought the role helped decrease their stress. The LEP Patient Family Advocate has a positive influence on family-centered cultural care. PMID:26589355
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ ENGLISH LISTENING PROFICIENCY AND INTEREST IN ENGLISH MOVIE: A LINK TO DETERMINE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ENGLISH MOVIE AS A TEACHING MATERIAL IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM
English movie has been proven to be an effective tool to improve English language learning process in classroom. However, very little empirical research has been carried out to determine students’ interest in this teaching material, especially in the view of the fact that high level of interest in a teaching and learning material aids motivation which is very essential for language learning. Two groups of students were selected for this study. The first group is a Masters of Art degree studen...
Moses, Britani Creel
The purpose of this study was to predict the third grade English reading TAKS scores while considering the same students' native language, Spanish, reading level as assessed by a state-approved reading assessment, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura (EDL), from the end of the second grade year. In addition, this study was been designed to…
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Britigan, Denise H.; Murnan, Judy; King, Keith; Vaughn, Lisa M.
The purposes of the study were to determine the health literacy levels of Latinos in the Greater Cincinnati Area in both English and Spanish by utilizing two standardized quantitative measures of health literacy, and to undertake an assessment of the relationship between language, health literacy and acculturation in this community. Given a rapid…
Jang, Eunice Eunhee; Cummins, Jim; Wagner, Maryam; Stille, Saskia; Dunlop, Maggie
Research on issues concerning the assessment of school-age English language learners (ELLs) in curriculum-learning contexts has been relatively less productive than assessment of adult language learners. A growing demand for assessing school-age ELLs has led to the development of assessment frameworks that provide the opportunity to examine the…
Athanasopoulos, Panos; Damjanovic, Ljubica; Burnand, Julie; Bylund, Emanuel
The aim of the current study is to investigate motion event cognition in second language learners in a higher education context. Based on recent findings that speakers of grammatical aspect languages like English attend less to the endpoint (goal) of events than do speakers of nonaspect languages like Swedish in a nonverbal categorization task…
Pop Anamaria Mirabela; Sim Monica Ariana
Learning a new language at any age is an enormously rewarding experience in many ways. Studying a foreign language helps students understand English grammar better and improves their overall communication and problem-solving skills. Beyond the intellectual benefits, knowledge of a foreign language facilitates travel, enhances career opportunities, and enables one to learn more about different peoples and cultures. In Romania, languages continue to struggle to gain the status of key learning a...
通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法对南京体育学院健美操专项学生英语水平进行了调查与分析,探讨了英语对当今体育院校学生的重要性。分析了体育院校在英语的教学方面应该遵循的方法及手段。通过调查发现,健美操专项学生的英语水平比较低;绝大多数同学们在课后没有花时间进行英语的学习;同学们的交流能力不强,在课后同学们运用英语的能力不强。%This study has done an investigation and analysis through the literature,questionnaire survey method and mathematical statistics study of English proficiency of students major in calisthenics specialty of Nanjing sport institute,and then discussed the importance of English proficiency for students in sports institutions.In addition,this study has analyzed the method and means that English teaching should follow in sport institutes.According to the survey,students major in calisthenics specialty have a relatively low level of English proficiency,an overwhelming majority of the students have not spend time for English study,and result in a poor ability in English communication.
Improving L2 macro-structural processing in students with elementary or intermediate english proficiency levels: an instructional approach focused on global coherence in reading comprehension of science text
G??mez, ??ngela; Devis, Anna; Sanjos??, Vicente
Previous studies have shown that students have difficulties building the macro-structure from expository texts in English (as L2). The usual cause pointed out is a lack of language proficiency. Thus, instructional methods have focused on providing students with the necessary vocabulary and grammar knowledge. This study proposes and validates an instructional approach which improves students??? L2 processing on the macro-structural level, focusing on reading strategies rather than ...
Knowing intimately the specific differences between Chinese“sanwen”(散文) and English essay benefits writers as well as readers in both creation and comprehension. This article would respectively focus on words and sentences in both languages to demonstrate the characteristics of the two languages including word choice,word repetition & synonym replacement and syntactic structure (句法结构). Hoping that after reading this article,your understanding of Chinese and English would arrive at a higher level and your writing proficiency would be slightly enhanced as well.
Latsanyphone, Soulignavong; Bouangeune, Souvannasy
Many English professionals do not seem to pay much attention to the use of L1 in English language classrooms, based on the tenets that English should be taught in English to expose the learners to English which would enhance their knowledge of English and accelerate their learning. While research findings have been inconsistent in relation to this…
Stansfield, Charles W.
The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II), an individually-administered measure of speaking and listening proficiency in English as a Second Language designed for secondary school students, is described and discussed. The test consists of 91 items and requires 5-25 minutes to administer. Raw scores are converted to one of seven proficiency…
English articles can be divided into three categories:indefinite article, definite article as well as zero article, which find themselves appearing in both oral and written English at a relatively high frequency as functional words. For Chinese English learners of the beginning stage, English articles are usually taught in the first several lessons. Although English articles are seeming-ly easy in terms of their semantic meanings, few Chinese learners can really arrive at the level where they can use them proficient-ly and grasp their usage in their entirety. Some researchers hold that the negative transfer of Chinese can account for that problem because the Chinese language doesn’t have an article system which is equivalent to that of English, while others strongly criticize this viewpoint. The paper is aimed at verifying the mother tongue interference on the acquisition of English articles by advanced Chinese English learners, especially at how the differences in generic expressions between Chinese and English give rise to those problems concerning the acquisition of English articles. Owing to the limitation of the length and depth of this paper, a hypothe-sis that Chinese English learners generally consider the English indefinite article“a/an”as being equal to“一个”in their mother tongue is put forward as a premise. To prove this hypothesis, two mini tests were carried out among 47 senior English majors in two classes respectively in BLCU and the results of the tests conform to the hypothesis positively. It can be safely asserted that due to the negative transfer of Chinese on the acquisition of English articles, even advanced Chinese English learners display their cog-nitive inadequacies of English generic references performed by English articles and inappropriate omission of English indefinite ar-ticles.
Perold Potgieter, Anneke; Southwood, Frenette
This study investigated how trilinguals fare on the cross-linguistic lexical tasks (CLT)-Afrikaans, -isiXhosa and -South African English (SAE) (cf. Haman et al., 2015) compared to monolingual controls, and whether the CLT-Afrikaans renders comparable results across socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The LITMUS-CLTs were administered to 41 low SES 4-year-olds (11 trilinguals; 10 monolingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and SAE) and the LITMUS-CLT-Afrikaans to 11 mid-SES 4-year-old monolinguals. Results (a) indicate that trilinguals' proficiency in their exposure-dominant language did not differ significantly from monolinguals' proficiency, but their proficiency in their additional two languages was significantly lower than monolinguals' proficiency; (b) reflect the extent, but not current amount, of exposure trilinguals had had over time to each of their languages; and (c) show that low and mid-SES monolinguals differed significantly on noun-related, but not verb-related, CLT measures. Possible reasons for and the clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26785940
Full Text Available This article reports on an exploratory study that aimed at describing and comparing a range of linguistic features that characterize the reading texts used at the B2 and C1 level of the Greek State Certificate of English Language Proficiency exam (KPG1. Its ultimate purpose was to explore the contribution of such features to perceived text difficulty while at the same time examining the relationship between strategy use and test-takers’ perceived level of reading comprehension difficulty reported in 7,250 questionnaires. Text analysis revealed significant differences between B2 and C1 reading texts for a specific number of text features such as word, paragraph and text length, readability indices, levels of word frequency and presence of words with rich conceptual content. A significant correlation was also found between B2 test-takers’ perception of reading module difficulty and specific text features i.e. lexical diversity, abstract words, positive additive connectives and anaphoric references between adjacent sentences. With regard to C1 test-takers, data analysis showed that two specific text variables i.e. positive logical connectives and argument overlap, correlated significantly with readers’ perception of reading module difficulty. Finally, problem-solving reading strategies such as rereading the text, guessing the meaning of unknown words and translating in mother tongue were found to correlate significantly with perceived text difficulty, whereas support-type reading strategies such as underlining or selectively reading parts of the text were less often employed regardless KPG test-takers’ perception of text difficulty. The findings of this study could help both EFL teachers and test designers gain valuable knowledge regarding EFL learners’ reading habits and also become more alert to the difficulty specific text features impose on the latter.
"If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity
Lichon, Kathryn A.
The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if
Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne
This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports. PMID:26274061
de Heer, Nathaniel; Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha
Educational experiences during childhood are critically important for development, but migrant children often experience unique challenges. To ameliorate these, extra training in English language--such as provided by the intensive English language programme in South Australia (IELP)--is frequently offered to children taking on English as an…
Knowing intimately the specifi c differences between Chinese "sanwen"(散文) and English essay benefits writers as well as readers in both creation and comprehension. This article would respectively focus on words and sentences in both languages to demonstrate the characteristics of the two languages including word choice,word repetition & synonym replacement and syntactic structure(句法结构). Hoping that after reading this article,your understanding of Chinese and English would arrive at a higher level and your writing proficiency would be slightly enhanced as well.
"English: An Essential Grammar" is a concise and user-friendly guide to the grammar of modern English, written specifically for native speakers and based on genuine samples of contemporary spoken and written English. In four chapters, the book covers the essentials of English grammar, beginning with the basics and going on to deal with phrase, clause and sentence structure. A fifth chapter deals with English word formation and spelling, including problem spellings and British and American spelling variants. Features of this title include: discussion of points that often cause problem
No Child Left Behind Act: Education Assistance Could Help States Better Measure Progress of Students with Limited English Proficiency. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives. GAO-07-646T
Ashby, Cornelia M.
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA) focused attention on the academic achievement of more than 5 million students with limited English proficiency. Obtaining valid test results for these students is challenging, given their language barriers. This testimony describes: (1) the extent to which these students are meeting annual academic…
Atbaş, Emil E.
Ankara : The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical refences. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the personality traits of introversion-extroversion and oral proficiency in second language learning. The subjects who participated in the study were students from the Preparatory School of Erciyes University (PSEU). At the outset, a group of 87 students were ad...
Shokouhi, Hussein; Angameh, Farzad
This paper is intended to investigate the interplay between proficiency and gender in the use of communication strategies. Sixty Iranian university male and female subjects studying English took part in the experiment and performed two tasks: word recognition and picture-story narration. The results indicate that proficiency had a more perceptible…
Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah
The intent of the present study was to examine the strength of the relationship between language proficiency in English and the 9 types of intelligences. As such, the objectives of this study were three-folded. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency among the…
Based on the theory of multiple intelligences, the questionnaire of multiple intelligences was applied to investigate 100 Non-English major vocational college students. The correlation between eight intelligences and English proficiency of the students was analyzed. The paper recommended that students should recognize multiple intelligences and teachers should know more about differentiating instruction.%基于多元智能理论,以100名高职非英语专业一年级学生为研究对象,借用多元智能调查问卷,对高职非英语专业一年级学生八项智能与综合英语能力之间的相关性进行探讨,提出应加强学生对多元智能以及教师对差异性教学的认识.
The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...... have been maintained and intensified since then, as African and Indian scholarship demonstrates. Language plays a key role in education, the World Bank taking over where colonial regimes left off. Anglo-American efforts to maintain global English dominance have intensified since 1945 and are central to...... the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article...
Troia, Gary A.
This study evaluated the efficacy of the computer-assisted intervention program known as Fast ForWord Language? in a sample of migrant students in Grades 1 through 6 who were native Spanish speakers. Fast ForWord Language? combines intensive training in multiple receptive English language skills with adaptive acoustic waveform lengthening and…
Haas, Eric; Tran, Loan; Linquanti, Robert; Bailey, Alison
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the extent to which a proposed home language survey in California could better identify possible English learner and multilingual students than the current home language survey. The responses to a proposed and current survey were examined for students registering for kindergarten through grade…
An empirical study on the relationship between Non-English majors’use of metacognitive strategies and oral English proficiency has been conducted. Quantitative method is adopted in the study.Results of the study reveal that the use of metacognitive strategies in oral English among Chinese college Non-English majors is not very satisfactory. Next, among the five categories of metacognitive strategies,what students use comparatively the most is the category of goals and plans while the category of self-monitoring rates is rarely used.The usa of the categories of self-monitoring, self-managing,selective attention as well as plans and goals exhibits certain explanatory power in the differences of the students’ oral English results. The study also shows some positive relationship between the frequency of overall metacognitive strategy use and the results of oral English proficiency.%就非英语专业大学生元认知策略使用与英语口语之间的关系进行了实证研究。研究采用定量的方法，结果显示，非英语专业大学生在英语口语过程中使用元认知策略的情况不容乐观。就五类常用的元认知策略而言，使用最多的是目标计划类，最少的是监控类。监控类策略、管理、选择注意和目标计划类元认知策略的使用情况对英语口语成绩的差异有一定的解释力。其次，整体使用元认知策略的频率与英语口语成绩存在相关性。
Gerard Paul Sharpling
Full Text Available This article reports on the use of the British Academic Written English (BAWE corpus as a source for developing test items for the Grammar and English Usage section of the Warwick English Language (WELT test in 2007. A key feature of this newly designed multiple choice grammar test was its use of student-generated writing. The extracts used for the re-designed test were derived directly from the BAWE corpus, as opposed to text books, published sources or indeed, simulated extracts of academic writing devised by test developers, which had been the case previously. The rationale for using the BAWE corpus for language test design is outlined, with a particular focus on the attributes of the students’ writing within the corpus, and the inclusion of both first and second language writing. The challenges involved in developing grammar test items based on BAWE corpus data are also presented. While the procedures set out in the paper were undertaken within a specifically British higher education setting, it is hoped that the research will be of interest to test developers and/or researchers in writing skills in other academic settings worldwide.
Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…
Yousif, Amna Abdel Gadir
Examined the speech of Sudanese non-native speakers of English while they lectured to non-native English speaking students from in content-subject classes. The study was carried out to see whether lecturers simplified their language syntactically by proficiency level. Findings reveal that the lecturers used five different syntactic variables…
Alderman, Donald L.
Puerto Rican students took the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA), and the Pruebas de Aprovechamiento Academico. The strength of the relationship between scores on the SAT given in English and the PAA given in Spanish increased as proficiency in English as a second language increased (Author/BW)
Sadarangani, Tina R; Jun, Jin
Newcomer elderly immigrants, defined as adults older than the age of 65 who have arrived in the United States in the last 10 years, represent a growing sector of the American population. Newcomers who experience limited English proficiency, financial strain, and acculturative stress are at considerable risk of developing poor health outcomes. Nursing's focus on healthy aging and aging in place has largely ignored the experiences of these older adults, who are said to be "aging out of place." This concept analysis uses Rodgers's evolutionary method to define "aging out of place" and illustrates why existing theories of elderly migration do not necessarily apply to this population. The challenge for nurses is incorporating the family, with whom conflict may arise, into the care of these elders. Community-based strategies that enable social integration and create a greater division of labor in the care of newcomer elders are called for. PMID:25217594
This study tries to examine the correlation between Chinese EFL learners' accent perception accuracy of and their lis- tening proficiency. Accent annotation data were collected from 80 English-majored freshmen and sophomores. Results show that their accent perception accuracy is positively related to their listening proficiency. Therefore, it is concluded that the teaching of the accent should be enhanced to help students overcome some supersegmental obstacles in their listening.
This dissertation investigated the neural mechanisms underlying English morphosyntactic processing in Case, subject-verb agreement, and past tense inflection in Japanese learners of English (JLEs) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in terms of the effects of the age of second language (L2) acquisition (the age of learning English), L2 proficiency level (the English proficiency level), and native/first language (L1) transfer. Researchers have debated for a number of years the question...
This study investigated the metacognitive awareness and reading strategies use of high school-aged English language learners (ELLs) and the relationship between ELL reading strategy use and reading proficiency as measured by a standardized reading test and self-rated reading proficiency. Results reveal that participants reported moderate use of…
Investigates sex and language proficiency differences in the color-naming performance of Chinese-speaking English learners at the university level. Data were obtained on color terms used by 40 females and 40 males in naming 40 color stimuli. An interest related variable, five demographic factors, and seven language proficiency indices were…
Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Cornelis
This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa
R. Schoonen; A. van Gelderen; R.D. Stoel; J. Hulstijn; K. de Glopper
This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa
Kamalizad, Jalal; Samuel, Moses
Responding to the controversies in the results of past studies regarding the impact of language proficiency on learners' use of language learning strategies, this article reports the effect of language proficiency on the strategy use of Iranian English learners across two different settings, namely ESL Malaysia, and EFL Iran. Some 157 Iranian…
Ya-Chin Tsai; Yi-Chih Li
Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assesse...
Tao, Lily; Taft, Marcus; Gollan, Tamar H
This study investigated the relationship between bilingualism and task switching ability using a standardized measure of switching and an objective measure of bilingual language proficiency. Heritage Language (HL) speaking Spanish-English and Mandarin-English bilinguals and English speaking monolinguals completed all four subtests of the Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), an English verbal fluency task, and a picture naming test (the Multilingual Naming Test) in English. Bilinguals also named pictures in their HL to assess HL proficiency. Spanish-English bilinguals were advantaged in task switching, exhibiting significantly smaller switching cost than monolinguals, but were disadvantaged in verbal fluency and picture naming. Additionally, performance on these cognitive and linguistic tasks was related to degree of HL proficiency, so that increased ability to name pictures in Spanish was associated with greater switching advantage, and greater disadvantage in both verbal fluency and picture naming. Mandarin-English bilinguals, who differed from the Spanish-English bilinguals on several demographic and language-use characteristics, exhibited a smaller but statistically significant switching advantage, but no linguistic disadvantage, and no clear relationship between HL proficiency and the switching advantage. Together these findings demonstrate an explicit link between objectively measured bilingual language proficiency and both bilingual advantages and disadvantages, while also showing that consequences of bilingualism for cognitive and linguistic task performance can vary across different language combinations. PMID:26527242
Recent research by Valette, Oller, and others has shown the utility of dictation as a measure of general language competence when correlated with achievement and proficiency batteries for French and English as a second language. No such studies have been conducted with Spanish. The investigator hypothesized that since Spanish is a phonetic…
Valdez, Cheryl; Schnell-Torosian, Roxanne
A test of English language proficiency designed for administration to school children with severe disabilities is presented. The test packet contains a manual for test administrators, a five-page form for recording student testing data, and a score sheet. The manual offers an introduction to the instrument, including its rationale, definitions of…
Brutten, Sheila R.; And Others
Describes a study in which measures of musical ability (pitch, loudness, and rhythm), auditory discrimination, and memory were used to account for variance in attained English as a second language (ESL) oral proficiency. Proposes research programs to determine whether training in musical abilities might be useful to ESL instruction. (SED)
For years, learning English has always been a popular trend in China. However, for most of students, the main purpose of learning this language is not to improve their English proficiency but to obtain the related English proficiency certificates, which will contribute to their graduation or competition. Under such instrumental motivation, students may succeed in short-term competition but fail in long-term development, especially when studying abroad or working in a foreign company. In order to help Chinese students improve their English proficiency effectively; this article will introduce several strategies that could be considered and implemented in English classes in China.
Gutiierrez, Gabriel; Vanderwood, Mike L.
The literacy growth of 260 second-grade English learners (ELs) with varying degrees of English language proficiency (e.g., Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced and Advanced English language proficiency) was assessed with English literacy skill assessments. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures were…
Wen, Yun; Walter J B van Heuven
We present Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N=28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1429 English words. The results revealed that 71% of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigat...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...
Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.
Many American universities require international applicants whose native language is not English to submit English proficiency exam scores presumably because of proficiency's potential to predict future academic success. The present study provides evidence, however, that such applicants can succeed academically despite struggling with English.…
Johnson, J S; Newport, E L
Lenneberg (1967) hypothesized that language could be acquired only within a critical period, extending from early infancy until puberty. In its basic form, the critical period hypothesis need only have consequences for first language acquisition. Nevertheless, it is essential to our understanding of the nature of the hypothesized critical period to determine whether or not it extends as well to second language acquisition. If so, it should be the case that young children are better second language learners than adults and should consequently reach higher levels of final proficiency in the second language. This prediction was tested by comparing the English proficiency attained by 46 native Korean or Chinese speakers who had arrived in the United States between the ages of 3 and 39, and who had lived in the United States between 3 and 26 years by the time of testing. These subjects were tested on a wide variety of structures of English grammar, using a grammaticality judgment task. Both correlational and t-test analyses demonstrated a clear and strong advantage for earlier arrivals over the later arrivals. Test performance was linearly related to age of arrival up to puberty; after puberty, performance was low but highly variable and unrelated to age of arrival. This age effect was shown not to be an inadvertent result of differences in amount of experience with English, motivation, self-consciousness, or American identification. The effect also appeared on every grammatical structure tested, although the structures varied markedly in the degree to which they were well mastered by later learners. The results support the conclusion that a critical period for language acquisition extends its effects to second language acquisition. PMID:2920538
Appel, Randy; Wood, David
The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…
English writing is also a crucial means of evaluating the language proficiency of a learner of English as second language. As a result, it is essential to review English writing researching in terms of contents, number, methods, process, feedback and as⁃sessment which can guide our English writing teaching effectively.
Hamid, M. Obaidul; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai
This paper focuses on English teachers in Asia in the context of globalization, the global spread of English and the emergence of English as an "Asian language." It highlights the dilemmas facing these teachers in meeting the growing social demands of English proficiency in a technology-influenced, managerial and neoliberal education…
Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency.This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.Keywords: Language proficiency, Collocation, Communicative Competence, academic year, Iranian EFL learners
Cahit Guven; Asadul Islam
This paper seeks to estimate the causal effects of language proficiency on the earnings and social assimilation of Australian immigrants. Identifying the effects of languages on socio-economic outcomes is inherently difficult, due to the endogeneity of the language skills. This study exploits the phenomenon that younger children learn languages more easily than older children to construct an instrumental variable for language proficiency. To achieve this, we exploit the age at arrival of immi...
Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius
Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…
Tang, Xin; Zhang, Shengqi; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Miqiang
English pronunciation self-concept is formed in the process of pronunciation learning, which refers to the learners' self-conception and assessment of one's English pronunciation proficiency and pronunciation (Gimson, A. C. 1980). This paper reports an investigation on 237 non-English major college students into the relationship between English…
This paper discusses what intercultural English learning/teaching (IELT) is in English as a world Englishes (WEes) and how IELT can contribute to the development of proficiency/competence among WEes and can be fitted into actual WEes classrooms. This is to claim that IELT be a pivotal contextual factor facilitating success in…
Umansky, Ilana M.; Reardon, Sean F.
Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to "fluent English proficient" status as quickly as possible. This article examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual,…
Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.
This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…
Vanderwood, Michael L.; Tung, Catherine Y.; Checca, C. Jason
The predictive validity and accuracy of an oral reading fluency (ORF) measure for a statewide assessment in English language arts was examined for second-grade native English speakers (NESs) and English learners (ELs) with varying levels of English proficiency. In addition to comparing ELs with native English speakers, the impact of English…
Greenberg Motamedi, Jason; Singh, Malkeet; Thompson, Karen D.
How long does it typically take English learner students to develop English language proficiency? And how does this time vary by student characteristics such as English proficiency at entry to kindergarten, gender, and home language? The answers to these questions can provide valuable information to districts and schools. Regional Educational…
Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Hall, Elisabeth
This paperexamines clinical wisdom which has emerged from a broader study anout nurse managers´influence on proficient registered nurse turnover and retention. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of proficient nurses´experience and clinical practice by giving voice to the nurses...
Full Text Available Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assessed with the Test Anxiety Scale, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale and a reading-proficiency test. Data were analyzed by means of Pearsons product-moment correlations and independent-samples t-tests. Results: Several findings were reported. First, English reading proficiency was found negatively related to test anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety. Second, test anxiety was found correlated positively with foreign language reading anxiety. Third, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Testees and High Anxiety Testees did not reach a significance level. Fourth, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Readers and High Anxiety Readers did not reach a significance level, either. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was possible that the sample sizes may not be enough to make the reading-proficiency difference between LAT and HAT or between LAR and HAR reach a significance level. In addition, the reading-proficiency test in the form of multiple-choice questions could not have differentiated low anxiety participants from high anxiety ones. In the future, the number of participants should be increased to increase the power of the statistical procedure. In addition, various reading-proficiency assessments should be considered.
Each of the two coils for the LHCb magnet comprises 15 individual monolayer 'pancakes' of identical trapezoidal racetrack shape, and is bent at 45 degrees on the two transverse sides. Each pancake consists of eight turns of conductor, wound from a single length (approx. 290 m) of extruded aluminium. The coils have arrived at CERN; one of them is seen here being unloaded above the LHCb experimental cavern.
Goldburg, Maxine E.
Learner-centered methodology like peer review is problematic in the pluralism of the ESL classroom when teaching academic English composition. A distinct complication is the form writing instruction should take given the interaction and variations between ESL students' L1 background, experiences, schema, and the meaning of academic literacy…
La Provision de una Igualdad de Oportunidades Educativas para los Estudiantes con Conocimientos Limitados del Idioma Ingles (The Provision of an Equal Education Opportunity to Limited English Proficient Students).
Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.
This federal policy statement outlines policy on provision of education to limited-English-speaking school children. First, it describes briefly the demographics of this population and the academic difficulties faced by them, and the recent federal initiative for broadened educational opportunity, America 2000: An Education Strategy. Then,…
Murdock, Deroy; Brown, Willie, Jr.
Presents two views on recognizing English as the official language of the U.S. Proponents say it will help immigrants advance themselves and will bind Americans together. Critics argue that the amendment does not increase English proficiency but punishes those who have not learned; it also heightens racism and xenophobia. (LHW)
Andrade, Maureen Snow
Demand for higher education is global. As institutions extend opportunities beyond their borders, English language proficiency must be considered. This chapter focuses on considerations related to global expansion, with an emphasis on the role of distance English language courses and the distinct considerations in their development.
Stansfield, Charles W.
The Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI), an oral proficiency test used by government agencies to assess general speaking proficiency in a second language. The SOPI is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts. It begins with simple, personal…
Tubergen, F.A. van; Kalmijn, M.
This article proposes a dynamic perspective on immigrants’ language proficiency. Hypotheses are formulated about immigrants’ language skills at arrival and about the speed with which immigrants learn the language thereafter. It pools data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 U.S. Censuses, and uses a synth
This paper takes up three topics for discussion. The first is whether the Kachruvian three-circle model can accommodate the possible change of English use (e.g. native/non-native to individual proficiency, a special talent to a basic skill). The second is what transformation English would undergo if it survives as English as an international…
He, Ling; Shi, Ling
The present study interviewed 16 international students (13 from Mainland China and 3 from Taiwan) in a Canadian university to explore their perceptions and experiences of two standardized English writing tests: the TWE (Test of Written English) and the essay task in LPI (English Language Proficiency Index). In Western Canada, TWE is used as an…
To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author presents relevant research findings,…
With Grey relational analysis (GRA), the paper examined the sensitivity of eight variables influencing test performance at branch level. The eight variables involved included language proficiency, test anxiety, self-esteem, achievement motivation, achievement goal, English proficiency test anxiety (EPTA), state anxiety and trait anxiety. Results showed that: (1) Besides language proficiency, motivation-to-avoid- failure was most sensitive to English test performance; (2) Trait and state anxie...
Plough, India C.; Briggs, Sarah L.; Van Bonn, Sarah
The study reported here examined the evaluation criteria used to assess the proficiency and effectiveness of the language produced in an oral performance test of English conducted in an American university context. Empirical methods were used to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively transcriptions of the Oral English Tests (OET) of 44…
Hatam, Amir Hussein; Shafiei, Shilan
The purpose of the present study was twofold. Firstly, it tried to investigate the relationship between the technical English proficiency of the students of Mechanical Engineering in the universities of Iran and their technical translation proficiency in translating technical texts of Mechanics. Secondly, it attempted to evaluate the effectiveness…
The testing of non-English dominant children cannot be achieved through written examinations that demand reading proficiency and that fail to ascertain the strengths or weaknesses of individual performance. Nor can an oral proficiency test, involving a lengthy tension-inducing interview and relatively inconclusive scoring, provide the information…
Abdullah, Hazlina; Rahman, Nik Suryani Nik Abdul; Adnan, Airil Haimi Mohd
In Malaysia, the issue of weak and non-proficient graduates is a pressing matter. This implies that they are not well-equipped to cope with academic literacy, which is closely related to their language proficiency, as the main medium of instruction at most higher institutions is the English language. At this level, reading is the essence of…
Liao, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Yeh-uh Hsueh
The importance of English for the workplace, in addition to that of general English proficiency, is receiving increasing attention from educators and policy makers in the field of teaching English as a foreign language. In order to prepare college students for their professional development, appropriate English-for-specific-purposes (ESP)…
Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga
English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…
Yan, Jiaolan; Ding, Guangwei
College English (CE), a required course for college and university's students in China, plays a significant role in students' academic performance and future career success. The quality of College English instruction contributes to students' outcomes of English proficiency. Writing, as an important outcome of students' English learning, is an…
Casillas, Joseph V.; Simonet, Miquel
This study investigates how fluent second-language (L2) learners of English produce and perceive the /ae/-/?/ vowel contrast of Southwestern American English. Two learner groups are examined: (1) early, proficient English speakers who were raised by Spanish-speaking families but who became dominant in English during childhood and, as adults, lack…
The implementation of English education at the elementary level in Taiwan is still in its early stage. However, researchers and educators in this field have noticed the variation of student English proficiency which increases the difficulty of teaching in today's EFL classes and results in calls for intervention programs. The purpose of this study…
Reading is the basic way for learners to study English,to obtain various information as well as knowledge,and to improve the proficiency of understanding and expressing.English newspaper reading,owing to its own characteristics,will make up for the shortc
For nonnative English speakers, taking a standardized English proficiency test seems inevitable, because the scores achieved play an important role in such life events as admission to a school, gaining a scholarship, or securing a job. Considering their importance, it is imperative that such tests be not only valid and reliable, but also fair.…
Playing video games is an activity that takes up an increasing amount of children’s and adolescent’s spare time. While some previous studies have highlighted the negative aspects of video games, little research has been carried out on the linguistic learning opportunities that video games present. This study primarily investigates if Swedish second language learners of English can increase their vocabulary proficiency in English with the use of video games. In order to answer the research que...
Eleanor M Lemmer; Tintswalo V Manyike
A clear preference for English as language of teaching and learning (LoLT) is evident in most South African schools. However, discrepancies exist between language policy aims and educational outcomes with regard to the successful acquisition of English among English second language (ESL) learners. Effective participation in all learning activities is closely linked to learners’ proficiency in the LoLT; poor English proficiency leads to underachievement across the curriculum. In the light of t...
Turkish Armed Forces have been participating in joint missions together with other nations for decades. Since English is the medium of instruction in these missions, participating members should have NATO Standards in terms of language proficiency levels in four skills. Therefore, this study aims to specify personnel's views and their…
Hong, Su Chin; Chen, Shu Hui
This study investigated the roles of phoneme position, stress, and proficiency in L2 spelling development by Taiwanese students learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL), an alphabetic writing system typologically different from the learners' L1 logographic system. Structured nonword spelling tests were administered to EFL sixth-graders with…
Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam
This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…
Hoffman, Eugene J.
Just as passing a music course from "Appreciation" on up demands at least basic proficiency in note reading and harmony, so even physics for nonscience students requires some mathematical skills. We are often frustrated, however, by students who in the midst of a beautifully deductive derivation hesitate over, say, the definition of a cosine. In an effort to hasten development of key problem-solving skills, I have added timed proficiency tests to the conventional array of learning tools, homework, quizzes, hour exams, etc.
Jensen, Christian; Denver, Louise; Mees, Inger M.;
proficiency and perceptions of general lecturing competence (defined here as knowledge of subject and teaching skills). Statistical analyses of 1,700 student responses to 31 non-native English-speaking lecturers at a major business school in Denmark revealed that the students’ perceptions of the lecturers......This study examines the evaluative reactions of university students to their non-native lecturers’ English skills in English-medium instruction, i.e. when English is used as a lingua franca in an academic context. In particular, we examine the relationship between perceptions of English language......’ English language proficiency is a significant predictor of their perceptions of the lecturers’ general lecturing competence and vice versa. We interpret this as a two-way relationship caused by speech stereotypes similar to those which have been demonstrated in social-psychological experiments. This...
The report lists those individual contractors in the United States who have met the requirements of the Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program as of August 18, 1990. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who design and supervise the installation of radon mitigation systems in buildings. (Some States have more stringent requirements as part of their radon certification programs. The States should be consulted directly for details on their programs; see Section 5 for a list of State radon contacts). The RCP Program measures the proficiency of an individual contractor, not their company. Therefore, users of the report who select a mitigation firm should ensure that the services are provided by the listed contractor. The National RCP Program does not accredit mitigation contractors, nor does it certify, recommend, or endorse participating companies. Only the listed contractor, not their company of affilation, are deemed proficient. The inclusion of a contractor in the report should not be interpreted as a certification or accreditation of the individual or affiliated company
Galapon, E A; Galapon, Eric A.; Bahague, Ricardo T.
We show that the non-self-adjoint free time of arrival operator in free space defines a class of compact, self-adjoint, and canonical operators for a spatially confined particle. We analytically and numerically study the qualitative behaviors of these operators, and demonstrate that their eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are consistent with the interpretation that they are time of arrival operators.
Ester J. de Jong
With few exceptions, accountability systems for programs for English language learners (ELLs) have focused on the achievement patterns of ELLs who are still considered “limited English proficient” and program evaluations have been unable to answer the question whether ELLs actually catch up with English proficient peers after attending a bilingual or English as a Second Language (ESL) program. Disaggregating data for former ELLs can therefore provide important information for long-term distri...
Stansfield, Charles W.
This digest focuses on the American Council on the Speaking of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Speaking Proficiency Guidelines. The history and development of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines (originally, the ACTFL Provisional Proficiency Guidelines) are reviewed, the generic characteristics of each level of the speaking guidelines are presented in…
Firch, Tim; Campbell, Annhenrie; Filling, Steven; Lindsay, David H.
Although there has been much discussion about improving college student writing with college-level courses, little is known about how accounting programs, in particular, are addressing the writing proficiency challenge. This study surveys the 852 accounting programs in the United States to identify the frequency and types of accounting writing…
Full Text Available In 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO strengthened the provisions that English be made available for international radiotelephony communication. ICAO also developed standards for English proficiency for international pilots and air traffic controllers. However, these standards are applied variably from country to country and in no country are native speakers of English tested for their ability to employ what has been termed "interactional competence" when using English for intercultural communication. Problems with this situation are reviewed and suggestions made for improving English assessment and training.
Barbara Jean Kristvinsson 1958
English has become a global language and the number of users of English who are not native speakers has exceeded the numbers of native speakers. While studies show that Scandinavians are proficient users of English very little is known about how much English the average Icelander encounters on a daily basis. English has become a lingua franca in many companies and private and public institutions in Iceland where it may primarily be used among non-native speakers. Previous research done at ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the conduct of a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) in 2012 and 2013, the Mosaic ATM team first developed the Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool concept,...
A geiger counter cosmic ray telescope has been constructed in the Holborn Underground Laboratory, London, to study the arrival directions of cosmic ray muons in the zenith angle range 70 - 900. The apparatus is described and some preliminary results presented
Carlo, María S.; Barr, Christopher D.; August, Diane; Calderón, Margarita; Artzi, Lauren
This three-year longitudinal study investigated the role of language of instruction in moderating the relationships between initial levels of English oral language proficiency and Spanish reading comprehension and growth in English reading comprehension. The study followed Spanish-speaking English language learners in English-only literacy…
This guidebook is designed to be a workbook for the construction of proficiency tests for maintenance personnel in nuclear power plants. Step-by-step details are provided for the definition of organizational needs -- who should be tested, on which tasks; decisions about test format -- what the test should look like; and calculations of costs and benefits. The primary focus is on the construction of proficiency tests, in particular, written tests of job knowledge and performance tests of job skills. Examples from test-construction activities at two nuclear power plants illustrate the general principles and practical details. Refinement and validation of the tests are discussed thoroughly, and issues and problems that arise in developing and administering a testing program are reviewed. 17 refs., 30 figs., 30 tabs
Geva, Esther; Farnia, Fataneh
We examined theoretical issues concerning the development of reading fluency and language proficiency in 390 English Language Learners (ELLs,) and 149 monolingual, English-as-a-first language (EL1) students. The extent to which performance on these constructs in Grade 5 (i.e., concurrent predictors) contributes to reading comprehension in the…
In this paper, I report on the findings of a study that compared the French as a second official language (FSOL) proficiency of three groups of Grade-6 students in English-dominant Canada: Canadian-born monolingual English-speaking students, Canadian-born bilingual students and immigrant bilingual students (IMBs). The goal of the study was to…
Full Text Available English language has become a global language with the advent of Globalisation. Naturally English language learning has got increased importance as English is the language for the global communication. English is a second language for Indian sand often mother tongue hampers the English acquisition of most of the Indians. NCF 2005 has underlined that significance of teaching of English as early as possible so that the learners may have a native speaker like fluency in English. Based on these guidelines Kerala government introduced English Language teaching from class 1 onwards. Teaching of English also affects the quality student acquisition of English. Anxiety is often produced when one tries to interact in English which can affect the language proficiency of the learners. Teacher competence in English and their anxiety can have an influential impact on learners. This study found out that there is a negative correlation between English language anxiety and English language competence of Elementary teacher trainees in Kerala. As elementary teachers have an influential role in developing different competence of the young learners including English language competence, this paper puts foreword a number of suggestion to reduce the anxiety evoking situations and to improve English language competence of the trainees.
This paper aims to analysis causes of Chinese students' silent - keeping as cultural interference, defects of traditional teaching and learning method, and issues involved implications for ESL ( English as a Second Language) teaching in hope to improve the proficiency of English teaching in China.
The author went to the United States to study applied linguistics. Although he was there for nine months, his English proficiency did not improve as much as he had hoped, considering that he was using English almost exclusively every day. After his time in the United States, he spent 10 months in Australia working and traveling on a working…
High-stakes decisions for the instruction and assessment of English language learner (ELL) students are made based on the premise that ELL classification is a valid dichotomy that distinguishes between those who are proficient in the use of the English language and those who are not. However, recent research findings draw a vague picture of the…
Fillmore, Lily Wong
In this essay, the author argues that English language learners (ELLs) can meet and exceed the Common Core State Standards, and that more complex materials are in fact precisely what they need. Lack of access to such materials is what prevents ELLs from attaining full proficiency in English.
This study investigates the role of motivation in foreign language learning and the factors that might affect learners' motivation. 137 secondary school students took part in the study. Correlations between the students' English proficiency and motivation were performed. Questionnaires on the ideal English teacher and the students' actual English teachers were also delivered. The purpose of correlating the ideal English teacher with the students' real English teachers was to investigate if th...
The goal of teaching English speaking is to improve students' communicative efficiency,or make students speak the target language clearly,coherently,accurately and fluendy (Xu,2005).However,in China,a number of students in an English speaking class tend to be passive and reluctant to speak out or be singled out publicly mainly due to their high anxiety,which,of course,becomes a significant constraint on improving their English proficiency.Therefore,how to create a relaxed atmosphere with a sense of security in the English speaking class to alleviate Chinese learners' anxiety and to provide them with as many opportunities as possible to practice speaking English and improve their English proficiency is one of the central tasks for hnguage teachers.his paper will firstly outline my teaching context in China in physical,pedagogical,institutional and personal aspects.This will be followed by the definition and classification of language learning anxiety,and the analysis of various factors contributing to foreign language learners' anxiety as well as some suggestions of how to reduce the learners' anxiety in the oral class according to the current literature.Finally,some applications will be presented in my teaching context in the hope of decreasing Chinese students' anxiety to enhance their English speaking proficiency.
Paradis, Johanne; Kirova, Anna
The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) Determine the English proficiency of English second-language learners (ELLs) at the end of preschool as referenced to monolingual norms, and in particular, to determine if they showed an asynchronous profile, that is, approached monolingual norms more closely for some linguistic sub-skills than…
Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Schwartz, Geoffrey; Balas, Anna
The study investigates the perception of devoicing of English /w, r, j, l/ after /p, t, k/ as a word-boundary cue by Polish listeners. Polish does not devoice sonorants following voiceless stops in word-initial positions. As a result, Polish learners are not made sensitive to sonorant devoicing as a segmentation cue. Higher-proficiency and lower-proficiency Polish learners of English participated in the task in which they recognised phrases such as buy train vs. bite rain or pie plot vs. pipe...
Van Viegen Stille, Saskia; Jang, Eunice; Wagner, Maryam
The Ontario Ministry of Education recently implemented the Steps to English Proficiency (STEP) language assessment framework to build educator capacity for addressing the needs of English language learners (ELLs) in K-12 schools. The STEP framework is a set of descriptors-based language proficiency scales that specify observable linguistic…
Vocabulary size is an important criterion to measure one's English proficiency. More words mean more freedom in language use. To many English learners, language skill remains difficult due to insufficient vocabulary. Both learners and teachers should be active to find an appropriate way to improve that condition. So it is necessary to know the feature of vocabulary and some effective ways to enlarge vocabulary size.
The usage of songs within the classroom helps to foster zeal among the students and encourages greater participation by the students. Ultimately this method increases the interest of the students and improves their English proficiency. The objective of our article establishes the application, feasibleness and effectiveness of using English songs as a method of teaching the English language.
Sireci, Stephen G.; Han, Kyung T.; Wells, Craig S.
In the United States, when English language learners (ELLs) are tested, they are usually tested in English and their limited English proficiency is a potential cause of construct-irrelevant variance. When such irrelevancies affect test scores, inaccurate interpretations of ELLs' knowledge, skills, and abilities may occur. In this article, we…
Al Hajri, Fatma
Proficiency in English language and how it is measured have become central issues in higher education research as the English language is increasingly used as a medium of instruction and a criterion for admission to education. This study evaluated the English language assessment in the foundation Programme at the Colleges of Applied sciences in…
LoMaglio, L J
The TOEFL is widely used by colleges and universities in the United States and Canada to measure the English language proficiency levels of hearing international applicants. At the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a faculty committee recommended that this popular test instrument be used to measure the English reading skills of deaf international applicants to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. This study examined the merits of using the TOEFL to measure the English reading ability of hearing post-secondary international students seeking admission to English-based colleges and universities. Forty-one hearing foreign students were tested in the fall of 1989 at the English Language Institute at SUNY Buffalo. The instruments chosen were both the TOEFL and the California Achievement Test of reading ability. The majority of the research subjects who scored between 400 and 500 on the TOEFL achieved a grade level of less than 8.0 on the California Achievement Test. PMID:1950948
毛伟宾; 王松; 亢丽丽
采用DRM范式进行跨语言错误记忆的研究较为鲜见,而且得出了许多不同的结果,关于错误记忆跨语言产生的理论解释也是各执己见.研究以非熟练中-英双语大学生为被试,采用DRM范式对非熟练中-英双语者的跨语言错误记忆进行了研究.在2个实验中,分别探讨了项目特异性加工和关系加工条件下,语义激活的不同水平对跨语言错误记忆的影响.结果发现:1)非熟练中-英双语者也存在跨语言的错误记忆;2)在项目特异性加工和关系加工条件下,相同语言内与不同语言间发生关键诱词的错误再认的结果是不同的;3)只在项目特异性加工条件下,长词表比短词表会诱发更多的对关键诱词的错误再认.研究结果支持了激活-监测理论.%In recent years, there has been an explosion of research on false memory with Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM). But few of these studies have involved bilingual participants and cross-linguistic effects in false memory. Furthermore, there were some mixed results between Sahlin, Harding & Seamon's (2005) and Marmolejo, Diliberto-Macaluso & Altarriba's (2009). In the present experiments, we used 16 DRM lists (8 English and 8 Chinese lists) as study materials and manipulated the DRM list lengths (7 item-list and 15 item-list)to explore the effect of different activation strength in encoding phase on cross-language false memory among less proficient Chinese - English bilinguals.2 experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of item-specific processing and relational processing on cross-language false memory: Experimentl studied cross-language false memory under item-specific processing condition, namely the participants were instructed to recognize an item as the old item according to both the meaning and language of the item ; a 2x 2 x 3mixed design was used, with two within-subject variables (language congruence: the same languages, the different languages; list
For students in a perspective English teacher program, enhancing language proficiency and teaching knowledge is essential so that they can participate in the teaching community. This study investigated the acquisition of an unfamiliar discursive practice by four undergraduate students in a perspective EFL teacher training program. The practice is…
DeAvila, Edward A.; Duncan, Sharon E.
This collection of over 100 games and activities is intended to increase oral proficiency among Spanish-speaking children without requiring reading skills. The collection grew out of the desire to provide remedies for specific linguistic weaknesses in English as identified by the Language Assessment Scales (LAS). Because tongue twisters, riddles…
The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to
The advent of the theory of communicative competence raised new issues for language teaching and testing. The importance of communicative ability is emphasized in language teaching. Therefore test that could reflect a student's communicative competence need to be constructed. Communicative testing is such a potentially effective approach.This paper is concerned with the theoretical basis of communicative testing, its distinguishing features and the construction of oral proficiency tests, so as to demonstrate how the theory of communicative testing is built into practical tests.
Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of
Mohammed Marajan Awad Adam
Full Text Available English is taught as a foreign language in the Arab world even though practical concerns call for greater emphasis on the language. In all personal interactions too Arabic is the preferred language. Thus the environment for English is really very limited as by the time the learners are exposed to the language they are well entrenched in Arabic. While this may be a handicap in some EFL situations (for example where adults are concerned, in the Arab context this can prove a big boon. This is because young language learners who are proficient in their first language can apply the learning techniques while acquiring the second language. This paper targets the teaching fraternity in the Arab world to help them understand how first language proficiency can aid second/foreign language acquisition.Keywords: language acquisition, Saudi EFL learners, language proficiency, Arabic as a first language
Muniandy, Mohan K.; Nair, Gopala Krishnan Sekharan; Shanmugam, Shashi Kumar Krishnan; Ahmad, Irma; Noor, Norashikin Binte Mohamed
This paper aims to highlight the importance of teaching sociolinguistic competence to ESL learners in Malaysian schools. Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of socio cultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence requires an understanding of the socio context in which language is used. It is proposed that carefully…
Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S.
The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the ...
Current literature points to the importance and benefits of extensive reading. Extensive reading provides contextualized clues for better reading comprehension (Krashen, 1982), and substantial linguistic input (Bell, 1998) needed for language development. Several studies have found a correlation between extensive reading and specific linguistic…
Hong, J.-C.; Hwang, M.-Y.; Chang, H.-W.; Tai, K.-H.; Kuo, Y.-C.; Tsai, Y.-H.
To determine the factors of learning effectiveness in English vocabulary learning when using a calibration scheme, this study developed a freshman English mobile device application (for iPhone 4) for students with low levels of English proficiency to practise vocabulary in the beginning of their Freshman English course. Data were collected and…
Achim, Andre; Marquis, Alexandra
Studies of bilingualism sometimes require healthy subjects to be assessed for proficiency at auditory sentence processing in their second language (L2). The Syntactic Comprehension task of the Bilingual Aphasia Test could satisfy this need. For ease and uniformity of application, we automated its English (Paradis, M., Libben, G., and Hummel, K.…
Bebko, James M.; Calderon, Rosemary; Treder, Robert
Two studies investigated the developmental trends and concurrent validity of the Language Proficiency Profile-2 (LPP-2), a measure of language and communication skills for deaf children. Results indicate that the LPP-2 has good utility not only as a measure of overall language development but also as a predictor of achievement for English language…
Stansfield, Charles W.
As bilingual education emerges after the 1974 Lau decision, the additional need to test the language proficiency of bilingual education teachers is recognized. Examination of possible means of validating language proficiency of bilingual education teacher certification candidates shows several alternatives, some desirable and some not. A review of…
Lindsey, Delores B.; Lindsey, Randall B.
Delores and Randall Lindsey approach the Outcomes standard through the lens of their cultural proficiency work to highlight the equity focus embedded in the standard. This excerpt from their essay in "Reach the Highest Standard in Professional Learning: Outcomes" dives into their cultural proficiency tools and framework and their…
Studies learners' second-language (L2) oral proficiency, incorporating an interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. Results show that the nature of the L2 oral construct is not constant. The article concludes that proficiency researchers should use dimensions empirically derived according to the specific elicitation task and audience. (53…
Baughman, Kristen N.; Bruce, Jacklyn
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine the self-perceived proficiency level of Commissioners of Agriculture in six leadership skill areas. Major findings noted their proficiency in these areas. Researchers recommend providing professional development opportunities and software training for Commissioners at their annual…
Valgerður Gunnarsdóttir 1981
The main objective of the study was to examine a possible relationship between English use in the workplace and perceived work stress by conducting a survey among several Icelandic companies. A review of some of the literature on English use in Iceland is presented as well as a short review of work stress factors. Data was gathered from workers’ perceived stress in the workplace, perceived English proficiency, and perceived amount of English used in the workplace. Analyses from the data revea...
The study aimed to investigate the relationship of students’English proficiency level and participation condition.70 students from National Senior Commercial & Industrial Vocational School participated in this study. The analysis method was one-way ANOVA, that is, one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that strategy and emotion participation influenced students’English proficiency level largely. In the end, the results were discussed and some pedagogical implications and sugges⁃tions for further study were also presented.
Since our country has joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) and entered the global economy, the universal language of English has recently become more and more important in Chinese society. A new passion for English has emerged in society. Every area of work is in need of people who are able to speak good English. and our society's request for students to be proficient in English is now greater than ever.To be good at English, reading comprehension alone is not enough. Students should be good in every area, especially in spoken and written English. They should be able to talk directly with foreigners and many companies regard spoken and written English as important qualities when seeking employees. All of these changing needs raise the requirements for English teaching.This paper tries to analyze the pressures of teaching English in vocational colleges in China today.
Aguilar Pérez, Marta; Muñoz, Carmen
This paper reports on a follow-up study of a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) pilot experience with bilingual postgraduate engineering students at a Spanish university. It aimed at examining learners' gains in listening and grammar skills after a CLIL course in English for a semester, in particular whether students' listening and grammar skills were affected similarly and whether participants' proficiency level played a role. Paired-sampled t-tests showed the difference between...
Dustmann, Christian; Fabbri, Francesca
This paper uses two recent UK surveys to investigate labour market performance, the determinants of language proficiency, and the effect of language on earnings and employment probabilities of non-white immigrants. Our results show that language acquisition, employment probabilities, as well as earnings differ widely across non-white immigrants, according to their ethnic origin. Language has a strong and positive effects on employment probabilities. Furthermore, lack of English fluency leads ...
This paper is an attempt to design a program specific pre-study abroad English language proficiency interview scale. A needs analysis, using 55 language functions, topics and situations that were predicted to be encountered during a sojourn abroad was carried out by surveying students who participated in the Auckland University 6 week study abroad program in academic year 2002.12 out of 16 students responded to a survey. Students rated each item on a 5-point Likert scale- the scale representi...
Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Yates, Lynda
This article draws on ethnographic data from a longitudinal study of newly-arrived immigrants of non English-speaking background in the Australian Adult Migrant English Program to investigate their opportunities for using English and the language learning strategies (LLS) they used to make the most of these opportunities. Analysis of their reports…
In the 1990's the author cooperated with Carl Bache on a grammar of English. It turned out that the views they had previously arrived at individually on tense and aspect could be combined by operating with a fused system involving four ordered choices resulting in sixteen tense-aspect forms. In...
人力资本视角下英语水平对大学生就业的影响--基于2013年度“中国大学生就业、生活及价值观调查”数据分析%Impact of English Proficiency on Employment of College Graduates in Perspective of Human Resource---Based on the data analysis of 2013“Tracing Studies on College Graduates’ Employment,Life and value”
based on the research data of students from 13 universities in the project of 2013“Trac‐ing Studies on College Graduates’ Employment ,Life and value” ,this paper mainly analyzes the impact of mainly English proficiency but also including political status and type of universities on graduates em‐ployment from the perspective of human resource .The results showed that the impact of English profi‐ciency on employment is not very large ;Family background ,household register and other factors has rarely no effect on employment ;however ,the political identity ,university type and sex have remarka‐ble impact on employment of university graduates .%基于2013年度“中国大学生就业、生活及价值观追踪调查”项目对国内13所高校大学生的调查数据，从人力资本视角出发，以英语水平为主分析了英语水平、政治面貌、学校类型等人力资本对大学生就业的影响。结果发现：英语水平对大学生就业的影响并不大；家庭背景、户籍等因素对大学生就业也几乎没有影响；而政治身份、学校类型、性别对大学生就业却有显著影响。
Full Text Available The article reports the findings of a survey among 440 teachers of English in Estonia who participate in the oral proficiency interview of the national examination in the English language as interviewers. Examining the results of the questionnaire statement by statement, the study reveals that interviewer behavioural patterns emerge during the interview, some of them threatening its validity.The understanding of interviewer competence is very diverse among the interviewers and the degree to which they adhere to the standards defined for the interviewers of national examination in the English langage in Estonia is sometimes quite low. The interviewers are often unable to separate their role as an interviewer from being a teacher; they transfer their teaching behaviour to the interviewing situation. The teachers have difficulties with identification of appropriate accommodation strategies as well as controlling the extent of interaction between the interviewer and the assessor. The authors suggest a number of interviewer training strategies to combat the problems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.08
In order to promote learners’spoken English proficiency, a further understanding of the impact of Confucian tradi⁃tion, as a historically dominant ethical and philosophical system, on learner anxiety and eventually on learning efficiency in a spo⁃ken English class is generated, and a theoretical analysis is conducted, from the perspectives of second language acquisition and in⁃tercultural communication. Some Confucian values including self-restraint, propriety observation, paying reverence to teachers and face-keeping principle may increase learner anxiety in oral English class, hindering the development of their spoken English proficiency. Accordingly, a set of teaching strategies to help control culture-related anxiety in spoken English class are systemati⁃cally presented.
Low, Ee-Ling; Chong, Sylvia; Ellis, Mary
Possessing strong communication skills is essential in contributing to effective teaching. This paper investigates graduating student teachers' English language proficiency, as measured by IELTS tests scores, of graduating EL student teachers. The paper considers what teachers need to know about the English language given that English has…
Taqi, Hanan A.; Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.; Akbar, Rahima S.
This paper presents a research study designed to investigate the characteristics of effective teachers of English and the uniqueness of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The research is based on four general categories: English language proficiency, educational perception, organization and communication skills, social and emotional…
This study discusses how children's literature can play an important role in achieving two goals: developing Japanese students' English proficiency levels and cultivating them to be global citizens. English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in Japan should be provided with more opportunities to engage with the English language outside the…
Ali, Nor Liza
The literature shows that English-medium instruction (EMI) programmes at the tertiary level in various parts of the world have positioned EMI as a language-planning tool to promote students' mastery of English. English proficiency is believed to be intertwined with the overall economic development of a country. In addition to internationalising…
In the second decade of the 21st century English in Russia manifests itself in a range of domains such as education, workplace, media, entertainment, advertising, creative and identity domains. Such unprecedented spread is more frequently attributed to the status ensured to the speakers of English in social, cultural, and economic spheres. Depending on the level of proficiency and the situation involved, the English language is associated with many Englishes, including such local var...
Muhammad Arif Soomro; Natasha Memon; Shumaila Aijaz Memonc
Teaching industry of English as a second or foreign language has grown massively in recent times in Pakistan. There are many public sectors universities and English academies established all over Pakistan offering English language proficiency courses. Therefore, this wave led to conduct this research. The purpose of conducting this study was to investigate contemporary pedagogical techniques used for teaching and learning English and to introduce the concept of ESL /EFL Best Practices for eff...
Chlada, Milan; Převorovský, Zdeněk
Roč. 6, 3/4 (2011), s. 191-205. ISSN 1741-8410. [NDT in PROGRESS /4./. Praha, 05.11.2007-07.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274; GA ČR GA101/07/1518 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission * signal arrival detection Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.inderscience.com/ search /index.php?mainAction= search &action=record&rec_id=43215&prevQuery=&ps=10&m=or
Archila-Suerte, Pilar; Zevin, Jason; Hernandez, Arturo E
This study investigates the role of age of acquisition (AoA), socioeducational status (SES), and second language (L2) proficiency on the neural processing of L2 speech sounds. In a task of pre-attentive listening and passive viewing, Spanish-English bilinguals and a control group of English monolinguals listened to English syllables while watching a film of natural scenery. Eight regions of interest were selected from brain areas involved in speech perception and executive processes. The regions of interest were examined in 2 separate two-way ANOVA (AoA×SES; AoA×L2 proficiency). The results showed that AoA was the main variable affecting the neural response in L2 speech processing. Direct comparisons between AoA groups of equivalent SES and proficiency level enhanced the intensity and magnitude of the results. These results suggest that AoA, more than SES and proficiency level, determines which brain regions are recruited for the processing of second language speech sounds. PMID:25528287
Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B.
There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing…
Surveyed groups of Chinese, Malay and Tamil families, their use of community languages or mother tongue, and their speaking, reading, and writing proficiency. Found that when parents' community language proficiency in speaking is lower they tend to choose English as preferred language. Children's language confidence affected their language choice.…
Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa
Purpose: To assess the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on production characteristics of rhythmic sequences in the L1 (Bengali) and L2 (English), with emphasis on linguistic transfer. One goal was to examine, using kinematic evidence, how L2 proficiency influences the production of iambic and trochaic words, focusing on temporal and…
Vasconcelos, S M R; Sorenson, M M; Leta, J
That English is the lingua franca of today's science is an indisputable fact. Publication in English in international journals is a pre-requisite for a research paper to gain visibility in academia. However, English proficiency appears to be taken for granted in the scientific community, though this language can be a hurdle for a number of authors, particularly from non-native English-speaking countries. The influence of English proficiency on the publication output of Brazilian authors has never been assessed. We report our preliminary data on the relationship between the English proficiency of 51,223 researchers registered in the CNPq database and their publication output in international journals. We have found that publication rates are higher for those authors with good command of English, particularly written English. Although our research is still underway and our results are preliminary, they suggest that the correlation between written English proficiency and research productivity should not be underestimated. We also present the comments of some Brazilian scientists with high publication records on the relevance of communication skills to the scientific enterprise. PMID:17581671
Cornelia Elena Tureac
Full Text Available The paper approaches up-to-date elements pertaining to the evaluating function applied in thehospital institution. It analyses proficiency indicators with respect to hospital management activities.
Full Text Available We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 fluency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR task (Experiment1 and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR task (Experiment 2. In this task typically a target is presented to which subject must make saccade (No step trials, unless a new target appears on the other location after some delay from the first target onset (Step trials. On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first instead program a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT, which is the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target, as a measure of response inhibition, and post-stop slowing as a measure of performance monitoring, we observed two important results. It was found that high proficiency bilinguals showed more post-stop slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficiency bilinguals for both VGR and MGR. Secondly, high and low proficiency bilingual exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR, showing no altering effect of language proficiency on the response inhibition in bilinguals. These results suggest that bilingualism impacts performance monitoring which is modulated by language proficiency if not the inhibitory control system. Higher fluency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility, and ability to adjust behaviour that facilitates attainment of cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.
Isphording, Ingo E.
Language proficiency is a key driver of immigrant integration. It increases job opportunities and facilitates social and political participation. However, despite its vital importance, many immigrants never reach adequate proficiency in the host country language. Therefore, insights into the underlying processes and associated factors are crucial for designing measures to improve language acquisition. Empirical evidence shows that immigrants differ in their ability to learn languages, in thei...
There is an English corner in the August 1st Park in Nanchang. You will find it near the bridge. Some young people go there to practise English. There are primary school students, junior middle school students, senior high school students, college students and others have jobs. In the English corner everyone must speak English loudly. They talk about study,
In the current days, the search for information and the need for global communication have already promoted English from being the language of people in different countries as the international language. This essay will give some arguments about the inevitability of variety of world Englishes and its characteristics, and then explain that what Standard English is and examples about the standards in English.
This edition of the CERN Bulletin is the first with a new layout for the paper version. Its innovations include a more attractive format, as well as the printing of the English and French texts on inverted pages, the two distinguishable by the colour of the header on the first page (green for the English and blue for the French). This and the use of pictograms to identify the various sections make the whole thing easier to read. The introduction of this new formula coincides with the addition of a new section, a monthly column called 'A Word from the DG,' in which the Director-General will give an update on the main issues facing CERN and particle physics. The coming months will see the introduction of other new sections. Last but not least, the weekly timetable of seminars, showing the title, date and speaker, now appears in the middle of the paper version rather than at the end. Summaries are published only on the Web. All these changes are accompanied by new distribution arrangements. You will find pap...
Musetti, Bernadette; Salas, Spencer; Perez, Theresa
"Newcomers" are English learners who are new to the United States and arrive with limited or interrupted formal schooling. These students have below-grade-level literacy skills in their home language and do not speak English. Newcomers' arrivals to the middle school and high school classrooms often present a formidable "what to do" for classroom…
Stansfield, Charles W.
A discussion of the simulated oral proficiency interview (SOPI), a type of semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the oral proficiency interview (OPI), describes its development and research and examines its usefulness. The test used for discussion is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts, scored by a trained rater using the…
Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; McLean, Meigan; Stryker, Deborah
Research suggests that English-language proficiency is critical if students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) are to read as their hearing peers. One explanation for the traditionally reported reading achievement plateau when students are D/HH is the inability to hear insalient English morphology. Signing Exact English can provide visual access to these features. The authors investigated the English morphological and syntactic abilities and reading achievement of elementary and middle school students at a school using simultaneously spoken and signed Standard American English facilitated by intentional listening, speech, and language strategies. A developmental trend (and no plateau) in language and reading achievement was detected; most participants demonstrated average or above-average English. Morphological awareness was prerequisite to high test scores; speech was not significantly correlated with achievement; language proficiency, measured by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003), predicted reading achievement. PMID:27477041
Although English is only an extra-curricular subject at primary level in Indonesia, expectations over the improved quality of the teachers are exceptionally high. This is the case in the past few years in which the low proficiency of primary English teachers and their lack of teaching competencies have repeatedly been pointed out as major…
Chinese EFL learners may have difficulty in speaking fluent and accurate English, for their speaking competence are likely to be influenced by cognitive, linguistic and affective factors. With the aim to enhance those learners' oral proficiency, this paper first discusses three effective models of teaching English speaking, and then proposes a…
English is widely regarded as an essential skill for the globalized economy by governments around the world which devote considerable resources to its teaching in formal education, though often with limited success in terms of achievement levels. Thailand is a case in point. Set against the putative benefits of acquiring proficiency in English,…
This study was conducted to determine how to motivate technical college students to learn English for specific purposes (ESP) courses through corpus building and enhance their language proficiency during the coursework for their majors. This study explores corpus building skills, how to simplify ESP courses by corpus building for English as second…
Smutny, Joan F.
For many young gifted English Language Learners (ELLs), going to an American school is like a trip to Mars. Everything and everyone looks strange. Many ELLs feel unsure of their abilities when they discover that their proficiency in English can sometimes hinder achievement. They wonder what the other kids think of their speech, their accents,…
This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) comfort levels in providing service delivery to English language learners (ELLs) and limited English proficient (LEP) students. Participants included 192 SLPs from the United States and Guam. Participants completed a brief, six-item questionnaire that investigated their perceptions…
To investigate whether there are some significant differences in English teaching for the two teaching methods (TBA and PPP),An experiment is conducted, which focuses on the effectiveness of task-based classes model and aims at finding out whether the students' English proficiency can be improved.
Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.
This study examined benefits of connecting meaning, speech, and print in vocabulary learning for kindergarten English learners. Students screened eligible with limited English proficiency were randomly assigned to two instruction conditions. Both groups received direct instruction in high frequency root words. One condition featured added…
This research study investigated the influence of learners' mother tongue on their acquisition of English collocations. Having drawn the linguistic data from two groups of Thai EFL learners differing in English proficiency level, the researcher found that the native language (L1) plays a significant role in the participants' collocation learning…
Lu, Jinjin; Liu, Yingliang
Enhancing students' learning autonomy has been emphasized in the current round of English curriculum reforms by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in China. The initial aim of the new guidelines was developed to enhance students' English proficiency to better fulfil their basic education (Nine-year compulsory education). However, up until now, very…
This article examines the role of agency for the English language development of three Chinese research students with high English proficiency sojourning in Australia. The focus is on the various approaches the learners employed to strengthen their sense of confidence in their language use in Australia. The data were obtained through in-depth…
English language proficiency and how it can be improved have been keenly debated issues in Australian universities. The debate has become more intense in the context of the marketing of international education and Australia's increasing share of international students. One reaction has been to raise the minimum English language levels for…
Franquiz, Maria E.; Salinas, Cinthia S.
The traditional approach to the education of newcomer students separates English language development from content instruction. It is assumed that English language proficiency is a prerequisite for subject-matter learning. The authors take the alternate view that the integration of historical thinking and digitized primary sources enhances English…
Abstract: The teaching of ESP so far has been dominated by the belief that linguistic mastery of English is considered sufficient to deliver the contents of the subject matter concerned. This view seems to need a critical overview for verbal communication in general, let alone in ESP, requires both proficiency in the language and the contents. This implies that English teachers in ESP need to be equipped satisfactorily in English as well as the subject matter. An ESP teacher needs to possess ...
Reynolds, Jess E; Thornton, Ashleigh L; Lay, Brendan S; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael
There is growing interest in the use of consumer level exergames in movement skill acquisition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between movement proficiency and performance in virtual exergaming. Twenty seven children, aged 10-15years participated in an experiment completing the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (MABC-2) and a series of XBOX360 Kinect Sports exergaming tasks. Significant correlations were observed between MABC-2 aiming and catching percentile and exergame javelin and target kick, where the more proficient movers tended to perform better in the exergame. Statistically significant correlations were observed between MABC-2 balance percentile and exergaming sprint and target kick performance. In this study children who scored better in real life gross motor movement tasks performed better in most related exergaming activities. This suggests current exergaming technology has advanced to a point where body movement unencumbered by a physical or remote game device tether can extract movements resembling real life tasks, translate them into game play and reward proficient movers with higher in-game performance. It is possible that benefit gained in an exergaming environment by more proficient movers was a result of either their more proficient movement, or a greater ability to adapt to the exergame. PMID:24667304
Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...
Morse, Z; Nakahara, S
English is the common language of international scientific and cultural exchange. As the world becomes more globalized and with increasing dependence on the Internet, English becomes increasingly important as a second language. English is the official language for all international associations, societies, organizations etc and their meetings and publications. High quality international collaboration usually requires a high standard of English language proficiency. There is very little information regarding English language education in dentistry on a global basis, particularly in Japan. In 1999 we undertook a comprehensive survey of English education in all 29 Japanese dental schools in the form of a questionnaire. Few schools had native-speaking educators or those at native speaker level and most did not have a background in dentistry or the health sciences. There are no ideal textbooks for dental students studying English. Most disciplines within dentistry have a professional society or an association with meetings and publications. Currently there is no such group for English-language education in dentistry. Closer collaboration amongst those concerned may help improve the quality of education. The level of English-language ability of current dental students will affect the quality of future dental educators and researchers. PMID:11683894
Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta
The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes
De Sousa, Diana Soares; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica
Background: Emergent bilingual Zulu-English speaking children in South Africa have spoken but no written proficiency in Zulu (L1), yet are required to learn to spell English (L2) via English-only literacy instruction. Little research exists on emergent bilingual's phonological awareness (PA) and spelling development, with no L1 formal literacy…
Full Text Available Bilingual language production requires that speakers recruit inhibitory control to optimally balance the activation of more than one linguistic system when they produce speech. Moreover, the amount of inhibitory control necessary to maintain an optimal balance is likely to vary across individuals as a function of second language (L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity, as well as the demands of a particular communicative situation. Here, we investigate how these factors relate to bilingual language production across monologue and dialogue spontaneous speech. In these tasks, forty-two English-French and French-English bilinguals produced spontaneous speech in their first language (L1 and their L2, with and without a conversational partner. Participants also completed a separate battery that assessed L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. The results showed that L2 vs. L1 production was generally more effortful, as was dialogue vs. monologue speech production although the clarity of what was produced was higher for dialogues vs. monologues. As well, language production effort significantly varied as a function of individual differences in L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings suggests that both increased L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity relate to efficient language production during spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech.
The paper "The influence of translation on reading amount, proficiency, and speed in extensive reading" (Sakurai, 2015) outlined the first six years of the official English education system and policy in Japan. It then discussed the efficacy of extensive reading (ER) followed by a distinction between reading and translation. Previous…
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016
According to the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" (ESEA) section 9101(25), an EL (or "limited English proficient" child, per the ESEA) is "an individual (A) who is aged 3 through 21; (B) who is enrolled or preparing to enroll in an elementary school or secondary school; (C)(i) who was not born in the United States…
The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)
Ribes, R. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Cordoba (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Radiology
The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...
Ludwinski, Jan M.; Gershman, Robert
The Galileo arrival date selection process has culminated in the selection of December 7,1995. This arrival date will provide excellent science opportunities at Jupiter as well as the first spacecraft reconnaissance ever of not one, but two asteroids during the cruise to Jupiter.
English for Au Pairs has interlinked stories about a group of au pairs new to England. Marta, an 18-year-old from Poland arrives in the UK to work as an au pair. Throughout her year-long stay she has many different experiences - some bad, some good - but with the support of her host family she finds new friends and improves her English. English for Au Pairs offers insight into the joys and difficulties of being an au pair while at the same time reinforcing English language learning through grammar explanations and exercises.
David Dirkwen Wei
Full Text Available Abstract: The implementation of English-only policy in the English classes at Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages in Taiwan has continued for nearly 40 years. Its advantages and disadvantages have also been debated and challenged because of the rising demands on students’ English proficiency in Taiwan. This study intended to reexamine the efficiency of the implementation of English-only policy in the English learning at a college of languages in Taiwan. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the process of data collection. 279 English major and non-English major students were invited to answer questionnaires, and six participants were invited to join interviews. The process of data analysis included the analysis of both the quantitative questionnaire data and the qualitative interview data. This study found students’ progress in English listening and speaking proficiency in the basic and lower-intermediate levels because of English-only policy. However, the interaction between teachers and some students was hampered because of the policy. Also, the ambiguity emerging in the insistence on using English only blocked some learners from comprehending the meanings of the texts they were learning, specifically the texts in the upper-intermediate and intermediate-advanced levels of English reading and writing courses. This study also found that proper tolerance of using both students’ native language and English in TEFL classes in the way of code-switching may help students more than the implementation of English-only policy in a tertiary TEFL context.
This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the hemispheric dominance (HD) and the English proficiency (EP) scores in the four macro skills of the Western Mindanao State University college students. It hypothesized that students’ HD would have a significant correlation a) with their EP scores in listening, speaking, reading and writing, b) with their global EP score, c) with both the macro and global scores when respondents would be grouped according to age, gender and ...
Joanna Durlik; Jakub Szewczyk; Marek Muszyński; Zofia Wodniecka
The main goal of the present study was to explore the involvement of inhibition in resolution of cross-language activation in bilingual comprehension and a possible modulatory effect of L2 proficiency. We used a semantic relatedness judgment task in L2 English that included Polish-English interlingual homographs and English translations of the Polish homographs' meanings. Based on previous studies using the same paradigm, we expected a strong homograph interference and inhibition of the homog...
Fatma Al Hajri
Proficiency in English language and how it is measured have become central issues in higher education research as the English language is increasingly used as a medium of instruction and a criterion for admission to education. This study evaluated the English language assessment in the foundation Programme at the Colleges of Applied sciences in Oman. It used thematic analysis in studying 118 documents on language assessment. Three main findings were reported: compatibility between what was ta...
This study explores the relationship between adult English-language learners' assessment of their own language proficiency on the English Ability Questionnaire (EAQ) and their performance on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). It addresses aspects of developing the ""autonomous"" student and makes for the integration of self-directed learners who will be more aware of their strengths and weaknesses and how to address them
De Freitas, J. F.; Adkins, P. V. A.
Describes connotations of the phrases, Teaching English as a Foreign language (TEFL) and Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) in England. Suggests introduction of English for Native Speakers of Other Languages (ENSOL) as a more appropriate term, which would also incorporate Community Language Learning (CLL) procedures. (BK)
The present study, using a totally direct method, investigates, within the framework of sociolinguistics and foreign language teaching in Iran, whether teachers of English prefer British or American variety of English language, and whether their preference corresponds to their performance on a related test. Thirty Iranian English language teachers…
L.M. Ikalyuk; U.T. Tatsakovych
The article focuses on a general description of Middle English considering the impact of the French language on its development during this period. Despite an extensive number of French borrowings in different layers of the English language, the language remained English and its predominant features were still those of Germanic origin.
Stansfield, Charles W.
The simulated oral proficiency interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the oral proficiency interview (OPI). The OPI is a method of assessing general speaking proficiency in a second language. The SOPI is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts: simple personal background questions posed in a simulated…
Dixon, L. Quentin; Wu, Shuang; Daraghmeh, Ahlam
Three common assumptions concerning bilingual children's language proficiency are: (1) their proficiency in two languages is usually unbalanced; (2) low socioeconomic status (SES) indicates low proficiency in both languages; and (3) encouraging parents to speak some societal language at home will promote its development. Examining the vocabulary…
Nippold, Marilyn A.; Allen, Melissa M.; Kirsch, Dixon I.
Proverb comprehension through reading was examined in 42 preadolescent students, 24 of whom were identified as "proficient readers," and 18 as "less proficient readers." Comprehension on both unfamiliar concrete and abstract proverbs was associated with reading proficiency, word knowledge, and analogical reasoning. (Contains references.)…
Zohreh Gooniband Shooshtari
Full Text Available This article intended to illustrate a profile of the role and impact of English in magazine print advertising in Iran, by examining the quantitative results obtained from discourse analysis. Three issues of Khanevadeh Sabz and two issues of Zendegi Ideal were collected and a total of 261 advertisements were analyzed. Results indicated that English has consistently been utilized in Persian magazine advertisements, representing attention-getting, persuasion, international brands, prestige, modernity, globalization, premium quality, fun, innovation and creativity. However, using English in Persian magazine advertisements is culturally and linguistically constrained. Culturally, in advertising traditional products English is only employed to introduce the name and e-mail address. Linguistically, although some English written slogans in Persian magazines had puns in them; the English used in Persian magazine advertisements mostly consists of easy-to-read vocabulary. Overall, in spite of the public’s generally low proficiency in English, it is predicted that English mixing will continue to thrive in magazine advertising discourse in Iran.
Peterson, Joseph L.; And Others
A three-year research effort was conducted to design a crime laboratory proficiency testing program encompassing the United States. The objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of preparation and distribution of different classes of physical evidence; (2) assess the accuracy of criminalistics laboratories in the processing of selected…
@@ Recently, China National Accreditation Board for Laboratories (CNAL) has released CNAL/AC23:2004 Medical Laboratories: Accreditation Criteria For Quality and Proficiency, and meanwhile GB 19489 Laboratories: General Requirements For Biosafety and ISO 15190 Medical Laboratories-Requirements For Safetywill be adopted by CNAL as the accreditation criteria for laboratories safety.
Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM) launched myPTP programme on 31 December 2013 in accordance to ISO/IC 17043. The standard states the requirements for Proficiency Testing. The provider of these services is called Proficiency Testing Provider (PTP). The role of PTP is to compare the proficiency level between inspection bodies or laboratories. With the assistance of expert panel, the PTP will determine the assigned value as reference to be compared to the values obtained from the inspection bodies or laboratories. Quality wise, this services is important as participation will improve wuality of the inspection quality continuously and increase confidence level of client and improve safety level. Requirement of PT in NDT is mentioned in SC1.5- Specific Criteria for Accreditation of Mechanical Testing and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for MS ISO/IEC17025 and MTR2- MIBAS Technical Requirements for Accreditation of NDT. This paper explains and discusses the result of this proficiency test done on a number of NDT companies that participated. (author)
J Gordon Millichap
Investigators at Children’s Memorial Hospital/Northwestern University School of Medicine Epilepsy Center, Chicago, and Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea examined the relationship of cognitive proficiency (CP) to general intellectual ability (GA) and seizure focus by retrospective chart review of 90 children (aged 6-18 years) with epilepsy, video-EEG recording, MRI, and neuropsychological testing (WISC-IV).
Seeborg, Michael C.
This paper argues that capstone courses in economics should be integrative experiences that require students to demonstrate six core proficiencies. The capstone economics senior seminar at Illinois Wesleyan University is used as an example of how a capstone course that requires completion of an original research paper might achieve these…
Assessing and monitoring student progress is becoming increasingly important in classrooms and for accountability purposes. Yet, in order to interpret changes in assessment results from one year to the next as reflecting differences in underlying ability rather than as variations in the measurement, the assessments used should be measuring the…
Peyman Khezr; Abhijit Sengupta
This paper studies a popular selling mechanism relevant to the Australian housing market in which the seller of the object posts an asking price to attract potential buyers for further negotiations. The game is studied in a dynamic setting with the possibility of more than one potential buyer arriving at each period. The game is designed such that in the event when only one buyer arrives, the seller engages in negotiation with that buyer and when two or more buyers arrive, the seller runs an ...
Sun, Yafeng; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng; Qi, Ting; Desroches, Amy S; Liu, Li
The framework of assimilation and accommodation has been proposed to explain the brain mechanisms supporting second language reading acquisition (Perfetti et al. : Bilingual Lang Cogn 10:131). Assimilation refers to using the procedures of the native language network in the acquisition of a new writing system, whereas accommodation refers to using second language procedures for reading the newly acquired writing system. We investigated assimilation and accommodation patterns in the brains of bilingual individuals by recruiting a group of Chinese-English bilinguals and a group of English-Chinese bilinguals to perform lexical decision tasks in both English and Chinese. The key question was whether the assimilation/accommodation procedures supporting second language reading in the brains of Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals were dynamic, i.e., modulated by proficiency in the second language and perceptual features of the second language's script. Perceptual features of the scripts were manipulated through orthographic degradation by inserting spaces between the radicals of a Chinese character or between the syllables of an English word. This manipulation disrupts the visual configuration of the orthography but does not change its more fundamental design principles. We found that for English-Chinese bilinguals, higher proficiency was associated with greater accommodation, suggesting that the accommodation procedure in a bilingual individual's brain is modulated by second language proficiency. Most interestingly, we found that the assimilation/accommodation effects vanished or diminished when orthographically degraded scripts were processed by both Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals, suggesting that the assimilation/accommodation procedures in a bilingual individual's brain are modulated by perceptual features of orthography. This work therefore offers a new, dynamic perspective for our understanding of the assimilation
This document presents Annotated English, a system of diacritical symbols which turns English pronunciation into a precise and unambiguous process. The annotations are defined and located in such a way that the original English text is not altered (not even a letter), thus allowing for a consistent reading and learning of the English language with and without annotations. The annotations are based on a set of general rules that make the frequency of annotations not dramatically high. This makes the reader easily associate annotations with exceptions, and makes it possible to shape, internalise and consolidate some rules for the English language which otherwise are weakened by the enormous amount of exceptions in English pronunciation. The advantages of this annotation system are manifold. Any existing text can be annotated without a significant increase in size. This means that we can get an annotated version of any document or book with the same number of pages and fontsize. Since no letter is affected, the ...
Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith
This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…
Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.
The dialect of English as spoken by native Puerto Rican Spanish speakers is estensively influenced by interference from the speakers' native language. Since exposure to a language affects one's ability to use it, the speaker's position might affect his access to English and/or his willingness to speak it, and, therefore, his proficiency in it. It…
Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane; Farkas, George
Although English oral language proficiency in the primary grades is critical to the literacy development of English learners (ELs), we know little about how to foster these skills. This study examined a yearlong K-2 drama and creative movement intervention. A randomized experimental design (N = 5,240) was used to address two research questions:…
Moazzen, Ahmad; Hashemi, Akram
The present study has been conducted with the purpose of exploring the relationship between EDBI staff's General English proficiency and their technical English Writing as well as the way each ESBP and GE courses affect their writing skill. The kind of the study is quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test, being conducted among EDBI staff in…
Cons, Andrea Marie
This study investigated the specific ways secondary English learners (ELs) and redesignated fluent English-proficient learners (RFEPs) use academic vocabulary that assesses interpretive reading and analytical writing ability. The research examines how ELs and RFEPs, formerly ELs, differ in use and misuse of academic words. The study extends…
Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje
This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…
Mahfouz, Safi Mahmoud
English foreign language learners generally tend to consider email exchanges with native speakers (NSs) as an effective tool for improving their foreign language proficiency. This study investigated Jordanian university students' perceptions of using email exchanges with native English keypals (NEKs) for improving their writing competency. A…
Werther, Charlotte; Denver, Louise; Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.
More than 25% of the master's degrees in Denmark are taught using English as a medium of instruction (EMI), but not all university lecturers feel they have the appropriate academic English proficiency to meet the standard required. Based on interviews conducted at the Copenhagen Business School (CBS), this article sheds light on the…
Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ro, Yeonsun Ellie
In this article, we take a linguistic perspective to support effective communication between early educators and parents who speak English as a second language and may have limited English proficiency. Positive communication and partnerships are recognised as important for the education of young children. Because early educators may be unaware of…
Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ro, Yeonsun Ellie
In this article, we discuss communication between early educators speaking their native language and parents who speak English as a second language. Parents who may have a limited proficiency in the second language face challenges to understanding semantic and pragmatic aspects of English. Actual early childhood conference talk in which parents…
Gunnarsson, T G; Gill, J A; Sigurbjörnsson, T; Sutherland, W J
Synchronous arrival of pairs of migratory birds at their breeding grounds is important for maintaining pair bonds and is achieved by pairs that remain together all year round. Here we show that arrival is also synchronized in paired individuals of a migratory shorebird, the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa islandica), even though they winter hundreds of kilometres apart and do not migrate together. The mechanisms required to achieve this synchrony and prevent 'divorce' illustrate the complexity of migratory systems. PMID:15470417
Edward W. Wolfe
Full Text Available The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL contains a direct writing assessment, and examinees are given the option of composing their responses at a computer terminal using a keyboard or composing their responses in handwriting. This study sought to determine whether performance on a direct writing assessment is comparable for examinees when given the choice to compose essays in handwriting versus word processing. We examined this relationship controlling for English language proficiency and several demographic characteristics of examinees using linear models. We found a weak two-way interaction between composition medium and English language proficiency with examinees with weaker English language scores performing better on handwritten essays while examinees with better English language scores performing comparably on the two testing media. We also observed predictable differences associated with geographic region, native language, gender, and age.
Baker, Felicity; Jones, Carolyn
This pilot study examined the effects of a short-term music therapy program on the classroom behaviours of newly arrived refugee students who were attending an intensive "English as a Second Language" secondary school. A cross-over design with two five-week intervention periods was employed with group music therapy sessions conducted one or two…
Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew; Petras, Yusof
Recent international comparative research on English proficiency found a strong positive correlation between a country's level of English language skills and its gross national income per capita. Considering the role of English as a lingua franca in the global exchange of goods, culture, information and innovations, a sufficient command of English is a basic requirement for almost the entire labour force in knowledge-based economies. A key foreign language competence is reading, which functio...
Vuorio, Kristiina; BjÃ¶rklÃ¶f, Katarina; Kuosa, Harri; Jokipii, Reija; JÃ€rvinen, Marko; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Leivuori, Mirja; NiemelÃ€, Maija; VÃ€isÃ€nen, Ritva
The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) organized in 2014 the fourth virtual phytoplankton proficiency test based on filmed material. A total of 39 analysts from 27 organizations and eight countries took part the test. The test material represented phytoplankton that typically occurs in boreal lakes and in the northern Baltic Sea. The test included three components: 1) phytoplankton species identification test, 2) phytoplankton counting test and 3) phytoplankton measurement of cell dimens...
With the capability of creating a situated and engaging learning environment, video games have been considered as a powerful tool to enhance students' learning outcomes and interest in learning. Yet, little empirical evidence exists to support the effectiveness of video games in learning. Particularly, little attention has been given to the design of specific game elements. Focusing on middle school students, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of representations of reflective scaffolds (verbal and visual) on students' learning outcomes, game performance, and level of engagement in a video game for physics learning. In addition, the role of students' level of English proficiency was examined to understand whether the effects of reflective scaffolds were influenced by students' language proficiency. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 playtested the game with target players and led to game modification for its use in Study 2, which focused on the effects of different types of reflective scaffolds and level of English proficiency. The results of Study 2 showed that students who received both verbal and visual reflective scaffolds completed the most levels compared to the other groups in the given time. No significant effect of type of reflective scaffolds were found on learning outcomes despite the fact that the pattern of the learning outcomes across conditions was close to prediction. Participants' engagement in gameplay was high regardless of the type of scaffolds they received, their interest in learning physics, and their prior knowledge of physics. The results of video analysis also showed that the game used in this study was able to engage students not only in gameplay but also in learning physics. Finally, English proficiency functioned as a significant factor moderating the effects of scaffolds, learning outcomes and game performance. Students with limited English proficiency benefited more from visual reflective scaffolds than
English Language Services, Inc., Washington, DC.
THIS 14-VOLUME SERIES OF TECHNICAL ENGLISH TEXTS IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE PRACTICE IN TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY FOR NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH. LANGUAGE FLUENCY LEVEL IS UPPER-INTERMEDIATE/ADVANCED. THE VARIOUS FIELDS OF INDUSTRY WHICH THE TEXTS DEAL WITH ARE AS FOLLOWS--(1) AGRICULTURE--BOOK 1, SOILS (2) AGRICULTURE--BOOK 2, FIELD CROPS (3)…
This multimedia program of English grammar caters specifically for Danish students at Bachelor level. The handbook introduces students to well-established grammatical terminology within the traditional areas of English grammar, and the CD-ROM, which contains about 120 exercises, offers students a...
Maclagan, Margaret; King, Jeanette; Gillon, Gail
The Maori language is the language of the indigenous people of New Zealand. Today, not all Maori speak the Maori language, and many Maori as well as non-Maori speak Maori English, the fastest growing of the main varieties of New Zealand English. This paper provides a background to the linguistic situation of the Maori populace in New Zealand,…
Asperen, Eelco; Dekker, Rommert; Polman, M.; Swaan Arons, H.
textabstractThis paper investigates the impact of arrival processes on the ship handling process. Two types of arrival processes are considered: controlled and uncontrolled. Simulation results show that uncontrolled arrivals of ships perform worst in terms of both ship delays and required storage capacity. Stock-controlled arrivals perform best with regard to large vessel delays and storage capacity. The combination of stock-controlled arrivals for large vessels and equidistant arrivals for b...
Minodora Otilia Simion
Full Text Available As English is considered the lingua franca of the twenty-first century, everyone needs to have a good command of English today and the importance of teaching English for professional uses and particularly in the field of tourism is undeniable. English proficiency is required in all professional areas but it becomes essential in the tourist industry because of its specific characteristics.. English Language has played an important role in the development of tourism and in this field, English is used widely for travel as well as in client contact and is of outmost interest at the tertiary level. But its interest should not be restricted to tourism students: English for tourism is one of the most attractive areas of English for Specific Purposes(ESP because, after all, all of us are tourists on various occasions nowadays.
The global spread of English is remarkable, for it has developed many different non-native varieties of English (“world Englishes”). On account of the varieties of English, the essay reviews briefly historical causes and relevant literature for English globalization. The issues of English localization, who is qualified as English instructor, what kind of English to learn and how is English changing in China are included. The essay discusses also the implications of World Englishes for English language learning and proposes three points in the context of learning English in China:(1) English language learning should take into account the changes of English;(2)attitude towards global and local English variants should be properly treated;(3)compared with English test results, more attention must be paid to practical communication competences.
English speaking and writing both embody the students' English proficiency and thinking skills. Scaffolding Instruction is a teaching mode which can provide appropriate assistance when the learners are faced difficulties during the learning. In this paper, first the overview of Scaffolding Instruction will be discussed. Then the application of Scaffolding Instruction in classroom teaching will be introduced based on a case analysis of an English speaking and writing lesson.
Ebrahim Azimi Mohammad Abadi
Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning since it provides the learners with numerous diverse privileges such as independency from teacher. The researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in Iranian EFL learners with different language proficiency levels. To meet the above purpose, a total number of 190 male and female EFL learners participated in this study. The methodology underlying this study was quantitative (thorough the administration of two questionnaires and two language proficiency test – TOEFL for advanced group, and Nelson for intermediate level. The quantitative data was analyzed using a set of correlational analysis revealing a significant positive correlation between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in high proficient group, and a significant positive relationship between these two constructs in low proficient group, however not as strong as in the advanced group.Keywords: Learner Autonomy, Vocabulary Learning Strategies, EFL Learner
Spellerberg, Stine Marie
in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Nuuk, Greenland. In total, responses from 187 pupils were included, some of which were responses from pupils learning English as a second language; these respondents were included for comparisons (Copenhagen: L2 learners N =59, L3 learners N=32; Nuuk: L3 learners N=96; age......This paper presents findings of gender-related tendencies found in a study of factors influential in third language acquisition of English in Denmark and Greenland. A survey consisting of a questionnaire and an English test was carried out amongst pupils in their last year of compulsory schooling......: 14–16 years). The results showed significant gender-related differences with different patterns between the three learner groups (L2 and L3 learners in Copenhagen, L3 learners in Nuuk) with regard to the level of English proficiency, the degree to which pupils like English as a school subject and the...
Wang, Ya-Huei; Liao, Hung-Chang
The study examined whether the students using concept mapping in a Freshman English course would improve English oral communication proficiency, higher-order thinking, and perception of abilities. A quasi-experimental design, lasting for 12 weeks, was administered to an experimental group (21 students) and a control group (20 students). The experimental group had significantly better performance on all measures. Concept mapping was effective in improving college students' English oral communication, higher-order thinking, and perception of abilities development. PMID:25068741
Finland is widely recognized as one of the top countries to live in, with transparency and an excellent education system, which provides for top English proficiencies. The applied English translation case study that is examined in this paper focuses on Finnish into English legal translation teaching coupled with studying at the University of Helsinki. Scrutiny of the course structure, teaching materials and teaching methods was undertaken as part of the empirical research and the efficiency o...
Charpy, Jean-Pierre; Carnet, Didier
In the global world of international communication, employers or institutions that wish to determine the language skills of non-native speakers of English usually turn to generalist proficiency tests such as the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) or the slightly more business-oriented TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication). These tests enable test takers to certify that they have reached a certain level in skills needed in everyday life and, sometimes, workplace si...
Full Text Available Willingness to communicate (WTC, which is defined as the intention to communicate given a choice, continues to establish itself as a determining construct in bringing about success or failure in learning a second language (Dӧrnyei, 2005, Peng & Woodrow, 2010. The majority of studies done on the issue are oriented towards ESL contexts leaving us with a gap in English as a foreign language (EFL context literature. The paucity of studies in EFL contexts caused us to investigate whether WTC and language learners’ oral proficiency were related in an Iranian context. To this end, 70 male and female intermediate language learners learning English at a private institute were chosen as the participants of the study. The WTC questionnaire was given to the participants and a standard speaking test was administered. Also, individual semi-structured interviews with some of the participants were used to obtain supportive data. The results of correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong relationship between learners’ WTC and their oral proficiency with no significant gender difference. The possible reasons for the correlation are discussed with regard to different motivational, contextual, and attitudinal factors.Keywords: Willingness to communicate, EFL/ESL contexts, Individual differences, Speaking proficiency
Clausen, Jens; Heinesen, Eskil; Hummelgaard, Hans;
We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich...... administrative data from Denmark. We find substantial lock-in effects of participation in active labour-market programmes. Post programme effects on the hazard rate to regular employment are significantly positive for wage subsidy programmes, but not for other types of programmes. For language course...... participants, improvement in language proficiency has significant and substantial positive effects on the hazard rate to employment....
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to model and forecast tourism to South Africa from the country's main intercontinental tourism markets. These include Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, the United States of America and France. Problem investigated: Tourism to South Africa has grown substantially since the first democratic elections in 1994. It is currently the third largest industry in the country and a vital source of foreign exchange earnings. Tourist arrivals continue to grow annually, and have shown some resilience to a number of emerging market crises, including the terrorist attacks in the USA. Business success, marketing decisions, government's investment policy as well as macroeconomic policy are influenced by the accuracy of tourism forecasts, since the tourism product comprises a number of services that cannot be accumulated. Accurate forecasts of tourism demand are paramount to ensure the availability of such services when demanded. In addition, the seasonal nature of tourism leads to a pattern of excess capacity followed by shortage in capacity. Method: Since univariate time series modelling has proved to be a very successful method for forecasting tourist arrivals, it is also the method employed in this paper. The naïve model is tested against a standard ARIMA model, as well as the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing and seasonal-non-seasonal ARIMA models. Forecasting accuracy is assessed using the mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error and Theill's U of the various models. Monthly tourist arrivals from 1994 to 2006 are used in the analysis, and arrivals are forecasted for 2007. Findings: The results show that seasonal ARIMA models deliver the most accurate predictions of arrivals over three time horizons, namely three months, six months and 12 months. Value: This paper is the first tourist arrivals forecast using South African data for the country as a whole, and therefore it forms an interesting case study
The US Environmental Protection Agency's voluntary National Radon Proficiency Programmes: Radon Measurement, and Reduction Proficiency are described, including their history and development, current status and future directions. The Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) and Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) programmes are fundamental to the Agency's programme to reduce the health risk associated with exposure to elevated radon levels in indoor air. Originally developed to provide technical assistance to States, the proficiency programmes now offer US consumers assurance of the quality of their radon measurements and reduction jobs. In other words, the proficiency programmes provide a means to consumers for deciding from which organisations or individuals to purchase radon services. This is especially important in the United States where most radon services are acquired through private enterprises rather than through the public sector. The Agency encourages the public to purchase radon measurements and reduction services only from organisations or individuals that have met the requirements of EPA's proficiency programmes. The US Congress is now considering legislation that would require participation in the Agency's radon proficiency programmes. In addition, this legislation contains provisions that would encourage consumer testing. Increased testing, coupled with a mandatory national proficiency programme, is likely to result in an increase in the quality of radon services available to the US public. (author)
English is the most important language used in international communication. Nurses today have significantly more opportunities to come into contact with clients of different nationalities. Therefore, English communication abilities are a critical to the effective care of foreign clients. Miscommunication due to language barriers can endanger the health and safety of foreign clients and hinder their access to healthcare resources. Basic English communicate skills allow nurses to better understand the feelings of foreign clients and to affect their satisfaction with healthcare services provided. The majority of clinical nurses in Taiwan are inadequately prepared to communicate with foreign clients or use English when delivering nursing care services. Although English is not an official language in Taiwan, strengthening English communication skills is necessary for Taiwan's healthcare service system. Faced with increasing numbers of foreign clients in their daily work, first-line nursing staffs need more training to improve English proficiency. In order to do so, support from the hospital director is the first priority. The second priority is to motivate nursing staffs to learn English; the third is to incorporate different English classes into the medical system and schedule class times to meet nurse scheduling needs; and the fourth is to establish international medical wards, with appropriate incentives in pay designed to attract and retain nursing staff proficient in English communication. PMID:21328212
With the globalization of English,the discussion about China English and Chinese English attracts many scholars’ interest and attention.The concept of China English and Chinese English usual y makes people confused, so the article wil make some tentative contrasts in terms of definition、attributes and causes of the two terms and make people have a clear comprehension of China English and Chinese English.
Nowadays, English movies have been considered as one of the most effective ways to assist students to keep interest in improving their English abilities and enlarge their English vocabularies, as well as their cross cultural communicative ability. Based on the functions of English movies, which make them meet the needs of college students’English acquisition, this paper ana⁃lyzes the advantages of English movies in English learning.
English learning has always been a big problem to Chinese learners. The learners pay much more attention to the vocabulary and the grammar. Acctually, they can hardly speak English as native speakers and never really understand the English because the real English environment doesn’t exist in our country in which English is only used as a foreign language. Then English movies provide the learners with what they need in English learning.
Gustilo, Leah E.
The present study aimed at characterizing what skilled or more proficient ESL college writing is in the Philippine setting through a contrastive analysis of three groups of variables identified from previous studies: resources, processes, and performance of ESL writers. Based on Chenoweth and Hayes' (2001; 2003) framework, the resource level…
The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D; and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.
Michael Flor; Yoko Futagi; Melissa Lopez; Matthew Mulholland
This paper presents a study of misspellings, based on annotated data from the ETS Spelling corpus. The corpus consists of 3000 essays written by examinees, native (NS) and non-native speakers (NNS) of English, on the writing sections of GRE® and TOEFL® examinations. We find that the rate of misspellings decreases as writing proficiency (essay score) increases, both in TOEFL and in GRE. Severity of misspellings depends on writing proficiency and not on NS/NNS dist...
The 'standard' approach to times of arrival advocated by Equsquiza, Muga and Baute associates arrivals from the left (right) with positive (negative) wavenumber components of the wave function at the instant of arrival. Elementary arguments and calculated results exhibiting paradoxical properties call into question this sign of k assignment of direction of arrival
In the past, students who knew only a little English (called limited English proficient, or LEP), were usually taught only low-level science and mathematics. Now, new science and mathematics teaching methods can help LEP students get a good education in both fields. This guide will help parents know if their children are learning as much as…
Herman, Barbara; Pankratz, David
Information is provided on the Vocational English as a Second Language (VESL) component of Oakton Community College's Project BEST (Building Energy Systems Technology), a bilingual vocational training program designed to teach limited English proficient students of Polish or Hispanic origin the basics of heating, refrigeration, and air…
Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.
This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The study examined student and program characteristics that are related to English proficiency and content area achievement for English language learner students in one urban district in New England. The study found that…
This book contains two versions of the Language Aptitude Test. It is part of a package of materials developed for use in an English for Special Purposes project, which offers classes in reading, grammar, and emergency care attendant training for limited English proficient students. Introductory material describes the parts of two versions and…
In increasingly multilingual healthcare environments worldwide, ensuring accurate, effective communication is requisite. Language proficiency is essential, particularly medical language proficiency. Medical language is a universal construct in healthcare, the shared language of health and allied health professions. It is highly evolved, career-specific, technical and cultural-bound-a language for specific purposes. Its function differs significantly from that of a standard language. Proficiency requires at minimum, a common understanding of discipline-specific jargon, abstracts, euphemisms, abbreviations; acronyms. An optimal medical language situation demands a level of competency beyond the superficial wherein one can convey or interpret deeper meanings, distinguish themes, voice opinion, and follow directions precisely. It necessitates the use of clarity, and the ability to understand both lay and formal language-characteristics not essential to standard language. Proficiency influences professional discourse and can have the potential to positively or negatively affect patient outcomes. While risks have been identified when there is language discordance between care provider and patient, almost nothing has been said about this within care teams themselves. This article will do so in anticipation that care providers, regulators, employers, and researchers will acknowledge potential language-based communication barriers and work towards resolutions. This is predicated on the fact that the growing interest in language and communication in healthcare today appears to be rested in globalization and increasingly linguistically diverse patient populations. Consideration of the linguistically diverse healthcare workforce is absent. An argument will be posited that if potential risks to patient safety exist and there are potentials for disengagement from care by patients when health providers do not speak their languages then logically these language-based issues can
Moza Abdullah Said Al-Malki
Full Text Available This study has investigated the relationship between IELTS testing and Omani English teacher trainees’ professional competencies by adopting a quantitative method for data collection. A total number of 94 graduate freshmen Omani English teachers’ IELTS, CGPA and their teaching professional competencies are collected. The results reveal a moderate significant relationship between IELTS and CGPA but a weak relationship between IELTS and teaching competencies. This study could contribute to the growing body of literature that aims to assess the construct validity of IELTS, and attempts to do so in the new terrain of teaching competencies. This study puts forwards recommendations for IELTS proficiency test in the Omani context.Keywords: International English Language Testing System, English Language proficiency, Professional competencies, Rusaq College of Applied Sciences
Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B
There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing students. Two subgroups, differing in ASL proficiency, were compared on the Northwest Evaluation Association Measures of Academic Progress and the reading comprehension subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test, 10th edition. Findings suggested that students highly proficient in ASL outperformed their less proficient peers in nationally standardized measures of reading comprehension, English language use, and mathematics. Moreover, a regression model consisting of 5 predictors including variables regarding education, hearing devices, and secondary disabilities as well as ASL proficiency and home language showed that ASL proficiency was the single variable significantly predicting results on all outcome measures. This study calls for a paradigm shift in thinking about deaf education by focusing on characteristics shared among successful deaf signing readers, specifically ASL fluency. PMID:26864688
Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis
Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila
Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…
Bobetsky, Victor V.
Do prospective music teachers with piano proficiency have an advantage in the job market? Can playing the piano well help practicing teachers achieve greater success in the classroom? In this article, the author stresses that piano proficiency is a necessary survival tool for music teachers regardless of their primary instrument or vocal specialty…
Samimy, Keiko K.
This article is based on a case study of a white American graduate student, Mark, who achieved "Superior" oral proficiency in Arabic according to the ACTFIi Oral Proficiency Scale. Based on multiple data sources (e.g., interviews, observation, document analysis), the study highlights Mark's multiple identities as a language learner, language…
Camara-Norman, Filisha; And Others
The restructuring of the Romance language program at Howard University to improve oral proficiency involved modification of goals, syllabi, classroom activities, and testing. Goals were adapted to American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)/Educational Testing Service (ETS) guidelines for oral proficiency. Assessment of French…
... policy for administration of the Defense Language Program. (3) Employees may be certified as proficient... the official determines— (1) The need for the employee's language capability has been reduced or... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay....
Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza
The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…
ELT is in a flux, but certain exploratory and empirical studies reported a decade or two ago have potential for adaptation. The articles in the volume not only offer a substantive and methodological perspective for teachers and educators in relevant facets of ELT but also present international and comparative dimensions of applied language teaching practices. The contributing teacher-researchers reflect on learners' proficiency and their performances, errors in the usage of conjunctions, idiomatic expressions, vocabulary learning, rhetorical structures in everyday English use, functional appli
Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip
traditional ones and two specialised ones. Data collection spanned the period from August 2005 to May 2007 and involved three individual interviews with each subject at regular intervals over his/her study abroad period. The subjects were some 240 students who volunteered for the project and whose first...... multilingualism among exchange students coming to Scandinavia. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of factors influencing the local language learning and the improvement in English language proficiency among exchange students coming to Scandinavia. The study included four Scandinavian universities: two...
Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam
This study aims to analyze the effects psychological gender differences on the relationship between language learning strategies and their proficiency in English language for pre-university students. Previous researchers found that the more employment of language learning strategies, the more successful the learners are and those with higher level of strategy use are female rather than male. In this study, fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.
Nam, Jeanie Eunjoo
The primary aim of this study was to examine the predictive validity of early literacy measures with Korean English language learners (ELLs) representing varying levels of English language proficiency. First-grade Korean ELLs (N = 102) were screened in the winter using measures of Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF), and Word Identification Fluency (WIF). Spring reading criterion measures included Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests (W...
This paper presents a comparative study of Arabic and English literacy skills and practices for Saudi female university students at their homes and at their school as indicated by the students themselves using literacy questionnaires. The study did not evaluate the proficiency of the students in any aspect of the language such as phonology, vocabulary, or grammar but rather compiled students' answers to the availability of literacy resources in English and in Arabic in their homes/school and ...
Edward W. Wolfe; Jonathan R. Manalo
The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) contains a direct writing assessment, and examinees are given the option of composing their responses at a computer terminal using a keyboard or composing their responses in handwriting. This study sought to determine whether performance on a direct writing assessment is comparable for examinees when given the choice to compose essays in handwriting versus word processing. We examined this relationship controlling for English language proficie...
The topic of this paper is the evaluation by Polish learners of English of bilingual and monolingual dictionaries used by those learners. Data for the paper come from 712 Polish learners of English representing a broad range of EFL proficiency levels. Subjects were asked to rate two dictionaries: their dictionary of first choice and their dictionary of second choice. The effect of choice as a predictor variable is also explored. A tendency is revealed for the mid-level competence learners to ...
Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs
Recent studies in different parts of the world have highlighted that phrasal verbs constitute a learning difficulty for English language learners despite their confirmed significance and high productivity in English. Proposed explanations include cross-linguistic differences, the complex nature of phrasal verbs, low language proficiency and psychological factors. The present study examines this difficulty among an Arabic-speaking population of Egyptian undergraduates in a foreign language con...
This dissertation examines the use of lexical search strategies in the form of written translation from L1 into L2 by intermediate and advanced adult Chinese learners of English as a foreign language. The purpose of the study was: (a) to identify and describe the lexical strategies employed by different proficiency levels of English-speaking learners of Chinese when they are unable to retrieve a word or phrase to express their mea...
Andrew, Kathy N.; Hoshooley, Jennifer; Joanisse, Marc F.
We investigated the robust correlation between American Sign Language (ASL) and English reading ability in 51 young deaf signers ages 7;3 to 19;0. Signers were divided into ‘skilled’ and ‘less-skilled’ signer groups based on their performance on three measures of ASL. We next assessed reading comprehension of four English sentence structures (actives, passives, pronouns, reflexive pronouns) using a sentence-to-picture-matching task. Of interest was the extent to which ASL proficiency provided...
Ólöf Ásdís Baldvinsdóttir 1967
This essay is a discussion regarding the effects that English, as the language of globalization, has on Icelandic society, culture and language. Iceland is a small country which strongly identifies itself with the Icelandic language therefore the pressure applied to the Icelandic society to improve in English and consider it a second language may generate an uncomfortable position of having to choose between maintaining preservation of the Icelandic language or increasing proficiency in Engli...
This policy report focuses on the tensions and dilemmas surrounding one of the most common milestones used for defining and measuring English Learners’ (ELs) progress: their redesignation or reclassification from limited to fluent English proficient (FEP). Although reclassification can have important consequences for students and for the education programs that serve them—determining instructional services, performance expectations, and evaluative judgments of programs—the concept of reclassi...
In college English learning, many learning variables are considered to influence the proficiency of studying, among which, anxiety is one of the most important affective variables. There is a negative correlation between anxiety and foreign lan⁃guage learning. The present study explores the correlation between foreign language anxiety and language performance. It put for⁃ward two suggestions concerning what language teachers can do to help Non-English Major students lower their foreign lan⁃guage anxiety.
Problem Statement: The status, value, and importance of a language is often measured by the attitudes toward that language. Learning a second or foreign language and attaining proficiency in it is closely related to the attitudes of learners toward the language. A few studies have investigated language attitudes of Turkish students toward the English language in Turkey. However, the same issue has not been explored among Turkish students learning and using the English language in a country wh...
This research study adopted a quantitative approach to explore how the variables, namely student’s English proficiency, online instructor guidance, and online collaboration, influence the learning effectiveness of the students taking an online introductory information technology course in cyber education in a bilingual higher education institution in Hong Kong. This study is important for cyber education administrators, as it investigated the important pedagogical quality of cyber education. ...
江丽; 王晓丽; 张维维
The importance of college students' reading comprehension is introduced at the beginning of the paper.To improve their reading comprehension,the author studies student factors -patience and reading motivation.Thereading motivation is the main element in the reading comprehension.And analyze the instrumental motivation,enjoysontal motivation and the relation between the reading proficiency and both the motivation.Therefore,advice on the English reading teaching is put forward.
Kamarul Ariffin MANSOR
Full Text Available Tourism is the act of travelling for a person or group of people from their own locality to a specific destination in a short term or long term period either for leisure or business purposes. Tourism is an important sector in the Malaysian economy where tourism development will lead to the positive economic development of the country and in general improve the quality of life for all citizens. Therefore, forecasting tourist arrivals with high accuracy becomes important since it may ensure the development and the readiness of all tourism related industries such as hotels, transportation, food and services industries and their best shape. This study focuses on tourist arrivals in Langkawi Island as one of the major tourist attractions situated in the northerly region of Peninsular Malaysia. Importantly, this paper attempts to measure and compare the performance of forecasting with Exponential Smoothing, ARIMA and ARFIMA models using the R software package.
It was studied the features of series of air shower events (AS cluster) concentrated within short intervals of time of arrival. When the number of events in the cluster reaches the maximum values in the considered data set, the arrival directions of the AS are prevailingly observed around values of right ascension α asymptotically equal to 5 h and α asymptotically equal to 20 h. These values indicate parallelism of directions between the shower directions and the galactic plane. This can be explained by the presence of Ultra-High Energy (UHE) gamma-ray sources, generating showers from their specific direction. The analysis uses three data set of 253k, 664k and 231k events. The results are similar in the three data set
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org PLACES AVAILABLE Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their sp...
We analyze a dynamic market in which buyers compete in a sequence of auctions. New buyers and objects may arrive at random times. Buyers' private values, however, are not persistent. Instead, buyers draw new values in every period; equivalently, objects are heterogeneous but are drawn from the same distribution. We consider the use of the second-price auction for selling these objects. In equilibrium, buyers do not bid their true value. Instead, they shade their bids down by their continu...
Kamarul Ariffin MANSOR; Wan Irham ISHAK
Tourism is the act of travelling for a person or group of people from their own locality to a specific destination in a short term or long term period either for leisure or business purposes. Tourism is an important sector in the Malaysian economy where tourism development will lead to the positive economic development of the country and in general improve the quality of life for all citizens. Therefore, forecasting tourist arrivals with high accuracy becomes important since it may ensure t...
Czapska, J. M.; Yashchyshyn, Y.
With recent increase of hardware capabilities, the application of sensor arrays in the Direction-Of-Arrival estimation is gaining more and more popularity. The behaviour of the array is the complex function of the geometry, sensor characteristic, signal and noise properties and other different factors. Before building the array it is essential to simulate its performance in different conditions with different algorithms.Most of the time the simulations are performed using custom ad-hoc create...
@@ The long expected Lan-Blisslivinghome Global Home Design Contest announced the winners on April 17 in Beijing.Young designers,Wang Yingying from Beijing and Qiang Xiaoning from Shanxi stood out from the crowd and won the first and second prize respectively.Malgorzata Czuchraj from Poland ranks the third.On the awarding ceremony,Blisslivinghome presented its autumn and winter new arrivals.
Shao Chao; Lu Guangyue; Bao Zheng
A Direction Of Arrival(DOA) estimator based on the signal separation principle is introduced, and one of representative multidimensional estimators is established by introducing Matrix Operator projection signal steering Vector Excision(MOVE) operation. Thanks to Alternating Separation (AS) technique, the multidimensional problem is transformed into a series of one-dimensional optimal ones. Furthermore, an equivalent simplified implementation of the AS is obtained. Finally the definiteness and uniqueness of the estimator are analyzed.
On 21 January the first US-built LHC magnet arrived at CERN, after a journey of 6000 km by land and sea, an event hailed on both sides of the Atlantic. This 10-m long, 4.7-tonne dipole magnet was manufactured over a period of nine months by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Single-aperture magnets of this type will be installed on either side of the ALICE and LHCb experiments and will deviate the beams in order to provoke their interaction and subsequent separation. Brookhaven will be supplying 19 other dipoles for the insertion regions, including four of the same type as the one which has just arrived. «These magnets are based on a technology developed by Brookhaven Laboratory for its own RHIC accelerator,» explains Ranko Ostojic. LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans adds «our Brookhaven colleagues have done a fantastic job in completing the USA's first superconducting magnet for the LHC to specification and on schedule. Other deliveries will shortly be arriving from Brookhaven but also from Fermilab and the ...
Gabriel B. Egbe
Full Text Available What will be the future of English in Nigeria? Put more apprehensively, will the English language die in Nigeria in the near future? These questions are answered by reporting on the language preference at home of some Nigerian undergraduates in order to gauge the future of English in Nigeria. The investigation sought to determine the language(s most preferred for communication at home among Nigerian undergraduates. From a sample drawn from students in a private Nigerian university, 66.7% identified English as the most frequently used language at home while 64.1% indicated fluency in English against other languages spoken in Nigeria including the indigenous major Nigerian languages (Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. On order of fluency among the languages sampled, 18.5% indicated an English-only fluency, which reveals that some section of young Nigerians are moving towards a monolingual English-only proficiency. This discovery has implications for the future of English in Nigeria. Several factors may account for this emerging trend. However, the premier position occupied by English in Nigeria and the expanding use of English world-wide clearly support the continuous growth and visibility of English as the language of choice among Nigerian undergraduates at home. This is without prejudice to several declarations and policy statements in favour of Mother Tongue education and usage in Nigeria. The paper concludes that the emergence of a new generation of Nigerians who use English as a first language in a non-host second language context is sowing the seed for further nativization and entrenchment of English in Nigeria.
Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa; Smith, Anne
Purpose To examine how age of immersion and proficiency in a 2nd language influence speech movement variability and speaking rate in both a 1st language and a 2nd language. Method A group of 21 Bengali–English bilingual speakers participated. Lip and jaw movements were recorded. For all 21 speakers, lip movement variability was assessed based on productions of Bengali (L1; 1st language) and English (L2; 2nd language) sentences. For analyses related to the influence of L2 proficiency on speech production processes, participants were sorted into low- (n = 7) and high-proficiency (n = 7) groups. Lip movement variability and speech rate were evaluated for both of these groups across L1 and L2 sentences. Results Surprisingly, adult bilingual speakers produced equally consistent speech movement patterns in their production of L1 and L2. When groups were sorted according to proficiency, highly proficient speakers were marginally more variable in their L1. In addition, there were some phoneme-specific effects, most markedly that segments not shared by both languages were treated differently in production. Consistent with previous studies, movement durations were longer for less proficient speakers in both L1 and L2. Interpretation In contrast to those of child learners, the speech motor systems of adult L2 speakers show a high degree of consistency. Such lack of variability presumably contributes to protracted difficulties with acquiring nativelike pronunciation in L2. The proficiency results suggest bidirectional interactions across L1 and L2, which is consistent with hypotheses regarding interference and the sharing of phonological space. A slower speech rate in less proficient speakers implies that there are increased task demands on speech production processes. PMID:18367680
In 1968 an American linguist,answering the question “How do you pronounceTESOL?”[the acronym(只取首字母的缩写词)of the Association of Teachers ofEnglish to Speaders of Other Languages] answered:“T as in castle,E as in give,Sas in island,O as in people,and L as in calm.” In fact you can,with some use ofproper names and loan words,create a complete silent alphabet for English,asfollows:
Making Out in English is a fun, accessible and thorough English phrase book and guide to the English language as it's really spoken. If you are a student, businessman or tourist traveling to the English speaking world and would like to have an authentic and meaningful experience, the key is being able to speak like a local. This friendly and easy-to-use English phrasebook makes this possible. Making Out in English has been revised and redesigned to act as a guide to modern colloquial English for use in everyday informal interactionsgiving access to the sort of catchy English expressions that
English oral test aims to provide a fair and valid measure of a testee's oral proficiency SO as to give an accurate description of his/her oral communicative ability.This paper analysesthe validity and reliability of the coHege enhance English oral test paper of Guangdong province of 2005.In designing an oral test,in order to make the test reliable,the teacher should take the following factors into consideration:test content,test method,testees' mood,rating scales and rater characteristics.
Cole, Jenny; Feng, Jay
Reaching proficient levels of literacy is a universal goal for all children in the elementary classroom. This objective is especially challenging for English language learners particularly in the domain of writing. Writing has been identified as one of the most essential skills because the world has become so text-oriented. Due to this change,…
This study investigated the Stroop effect with deaf and hearing bilingual individuals and whether there is a positive relationship between the Stroop effect and English language proficiency of deaf bilinguals. The Stroop effect refers to the interference caused by incongruent semantic information in naming colors (e.g., when subjects must name the…
Based on a literacy interdependence theory, uses findings from the Ramirez et al. study on programs for Spanish-speaking, limited-English-proficient students to refute theories opposing bilingual education. Expresses concern that all three program types in the Ramirez study reflect transmission models of pedagogy in which students have little…
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) urge English language arts teachers to assume responsibility for teaching technical reading, along with literature, poetry, and composition. Ideally, each teacher assumes a share in developing reading proficiency within his or her content area, but state assessments may implicitly compel school districts to…
Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina
The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…
Banerjee, Rashida; Alsalman, Amani; Alqafari, Shehana
English language learners are often at risk for communication and language delays--crucial elements in the foundation of early literacy skills. Studies have shown that preschool children involved in sociodramatic play demonstrate greater proficiency and interest in language development and reading. The manuscript shares evidence-based strategies…
Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli
In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…
This article is mainly talked about CET English writing tests from the perspective of language testing. Writing tests de-signed to test the language proficiency, have direct and integrative characteristics. Writing requires the candidates to use language accurately, fluently and appropriately.
Reyes-Bonilla, Maria A.; Carrasquillo, Angela L.
In a study that sought to identify the gains in English oral communication skills of Spanish speaking learning disabled students in the elementary schools, the Basic Inventory of Natural Language (BINL) and the Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery (WLPB) were administered to two groups of students aged 8 to 12 years: an experimental group of 20…
Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne
This study investigates L1-L2 convergence among bilinguals at an intermediate (CEFR-B2) level of L2 proficiency, focusing on the clausal packaging of Manner and Path of motion. Previous research has shown cross-linguistic differences between English and Japanese in this domain (Allen et al., 2003; Kita & Ozyurek, 2003, though note Brown &…
Tran, Van C.
Analyzing three waves of data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey, this article explores the process of language assimilation among second-generation Latinos. Although previous studies have focused on the shift from mother tongue to English across immigrant generations, few have examined change in language proficiency over time…
Duong, Van Anh; Chua, Catherine S. K.
Vietnam universities have experienced remarkable changes brought about by their internationalization policies. The switch to English as a medium of instruction (EMI) for some academic programs was one of these critical changes. Literature has reported numerous issues related to EMI, including inadequate language proficiency of teaching staff. This…
This study investigates the potential use of the argument-counterargument structure in English L2 essays written by Indonesian EFL learners. It examines whether L2 proficiency affects the use of opposing views in their essays, and measures whether there is a correlation between the use of the rhetorical structure and the participants' overall…
Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.
Project EXCEL is a federally-funded workplace literacy program involving hotel enterprises in the San Francisco (California) Bay area. Its focus is on identification and instruction of literacy skills essential to job success for limited-English-proficient (LEP) workers. Training is intended to enable employees to understand written work orders,…
Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.
Project EXCEL is a federally-funded workplace literacy program involving hotel enterprises in the San Francisco (California) Bay area. Its focus is on identification and instruction of literacy skills essential to job success for limited-English-proficient (LEP) workers. Training is intended to enable employees to understand written work orders,…
Kayad, Florence G.
As part of Malaysia's aspirations to achieve developed nation status by 2020, and become a key player in the global economy, the government has sought to improve the English language proficiency of its citizens while maintaining the status and significance of the Malay Language as the national language. Recent strategies have involved…
With very limited exposure to spoken English, teachers in China are presented with a number of challenges in their own proficiency and subsequent teaching of listening and speaking, ranging from the type of approach they take to the teaching of these skills to the quality of voice which they model for their learners. A common approach to teaching listening in China
Bunch, George C.; Walqui, Aída; Pearson, P. David
In the United States, new common state standards in English language arts and disciplinary literacy require K-12 students to "read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently." Issues of text complexity have spurred debates in the mainstream literacy, educational practice, and policy…