WorldWideScience

Sample records for arrival english proficiency

  1. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  2. Bilingual Education and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…

  3. Intelligibility and Perceptions of English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooy, Susan Coetzee-Van

    2009-01-01

    More and more learners of English from the Expanding Circle are travelling to Outer Circle contexts to learn English or to improve their English proficiency. This is also the case for some Korean families who moved to Potchefstroom, South Africa. This phenomenon poses challenges in terms of assessment of English proficiency, and emphasizes the…

  4. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  5. 34 CFR 300.27 - Limited English proficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority:...

  6. 76 FR 66318 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI), Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI... for currently funded Initiatives under the Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program is 14.421... funding under the Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Limited English Proficiency...

  7. Early Childhood Education for Limited-English-Proficient Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegl, Juergen

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the benefits of early childhood education (ECE) for children whose proficiency in English is limited. Specifically, the paper (1) defines the basic characteristics of limited English proficient (LEP) children; (2) discusses educational risk factors and preschool enrollments of LEP children; (3) presents the…

  8. The Relationship between Demotivation and EFL Learners' English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rou-Jui Sophia

    2011-01-01

    To what extent does demotivation affect EFL learners' English language proficiency attainment? The present study addresses this question by investigating the relationship between technological institute EFL students' past demotivating factors and their English language proficiency. Although the role of demotivation in foreign language achievement…

  9. Manufacturing Industry Employers’ Perception of Graduates’ English Language Skills Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability.  This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English language proficiency skills are still below their expectations. Therefore, this study recommends that there is a need for intervention into language teaching to improve the English language syllabus level of English proficiency at primary, secondary and tertiary level. At the same time, emphasis on the importance of English in everyday use should be inculcated without neglecting the national language of Malaysia.  This will ensure that the teaching of English will be in line with globalization and current workplace demands.Keywords: English language skills proficiency, manufacturing industry employers, graduates

  10. English-for-Teaching: Rethinking Teacher Proficiency in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Donald; Katz, Anne; Garcia Gomez, Pablo; Burns, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of English teaching in state education systems places increasing demands on English language teachers and how they are trained. A major thrust of these efforts has focused on improving teachers' English language proficiency. This expectation is manifested in policy and pedagogical directives that teachers "teach English in…

  11. Relationship between English Language Learners' Proficiency in Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking and Proficiency on Maryland School Assessments in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics proficiency of English language learners (ELLs) on the Maryland School Assessments (MSA) for mathematics continues to lag behind the proficiency level of students who are proficient English speakers. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between English language learner's…

  12. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  13. Bilingual Vocational Education for Youths with Limited English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Mary Jo

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Bilingual Vocational Education Program for Refugee Youth in Richmond, Virginia. Presents data that support the concept of mainstreaming refugee youth with limited English proficiency into public vocational education programs using the assistance of bilingual aides. (Author)

  14. Learning Strategies Used by College Freshmen in Developing English Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARIBELLE C. HABER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available - The main objective of this study was to determine the learning strategies used by College Freshmen to enhance the development of English language proficiency; and to find out the extent of using them along phonology, vocabulary and grammar. The survey-results served as the basis of devising an instructional tool that would offer more learning techniques and ways that would enhance further the development of English proficiency. The descriptive method of research was applied. Survey questionnaires of two parts were used. Part 1 was a diagnostic test in English focused on phonology, vocabulary and grammar. Part 2 was an inventory of English Language learning strategies that emphasized reading and study skills, which also determined the extent of using them along the three (3 elements of English. The research venue was Camarines Sur State Agricultural College where 255 College Freshmen served as respondents. The statistical tools used were score interval, weighted mean, averaging and ranking systems. Results showed that the College freshmen are moderately proficient both on vocabulary and grammar but are hardly proficient on phonology. Varied learning strategies on reading and studying exercises are frequently used by the respondents in developing English proficiency. The extent or frequency of using learning strategies along the English language elements revealed that the respondents moderately used target learning strategies along phonology while they frequently used said strategies along vocabulary and grammar elements of English language.”Language Strategies for Better English Proficiency” was devised to offer more learning ways and techniques that would enhance English proficiency development. The teaching tool entitled “Language Strategies for Better English Proficiency” was found valid to be used in the curriculum.

  15. An Examination of Rater Performance on a Local Oral English Proficiency Test: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a mixed-methods approach to evaluate rater performance on a local oral English proficiency test. Three types of reliability estimates were reported to examine rater performance from different perspectives. Quantitative results were also triangulated with qualitative rater comments to arrive at a more representative picture of…

  16. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rurl Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Chop Ler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to the rural and the ‘cultural’ and to determine their problems effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools and ethnic backgrounds responded to a questionnaire. The problems discussed by both the teacher and student respondents arose due to the rural cultural setting. The findings of this study show that 1 five major problem areas exist, namely peer pressure and motivation, attitudes towards English ,teaching methodology, school culture ,influence of Islamic teaching on the learning of English 2 the problems discussed by the teachers and students are similar and 3 most importantly all these identified problems are closely related to the rural setting. Therefore, one can conclude that rural cultural factors adversely affect English Proficiency of the rural students of this study.

  17. INFLUENCE OF STUDENT ENGLISH UTILITY AND TEACHER EFFICACY ON ENGLISH PROFICIENCY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. ORTEGA-DELA CRUZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning second language considers a number of factors that influence the manner in which the language is taught. Understanding of the learners’ goals and motivation for learning is one. Using descriptive-correlational research design, this study determined the influence of student English utility and teacher efficacy on the students’ English proficiency. A total of 101 students from first year to fourth year level served as the respondents of the study. The study quantified the students’ perception towards English utility and their evaluation of English teacher efficacy which employed a researcher-made survey questionnaire. Results revealed high positive perceptions of students towards English utility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the perceptions of high school students on the efficacy of their English teachers. Correlation coefficients indicated a positive linear relationship among the given variables. The p-value revealed significant relationship of teacher efficacy (r = .691, p-value = .000 and English utility (r = .467, p-value = .000 to students’ English proficiency. Results of regression statistics revealed that English utility has no significant influence on the student English proficiency. Therefore, the main factor that must still be considered then should be the teacher. Finally, there is an explicit indication that high level of teachers’ efficacy performing in teaching has much powerful influence on the English proficiency of high school students. Thus improving the methods of teaching English provides a better way of motivating students to achieve higher levels of proficiency in the future.

  18. A Key Factor Affecting L2 (English) Vocabulary Acquisition:L2 (English) Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祁林

    2014-01-01

    There are some certain factors affecting L2 ( English) vocabulary acquisition such as L2 ( English) proficiency, readers’ purpose and the habit of reading, and the difficulty of target words and context, among which the first plays a key role. The paper, through a review of the relevant experimental researches, reaches a conclusion that L2 ( English) proficiency does influence much upon L2 vocabulary acquisition.

  19. STRATEGIES OF MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY BY TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  20. 25 CFR 39.134 - How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test....

  1. Manufacturing Industry Employers’ Perception of Graduates’ English Language Skills Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh; Julie Chuah Suan Choo

    2012-01-01

    Proficiency in English language skills among graduates that create advantages for the organization is preferred by prospective employers as one of the main criteria for employability.  This article provides an overview of undergraduates in higher education and also workplace literacy from the perspective of the employers in the manufacturing industry. The result from the research demonstrates that Malaysian manufacturing industry employers perceive that the graduate employees’ English languag...

  2. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Rubina Khan; Tazin Aziz Chaudhury

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as a...

  3. Impact of English Proficiency on Academic Performance of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson

    2015-01-01

    Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…

  4. Structural and Individual Covariates of English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Xi, Juan

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the empirical merits of a multilevel model of English language proficiency among immigrants. The model represents a synthesis of Blau's theory of intergroup relations and the human capital model. Hypotheses derived from the model were tested using multilevel ordinal logistic analysis with individual and aggregate data from…

  5. Become proficient in speaking and writing good English

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Become Proficient in Speaking and Writing GOOD ENGLISH. The book offers practical advice for writing proper and attractive prose. It will help improve one's communication ability and skill. The topics cover Common Errors, Confusing set of Figures of Speech, Foreign Words and Phrases and various aspects of Grammar and Syntax....

  6. State Child Care Policies for Limited English Proficient Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firgens, Emily; Matthews, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), the largest source of federal funding for child care assistance available to states, provides low-income families with help paying for child care. Studies have shown that low-income LEP (limited English proficient), as well as immigrant families, are less likely to receive child care assistance.…

  7. The English Proficiency of the Academics of the Teacher Training and Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saukah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at describing the general English proficiency level of the academics of Teacher Training and Education Institutions (LPTK's as indicated by their TOEFL scores. Specifically, the study is focused on finding out whether there is any difference among the academics' English proficiencies when they are grouped in terms of the geographic regions of their institutions and their fields of study. This study is also intended to reveal any possible relationship between the academics' English proficiency and their age. The results indicate that the English proficiency of the academics on the average is far below the average of that of the international students. The academics in West Java are the highest in their English proficiency, and the English group, as expected, has the best English proficiency. In addition, there is a negative correlation between English proficiency and age

  8. Learning Strategies in Alleviating English Writing Anxiety for English Language Learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…

  9. Theory and practice: Science for undergraduates of limited English proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Judith W.

    1993-06-01

    Between 1980 and 1990, the total number of Asian, Hispanic, American Indian, and foreign undergraduates increased by more than 50% at public and private, four-year and two-year colleges. Many of these students may be of limited English proficiency, suggesting that the traditional science lecture/lab format may need modification to incorporate the theory of second language acquisition as it pertains to the practice of content instruction. Various methods exist to improve science instruction for limited English proficient undergraduates. These included the adjunct and tutorial models, sheltered or bridge science instruction, faculty development, and science instruction in the students' native language. Any plan for science education reform at the collegiate level or for increasing minority participation in science must address the needs of the growing population of undergraduates who speak English as a second language.

  10. A STUDY ON ENGLISH READING PROFICIENCY OF STUDENTS IN COLLEGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾敏

    2008-01-01

    The study attempted to investigate the mean level of the participants' reading proficiency and identify what levels of reading comprehension questions (literal,reorganization and inferential)the participants are able to answer. A written reading comprehension test wag administered. The participants consisted of 45 students enrolled in college English class. The data obtained from a written reading comprehension test,a background questionnaire,and a structured interview which was analyzed by using SPSS. The results indicated that the participants' mean level of reading proficiency Was below the standard.

  11. Assessing English proficiency for university study

    CERN Document Server

    Read, John

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on strategies and procedures for assessing the academic language ability of students entering an English-medium university, so that those with significant needs can have access to opportunities to enhance their language skills.

  12. Bilingual Education and English Proficiency. Discussion Paper Series. DP 2009-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    English Learners, students who are not proficient in English and speak a non-English language at home, make up more than 10 percent of the nation's K-12 student body. Achieving proficiency in English for these students is a major goal of both state and federal education policy, motivating the provision of bilingual education policies. Using data…

  13. Improving Students' English Speaking Proficiency in Saudi Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Awadh Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In English as a foreign language (EFL contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students’ limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues ultimately affect students’ English speaking capacity. Focusing on the Saudi EFL context, this paper attempted to identify the causes of Saudi students’ low proficiency in English communication and provide some recommendations to address these issues. The most significant findings of the paper were: (1 reforming specific Ministry of Education and Higher Education policies in Saudi Arabia is crucial; (2 the Saudi education system should reinforce the use of contemporary approaches to teaching that emphasise problem solving and critical thinking skills and put students in charge of their own learning; and (3 the ministry should consider converting some Saudi public schools into bilingual schools.

  14. Test Review. Secondary Level English Proficiency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Karen

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a secondary school version of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) that focuses on two of the primary language skills: listening and reading. Subtest includes a variety of tasks measuring semantic, syntactic, and higher-level reading comprehension abilities. (NKA)

  15. An Institutional Approach to English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil; Hicks, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    As the university student body becomes ever more diverse, the place and nature of English language provision is coming under unprecedented scrutiny and is the object of greater regulation. Today, more than ever before, institutions of higher education are being called to account for the way in which they support this diverse population in respect…

  16. 76 FR 81958 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English Proficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... translated materials and other programs that support the assistance of persons with limited English... Following Information Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program. OMB...

  17. Do Decision Rules Matter? A Descriptive Study of English Language Proficiency Assessment Classifications for English-Language Learners and Native English Speakers in Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Patricia E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    English language proficiency assessments (ELPA) are used in the United States to measure annually the English language progress and proficiency of English-language learners (ELLs), a subgroup of language minority students who receive language acquisition support mandated and largely funded by Title III (NCLB, 2001). ELPA proficient and…

  18. English Language Proficiency and Teacher Judgments of the Academic and Interpersonal Competence of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Miranda E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how English language proficiency is related to teacher judgments of students' academic and interpersonal competence. It was hypothesized that English Language Learner (ELL) students would generally be perceived as having weaker academic and interpersonal skills than their non-ELL counterparts regardless…

  19. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F

    2016-09-20

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry.

  20. The role of ESP courses in general English proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Cigan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is the study of the interaction between learning English for Specific Purposes (ESP, in particular, English for the Financial Sector, and general English proficiency. The research examines the effects of an ESP course being taught for a year on the students' general English proficiency.Two sets of tests were prepared for that purpose and administered to 30 first-year students of finance and law. The students took the placement test twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. To monitor test performance over a research period, a parallel form measuring the same competences was administered at the beginning of the second semester. In the test development process a special consideration has been paid to the level of difficulty and its relation to the students' prior educational context. Drawing on the National State Matura exams the test is set at Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR Level B2. As regards its content the test is comprised of reading comprehension tasks (multiple matching, multiple-choice cloze, gapped text and grammar tasks aiming to examine lexical and grammatical competence.There were two major assumptions in this study: 1 Learning ESP can improve students' general English proficiency, and 2 There is a more substantial improvement in lexical competence as compared to the improvement in grammatical competence.There is strong evidence in support of the first hypothesis, whereas for the second one the results were ambiguous. After major findings are presented and discussed, implications for ESP teaching are given in closing.

  1. Issues in Vertical Scaling of a K-12 English Language Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Dorry M.; MacGregor, David; Li, Dongyang; Cook, H. Gary

    2011-01-01

    One of the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act is that states show adequate yearly progress in their English language learners' (ELLs) acquisition of English language proficiency. States are required to assess ELLs' English language proficiency annually in four language domains (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) to measure their…

  2. Academic English Reading Proficiency at the University Level: A Norwegian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellekjaer, Glenn Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the academic English reading proficiency of 578 Norwegian university students was quantitatively examined. Self-assessment items were used to measure reading proficiency in Norwegian and English and validated using an International English Language Testing System Academic Reading Module. The study found that about 30% of the…

  3. Investigating elementary school pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Achmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available English has been taught at elementary schools as one of the local content subjects. It is necessary to study English from an early age in order to achieve good mastery in it. To master English means to master the four skills in it and also the language aspects, including vocabulary. As one of the language aspects, vocabulary plays an important role in language learning. This study reports on pupils’ proficiency in mastering English vocabulary after three years of studying in elementary school. The writer chose 55 grade-four pupils of SD Methodist Banda Aceh as a sample for this study. They were given a vocabulary test related to reading and writing skills consisting of 26 items. The test was to be done in 20 minutes. After calculating the data, it was found that the mean score (x of the pupils was 69.5, with the highest score at 92.3 and the lowest score at 26.9. More than 50% of the pupils could answer the questions correctly in less than 20 minutes. Only 4 out of the 55 pupils answered the questions less than 50% correctly and no one answered 100% correct. According to these results, this study showed that the pupils achieved good proficiency in vocabulary.

  4. Survey on the Factors Influencing Oral English Proficiency for Senior Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shu-ling

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to get some feedbacks from senior students and teachers on factors influencing their oral English profi-ciency and give some efficient suggestions in improving their oral English proficiency. The survey by questionnaire and observa-tion to English class indicates senior students’low proficiency in oral English is due to the English learning setting, students’ problems and teachers’problems. To find out the satisfying ways to improve students’oral English ability, the author gives some suggestions to achieve an ideal goal.

  5. Integrating Science and English Proficiency for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expectation that all students should achieve high academic standards, content area instruction and English for speakers of other languages instruction for English language learners (ELLs) have traditionally been conceptualized as separate domains, resulting in educational inequities for ELLs. This is because effective instruction to…

  6. Misidentification of English Language Proficiency in Triage: Impact on Satisfaction and Door-to-Room Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vamsi; Roper, Jamie; Cossey, Kori; Roman, Crystal; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    We examined triage nurses' assessment of patients' language proficiency compared to patients' self-reported proficiency and the impact of language discordance on door-to-room time and patient satisfaction. This was a prospective study of emergency department walk-in patients. Patients completed a survey in which they identified their language proficiency. On a Likert scale, patients ranked how well they felt they were understood and how satisfied they were with the triage process. Nurses completed surveys identifying the patient's primary language and how well they felt they understood the patient. Door-to-room times were obtained from medical records. 163 patients were enrolled. 66% of patients identified themselves as having good English proficiency, while 34% of patients had limited English proficiency. Nurses misclassified 27% of self-identified Spanish-speaking patients as being English proficient. Spanish-speakers felt less satisfied with triage than English-speakers (p English-speakers.

  7. 76 FR 65742 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English Proficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... transmission of data. Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program Reporting. OMB...

  8. English Language Proficiency and Health-Related Quality of Life among Chinese and Korean Immigrant Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young; Kang, Dooyeon; Domanski, Margaret Dietz

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between English language proficiency and health outcomes in a regional probability sample (n = 205) of elderly Chinese and Korean immigrants. Data support that these two Asian ethnic subgroups differ in English proficiency and health-related quality of life. Chinese and Korean elders had poorer health than the…

  9. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  10. Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment (WELPA). Form C 2015. Interpretation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…

  11. English Proficiency and Acculturation among Chinese Immigrant Youth in Canada: A Reciprocal Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fanli; Gottardo, Alexandra; Chen, Xi; Koh, Pohwee; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to refine our understanding of the link between English proficiency and mainstream acculturation in adolescent Chinese immigrants. The sample consisted of 112 adolescents in grades 7-12 living in urban areas in southern Ontario, Canada. English proficiency was assessed individually using standardised tests of…

  12. Non-Discriminatory Assessment: Formal and Informal Assessment of Limited English Proficient Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sharon

    PEOPLE (Pruebas de Expresion Oral y Percepcion de la Lengua Espanol) was developed as a test to help distinguish between a language difference and a language deficit in non English proficient (NEP) and limited English proficient (LEP) elementary Hispanic students. PEOPLE was developed, pilot tested in 14 school districts in Los Angeles County with…

  13. Development and Validation of the Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Ekaterina; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development and validation of a criterion-referenced Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS) that was designed to assess the oral language skills of sequential bilingual children ages 4-8. This article reports results for the English proficiency portion of the scale. Method: The SELPS assesses syntactic…

  14. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  15. PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH AND CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMION MINODORA OTILIA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The technological development, the growing economic globalization and the majordemographic shifts have brought about the need for a global language. In international business, travel, scienceand technology, education, immigration, academia, diplomacy and entertainment, English is the dominantlanguage, being spoken by over one billion people. English is used inside and outside the professionalenvironment, both for communication in global business and for communication in social networks, butproficiency in English can definitely enhance people’s career opportunities both if they look for a job in thecountry or plan to go abroad to find employment. It may determine a division among those who have access toinformation and prosperity and those who don’t. In the future not just wealth but also the way it is created willhave a great impact on people’s increasing communicative needs of international languages. It is obvious thenthat more and more people will need proficiency in English ,both as a language for international communicationand as the basis for constructing cultural identities .

  16. Ten Years on: The Hong Kong Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English (LPATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David; Falvey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The "Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English" (LPATE) is a test of standards of English language ability for Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers of English. The impetus for the creation of the LPATE arose, in 1996, because of concerns in business and education communities over falling English language…

  17. Reading Strategies Employed by University Business English Majors with Different Levels of Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of reading proficiency. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in southwest China. The Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading (SQBER) and the…

  18. Improving English Listening Proficiency: The Application of ARCS Learning-Motivational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Language learning motivation is one of vital factors which strongly correlates to the success in second language acquisition. Listening proficiency, as one of the basic language abilities, is paid much attention in English instruction, but presently the college English listening teaching is a weak link in English language teaching in China, which…

  19. A Study of Interactions among Ambiguity Tolerance, Classroom Work Styles, and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hui-Hua

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary investigation of the inter-relationships between English learners' tolerance for ambiguity, their classroom work styles, and their level of English proficiency. The study population comprised 46 English as a foreign language (EFL) students attending a technical college in Taiwan. The findings indicated that a…

  20. Influence of L2 Proficiency on Speech Movement Variability: Production of Prosodic Contrasts by Bengali-English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of age of immersion and proficiency in a second language on speech movement consistency in both a first and a second language. Ten monolingual speakers of English and 20 Bengali-English bilinguals (10 with low L2 proficiency and 10 with high L2 proficiency) participated. Lip movement variability was assessed based…

  1. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  2. Impact of English-language Proficiency on Chinese Expatriates’ Adjustment to Overseas Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu, Xiaofei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of Chinese multinationals, increasingly large number of Chinese expatriates work overseas. However, little research has been conducted to investigate Chinese expatriates’ adjustment to overseas assignments. Drawing on prior studies in the areas of linguistics, communication, and business, the current study examines the impact of the English-language proficiency on the Chinese expatriates’ adjustment to overseas assignments.A Chinese multinational in the information technology industry, Company ABC, was selected as a subject company. Quantitative research method was adopted. The quantitative data were collected through a survey of 190 Chinese expatriates from Company ABC. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was performed to examine the relationships between English-language proficiency and variables related to the Chinese Expatriates’ Adjustment to Overseas Assignments. The findings show that English-language proficiency was found to enhance Chinese expatriates’ adjustment moderately. Moreover, further analysis indicates that different type of English-language proficiency affects different aspect of Chinese expatriates’ adjustment.

  3. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency.

  4. The role of computer use and English proficiency in gender wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Long Hwa; Chen, Hsin-Fan

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female w...... wage earners and contribute to an equalization of the gender wage gap.......This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female...

  5. Pilot English Language Proficiency and the Prevalence of Communication Problems at Five U.S. Air Route Traffic Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    inadequate language proficiency was involved in some aviation accidents, the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) is requiring its contracting...paired with its readback. Each readback was scored for accuracy. The ICAO Language Proficiency Rating Scale guided encoding English language

  6. Dental school patients with limited English proficiency: the California experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Lisa E; Glassman, Paul; Gregorczyk, Suzanne; Bailit, Howard L

    2009-09-01

    California is home to one-third of the U.S. population with limited English proficiency (LEP). Studies indicate that treating LEP patients without professional interpreters can result in miscommunication, decreased patient satisfaction, and serious medical errors. To address this problem, federal laws require all health care institutions receiving federal monies to provide interpretation services to their LEP patients at no cost to the patient. In this study we surveyed 122 students and fifty-six faculty members from the five California dental schools with respect to number, communication strategies, impact on education and clinic finances, and student and faculty perceptions regarding serving LEP patients in their clinics. Over 50 percent of students surveyed spoke a foreign language either fluently or moderately fluently. Students reported that about 10 percent of their patients required interpreters, that untrained interpreters (e.g., family, friends, bilingual students) worked adequately, but that LEP patients were more difficult to treat. To comply with federal laws, dental schools are confronted with the challenge of covering the cost of providing language services to LEP patients.

  7. Identity processing styles and language proficiency among Persian learners of English as a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Neissi, Sina

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between identity processing styles and language proficiency in English as foreign language (EFL) was investigated among the Persian EFL learners. 266 Persian candidates taking part in a Ph.D. examination at Shiraz University took part. The Language Proficiency Test was used to measure language proficiency in English. The Identity Styles Inventory was used to measure normative, informational, and diffuse-avoidant identity processing styles. Relationships between normative and informational styles and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were positive and significant. Negative relationships between diffuse-avoidant style and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were observed. There were significant sex differences for diffuse-avoidant style and for vocabulary.

  8. Students’ Perceived Level of English Proficiency in Secondary Schools in Dodoma, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Ndiku Makewa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper looked at students’ perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky’s theory of value. Correlation design was used to describe the association between the student and teacher-related factors and students’ perceived level of English proficiency. Purposive sampling was used to select 300 form three students. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the participants. Reliability of the research instrument was determined by conducting a pilot study. Pearson Descriptive statistics and Kendall’s Tau-b were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that the students’ perceived level of proficiency in spoken English was average. The findings indicated a significant positive correlation between perceived English proficiency and attitude toward the English language, classroom activities, teacher motivation, and classroom environment. It is suggested that further studies integrate qualitative research methods to the research design in order to get an in-depth understanding of students’ perception on English proficiency.

  9. Examining the Reliability and Validity of ADEPT and CELDT: Comparing Two Assessments of Oral Language Proficiency for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Few classroom measures of English language proficiency have been evaluated for reliability and validity. This research examined the concurrent and predictive validity of an oral language test, titled A Developmental English Language Proficiency Test (ADEPT), and the relationship to the California English Language Development Test (CELDT) in the…

  10. Life after oral English certification: The consequences of the Test of Oral English Proficiency for Academic Staff for EMI lecturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka

    2017-01-01

    , this study discusses the consequences resulting from score and feedback interpretations and uses as part of the validation process of TOEPAS (Test of Oral English Proficiency for Academic Staff), which is a performance-based test used for oral English certification of lecturers at the University...

  11. Effects of M[superscript 3] Curriculum on Mathematics and English Proficiency Achievement of Mathematically Promising English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seokhee; Yang, Jenny; Mandracchia, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Mentoring Mathematical Minds (M3) units on gains in mathematics achievement and English proficiency of mathematically promising English language learners (MPELLs) in the third grade. The M3 program, developed by Gavin et al., was implemented for 1 year with treatment MPELLs (n = 86) but not…

  12. Teachers' Code-Switching in Classroom Instructions for Low English Proficient Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    Due to the alarming signals of declining proficiency level among English Language learners in Malaysia, this study set out to learn more about the learners' perceptions of the teachers' code-switching in English Language classrooms. The objectives of this study were to investigate: a) learners' perceptions of teachers' code-switching, b) the…

  13. The Complex Relationship between Bilingual Home Language Input and Kindergarten Children's Spanish and English Oral Proficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…

  14. The Correlation between Learner Autonomy and English Proficiency of Indonesian EFL College Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myartawan, I. Putu Ngurah Wage; Latief, Mohammad Adnan; Suharmanto

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between learner autonomy psychologically defined in the study as a composite of behavioral intentions to do autonomous learning and self-efficacy in relation to autonomous learning, and English proficiency. The sample comprised 120 first semester English-majored students of a state university…

  15. English Proficiency and Competency Background of Social Science and Humanities Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Kutschera, P. C.; Capili, Claire Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on the background of Social Science and Humanities students (specifically in the course General Psychology) on their English education and competence. This research aims to identify the common factors of these students in terms of their English Proficiency. The students will answer survey questions that will give us information…

  16. Young Children's Oral Language Proficiency and Reading Ability in Spanish and English. CLEAR Technical Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M.; And Others

    Seventy-one subjects (22 English monolinguals, 23 Spanish monolinguals, and one bilingual group comprised of 19 Spanish-dominant and 7 English-dominant bilinguals) were assessed by means of the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery and the Woodcock-Johnson Language Proficiency Battery at the beginning of kindergarten and first grade. These…

  17. Students' Perceived Level of English Proficiency in Secondary Schools in Dodoma, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku; Role, Elizabeth; Tuguta, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This paper looked at students' perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky's theory of…

  18. Workplace Literacy: Developing and Implementing an ESL Curriculum for Limited English Proficient Poultry Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Shirley B.

    The report describes the development and implementation of an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program for limited-English-proficient employees of the poultry industry. The program, undertaken at James Madison University (Virginia), was funded initially in 1991 by the federal government and has continued with funding from two poultry companies.…

  19. Recommending a minimum English proficiency standard for entry-level nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Thomas R; Marks, Casey; Wendt, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220.

  20. The Use of Audio Prompting to Assist Mothers with Limited English Proficiency in Tutoring Their Pre-Kindergarten Children on English Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy L.; Mackiewicz, Sara Moore; Wood, Charles L.; Helf, Shawnna

    2009-01-01

    Parents with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) may find it difficult to become involved in their children's education due to their lack of English proficiency. The present study examined the effects of using audio prompting to assist mothers with LEP in teaching their preschool children English vocabulary. Mothers were trained to tutor their…

  1. Linguistically Directed Attention to the Temporal Aspect of Action Events in Monolingual English Speakers and Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers with Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Su, Jui-Ju; Lee, Chao-Yang; O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese and English speakers seem to hold different conceptions of time which may be related to the different codings of time in the two languages. Employing a sentence-picture matching task, we have investigated this linguistic relativity in Chinese-English bilinguals varying in English proficiency and found that those with high proficiency…

  2. The Relationship between English Proficiency and Content Knowledge for English Language Learner Students in Grades 10 and 11 in Utah. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes a study that examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content…

  3. The Relationship between English Proficiency and Content Knowledge for English Language Learner Students in Grades 10 and 11 in Utah. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content assessments. Two research questions…

  4. Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary A.

    This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.

  5. Improving Students' English Speaking Proficiency in Saudi Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Heba Awadh

    2015-01-01

    In English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students' limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues…

  6. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…

  7. The Relationship between English Language Proficiency, Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of Non-Native-English-Speaking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…

  8. Assessment of Young English Language Learners in Arizona: Questioning the Validity of the State Measure of English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the Arizona policy of utilizing a single assessment of English proficiency to determine if students should be exited from the ELL program, which is ostensibly designed to make it possible for them to succeed in the mainstream classroom without any further language support. The study examines the predictive validity of this…

  9. Parental Interactions with Latino Infants: Variation by Country of Origin and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Shannon, Jacqueline D.; West, Jerry; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study examined variation in mother-infant interactions, father engagement, and infant cognition as a function of country of origin, socioeconomic status, and English language proficiency in a national sample of Latino infants (age 9 months) born in the United States and living with both biological parents (N=1,099). Differences between…

  10. Defining English Language Proficiency for Malaysian Tertiary Education: Past, Present and Future Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Swee Heng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to define English language proficiency can never be divorced from the theories that describe the nature of language, language acquisition and human cognition. By virtue of such theories being socially constructed, the descriptions are necessarily value-laden. Thus, a definition of language proficiency can only, at best, be described as developmental, following changes that are linguistic, pragmatic, cultural and political. In defining English proficiency for tertiary education, the context is naturally also linked to the focus on university education. The argument has been that an ‘acceptable’ level of language competence of a university applicant is anything but constant. Tremendous social changes have seen traditional values of elitism in university education giving way to the ‘massification’ of education. As Kaplan and Baldauf (1997:257 affirms, “The principal problem in tertiary education is not declining literacy standards but rather it is about meeting changed societal, cultural and informational requirements and circumstances”. In the light of these changes, this paper attempts to trace influencing factors that help define an ‘acceptable’ level of English proficiency for Malaysian tertiary education. The paper examines past and present efforts of establishing an English language policy and assessment practice for tertiary education, and concludes with some views on future development that could evolve from the current indicative pursuits of establishing language learning and ability.

  11. Examining Identification and Instruction Practices for Gifted and Talented Limited English Proficient Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Andrea B.; Rakow, Steven J.

    Underrepresentation of minority students in gifted and talented (G/T) programs is a well established fact. A study examined procedures and criteria used to identify, place, and instruct gifted and talented students with limited English proficiency (GT/LEPs) in Texas, California, Colorado, Florida, Arizona, and New York public schools, to help…

  12. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Counseling Services among Chinese International Students: Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…

  13. Sentence Processing in High Proficient Kannada--English Bilinguals: A Reaction Time Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sunil Kumar; Chengappa, Shyamala K.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the semantic and syntactic processing differences between native and second languages in 20 early high proficient Kannada--English bilingual adults through accuracy and reaction time (RT) measurements. Subjects participated in a semantic judgement task (using 50 semantically correct and 50 semantically…

  14. Relating Input Factors and Dual Language Proficiency in French-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle-to-high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children's current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires…

  15. Implementing ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements in the Versant Aviation English Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moere, Alistair; Suzuki, Masanori; Downey, Ryan; Cheng, Jian

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an assessment to satisfy the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Language Proficiency Requirements. The Versant Aviation English Test utilizes speech recognition technology and a computerized testing platform, such that test administration and scoring are fully automated. Developed in…

  16. Learning Strategies and Motivation among Procrastinators of Various English Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Yoshiko; Yamada, Masanori; Matsuda, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroshi; Saito, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Our research project focuses on learning strategies and motivation among academic procrastinators in computer assisted language learning (CALL) settings. In this study, we aim to compare them according to students' levels of English proficiency. One hundred and fourteen university students participated in this research project. Sixty-four students…

  17. FEEDBACK: An Updated Look at Limited-English-Proficient Students in AISD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Sedra G.

    1991-01-01

    Information about limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) is summarized. In the 1990-91 school year, 5,047 students in the AISD were served in LEP programs at elementary schools (3,933 students), middle schools (555 students), and secondary schools (559 students). Most were Spanish…

  18. Estimation of the Number of Children with Limited English Proficiency: A Review of Analytic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Samuel S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two major analytic procedures for estimating the number of children with limited English proficiency (discriminant analysis and probabilistic procedures) are described and strengths and weaknesses discussed. Synthetic cohort analysis (an expanded version of the probabilistic approach) is described and recommended as an alternate procedure for…

  19. The Effects of Video SCMC on English Proficiency, Speaking Performance and Willingness to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Atsushi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a case course with videoconferencing as a way of Synchronous Computer Mediated Communication (SCMC) for foreign language education in Japan. Research questions were to see the effects of videoconferencing on the learners' speaking ability and general English language proficiency, and also to see how the learners'…

  20. Oral English Language Proficiency and Reading Mastery: The Role of Home Language and School Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of 21,409 participants of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort focused on home and school factors sought to understand the level of reading mastery that children experienced throughout elementary school and Grade 8 by relating home language use, timing of oral English language proficiency, and the provision of…

  1. Connecting the Dots: Limited English Proficiency, Second Language Learning Theories, and Information Literacy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteh-Morgan, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of barriers to effective learning when librarians teach students with limited English proficiency focuses on second language acquisition theories and teaching practices derived from them which can significantly impact outcomes of information literacy instruction. Includes a checklist for course preparation and instruction. (Author/LRW)

  2. Critical Literacy Practices in the EFL Context and the English Language Proficiency: Further Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Mei-yun

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a follow-up study that explored the relationship between EFL learners' critical literacy practices and the English language proficiency. It investigated four focal EFL learners' critical literacy practices in their dialogic interaction and also analyzed 39 students' views on their critical literacy learning. The four focal…

  3. Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Risk among Students with Limited English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Dever, Bridget V.; DiStefano, Christine; Chin, Jenna K.

    2011-01-01

    Students with limited English proficiency (LEP) make up one of the fastest growing segments of the student population; however, LEP status is often related to poor academic and behavioral outcomes. Teacher-reported behavioral rating scales can be informative measurements to screen and identify students at risk for behavioral and emotional…

  4. Federal Civil Rights Policy and Mental Health Treatment Access for Persons with Limited English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Masland, Mary; Guerrero, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    As noted in the supplement to the U.S. Surgeon General's report on mental health (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), overcoming language access barriers associated with limited English proficiency (LEP) should help to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care access and quality. Federal policy requires…

  5. Best Practices: Engaging Limited English Proficient Students and Families. A Teaching Tolerance Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by two decades of historic immigration, American demographics are changing. Many school districts are often ill prepared to meet the needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students and families. This Teaching Tolerance booklet points administrators to best practices in the effort to create a supportive learning environment for all…

  6. An Investigation of the Perceptions of Students' Proficiency in Reading and Writing as Indicated by Twelfth Grade English Teachers and College English Composition Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnet, Lara King

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in perceptions regarding students' proficiency in reading and writing skills between 12th grade English teachers and college English Composition instructors. A purposive, nonrandom sample of 12th grade English teachers and college English Composition instructors from West Tennessee were…

  7. Predictors of Latino English Learners' Reading Comprehension Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasparil, Theresa A.; Hernandez, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Poor literacy achievement among English learners has contributed significantly to their high dropout rates, poor job prospects, and high poverty rates. The National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth has suggested that English learners benefit from the same direct, systematic instruction in the five essential components of…

  8. The influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners / Rhelda Krügel

    OpenAIRE

    Krügel, Rhelda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners. The words: English teachers in this study refer to teachers teaching English as subject learning area but who are not native speakers of English. The word learners refer to English second language learners. Although the literature review highlights the specific features of each of the language skills namely l...

  9. Effectiveness of Using English Captioned Videos on Listening Comprehension Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Shinji

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using English captioned videos on listening comprehension of EFL university students. Recently English captioned videos have been available and used in EFL classrooms in Japan, but only a few studies have so far been made at clarifying their long-term effects. This paper points out the advantages of using English captioned videos and summarizes previous studies conducted on the effects of using them. Next, a data-based and long-term...

  10. The relationship between English language learning strategies and proficiency of pre-university students: A study case of UMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam

    2014-07-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.

  11. Developing an ICAO Criteria Aviation English Proficiency Test for CAAC Pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Since the ICAO new aviation language requirement comes into being in 2003, several tester organizations try to develop tests for pilots. Recently CAAC has tried to develop ICAO criteria Aviation English Proficiency Test for Pilots. But, does Chinese pilots' language proficiency satisfy the ICAO requirements? How to test a pilot's language ability? How to develop ICAO standard test? To explore the keys to these questions, the paper has applied the theoretical framework in development of the test, in construction of the tests and in scoring.

  12. The anxiety-proficiency relationship and the stability of anxiety: The case of Chinese university learners of English and Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinxing Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a longitudinal design, this study investigates the effects of foreign language anxiety on foreign language proficiency over time within English and Japanese learning contexts. It also explores the stability of anxiety in English and Japanese over time and the stability of anxiety across English and Japanese. Chinese university students (N=146, who were simultaneously learning Japanese and English, participated in this study. Data were collected twice over a 2-month interval, using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale, the English Proficiency Scale, and the Japanese Proficiency Scale. Results showed that anxiety changes had a significantly negative, but weak, correlation with the development of overall proficiency and the proficiency in sub- skills such as reading or speaking, for both English and Japanese, suggesting the interference of anxiety with proficiency levels. Anxiety in Japanese tended to decrease significantly over time, but no significant change was found for English. Furthermore, no significant difference between anxiety in Japanese and English was found at either testing time.

  13. A Study on the Relationship between University Students' Chinese Writing Proficiency and Their English Writing Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Liang, Xueying; Dracopoulos, Effie

    2011-01-01

    Up to now, most researchers have been paying attention to the negative transfer of mother tongue to second language writing. Few studies, if any, have touched upon the positive transfer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the positive transfer of Chinese to 26 first-year university students' English writing holistically and…

  14. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of Newly Arrived Children from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing Chan, Yu; Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    The research reported here investigated pre-service English language teachers' perceptions of newly arrived immigrant children from Mainland China in Hong Kong. Seventeen participants, who had at least 10 weeks of experience working with these immigrant children during teaching practicum, participated in focus group discussions and shared their…

  15. Reading without Words: Using the Arrival to Teach Visual Literacy with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights the use of Shaun Tan's "The Arrival" to teach literacy to English Language Learners in social studies classrooms. The featured text is a book that displays the complexity of migration within a text that does not feature a single written word. The author describes a variety of mini-lessons geared towards…

  16. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of Newly Arrived Children from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing Chan, Yu; Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    The research reported here investigated pre-service English language teachers' perceptions of newly arrived immigrant children from Mainland China in Hong Kong. Seventeen participants, who had at least 10 weeks of experience working with these immigrant children during teaching practicum, participated in focus group discussions and shared…

  17. Program Evaluation of the English Language Proficiency Program for Foreign Students a Case Study: University of the East, Manila Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Esmaeel Ali; Farsi, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This study on evaluating an English program of studies for foreign students seeking admission to the UE Graduate School attempts to examine the prevailing conditions of foreign students in the UE Graduate School with respect to their competence and competitiveness in English proficiency. It looks into the existing English programs of studies in…

  18. The Acquisition of Multiple "Wh"-Questions by High-Proficiency Non-Native Speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley-Vroman, Robert; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the knowledge of multiple wh-questions such as "Who ate what?" by high-proficiency Japanese speakers of English. Acceptability judgments were obtained on six different types of questions. Acceptability of English examples was rated by native speakers of English, Japanese examples were judged by native speakers of Japanese,…

  19. Recommending a minimum English proficiency standard for entry-level nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Thomas R; Tannenbaum, Richard J; Tiffen, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    When nurses who are educated internationally immigrate to the United States, they are expected to have English language proficiency in order to function as a competent nurse. The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures, the Simulated Minimally Competent Candidate (SMCC) procedure and the Examinee Paper Selection Method, were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220. Because the adoption of this standard rests entirely with the individual state, NCSBN has little more to do with implementing the standard, other than answering questions and providing documentation about the standard.

  20. Toward an English Proficiency Test for Postgraduates in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidatul Akmar Zainal Abidin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is fast becoming a major attraction for candidates from all over the world to pursue their higher education. Currently students (local and international who pursue postgraduate (hereafter, PG education in Malaysia use the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL or International English Language Testing System (IELTS scores as indicators of their English ability. These are tests from the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively, tailor-made for university education in those countries. Recent literature in testing and evaluation describes the need for more localized tests, developed for the “local” context of a particular country. Thus, the need for a test that could be utilized and customized to the needs of the students studying in Malaysia is foreseeable. This is in line with the concept of test localization. It stipulates that for a test to be valid, its design and development must take into consideration the population, context, and the domain in which the test is used. A project was undertaken where a new English test named Graduate Admission Test of English (GATE was developed for PG admission into universities in Malaysia. This article describes the process of developing a new test that measures English language competency of PG students who intend to pursue their studies in Malaysia. It includes the use of a test specification/blueprint that contains validity elements adopted from a test validation framework developed by Weir. The article emphasizes the rigor of developing such a test, which includes aspects of test development, operation, analysis, and validation.

  1. A Classroom Research Project: The Psychological Effects of Standardized Testing on Young English Language Learners at Different Language Proficiency Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Anna Markopoulos

    This study investigates whether the growing use of standardized testing methods may impact learners differently across language proficiency levels. Survey and language proficiency data from 22 second grade native (African American) and non-native (Hispanic and Vietnamese) English speakers were analyzed to examine whether worry, or test anxiety,…

  2. How Is No Child Left Behind Affecting Proficient and Advanced Students on the California STAR Test in English Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students who enter high school in ninth grade and score proficient or advanced on their CST in English Language Arts remain proficient or advanced 2 years later in 11th grade. The effects of NCLB will be considered as a contributing factor to the difference in student scores. This study was…

  3. Analyzing Teachers' Perceptions of Identification Procedures for Gifted and Talented Hispanic Limited English Proficient Students At-Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Andrea B.; Rakow, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine teachers' level of awareness of the cultural and linguistic behaviors of gifted and talented Hispanic limited-English-proficient students that could mask a student's giftedness and result in inappropriate identification. (Author/VWL)

  4. The Relationship Between English Language Proficiency And Academic Performance of University Students – Should Academic Institutions Really be Concerned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ghenghesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate if there is a relationship between English language proficiency and the overall academic performance of Preparatory Year students in three faculties: Engineering, Business (including Business Administration, Economics and Political Science and Informatics and Computer Science. Data was obtained from the Student Record System of 566 students and three sets of statistical analysis were performed. The results indicated that there is a significant but moderate positive relation between the students’ proficiency in English and their overall academic success. Specifically, the higher the English proficiency of students on entry to the university, the better they performed in their degree area courses as well as in their English levels.Keywords: proficiency; performance; language; instruction; competence

  5. English Proficiency and Academic Performance of International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) scores, grade point averages, graduate credits earned, and academic majors of 376 international graduate students indicate that TOEFL scores are not effective predictors of academic success. Significant correlation was seen between TOEFL scores and graduate credits earned. (Author/CB)

  6. Descriptive analysis of the performance of two English proficiency groups on inferential and literal questions

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tamaoka, Katsuo

    1992-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between English language proficiency (including reading comprehension) and inferential ability. Inferential ability was measured by the Inferential Ability Test which consisted of two types of questions. One type involved literal questions which required only a surface level understanding of texts. The other type, inferential questions, demanded a deeper level understanding of the texts. The subjects were divided into two groups (15 each of skil...

  7. STRATEGIES OF LEARNING SPEAKING SKILL BY INDONESIAN LEARNERS OF ENGLISH AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO SPEAKING PROFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    JUNAIDI MISTAR; ATIK UMAMAH

    2014-01-01

    This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the at- tempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners’ speaking proficiency. The data from 595 second year senior high school students from eleven schools in East Java, Indonesia were collected using a 7...

  8. A Study on Meta-cognitive Learning Strategies and English Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙力华

    2011-01-01

    Meta-cognitive learning strategies play an important role in enhancing learner autonomy and improving English proficiency.Based on a questionnaire,a study was conducted on meta-cognitive learning strategies employed by 60 students of non-English major coming from Beijing Information Science and Technology University and the study results reveal that the high-achieving students apply meta-cognitive learning strategies to their learning more frequently than the lower-scoring ones and meta-cognitive learning s...

  9. English language proficiency and employment: A case study of Bangladeshi graduates in Australian employment market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raqib Chowdhury

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature has suggested that the relationship between globalisation and the English language implicates employability in the job market. Although the effects are uneven in different occupational groups and in different countries, such relationship is growing in significance to policy makers. This paper has explored the hitherto unstudied relationship between English language proficiency and employment and the success of Bangladeshi graduates in Australia to establish how English language skills influence the employment mechanism in the Australian job market for graduates from a non-English speaking South East Asian country. The study was carried out following an interpretive approach as its overall aim was to understand the role of English language skills of university graduates in determining their employment opportunities and career prospects in Australia. It was found that in various ways one’s English language skills influence prospects of employment, especially in contributing to the possibility of “secure” and “better” jobs. The research findings may inform educational policy planners, teacher educators, employers and career advisers to optimise English language learning programs that support increased employability through English.

  10. English Proficiency Tests and Communication Skills Training for Overseas-Qualified Health Professionals in Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This commentary reviews recent literature on a number of problematic issues arising from the use of English proficiency tests by registration bodies as the sole assessment of the professional communication skills of overseas qualified health professionals from non-English-speaking backgrounds. It discusses differences between the assessment…

  11. The anxiety-proficiency relationship and the stability of anxiety : The case of Chinese university learners of English and Japanese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a longitudinal design, this study investigates the effects of foreign language anxiety on foreign language proficiency over time within English and Japanese learning contexts. It also explores the stability of anxiety in English and Japanese over time and the stability of anxiety across Eng

  12. An Exploration of the Relationship between Vietnamese Students' Knowledge of L1 Grammar and Their English Grammar Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tammie M.

    2010-01-01

    The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…

  13. A Survey on the Correlation between College English Majors’Listening Strategies Use and Listening Autonomy Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范莉

    2013-01-01

      This study explored the correlation between listening strategies use and listening autonomy proficiency, and aimed to find the listening strategies that can predict a higher listening autonomous achievement. 133 English majors of Yangtze University, College of Arts and Science participated in this survey. The general situation of English majors’using of listening strategies and the correlation between different listening strategies and listening autonomy proficiency were analyzed. Based on the findings, some pedagogical implications were proposed to professional English listening teaching in higher education.

  14. Issues in Assessing English Language Learners: English Language Proficiency Measures and Accommodation Uses. Literature Review (Part 1 of 3). CRESST Report 731

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny; Herman, Joan; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison; Bachman, Patina L.; Farnsworth, Tim; Chang, Sandy M.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has made a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency (ELP), as well as content knowledge and skills. Although states have…

  15. Recommendations for Assessing English Language Learners: English Language Proficiency Measures and Accommodation Uses. Recommendations Report (Part 3 of 3). CRESST Report 737

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Herman, Joan L.; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison L.; Griffin, Noelle

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, 2002) has had a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency, as well as content knowledge and skills. While states…

  16. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was correct. Sentences were classified into literal translation sentences with the similar structure between the two languages and free translation sentences with the different structure. Behavioral data showed: shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates occurred in the high-proficient group than those in the intermediate-proficient group; shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates were observed in literal translation sentences than those in free translation sentences. ERP results showed literal translation sentences elicited an enhanced P200 and P600 while free translation sentences elicited a larger N400. The high-proficient group showed a larger P600 in syntactic violations and double violations while the intermediate-proficient group evoked an enhanced N400 in semantic violations and double violations. Literal translation sentences caused a larger P200 while free translation sentences elicited more negative-going N400. Behavioral and ERP data revealed the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on L2 sentence processing, and L2 proficiency played a predominate role.

  17. STRATEGIES OF LEARNING SPEAKING SKILL BY INDONESIAN LEARNERS OF ENGLISH AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO SPEAKING PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUNAIDI MISTAR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the at- tempts to reveal: (1 the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2 the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners’ speaking proficiency. The data from 595 second year senior high school students from eleven schools in East Java, Indonesia were collected using a 70 item questionnaire of Oral Communication Learning Strategy (OCLS and a 10 item self-assessment of speaking proficiency. The statistical analysis revealed that gender provided significant effects on the intensity of use of six types of strategies of learning speaking skill – interactional-maintenance, self-evaluation, fluency-oriented, time gaining, compensation, and interpersonal strategies – with female learners reporting higher intensity of use. A further analysis found that four strategy types – interactional-maintenance, self-improvement, compensation, and memory strategies – greatly contribute to the speaking proficiency. These findings imply that strategies-based instruction, covering the four most influential strategies, needs to be integrated explicitly in the speaking class to help learners, particularly male learners, cope with problems in learning speaking skill.

  18. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  19. Communication Strategies Used by Pre-Service English Teachers of Different Proficiency Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Yicely Castro Garcés

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a research study carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English program of study at a Colombian university. It aims at identifying the communication strategies used by four pre-service English teachers with A2 and B2 levels of language proficiency and, also, at examining how these communication strategies facilitate or hinder the development of communicative skills. Data collection instruments included audio recordings of three tasks: (1 open-ended questionnaire, (2 sentence translation, and (3 picture description. The participants’ speech was transcribed and categorized allowing us to identify and examine the role played by communication strategies which varied depending on the choice the participants made of using either avoidance or compensatory strategies.

  20. Impact of Bilingual Education Programs on Limited English Proficient Students and Their Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Chin, Aimee; Imberman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district provides...... bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using this discontinuity as an instrument for district bilingual education provision, we find that providing bilingual education programs (relative to providing only English as a Second Language programs) does not significantly impact the standardized test...... scores of students with Spanish as their home language (comprised primarily of ever-LEP students). However, we find significant positive impacts on non-LEP students’ achievement, which indicates that education programs for LEP students have spillover effects to non-LEP students....

  1. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471

  2. Empirical Studies on Correlations between Lexical Knowledge and English Proficiency of Chinese EFL Learners in Mainland China over the Past Two Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yao; Dai, Zhongxin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of English vocabulary contributes to the learner's proficiency of English as a foreign language, but how the learner's lexical knowledge behaves in the contribution. Researchers in mainland China have conducted studies of various kinds in order to find out how the learner's lexical knowledge correlates with his proficiency. This article…

  3. The efficacy of a behavioral activation intervention among depressed US Latinos with limited English language proficiency: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Collado, Anahi; Long, Katherine E; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is highly prevalent among Latinos with limited English language proficiency in the United States. Although major depressive disorder is highly treatable, barriers to depression treatment have historically prevented Latinos with limited English language proficiency from accessing effective interventions. The project seeks to evaluate the efficacy of behavioral activation treatment for depression, an empirically supported treatment for depression, as an inte...

  4. The Role of Health Literacy in Predicting Multiple Healthcare Outcomes Among Hispanics in a Nationally Representative Sample: A Comparative Analysis by English Proficiency Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Madhurima; Asti, Lindsey; Nacion, Kristine M; Chisolm, Deena J

    2016-06-01

    Health literacy (HL) research among Hispanics currently focuses on individuals with limited English proficiency but impacts of HL on healthcare outcomes among other English language proficiency groups is relatively unknown. Regression models assessed associations between HL and healthcare outcomes for Hispanics overall (n = 4013) and for proficiency level sub-populations using the 2007 Pew Hispanic Health Survey. Overall, Hispanics with adequate HL percieved US medical care as "excellent," were more satisfied with their doctor's help, and reported "excellent" overall health. In the sub-population analysis, "excellent" perception of US healthcare was associated with HL among the Spanish and English dominant groups. Among bilinguals, adequate HL was associated with decreased use of traditional medicine. The effect of adequate HL varied within English proficiency groups. HL research that focuses only on Spanish dominant speakers can exclude a substantial percentage of English proficient or bilingual populations who have low HL.

  5. The effects of L2 proficiency level on the processing of wh-questions among Dutch second language speakers of English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, C.N.; Hell, J.G. van

    2011-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch–English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line rea

  6. The Effects of L2 Proficiency Level on the Processing of "Wh"-Questions among Dutch Second Language Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2011-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English "wh"-subject-extractions and "wh"-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject-versus…

  7. Metacognitive awareness of reading strategies of University of Botswana English as Second Language students of different academic reading proficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Magogwe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored metacognitive awareness level of University of Botswana students in the Faculty of Social Sciences. It also considered the more recent research focusing on the role of metacognitive awareness in reading and how it relates to proficiency. The following questions are addressed: (1 What are the self-reported reading proficiencies of the University of Botswana students? (2 Are the University of Botswana students aware of their metacognitive reading strategies? (3 What kind of metacognitive reading strategies are frequently used? (4 Is there a difference in metacognitive awareness of reading strategies used by high- and low-proficiency students respectively? The Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS developed by Mokhtari and Sheorey (2002, and the semi-structured interview technique were used to collect data for this study. The findings indicate that University of Botswana English as Second Language (ESL students reported high reading proficiency and high use of metacognitive strategies, but there was no vast difference in terms of proficiency. Students who reported their proficiency as high had an edge over low-proficiency ones mainly because their management and monitoring of reading was guided more by the goals they have set themselves than by the tests and assignments they were supposed to write.

  8. The Effects of the Extended Foreign Language Programs on Spanish-Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Abella, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of a two-way immersion bilingual program on maintenance/acquisition of Spanish-language proficiency and on reading and mathematics achievement in English over a period of 4 academic years. The researchers used Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) techniques to compare the effects of two different…

  9. Impact of Bilingual Education Programs on Limited English Proficient Students and Their Peers : Regression Discontinuity Evidence from Texas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, A.; Meltem Daysal, N.; Imberman, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district offer

  10. How Are Spoken Skills Assessed in Proficiency Tests of General English as a Foreign Language? A Preliminary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Varela, Mª Luisa; Palacios, Ignacio M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines some of the best known proficiency tests in English, with particular focus on the oral component. Attention is paid to the following issues, among others: the weighting of oral elements in testing, the criteria used for the assessment of oral skills and the relation of these to the general guidelines in the "Common…

  11. The Effect of Dual-Language and Transitional-Bilingual Education Instructional Models on Spanish Proficiency for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Audrey Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    The effects of "transitional-bilingual" and "dual-language" educational models on proficiency in students' home language (Spanish) were examined in a study of English language learners in the first and second grades in a large urban elementary school. In each grade, students were taught with either a transitional-bilingual…

  12. The Role of Attachment, Travel Experiences and English Proficiency in International Students' Acculturative Stress and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanic, Iskra

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attachment, travel experiences, and English proficiency and international students' acculturative stress and depressive symptoms. A total of 91 graduate international students completed online surveys. Pearson correlations showed that both attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively correlated with…

  13. The Effect of Sociolinguistic Factors and English Language Proficiency on the Development of French as a Third Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2014-01-01

    The classroom demographics in French immersion (FI) programs across Canada are changing: There are a growing number of multilingual students who are learning English as a second language (L2) and French as a third language (L3). However, little is known about the development of French language proficiency and reading skills of multilingual…

  14. Language Proficiency and Early Literacy Skills of Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the language proficiency and early literacy skills of Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in kindergarten. A total of 113 Cantonese-speaking kindergarteners in Canada and the United States, composed of three subsamples from three different locations participated in this study. Results showed that on average,…

  15. Population Estimates of School Age Language Minorities and Limited English Proficiency Children of the United States, 1979-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Jorge

    Estimates of the school-age, 5-17-year-old, language minority and Limited-English-Proficient (LEP) populations in the United States are discussed. The estimates are based on the population counts for first, second, and third generation Hispanics, Anglos, Asians, and Blacks derived from the June 1988 Current Population Survey. The language minority…

  16. The Effects of English Language Proficiency and Curricular Pathways: Latina/os' Mathematics Achievement in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda, Eduardo; Maldonado, Saul I.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes nationally-representative quantitative data from the first (2002) and second (2004) waves of the Educational Longitudinal Study to examine the relationship between Latina/o secondary school students' degree of English-language proficiency (ELP), mathematics course-taking measures, and 12th grade mathematics achievement.…

  17. Identifying Affirmative Beliefs about English Language Learning: Self-Perceptions of Thai Learners with Different Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuntiga; Rajprasit, Krich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretically, beliefs about English language learning have a psychological factor, such as predicting the rate of success or failure among learners in the classroom context. However, learners with different levels of language proficiency may perceive such beliefs in a different way, which may lead to the development of special needs, in terms of…

  18. Exploring Domain-General and Domain-Specific Linguistic Knowledge in the Assessment of Academic English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romhild, Anja; Kenyon, Dorry; MacGregor, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of domain-general and domain-specific linguistic knowledge in the assessment of academic English language proficiency using a latent variable modeling approach. The goal of the study was to examine if modeling of domain-specific variance results in improved model fit and well-defined latent factors. Analyses were…

  19. Secondary Engineering Design Graphics Educator Service Load of Students with Identified Categorical Disabilities and Limited English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Li, Songze; Williams, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    The ever-changing student population of engineering design graphics students necessitates broader sets of instructor adeptness. Specifically, preparedness to educate and provide adequate educational access to content for students with identified categorical disabilities and Limited English Proficiency (LEP) is now an essential readiness skill for…

  20. Accent, Perpetual Foreigner Stereotype, and Perceived Discrimination as Indirect Links between English Proficiency and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Deng, Shiying; Alvarez, Rocio; Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The current study uses Garcia Coll et al.'s (1996) developmental competence model of ethnic minority children and Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory as frameworks for investigating the mechanisms whereby early adolescent English proficiency relates to perceived discriminatory experiences and adolescent depressive symptoms. Data from 444…

  1. Translation Recognition in Highly Proficient Hindi-English Bilinguals: The Influence of Different Scripts but Connectable Phonologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderman, Gretchen L.; Priya, Kanu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the phonological nature of the lexical links in the bilingual lexicon using different-script bilinguals. Highly proficient Hindi-English bilinguals performed a translation recognition task (i.e., decide whether two words presented sequentially are a correct translation pair). For the critical trials, the second word was a…

  2. An investigation into the language needs of pre-service teachers of English for the language proficiency assessment for teachers (English) in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the language needs of pre-service teachers of English for the Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (English) (LPATE)). More specifically, the study aims to identify 1) the language needs of pre-service teachers in terms of language difficulty(s) and 2) how different demographic backgrounds of these teachers (e.g. a major in an English language-related subject/ education and the length of stay in an English-speaking country) may affect their perceived areas of langu...

  3. A Case for Improved Reading Instruction for Academic English Reading Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Ole Hellekjær

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the academic reading proficiency in English of 217 senior level Norwegian upper secondary school students who upon graduation are considered qualified for higher education. Testing with an International English Language Testing System (IELTS Academic Reading Module revealed that two thirds of the 178 respondents with ordinary EFL courses did not achieve the equivalent of the IELTS Band 6 score minimum that is usually required for admission to British and Australian universities. In comparison, two thirds of a sample of 39 respondents with a single, sheltered Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL subject achieved a Band 6 score or better. Closer analysis indicates that the poor test scores can be attributed to weaknesses in current English as a Foreign Language (EFL instruction where reading is neglected, where students do not learn to adjust how they read to reading purpose, and where they do not learn how to handle unfamiliar words to avoid disrupting the reading process. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve EFL instruction, in Norway and elsewhere.

  4. Constraints of measuring language proficiency in Estonia: The national examination in the English language

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    Suliko Liiv

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The current article gives an overview of the development and problems related to the advancement of the national examination in English in Estonia over a ten-year period, starting from its launch in 1997. The process started in 1994, after Estonia regained its independence, and proceeded from the need to standardise both foreign language instruction and evaluation. The national examination gave the Ministry of Education, schools, teachers and students an opportunity to adequately assess language proficiency, as well as compare students and schools. On the other hand, universities and businesses obtained a tool to make admission/recruitment decisions. The article discusses the principles of the national examination construction, its specification, structural alterations over time, the task types implemented to measure particular language skills, marking procedures, exam results and exam evaluation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa5.02

  5. Second language proficiency modulates conflict-monitoring in an oculomotor Stroop task: evidence from Hindi-English bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika eSingh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement towards the colour patch in the same colour as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals.

  6. Second language proficiency modulates conflict-monitoring in an oculomotor Stroop task: evidence from Hindi-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement toward the color patch in the same color as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals.

  7. How should we prepare rehabilitation sciences students to work with low English-proficient Spanish-speaking patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Connie; Gonzalez, Eugenia; Pechak, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Misinterpretations or lack of compliance with national standards established to guide health professionals working with low-English-proficient (LEP) patients continue to negatively impact patient care. Most of the literature on training health professionals to work with interpreters focuses on physicians. We reviewed this current literature and propose an interprofessional educational module to extend the interpreter training to other health professions. Our module trains rehabilitation science students from different health disciplines (physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology) using strategies from the literature. The educational module is tailored to student's bilingual proficiency, suggests relevant outcomes measures, and highlights unanswered questions and areas for future research.

  8. The effect of in-service English education on medical professionals′ language proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Sajjadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite its inevitable significance, the effect of in-service English education on medical professionals has rarely been studied longitudinally. The reason can be issues such as physicians′ heavy workload, commuting problems, inappropriate class times, and inexperienced teaching staff. Materials and Methods: A needs assessment worksheet was administered to faculty members of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran and the responses were analyzed. A project for the promotion of faculty members′ English proficiency was formulated. Then, following a placement test, 235 applicants from the university colleges and hospitals were classified into 28 homogeneous groups. After four terms of instruction, the participants′ scores on the pre- and post- assessments were analyzed. Results: There was significant improvement in participants′ total scores on different communicative skills (P<0.001. Regarding individual skills also, they achieved meaningful gains on listening (P<0.001, writing (P = 0.038, and grammar (P<0.001, but failed to progress significantly on reading comprehension (P = 0.523. Conclusion: The administration of in-service education for skill-oriented courses, over a long period, can be quite encouraging and should be further strengthened. Regular instructions on each individual skill on the one hand and on their combination on the other are essential for success in such education.

  9. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

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    Nurhazlini Rahmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role.  MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to examine the relationship between English language proficiency test (as measured by MUET bands to predict the undergraduates academic achievement (as measured by Cumulative Grade Point Average score. It also aims to determine the recommended MUET band as an entry requirement for prospective technical programme undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM. The study was carried out among 225 final year undergraduates of five different faculties in UPM, namely Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.  The data used were obtained by administering a brief questionnaire and were quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 19.  The study revealed that there is a medium positive correlation between English language proficiency and academic achievement where students who have scored higher bands for MUET are the ones who obtained higher CGPA in their study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that UPM and other local universities make changes towards the minimum MUET entry requirement to help prospective undergraduates excel in their academic study. Keywords: English language proficiency, academic achievement, technical programme, MUET, CGPA

  10. Variations on the bilingual advantage? Links of Chinese and English proficiency to Chinese American children’s self-regulation

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    Stephen H Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined whether bilingualism-related advantages in self-regulation could be observed: a among Chinese American immigrant children with varying levels of Chinese and English proficiencies, and b across different domains of self-regulation in laboratory, home, and classroom contexts. A socioeconomically diverse sample of first- and second-generation Chinese American immigrant children between ages 7 and 10 (n = 223 was administered assessments of Chinese and English language proficiencies and a multi-method, multi-informant battery of self-regulation measures. Multiple regression analyses suggested that controlling for covariates (child age, gender, and SES, children’s bilingualism-related advantages were limited to higher performance only on computerized tasks of cognitive flexibility, and only among children with higher degrees of fluency in both Chinese and English. By contrast, proficiencies in one language (either Chinese or English were uniquely and positively associated with other domains of self-regulation, including parent and teacher-reported effortful control. These results suggest that the bilingual advantage for self-regulation may be observed as a continuous variable among immigrant children with varying levels of bilingual fluency; however, this advantage may not extend across all domains and contexts of self-regulation.

  11. Survey of US Veterinary Students on Communicating with Limited English Proficient Spanish-Speaking Pet Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary schools and colleges generally include communication skills training in their professional curriculum, but few programs address challenges resulting from language gaps between pet owners and practitioners. Due to shifting US demographics, small animal veterinary practices must accommodate an increasing number of limited English proficient (LEP) Spanish-speaking pet owners (SSPOs). A national survey was conducted to assess the interest and preparedness of US veterinary students to communicate with LEP SSPOs when they graduate. This online survey, with more than 2,000 first-, second-, and third-year US veterinary students, revealed that over 50% of students had worked at a practice or shelter that had LEP Spanish-speaking clients. Yet fewer than 20% of these students described themselves as prepared to give medical information to an LEP SSPO. Over three-fourths of respondents agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for veterinarians in general, and two-thirds agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for themselves personally. Ninety percent of students who described themselves as conversant in Spanish agreed that they would be able to communicate socially with SSPOs, while only 55% said they would be able to communicate medically with such clients. Overall, two-thirds of students expressed interest in taking Spanish for Veterinary Professionals elective course while in school, with the strongest interest expressed by those with advanced proficiency in spoken Spanish. Bridging language gaps has the potential to improve communication with LEP SSPOs in the veterinary clinical setting and to improve patient care, client satisfaction, and the economic health of the veterinary profession.

  12. The relationship of language acculturation (English proficiency) to current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min

    2013-06-01

    Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.

  13. Spanish researchers’ perceived difficulty writing research articles for English-medium journals: the impact of proficiency in English versus publication experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Moreno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs for publication in English (as L2 is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794 Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2. This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2 does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2 for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP research and pedagogy are discussed.

  14. Identifying and preventing medical errors in patients with limited English proficiency: key findings and tools for the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Melanie; Renfrew, Megan R; Green, Alexander R; Lopez, Lenny; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; Brach, Cindy; Betancourt, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report To Err is Human, progress has been made in patient safety, but few efforts have focused on safety in patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). This article describes the development, content, and testing of two new evidence-based Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) tools for LEP patient safety. In the content development phase, a comprehensive mixed-methods approach was used to identify common causes of errors for LEP patients, high-risk scenarios, and evidence-based strategies to address them. Based on our findings, Improving Patient Safety Systems for Limited English Proficient Patients: A Guide for Hospitals contains recommendations to improve detection and prevention of medical errors across diverse populations, and TeamSTEPPS Enhancing Safety for Patients with Limited English Proficiency Module trains staff to improve safety through team communication and incorporating interpreters in the care process. The Hospital Guide was validated with leaders in quality and safety at diverse hospitals, and the TeamSTEPPS LEP module was field-tested in varied settings within three hospitals. Both tools were found to be implementable, acceptable to their audiences, and conducive to learning. Further research on the impact of the combined use of the guide and module would shed light on their value as a multifaceted intervention.

  15. Using Complementary Learning Clusters in Studying Literature to Enhance Students' Medical Humanities Literacy, Critical Thinking, and English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether students studying literature in complementary learning clusters would show more improvement in medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency compared to those in conventional learning clusters. Ninety-three students participated in the study (M age = 18.2 years, SD = 0.4; 36 men, 57 women). A quasi-experimental design was used over 16 weeks, with the control group (n = 47) working in conventional learning clusters and the experimental group (n = 46) working in complementary learning clusters. Complementary learning clusters were those in which individuals had complementary strengths enabling them to learn from and offer assistance to other cluster members, hypothetically facilitating the learning process. Measures included the Medical Humanities Literacy Scale, Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment, English proficiency tests, and Analytic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. The results showed that complementary learning clusters have the potential to improve students' medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency.

  16. A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This

  17. Perspective: The case for research justice: inclusion of patients with limited English proficiency in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Seth W; Ndubuizu, Adanma; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Hamilton, Carol D; Glickman, Lawrence T; Schulman, Kevin A; Cairns, Charles B

    2011-03-01

    Persons with limited English proficiency (LEP) constitute a growing portion of the U.S. population, yet they are underrepresented in clinical research. This inherently limits the societal benefits of the research and its generalizability to ethnic populations living in the United States. To illustrate the complexity associated with including LEP participants in clinical research, the authors critically evaluated LEP consent requirements posted on the Web sites of 134 academic health centers in March 2008. They found wide variability with regard to consent policies and striking interinstitutional differences in posted IRB policies and attitudes toward consent of LEP patients in research. The authors argue this variation highlights competing concerns between autonomy and justice. Outcomes-based justice requires inclusion of LEP patients in the research, yet the consent process is often resource-intensive and complex. The authors suggest that more uniform and specific guidance from federal agencies for enrollment of LEP patients in clinical research be established and that this guidance explicitly recalibrate the current balance between autonomy and justice. Investigators and institutional review boards should also develop streamlined best practices to reduce unnecessary effort and expense associated with recruitment of LEP individuals. LEP individuals should have fair access to clinical research in order to fully realize individual and societal benefits of their participation and to ensure the generalizability of scientific discovery.

  18. Self-efficacy, foreign language anxiety as predictors of academic performance among professional program students in a general English proficiency writing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M C; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2009-10-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 120 students. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether specific groups could be described by a writing self-efficacy scale, English writing anxiety scale, and a written General English Proficiency Test. Three clusters were observed. Demographic variables were compared for each cluster, including age, sex, program of study, years of English instruction, native language, and number of English speaking acquaintances. Efforts to reduce writing anxiety and promote writing self-efficacy could enhance writing scores of participants.

  19. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  20. Setting Language Proficiency Score Requirements for English-as-a-Second-Language Placement Decisions in Secondary Education. Research Report. ETS RR-16-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patricia A.; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect recommendations for minimum score requirements (cut scores) on the "TOEFL Junior"® English language proficiency test in order to guide decisions on the placement of learners into English as a second language (ESL) support classes. The TOEFL Junior test, intended primarily for students ages 11 and…

  1. Proyecto para la participacion de los padres de los estudiantes con competencia limitada en ingles (LEP) (Limited English Proficient (LEP) Parent Involvement Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Diane; Phommasouvanh, Bounlieng

    The Limited English Proficient (LEP) Parent Involvement Project, a collaborative project between two state agencies, aims to help refugee and immigrant parents to be effective in their new American culture. Materials are provided that were developed for use in various adult education settings such as English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes,…

  2. Teaching English as an Additional Language 5-11: A Whole School Resource File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of children with little or no English entering English speaking mainstream lessons. This often leaves them with unique frustrations due to limited English language proficiency and disorientation. Teachers often feel unable to cater sufficiently for these new arrivals. "Teaching English as an Additional Language Ages…

  3. The effects of L2 proficiency level on the processing of wh-questions among Dutch second language speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject- versus object-extractions in English. However, less-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers exhibit greater processing costs on subject-extractions relative to object-extractions, similar to previously reported findings (e.g., Dussias and Piñar, forthcoming; Juffs 2005; Juffs and Harrington 1995). These findings are discussed in light of relevant research surrounding on-line processing among L2 speakers and their ability to adopt native-like processing patterns in the L2. PMID:22888175

  4. An investigation into the language needs of pre-service teachers of English for the language proficiency assessment for teachers (English in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barley Mak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the language needs of pre-service teachers of English for the Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (English (LPATE. More specifically, the study aims to identify 1 the language needs of pre-service teachers in terms of language difficulty(s and 2 how different demographic backgrounds of these teachers (e.g. a major in an English language-related subject/ education and the length of stay in an English-speaking country may affect their perceived areas of language difficulty(s in English. A total of 124 pre-service teachers who were the participants in a language enhancement course offered by a local university aiming at assisting the pre-service teachers to attain the required level in the language assessment for English participated in a questionnaire survey. This study has identified several areas of difficulty that pre-service teachers have in English language. The findings can shed lights on course design and materials development for the language enhancement courses, may they be provi ded during undergraduate or post-graduate training or continuing professional development. In so doing, teachers can then be effectively assisted to meet the standards of the language assessment.

  5. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Proficiency of English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to examine L2 learners’ VLS use habits and the relationship of VLS with their vocabulary proficiency levels. In addition, language learners’ beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness were also studied to understand L2 learners’ VLS use habits more deeply. To examine these matters, a descriptive research design was employed. The participants included 252 preparatory students from different proficiency groups (Upper-Intermediate, Intermediate, Pre-Intermediate, Beginner at Gaziantep University Higher School of Foreign Languages. To collect the related data, they were given “Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire” and “Vocabulary Levels Test”. The data analyses were conducted by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed that the participants used a wide range of VLS, and there was an overlap between their beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness and how often they used them to a large extent. Secondly, Memory Strategies correlated positively with the participants’ academic and general vocabulary proficiency levels. However, there were also some differences among the proficiency groups about which specific VLS are correlated with their vocabulary proficiency levels. As to the regression analysis results, none of the VLS predicted participants’ vocabulary proficiency levels. Keywords: Vocabulary learning strategies, vocabulary proficiency, learner beliefs

  6. Limited english proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. METHODS: We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. RESULTS: Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children

  7. Improving communication between health-care professionals and patients with limited English proficiency in the general practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Melanie; McArthur, Alexa; Riitano, Dagmara; Aromataris, Edoardo; Bollen, Chris; Pearson, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Quality service provision and patient safety and satisfaction in encounters with health-care professionals relies on effective communication between the practitioner and patient. This study aimed to identify effective practices for improving communication between clinical staff in general practice and patients with limited English proficiency, and to promote their implementation in general practice. Effective interventions and strategies were identified from a review of international research. Experiences with their use in practice were explored via focus group discussions with general practitioners and practice nurses. The results suggest that, wherever possible, communication in the patient's primary language is preferable; use of a qualified medical interpreter should be promoted, and practices should have a standardised and documented procedure for accessing interpreter services. General practice staff must increase their awareness about services that are available to facilitate communication with patients with limited English proficiency, and also develop attitudes, both individual and organisational, that will maximise the effectiveness of these strategies. These findings were used to develop brief, evidence-based practice guidelines that were disseminated to focus group participants for evaluation of utility and general feedback. This evidence-based guidance is now available to assist clinical and administrative general practice staff across regional and metropolitan South Australia.

  8. The Effect of an Intensive English Program on Malaysian Secondary School Students' Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Mahvelati, Elaheh Hamed; Nimehchisalem, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Intensive English programs are courses in which students participate in a higher number of classes in a shorter period. The available literature on intensive English courses indicates inconsistent results necessitating further research in this area. This study investigated the effect of an intensive English program on a group of Malaysian…

  9. Measuring English Language Workplace Proficiency across Subgroups: Using CFA Models to Validate Test Score Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hanwook; Manna, Venessa F.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the factor structure of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC®) Listening and Reading test, and its invariance across subgroups of test-takers. The subgroups were defined by (a) gender, (b) age, (c) employment status, (d) time spent studying English, and (e) having lived in a country where English is the…

  10. Impact of Bilingual Education Programs on Limited English Proficient Students and Their Peers: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from Texas. NBER Working Paper No. 18197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Aimee; Daysal, N. Meltem; Imberman, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district offers bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using…

  11. Does the Value of Dynamic Assessment in Predicting End-of-First-Grade Mathematics Performance Differ as a Function of English Language Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the added value of dynamic assessment (DA) beyond more conventional static measures for predicting individual differences in year-end 1st-grade calculation (CA) and word-problem (WP) performance, as a function of limited English proficiency (LEP) status. At the start of 1st grade, students (129 LEP; 163…

  12. The Effects of Paper-Based Portfolios and Weblog-Based Electronic Portfolios on Limited English Proficiency Students in Writing for Service Industry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchid, Raveewan; Charoensuk, Valaikorn

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the use of paper-based and weblog-based electronic portfolios on the writing achievement of limited English proficiency students, to survey the students' attitudes towards the use of the portfolio assessment, and to compare the viewpoints of the students in the control and experimental…

  13. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  14. Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. First Year Report on Language Minority and Limited English Proficient Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Marc; Puma, Michael

    This report presents descriptive findings from the Language Minority/Limited English Proficiency Student Supplement of "Prospects," a six-year longitudinal evaluation concerning the impact of federal Chapter 1 programs. These programs provide supplemental instruction to low-achieving elementary and secondary school students in low-income schools.…

  15. Pilot of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression in Latinos with Limited English Proficiency: Preliminary Evaluation of Efficacy and Acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Collado, Anahi; Castillo, Soraida D.; Maero, Fabian; Lejuez, C.W.; MacPherson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Latinos with limited English proficiency (LEP) experience multiple barriers to accessing efficacious mental health treatments. Using a stage model of behavioral therapies research, this Stage 1b investigation evaluated the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD), an intervention which may be well-equipped to address existing treatment barriers.

  16. Why do some countries publish more than others? An international comparison of research funding, English proficiency and publication output in highly ranked general medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jonathan P; Weinkauf, Justin G; Tsang, Monica; Sin, Don D

    2004-01-01

    National factor(s) influencing publication output in the highest ranked medical journals are largely unknown. We sought to examine the relationship between national research funding and English proficiency on publication output. We identified all original research articles appearing in the five highest ranked general medical journals between 1997 and 2001. Using the country of the corresponding author as the source nation for each article, we determined a standardized publication rate across developed nations. We used multiple regression techniques to determine the influence of national expenditures on research and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), a surrogate for English proficiency, on publication output. There was a significant relationship of national spending on research and TOEFL scores to publication output of developed countries (p = 0.04; p < 0.01, respectively). These two variables explained approximately 71.5% of the variation in publication rate across developed nations around the world (R = 0.85; p < 0.01). Normalized for population size, English-speaking nations and certain northern European countries such as Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden had the highest rate of publication in the five highest ranked general medical journals, while Asian countries had generally low rates of publication. Research spending and English proficiency were strongly associated with publication output in the highest ranked general medical journals. While these data cannot be considered definitive due to their observational nature, they do suggest that for English-language medical journals, research funding and English proficiency may be important determinants of publication.

  17. The Role of Peer Facilitator in Enhancing English Language Proficiency in a Simulated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nur Salina; Atek, Engku Suhaimi Engku; Azmi, Mohd Nazri Latiff; Mohamad, Mahani

    2015-01-01

    For many learners, language class can be anxiety-provoking than other courses. Mostly, university students are seen to have language anxiety especially in their second language learning. They tend to be nervous when using English language in the formal situation like in classroom. English Outdoor Programme (EOP) in 2011 as part of informal setting…

  18. Enhancing the Interpretability of the Overall Results of an International Test of English-Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spiros; Morgan, Rick; Becker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the meaning of the scores of an English-language test by developing performance levels and descriptors for reporting overall test performance. The levels and descriptors were intended to accompany the total scale scores of TOEFL Junior® Standard, an international test of English as a second/foreign…

  19. Widening Participation and English Language Proficiency: A Convergence with Implications for Assessment Practices in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The widening participation agenda has important implications for those in English-medium higher education institutions responsible for the provision of English language support. Importantly, given the diverse nature of the "non-traditional" student cohort that is the focus of this agenda, that section of the student population…

  20. How Deaf American Sign Language/English Bilingual Children Become Proficient Readers: An Emic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…

  1. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: Evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shing eTse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese and second-language (L2, English proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants’ reaction time distributions in the Simon task. Bilinguals’ L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in µ, and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ regardless of trial types. Bilinguals’ L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants’ age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in µ. In contrast, neither bilinguals’ L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants’ age, only (a scores in the working memory task and (b RT in incongruent trials and (c Simon effect in µ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals’ L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children’s L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies.

  2. How deaf American Sign Language/English bilingual children become proficient readers: an emic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounty, Judith L; Pucci, Concetta T; Harmon, Kristen C

    2014-07-01

    A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from learning to read to reading to learn. Analysis of 12 interactive, semi-structured interviews identified informal and formal teaching and learning practices in ASL/English bilingual homes and classrooms. These practices value, reinforce, and support the bidirectional acquisition of both languages and provide a strong foundation for literacy.

  3. Develop Chinese Students' English Proficiency by the Immersion of American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠辰

    2015-01-01

    This is a lesson plan for a College English class in China, focusing on language skills development and American culture. Students' language competences are developed by immerging into culture context.

  4. 熟练和非熟练中英双语者不同认知控制成分的比较%A Comparison of Different Cognitive Control Components between Non-proficient and Proficient Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范小月; 王瑞明; 吴际; 林哲婷

    2012-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated the bilinguals' advantage in cognitive control, and some researchers have explored the components of cognitive control. However, there are four gaps. ( 1 ) Most studies only examined one or two components of cognitive control. Few studies clearly defined cognitive control and systematically compared these components between non-proficient bilinguals and proficient bilinguals. (2) Compared with non-proficient bilinguals, do proficient bilinguals 'also have advantages in some components of cognitive control? ( 3 ) Is the influence of bilingualism on some components of cognitive control in bilingual children consistent with that in bilingual adults? (4) Are existing results suitable for Chinese-English bilinguals? The present study aims at answering these questions. Thirty non-proficient Chinese-English bilinguals and thirty proficient Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to administer the "faces task". All the participants were adults. Before the task, they finished the Raven Intelligence Test, culture, ethnic background and social economic status (SES) survey to eliminate the influence of some irrelevant variables. In the face task, the colored eyes could be looking either straight ahead or towards one of the two boxes, creating the straight eyes task and the gaze shift task. The participants should press the key on the same side as the box containing the asterisk if the eyes turned green and the opposite side if the eyes turned red. Inhibitory control was assessed by the difference in RT between trials in which the eyes looked towards the target and those in which the eyes looked away from the target in the gaze shift task. The results showed that the non-proficient Chinese-English bilinguals produced a larger cost than the proficient Chinese-English bilinguals, t(57) = 2. 107, p = . 040. Cognitive flexibility was assessed by the difference between mixed and single block presentations. The results showed that the non

  5. A Mandarin/English Two-Way Immersion Program: Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also…

  6. Effect of Developing Pragmatic Competence through Telecollaboration on Improving English as Foreign Language Learners' Writing Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Rafieyan, Ali; Rafieyan, Navid; Rafieyan, Saeid; Rafieyan, Parvaneh; Rafieyan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The very information structure of written communication depends not just on the writer's meaning and purpose but rather on the extent to which writer and reader share knowledge of pragmatic features of the language. To assess the actual effect of developing target language pragmatic competence through telecollaboration on improving English as…

  7. Confounds in Assessing the Associations between Biliteracy and English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been theorized, if not exhaustively researched, that bilingualism and biliteracy are beneficial in promoting linguistic and academic gains; but the operationalization of these constructs is confounding. In the current study, the authors worked with 118 Spanish-English bilingual Latina/o students and investigated whether Spanish-English…

  8. English Language Proficiency and Employment: A Case Study of Bangladeshi Graduates in Australian Employment Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshid, Mohammod Moninoor; Chowdhury, Raqib

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature has suggested that the relationship between globalisation and the English language implicates employability in the job market. Although the effects are uneven in different occupational groups and in different countries, such relationship is growing in significance to policy makers. This paper has explored the hitherto unstudied…

  9. Strategies of Learning Speaking Skill by Indonesian Learners of English and Their Contribution to Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik

    2014-01-01

    This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…

  10. Mediating effect of English learning strategies between tolerance of ambiguity and English proficiency%学习策略在歧义容忍度和英语水平之间的中介效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常海潮

    2012-01-01

    Based on a questionnaire survey of 502 non-English majors,this study probes into the mediating effect of English learning strategies between tolerance of ambiguity and English proficiency.The study results show that:(1) tolerance of ambiguity and English proficiency are significantly correlated,with the former as a strong predictor of the latter;(2) tolerance of ambiguity predicts English learning strategies;(3) metacognitive and cognitive strategies play mediating roles between tolerance of ambiguity and English proficiency,and thus tolerance of ambiguity indirectly influences English proficiency via these two strategies.%本研究以502名非英语专业大学生为受试对象,通过问卷调查的方式探讨学习策略在歧义容忍度和英语水平之间的中介效应。研究结果表明:(1)歧义容忍度与英语水平显著相关,前者对后者具有较强的预测作用;(2)歧义容忍度对学习策略具有预测作用;(3)元认知策略、认知策略在歧义容忍度和英语水平之间具有部分中介效应,歧义容忍度通过这两种学习策略间接影响英语水平。

  11. Investigating Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teacher Raters' Judgements of Oral Proficiency in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of raters' language background on their judgements of the speaking performance in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET) of China, by comparing the rating patterns of non-native English-speaking (NNES) teacher raters, who are currently employed to assess performance on the CET-SET, with those of…

  12. A Study on Developing a New English Proficiency Benchmark for Non-English Majors%基于十八大"人才强国战略"的大学生英语能力标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔校平; 史成周

    2015-01-01

    我国现行的英语能力标准滞后.顺应我国当前的政治、经济、人才培养、教学改革等时代因素的要求,借鉴现行的国内外英语能力标准,基于交际能力语言理论,构建新的、与时俱进的、以培养具有国际竞争力人才为导向、兼顾通用英语能力突显学术英语能力、体现文化重要性、分级明确、具有科学性、可行性的非英语专业大学生英语能力标准势在必行.%The current English proficiency benchmark is out of date on mainland China. A new and more scientific one for the non-English majors is required to be drawn up in terms of politics, economy, education, teaching reform etc. in China. It is to be based on the existing English language proficiency benchmarks home and abroad. A benchmark should define the different levels of proficiency, and it is supposed to attach more importance to academic English than general English. It is to be worked out in the light of the theories of communicative language competence, and it is intended to cultivate talents with capacity of international competiveness to serve the society.

  13. 学习动机对公外学生英语水平磨蚀的影响%A Study on the Influence of Learning Motivation to the Attrition of English Proficiency for Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶譞

    2014-01-01

    Based on the learning motivation scale designed by Wen Qiufang as questionnaire and the CET4 score, coupled with the method of interview, the influence of learning motivation to the attrition of English proficiency for non-English majors is studied. As is discovered in matched sample T-test, all participants and high-score group have significant improvement in English proficiency while low-score group have significant attrition.High-score and low score group are similar in most items of extrinsic motivation but the influences of endeavor and metacognitive strategy determine whether their English will go through attrition or not. Due to a pessimistic attitide to English learning and the belief that English learning is valueless as well as the reluctance to learn English after passing CET4 and to use English as a tool for academic study, the low-score group have a low intensity of intrinsic motivation, which results in attrition in English proficiency.%!!!!!!!!!!!!押以文秋芳制作的学习动机量表和两次四级成绩为测量工具,通过问卷调查、访谈的方式,研究了学习动机对公外学生英语水平磨蚀的影响。配对样本T检验发现:全体受试对象、高分组受试对象英语水平有显著提高,低分组有显著磨蚀。高、低分组大多数表层动机强度相似,但努力程度和元认知策略影响他们英语水平是否磨蚀。低分组学生由于对英语学习持悲观态度且认为英语学习没有价值,在通过四级后不会继续学习,加之不会将英语作为交流工具及用于学术研究而造成深层动机强度较低,从而磨蚀英语水平。

  14. The use of audience response system technology with limited-english-proficiency, low-literacy, and vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Reyes, Iris; Liebman, Amy K; Juarez-Carrillo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Audience response systems (ARS) have long been used to improve the interactivity of educational activities. Most studies of ARS have addressed education of literate trainees. How well these devices work with low-literacy subjects is not well studied. Information gathering on the training audience is an important use of ARS and helpful in improving the targeting of training information. However, obtaining demographic information from vulnerable populations with reasons to be concerned about divulging information about themselves has not been tested. In addition, a culturally competent method to effectively collect demographic and evaluation data of this growing population is essential. This project investigated the use of ARS to gather information from Hispanic immigrant workers, many of whom are socially vulnerable and have limited English proficiency (LEP) and low-literacy. Workers attended focus groups and were asked to use ARS devices or clickers to respond to questions. Questions were both categorical (multiple choice) and open-ended numerical (text entry), and varied from simple queries to more sensitive points regarding immigration. Most workers answered the one-key response categorical questions with little difficulty. In contrast, some participants struggled when responding to numerical questions, especially when the response required pressing multiple clicker keys. An overwhelming majority of participants reported that the clickers were comfortable and easy to use despite the challenges presented by the more complex responses. The error rate increased as question complexity increased and the trend across three ordered categories of response complexity reached statistical significance. Results suggest that ARS is a viable method for gathering dichotomous or higher-order categorical information from LEP and low-literacy populations in a group setting while assuring anonymity. However, it is recommended that clickers be developed and tested with fewer, bigger

  15. The link between Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety, Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity and Self-rated English proficiency among Chinese learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Dewaele

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that high levels of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA have a negative effect on foreign language learning (Horwitz, 2001; Lu & Liu, 2011 while moderate levels of Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity (SLTA are believed to boost foreign language learning (Ely, 1995. There is prima facie evidence that both dimensions are inversely related as Foreign Language Learning contexts are full of ambiguities which may contribute to anxiety. However, the relationship between FLCA and SLTA has been under-researched. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap by investigating the link between SLTA and FLCA in English of 73 secondary school students in Hong Kong. They filled out an online questionnaire consisting of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986 and the Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (Ely, 1995. Statistical analyses revealed that FLCA, SLTA and Self-rated English proficiency predict half of the variance in each other; in other words, students who were more tolerant of second language ambiguity were less anxious in their EFL classes and they also felt more proficient.

  16. 艺术专业大学生英语阅读策略与英语水平相关性研究%An Analysis of the Correlation between English Reading Strategies and English Reading Proficiency of Art Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃晓琪

    2013-01-01

    English reading strategies use of art major students has a light correlation with reading proficiency , the use of cognitive strategies and effective strategies have a significant correlation with reading achievement. Based on these findings, the thesis tries to put forward some suggestions for enhancing the frequency of students ’ English reading strategy use and at the same time improving their English reading proficiency .%  艺术专业学生的英语阅读策略使用与英语阅读水平存在轻微的正相关,其中,认知策略和情感策略的使用与阅读水平呈显著正相关。据此,本研究提出教师应进一步加强艺术专业学生认知策略的培训,选择性地进行各种阅读策略培训,激发他们英语学习的兴趣和树立英语学习的自信。

  17. Alignment of CIM and CAM Content Standards and Benchmarks with the PASS Proficiency Standards, Content Area: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This paper presents the alignment of Oregon's content standards with the Certificates of Initial Mastery (CIM), Certificates of Advanced Mastery (CAM), and the Proficiency-based Admissions Standards System (PASS). After some background, a timeline, and definitions of 4 terms used in the paper, it presents charts that align common curriculum goals…

  18. Effects of Peer Feedback on ESL Student Writers at Different Levels of English Proficiency: A Japanese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the nature and effectiveness of peer feedback in EFL writing classrooms. High- and low-proficient Japanese EFL learners participated in the study where they exchanged comments with peers after receiving training in peer feedback. The two groups were compared in terms of their pre- and post-tests, original drafts…

  19. Principes de la conception de tests destines a l'evaluation prealable d'etudiants etrangers venant etudier en Grande-Bretagne (Criteria for the Development of English Proficiency Tests for Foreign Students Enrolling in British Universities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Ian

    1981-01-01

    Describes the criteria behind the development of the English Language Testing Service system, a new language proficiency evaluation instrument developed by the British Council. This system is based on an analysis of foreign students' communication needs in the context of their professional training and academic life. Societe Nouvelle Didier…

  20. 英语水平与自我认同建构研究%Study on English Language Proficiency and Self-identity Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖清燕

    2012-01-01

    在语言研究领域,关于语言学习和使用与自我认同的关系的研究,已经引起了不少研究者的注意,并成为语言学习研究的重要组成部分。研究以社会建构主义为理论视觉,采用问卷调查的方法,分析英语教育专业学生在英语教学实习中英语水平对自我认同建构的影响;并探索不同英语水平的研究对象对课堂人际关系的认识的变化及语言情感变化与自我认同之间的关系,为我们更好地提高英语教学质量提供一定的实践依据。%In language study and research,the study on the relationship between language learning and self-identity has attracted more and more attention of many searchers,and has become an important part.Based on the theory of social constructivism,this study explored the English language proficiency of the English education majors on the impact of their self-identity construction in the English teaching internship,investigated how they perceived their in-class relationships in their English teaching and learning,and analyzed the relationship between self-identity changes and language affect.It is hoped that the result of the study will provide a certain statistics in better improvement of our English teaching.

  1. Intermediate or above Level of English Proficiency:the Prerequisite of Tertiary Level ESP Teaching in China%中高级英语水平与中国大学英语ESP开课关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚兵

    2015-01-01

    本文从专门用途英语(下称ESP)定义特征、《大学英语课程教学要求》(2007)、我国大学生英语水平、ESP对语言水平的要求等四个方面阐述我国大学新生英语水平与ESP教学要求存在巨大差距。国外及港台地区的ESP研究成果表明,中高级二语水平乃外语环境下大学层次ESP教学的基本条件。本文提出,中国大学层次ESP教学必须以中高级英语水平为基础,不能简单以词汇量作为判断依据。%From the aspects of the ESP definitive characteristics, the Teaching Requirements of College English Curriculum (2007), and the current status of Chinese learners’ English proficiency and requirements of ESP teaching, the paper expounds that there is a wide gap between the English language proficiency of Chinese college first-year students and the requirements of ESP teaching. The empirical studies abroad and in HK and Taiwan prove that English language proficiency is the key factor to the success of ESP teaching. The paper posits that post-intermediate level of English proficiency is the prerequisite of ESP teaching in Chinese colleges and vocabulary size can not be the sole measure of ESL learner’s SL proficiency.

  2. Predicting Literacy Achievement in Young English Language Learners: A Question of Language Proficiency or of Learning Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Sara; Madelaine, Alison

    2012-01-01

    In this article empirical research regarding the best predictors of literacy achievement for English language learning students (ELLs) in English-only classrooms is reviewed. These students comprise an ever-increasing population in these settings, but there is considerable confusion in differentiating between ELLs who are low-achievement readers…

  3. On the Correlation Between Metaphoric English Competence and English Proficiency of English Majors%中华女子学院英语专业学生英语隐喻能力及英语水平相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 张琦

    2014-01-01

    了解英语专业大学生英语隐喻能力的状况,探索英语隐喻能力与英语水平的关系,一份英语隐喻能力试卷由英语专业大三学生作答,部分学生接受访谈。运用 SPSS 软件分析英语专业学生英语隐喻能力试卷成绩和英语专业四级考试成绩,发现他们的英语隐喻能力与英语水平存在正相关,英语隐喻能力在专业教学中未得到充分培养。专业教师在教学中应合理导入中西方文化,运用隐喻表达培养学生的隐喻识别、理解和构建能力,进而提高其英语水平。%To determine the current situation of metaphoric English competence of English majors and to explore the relationships between their metaphoric competence and English proficiency, a metaphoric English competence test paper was completed by juniors of the Foreign Languages Department of China Women’s University, and interviews on their metaphoric teaching and learning was carried out with some students. Through SPSS correlation analysis of the scores of their test papers and their TEM4 scores, it was found there was a positive correlation between students’ metaphoric competence and their English proficiency, and English majors’metaphoric competence was at the low level. To educate English majors’in metaphoric competence and to improve their English proficiency, attention should be paid to cultural input and explanation of metaphoric expressions.

  4. Pragmatic competence in the listening paper of the certificate of proficiency in english = Competência pragmática na compreensão oral do certificate of proficiency in english

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsetti, Cristiane Ruzicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo baseia-se em minha monografia do curso de especialização, cujo objetivo foi justificar a importância do desenvolvimento de atividades de conscientização pragmática, em sala de aula de inglês como língua estrangeira. O conceito de competência pragmática foi abordado e descreveu-se seu impacto no desempenho linguístico. Foram analisadas as provas de compreensão e de produção orais de um exame de proficiência britânico intitulado “Certificate of Proficiency in English”, da universidade de Cambridge. Neste artigo, irei descrever as conclusões a respeito da prova de compreensão oral. A análise foi baseada nos modelos de código e inferencial de comunicação verbal e o princípio da relevância de Sperber e Wilson (1986, e na teoria dos atos de fala de Searle (1979. Os resultados oferecem um olhar sobre as habilidades inferenciais e conhecimentos pragmáticos a serem desenvolvidos ou ensinados de forma explícita em sala de aula de inglês como língua estrangeira

  5. Evaluating causes of foreign accent in English sentences spoken by native speakers of Italian differing in age of arrival (AOA) in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, James; Mackay, Ian; Imai, Satomi

    2003-04-01

    This study evaluated potential causes of foreign accent (FA) by including native Italian (NI) speakers with a later age of arrival (AOA) in Canada than in previous studies. Three NI groups (n=18 each) differing in AOA (means=10, 18, and 26 years) participated. Listeners used a 9-point scale to rate sentences produced by the three NI groups and native English controls. The ratings obtained for all four groups differed significantly. The stronger foreign accents of the AOA-18 than AOA-10 group might be attributed to the passing of a critical period, or to stronger cross-language interference by more robust Italian phonetic categories. The difference might also be attributed to differences in language use. This is because the AOA-10 and AOA-18 groups (but not the AOA-18 and AOA-26 groups) differed significantly in percentage of English and Italian use, length of residence in Canada, and years of education in Canada. None of these explanations will apparently explain the stronger FAs of the AOA-26 than AOA-18 group. The difference between these groups might be attributed to cognitive aging [Hakuta et al., Appl. Psycholinguistics (in press)], which results in gradually less successful second-language acquisition across the adult life span. [Work supported by NIH.

  6. A Validation Framework for the National English Proficiency Scale of China%中国英语能力等级量表效度研究框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正才

    2016-01-01

    本文尝试为中国英语能力等级量表的效度研究构建一个完整的理论框架。第一,界定量表效度研究的基本内容,并对比量表效度与考试效度研究的异同。第二,从时间维度区分“即时效度研究”和“延时效度研究”;从科学与道德的视角论述“构念效度研究”与“公平效度研究”的内涵和相互联系。第三,从英语教育与社会生活层面论述“教学反拨效度研究”与“社会影响效度研究”的重要性。对于“决策效度”,因为其对一个测量工具具有根本性、实用性和整体性等特征,被作为量表的最高一级效度指标。此外,本文还论述了量表效度研究的证据类型和相应的研究方法。%This study attempts to establish an appropriate framework to validate the newly developed National English Proficiency Scale of China (NEPS), which is a scale of the English language learners’proficiency in Mainland China. Given the long history and broad scope of the term“validation”, the study defines in the first place the conception of validation within the context of validating a language proficiency scale other than a test. Distinctions between a validation study of a scale and that of a testing program are identified and explicitly stated. Three categories of validity evidence encompassing interrelated facets are employed to construct a theoretical framework for validating the NEPS in current study:(a) construct validity and fair validity addressing the fundamental validity issue from the perspective of science and ethics, efficiency and fairness;(b)decision validity, a higher level validity index, dictating the ultimate value of a psychological scale as a useful measurement instrument for decision making; and (c) teaching backwash validity and social impact validity explicating the relationship between the NEPS and English language teaching, and a broader societal impact the NEPS exerts in China

  7. The Prediction of Reading Levels between Second and Third Grade Limited English Proficient Students in a Bilingual Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Britani Creel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the third grade English reading TAKS scores while considering the same students' native language, Spanish, reading level as assessed by a state-approved reading assessment, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura (EDL), from the end of the second grade year. In addition, this study was been designed to…

  8. A Comparative Study of the Effect of CALL on Gifted and Non-Gifted Adolescents' English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Sophie; Chen, Hao-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has gained increasing acceptance since it provides learners with abundant resources. Most researches confirm the beneficial effect of CALL on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' cognitive, metacognitive, and affective developments. However, the diversity of students' intelligence is associated…

  9. Learning to Think in a Second Language: Effects of Proficiency and Length of Exposure in English Learners of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Damjanovic, Ljubica; Burnand, Julie; Bylund, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate motion event cognition in second language learners in a higher education context. Based on recent findings that speakers of grammatical aspect languages like English attend less to the endpoint (goal) of events than do speakers of nonaspect languages like Swedish in a nonverbal categorization task…

  10. A Three Year Evaluation Study of a Bilingual Curriculum Program for Limited English Proficient Hispanic Preschoolers in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Adam L.; Garza, Syvia; Ochoa, Salavador Hector; Leyva, Collette; Ramirez, Eleazar; Carter, Nell; Rice, Mike; Minness, Anne

    This 3-year study evaluated a culturally and linguistically appropriate curriculum for 168 preschool children in a southwest Head Start program. Three yearly student cohorts (1997-98, 1998-99, 1999-2000) have participated in the study evaluating the Language Enrichment Activities Program (LEAP) as the curriculum. During Year 1, the English LEAP…

  11. Analogy as a Tool for the Acquisition of English Verb Tenses among Low Proficiency L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoke, Soo Kum; Hasan, Nor Haniza

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of English grammar to second language learners is usually a tedious, stressful and time consuming activity and even after all the effort, students have generally found these lessons boring and confusing. As such, innovative language instructors have been trying different approaches to the teaching of grammar in their classrooms. Using…

  12. Patterns of Various ESOL Proficiency Test Scores by Native Language and Proficiency Levels. Occasional Papers on Linguistics, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisama, Kay K.

    A profile method was used to analyze the patterns of four English proficiency tests (Comprehensive English Language Test for Speakers of English as a Second Language: Structure, CELT: Listening, Reading for Understanding Test, and The New Cloze Test) regarding two examinee characteristics: their language proficiency levels and native language. One…

  13. A Study on Relation between Willingness to Communicate and Oral Proficiency of Non-English Major Undergraduates%非英语专业本科生交流意愿与口语水平的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪琪; 马金龙

    2016-01-01

    Spoken English is one of the most important and direct ways of second language proficiency evaluation. However, years of traditional teaching mode and learning environment delay the improvement of spoken English. Does emphasizing per-sonal WTC improve oral proficiency? With questionnaire and correlation analysis, this study aims to find out the relation be-tween willingness to communicate (WTC) and oral proficiency of non-English major undergraduates in China. The research findings are (1) students are more willing to communicate while in English class and chatting online (2) students’WTC is strongly related to their oral proficiency.%口语是最重要、直观评判二语能力的因素之一。多年注重笔试的传统英语教学模式以及学习环境造成我国多数英语学习者不重视口语。那么是否增强个人交流意愿能够提高二语口语水平呢?本实验采用问卷调查与相关性分析,旨在探讨非英语专业本科生的英语交流意愿与其口语水平的关系。研究结果表明:(1)学生更愿意在英语课堂及网上聊天时使用英语。(2)学生交流意愿与口语水平有较大关系。

  14. 南京体育学院健美操专项学生英语水平的研究%A Study of English Proficiency of Students Major In Calisthenics Specialty Of Nanjing Sport Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚瑶; 袁野

    2012-01-01

    通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法对南京体育学院健美操专项学生英语水平进行了调查与分析,探讨了英语对当今体育院校学生的重要性。分析了体育院校在英语的教学方面应该遵循的方法及手段。通过调查发现,健美操专项学生的英语水平比较低;绝大多数同学们在课后没有花时间进行英语的学习;同学们的交流能力不强,在课后同学们运用英语的能力不强。%This study has done an investigation and analysis through the literature,questionnaire survey method and mathematical statistics study of English proficiency of students major in calisthenics specialty of Nanjing sport institute,and then discussed the importance of English proficiency for students in sports institutions.In addition,this study has analyzed the method and means that English teaching should follow in sport institutes.According to the survey,students major in calisthenics specialty have a relatively low level of English proficiency,an overwhelming majority of the students have not spend time for English study,and result in a poor ability in English communication.

  15. BENEFITS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING - LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY CERTIFICATES â€" A PREREQUISITE FOR THE BUSINESS GRADUATE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new language at any age is an enormously rewarding experience in many ways. Studying a foreign language helps students understand English grammar better and improves their overall communication and problem-solving skills. Beyond the intellectual benefits, knowledge of a foreign language facilitates travel, enhances career opportunities, and enables one to learn more about different peoples and cultures. In Romania, languages continue to struggle to gain the status of key learning a...

  16. Time to English Proficiency for English Language Learners in New York City and Miami-Dade County. IESP Policy Brief No. 01-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan; Hatch, Megan; McKinney, Jessica; Atwell, Meghan Salas; Lamb, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2002 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law, schools have been allowed to administer grade-level content reading exams in the native language of English Language Learner (ELL) students for up to three years after they enter the school system. From that point, the students are expected to take the state assessments in…

  17. Does the Value of Dynamic Assessment in Predicting End-of-First-Grade Mathematics Performance Differ as a Function of English Language Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M; Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the added value of dynamic assessment (DA) beyond more conventional static measures for predicting individual differences in year-end 1(st)-grade calculation (CA) and word-problem (WP) performance, as a function of limited English proficiency (LEP) status. At the start of 1(st) grade, students (129 LEP; 163 non-LEP) were assessed on a brief static mathematics test, an extended static mathematics test, static tests of domain-general abilities associated with CAs and WPs (vocabulary; reasoning), and DA. Near end of 1(st) grade, they were assessed on CA and WP. Regression analyses indicated that the value of the predictor depends on the predicted outcome and LEP status. In predicting CAs, the extended mathematics test and DA uniquely explained variance for LEP children, with stronger predictive value for the extended mathematics test; for non-LEP children, the extended mathematics test was the only significant predictor. However, in predicting WPs, only DA and vocabulary were uniquely predictive for LEP children, with stronger value for DA; for non-LEP children, the extended mathematics test and DA were comparably uniquely predictive. Neither the brief static mathematics test nor reasoning was significant in predicting either outcome. The potential value of a gated screening process, using an extended mathematics assessment to predict CAs and using DA to predict WPs, is discussed.

  18. Limited English proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: a study of Latino and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyeon; Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri; Parmelee, Patricia; Allen, Rebecca S

    2011-01-01

    Language barriers pose problems in mental health care for foreign-born individuals in the United States. Immigrants with psychiatric disorders may be at particular risk but are currently understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on mental health service use among immigrant adults with psychiatric disorders. Drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), Latino and Asian immigrant adults aged 18-86 with any instrument-determined mood, anxiety, and substance use disorder (n = 372) were included in the present analysis. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that having health insurance, poor self-rated mental health, and more psychiatric disorders were independently associated with higher probability of mental health service use in the Latino group. After controlling for all background characteristics and mental health need factors, LEP significantly decreased odds of mental health service use among Latino immigrants. None of the factors including LEP predicted mental health service use among Asian immigrants, who were also the least likely to access such services. LEP was a barrier to mental health service use among Latino immigrants with psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that future approaches to interventions might be well advised to include not only enhancing the availability of bilingual service providers and interpretation services but also increasing awareness of such options for at least Latino immigrants. In addition, further investigation is needed to identify factors that can enhance access to mental health care services among Asians.

  19. Does the Value of Dynamic Assessment in Predicting End-of-First-Grade Mathematics Performance Differ as a Function of English Language Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the added value of dynamic assessment (DA) beyond more conventional static measures for predicting individual differences in year-end 1st-grade calculation (CA) and word-problem (WP) performance, as a function of limited English proficiency (LEP) status. At the start of 1st grade, students (129 LEP; 163 non-LEP) were assessed on a brief static mathematics test, an extended static mathematics test, static tests of domain-general abilities associated with CAs and WPs (vocabulary; reasoning), and DA. Near end of 1st grade, they were assessed on CA and WP. Regression analyses indicated that the value of the predictor depends on the predicted outcome and LEP status. In predicting CAs, the extended mathematics test and DA uniquely explained variance for LEP children, with stronger predictive value for the extended mathematics test; for non-LEP children, the extended mathematics test was the only significant predictor. However, in predicting WPs, only DA and vocabulary were uniquely predictive for LEP children, with stronger value for DA; for non-LEP children, the extended mathematics test and DA were comparably uniquely predictive. Neither the brief static mathematics test nor reasoning was significant in predicting either outcome. The potential value of a gated screening process, using an extended mathematics assessment to predict CAs and using DA to predict WPs, is discussed. PMID:26523068

  20. “乘务英语中级考试”应试策略探析%Exam-orientated Strategies on English Proficiency Test for Cabin Attendants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锋

    2013-01-01

    Based on CAUC’s English Proficiency Test for Cabin Attendants (Intermediate Lev-el), which is mainly taken by those whose major is cabin attendant and some airlines’ cabin attendants, the paper tends to make an data-analysis and classifications, so as to find out some weak points of the students and meanwhile summarize some exam-orientated strategies with the purpose of raising the students’ general grades and improving their practical language performance.%  针对由中国民航大学承办的以空中乘务专业为主体而参加的“乘务英语中级考试”作初步的数据分析,归纳,总结,以期找出一些相应的对策。本文旨在找出学生在考试中的薄弱点和失分点,从而引起相关老师的相对重视,以达到提高学生整体考试成绩和专业英语学以致用的目的。

  1. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  2. Chinese“sanwen”(散文) & English Essay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Mengru

    2015-01-01

    Knowing intimately the specific differences between Chinese“sanwen”(散文) and English essay benefits writers as well as readers in both creation and comprehension. This article would respectively focus on words and sentences in both languages to demonstrate the characteristics of the two languages including word choice,word repetition & synonym replacement and syntactic structure (句法结构). Hoping that after reading this article,your understanding of Chinese and English would arrive at a higher level and your writing proficiency would be slightly enhanced as well.

  3. Using L1 in Teaching Vocabulary to Low English Proficiency Level Students: A Case Study at the National University of Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latsanyphone, Soulignavong; Bouangeune, Souvannasy

    2009-01-01

    Many English professionals do not seem to pay much attention to the use of L1 in English language classrooms, based on the tenets that English should be taught in English to expose the learners to English which would enhance their knowledge of English and accelerate their learning. While research findings have been inconsistent in relation to this…

  4. The Effects of English Vocabulary Mastery on Geometry Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhold, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines socioeconomic status (SES), English language proficiency (ELP), vocabulary proficiency (VP), and math proficiency (MP) of students to determine if SES, as determined by the Free and Reduced Lunch Program (FRL), as well as English language proficiency (ELP) and vocabulary proficiency (VP), as measured by CELLA scale scores and…

  5. Negative Transfer of Chinese on the Acquisition of English Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子硕

    2013-01-01

    English articles can be divided into three categories:indefinite article, definite article as well as zero article, which find themselves appearing in both oral and written English at a relatively high frequency as functional words. For Chinese English learners of the beginning stage, English articles are usually taught in the first several lessons. Although English articles are seeming-ly easy in terms of their semantic meanings, few Chinese learners can really arrive at the level where they can use them proficient-ly and grasp their usage in their entirety. Some researchers hold that the negative transfer of Chinese can account for that problem because the Chinese language doesn’t have an article system which is equivalent to that of English, while others strongly criticize this viewpoint. The paper is aimed at verifying the mother tongue interference on the acquisition of English articles by advanced Chinese English learners, especially at how the differences in generic expressions between Chinese and English give rise to those problems concerning the acquisition of English articles. Owing to the limitation of the length and depth of this paper, a hypothe-sis that Chinese English learners generally consider the English indefinite article“a/an”as being equal to“一个”in their mother tongue is put forward as a premise. To prove this hypothesis, two mini tests were carried out among 47 senior English majors in two classes respectively in BLCU and the results of the tests conform to the hypothesis positively. It can be safely asserted that due to the negative transfer of Chinese on the acquisition of English articles, even advanced Chinese English learners display their cog-nitive inadequacies of English generic references performed by English articles and inappropriate omission of English indefinite ar-ticles.

  6. Pilot of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression in Latinos with Limited English Proficiency: Preliminary Evaluation of Efficacy and Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Anahi; Castillo, Soraida D.; Maero, Fabian; Lejuez, C. W.; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Latinos with limited English proficiency (LEP) experience multiple barriers to accessing efficacious mental health treatments. Using a stage model of behavioral therapies research, this Stage 1b investigation evaluated the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD), an intervention which may be well-equipped to address existing treatment barriers. A sample of 10 Latinos with LEP and depressive symptomatology participated in a 10-session,direct (i.e., literal) Spanish-language translation of BATD, with no other cultural modifications. Participants were assessed at each session for depressive symptomatology and for the proposed BATD mechanisms: activity engagement and environmental reward. One month after treatment, participants were reassessed and interviewed to elicit feedback about BATD. Hierarchical Linear Model analyses were used to measure BATD outcomes. Results showed depressive symptomatology decreased (p<.001), while both activation (p = .04) and environmental reward (p = .02) increased over the course of BATD. Increases in activation corresponded concurrently with decreases in depression (p = .01), while environmental reward preceded decreases in depressive symptomatology (all p’s≤ .04). Follow-up analyses revealed sustained clinical gains in depression and activation, and an increase in environmental reward at follow-up. Participant interviews conducted one month after treatment conclusion indicated that BATD is an acceptable treatment for our sample of interest. Despite the limitations inherent to a study restricted to sample of ten, preliminary outcomes of this Stage I research suggest that members of this otherwise underserved group showed improvements in depressive symptomatology and are willing to participate in and adhere to BATD. The study’s positive outcomes suggest that a Stage II randomized clinical trial is a logical next step. PMID:24411118

  7. Re-examining text difficulty through automated textual analysis tools and readers’ beliefs: the case of the Greek State Certificate of English Language Proficiency exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Liontou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an exploratory study that aimed at describing and comparing a range of linguistic features that characterize the reading texts used at the B2 and C1 level of the Greek State Certificate of English Language Proficiency exam (KPG1. Its ultimate purpose was to explore the contribution of such features to perceived text difficulty while at the same time examining the relationship between strategy use and test-takers’ perceived level of reading comprehension difficulty reported in 7,250 questionnaires. Text analysis revealed significant differences between B2 and C1 reading texts for a specific number of text features such as word, paragraph and text length, readability indices, levels of word frequency and presence of words with rich conceptual content. A significant correlation was also found between B2 test-takers’ perception of reading module difficulty and specific text features i.e. lexical diversity, abstract words, positive additive connectives and anaphoric references between adjacent sentences. With regard to C1 test-takers, data analysis showed that two specific text variables i.e. positive logical connectives and argument overlap, correlated significantly with readers’ perception of reading module difficulty. Finally, problem-solving reading strategies such as rereading the text, guessing the meaning of unknown words and translating in mother tongue were found to correlate significantly with perceived text difficulty, whereas support-type reading strategies such as underlining or selectively reading parts of the text were less often employed regardless KPG test-takers’ perception of text difficulty. The findings of this study could help both EFL teachers and test designers gain valuable knowledge regarding EFL learners’ reading habits and also become more alert to the difficulty specific text features impose on the latter.

  8. Pilot of the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression in latinos with limited english proficiency: preliminary evaluation of efficacy and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Anahi; Castillo, Soraida D; Maero, Fabian; Lejuez, C W; Macpherson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Latinos with limited English proficiency (LEP) experience multiple barriers to accessing efficacious mental health treatments. Using a stage model of behavior therapy research, this Stage I investigation evaluated the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD), an intervention that may be well equipped to address existing treatment barriers. A sample of 10 Latinos with LEP and depressive symptomatology participated in a 10-session, direct (i.e., literal) Spanish-language translation of BATD, with no other cultural modifications. Participants were assessed at each session for depressive symptomatology and for the proposed BATD mechanisms: activity engagement and environmental reward. One month after treatment, participants were reassessed and interviewed to elicit feedback about BATD. Hierarchical linear model analyses were used to measure BATD outcomes. Results showed depressive symptomatology decreased (pactivation (p=.04) and environmental reward (p=.02) increased over the course of BATD. Increases in activation corresponded concurrently with decreases in depression (p=.01), while environmental reward preceded decreases in depressive symptomatology (all p's ≤ .04). Follow-up analyses revealed sustained clinical gains in depression and activation, and an increase in environmental reward at follow-up. Participant interviews conducted 1 month after treatment conclusion indicated that BATD is an acceptable treatment for our sample of interest. Despite the limitations inherent in a study restricted to a sample of 10, preliminary outcomes of this Stage I research suggest that members of this otherwise underserved group showed improvements in depressive symptomatology and are willing to participate in and adhere to BATD. The study's positive outcomes suggest that a Stage II randomized clinical trial is a logical next step.

  9. Investigating Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teacher Raters' Judgements of Oral Proficiency in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of raters' language background on their judgements of the speaking performance in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET) of China, by comparing the rating patterns of non-native English-speaking (NNES) teacher raters, who are currently employed to assess performance on the CET-SET, with those…

  10. 非英语专业学生语音学习现状分析及对策研究%Analysis on Non-English Majors’Pronunciation Learning and Approaches to Improve Their Pronunciation Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡方慧

    2013-01-01

    English pronunciation learning is the fundamental part in the process of English learning. However, due to the igno-rance of the colleges, teachers and students, lack of qualified English pronunciation teachers, and the limits of traditional pronunci-ation teaching, non-English majors are commonly recognized as weak in English pronunciation. Present pronunciation problems are first summed up, and then relevant reasons are explored. Finally, some teaching ways and strategies are proposed to improve non-English majors’pronunciation proficiency.%英语语音教学是英语学习过程中最基础的一个环节,但是,由于学校、教师和学生的忽视、语音合格师资的缺乏、语音教学内容和方法的局限性等原因导致非英语专业学生的语音水平相对不高。针对目前非英语专业学生的语音问题,分析问题出现的原因并且进一步提出一些提高他们语音水平的教学方法和对策。

  11. "If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichon, Kathryn A.

    The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if

  12. Creating a Safe, High-Quality Healthcare System for All: Meeting the Needs of Limited English Proficient Populations; Comment on “Patient Safety and Healthcare Quality: The Case for Language Access”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Betancourt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article by Cheri Wilson, “Patient Safety and Healthcare Quality: The Case for Language Access”, highlights 
the challenges of providing Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS to patients with 
Limited English Proficiency (LEP. As the US pursues high-value, high-performance healthcare, our ability 
to meet the needs of our most vulnerable will determine whether we succeed or fail in the long run. With the 
implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA, this is more important than ever before, as it is estimated 
that the newly insured are more likely to be minority and less likely to speak English than their currently 
insured counterparts. As such, we must create a safe, high-quality healthcare system for all, especially in this 
time of incredible healthcare transformation and unprecedented diversity. Improving Patient Safety Systems for 
Patients With Limited English Proficiency: A Guide for Hospitals provides a blueprint for achieving this goal, 
and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH is taking action.

  13. Language proficiency and nursing registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring.

  14. Modelling the Relationships among Interlanguage Pragmatic Development, L2 Proficiency, and Exposure to L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shoichi

    2003-01-01

    Aimed to account for the different levels of pragmatic development among 137 university-level Japanese learners of English, as functions of their varying levels of English proficiency and amount of exposure to English. (Author/VWL)

  15. Chinese “sanwen”(散文)& English Essay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Mengru

    2015-01-01

    Knowing intimately the specifi c differences between Chinese "sanwen"(散文) and English essay benefits writers as well as readers in both creation and comprehension. This article would respectively focus on words and sentences in both languages to demonstrate the characteristics of the two languages including word choice,word repetition & synonym replacement and syntactic structure(句法结构). Hoping that after reading this article,your understanding of Chinese and English would arrive at a higher level and your writing proficiency would be slightly enhanced as well.

  16. 基于Kruskal-Wallis单因素方差分析的武汉高校大学生英语水平研究%Wuhan College Students' English Proficiency Based on Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余艳

    2014-01-01

    For the study of Wuhan university English language proficiency of non-English majors, this paper collected some colleges and universities in Wuhan National College English Contest 2014 preliminary results, first through the icon to show the characteristics of the data, and then focuses on the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test principles, and using the test method of diverse data that is part of the preliminary results of college students, and finally concluded that the level of English non-Eng-lish majors Wuhan raised conjecture.%为研究武汉高校非英语专业大学生的英语水平,本文搜集了武汉部分高校2014年全国大学生英语竞赛初赛成绩,首先通过图示来展现数据的特点,然后集中阐述了Kruskal-Wallis单因素方差检验的原理,并利用该检验方法对多样本数据即部分高校大学生初赛成绩进行检验,最后得出结论并且对武汉非英语专业大学生的英语水平提出了猜想。

  17. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  18. Who's Coming to My Party? Peer Talk as a Bridge to Oral Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Megan

    2012-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I investigate heterogeneous-language peer interactions in an English-only kindergarten classroom. English Learners and English Proficient students co-created language necessary to build an argument, one discourse valued in schools. Students developed complex oral language proficiency skills but were viewed as engaging…

  19. 不同语言水平的非英语专业学生模糊容忍度的差异研究%A Study of Non-English Majors' Differences in Tolerance of Ambiguity by Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林艳; 王岩

    2014-01-01

    Subjects in this study were 298 non-English majors from XX University. The questionnaires of the Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale ( SLTAS) is the major instrument in this quantitative research. Then statistical analysis were conduc-ted with SPSS17. 0 software. High proficiency students differ significantly from low proficiency students in overall ambiguity tolerance with the former being higher. Specifically, high proficient students are significantly more tolerant of ambiguity than low proficient students in reading, writing, listening, pronunciation, speaking and guessing meaning. There are no significant differences in TOA between high and low achievers in terms of grammar, translation and vocabulary development. The results suggest that English teachers should constantly adjust their teaching styles to match the students' learning styles.%以某大学的298名非英语专业学生为研究对象,利用Ely的模糊容忍度调查量表(SLTAS)(1995)为主要测试工具,SPSS17.0统计软件分析得出:不同语言水平的英语学习者的模糊容忍度存在显著差异。高语言水平学习者的模糊容忍度比低语言水平学习者的模糊容忍度要高,在阅读、写作、口语、听力、语音、猜词意方面,高语言水平学习者的模糊容忍度明显高于低语言水平学习者。然而在语法、翻译和词汇方面没有发现显著差异。这就要求教师应不断调整自己的教学风格以适应不同学生的学习风格。

  20. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment Among Chinese American Families

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescen...

  1. Mother-adolescent language proficiency and adolescent academic and emotional adjustment among Chinese American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisa L; Benner, Aprile D; Lau, Anna S; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents' heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth.

  2. Correlation Research on English Proficiency, Learning Motivation and Foreign Language Anxiety%学习成绩、学习动机与外语学习焦虑的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玲英; 何晓宇

    2015-01-01

    Through qualitative method, this paper makes an investigation of the language learning anxiety, learning motivation, and language proficiency of the 240 Non-English majors in a normal university. Research indicates that:there is a significantly nega-tive correlation between foreign language anxiety and language proficiency, and the foreign language anxiety of those with higher level of learning motivation is significantly lower than that of those with a lower level of learning motivation.%该研究通过定量分析方法对师范学院非英语专业学生的240名学生的语言学习焦虑、学习动机、英语成绩进行了调查分析.结果显示:语言学习焦虑与学习成绩呈显著负相关,学习动机强的学生的语言学习焦虑水平显著低于学习动机弱的学生的语言学习焦虑水平.

  3. What Can We Tell from These Temporal Measures?--Temporal Measures as Indices of Oral Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binhong

    2008-01-01

    Oral English teaching has long been a weak link in the science universities in China, let alone the research on oral English test by quantitative method. Therefore, OEPT in the U.S. sheds light on the spoken English teaching and researching in China. OEPT (Oral English Proficiency Test) is a spoken English test aimed to assess the oral English…

  4. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  5. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): The Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…

  6. 英语专业高低年级学生商务英语词汇学习策略比较研究%A Comparative Study of Business English Vocabulary Learning Strategies among English Majors at Different Proficiency Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文婕

    2012-01-01

    文章以英语专业62名一年级和62名三年级学生为调查对象,采用问卷、访谈等工具,探究英语专业学生商务英语词汇学习策略的总体情况,比较高低年级学生在商务英语词汇学习策略的使用上的异同。根据数据分析结果和商务英语词汇的特点,提出词汇学习策略培训和词块法教学在商务英语词汇学习中具有较强的可行性和有效性。%This paper reports an empirical study on various kinds of business English vocabulary acquisition strategies employed by the English majors at different proficiency levels. The subjects are the first-year and third-year English majors from Zhejiang Wanli University,and the instruments adopted included a questionnaire and interviews. Based on the results of data analysis and the features of business English vocabulary,it has been proposed that strategy instruction and word chunk will be effective in business English vocabulary acquisition.

  7. 高职非英语专业一年级学生多元智能与综合英语能力的相关性研究%Correlation between Multiple Intelligences and English Proficiency of Grade One Non-English Major Students in Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文欢

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theory of multiple intelligences, the questionnaire of multiple intelligences was applied to investigate 100 Non-English major vocational college students. The correlation between eight intelligences and English proficiency of the students was analyzed. The paper recommended that students should recognize multiple intelligences and teachers should know more about differentiating instruction.%基于多元智能理论,以100名高职非英语专业一年级学生为研究对象,借用多元智能调查问卷,对高职非英语专业一年级学生八项智能与综合英语能力之间的相关性进行探讨,提出应加强学生对多元智能以及教师对差异性教学的认识.

  8. English

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    "English: An Essential Grammar" is a concise and user-friendly guide to the grammar of modern English, written specifically for native speakers and based on genuine samples of contemporary spoken and written English. In four chapters, the book covers the essentials of English grammar, beginning with the basics and going on to deal with phrase, clause and sentence structure. A fifth chapter deals with English word formation and spelling, including problem spellings and British and American spelling variants. Features of this title include: discussion of points that often cause problem

  9. Do Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience Affect Speech Act Production? Analysis of Appropriateness, Accuracy, and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the effect of general proficiency and study-abroad experience in production of speech acts among learners of L2 English. Participants were 25 native speakers of English and 64 Japanese college students of English divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 22) had lower proficiency and no study-abroad experience.…

  10. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning.

  11. Newly arrived elderly immigrants: a concept analysis of "aging out of place".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Tina R; Jun, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Newcomer elderly immigrants, defined as adults older than the age of 65 who have arrived in the United States in the last 10 years, represent a growing sector of the American population. Newcomers who experience limited English proficiency, financial strain, and acculturative stress are at considerable risk of developing poor health outcomes. Nursing's focus on healthy aging and aging in place has largely ignored the experiences of these older adults, who are said to be "aging out of place." This concept analysis uses Rodgers's evolutionary method to define "aging out of place" and illustrates why existing theories of elderly migration do not necessarily apply to this population. The challenge for nurses is incorporating the family, with whom conflict may arise, into the care of these elders. Community-based strategies that enable social integration and create a greater division of labor in the care of newcomer elders are called for.

  12. Language Proficiency and Home Languages of Students in New York City Elementary and Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Conger, Dylan

    This report describes demographic characteristics and educational experiences of New York City's elementary and middle school students by English language proficiency and home language. It compares the characteristics and achievement of students who are limited English proficiency (LEP), most of whom: live in homes where a language other than…

  13. ESL Students' Perceptions of Their English Writing Proficiency and the Effects of Peer Review Training among Three Types of Students in a Community College ESL Composition Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldburg, Maxine E.

    2012-01-01

    Learner-centered methodology like peer review is problematic in the pluralism of the ESL classroom when teaching academic English composition. A distinct complication is the form writing instruction should take given the interaction and variations between ESL students' L1 background, experiences, schema, and the meaning of academic literacy in…

  14. A Study on the Relationship Between Non-English Majors’Use of Metacognitive Strategies and Oral English Proficiency%非英语专业大学生元认知策略使用与英语口语相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘丽华

    2014-01-01

    An empirical study on the relationship between Non-English majors’use of metacognitive strategies and oral English proficiency has been conducted. Quantitative method is adopted in the study.Results of the study reveal that the use of metacognitive strategies in oral English among Chinese college Non-English majors is not very satisfactory. Next, among the five categories of metacognitive strategies,what students use comparatively the most is the category of goals and plans while the category of self-monitoring rates is rarely used.The usa of the categories of self-monitoring, self-managing,selective attention as well as plans and goals exhibits certain explanatory power in the differences of the students’ oral English results. The study also shows some positive relationship between the frequency of overall metacognitive strategy use and the results of oral English proficiency.%就非英语专业大学生元认知策略使用与英语口语之间的关系进行了实证研究。研究采用定量的方法,结果显示,非英语专业大学生在英语口语过程中使用元认知策略的情况不容乐观。就五类常用的元认知策略而言,使用最多的是目标计划类,最少的是监控类。监控类策略、管理、选择注意和目标计划类元认知策略的使用情况对英语口语成绩的差异有一定的解释力。其次,整体使用元认知策略的频率与英语口语成绩存在相关性。

  15. Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) Framework Manual 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Commissioner's Rules Concerning the State Plan for Educating English Language Learners (ELLs) states that all school districts that are required to provide bilingual education and/or English as a second language (ESL) programs establish and operate a Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC). The LPACs are charged with reviewing all…

  16. Developing Autonomous Learning for Oral Proficiency Using Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SoHee

    2014-01-01

    Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…

  17. Developing Autonomous Learning for Oral Proficiency Using Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SoHee

    2014-01-01

    Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…

  18. L2 Phonology Learning among Young-Adult Learners of English: Effects of Regular Classroom-based Instruction and L2 Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Morales Pech

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a mixed methodology, this study examines the impact of a university-level English phonology course on the acquisition of vowel and consonant sounds in that language, by beginning (n = 4, pre-intermediate (n = 8 and intermediate-level (n = 6 students. The 5-hour-a-week, 16-week course was taught by teacher of English. To determine the effects of the course, students participated in two oral activities during an interview at the beginning of the course, and another at the end. During these interview, nine classes were observed, and the instructor reported the activities implemented. The analysis of variance revealed positive changes in all the students’ pronunciation students. Observations and reports verified the presence of systematic and focused phonological teaching through a variety of activities. The results suggest that this type of teaching allows students to counteract the negative effects which biological factors and the influence of the mother tongue have on learning.

  19. When BAWE meets WELT:The use of a corpus of student writing to develop items for a proficiency test in grammar and English usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Paul Sharpling

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the use of the British Academic Written English (BAWE corpus as a source for developing test items for the Grammar and English Usage section of the Warwick English Language (WELT test in 2007. A key feature of this newly designed multiple choice grammar test was its use of student-generated writing. The extracts used for the re-designed test were derived directly from the BAWE corpus, as opposed to text books, published sources or indeed, simulated extracts of academic writing devised by test developers, which had been the case previously. The rationale for using the BAWE corpus for language test design is outlined, with a particular focus on the attributes of the students’ writing within the corpus, and the inclusion of both first and second language writing. The challenges involved in developing grammar test items based on BAWE corpus data are also presented. While the procedures set out in the paper were undertaken within a specifically British higher education setting, it is hoped that the research will be of interest to test developers and/or researchers in writing skills in other academic settings worldwide.

  20. The use of pragmatic markers across proficiency levels in second language speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Neary-Sundquist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of pragmatic markers (PMs by learners of English at varying proficiency levels. The study analyzes data from a university-level oral proficiency exam that categorized Chinese and Korean English-as-a-second-language (ESL speakers into four proficiency levels and compares data with those of native speakers taking the same test. Findings indicate that PM use generally rises with proficiency level. The rates of PM use showed a dramatic increase between the highest and second-highest proficiency group. The highest proficiency ESL group used PMs at the same rate as native speakers. The study also found that the variety of different PMs used goes up steadily with proficiency level. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding how second language learners’ use of PMs develops.

  1. 中国学生英语水平与语用能力发展研究%Chinese EFL Learners' English Proficiency and Their Pragmatic Competence Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建达; 黄玮莹

    2012-01-01

    This study explores whether students with different language proficiency exhibit differential pragmatic competence in terms of Routines, Conversational Implicature and Speech Acts. Results showed that significant differences were found among different language groups in terms of performances in the Routines and Speech Acts sections but not in the Conversational Implicature subtest, which implies that different components of EFL students' ILP competence do not develop at an equal rate. Results also suggested a strong effect of the content and methods of instruction on the development of Chinese EFL students' ILP competence.%本文研究中国学生英语水平与语用能力发展之间的关系,具体揭示不同水平的英语学习者在惯例用语、会话含义和言语行为这三种语用能力的发展上是否有差异。结果显示不同英语水平的学习者在惯例用语和言语行为上都有显著差异,但在会话含义中没有任何两组之间存在显著差异,说明中国英语学习者的不同语用能力发展不平衡。本研究还通过问卷调查了课堂教学、课内外语用知识输入和语用意识方面的情况,结果表明学生在这几方面的情况参差不齐,学生的语用能力发展很大程度上受其英语教师教学内容和教学方式的影响。

  2. Proficiency: Understanding the Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.; Frawley, William

    1988-01-01

    Argues against the current oral proficiency testing approach in favor of an approach in which researchers come to understand what it means for real speakers to interact with each other in the everyday world of human activity. Problematic trends are addressed, and a principled theory of oral proficiency is identified. (DJD)

  3. “Grafting”CEFR:Developing China’s English Writing Proficiency Scale%CEFR“嫁接”在中国:英语笔头输出能力量表指标体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁友芹

    2016-01-01

    The“One Belt One Road”policy is calling for synchronous or before-hand language services. In addition to speed, language service standards should be established as soon as possible. Therefore, this study uses the 16“written output and its strategy”scales from Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)to test 4 groups of Chinese learners of English at different levels. This“grafting”experiment intends to find the interface between Chinese students’self-evaluation language levels and the CEFR scales, quantitatively analyzes its feasibility and ultimately builds a fundamental theoretical model and a parameter description system for China’s English writing proficiency scale by incorporating standards from China’s English teaching and assessment syllabi into the CEFR scales and finds the interface for furthering the“grafting”experiment in the future.%“一带一路”战略正呼唤语言服务与其同步或先行。除了速度,语言服务质量标准应尽快出台。本研究将《欧洲语言共同参考框架》(CEFR)“笔头输出及其策略”中的16个三级能力指标量表编辑成测试表,直接“嫁接”实验测试中国英语学习者,在4个水平的学习者中开展建模测试,获得中国学生在CEFR量表中的自我评价度,量化分析其可行性,进而参考CEFR量表主要内容,揉进中国英语测试大纲标准,提炼出中国目标英语笔头输出能力量表的基础理论模型和典型描述参数,为下一步“嫁接”研究寻找接口。

  4. The correlation between accent perception accuracy and listening proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田方

    2012-01-01

    This study tries to examine the correlation between Chinese EFL learners' accent perception accuracy of and their lis- tening proficiency. Accent annotation data were collected from 80 English-majored freshmen and sophomores. Results show that their accent perception accuracy is positively related to their listening proficiency. Therefore, it is concluded that the teaching of the accent should be enhanced to help students overcome some supersegmental obstacles in their listening.

  5. English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...... have been maintained and intensified since then, as African and Indian scholarship demonstrates. Language plays a key role in education, the World Bank taking over where colonial regimes left off. Anglo-American efforts to maintain global English dominance have intensified since 1945 and are central...... to the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article...

  6. The Effect of Semantic Abstraction on the Language Contact of Non Proficient Tibetan and English Bilinguals%语义抽象性对非熟练藏英双语者语言联系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高蕾; 高晓雷; 赵三丰

    2016-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the effect of semantic abstraction on the language contact of non proficient Ti‐betan and English bilinguals .Methods :In this study ,we used the task of cross - language repetition priming paradigm to carry out experiments .Results :It was found that ,when in the learning phase to complete the semantic judgment task of specific English words ,and in the test phase to complete the lexical judgment task of specific Tibetan words . There was no significant difference in the reaction time and the correct rate of the learned and no learned words (re‐action time ,F(1 ,31) = 2 .56 ,P > 0 .05 ;correct rate ,F(1 ,131) = 1 .98 ,P > 0 .05) .Cross language repetition priming effect did not exist .In the learning phase to complete the semantic judgment task of abstract English words ,and in the test phase to complete the lexical judgment task of abstract Tibetan words ,there was significant difference in the reaction time and the correct rate of the learned and no learned words (reaction time ,F(1 ,31) = 17 .58 ,P < 0 .001 ;correct rate , F(1 ,131) = 15 .58 ,P < 0 .05) .Conclusion :The response to the learned words is significantly faster than that of the no learned words ,and the correct rate is higher .Cross language long time repetition priming effect was exists .The pres‐ent study indicates that there is direct connection between the abstract words of English and its translation of Tibet ‐an .This result supports the lexical connection model and the modified level model .%目的:考察语义抽象性对非熟练藏英双语者语言联系的影响。方法:采用跨语言长时重复启动实验范式开展实验。结果:在学习阶段为英文具体词语义判断,测验阶段为藏文具体词词汇判断时,已学词的反应时与正确率与未学词相比均不存在显著差异(反应时,F(1,31)=2.56,P >0.05;正确率,F(1,131)=1.98,P >0.05),不存在跨语言长时重复启动

  7. 高师英语专业语音水平测试体系探析%A Tentative Analysis of "English Pronunciation Proficiency Testing System" for English Majors in Normal Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂玉洁; 邓毅群

    2011-01-01

    This thesis starts from reflection of problems existing in English pronunciation teaching and testing in Normal Universities, pointing out the weaknesses of traditional testing method based on a 60-grade pass line. Taking account in relative theories of pronunciation testing and the teaching goal of English teaching major in Normal Universities, it probes into the system's positive effect on pronunciation teaching by analyzing in depth the research statistics of testing 200 English majors from Grade 2009 of the author's school. The system's practicability and feasibility is thus demonstrated.%文章从当前高师院校英语语音教学及语音测试问题的思考入手,指出传统以60分为及格线的语音测试的不足,并结合语音测试的相关理论和高师院校英语教育专业的培养目标,探讨了"英语语音水平测试体系"对语音教学的正面反拨效应,重点分析了对我校英语专业2009级200名学生不同时期语音测试成绩的跟踪实验结果,初步证实了该套体系的实用性和可行性。

  8. Vessel Arrival Info - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...

  9. 自主课程设计对大学非英语专业学生自主学习能力及英语水平的影响%Effect of involving students in course design on development of non-English major′s learner autonomy and their English proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀芹; 杨莉

    2015-01-01

    本研究旨在考察把课程设计的自主权转交给学生对大学非英语专业学生学习自主性的有效性以及对其英语水平的影响。研究采用对比实验组与控制组的方法,发现由学生自主进行外语课程设计对学生的学习态度产生了积极的影响,学生对该课程的责任意识和自主学习能力有了明显的提高。实验结束时,实验组学生的整体语言水平优于对照组。研究结果表明,该方法对英语水平较好学生语言水平的提高作用明显,对英语水平较差学生语言水平的提高作用有限。%This paper aims to explore the influence of involving students in course design on learner autonomy and their Eng⁃lish proficiency.The study involves two groups of students one contrast group and the other experimental group and draws some conclusions by comparing the students′self⁃evaluation forms and proficiency tests scores at the beginning and end of the study.It shows that giving students more power in course design has a very positive influence on students′learning attitudes.The subjects′sense of responsibility for the English course and their learner autonomy has been improved significantly.At the end of the study the proficiency test scores in the experimental group are better than those in the contrast group. The study shows that this method has a better effect on more successful students and very limited influence on less successful students.

  10. The influence of non-native language proficiency on speech perception performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eKilman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined to what extent proficiency in a non-native language influences speech perception in noise. We explored how English proficiency affected native (Swedish and non-native (English speech perception in four speech reception threshold (SRT conditions including two energetic (stationary, fluctuating noise and two informational (two-talker babble Swedish, two-talker babble English maskers. Twenty-three normal-hearing native Swedish listeners participated, age between 28 and 64 years. The participants also performed standardized tests in English proficiency, non-verbal reasoning and working memory capacity. Our approach with focus on proficiency and the assessment of external as well as internal, listener-related factors allowed us to examine which variables explained intra-and interindividual differences in native and non-native speech perception performance. The main result was that in the non-native target, the level of English proficiency is a decisive factor for speech intelligibility in noise. High English proficiency improved performance in all four conditions when target language was English. The informational maskers were interfering more with perception than energetic maskers, specifically in the non-native language. The study also confirmed that the SRT's were better when target language was native compared to non-native.

  11. Cross Context Role of Language Proficiency in Learners' Use of Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalizad, Jalal; Samuel, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Responding to the controversies in the results of past studies regarding the impact of language proficiency on learners' use of language learning strategies, this article reports the effect of language proficiency on the strategy use of Iranian English learners across two different settings, namely ESL Malaysia, and EFL Iran. Some 157 Iranian…

  12. Modeling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa

  13. Modeling the development of L1 and EFL writing proficiency of secondary school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; van Gelderen, A.; Stoel, R.D.; Hulstijn, J.; de Glopper, K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa

  14. ELL High School Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategy Use and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Nam, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the metacognitive awareness and reading strategies use of high school-­aged English language learners (ELLs) and the relationship between ELL reading strategy use and reading proficiency as measured by a standardized reading test and self-­rated reading proficiency. Results reveal that participants reported moderate use of…

  15. Proficiency and Working Memory Based Explanations for Nonnative Speakers' Sensitivity to Agreement in Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Caitlin E.; Tremblay, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the roles of proficiency and working memory (WM) capacity in second-/foreign-language (L2) learners' processing of agreement morphology. It investigates the processing of grammatical and ungrammatical short- and long-distance number agreement dependencies by native English speakers at two proficiencies in French, and the…

  16. Discussion on the Category of the English Proficiency Test in Chinese Library Classification ( 5th Edition )%《中国图书馆分类法》(第5版)英语水平考试类目探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清

    2012-01-01

    目前英语水平考试的名目繁多、题型不同,专论主题文献多种多样。利用《中国图书馆分类法》(以下简称《中图法》)(第5版)对英语考试类文献归类时存在以下问题与困惑:归类不符合《中图法》(第5版)列类的基本原则,部分专论主题无类可入,主题分散归类致使读者查找不方便。因此,应该通过突出“考试”目标、集中归类、对类号进行组配、对专论主题单独列类等方法修改及完善英语水平考试类相关类目,以更好地突出其科学性及实用性。%At present, items of the English proficiency test have many varieties, and the type of the English proficiency test is various, so monograph literatures are also many and varied. There are some problems and confusions in classifying literatures of the category of the English proficiency test in Chinese Library Classification(CLC) (5th edition), such as the classification does not conform to the basic principle of the category setting in CLC(5th edition); some monographs couldn't be classified into any category; some themes are classified dispersedly so that it isn't convenient for reader's retrieval. Therefore, we should revise and perfect relative categodes of the English proficiency test through outstanding the target of test, classifying categories intensively, coordinating the class number and setting up separate categories for monographs, in order to stress the scientificalness and practicability of the subject.

  17. TRACON Aircraft Arrival Planning and Optimization Through Spatial Constraint Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Christopher P.; Krzeczowski, Kenneth J.; Davis, Thomas J.; Denery, Dallas G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A new aircraft arrival planning and optimization algorithm has been incorporated into the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) in the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) developed at NASA-Ames Research Center. FAST simulations have been conducted over three years involving full-proficiency, level five air traffic controllers from around the United States. From these simulations an algorithm, called Spatial Constraint Satisfaction, has been designed, coded, undergone testing, and soon will begin field evaluation at the Dallas-Fort Worth and Denver International airport facilities. The purpose of this new design is an attempt to show that the generation of efficient and conflict free aircraft arrival plans at the runway does not guarantee an operationally acceptable arrival plan upstream from the runway -information encompassing the entire arrival airspace must be used in order to create an acceptable aircraft arrival plan. This new design includes functions available previously but additionally includes necessary representations of controller preferences and workload, operationally required amounts of extra separation, and integrates aircraft conflict resolution. As a result, the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm produces an optimized aircraft arrival plan that is more acceptable in terms of arrival procedures and air traffic controller workload. This paper discusses the current Air Traffic Control arrival planning procedures, previous work in this field, the design of the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm, and the results of recent evaluations of the algorithm.

  18. Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: Interaction between language proficiency and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual experience is dynamic and poses a challenge for researchers to develop instruments that capture its relevant dimensions. The present study examined responses from a questionnaire administered to 110 heterogeneous bilingual young adults. These questions concern participants’ language use, acquisition history and self-reported proficiency. The questionnaire responses and performances on standardized English proficiency measures were analyzed using factor analysis. In order to retain a realistic representation of bilingual experience, the factors were allowed to correlate with each other in the analysis. Two correlating factors were extracted, representing daily bilingual usage and English proficiency. These two factors were also related to self-rated proficiency in English and non-English language. Results were interpreted as supporting the notion that bilingual experience is composed of multiple related dimensions that will need to be considered in assessments of the consequences of bilingualism. PMID:24073327

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING CHINESE POST-GRADUATE EFL LEARNERS’ ORAL PROFICIENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The article investigates factors affecting Chinese postgraduate EFL learners’ oral proficiency. Little practice, fear of errors and unscientific classroom management are found to be the major factors. Also an overemphasis on written English instruction seems to be another root cause. After the discussion of the results of this investigation a series of methods are suggested for reference.

  20. Proficiency, Portfolios, and Learner Development in the Reading Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzer, Carolyn; Sharkey, Judy

    Experiences in teaching a first-year reading course in the intensive English program at Kansai Gaidai Junior College (Japan) are discussed. In the period described, there were six classes of 16 students each. A proficiency-oriented approach incorporating a learner development component was adopted to facilitate the transition from traditional…

  1. Making Shifts toward Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The Leading for Mathematical Proficiency (LMP) Framework (Bay-Williams et al.) has three components: (1) The Standards for Mathematical Practice; (2) Shifts in classroom practice; and (3) Teaching skills. This article briefly describes each component of the LMP framework and then focuses more in depth on the second component, the shifts in…

  2. Facets of Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…

  3. Conceptualizing Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Songren

    1993-01-01

    Discusses both Canale's and Bachman's theoretical frameworks of language proficiency (LP). These theories share the same standpoint: language use for communication is dynamic; LP is both knowledge and skills; and LP includes at least grammatical competence, discourse/textual competence, and sociolinguistic competence. (Contains 38 references.) (JP)

  4. Implementing Hansen's Proficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J. Lon; Cohn, Raymond L.; Ramsey, David D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an economics department framework that incorporates the William Lee Hansen curriculum proficiencies. Identifies tools students should be able to use to complete specific activities, significant prerequisite changes for upper division courses, and the development of a capstone project to employ student skills and knowledge. (JEH)

  5. Can Higher-Proficiency L2 Learners Benefit from Working with Lower-Proficiency Partners in Peer Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shulin; Hu, Guangwei

    2017-01-01

    Informed by Vygotsky's conceptualization of the Zone of Proximal Development, this case study investigated the benefits of peer feedback on second language (L2) writing for students with high L2 proficiency and the factors that may influence their learning in peer feedback in the Chinese English-as-a-foreign-language context. Specifically, the…

  6. LHCb magnet coils arrive

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Each of the two coils for the LHCb magnet comprises 15 individual monolayer 'pancakes' of identical trapezoidal racetrack shape, and is bent at 45 degrees on the two transverse sides. Each pancake consists of eight turns of conductor, wound from a single length (approx. 290 m) of extruded aluminium. The coils have arrived at CERN; one of them is seen here being unloaded above the LHCb experimental cavern.

  7. Proficient beyond borders: assessing non-native speakers in a native speakers’ framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fleckenstein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background English language proficiency is considered a basic skill that students from different language backgrounds are expected to master, independent of whether they are native or non-native speakers. Tests that measure language proficiency in non-native speakers are typically linked to the common European framework of reference for languages. Such tests, however, often lack the criteria to define a practically relevant degree of proficiency in English. We approach this deficit by assessing non-native speakers’ performance within a native speakers’ framework. Method Items from two English reading assessments—the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA and the National Assessment (NA for English as a foreign language in Germany—were administered to N = 427 German high school students. Student abilities were estimated by drawing plausible values in a two-dimensional Rasch model. Results Results show that non-native speakers of English generally underperformed compared to native speakers. However, academic track students in the German school system achieved satisfactory levels of proficiency on the PISA scale. Linking the two scales showed systematic differences in the proficiency level classifications. Conclusion The findings contribute to the validation and international localization of NA standards for English as a foreign language. Practical implications are discussed with respect to policy-defined benchmarks for the successful participation in a global English-speaking society.

  8. Learning minimally different words in a third language: L2 proficiency as a crucial predictor of accuracy in an L3 word learning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Escudero, P.; Broersma, M.; Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K.; Wrembel, M.; Kul, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency in the L2 (English) and L3 (Dutch) on word learning in the L3. Learners were 92 L1 Spanish speakers with differing proficiencies in L2 and L3, and 20 native speakers of Dutch. The learners were divided into basic and advanced English and Dutch proficienc

  9. Do the AZELLA Cut Scores Meet the Standards? A Validation Review of Arizona English Language Learner Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Ida Rose

    2010-01-01

    The Arizona English Language Learners Assessment (AZELLA) is used by the Arizona Department of Education to determine which children should receive English support services. AZELLA results are used to determine if children are either proficient in English or have English language skills in one of four pre-proficient categories (pre-emergent,…

  10. A Growth Curve Analysis of Literacy Performance among Second-Grade, Spanish-Speaking, English-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiierrez, Gabriel; Vanderwood, Mike L.

    2013-01-01

    The literacy growth of 260 second-grade English learners (ELs) with varying degrees of English language proficiency (e.g., Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced and Advanced English language proficiency) was assessed with English literacy skill assessments. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures were…

  11. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency. Keywords: Language proficiency, Collocation, Communicative Competence, academic year, Iranian EFL learners

  12. Critical period effects in second language learning: the influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J S; Newport, E L

    1989-01-01

    Lenneberg (1967) hypothesized that language could be acquired only within a critical period, extending from early infancy until puberty. In its basic form, the critical period hypothesis need only have consequences for first language acquisition. Nevertheless, it is essential to our understanding of the nature of the hypothesized critical period to determine whether or not it extends as well to second language acquisition. If so, it should be the case that young children are better second language learners than adults and should consequently reach higher levels of final proficiency in the second language. This prediction was tested by comparing the English proficiency attained by 46 native Korean or Chinese speakers who had arrived in the United States between the ages of 3 and 39, and who had lived in the United States between 3 and 26 years by the time of testing. These subjects were tested on a wide variety of structures of English grammar, using a grammaticality judgment task. Both correlational and t-test analyses demonstrated a clear and strong advantage for earlier arrivals over the later arrivals. Test performance was linearly related to age of arrival up to puberty; after puberty, performance was low but highly variable and unrelated to age of arrival. This age effect was shown not to be an inadvertent result of differences in amount of experience with English, motivation, self-consciousness, or American identification. The effect also appeared on every grammatical structure tested, although the structures varied markedly in the degree to which they were well mastered by later learners. The results support the conclusion that a critical period for language acquisition extends its effects to second language acquisition.

  13. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  14. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  15. The Impact of Resilience on L2 Learners' Motivated Behaviour and Proficiency in L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Yoon-Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on the factors that constitute second language (L2) learners' resilience, and how these factors are related to L2 learning by investigating what relation resilience may have to motivated behaviour and proficiency in English learning. A total of 1620 secondary school learners of English participated in a questionnaire…

  16. 基于ZPD理论的英语专业学生口语产出能力动态评估体系的构建%Dynamic Evaluation System Construction of English Majors' Oral Proficiency Based on ZPD Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静; 王宏伟; 冯展极

    2014-01-01

    针对我国高校英语专业学生口语产出能力研究现状,口语教学中可参照Vygotsky的ZPD理论,结合国内外评估理论的最新成果,构建“英语专业学生口语产出能力动态评估体系”,以期达到能力评估、反拨教学、引导学习、促进学生专业口语能力发展的目的。%The latest achievements in assessment theory at home and abroad can contribute to the research of oral English teaching. Considering the status quo of English Majors' in China, the construction of dynamic evaluation system of English majors' oral proficiency, based on Vygotsky's ZPD Theory, is helpful to impel the development of the students ' oral ability. It ' s also expected to promote the capacity evaluation and washback in language teaching.

  17. Focus on Form: Deductive versus inductive techniques in teaching English

    OpenAIRE

    Ásdís Björnsdóttir 1980

    2016-01-01

    Icelandic secondary school students are generally at an advanced level of informal, colloquial English but are not as proficient in the skills necessary for academic or professional use in a country where English language proficiency is presupposed in tertiary education and business. More formal registers demand higher levels of precision and accuracy in language use. Advancing the acquisition of certain linguistic forms is thus needed to reach target proficiency. Deductive and inductive teac...

  18. More than use it or lose it: the number-of-speakers effect on heritage language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H; Starr, Jennie; Ferreira, Victor S

    2015-02-01

    Acquiring a heritage language (HL), a minority language spoken primarily at home, is often a major step toward achieving bilingualism. Two studies examined factors that promote HL proficiency. Chinese-English and Spanish-English undergraduates and Hebrew-English children named pictures in both their languages, and they or their parents completed language history questionnaires. HL picture-naming ability correlated positively with the number of different HL speakers participants spoke to as children, independently of each language's frequency of use, and without negatively affecting English picture-naming ability. HL performance increased also when primary caregivers had lower English proficiency, with later English age of acquisition, and (in children) with increased age. These results suggest a prescription for increasing bilingual proficiency is regular interaction with multiple HL speakers. Responsible cognitive mechanisms could include greater variety of words used by different speakers, representational robustness from exposure to variations in form, or multiple retrieval cues, perhaps analogous to contextual diversity effects.

  19. Evidence That International Undergraduates Can Succeed Academically Despite Struggling with English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.

    2015-01-01

    Many American universities require international applicants whose native language is not English to submit English proficiency exam scores presumably because of proficiency's potential to predict future academic success. The present study provides evidence, however, that such applicants can succeed academically despite struggling with English.…

  20. Integrating Scaffolding Strategies into Technology-Enhanced Assessments of English Learners: Task Types and Measurement Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Lopez, Alexis; Castellano, Katherine; Himelfarb, Igor; Tsutagawa, Fred S.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates ways to improve the assessment of English learner students' English language proficiency given the current movement of creating next-generation English language proficiency assessments in the Common Core era. In particular, this article discusses the integration of scaffolding strategies, which are prevalently utilized as…

  1. Eight Factors Applied in Teaching English Listening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jianping

    2016-01-01

    English listening proficiency is always the most difficult part for English learners as the second language especially in China-mainland. Meanwhile, English teacher always take challenges in how to teach student the skills. This paper studies different learners and their different learning type, then put forward 8 necessary factors which should be concluded in the whole teaching step.

  2. Do "TOEFL iBT"® Scores Reflect Improvement in English-Language Proficiency? Extending the TOEFL iBT Validity Argument. Research Report. ETS RR-14-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guangming; Powers, Donald E.; Adler, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    One fundamental way to determine the validity of standardized English-language test scores is to investigate the extent to which they reflect anticipated learning effects in different English-language programs. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the "TOEFL iBT"® practice test reflects the learning effects of students at…

  3. Reclassification of English Learners

    OpenAIRE

    James B. Grissom

    2004-01-01

    Ron Unz, originator of Proposition 227, claimed, prior to the passage of Prop. 227, that the five percent annual reclassification rate of English learners to fluent English proficient indicated bilingual education was a failure. Critics of Prop. 227 have countered that the annual reclassification rate has changed little since the passage of Prop. 227, indicating the new legislation had no effect on reclassification rates. Unfortunately, the annual reclassification rate does not provide a clea...

  4. Accuracy of physician self-report of Spanish language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Anne; Wang, Frances; Schillinger, Dean; Pérez Stable, Eliseo J; Fernandez, Alicia

    2011-04-01

    As health systems strive to meet the needs of linguistically diverse patient populations, determining a physician's non-English language proficiency is becoming increasingly important. However, brief, validated measures are lacking. To determine if any of four self-reported measures of physician Spanish language proficiency are useful measures of fluency in Spanish. Physician self-report of Spanish proficiency was compared to Spanish-speaking patients' report of their physicians' language proficiency. 110 Spanish-speaking patients and their 46 physicians in two public hospital clinics with professional interpreters available. Physicians rated their Spanish fluency with four items: one general fluency question, two clinically specific questions, and one question on interpreter use. Patients were asked if their doctor speaks Spanish ("yes/no"). Concordance, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated for each of the items, and receiver operating (ROC) curves were used to compare performance characteristics. Concordance between physician and patient reports of physician Spanish proficiency ranged from 84 to 91%. The PPV for each of the four items ranged from 91 to 99%, the NPV from 60 to 90%, and the area under their ROC curves from 90 to 95%. The general fluency question gave the best combination of PPV and NPV, and the item on holding sensitive discussions had the highest PPV, 99%. Physicians who reported fluency as "fair" were as likely to have patients report they did not speak Spanish as that they did. Physician self-report of Spanish language proficiency is highly correlated with patient report, except when physicians report "fair" general fluency. In settings where no financial or other incentives are linked to language skills, simple questions may be a useful way to assess physician language proficiency.

  5. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chin Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assessed with the Test Anxiety Scale, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale and a reading-proficiency test. Data were analyzed by means of Pearson’s product-moment correlations and independent-samples t-tests. Results: Several findings were reported. First, English reading proficiency was found negatively related to test anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety. Second, test anxiety was found correlated positively with foreign language reading anxiety. Third, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Testees and High Anxiety Testees did not reach a significance level. Fourth, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Readers and High Anxiety Readers did not reach a significance level, either. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was possible that the sample sizes may not be enough to make the reading-proficiency difference between LAT and HAT or between LAR and HAR reach a significance level. In addition, the reading-proficiency test in the form of multiple-choice questions could not have differentiated low anxiety participants from high anxiety ones. In the future, the number of participants should be increased to increase the power of the statistical procedure. In addition, various reading-proficiency assessments should be considered.

  6. Globalization, English Language Policy, and Teacher Agency: Focus on Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on English teachers in Asia in the context of globalization, the global spread of English and the emergence of English as an "Asian language." It highlights the dilemmas facing these teachers in meeting the growing social demands of English proficiency in a technology-influenced, managerial and neoliberal education…

  7. A Reviewing on English Writing Researching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军莉

    2015-01-01

    English writing is also a crucial means of evaluating the language proficiency of a learner of English as second language. As a result, it is essential to review English writing researching in terms of contents, number, methods, process, feedback and as⁃sessment which can guide our English writing teaching effectively.

  8. Conceptual Representation Changes in Indonesian-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Andree; Suárez, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated conceptual representations changes in bilinguals. Participants were Indonesian-English bilinguals (dominant in Indonesian, with different levels of English proficiency) and a control group composed of English-dominant bilinguals. All completed a gender decision task, in which participants decided whether English words…

  9. Research-Based Vocabulary Instruction for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephanie F.

    2012-01-01

    A major reading-achievement gap exists between English language learners and English-only students. In order for ELLs to experience school success, they must achieve English language proficiency. This article presents why vocabulary acquisition plays the most vital role in ELLs' learning of the English language. Factors include the severity and…

  10. Using Computerized Bilingual Dictionaries To help Maximize English Vocabulary Learning at Japanese Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucky, John Paul

    2003-01-01

    Compares various computerized bilingual dictionaries for their relative effectiveness in helping Japanese college students at several language proficiency levels to access new English target vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  11. Self-Ratings of Spoken Language Dominance: A Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) and Preliminary Norms for Young and Aging Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…

  12. The Schooling of English Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Russell W. Rumberger; Gándara, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    An increasing number of students entering California’s schools come from non-English speaking backgrounds. Although some of these language minority students enter school already proficient in English, the majority do not. These students are now referred to as English learners. There are several reasons why Californians need to pay careful attention to the schooling of language minority students in their public schools. First, language minority students now constitute more than one-th...

  13. The Attitudes of Anglophone and Francophone Cameroonians towards Cameroon English as a Model of English Language Teaching and Learning in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…

  14. Teachers' Habitus for Teaching English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    In this examination of monolingual and multilingual pedagogies I draw on literature that explores the position of English globally and in the curriculum for English. I amplify the discussion with data from a project exploring how teachers responded to the arrival of Polish children in their English classrooms following Poland's entry to the…

  15. Learning through English Language in Early Childhood Education: A Case of English Medium Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalongo, Leopard Jacob

    2016-01-01

    In China the English medium schools are now mushrooming and many parents send their children at very early age. These schools enroll children of pre-school to school age to learn through English as foreign language regardless of their proficiency in the first language. Therefore the study aims at examining the learning English language as a…

  16. Reading Experiences of Nonnative-English-Speaking Preservice English Teachers: A Turkish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas-Cetinkaya, Yesim

    2012-01-01

    In an EFL context, where language learners and users lack sufficient opportunities to receive oral input, reading in English plays a major role in improving nonnative preservice English teachers' language proficiency and allowing them to access information recorded exclusively in English. The current study investigates prospective nonnative…

  17. Study on Correlation of English Pronunciation Self-Concept to English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Shengqi; Li, Yucong; Zhao, Miqiang

    2013-01-01

    English pronunciation self-concept is formed in the process of pronunciation learning, which refers to the learners' self-conception and assessment of one's English pronunciation proficiency and pronunciation (Gimson, A. C. 1980). This paper reports an investigation on 237 non-English major college students into the relationship between English…

  18. Teaching Intercultural English Learning/Teaching in World Englishes: Some Classroom Activities in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses what intercultural English learning/teaching (IELT) is in English as a world Englishes (WEes) and how IELT can contribute to the development of proficiency/competence among WEes and can be fitted into actual WEes classrooms. This is to claim that IELT be a pivotal contextual factor facilitating success in…

  19. Confined Quantum Time of Arrivals

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A; Galapon, Eric A.; Bahague, Ricardo T.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the non-self-adjoint free time of arrival operator in free space defines a class of compact, self-adjoint, and canonical operators for a spatially confined particle. We analytically and numerically study the qualitative behaviors of these operators, and demonstrate that their eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are consistent with the interpretation that they are time of arrival operators.

  20. The Correlates of Academic Performance for English Language Learner Students in a New England District. REL 2014-020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student and program characteristics that are related to English proficiency and content area achievement for English language learner (ELL) students in one urban district in Connecticut. The study found that ELL students in special education had English proficiency scores significantly lower than the mean for all ELL students…

  1. English Learner Student Characteristics and Time to Reclassification: An Example from Washington State. REL 2016-128

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg Motamedi, Jason; Singh, Malkeet; Thompson, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    How long does it typically take English learner students to develop English language proficiency? And how does this time vary by student characteristics such as English proficiency at entry to kindergarten, gender, and home language? The answers to these questions can provide valuable information to districts and schools. Regional Educational…

  2. Predictive Validity and Accuracy of Oral Reading Fluency for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwood, Michael L.; Tung, Catherine Y.; Checca, C. Jason

    2014-01-01

    The predictive validity and accuracy of an oral reading fluency (ORF) measure for a statewide assessment in English language arts was examined for second-grade native English speakers (NESs) and English learners (ELs) with varying levels of English proficiency. In addition to comparing ELs with native English speakers, the impact of English…

  3. The bilingual brain. Proficiency and age of acquisition of the second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, D; Paulesu, E; Galles, N S; Dupoux, E; Dehaene, S; Bettinardi, V; Cappa, S F; Fazio, F; Mehler, J

    1998-10-01

    Functional imaging methods show differences in the pattern of cerebral activation associated with the subject's native language (L1) compared with a second language (L2). In a recent PET investigation on bilingualism we showed that auditory processing of stories in L1 (Italian) engages the temporal lobes and temporoparietal cortex more extensively than L2 (English). However, in that study the Italian subjects learned L2 late and attained a fair, but not an excellent command of this language (low proficiency, late acquisition bilinguals). Thus, the different patterns of activation could be ascribed either to age of acquisition or to proficiency level. In the current study we use a similar paradigm to evaluate the effect of early and late acquisition of L2 in highly proficient bilinguals. We studied a group of Italian-English bilinguals who acquired L2 after the age of 10 years (high proficiency, late acquisition bilinguals) and a group of Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who acquired L2 before the age of 4 years (high proficiency, early acquisition bilinguals). The differing cortical responses we had observed when low proficiency volunteers listened to stories in L1 and L2 were not found in either of the high proficiency groups in this study. Several brain areas, similar to those observed for L1 in low proficiency bilinguals, were activated by L2. These findings suggest that, at least for pairs of L1 and L2 languages that are fairly close, attained proficiency is more important than age of acquisition as a determinant of the cortical representation of L2.

  4. La Provision de una Igualdad de Oportunidades Educativas para los Estudiantes con Conocimientos Limitados del Idioma Ingles (The Provision of an Equal Education Opportunity to Limited English Proficient Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This federal policy statement outlines policy on provision of education to limited-English-speaking school children. First, it describes briefly the demographics of this population and the academic difficulties faced by them, and the recent federal initiative for broadened educational opportunity, America 2000: An Education Strategy. Then,…

  5. Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the conduct of a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) in 2012 and 2013, the Mosaic ATM team first developed the Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool concept, or...

  6. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of ESP Courses in Enhancing Technical Translation Proficiency: A Case Study of ESP Course for Mechanical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Amir Hussein; Shafiei, Shilan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. Firstly, it tried to investigate the relationship between the technical English proficiency of the students of Mechanical Engineering in the universities of Iran and their technical translation proficiency in translating technical texts of Mechanics. Secondly, it attempted to evaluate the effectiveness…

  7. United States Special Operations Command’s Foreign Language Proficiency Bonus at ILR 1/1+: Initial Review and Recommended Changes to Improve Results and Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    on language and linguistics 1999: Language in our time: Bilingual education and official English, ebonics and standard English, immigration and the Unz...the language) and ranges from Level 0 (no proficiency) to Level 5 (native or bilingual proficiency). Although not technically part of the scale, those...Level 2 in three modalities would appear as 2/2/2. Pilot program rationale Fundamentally, the foundations of the pilot incentive program are quite

  8. Literature Review of Oral English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan

    2013-01-01

    Under the present situations in China, more and more graduates with higher proficiency in oral English are required. However, the author learned that students in most universities are lack of this ability. It’s the urgent task for college English teach⁃ers to help students improve their oral English to the required level. The author of this paper will review the literature of foreign langue teaching in relation to oral English teaching in college, hence leading more English teachers to reflect on new and effective ways of oral English teaching.

  9. A brief analysis on English etymology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明珠

    2015-01-01

    In the process of learning English, proficiency in vocabulary is the key point to study a language well. Obviously, it’s very crucial to know about the origin and history of the words. Research on English etymology is conducive to memory, interpretation and understanding of the words. Generally speaking, English etymology is closely connected with British history. Western culture also has exerted profound impact on English etymology, which leads to considerable borrowings pouring into English vocabulary. In brief, this dissertation will inquire into English etymology preliminarily.

  10. The effects of video games on the receptive vocabulary proficiency of Swedish ESL students

    OpenAIRE

    Cabraja, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Playing video games is an activity that takes up an increasing amount of children’s and adolescent’s spare time. While some previous studies have highlighted the negative aspects of video games, little research has been carried out on the linguistic learning opportunities that video games present. This study primarily investigates if Swedish second language learners of English can increase their vocabulary proficiency in English with the use of video games. In order to answer the research que...

  11. Global Expansion and English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    Demand for higher education is global. As institutions extend opportunities beyond their borders, English language proficiency must be considered. This chapter focuses on considerations related to global expansion, with an emphasis on the role of distance English language courses and the distinct considerations in their development.

  12. State Funding Mechanisms for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Research is clear that English language learners (ELLs) perform better academically and achieve greater language proficiency when they have high-quality English language instruction.1 Like all supplemental services, these necessary supports require additional funding above the average per-student amount. The federal government provides grant…

  13. Using Trialogues to Measure English Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Youngsoon; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Cho, Yeonsuk; Luce, Christine; Battistini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We explored the use of technology-assisted, trialogue-based tasks to measure the English language proficiency of students learning English as a second or foreign language. A presumed benefit of the system for language assessment is its suitability for use in scenario-based tasks that integrate multiple language skills. This integration allows test…

  14. Conscience in Language Teaching and its Relationship with Language Proficiency and Emotional Intelligence of EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Jalili Kalangestani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the relationship among Iranian EFL teachers’ language teaching conscience, language proficiency, and emotional intelligence. To this purpose, 82 homogenized language teachers, M.A. students and M.A. holders in TEFL, English literature, and English translation, both males and females, were taken as the participants.  The result of the data analysis showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the emotional intelligence of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .83, p < .05, 2. There was also a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .59, p < .05. And finally, there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .52, p < .05. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers can benefit from the findings of this study.

  15. Policy Analysis of the English Graduation Benchmark in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Min

    2012-01-01

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author presents relevant research findings,…

  16. Educating English Language Learners: Building Teacher Capacity. Roundtable Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Keira Gebbie; Sanderman, Alicia R.; Levy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    In the Fall of 2007, the U.S. Department of Education's Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA) established the following strategic priority: Develop policy and program recommendations to improve the professional development of English language learner…

  17. Language Identity among Iranian English Language Learners: A Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Saeed; Khatib, Mohammad; Baleghizadeh, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was…

  18. Self and Teacher Assessment as Predictors of Proficiency Levels of Turkish EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünaldi, Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Although self-assessment of foreign language skills is not a new topic, it has not yet been widely explored in the Turkish English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context. The current study investigates the potential of self-assessment of foreign language skills in determining proficiency levels of Turkish learners of EFL: 239 learners participated in…

  19. The Impact of Practicing Autonomy on the Writing Proficiency of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohammad Sadegh; Aeen, Laleh

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of practicing autonomy on the writing proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To this end, Preliminary English Test (PET) by Thomas and Sharon (2006) was administered to 92 intermediate language learners as a pre-test. Accordingly, 60 homogeneous learners comprised the research sample. The…

  20. The Role of Language Proficiency in Self-Related Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Zarei, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Iranian EFL learners' proficiency level on their self-related personality traits (self-esteem and self-efficacy). To this end, 141 English major students, male and female, studying at Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU) and Kar Non-profit University in Qazvin, Iran were…

  1. The Impact of Experience Abroad and Language Proficiency on Language Learning Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of experience abroad and second language proficiency on foreign language classroom anxiety. Particularly, this study is an attempt to fill the gap in the literature about the affective outcomes after experiences abroad through the anxiety profiles of Korean learners of English as a foreign language (EFL)…

  2. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  3. Investigating Transfer of Academic Proficiency among Trilingual Immigrant Students: A Holistic Tri-Directional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The study addresses the degree of transfer of literacy dimensions of academic proficiency (AP), that is, reading comprehension and writing, across three languages--Russian (L1), Hebrew (L2), and English (L3)--and investigates whether a common conceptual source underlies the linguistic and cognitive operations of the trilingual learner (Grosjean,…

  4. Roles of Position, Stress, and Proficiency in L2 Children's Spelling: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Su Chin; Chen, Shu Hui

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of phoneme position, stress, and proficiency in L2 spelling development by Taiwanese students learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL), an alphabetic writing system typologically different from the learners' L1 logographic system. Structured nonword spelling tests were administered to EFL sixth-graders with…

  5. Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

  6. Formulaic Sequences and L2 Oral Proficiency: Does the Type of Target Language Influence the Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengers, Helene; Boers, Frank; Housen, Alex; Eyckmans, June

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which productive use of formulaic sequences by intermediate students of two typologically different languages, i.e., English and Spanish, is associated with their oral proficiency in these languages. Previous research (e.g., Boers et al., "Language Teaching Research" 10: 245-261, 2006) has shown that…

  7. NATO Stanag Language Proficiency Levels for Joint Missions and Its Implementations at a State Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Turkish Armed Forces have been participating in joint missions together with other nations for decades. Since English is the medium of instruction in these missions, participating members should have NATO Standards in terms of language proficiency levels in four skills. Therefore, this study aims to specify personnel's views and their language…

  8. Second Language Proficiency Assessment and Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the role of second language proficiency assessment in the evaluation of language programs argues that for four reasons, the use of proficiency is inappropriate as a central element in evaluation. The reasons are: (1) the construct of proficiency has not been operationalized in a way that enables it to be used usefully; (2)…

  9. Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Kathy; Ettrich, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks are organized by division: kindergarten, grades 1-3, grades 4-6, grades 7-9, and grades 10-12. They are descriptors of language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The descriptors are arranged in a continuum of seven language competences across five proficiency levels. Several…

  10. Data-Driven Proficiency Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Behrooz; Liu, Zhongxiu; Barnes, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Deep Thought is a logic tutor where students practice constructing deductive logic proofs. Within Deep Thought is a data-driven mastery learning system (DDML), which calculates student proficiency based on rule scores weighted by expert-decided weights in order to assign problem sets of appropriate difficulty. In this study, we designed and tested…

  11. An Accounting Writing Proficiency Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firch, Tim; Campbell, Annhenrie; Filling, Steven; Lindsay, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Although there has been much discussion about improving college student writing with college-level courses, little is known about how accounting programs, in particular, are addressing the writing proficiency challenge. This study surveys the 852 accounting programs in the United States to identify the frequency and types of accounting writing…

  12. Reading the Arrivals of Harpalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gottesman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harpalus’ two arrivals in Athens, first with armed force and then as a suppliant, were both intended to provoke war between Athens and Alexander, the first through fear, the second through appeal to Athenian traditions of protecting suppliants.

  13. The Secondary School English Language Reading Curriculum: A Teacher's Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hazlina; Rahman, Nik Suryani Nik Abdul; Adnan, Airil Haimi Mohd

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, the issue of weak and non-proficient graduates is a pressing matter. This implies that they are not well-equipped to cope with academic literacy, which is closely related to their language proficiency, as the main medium of instruction at most higher institutions is the English language. At this level, reading is the essence of…

  14. Assessment of English Speaking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the detailed components of Japanese students' English speaking ability in terms of communicative competence by using an oral proficiency test based on Bachman's Communicative Language Ability model (included in an appendix). Eighty college students were tested on four tasks--speech making, visual material…

  15. A Study of Translation Errors of Learners of Different Proficiency Levels and its Implications for College English Teaching%从不同水平的英语学习者汉译英错误探索公共英语翻译教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢青

    2013-01-01

      该文比较了两组不同水平的非英语专业学习者的汉译英译文,分析了他们译文的错误,结果发现两组学习者在汉译英的技能上的确存在显著性差异。总体而言,水平较低的学生在译文的准确性上远远落后于水平较高的学生。据此,笔者提出了一个由五个阶段构成的翻译教学的新型模式,既强调语言基础知识的输入,也提倡翻译理论技巧的传授,并把大班授课和工作坊小组讨论相结合,既能照顾不同水平学习者的学习需求,又能为他们提供合作,互动的机会,充分调动学生的主动性,使学习者能在实践中循序渐进地提高翻译能力。%This study analyzed the errors in 50 translated English versions of one Chinese paragraph by Chinese EFL learners of two different proficiency levels. Quantitative results showed that there were significant differences between high level and low level learners’translation abilities. These results were supported by qualitative data. In general, low level learners fell far behind high level learners in terms of the accuracy of their translations. Based on the results, the authors proposed a five-stage model for the development of learners’translation ability in college instructional settings. This model incorporates explicit instruction for both language knowledge and translation skills given by the instructor in large-class meetings and students ’practice and discus⁃sion in small-class workshop meetings. It can both cater to the needs of learners of different proficiency levels and provide them with opportunities to cooperate and negotiate with each other. In addition, it can enhance students ’learning autonomy and al⁃low them to develop translation ability through a gradual, step-by-step process.

  16. Creating a positive learning environment for students with English classroom anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2015-04-01

    Students situated in post-structural feminist pedagogical learning (PFPL) in a freshman English course (37 students) were expected to have lower English classroom anxiety, score higher in English, and have greater satisfaction with the class they attended than those in conventional lecture classes (40 students). Seventy-four students participated in the study (M age=18.5 yr., SD=0.5; 34 men, 43 women). The measures included the English Classroom Anxiety Scale (ECAS), English proficiency tests, the Student Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ), and student interviews. After the classes were completed, students in PFPL reported a significant decrease in anxiety toward the English classroom, scored significantly higher on English proficiency, and expressed significantly greater satisfaction with the course. PFPL potentially decreases students' English classroom anxiety and increases their English proficiency.

  17. Discussion about English Reading Strategies at Normal College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭

    2013-01-01

    According to the result of the observation, the author finds out many problems about the reading teaching and studying at the normal college. In order to improve students' English reading proficiency, she makes some suggestions about reading strategies.

  18. Perceptions and Problems of English Language and Communication Abilities: A Final Check on Thai Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga

    2015-01-01

    English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…

  19. Postsecondary Learning: Recognizing the Needs of English Language Learners in Mainstream University Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifuh-Ambe, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring proficiency in the various English language skills and the ability to utilize those skills as a medium of learning is a daunting task. Research suggests that children who do not speak English as their first language (L1) need five to seven years in school before they can perform as well in English as their English peers who are native…

  20. English-for-Science-and-Technology Teaching Materials: Phase One Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Yeh-uh Hsueh

    2012-01-01

    The importance of English for the workplace, in addition to that of general English proficiency, is receiving increasing attention from educators and policy makers in the field of teaching English as a foreign language. In order to prepare college students for their professional development, appropriate English-for-specific-purposes (ESP)…

  1. Production and Perception of the English /ae/-/?/ Contrast in Switched-Dominance Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Joseph V.; Simonet, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how fluent second-language (L2) learners of English produce and perceive the /ae/-/?/ vowel contrast of Southwestern American English. Two learner groups are examined: (1) early, proficient English speakers who were raised by Spanish-speaking families but who became dominant in English during childhood and, as adults, lack…

  2. Nobody Seems to Speak English Here Today: Enhancing Assessment and Training in Aviation English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) strengthened the provisions that English be made available for international radiotelephony communication. ICAO also developed standards for English proficiency for international pilots and air traffic controllers. However, these standards are applied variably from country to country and…

  3. Language proficiency modulates the recruitment of non-classical language areas in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Leonard

    Full Text Available Bilingualism provides a unique opportunity for understanding the relative roles of proficiency and order of acquisition in determining how the brain represents language. In a previous study, we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in a group of Spanish-English bilinguals who were more proficient in their native language. We found that from the earliest stages of lexical processing, words in the second language evoke greater activity in bilateral posterior visual regions, while activity to the native language is largely confined to classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal areas. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these effects relate to language proficiency or order of language acquisition by testing Spanish-English bilingual subjects who had become dominant in their second language. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether activity in bilateral visual regions was related to the presentation of written words in our previous study, so we presented subjects with both written and auditory words. We found greater activity for the less proficient native language in bilateral posterior visual regions for both the visual and auditory modalities, which started during the earliest word encoding stages and continued through lexico-semantic processing. In classical left fronto-temporal regions, the two languages evoked similar activity. Therefore, it is the lack of proficiency rather than secondary acquisition order that determines the recruitment of non-classical areas for word processing.

  4. Language proficiency modulates the recruitment of non-classical language areas in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Matthew K; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Brown, Timothy T; Hagler, Donald J; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Halgren, Eric

    2011-03-24

    Bilingualism provides a unique opportunity for understanding the relative roles of proficiency and order of acquisition in determining how the brain represents language. In a previous study, we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in a group of Spanish-English bilinguals who were more proficient in their native language. We found that from the earliest stages of lexical processing, words in the second language evoke greater activity in bilateral posterior visual regions, while activity to the native language is largely confined to classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal areas. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these effects relate to language proficiency or order of language acquisition by testing Spanish-English bilingual subjects who had become dominant in their second language. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether activity in bilateral visual regions was related to the presentation of written words in our previous study, so we presented subjects with both written and auditory words. We found greater activity for the less proficient native language in bilateral posterior visual regions for both the visual and auditory modalities, which started during the earliest word encoding stages and continued through lexico-semantic processing. In classical left fronto-temporal regions, the two languages evoked similar activity. Therefore, it is the lack of proficiency rather than secondary acquisition order that determines the recruitment of non-classical areas for word processing.

  5. An automated version of the BAT Syntactic Comprehension task for assessing auditory L2 proficiency in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, André; Marquis, Alexandra

    2011-06-01

    Studies of bilingualism sometimes require healthy subjects to be assessed for proficiency at auditory sentence processing in their second language (L2). The Syntactic Comprehension task of the Bilingual Aphasia Test could satisfy this need. For ease and uniformity of application, we automated its English ( Paradis, M., Libben, G., and Hummel, K. (1987) . The Bilingual Aphasia Test. English version. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates) and French ( Paradis, M., & Goldblum, M. C. (1987) . The Bilingual Aphasia Test, French version. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates) versions. Although the Bilingual Aphasia Test is meant to assess neurological disorders affecting language, we hypothesised that ceiling performance in L2 would be rare and L2 errors should be consistent with lack of processing automaticity. Initial data from 13 French-English and 4 English-French bilinguals confirm these expectations. Thus, the automated Syntactic Comprehension task (available online for PC and Mac platforms) is indeed suited to test bilingual English and French proficiency levels in healthy adults.

  6. Method for automatic measurement of second language speaking proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jared; Balogh, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Spoken language proficiency is intuitively related to effective and efficient communication in spoken interactions. However, it is difficult to derive a reliable estimate of spoken language proficiency by situated elicitation and evaluation of a person's communicative behavior. This paper describes the task structure and scoring logic of a group of fully automatic spoken language proficiency tests (for English, Spanish and Dutch) that are delivered via telephone or Internet. Test items are presented in spoken form and require a spoken response. Each test is automatically-scored and primarily based on short, decontextualized tasks that elicit integrated listening and speaking performances. The tests present several types of tasks to candidates, including sentence repetition, question answering, sentence construction, and story retelling. The spoken responses are scored according to the lexical content of the response and a set of acoustic base measures on segments, words and phrases, which are scaled with IRT methods or parametrically combined to optimize fit to human listener judgments. Most responses are isolated spoken phrases and sentences that are scored according to their linguistic content, their latency, and their fluency and pronunciation. The item development procedures and item norming are described.

  7. Analyzing the Influence of Language Proficiency on Interactive Book Search Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    English content still dominates in many online domains and information systems, despite native English speakers being a minority of its users. However, we know little about how language proficiency influences search behavior in these systems. In this paper, we describe preliminary results from...... an interactive IR experiment with book search behavior and examine how language skills affect this behavior. A total of 97 users from 21 different countries participated in this experiment, resulting in a rich data set including usage data as well as questionnaire feedback. Although participants reported feeling...... language constraints, a preliminary analysis of native and non-native English speakers indicate little to no meaningful differences in their search behavior....

  8. The Effect of an English Language Learner Program on Student Achievement Outcomes in Language, Reading, and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the reading, math, and language proficiency outcomes of 4th-grade through 7th-grade students with limited English proficiency following nearly two years or more of instruction in the English Language Learner Program (ELL) and concurrent general education studies. The maximum accrual for this study was…

  9. Intangible Heritage of Standard English Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogo Okoye-Johnson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Standard English Learners (SELs are ethnic minority native speakers of English whose mastery of the “standard English language” used in the curriculum of schools is limited due to their use of ethnic-specific nonstandard dialect. Research in language development highlights language as a tool that allows the individual access to basic civil rights and opportunities in the area of politics, economics, and education. A correlation exists between proficiency in the use of Standard English and academic achievement, thereby highlighting the importance of validating the intangible language heritage that these students bring to the school environment while they are schooled in the use of Standard English.

  10. Speaking in multiple languages: neural correlates of language proficiency in multilingual word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videsott, Gerda; Herrnberger, Bärbel; Hoenig, Klaus; Schilly, Edgar; Grothe, Jo; Wiater, Werner; Spitzer, Manfred; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-06-01

    The human brain has the fascinating ability to represent and to process several languages. Although the first and further languages activate partially different brain networks, the linguistic factors underlying these differences in language processing have to be further specified. We investigated the neural correlates of language proficiency in a homogeneous sample of multilingual native Ladin speakers from a mountain valley in South Tyrol, Italy, who speak Italian as second language at a high level, and English at an intermediate level. In a constrained word production task under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants had to name pictures of objects in Ladin, Italian and English in separate blocks. Overall, multilingual word production activated a common set of brain areas dedicated to known subcomponents of picture naming. In comparison to English, the fluently spoken languages Ladin and Italian were associated with enhanced right prefrontal activity. In addition, the MR signal in right prefrontal cortex correlated with naming accuracy as a measure of language proficiency. Our results demonstrate the significance of right prefrontal areas for language proficiency. Based on the role of these areas for cognitive control, our findings suggest that right prefrontal cortex supports language proficiency by effectively supervising word retrieval.

  11. Bilingual children: cross-sectional relations of psychiatric syndrome severity and dual language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso; Hauser, Stuart T

    2006-01-01

    The severity of child psychiatric disorders is commonly associated with child language delays. However, the characteristics of these associations in the fast-growing population of bilingual children remain unknown. To begin to address this gap, we studied a unique sample of Spanish-English bilingual children with significant parent-reported psychopathology (n = 29), focusing on their language proficiencies and psychiatric severity using the Child Behavior Check List. We present cross-sectional analyses of associations of general and specific language proficiency in Spanish and English with the severity of specific psychiatric syndromes. We found Spanish language-proficiency scores to have negative correlations with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, particularly externalizing (i.e., delinquency and aggression) symptoms (r = -.38 to -.61, p aggression symptoms and also important proportions (40%) of total and attentional symptoms. While children's proficiency levels in both Spanish and English showed similar associations with the symptom severity measures (explaining close to 20% of the symptom variance; r(sp) = -.44, p contexts, and (4) language of choice for therapy, evaluation, and educational services. The findings are discussed in the context of clinical and conceptual implications and future research needs.

  12. The Problems and Solutions of Learning English Effectively in class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟丽君

    2016-01-01

    English, as an international language, is becoming more and more important in our society. Its proficiency has become a major requirement for attaining the highest level of professional and economic success around the world. We, English learners mainly learn English in Classroom, so classroom is regarded as the most important place where we learn English language. This paper gives out an analysis of the problems which lead to the ineffective English learning and discusses the solutions of an effective English learning in class according to the author' s own experience in English teaching in secondary schools and colleges.

  13. After exit: Academic achievement patterns of former English language learners.

    OpenAIRE

    Ester J. de Jong

    2004-01-01

    With few exceptions, accountability systems for programs for English language learners (ELLs) have focused on the achievement patterns of ELLs who are still considered “limited English proficient” and program evaluations have been unable to answer the question whether ELLs actually catch up with English proficient peers after attending a bilingual or English as a Second Language (ESL) program. Disaggregating data for former ELLs can therefore provide important information for long-term distri...

  14. How to Create a Low-anxiety Environment for Chinese Learners of EFL to Enhance Oral Proficiency in Speaking Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾红兵

    2011-01-01

    The goal of teaching English speaking is to improve students' communicative efficiency,or make students speak the target language clearly,coherently,accurately and fluendy (Xu,2005).However,in China,a number of students in an English speaking class tend to be passive and reluctant to speak out or be singled out publicly mainly due to their high anxiety,which,of course,becomes a significant constraint on improving their English proficiency.Therefore,how to create a relaxed atmosphere with a sense of security in the English speaking class to alleviate Chinese learners' anxiety and to provide them with as many opportunities as possible to practice speaking English and improve their English proficiency is one of the central tasks for hnguage teachers.his paper will firstly outline my teaching context in China in physical,pedagogical,institutional and personal aspects.This will be followed by the definition and classification of language learning anxiety,and the analysis of various factors contributing to foreign language learners' anxiety as well as some suggestions of how to reduce the learners' anxiety in the oral class according to the current literature.Finally,some applications will be presented in my teaching context in the hope of decreasing Chinese students' anxiety to enhance their English speaking proficiency.

  15. Communicative Testing of Oral Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利波

    2005-01-01

    The advent of the theory of communicative competence raised new issues for language teaching and testing. The importance of communicative ability is emphasized in language teaching. Therefore test that could reflect a student's communicative competence need to be constructed. Communicative testing is such a potentially effective approach.This paper is concerned with the theoretical basis of communicative testing, its distinguishing features and the construction of oral proficiency tests, so as to demonstrate how the theory of communicative testing is built into practical tests.

  16. Using the TOEFL to measure the reading proficiency levels of deaf college applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMaglio, L J

    1991-07-01

    The TOEFL is widely used by colleges and universities in the United States and Canada to measure the English language proficiency levels of hearing international applicants. At the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a faculty committee recommended that this popular test instrument be used to measure the English reading skills of deaf international applicants to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. This study examined the merits of using the TOEFL to measure the English reading ability of hearing post-secondary international students seeking admission to English-based colleges and universities. Forty-one hearing foreign students were tested in the fall of 1989 at the English Language Institute at SUNY Buffalo. The instruments chosen were both the TOEFL and the California Achievement Test of reading ability. The majority of the research subjects who scored between 400 and 500 on the TOEFL achieved a grade level of less than 8.0 on the California Achievement Test.

  17. High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed.

  18. Language, Identity, and Citizenship in a U.S. University: Immigrant English Learners' Identity (Re)positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In response to growing linguistic diversity, many U.S. universities have implemented language policies that include procedures for English learner (EL) identification. Institutional labels such as "English learner" and "limited English proficiency" are regularly used to identify students who may need English language support;…

  19. Language of Instruction as a Moderator for Transfer of Reading Comprehension Skills among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, María S.; Barr, Christopher D.; August, Diane; Calderón, Margarita; Artzi, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This three-year longitudinal study investigated the role of language of instruction in moderating the relationships between initial levels of English oral language proficiency and Spanish reading comprehension and growth in English reading comprehension. The study followed Spanish-speaking English language learners in English-only literacy…

  20. Nobody seems to speak English here today: Enhancing assessment and training in aviation English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Douglas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO strengthened the provisions that English be made available for international radiotelephony communication. ICAO also developed standards for English proficiency for international pilots and air traffic controllers. However, these standards are applied variably from country to country and in no country are native speakers of English tested for their ability to employ what has been termed "interactional competence" when using English for intercultural communication. Problems with this situation are reviewed and suggestions made for improving English assessment and training.

  1. Academic Proficiency (Language and Content) and the Role of Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This report continues the work of Krashen and Brown (2007), developing and evaluating a set of hypotheses for the development of academic proficiency. That article defined academic proficiency as having two components: academic language proficiency and knowledge of academic content.

  2. Testing, Time Limits, and English Learners: Does Age of School Entry Affect How Quickly Students Can Learn English? IESP Working Paper #08-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires schools to begin testing new English Learners (EL) in English language arts within three years after they enter school and holds schools accountable for their performance on these exams. Yet very little empirical work has examined exactly how long it takes EL students to become proficient in English and how…

  3. The Effects of Type and Quantity of Input on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included  PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest  answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to  lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of

  4. Proficiency-Based Education. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Proficiency-Based Education is a contemporary instructional model that grew out of the competency-based education movement of the 1980's and 90's. It is based on the premise that TIME is flexible and that students work at their own pace until they have mastered necessary content and skills. As students demonstrate proficiency, then move on to more…

  5. Proficiency test for aflatoxin in pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  6. Oral Proficiency Testing: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.; Frawley, William

    1985-01-01

    Discusses problems with the ACTFL/ETS Oral Proficiency Guidelines and examines inconsistencies relating to three assumptions of oral proficiency (OPT)--hours of study, accuracy/interest, and errors. Further, it is argued that the main problems with OPT arise from an analytic approach and the native speaker yardstick. (SED)

  7. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  8. Motor Proficiency Traits of Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Denis; Broadhead, Geoffrey D.

    1982-01-01

    Children at the Louisiana State School for the Deaf were tested for motor proficiency using the Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. The children appeared to lack balancing skills but scored better than hearing children in visual motor control. Sex and age differences are noted. (PP)

  9. The Leadership Proficiency of Commissioners of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Kristen N.; Bruce, Jacklyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine the self-perceived proficiency level of Commissioners of Agriculture in six leadership skill areas. Major findings noted their proficiency in these areas. Researchers recommend providing professional development opportunities and software training for Commissioners at their annual…

  10. Psychometric Properties of IRT Proficiency Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Tong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of item response theory proficiency estimates are considered in this paper. Proficiency estimators based on summed scores and pattern scores include non-Bayes maximum likelihood and test characteristic curve estimators and Bayesian estimators. The psychometric properties investigated include reliability, conditional…

  11. First Language Proficiency as a Facilitator in Foreign/ Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Marajan Awad Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available English is taught as a foreign language in the Arab world even though practical concerns call for greater emphasis on the language. In all personal interactions too Arabic is the preferred language. Thus the environment for English is really very limited as by the time the learners are exposed to the language they are well entrenched in Arabic. While this may be a handicap in some EFL situations (for example where adults are concerned, in the Arab context this can prove a big boon. This is because young language learners who are proficient in their first language can apply the learning techniques while acquiring the second language. This paper targets the teaching fraternity in the Arab world to help them understand how first language proficiency can aid second/foreign language acquisition.Keywords: language acquisition, Saudi EFL learners, language proficiency, Arabic as a first language 

  12. 项目特异性加工和关系加工对非熟练中-英双语者跨语言错误记忆的影响%Effect of Item-specific Processing and Relational Processing on Cross-Language False Memory among Less Proficient Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛伟宾; 王松; 亢丽丽

    2012-01-01

    采用DRM范式进行跨语言错误记忆的研究较为鲜见,而且得出了许多不同的结果,关于错误记忆跨语言产生的理论解释也是各执己见.研究以非熟练中-英双语大学生为被试,采用DRM范式对非熟练中-英双语者的跨语言错误记忆进行了研究.在2个实验中,分别探讨了项目特异性加工和关系加工条件下,语义激活的不同水平对跨语言错误记忆的影响.结果发现:1)非熟练中-英双语者也存在跨语言的错误记忆;2)在项目特异性加工和关系加工条件下,相同语言内与不同语言间发生关键诱词的错误再认的结果是不同的;3)只在项目特异性加工条件下,长词表比短词表会诱发更多的对关键诱词的错误再认.研究结果支持了激活-监测理论.%In recent years, there has been an explosion of research on false memory with Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM). But few of these studies have involved bilingual participants and cross-linguistic effects in false memory. Furthermore, there were some mixed results between Sahlin, Harding & Seamon's (2005) and Marmolejo, Diliberto-Macaluso & Altarriba's (2009). In the present experiments, we used 16 DRM lists (8 English and 8 Chinese lists) as study materials and manipulated the DRM list lengths (7 item-list and 15 item-list)to explore the effect of different activation strength in encoding phase on cross-language false memory among less proficient Chinese - English bilinguals.2 experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of item-specific processing and relational processing on cross-language false memory: Experimentl studied cross-language false memory under item-specific processing condition, namely the participants were instructed to recognize an item as the old item according to both the meaning and language of the item ; a 2x 2 x 3mixed design was used, with two within-subject variables (language congruence: the same languages, the different languages; list

  13. The new Bulletin has arrived!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    This edition of the CERN Bulletin is the first with a new layout for the paper version. Its innovations include a more attractive format, as well as the printing of the English and French texts on inverted pages, the two distinguishable by the colour of the header on the first page (green for the English and blue for the French). This and the use of pictograms to identify the various sections make the whole thing easier to read. The introduction of this new formula coincides with the addition of a new section, a monthly column called 'A Word from the DG,' in which the Director-General will give an update on the main issues facing CERN and particle physics. The coming months will see the introduction of other new sections. Last but not least, the weekly timetable of seminars, showing the title, date and speaker, now appears in the middle of the paper version rather than at the end. Summaries are published only on the Web. All these changes are accompanied by new distribution arrangements. You will find pap...

  14. From Face-to-Face to Paired Oral Proficiency Interviews: The Nut Is yet to Be Cracked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Parviz; Bagherkazemi, Marzieh

    2011-01-01

    The pressing need for English oral communication skills in multifarious contexts today is compelling impetus behind the large number of studies done on oral proficiency interviewing. Moreover, given the recently articulated concerns with the fairness and social dimension of such interviews, parallel concerns have been raised as to how most fairly…

  15. "El Sendero Torcido al Espanol" [The Twisted Path to Spanish]: The Development of Bilingual Teachers' Spanish-Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterby, John A.; Ayala, Javier; Murillo, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Spanish-language proficiency in bilingual preservice teachers at a university on the Texas--Mexico border. A survey with open-ended questions was administered to preservice teachers in bilingual and English as a Second Language certification programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the paths…

  16. Tests of Youngest English-Learners Spark Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    At a time when many states are poised to roll out new standardized tests to evaluate English-language proficiency in unprecedented depth, California is balking at carrying out a federal requirement to test the literacy of young children who are learning English. Recently, the California board of education decided to ask the U.S. Department of…

  17. How I Became a "Different" English Speaker and Listener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    The author went to the United States to study applied linguistics. Although he was there for nine months, his English proficiency did not improve as much as he had hoped, considering that he was using English almost exclusively every day. After his time in the United States, he spent 10 months in Australia working and traveling on a working…

  18. An Exploration of Chinese Students Silent - Keeping in English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金璐

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to analysis causes of Chinese students' silent - keeping as cultural interference, defects of traditional teaching and learning method, and issues involved implications for ESL ( English as a Second Language) teaching in hope to improve the proficiency of English teaching in China.

  19. Enriching English Language Spoken Outputs of Kindergartners in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilang, Jeffrey Dawala; Sinwongsuwat, Kemtong

    2012-01-01

    This year is designated as Thailand's "English Speaking Year" with the aim of improving the communicative competence of Thais for the upcoming integration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2015. The consistent low-level proficiency of the Thais in the English language has led to numerous curriculum revisions and…

  20. Storyboards and Reading Comprehension of Literary Fiction in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Naar, José Mario

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study developed in order to help a group of six limited-proficient students of English (newcomers) to improve their reading comprehension of English novels by designing storyboards, a type of graphic organizer that condenses both images and scripts. The investigation was carried out in a public school in the state of…

  1. English Language Learners at the Crossroads of Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Lily Wong

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, the author argues that English language learners (ELLs) can meet and exceed the Common Core State Standards, and that more complex materials are in fact precisely what they need. Lack of access to such materials is what prevents ELLs from attaining full proficiency in English.

  2. Classification System for English Language Learners: Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal

    2008-01-01

    High-stakes decisions for the instruction and assessment of English language learner (ELL) students are made based on the premise that ELL classification is a valid dichotomy that distinguishes between those who are proficient in the use of the English language and those who are not. However, recent research findings draw a vague picture of the…

  3. English Writing Development of Young, Linguistically Different Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Ileana; Abramson, Shareen

    A study examined the emergence of English writing in a kindergarten classroom where about three-quarters of the students were limited-English-proficient (LEP) and spoke a variety of native languages, including Spanish, Hmong, Lao, and Cambodian. Regular daily journal writing sessions were videotaped periodically and analyzed over the course of the…

  4. Bilingual Vocabulary Knowledge and Arrival Age among Japanese Heritage Language Students at "Hoshuukoo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines bilingual vocabulary knowledge in relation to arrival age among first language (L1) Japanese students attending "hoshuukoo" (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. It also examines the relationship between L1 Japanese and English as a second language (L2), as…

  5. The role of motivation in the learning of English as a foreign language

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the role of motivation in foreign language learning and the factors that might affect learners' motivation. 137 secondary school students took part in the study. Correlations between the students' English proficiency and motivation were performed. Questionnaires on the ideal English teacher and the students' actual English teachers were also delivered. The purpose of correlating the ideal English teacher with the students' real English teachers was to investigate if th...

  6. Early mathematics achievement trajectories: English-language learner and native English-speaker estimates, using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane

    2011-07-01

    This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient group, (c) evaluate the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES) for English-language proficient students and within different primary language groups, and (d) estimate language-group trends in specific mathematics skill areas. The group of English-language proficient English-language learners (ELLs) was disaggregated into native Spanish speakers and native speakers of Asian languages, the 2 most prevalent groups of ELLs in the United States. Results of multilevel latent variable growth modeling suggest that primary language may be less salient than SES in explaining the mathematics achievement of English-language proficient ELLs. The study also found that mathematics-related school readiness is a key factor in explaining subsequent achievement differences and that the readiness gap is prevalent across the range of mathematics-related skills.

  7. English Second-Language Learners in Preschool: Profile Effects in Their English Abilities and the Role of Home Language Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Kirova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) Determine the English proficiency of English second-language learners (ELLs) at the end of preschool as referenced to monolingual norms, and in particular, to determine if they showed an asynchronous profile, that is, approached monolingual norms more closely for some linguistic sub-skills than…

  8. Concept of Best Practices in English Language Teaching to Pakistani ELT Fraternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Muhammad Arif; Memon, Natasha; Memon, Shumaila Aijaz

    2016-01-01

    Teaching industry of English as a second or foreign language has grown massively in recent times in Pakistan. There are many public sectors universities and English academies established all over Pakistan offering English language proficiency courses. Therefore, this wave led to conduct this research. The purpose of conducting this study was to…

  9. The Technical Adequacy of Curriculum-Based Writing Measures with English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Heather; Espin, Christine A.; McMaster, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of Curriculum-Based Measures in writing for English learners. Participants were 36 high school English learners with moderate to high levels of English language proficiency. Predictor variables were type of writing prompt (picture, narrative, and expository), time (3, 5, and 7…

  10. The Effectiveness of Using English Songs As a Method of Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包茹

    2012-01-01

      The usage of songs within the classroom helps to foster zeal among the students and encourages greater participation by the students. Ultimately this method increases the interest of the students and improves their English proficiency. The objective of our article establishes the application, feasibleness and effectiveness of using English songs as a method of teaching the English language.

  11. A Phenomelogical Study of Reclassified Elementary School English Learners' Perceptions of Their Educational Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an insight into how former English learners' educational experiences allowed them to attain English language proficiency and meet grade level standards in English Language Arts. This study was informed by the theoretical frameworks of Albert Bandura's social learning theory, and Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural…

  12. Japanese University Students' Willingness to Communicate in English: The Serendipitous Effect of Oral Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Matsumoto, Kahoko; Poole, Gregory; Matsuoka, Misato

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which college students in Japan overcame sensitivity to external evaluation and increased their willingness to communicate in English. It is not uncommon for university students in Japan, who are otherwise proficient speakers of English and motivated to learn, fail to exhibit English competency in real communication…

  13. Building Vocabulary of English Learners with Reading Disabilities through Computer-Assisted Morphology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Anderson, Adrienne L.; Bunch-Crump, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Many educators in public schools in the United States experience challenges in meeting the unique needs of the growing population of English learners who must simultaneously attain academic skills while acquiring English language proficiency. Such unique needs intensify for English learners with reading disabilities. Morphological awareness is key…

  14. English Language Assessment in the Colleges of Applied Sciences in Oman: Thematic Document Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hajri, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency in English language and how it is measured have become central issues in higher education research as the English language is increasingly used as a medium of instruction and a criterion for admission to education. This study evaluated the English language assessment in the foundation Programme at the Colleges of Applied sciences in…

  15. Weightage to English as a Second Language Given by +2 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, B. William Dharma; Selvarasu, V.

    2012-01-01

    The study focuses on the significance of the English language and the inevitability to have proficiency in English in order to bloom in the modern world. It analyses the weightage given by the +2 students to ESL. The objectives of the study were to find out the level of weightage to English subject given by the students; to find out whether there…

  16. The Role of English Debating Tournament in the Face of the ASEAN Economy Community (AEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husnawadi; Syamsudarni

    2016-01-01

    Since its establishment in the late 2015, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) with English as the official language has forced its participating countries to improve the quality of English language teaching, in the hope to prepare their people to be globally competitive, as the lack of English proficiency remains the main challenge across the…

  17. Linguistic Support for Non-Native English Speakers: Higher Education Practices in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow Andrade, Maureen; Evans, Norman W.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions in English-speaking nations host significant populations of non-native English speakers (NNES), both international and resident. English language proficiency is a critical factor to their success. This study reviews higher education practices in the United States related to this population. Findings indicate…

  18. Introducing LexTALE: A quick and valid Lexical Test for Advanced Learners of English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemhöfer, K.M.L.; Broersma, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of experimental studies on second language (L2) processing, frequently with English as the L2, calls for a practical and valid measure of English vocabulary knowledge and proficiency. In a large-scale study with Dutch and Korean speakers of L2 English, we tested whether LexTALE

  19. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  20. MARKOVIAN QUEUES WITH CORRELATED ARRIVAL PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to examine the effect of dependencies in the arrival process on the steady state queue length process in single server queueing models with exponential service time distribution, four different models for the arrival process, each with marginally distributed exponential inter-arrivals to the queueing system, are considered. Two of these models are based upon the upper and lower bounding joint distribution functions given by the Fréchet bounds for bivariate distributions with spe...

  1. Proficiency effect on L2 pragmatic competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes cross-sectional studies of the effect of proficiency on second language (L2 pragmatics to answer the synthesis question: Does proficiency affect adult learners’ pragmatic competence? Findings have revealed an overall positive proficiency effect on pragmatic competence, and in most cases higher proficiency learners have higher pragmatic competence. However, increased proficiency does not guarantee a native-like pragmatic performance because proficiency effect varies depending on the nature of target pragmatic features such as types of speech acts (degrees of directness and conventionality (e.g., Cook & Liddicoat, 2002; Félix-Brasdefer, 2007, modalities of pragmatic performance (comprehension and production (e.g., Bradovi-Harlig, 2008, 2009, social variables involved in task situations, such as social status (e.g., Allami & Naeimi, 2011, social distance (e.g., Maeshiba, Yoshinaga, Kasper, & Ross, 1996, and power relationship (e.g., Al-Gahtani & Roever, 2012. Moreover, proficiency effect is mediated by contextual variables such as length of stay in the target language community (e.g., Shardakova, 2005; Taguchi, 2011, 2013; Xu, Case, & Wang, 2009.

  2. Socio-emotional skills, behavior problems, and Spanish competence predict the acquisition of English among English language learners in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language, cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills were followed through kindergarten. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Spanish-speaking preschoolers with greater initiative, self-control, and attachment and fewer behavior problems at age 4 were more successful in obtaining English proficiency by the end of kindergarten compared to those initially weaker in these skills, even after controlling for cognitive/language skills and demographic variables. Also, greater facility in Spanish at age 4 predicted the attainment of English proficiency. Social and behavioral skills and proficiency in Spanish are valuable resources for low-income English language learners during their transition to school.

  3. Vocabulary Is a Key to English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢翌春

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary size is an important criterion to measure one's English proficiency. More words mean more freedom in language use. To many English learners, language skill remains difficult due to insufficient vocabulary. Both learners and teachers should be active to find an appropriate way to improve that condition. So it is necessary to know the feature of vocabulary and some effective ways to enlarge vocabulary size.

  4. Counseling for English Learning at Hiroshima University

    OpenAIRE

    前田, 啓朗

    2002-01-01

    This report shows the series of attempt of "Counseling for English Learning (CEL)," which was planned by Information Media Center. CEL started for the students at Hiroshima University in October 23, 2001. Since learners of English have various characteristics, it is very difficult to support each learner's problem or trouble only in classroom. CEL was planned to support and facilitate students' learning, flexibly considering individual learner differences such as language proficiency or learn...

  5. The Effect of Integration Policies on the Time until Regular Employment of Newly Arrived Immigrants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Heinesen, Eskil; Hummelgaard, Hans

    We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich...... administrative data from Denmark. We find substantial lock-in effects of participation in active labour-market programmes. Post programme effects on the hazard rate to regular employment are significantly positive for wage subsidy programmes, but not for other types of programmes. For language course...... participants, improvement in language proficiency has significant and substantial positive effects on the hazard rate to employment....

  6. Sociolinguistic Competence and Malaysian Students' English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniandy, Mohan K.; Nair, Gopala Krishnan Sekharan; Shanmugam, Shashi Kumar Krishnan; Ahmad, Irma; Noor, Norashikin Binte Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the importance of teaching sociolinguistic competence to ESL learners in Malaysian schools. Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of socio cultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence requires an understanding of the socio context in which language is used. It is proposed that carefully…

  7. Developing multilingual prescription instructions for patients with limited english proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Chen, Alice Hm; Sarkar, Urmimala; Schoua-Glusberg, Alisu; Lindquist, Lee A; Schillinger, Dean; Wolf, Michael S

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the development of a set of patient-centered prescription medication instructions and their translation into Chinese, Korean, Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese. Challenges and lessons learned from this process are reported to inform future efforts to develop easy-to-understand, multilingual materials for use in health care settings.

  8. Using Authentic Materials for Extensive Reading to Promote English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siao-cing

    2012-01-01

    Current literature points to the importance and benefits of extensive reading. Extensive reading provides contextualized clues for better reading comprehension (Krashen, 1982), and substantial linguistic input (Bell, 1998) needed for language development. Several studies have found a correlation between extensive reading and specific linguistic…

  9. Quality and Quantity of Oral Participation and English Proficiency Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There are many reasons to believe that oral participation in the target language (TL) is beneficial for classroom language learners. In addition to the prominence current second language acquisition (SLA) theory gives to processes that assume learner production of the TL (e.g. negotiation of meaning), teachers often view oral participation as a…

  10. Conceptual Representation Changes in Indonesian-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Andree; Suárez, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated conceptual representations changes in bilinguals. Participants were Indonesian-English bilinguals (dominant in Indonesian, with different levels of English proficiency) and a control group composed of English-dominant bilinguals. All completed a gender decision task, in which participants decided whether English words referred to a male or female person or animal. In order to explore conceptual representations, we divided the words into gender-specific and gender-ambiguous words. Gender-specific words were words in which conceptual representations contained gender as a defining feature, in both English and Indonesian (e.g., uncle). In contrast, gender-ambiguous words were words in which gender was a defining feature in English but not a necessary feature in Indonesian (e.g., nephew and niece are both subsumed under the same word, keponakan, in Indonesian). The experiment was conducted exclusively in English. Indonesian-English bilinguals responded faster to gender-specific words than gender-ambiguous words, but the difference was smaller for the most proficient bilinguals. As expected, English-dominant speakers' response latencies were similar across these two types of words. The results suggest that English concepts are dynamic and that proficiency leads to native-like conceptual representations.

  11. Early Literacy Skills and English Language Learners: An Analysis of Students in a Title I School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostayan, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    This article examined student literacy assessments in light of students' levels of English language proficiency. The study supported the hypotheses that a student's level of language proficiency positively predicted their DIBELS Composite score at the beginning, middle, and end of kindergarten by utilizing a simple linear regression. An ANOVA…

  12. Interrogating the Construct of Aviation English: Feedback from Test Takers in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Elder, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the underlying construct of both the English proficiency test for pilot and air traffic controller radiotelephony communication developed and administered in Korea and the ICAO language proficiency testing policy on which the test in Korea is based. It does so by canvassing the opinions of Korean airline pilots and air traffic…

  13. Language, Mathematics and English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoniou, Misty; Qing, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There is a correlation between language proficiency and achievement in mathematics (Riordain & O'Donoghue, 2009), and this is particularly evident for children who speak English as an additional language or dialect. More effort needs to be made in mathematics classrooms to develop cognitive competencies, including the ability to decode and…

  14. Situated Learning: Learn to Tell English Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Chia

    2014-01-01

    For students in a perspective English teacher program, enhancing language proficiency and teaching knowledge is essential so that they can participate in the teaching community. This study investigated the acquisition of an unfamiliar discursive practice by four undergraduate students in a perspective EFL teacher training program. The practice is…

  15. Indigenous Students and the Learning of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrier Pawanchik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of students’ proficiency in English in the Malaysian primary schools is still debatable. Approach: Unless the problem of students’ proficiency is solved at the primary school level, it will fossilize and contribute toward students’ anxiety in the language at the secondary and tertiary levels. Results: This research study looked into English needs of the indigenous or ‘Orang Asli’ students in primary schools in the district of Rompin-Endau, Pahang. These indigenous students still lag in education and with the implementation of teaching of science and mathematics in English in primary schools, they will be burdened with language difficulties. The researchers identify that the students preferred learning skill is listening to the teachers’ explanation. And the task-based activity that can improve their proficiency is listening to songs and singing in English. Conclusion/Recommendations: Findings from this research could provide useful information for the curriculum developers at the Ministry of Education of Malaysia whether to revamp the present English curriculum or formulate a new curriculum to meet the English needs of the ‘Orang Asli’ students.

  16. Lexical competition during second-language listening: sentence context, but not proficiency, constrains interference from the native lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Craig G; Cooke, Hilary

    2009-07-01

    A spoken language eye-tracking methodology was used to evaluate the effects of sentence context and proficiency on parallel language activation during spoken language comprehension. Nonnative speakers with varying proficiency levels viewed visual displays while listening to French sentences (e.g., Marie va décrire la poule [Marie will describe the chicken]). Displays depicted several objects including the final noun target (chicken) and an interlingual near-homophone (e.g., pool) whose name in English is phonologically similar to the French target (poule). Listeners' eye movements reflected temporary consideration of the interlingual competitor when hearing the target noun, demonstrating cross-language lexical competition. However, competitor fixations were dramatically reduced when prior sentence information was incompatible with the competitor (e.g., Marie va nourrir... [Marie will feed...]). In contrast, interlingual competition from English did not vary according to participants' rated proficiency in French, even though proficiency reliably predicted other aspects of processing behavior, suggesting higher proficiency in the active language does not provide a significant independent source of control over interlingual competition. The results provide new insights into the nature of parallel language activation in naturalistic sentential contexts.

  17. Internet Cognitive Failure and Fatigue Relevant to Learners' Self-Regulation and Learning Progress in English Vocabulary with a Calibration Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.-C.; Hwang, M.-Y.; Chang, H.-W.; Tai, K.-H.; Kuo, Y.-C.; Tsai, Y.-H.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the factors of learning effectiveness in English vocabulary learning when using a calibration scheme, this study developed a freshman English mobile device application (for iPhone 4) for students with low levels of English proficiency to practise vocabulary in the beginning of their Freshman English course. Data were collected and…

  18. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  19. A Survey on Current English Learning Condition of Senior Vocational School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Shan-shan

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the relationship of students’English proficiency level and participation condition.70 students from National Senior Commercial & Industrial Vocational School participated in this study. The analysis method was one-way ANOVA, that is, one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that strategy and emotion participation influenced students’English proficiency level largely. In the end, the results were discussed and some pedagogical implications and sugges⁃tions for further study were also presented.

  20. COMMUNICATIVE ABILITY, LINGUISTIC ABILITY AND WRITING STRATEGY: WHICH IS CRUCIAL TO ENGLISH WRITING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Changhe

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims at discovering what among communicativeability, linguistic ability and writing strategy most affectsEnglish writing ability of non-English majors at China’s colleges.Through the analysis of communicative proficiencies andlinguistic proficiencies of four subjects obtained from theircompositions, it is found out that neither their communicativeability nor their linguistic ability is the key factor. Thus theauthor concludes that writing strategy may be crucial to Englishwriting. The preliminary conclusion is further confirmed withquestionnaires.

  1. The effect of age of acquisition, socioeducational status, and proficiency on the neural processing of second language speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archila-Suerte, Pilar; Zevin, Jason; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the role of age of acquisition (AoA), socioeducational status (SES), and second language (L2) proficiency on the neural processing of L2 speech sounds. In a task of pre-attentive listening and passive viewing, Spanish-English bilinguals and a control group of English monolinguals listened to English syllables while watching a film of natural scenery. Eight regions of interest were selected from brain areas involved in speech perception and executive processes. The regions of interest were examined in 2 separate two-way ANOVA (AoA×SES; AoA×L2 proficiency). The results showed that AoA was the main variable affecting the neural response in L2 speech processing. Direct comparisons between AoA groups of equivalent SES and proficiency level enhanced the intensity and magnitude of the results. These results suggest that AoA, more than SES and proficiency level, determines which brain regions are recruited for the processing of second language speech sounds.

  2. Impact of English Proficiency on Employment of College Graduates in Perspective of Human Resource---Based on the data analysis of 2013“Tracing Studies on College Graduates’ Employment,Life and value”%人力资本视角下英语水平对大学生就业的影响--基于2013年度“中国大学生就业、生活及价值观调查”数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晗修

    2015-01-01

    based on the research data of students from 13 universities in the project of 2013“Trac‐ing Studies on College Graduates’ Employment ,Life and value” ,this paper mainly analyzes the impact of mainly English proficiency but also including political status and type of universities on graduates em‐ployment from the perspective of human resource .The results showed that the impact of English profi‐ciency on employment is not very large ;Family background ,household register and other factors has rarely no effect on employment ;however ,the political identity ,university type and sex have remarka‐ble impact on employment of university graduates .%基于2013年度“中国大学生就业、生活及价值观追踪调查”项目对国内13所高校大学生的调查数据,从人力资本视角出发,以英语水平为主分析了英语水平、政治面貌、学校类型等人力资本对大学生就业的影响。结果发现:英语水平对大学生就业的影响并不大;家庭背景、户籍等因素对大学生就业也几乎没有影响;而政治身份、学校类型、性别对大学生就业却有显著影响。

  3. Performance Monitoring and Response Inhibition in a Saccadic Countermanding Task in High and Low proficient bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika eSingh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 fluency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR task (Experiment1 and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR task (Experiment 2. In this task typically a target is presented to which subject must make saccade (No step trials, unless a new target appears on the other location after some delay from the first target onset (Step trials. On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first instead program a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT, which is the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target, as a measure of response inhibition, and post-stop slowing as a measure of performance monitoring, we observed two important results. It was found that high proficiency bilinguals showed more post-stop slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficiency bilinguals for both VGR and MGR. Secondly, high and low proficiency bilingual exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR, showing no altering effect of language proficiency on the response inhibition in bilinguals. These results suggest that bilingualism impacts performance monitoring which is modulated by language proficiency if not the inhibitory control system. Higher fluency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility, and ability to adjust behaviour that facilitates attainment of cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.

  4. Testing, time limits, and English learners: does age of school entry affect how quickly students can learn English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan

    2009-06-01

    Using data on young English learners (EL) who enroll in the New York City public school system, I examine how long it takes students to become minimally proficient in English and how the time to proficiency differs for students by their age of school entry. Specifically, I follow four recent entry cohorts of ELs ages 5-10 and use discrete-time survival analysis to model the rate at which different age groups acquire proficiency. I find that approximately half of the students become proficient within three years after school entry and that younger students learn more quickly than older students. Age of entry differences are robust to controls for observed differences between age of entry groups in their economic and demographic characteristics, their disabilities, and the schools they attend. The results lend support to the theory that older students face developmental barriers to learning new languages quickly.

  5. English use in the workplace and stress effects. A study on the possible stress effects of increased use of English in the workplace in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Valgerður Gunnarsdóttir 1981

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine a possible relationship between English use in the workplace and perceived work stress by conducting a survey among several Icelandic companies. A review of some of the literature on English use in Iceland is presented as well as a short review of work stress factors. Data was gathered from workers’ perceived stress in the workplace, perceived English proficiency, and perceived amount of English used in the workplace. Analyses from the data revea...

  6. Strategies for Building Social Connection through English: Challenges for Immigrants and Implications for Teaching English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Yates, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic data from a longitudinal study of newly-arrived immigrants of non English-speaking background in the Australian Adult Migrant English Program to investigate their opportunities for using English and the language learning strategies (LLS) they used to make the most of these opportunities. Analysis of their reports…

  7. English Listening Class on ELT in Chinese Universities’College English Computer Based Test 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杨

    2013-01-01

    As China enters WTO, more college graduates with higher English proficiency are required. They are required to pass CET4, while some college graduates even forced to pass CET6. However, we learned that even students in some distinguished universities are lack of the ability of listening and speaking. In this paper, it mainly talks about the role of English listening class in CBT4.

  8. THE PRESSURES OF ENGLISH TEACHING IN A VOCATIONAL COLLEGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuangHong

    2004-01-01

    Since our country has joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) and entered the global economy, the universal language of English has recently become more and more important in Chinese society. A new passion for English has emerged in society. Every area of work is in need of people who are able to speak good English. and our society's request for students to be proficient in English is now greater than ever.To be good at English, reading comprehension alone is not enough. Students should be good in every area, especially in spoken and written English. They should be able to talk directly with foreigners and many companies regard spoken and written English as important qualities when seeking employees. All of these changing needs raise the requirements for English teaching.This paper tries to analyze the pressures of teaching English in vocational colleges in China today.

  9. Unique Contributions of Maternal Reading Proficiency to Predicting Children's Preschool Receptive Vocabulary and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Linda M.; Norris, Stephen P.; Hayward, Denyse V.; Lovell, Meridith A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether mothers' measured reading proficiency and their educational level predict, over and above each other, their children's receptive vocabulary and reading proficiency when confounding factors of speaking a minority language, ethnicity, number of children in the family, and marital and employment status are controlled.…

  10. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  11. Tense and Aspect in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the 1990's the author cooperated with Carl Bache on a grammar of English. It turned out that the views they had previously arrived at individually on tense and aspect could be combined by operating with a fused system involving four ordered choices resulting in sixteen tense-aspect forms...

  12. Are Danish doctors comfortable teaching in English?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students...... in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. RESULTS: The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual...... analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional...

  13. The perceived need for Japanese nursing faculty members to learn English: issues related to career development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hirono; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2012-04-01

    In Japan, nurses are increasingly expected to use English in various settings. English language proficiency is indispensable in almost all aspects of the clinical experience and for career development of Japanese nurses. This article introduces the idea of Japanese nurses learning the English language to enhance their career development and provides succinct survey results about the perceived need for learning English, based on responses from 145 nursing faculty members across Japan. Analyses showed that most faculty members considered English language proficiency important for nursing expertise and career development. Overall, the results indicated that Japanese nurses require continuing English language education. Further study of their need to learn English and ways to implement English education programs is required.

  14. Structural plasticity in the language system related to increased second language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Strik, Werner; Wiest, Roland; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    While functional changes linked to second language learning have been subject to extensive investigation, the issue of learning-dependent structural plasticity in the fields of bilingualism and language comprehension has so far received less notice. In the present study we used voxel-based morphometry to monitor structural changes occurring within five months of second language learning. Native English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were examined once at the beginning of their stay and once about five months later, when their German language skills had significantly increased. We show that structural changes in the left inferior frontal gyrus are correlated with the increase in second language proficiency as measured by a paper-and-pencil language test. Contrary to the increase in proficiency and grey matter, the absolute values of grey matter density and second language proficiency did not correlate (neither on first nor on second measurement). This indicates that the individual amount of learning is reflected in brain structure changes, regardless of absolute proficiency.

  15. A Reading-Time Study of the Main Verb versus Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity Resolution by English Learners in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pi-Lan; Shih, Su-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the study aimed to investigate (a) whether English learners in Taiwan immediately resolve main verb versus reduced relative clause ambiguities in a similar way as native English speakers and (b) whether the learners at various English proficiency levels show diverse profiles. With analyses and syntheses of reading…

  16. Teachers' English Communication Skills: Using IELTS to Measure Competence of Graduates from a Singaporean Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ee-Ling; Chong, Sylvia; Ellis, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Possessing strong communication skills is essential in contributing to effective teaching. This paper investigates graduating student teachers' English language proficiency, as measured by IELTS tests scores, of graduating EL student teachers. The paper considers what teachers need to know about the English language given that English has been the…

  17. The Perspectives of Students in the College of Basic Education on the Characteristics of Effective English Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqi, Hanan A.; Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.; Akbar, Rahima S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a research study designed to investigate the characteristics of effective teachers of English and the uniqueness of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The research is based on four general categories: English language proficiency, educational perception, organization and communication skills, social and emotional…

  18. A Changing Paradigm in Language Planning: English-Medium Instruction Policy at the Tertiary Level in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nor Liza

    2013-01-01

    The literature shows that English-medium instruction (EMI) programmes at the tertiary level in various parts of the world have positioned EMI as a language-planning tool to promote students' mastery of English. English proficiency is believed to be intertwined with the overall economic development of a country. In addition to internationalising…

  19. Using Primary Language Support via Computer to Improve Reading Comprehension Skills of First-Grade English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cathi Draper; Filler, John; Higgins, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Through this exploratory study the authors investigated the effects of primary language support delivered via computer on the English reading comprehension skills of English language learners. Participants were 28 First-grade students identified as Limited English Proficient. The primary language of all participants was Spanish. Students were…

  20. The Benefits of the Use of Children's Literature in English Language and Global Citizenship Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaga, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses how children's literature can play an important role in achieving two goals: developing Japanese students' English proficiency levels and cultivating them to be global citizens. English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in Japan should be provided with more opportunities to engage with the English language outside the…

  1. Qualitative Study of Taiwanese Students Studying Abroad: Social Interactions, Navigating U.S. Culture, and Experiences Learning English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joyce Ching-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The English language increasingly influences Taiwanese life because Taiwan entered the global village and English language changed into a more important skill in order to communicate with foreigners. Many Taiwanese parents desire their children become proficient English speakers so that they send them to "buxiban" (cram schools) in…

  2. Theory of Confined Quantum Time of Arrivals

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A

    2005-01-01

    We extend the concept of confined quantum time of arrival operators, first developed for the free particle [E.A. Galapon, R. Caballar, R. Bahague {\\it Phys. Rev. Let.} {\\bf 93} 180406 (2004)], to arbitrary potentials.

  3. CONSTRUCTION OF CONTINUOUS TIME MARKOVIAN ARRIVAL PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Ming HE

    2010-01-01

    Markovian arrival processes were introduced by Neuts in 1979(Neuts 1979)and have been used extensively in the stochastic modeling of queueing,inventory,reliability,risk,and telecommunications systems.In this paper,we introduce a constructive approach to define continuous time Markovian arrival processes.The construction is based on Poisson processes,and is simple and intuitive.Such a construction makes it easy to interpret the parameters of Markovian arrival processes.The construction also makes it possible to establish rigorously basic equations,such as Kolmogorov differential equations,for Markovian arrival processes,using only elementary properties of exponential distributions and Poisson processes.In addition,the approach can be used to construct continuous time Markov chains with a finite number of states

  4. Confucian Heritage and Spoken English Anxiety in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Pan

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote learners’spoken English proficiency, a further understanding of the impact of Confucian tradi⁃tion, as a historically dominant ethical and philosophical system, on learner anxiety and eventually on learning efficiency in a spo⁃ken English class is generated, and a theoretical analysis is conducted, from the perspectives of second language acquisition and in⁃tercultural communication. Some Confucian values including self-restraint, propriety observation, paying reverence to teachers and face-keeping principle may increase learner anxiety in oral English class, hindering the development of their spoken English proficiency. Accordingly, a set of teaching strategies to help control culture-related anxiety in spoken English class are systemati⁃cally presented.

  5. From language-specific to shared syntactic representations: the influence of second language proficiency on syntactic sharing in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Pickering, Martin J

    2013-06-01

    Studies on cross-linguistic syntactic priming suggest that bilinguals can share syntactic representations across languages (e.g., Hartsuiker, Pickering, & Veltkamp, 2004). But how are these representations established in late learners of a second language? Specifically, are representations of syntactic structures in a second language (L2) immediately collapsed with similar structures of the first language (L1), or are they initially represented separately? In order to investigate this, we primed the use of English genitives with Dutch (Experiment 1) and English (Experiment 2) genitives (e.g., het hemd van de jongen/the shirt of the boy vs. de jongen zijn hemd/the boy's shirt) in late Dutch-English bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English (their L2). The head nouns of prime and target constructions either had the same meaning (hemd/shirt - shirt) or a different meaning (duim/thumb - shirt), in order to test whether the use of both genitives was generalized across nouns. Experiment 1 found stronger between-language priming for more than less proficient bilinguals in both conditions, thus suggesting a shift from language-specific to shared syntactic representations. Experiment 2 suggests that these early, language-specific syntactic representations might be item-specific: Less proficient bilinguals showed much weaker priming when the heads of prime and target constructions had different meanings than when they were repeated.

  6. “More & Earlier”: Neoliberalism and Primary English Education in Mexican Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Sayer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As global English expands, developing countries feel the pressure that, in order to remain globally competitive, they must increase the number of people with English proficiency.  In response, many countries have significantly expanded English instruction in public schools by implementing primary English language teaching (PELT) programs.  This is particularly true in countries in Southeast Asia and Latin America, where national Ministries of Education have taken a “more & earlier” approach, ...

  7. Reflection on a Prevalent English Language Teaching Method in China and an Exploration of New Ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺博闻

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by the incorrect English teaching method and the current test-driven education system, majority of English language learners in China have not only err from the right path in boosting language proficiency, but also lost their interest and confidence in acquiring English. Under such circumstances, this paper endeavors to quest for reasons and introduce new English teaching and acquisition methods based on the Comprehension Hypothesis.

  8. English Language Learners interactions with various science curriculum features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norland, Jennifer Jane

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of eighth grade English Language Learners in an inclusive science classroom. There is a paucity of research in this area. Central to this study was the students' perceptions and interactions with five different science curriculum features; teacher presentation and guided notes, worksheets, homework, labs, and practice and review activities. The student participants were English Language Learners from two language proficiency levels and the teacher was a provisionally licensed first year science teacher. The aggregate data included individual interviews with the students and teacher, classroom observations, and the collection of classroom artifacts. The findings revealed: (a) students' comprehension of the material was inconsistent throughout all of the curriculum features and differences were observed not only between but also within the two proficiency levels; (b) classroom organizational issues created challenges for both the teacher and the students; (c) off task behavior was most prevalent during the teacher's one-to-one instruction and interfered with learning; (d) differences between levels of language proficiency were observed among students who preferred to work independently and were comfortable asking the teacher for assistance and the students who preferred working with and receiving assistance from peers; and (e) language proficiency rather than cultural differences appeared to be the greatest barrier to classroom success. Overall, English language proficiency was a crucial determinant in the English Language Learners success in the inclusive classroom. Additionally, implications suggest that a limited teaching skill set could adversely affect the success of students in inclusive classrooms.

  9. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z

    2015-06-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader.

  10. Academic Achievement of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in an ASL/English Bilingual Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing…

  11. Outdoor Class Project: the Potential Benefits to Foster EFL Students’ Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Fajaria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are such myriad ideas upon English teaching-learning process. Everybody can share each fabulous idea through various media. One of fun English learnings that can motivate EFL students’ eagerness to practice English easily is an outdoor class activity. This project could sometimes deals with an outbound activities which provide the numerous contextualized values to shape more students’ character and their language proficiency as well. Moreover, nowadays the development of technology can be also integrated into the EFL classrooms. Therefore, the outdoor class project is potentially implemented through the technology-enhanced teaching. The most crucial materials that is urgently to be prepared are the tutorial models & methods, and the thermalized subject based on the objective itself.

  12. 折中主义写作教学法在大学英语写作教学中的应用探究%A Study of Eclectic Teaching Approach in College English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月月; 梁端俊

    2016-01-01

    Eclectic teaching approach in college English writing is becoming a trend, which adapts to the development of the society. Based on a brief analysis of the three widely accepted teaching methods in English writing, this paper demonstrates the respective merits and demerits of the three methods, and arrives at a conclusion that it is reasonable to integrate the advantages of the three methods and absorb their essence. The eclectic teaching approach in English writing helps to improve the students ’ English writing proficiency.%大学英语写作的折中教学法研究是高校教师探索英语写作教学适应时代发展的教学法的发展趋势之一。本文通过评析过程教学法﹑结果教学法和体裁教学法这三种被较为广泛接受的英语写作教学法,进而揭示了它们对写作教学的指导意义和弊端。分析结果表明将这三种写作教学法综合起来,走大学英语写作教学的折中之路较为合理,有利于促进学生的英语写作水平的提高。

  13. Improving the Academic Performance of Non-Native English-Speaking Students: The Contribution of Pre-Sessional English Language Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andy; Snell, Martin; Davey-Evans, Sue; Talman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    There is an established, if weak, inverse relationship between levels of English language proficiency and academic performance in higher education. In response, higher education institutions (HEIs) insist upon minimum entry requirements concerning language for international applicants. Many HEIs now also offer pre-sessional English courses to…

  14. Working for and with Latino/Latina Immigrant Newcomers in the English Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musetti, Bernadette; Salas, Spencer; Perez, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    "Newcomers" are English learners who are new to the United States and arrive with limited or interrupted formal schooling. These students have below-grade-level literacy skills in their home language and do not speak English. Newcomers' arrivals to the middle school and high school classrooms often present a formidable "what to do" for classroom…

  15. And Who Assesses the Bilingual Teacher's Language Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle-Zepeda, Veronica; Saldate, Macario, IV

    1978-01-01

    Describes the rationale and design of the Zepeda/Saldate Spanish Language Proficiency Exam developed at the University of Arizona for use in evaluating the language proficiency of applicants for bilingual/bicultural teacher education programs. (JG)

  16. Improving Oral English Teaching in Higher Vocational College by Reducing Non-English Majors' Language Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战飞

    2012-01-01

    Many Non-English majors of vocational college experience language anxiety when they speak English in the class. Many scholars have investigated language anxiety for years, which means that this prob- lem has attracted more and more attention. However, most of the investigations are carried on among university undergraduates while little re- search has been done about vocational college students. So, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the current situations of oral English teaching in vocational colleges and combine the features of English and characteristics of vocational college students to find out the causes of vocational college non-English majors' language anxiety and help students to reduce anxiety so as to improve their oral proficiency and ultimately improving oral English teaching in higher vocational college.

  17. Students’ attitudes to lecturers' English in English-medium higher education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian; Denver, Louise; Mees, Inger M.

    2013-01-01

    proficiency and perceptions of general lecturing competence (defined here as knowledge of subject and teaching skills). Statistical analyses of 1,700 student responses to 31 non-native English-speaking lecturers at a major business school in Denmark revealed that the students’ perceptions of the lecturers....... This effect should be addressed when universities use student ratings to evaluate teaching in English-medium content courses.......This study examines the evaluative reactions of university students to their non-native lecturers’ English skills in English-medium instruction, i.e. when English is used as a lingua franca in an academic context. In particular, we examine the relationship between perceptions of English language...

  18. Taking Charge: Teacher Candidates' Preparation for the Oral Proficiency Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, JoAnn Hammadou

    2011-01-01

    Within second language education, concern over teachers' content knowledge has typically manifested itself as concern over the teacher's target language proficiency. In increasing numbers, teacher preparation programs are turning to ACTFL's Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) for measurement of this proficiency and using OPI ratings as high-stakes…

  19. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  20. The Accreditation of Laboratories Proficiency and Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recently, China National Accreditation Board for Laboratories (CNAL) has released CNAL/AC23:2004 Medical Laboratories: Accreditation Criteria For Quality and Proficiency, and meanwhile GB 19489 Laboratories: General Requirements For Biosafety and ISO 15190 Medical Laboratories-Requirements For Safetywill be adopted by CNAL as the accreditation criteria for laboratories safety.