WorldWideScience

Sample records for arresting environmental degradation

  1. Arresting Environmental Degradation Through Accelerated On-site Soil Sedimentation and Revegetation Using Microcatchments and Reseeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnene, W.N.; Wandera, F.P.; Lebbie, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of arid and semi arid lands (ASALs) through denudation has been found to result in lowered capacity to support livestock, particularly under extensive production systems. After a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in Kajiado District, an opportunity was identified in the pastoral reserves grazing areas involving the combined use of monochromators (specifically pitting) and re seeding with adapted forage species. Treatments were imposed before the 1996 short rainy seasons. Data were collected on soil sedimentation as well as herbaceous cover and standing crop. Much of the soil deposit comprised of fine silt-clay in the pits and sand on the up-slope. No soil deposit was observed on the down-slope of the pits. This increased in subsequent rainy seasons. Although seeding was done by broadcasting to cover whole plots, establishment was only evident where it is pitted. Volunteer herbaceous vegetation expressed themselves and plant cover tended to also increase in freshly deposited soil from one wet season to another. Herbage was particularly dense on the crescents of the pits

  2. Environmental Degradation: Causes and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Tyagi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of the green debate: the environment can no longer be viewed as an entity separate from the economy. Environmental degradation is of many types and have many consequences. To address this challenge a number of studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality. Minimizing exposure to environmental risk factors by enhancing air quality and access to improved sources of drinking and bathing water, sanitation and clean energy is found to be associated with significant health benefits and can contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of environmental sustainability, health and development. In this paper, I describe the national and global causes and consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. This paper provides a review of the literature on studies associated with reduced environmental risk and in particular focusing on reduced air pollution, enhanced water quality and climate change mitigation.

  3. Charcoal production and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of continued tree harvesting for charcoal production to supply the urban areas in Tanzania. Woodlands appear to recover relatively well following harvesting for charcoal production. Selective harvesting, where the high quality, low cost fuel production species and specimens are culled first from a piece of land, serves to maintain the viability of the woodlands resource while providing charcoal. This recovery period can be prolonged through any number of human induced activities, such as heavy grazing, multiple burns and extended cultivation periods. At the same time, post-harvest management techniques, such as coppice management, sprout protection and fertilization, can also improve the ability of woodlands to recover following harvesting. The environmental history of a given area determines why certain areas continue to be strong suppliers of woodfuel while others are not. For example, Shinyanga started from a low productivity base and has been degraded by successive waves of tree harvesting compounded by heavy grazing pressure. It is this multiple complex of pressures over a long period of time on land which is intrinsically of low productivity, and not the harvesting of woodlands for fuels, which has led to the environmental degradation in these areas. (author)

  4. Nascent peptide-mediated translation elongation arrest coupled with mRNA degradation in the CGS1 gene of Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onouchi, Hitoshi; Nagami, Yoko; Haraguchi, Yuhi; Nakamoto, Mari; Nishimura, Yoshiko; Sakurai, Ryoko; Nagao, Nobuhiro; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Kadokura, Yoshitomo; Naito, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the Arabidopsis CGS1 gene that codes for cystathionine γ-synthase is feedback regulated at the step of mRNA stability in response to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). A short stretch of amino acid sequence, called the MTO1 region, encoded by the first exon of CGS1 itself is involved in this regulation. Here, we demonstrate, using a cell-free system, that AdoMet induces temporal translation elongation arrest at the Ser-94 codon located immediately downstream of the MTO1 region, by analyzing a translation intermediate and performing primer extension inhibition (toeprint) analysis. This translation arrest precedes the formation of a degradation intermediate of CGS1 mRNA, which has its 5′ end points near the 5′ edge of the stalled ribosome. The position of ribosome stalling also suggests that the MTO1 region in nascent peptide resides in the ribosomal exit tunnel when translation elongation is temporarily arrested. In addition to the MTO1 region amino acid sequence, downstream Trp-93 is also important for the AdoMet-induced translation arrest. This is the first example of nascent peptide-mediated translation elongation arrest coupled with mRNA degradation in eukaryotes. Furthermore, our data suggest that the ribosome stalls at the step of translocation rather than at the step of peptidyl transfer. PMID:16027170

  5. Environmental degradation and its relationship with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that stress and environmental degradation, contributed significantly to the development of globus pharyngeus; suggesting the need for action in this regard, by governments and relevant governmental agencies saddled with the task of guaranteeing overall public safety and health. Keywords: Globus ...

  6. Land Tenure Induced Deforestation and Environmental Degradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land Tenure Induced Deforestation and Environmental Degradation in Ethiopia: The Case of Arbagugu State Forest Development and Protection Project (A ... The objective of this paper is to explore the cause and impact of this overarching problem by focusing on Arbagugu State Forest Development and Protection Project, ...

  7. Poverty, population and environmental degradation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozelle, S; Huang, J; Zhang, L

    1997-06-01

    This article examines the relationship between poverty, population, and environmental degradation in China. Environmental conditions include water pollution, deforestation, destruction of grasslands, soil erosion, and salinization. The authors review China's success in controlling environmental degradation through leadership, environmental policies, and institutional capacity. Findings suggest that environmental progress is best achieved indirectly by poverty alleviation, market integration, and population control. Government policies were not very effective. Degradation occurs due to limited financial resources, poorly trained personnel, and political factors. Control of water pollution was instituted since the 1980s. The levels of pollutants have been reduced, but the type of pollutant determines the seriousness of impact. Water pollution is due to industrial wastes, agricultural run-off, and soil erosion. Since the 1970s, reforestation targets have not been met. Technical extension and monitoring of planting is not available in most areas, and private, profit seeking interests control acreage. Grassland destruction is due to deforestation, agricultural expansion, and overgrazing. Independent regional authorities have successfully managed pasture programs. Erosion is the most serious in Loess Plateau, the Red Soils area, the Northeast China Plain, and the Northwest Grasslands, which comprise 70% of total land area. In 1990, erosion control was practiced in 39% of eroded land area. Salinization has remained fairly constant. Environmental controls (direct regulation, planned recovery, and state-mandated technological improvements) are uneven. The main tool for environmental management is the State Environmental Protection Commission and its executive unit, SEPA. Problems stem from vague laws, lack of means of enforcement, lack of coordination of laws, and lack of standards, schedules, and other provisions in ordinances.

  8. ATP depletion during mitotic arrest induces mitotic slippage and APC/CCdh1-dependent cyclin B1 degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun Yeon; Ahn, Ju-Hyun; Cho, Min-Guk; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2018-04-27

    ATP depletion inhibits cell cycle progression, especially during the G1 phase and the G2 to M transition. However, the effect of ATP depletion on mitotic progression remains unclear. We observed that the reduction of ATP after prometaphase by simultaneous treatment with 2-deoxyglucose and NaN 3 did not arrest mitotic progression. Interestingly, ATP depletion during nocodazole-induced prometaphase arrest resulted in mitotic slippage, as indicated by a reduction in mitotic cells, APC/C-dependent degradation of cyclin B1, increased cell attachment, and increased nuclear membrane reassembly. Additionally, cells successfully progressed through the cell cycle after mitotic slippage, as indicated by EdU incorporation and time-lapse imaging. Although degradation of cyclin B during normal mitotic progression is primarily regulated by APC/C Cdc20 , we observed an unexpected decrease in Cdc20 prior to degradation of cyclin B during mitotic slippage. This decrease in Cdc20 was followed by a change in the binding partner preference of APC/C from Cdc20 to Cdh1; consequently, APC/C Cdh1 , but not APC/C Cdc20 , facilitated cyclin B degradation following ATP depletion. Pulse-chase analysis revealed that ATP depletion significantly abrogated global translation, including the translation of Cdc20 and Cdh1. Additionally, the half-life of Cdh1 was much longer than that of Cdc20. These data suggest that ATP depletion during mitotic arrest induces mitotic slippage facilitated by APC/C Cdh1 -dependent cyclin B degradation, which follows a decrease in Cdc20 resulting from reduced global translation and the differences in the half-lives of the Cdc20 and Cdh1 proteins.

  9. Geochemical induced degradation of environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlar, H

    1984-09-01

    Attempts to correlate the concentration of organic chemicals in the environment with their production figures have resulted in a large deficit; this includes environmental chemicals such as chlorinated hydrocarbons. It has been assumed that analytical errors accounted for this deficit. Another explanation, however, allows for reactions of compounds under biotic and abiotic conditions. Because of the biostability of many organic chemicals biological transformation mechanisms can bring about slight change only. By contrast, abiotic environmental factors such as the UV-irradiation or decomposition on natural surfaces contribute considerably to the transformation of this substance class. An investigation of such abiotic charges of organic chemicals must therefore pay particular attention to dynamic and catalytic effects primarily attributable to the respective molecular state and interactions with the environment. This paper deals with the photoinduced reactions of organic substances adsorbed on natural surfaces and their significance for the degradability of environmental chemicals.

  10. Rapid RNase L-driven arrest of protein synthesis in the dsRNA response without degradation of translation machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jesse; Rath, Sneha; Kolet-Mandrikov, David; Korennykh, Alexei

    2017-11-01

    Mammalian cells respond to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by activating a translation-inhibiting endoribonuclease, RNase L. Consensus in the field indicates that RNase L arrests protein synthesis by degrading ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs). However, here we provide evidence for a different and far more efficient mechanism. By sequencing abundant RNA fragments generated by RNase L in human cells, we identify site-specific cleavage of two groups of noncoding RNAs: Y-RNAs, whose function is poorly understood, and cytosolic tRNAs, which are essential for translation. Quantitative analysis of human RNA cleavage versus nascent protein synthesis in lung carcinoma cells shows that RNase L stops global translation when tRNAs, as well as rRNAs and mRNAs, are still intact. Therefore, RNase L does not have to degrade the translation machinery to stop protein synthesis. Our data point to a rapid mechanism that transforms a subtle RNA cleavage into a cell-wide translation arrest. © 2017 Donovan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Environmental Degradation in Oil Producing Areas of Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to oil exploration and other human activities in the Niger Delta region, there is evidence of environmental degradation all over the area (Oronto, 1998). Environmental degradation is occasioned by consistent flow of industrial waste, oil spills, gas flares, fire disaster, acid rain, flooding erosion, etc., which has led to the ...

  12. Simulated degradation of biochar and its potential environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaoyun; Demisie, Walelign; Zhang, Mingkui

    2013-01-01

    A simulated oxidation technique was used to examine the impacts of degradation on the surface properties of biochar and the potential implications of the changes in biochar properties were discussed. To simulate the short- and long-term environmental degradation, mild and harsh degradation were employed. Results showed that after mild degradation, the biochar samples showed significant reductions in surface area and pore volumes. After harsh degradation, the biochar samples revealed dramatic variations in their surface chemistry, surface area, pore volumes, morphology and adsorption properties. The results clearly indicate that changes of biochar surface properties were affected by biochar types and oxidative conditions. It is suggested that biochar surface properties are likely to be gradually altered during environmental exposure. This implies that these changes have potential effects for altering the physicochemical properties of biochar amended soils. -- Highlights: •Mild and harsh degradation were employed to simulate natural degradation of biochar. •Mild degradation could reduce the surface area and micropore volumes of biochar. •Harsh degradation caused severe changes of all of the biochar surface properties. •Biochar types and oxidative conditions may dominate the changes of its properties. -- The simulated degradation of biochar in this study could provide a mechanism for forecasting short- or long-term environmental degradation of biochar

  13. Relevance of Green Marketing on Environmental Degradation: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevance of Green Marketing on Environmental Degradation: An Empirical ... to others through product, process, packaging and advertising modification(s). ... thus appropriate strategies for effective application of green marketing are lacking.

  14. Linkages between Poverty and Environmental Degradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study conceptualizes environmental concerns of the poor so as to formulate appropriate policy measures for environmental awareness and sustainable development. It is limited to poverty -environment interrelationships through an overview of the perception of the poor about the environment and their behaviour to the ...

  15. Poverty and Environmental Degradation in Uyo Urban, Akwa Ibom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high level of poverty in the world today is a major force behind contemporary environmental problems. It is true that the degradation of our environment has been exacerbated by widespread poverty. Thus, it is virtually impossible to effectively discuss the idea of urban environmental sustainability without paying serious ...

  16. Photochemically enhanced microbial degradation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, A.; Matsumura, F.

    1991-01-01

    Biodegradation of persistent halogenated organic pollutants is of great interest from the viewpoint of its potential use to cleanup the contaminated sites and industrial waste streams on-site (i.e., in situ remediation). Recent studies have shown that lignin-degrading white rot fungi possess capabilities to degrade a variety of highly recalcitrant and toxic compounds. On the other hand, photodegradation by sunlight or ultraviolet light (UV) has not been considered as a potential technology to detoxify the contaminated sites, in spite of the availability of extensive research data, because of its limited reaching ability to subsurface locations. In view of the urgent needs for the development of technology to deal with mounting problems of toxic wastes, the authors have decided to experiment with the ideas of combining photochemical and microbial technologies. The main obstacle in developing such simultaneous combination systems has been the susceptibilities of microorganisms in general to UV irradiation. To overcome this problem, the authors have developed an ultraviolet- and fungicide-resistant strain of white rot fungus and now report their results

  17. 1 Evaluating Biophysical Attributes of Environmentally Degraded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.4 No. 1 2011. 1 Department of .... land cover types and other physical attributes. (soils and landform ..... Natural water bodies (Rivers). Figure 4: .... permanent or ephemeral rivers. .... evaluating land use/land cover change using participatory ... First Edition.

  18. Methods for Evaluating the Biodegradability of Environmentally Degradable Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the current knowledge on experimental methods for monitoring the biodegradability of polymeric materials. The focus is, in particular, on the biodegradation of materials under environmental conditions. Examples of in vivo degradation of polymers used in

  19. Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts: A Focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts: A Focus on the Implications of the Diminishing Water Resources of Lake Chad for North-Eastern Nigeria. ... The impact of this depletion is being felt by Lake Chad basin population who depend on the lake for their means of livelihood. This paper focuses on the ...

  20. Overview of environmental materials degradation in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, H.I.; Wu, P.

    1986-08-01

    This report provides a brief overview of analyses and conclusions reported in published literature regarding environmentally induced degradation of materials in operating light-water reactors. It is intended to provide a synopsis of subjects of concern rather than to address a licensing basis for any newly discovered problems related to reactor materials

  1. Vicious cycle of poverty and environmental degradation: Haiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Christensen, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and one of the most environmentally degraded. Over 60% of its income comes as aid from the USA and other countries, and 65% of its people survive on less than $1 a day. Almost all of the country was originally forested but now there is less t...

  2. Environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, D.L.; Bradford, S.A. [USDA ARS, Riverside, CA (United States). US Salin Laboratory

    2008-09-15

    Greater urban demand for finite water resources to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and recreational needs; increased frequency of drought resulting from erratic weather; and continued degradation of available water resources from point and nonpoint sources of pollution have focused attention on the reuse of degraded waters as a potential water source. However, short- and long-term detrimental environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2007 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium entitled Environmental Impacts and Sustainability of Degraded Water Reuse. Out of this symposium came a special collection of 4 review papers and 12 technical research papers focusing on various issues associated with the reuse of agricultural drainage water, well water generated in the production of natural gas from coalbeds, municipal wastewater and biosolids, wastewater from confined animal operations, urban runoff, and food-processing wastewater. Overviews of the papers, gaps in knowledge, and future research directions are presented. The future prognosis of degraded water reuse is promising, provided close attention is paid to managing constituents that pose short- and long-term threats to the environment and the health of humankind.

  3. Influence of foreign direct investment on indicators of environmental degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Al-Mulali, Usama

    2018-06-21

    This study aims to contribute to the existing literature by looking at the influence of foreign direct investment on carbon dioxide emissions, carbon footprint, and ecological footprint. In order to realize the aim of this study, we have utilized the augmented mean group estimator, which is supported by common correlated effect mean group estimator in the analysis for 20 countries. The panel results reveal that foreign direct investment has no effect on environmental degradation indicators. The panel results further reveal that gross domestic product, energy consumption, and urbanization are the main contributors to environmental degradation. The results at country level show that foreign direct investment and urbanization increase pollution in the developing countries while they mitigate pollution in the developed countries. Moreover, gross domestic product and energy consumption increase pollution for both developed and developing countries, which includes China and the USA. The negative impact of foreign direct investment on environmental degradation in the developed countries can be explained on the basis that these countries have strong environmental regulations, which makes it almost impossible for dirty foreign industries to invest therein. From the output of this research, several policy recommendations are enumerated for the investigated countries.

  4. Linking degradation status with ecosystem vulnerability to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Baho, Didier L.; Allen, Craig R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental change can cause regime shifts in ecosystems, potentially threatening ecosystem services. It is unclear if the degradation status of ecosystems correlates with their vulnerability to environmental change, and thus the risk of future regime shifts. We assessed resilience in acidified (degraded) and circumneutral (undegraded) lakes with long-term data (1988–2012), using time series modeling. We identified temporal frequencies in invertebrate assemblages, which identifies groups of species whose population dynamics vary at particular temporal scales. We also assessed species with stochastic dynamics, those whose population dynamics vary irregularly and unpredictably over time. We determined the distribution of functional feeding groups of invertebrates within and across the temporal scales identified, and in those species with stochastic dynamics, and assessed attributes hypothesized to contribute to resilience. Three patterns of temporal dynamics, consistent across study lakes, were identified in the invertebrates. The first pattern was one of monotonic change associated with changing abiotic lake conditions. The second and third patterns appeared unrelated to the environmental changes we monitored. Acidified and the circumneutral lakes shared similar levels and patterns of functional richness, evenness, diversity, and redundancy for species within and across the observed temporal scales and for stochastic species groups. These similar resilience characteristics suggest that both lake types did not differ in vulnerability to the environmental changes observed here. Although both lake types appeared equally vulnerable in this study, our approach demonstrates how assessing systemic vulnerability by quantifying ecological resilience can help address uncertainty in predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change across ecosystems.

  5. The role of environmental degradation in population displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, S

    1998-01-01

    This article answers a series of questions about the role of environmental degradation in population displacement, refugee movement, and migration. The environment tends not to be included in the reasons for migration. Roger's indicators of migration potential include population growth, economic restructuring, increased economic disparities, and increased refugee flows. Myers (1993) estimated that international displacement and internal displacement may amount to about 25 million and may rise to 150 million by 2050. The role of the environment in displacement must be examined in the broader political and cultural context. Definitions of environmental refugees are ambiguous and inconsistent, and research has not answered why people continue to move to Mexico City and Chongqing, China, which both have very high levels of pollution. El-Hinnawi (1985) defined 3 groups of environmental refugees: those displaced due to natural disasters; those displaced due to permanent habitat changes; and those displaced who migrated from areas that cannot support their basic needs and who desire an improved quality of life. Lonergan (1994) identified environmental stresses as natural disasters, cumulative or slow-onset changes, accidental disruptions or industrial accidents, development projects, and conflict and warfare. These 5 causes must be treated separately and not lumped together as environmental degradation. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption associated with climate change may increase migration. Global measures must address world poverty and promote sustainable development.

  6. 3. Poor countries: Breaking the cycle of poverty, environmental degradation, and human deprivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philips, R.

    1992-01-01

    In the poor countries, where poverty, environmental degradation, and human deprivation are closely linked and are aggravated by high population growth, measures to address these problems can be mutually reinforcing. Improvements in people's health and skills contribute to economic progress and - when available to women - to reduced births. Slower population growth increases the opportunities available to the current population, which in turn increases the people's capacity for responding to opportunities and incentives that protect the environment and promote economic development. A secure resource base and increases in nonagricultural employment opportunities - again, especially for women - in turn contribute to economic growth and to improved human prospects. Because of these synergistic relationships, simultaneously pursuing action on all fronts - investing in the development of people, promoting economic growth, and arresting massive environmental destruction - offers the possibility of turning a vicious cycle into a virtuous cycle. But the challenge is formidable and will require political commitment and a host of policies to foster equity, participation, and resource conservation. The alternative, however, may well be increased ecological disaster and poverty - and the social cleavages they create - in poor countries. People are their own best advocates when they have the opportunity. They know what they want and understand better than outsiders the local ecological, social, political, and cultural context. Initiatives that respect local knowledge, support rather than supplant local leadership, and work within existing institutions, supplementing but not replacing local wisdom with technical expertise, have the best chances of success

  7. Natural Resource Extraction, Armed Violence, and Environmental Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Bonds, Eric; Clark, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this article is to demonstrate that environmental sociologists cannot fully explain the relationship between humans and the natural world without theorizing a link between natural resource extraction, armed violence, and environmental degradation. The authors begin by arguing that armed violence is one of several overlapping mechanisms that provide powerful actors with the means to (a) prevail over others in conflicts over natural resources and (b) ensure that natural resources critical to industrial production and state power continue to be extracted and sold in sufficient quantities to promote capital accumulation, state power, and ecological unequal exchange. The authors then identify 10 minerals that are critical to the functioning of the U.S. economy and/or military and demonstrate that the extraction of these minerals often involves the use of armed violence. They further demonstrate that armed violence is associated with the activities of the world's three largest mining companies, with African mines that receive World Bank funding, and with petroleum and rainforest timber extraction. The authors conclude that the natural resource base on which industrial societies stand is constructed in large part through the use and threatened use of armed violence. As a result, armed violence plays a critical role in fostering environmental degradation and ecological unequal exchange.

  8. Children as a resource: environmental degradation and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joekes, S

    1994-06-01

    Through the use of case studies from Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, and Morocco, the influence of environmental degradation on women's livelihoods and fertility is broadly examined. The aim is to show how the environment impacts on women's childbearing decisions, and the consequences. The evidence appears to support the notion that environmental pressures on women will contribute to higher fertility, under conditions of gender division of labor, a very low social status for women, and women's limited educational opportunity. The Kenya experiences were among rural villages in various agro-ecological zones in Embu, on the slopes of Mt. Kenya, and involved coping strategies with poor soils and very little rainfall. The Malaysian research focused on river communities in the rain forests of Limbang River Basin in Sarawak and the logging industry and government regulation of tribal land use rights. In mountainous Tetouan and A1 Hoceimain, Moroccan populations struggle with poor social services and little rainfall. The study areas in Morocco and Kenya had very high population growth, but declining growth rates nationally. The study areas suffered from deforestation, declines in water quality and availability, and soil erosion and depletion. Family planning services would be welcome: 1) when women do not have to solely bear the responsibility for the additional work involved in environmentally degraded areas; and 2) when the value of children is not increased. Policy must recognize that where rigid gender division of labor is prominent, children are a crucial resource for women in the provision of household support. The Morocco case exemplified the extremes of men's refusal to ease women's workloads with time and labor saving technology. Family planning promotion in such situations must be accompanied by provision of alternative resources to address the adverse environmental impacts on women. Blaming women for environmental problems and family planning promotion will fail to

  9. The influence of environmental sound training on the perception of spectrally degraded speech and environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Gygi, Brian; Ho, Kim Thien N

    2012-06-01

    Perceptual training with spectrally degraded environmental sounds results in improved environmental sound identification, with benefits shown to extend to untrained speech perception as well. The present study extended those findings to examine longer-term training effects as well as effects of mere repeated exposure to sounds over time. Participants received two pretests (1 week apart) prior to a week-long environmental sound training regimen, which was followed by two posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Spectrally degraded stimuli, processed with a four-channel vocoder, consisted of a 160-item environmental sound test, word and sentence tests, and a battery of basic auditory abilities and cognitive tests. Results indicated significant improvements in all speech and environmental sound scores between the initial pretest and the last posttest with performance increments following both exposure and training. For environmental sounds (the stimulus class that was trained), the magnitude of positive change that accompanied training was much greater than that due to exposure alone, with improvement for untrained sounds roughly comparable to the speech benefit from exposure. Additional tests of auditory and cognitive abilities showed that speech and environmental sound performance were differentially correlated with tests of spectral and temporal-fine-structure processing, whereas working memory and executive function were correlated with speech, but not environmental sound perception. These findings indicate generalizability of environmental sound training and provide a basis for implementing environmental sound training programs for cochlear implant (CI) patients.

  10. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin, E-mail: yhcheng@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hung, Chein-Hui [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Sciences, Chang Gung University, Puizi City, Chiayi 613, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Nai Wen [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chingju [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  11. Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1993-11-01

    The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.

  12. Agronomic and environmental implications of enhanced s-triazine degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutz, L. J.; Dale L. Shaner,; Mark A. Weaver,; Webb, Richard M.; Zablotowicz, Robert M.; Reddy, Krishna N.; Huang, Y.; Thompson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Novel catabolic pathways enabling rapid detoxification of s-triazine herbicides have been elucidated and detected at a growing number of locations. The genes responsible for s-triazine mineralization, i.e. atzABCDEF and trzNDF, occur in at least four bacterial phyla and are implicated in the development of enhanced degradation in agricultural soils from all continents except Antarctica. Enhanced degradation occurs in at least nine crops and six crop rotation systems that rely on s-triazine herbicides for weed control, and, with the exception of acidic soil conditions and s-triazine application frequency, adaptation of the microbial population is independent of soil physiochemical properties and cultural management practices. From an agronomic perspective, residual weed control could be reduced tenfold in s-triazine-adapted relative to non-adapted soils. From an environmental standpoint, the off-site loss of total s-triazine residues could be overestimated 13-fold in adapted soils if altered persistence estimates and metabolic pathways are not reflected in fate and transport models. Empirical models requiring soil pH and s-triazine use history as input parameters predict atrazine persistence more accurately than historical estimates, thereby allowing practitioners to adjust weed control strategies and model input values when warranted. 

  13. Degradation in perovskite solar cells stored under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Abhishek K.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2017-08-01

    Investigations carried out on the degradation of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) stored in different open air environmental conditions are reported here. The solar cells were stored in the open in the dark inside the laboratory (relative humidity 47  ±  5%, temperature 23  ±  4 °C), under compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) illumination (irradiance 10 mW cm2, relative humidity 47  ±  5%, temperature 23  ±  4 °C) and under natural sunlight outside the laboratory. In the outdoor storage situation the surrounding conditions varied from time to time and the environmental conditions during the day (irradiance 100 mW/cm2, relative humidity ~18%, temperature ~45 °C at noon) were entirely different from those at night (irradiance 0 mW/cm2, relative humidity ~66%, temperature ~16 °C at midnight). The photovoltaic parameters were measured from time to time inside the laboratory as per the International Summit on Organic Photovoltaic Stability (ISOS) protocols. All the photovoltaic parameters, such as short circuit current density (J sc), open circuit voltage (V oc), fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency (PCE), of the solar cells stored outdoors decayed more rapidly than those stored under CFL or in the dark. The solar cells stored in the dark exhibited maximum stability. While the encapsulated solar cells stored outdoors were completely dead after about 560 h, the solar cells stored under CFL illumination retained  >60% of their initial efficiency even after 1100 h. However, the solar cells stored in the dark and tested up to ~1100 h did not show any degradation in PCE but on the contrary exhibited slight improvement, and this improvement was mainly because of improvement in their V oc. Rapid degradation in the open air outside the laboratory under direct sunlight compared with the dark and CFL storage has been attributed to high temperature during the day, high humidity at night, high solar illumination intensity and the

  14. Environmental degradation of materials and corrosion control in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, J.; Elboujdaini, M.; Shoesmith, D.; Patnaik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials and Corrosion Control In Metals (EDMCCM), held in Quebec City in 1999, was very successful. Encouraged by this success. the Metallurgical Society of CIM organized the Second International Conference in what is hoped will be an on-going series. This meeting was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in August 2003. The objective of this conference was to provide a wide-ranging forum for the discussion of recent developments in the study and understanding of corrosion degradation of metals and alloys and the variety of processes by which corrosion damage accumulates. The scope of the meeting ranged from the fundamental to the very applied with a primary emphasis on the inter-relationships between chemical, electrochemical, mechanical and metallurgical features of corrosion. This symposium was an excellent forum for the exchange of ideas and approaches between generally disparate fields of endeavour. The success of the symposium can be gauged from the large number of papers presented and the outstanding level of international participation, with authors from China, Iran, Japan, North America, Russia, United Kingdom and Venezuela. In addition authors from six Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan) participated. Six keynote presentations covered a wide range of topics and industries in corrosion and corrosion control, and a total 45 papers were presented, spread over three days in six individual sessions; Electrochemistry and Corrosion of Metals, Corrosion and Cracking Behaviour. Hydrogen in Steel and Pipeline Corrosion, Corrosion Case Studies and Applications, Characterization of Corrosion Behaviour, and Corrosion Protection Coatings. (author)

  15. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling gene AtCHR12 mediates temporary growth arrest in Arabidopsis thaliana upon perceiving environmental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynarova, L.; Nap, J.P.H.; Bisseling, T.

    2007-01-01

    One of the earliest responses of plants to environmental stress is establishing a temporary growth arrest that allows adaptation to adverse conditions. The response to abiotic stress requires the modulation of gene expression, which may be mediated by the alteration of chromatin structures. This

  16. Environmental degradation and intra-household welfare: the case of the Tanzanian rural South Pare Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimoso, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: Environmental degradation, intrahousehold labour allocation, intrahousehold welfare.
    Rural south Pare highlands in Tanzania experience a deteriorating environmental situation. Of particular importance is the disappearance of forests and woodlands. The consequence are declining

  17. Environmental Degradation and Durability of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental investigation reports on the durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites upon exposure to multiple environments. Nanocomposites are fabricated by mixing the clay particles using various combinations of mechanical mixing, high-shear dispersion, and ultrasonication. Clay morphology is characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of both neat epoxy and the epoxy-clay nanocomposite are subjected to two environmental conditions: combined UV radiation and condensation on 3-hour repeat cycle and constant temperature-humidity, for a total exposure duration of 4770 hours. The presence of nanoscale clay inhibits moisture uptake, as demonstrated by exposure to constant temperature-humidity. Nonetheless, both materials lose mass under exposure to combined UV radiation and condensation due to the erosion of epoxy by a synergistic process. Surprisingly, the epoxy-clay specimens exhibit greater mass loss, as compared to neat epoxy. Mechanical testing shows that either environment does not significant affect the flexure modulus of either material. On the other hand, both materials undergo degradation in flexural strength when exposed to either environment. However, the epoxy-clay nanocomposite retains 37% more flexure strength than the neat epoxy after 4072 hours of exposure.

  18. Environmental Degradation and Durability of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Zunjarrao, S.C.; Pandey, G.; Khait, M.; Korach, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental investigation reports on the durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites upon exposure to multiple environments. Nanocomposites are fabricated by mixing the clay particles using various combinations of mechanical mixing, high-shear dispersion, and ultrasonication. Clay morphology is characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of both neat epoxy and the epoxy-clay nanocomposite are subjected to two environmental conditions: combined UV radiation and condensation on 3-hour repeat cycle and constant temperature-humidity, for a total exposure duration of 4770 hours. The presence of nanoscale clay inhibits moisture uptake, as demonstrated by exposure to constant temperature-humidity. Nonetheless, both materials lose mass under exposure to combined UV radiation and condensation due to the erosion of epoxy by a synergistic process. Surprisingly, the epoxy-clay specimens exhibit greater mass loss, as compared to neat epoxy. Mechanical testing shows that either environment does not significant affect the flexure modulus of either material. On the other hand, both materials undergo degradation in flexural strength when exposed to either environment. However, the epoxy-clay nanocomposite retains 37% more flexure strength than the neat epoxy after 4072 hours of exposure.

  19. DIAGNOSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADED PASTURES IN AREAS OF MUNICIPAL GURUPI-TO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Araújo de Freitas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation in grassland areas is a major constraint for the performance of ranching, which dominates the extensive grazing system on pasture. Therefore, this study aimed to carry out environmental assessment of pasture degradation areas in the municipality of Gurupi-TO. An environmental diagnosis was conducted in four properties: farm “Morada do Boi III”, farm “Jatobá”, and farm “Nova Esperança”. The environmental degradation was evaluated according to the following methods: (a Interview structured in a questionnaire in order to survey: formation, degradation, rehabilitation and maintenance of pastures; (B Soil sample collecting, 0-20 cm; and (c Visual assessment of the environmental degradation level. With regard to the third method, five different parameters such as: Strength and Quality of pasture, Plant population, Weeds, Ground cover, and Erosion were utilized in this evaluation. According to this, individual keys were set up for each parameter, keys that range from 1 to four 4, in which 1 was 75%. It was observed that the four properties are in degradation, but each at a different level. It was found moderate to very strong degradation, as is the case of farm “Jatobá”. It was observed, in all properties, that the soil fertility in decline is related to pasture degradation. Thus, environmental recovery strategies in the four properties are required. Keywords: soil fertility; degradation of pastures; Brachiaria brizantha.

  20. Recourse to Dry Land Farming as a Possible Way to Arrest the Degradation of Groundwater, Soil and Land in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Lunkad, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Green Revolution enabled the small state of Haryna to become the wheat granary of India - though occupying 1.3% of geographical area of India, it accounts for 13% of wheat, and 3% of quality rice production in India. Haryana paid a heavy price for the impressive agricultural development - one-third of the irrigated land is salinity affected, water level declined by 3-12 m, and excessive nitrate levels in the groundwater (114-1800 mg/l) have rendered the groundwater non-potable in many areas. Groundwater in the arid western Haryana has become mostly saline ( TDS > 4000 mg/l). Improper canal irrigation has raised the water table by 3.0 -9.0 m in some areas, causing water logging over 2346 km2 of land. One possible way to arrest the degradation of groundwater and soil, is to switch to dryland farming. This would involve change in the irrigation method as well as proper selection and rotation of food crops like barley, sorghum, maize, different types of beans (pulses) and oil seeds like mustard, groundnut, etc and restricted use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Dryland farming could go hand in hand with the plantation of fruit trees, grasses and medicinal plants suitable to this agro- climatic zone, and animal husbandry. The same considerations hold good to eastern Rajasthan as well.

  1. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON ANIMAL DIVERSITY IN BALI, INDONESSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Kasa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bali is a small beautiful tropical island of Indonesia archipelago, lies between the continent of Asia and Australia, as well as the Indian and Pacific Ocean. As a tropical archipelago, many kinds of biodiversity can be found. The island of Bali in particular, there are typical animal diversity that could not be investigated beyond such island, such as, Bali cattle, Bali dog, Bali starling and others. As time goes on, the existance of such biodiversity decreases in both body weight and population number. Both global warming/climate change and land use change are the main factors affecting such phenomenon. This study has been conducted by employing field observation as well as literature study. It was found that, the quality of purebred Bali cattle species decreases genetically that could be notified of smaller bodysize for both male and female. Land use change of agriculture activity to the hotels, house of living, roads and other infrastructures are the main factors for Bali cattle existence. For typical famous bird of Balistarling, the problem is because of deforestation which cause natural habitat loss, due to land use change for agricultural activity and house building by local people. In case of Bali dog, the mad dog of rabies is just introduce and spreading over Bali island, whichis formerly the island of Bali has been recognised as free zone area of the rabies. As consequence, suffering dogs must be eliminated by  mass killing cause decrease total number of such poor dog. Overall, it could be concluded that environmental degradations of land use change, deforestation and desease are the main causes of biodiversity decreasing number of the Bali cattle, Bali white starling and Bali dog respectively, beside global warming/climate change natural disaster. Key words: Environment, Bali cattle, Bali starling, Bali dog, Bali island.

  2. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON ANIMAL DIVERSITY IN BALI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Waya Kasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali is a small beautiful tropical island of Indonesia archipelago lies betweens the continent of Asia and Australia as well as the Indian and Pacific Ocean. As a tropical archipelago, of course, many kinds of biodiversity can be found over there. In the island of Bali in particular, there are typical animal diversity that could not be investigated beyond such island, such as, Bali cattle, Bali dog, Bali white starling and others. As time goes on, the existance of such biodiversity decreases in both quality and quantity. Both global warming/climate change and land use change are the main factors affecting such phenomenon. This study has been conducted by employing field observation as well as literature study. It was found that, the quality of purebred Bali cattle species decreases genetically that could be notified of smaller bodysize for both male and female. Land use change of agriculture activity to the hotels, house of living, roads and other infrastructures are the main factors for Bali cattle existancy. For typical famous bird of white starling, the problem is because of deforestation which cause natural habitat loss, due to land use change for agricultural activity and house building by local people. In case of Bali dog, the mad dog of rabies is just introduce and spreading over Bali island, whichis formerly the island of Bali has been recognised as free zone area of the rabies. As consequency, suffering dogs must be eliminated by a mass killing cause decrease total number of such poor dog. Overall, it could be concluded that environmental degradations of land use change, deforestation and desease are the main causes of biodiversity decreasing number of the Bali cattle, Bali white starling and Bali dog respectively, beside global warming/climate change natural disaster.

  3. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  4. Does finance affect environmental degradation: evidence from One Belt and One Road Initiative region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Muhammad; Chunhui, Yuan; Strohmaier, David; Ahmed, Manzoor; Jie, Liu

    2018-04-01

    This paper explores the effects of finance on environmental degradation and investigates environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of each country among 52 that participate in the One Belt and One Road Initiative (OBORI) using the latest long panel data span (1980-2016). We utilized panel long run econometric models (fully modified ordinary least square and dynamic ordinary least square) to explore the long-run estimates in full panel and country level. Moreover, the Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) causality test is applied to examine the short-run causalities among our considered variables. The empirical findings validate the EKC hypothesis; the long-run estimates point out that finance significantly enhances the environmental degradation (negatively in few cases). The short-run heterogeneous causality confirms the bi-directional causality between finance and environmental degradation. The empirical outcomes suggest that policymakers should consider the environmental degradation issue caused by financial development in the One Belt and One Road region.

  5. Human-induced environmental degradation during Anthropocene in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Recep; Curebal, Isa; Soykan, Abdullah; Sönmez, Suleyman

    2015-04-01

    ., 2011; Dalton et al., 2014). Domestic tourism boomed after 1970, which led the Sea of Marmara, Aegean, and Mediterranean coasts to become secondary settlement areas for city-dwellers. This, in turn, sparked the construction of concrete buildings along the coastlines, making them less natural. The shift from the agricultural society to the industrial society made it possible for the service sector to grow and develop. Land transportation among large cities gained importance, and road construction gained pace. Development of industry, rapid rise in population, migration from rural areas to cities, unplanned settlement, and wrong agricultural practices are main factors for the environmental degradation in Turkey. Key Words: Human, habitat, anthropocene, industrialization, Turkey. References Andersson, A.J.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Lerman, A. (2006), Coastal ocean CO 2 carbonic acid carbonate sediment system of the Anthropocene, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20: 1-13 Braje, T.J.; Erlandson, J.M. (2014), Looking forward, looking back: Humans, anthropogenic change and the Anthropocene, Anthropocene, 4: 116-121 Crossland, C.J. ed (2005), Coastal fluxes in the Anthropocene. Berlin: Springer. 231-pp. Crutzen, P. J. and Stoermer, E.F. (2000), The Anthropocene. Global Change Newsletter (41): 17-18. Crutzen, P.J. (2002), Geology of Mankind: The Anthropocene. Nature, 415: 23 Crutzen P.J.; Steffen, W. (2003), How long have we been in the Anthropocene Era? Climatic Change, Vol. 61, No. 3. Cürebal, I.; Efe, R.; Soykan, A.; Sonmez, S. (2015), Impacts of anthropogenic factors on land degradation during the anthropocene in Turkey, Journal of Environmental Biology, Volume 36, Special Issue, 51-58 Dalton, C.; ODwyer, B.; Taylor, D.; de Eyto, E.; Jennings, E.; Chen, G.; Poole, R.; Dillane, M.; McGinnity, P. (2014), Anthropocene environmental change in an internationally important oligotrophic catchment on the Atlantic seaboard of western Europe, Anthropocene, 5: 9-21 Foley, S.F.; Gronenborn, D

  6. Dealing with extreme environmental degradation: stress and marginalization of Sahel dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haaften, E H; Van de Vijver, F J

    1999-07-01

    Psychological aspects of environmental degradation are hardly investigated. In the present study these aspects were examined among Sahel dwellers, who live in environments with different states of degradation. The degradation was assessed in terms of vegetation cover, erosion, and loss of organic matter. Subjects came from three cultural groups: Dogon (agriculturalists, n = 225), Mossi (agriculturalists, n = 914), and Fulani (pastoralists, n = 844). Questionnaires addressing marginalization, locus of control, and coping were administered. Environmental degradation was associated with higher levels of stress, marginalization, passive coping (avoidance), a more external locus of control, and lower levels of active coping (problem solving and support seeking). Compared to agriculturalists, pastoralists showed a stronger variation in all psychological variables across all regions, from the least to the most environmentally degraded. Women showed higher scores of stress, (external) locus of control, problem solving, and support seeking than men. The interaction of gender and region was significant for several variables. It was concluded that environmental degradation has various psychological correlates: people are likely to display an active approach to environmental degradation as long as the level of degradation is not beyond their control.

  7. Degradation of polyethylene microplastics in seawater: Insights into the environmental degradation of polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, João P; Nunes, Ana R; Santos, Patrícia S M; Girão, Ana V; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa

    2018-04-06

    Microplastic contamination of aquatic environments has become an increasingly alarming problem. These, defined as particles degradation of this material. These results highlight the importance of determining the mechanisms of degradation of microplastics in marine settings and what the implications may be for the environment. Overall, the herein presented results show that a relatively short period of time of accelerated exposure can yield quantifiable chemical and physical impacts on the structural and morphological characteristics of PE pellets.

  8. Influence of Environmental Stressors on the Physiology of Pollutant Degrading Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Nanna Bygvraa

    of model degrader bacteria to nutrient- and oxidative stress, two highly relevant stress scenarios in natural environments, and at evaluating the impact of these environmental stress conditions on catabolic gene expression. The results suggest that environmental bacteria, here represented by the toluene...... biodegradative or catabolic performance. To date, details concerning the physiology of degrader microorganisms and their ability to express the relevant catabolic genes in the context of a complex and stressful environment have yet to be elucidated. In order to fully exploit the catabolic potential of degrader......- and xylene degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida mt-2 and the phenoxy acid herbicide degrading bacterium Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134, have a high defense capacity towards archetypical environmental stressors. However, the results also showed that induction of a stress defense may have a cost in regard...

  9. Daily Arrests

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset provides the public with arrest information from the Montgomery County Central Processing Unit (CPU) systems. The data presented is derived from every...

  10. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... magnesium. These minerals help your heart's electrical system work. Abnormally high or low levels can cause cardiac arrest. Severe physical stress. Anything that causes a severe stress on your ...

  11. Teaching with Tolkien: environmental degradation of a fantasy world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    of Gondor, most notably a lack of forest in Gondor. A discussion of the reasons for this "mistake" in Tolkien's fantasy world can be used to develop situations leading to soil and land degradation and draw analogues to past and current events in the real world, e.g. the decline of the Roman empire or the desertification in the Sahel. The lack of detailed information about the environment of Middle Earth, combined with its popularity, offers pupils a new freedom to apply their environmental knowledge and formulate a scientific hypothesis outside the pressure of delivering a correct answer. In our experience, this stimulates discussion and a vigorous exploration of the pupils' existing knowledge. Furthermore, a first case of breaking up the traditional barriers between humanities and natural sciences can be achieved by studying Middle-earth.

  12. application of gis on environmental degradation due to the offshoots

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS: CENTRAL ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS. ... impacts of the road on land degradation has been studied. ... of the gullies, as explained by farmers, include loss of land, dissection of farms, and ... systems for roads such as small number of .... passes through the major towns of Holeta, Addis.

  13. Valuing the cost of environmental degradation in the face of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Peter Odjugo

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... Although these environmental problems affect all parts of Nigeria, some are ..... rainfall pattern coincided with the El Nino and drought years in Nigeria with the ..... South Africa: Floods killed 120 and destroy crops. http://.www.

  14. Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.H.; Meijaard, E.; Laan, van der C.; Mantel, S.; Budiman, A.; Verweij, P.

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded

  15. Valuing the cost of environmental degradation in the face of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are numerous environmental problems that plague different parts of the world in the face of climate change. These range from pollution, deforestation, indiscriminate bush burning and natural wild fire, desertification, climate change, rain and windstorms, flood, earthquake, volcanicity, drought and erosion among ...

  16. 475 Linkages between Poverty and Environmental Degradation (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... concerns of the poor so as to formulate appropriate policy measures for environmental ... in the protection of the environment within the ambit of improved health and nutritional practices, .... man-made hazards include wastes, food poisoning, bush burning and .... Sada, P.O. and Odernerho, F.O. (1988).

  17. Polyester-Based (Bio)degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Kyulavska, Mariya; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields. PMID:25551604

  18. Environmental degradation and remediation: is economics part of the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Burton, Ian

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that standard environmental economic and 'ecological economics', have the same fundamentals of valuation in terms of money, based on a demand curve derived from utility maximization. But this approach leads to three different measures of value. An invariant measure of value exists only if the consumer has 'homothetic preferences'. In order to obtain a numerical estimate of value, specific functional forms are necessary, but typically these estimates do not converge. This is due to the fact that the underlying economic model is not structurally stable. According to neoclassical economics, any environmental remediation can be justified only in terms of increases in consumer satisfaction, balancing marginal gains against marginal costs. It is not surprising that the optimal policy obtained from this approach suggests only small reductions in greenhouse gases. We show that a unidimensional metric of consumer's utility measured in dollar terms can only trivialize the problem of global climate change.

  19. Management of the environmental restoration of degraded areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Leinig Araujo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study ecotechnology for the management of degraded areas originally covered by the Atlantic Rainforest and located at the coordinates 25º31'50''S, 9º09'30''W. The area included 12 islands, each consisting of six jute bags with 20 kg of substrate (cattle manure and soil transposed from forest fragments. In six of these bags, native plants and seeds were also included. Six additional islands were selected randomly in the vicinity as the control. The process of evaluation was monitored through the chemical and granulometric soil analysis and surveys of survival, biometrics, floristic and phytosociological vegetation. An improvement in soil properties was observed where the model was implemented, which could be attributed to the substrate and re-vegetation. In the floristic and phytosociological studies, out of the 118 identified species, 65 were observed in the first floristic inventory and 86 in the second floristic inventory with similarities between the subfields of 27.69% and 11.36%, respectively. The influence of the substrate seed bank in the implemented islands was also observed. Increased diversity was only significant in the subareas with the model. It was concluded that this technology was effective in accelerating the succession and promoting the beginning of the restoration.

  20. Environmental degradation of NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Gaolin [Wuhan University, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: gaolinyan@whu.edu.cn; McGuiness, P.J. [Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Farr, J.P.G.; Harris, I.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Elms Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-10

    A mechanism for pitting of NdFeB magnet because of differential-aeration beneath a water droplet is proposed and observations of the localised corrosions are presented. NdFeB magnets exhibit general corrosion along the grain boundaries when etched in Viella's reagent. However, localised corrosion of these magnets results in a crater-like feature when corrosion is produced in an environmental chamber, e.g. when Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} magnets are corroded in the environmental chamber at 85 deg. C, relative humidity (RH): 80%. This is attributed to the condensation of water droplets on the surface of samples and the concentration gradient of oxygen dissolved in the droplets then influencing the corrosion process. It is thought that during the process of pitting, the high concentration of H{sup +} in the center of the pit accelerates the pit development; meanwhile, the cathodic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B matrix phase absorbs the nascent hydrogen atoms. It is believed that pits start at the Nd-rich phase and then propagate along the grain boundaries.

  1. Food security and environmental degradation in northern Nigeria: demographic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, M

    1991-07-01

    The Malthusian controversy about the causes of environmental change and food insecurity in Hausaland in northern Nigeria is examined. The argument is irresolvable based on available data at the macro level. The individual and household level are appropriate for answering the question about how high density populations survive on a savannah. To understand population pressure in Hausaland, it is important to read Malthus very carefully and to understand the existing demographic structure in which economic and kinship relations support high fertility even where land is scarce. Demographic responses vary with economic strata. Policies ignore individual level differences. Since 1953, the densely populated areas of Sokoto, Katsina, Zaria, and Kano have spread in an area that is largely dry with a moderate-to-high risk of desertification. Food insecurity exists not only in times of drought, but also annually in the form of chronic shortages of staples for poor farmers. Average land holdings/capita have become smaller. Population pressure has also contributed to shifts in land use. Food prices have increased. Possible explanations include 1) the drought and the oil boom have a greater impact on environmental change and food insecurity and rural Hausa farmers have responded by raising yields, managing tree resources, and practicing soil conservation and 2) an independent source of income from non-agricultural activities is an essential part of the economy. The relationship among population pressure, land shortage, and food insecurity is complex. It is inaccurate to label Hausa as subsistence farmers, when trading in grain is an important enterprise. The role that commercialization of agriculture plays in food insecurity is discussed. Malthusian disaster is not imminent. The proximate determinants of fertility, birth spacing practices and infertility, should lead to high fertility rates, but in this case they do not. Determinants responsive to economic factors tend to be

  2. Environmental persistence of pesticides and their ecotoxicity: A review of natural degradation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Valderrama, Jhon Fredy; Palacio Baena, Jaime Alberto; Molina Perez, Francisco Jose

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are allochthonous pollutants discharged in natural environments. Once in the environment, natural factors such as biodegradation, photodegradation and chemical hydrolysis trigger partial or total pesticide transformation and reduce their environmental persistence. However, some degraded compounds have a greater ecotoxicological effect on the biota that the parent compounds and the change in the physicochemical properties increase the bioaccumulation, toxicity and transference processes. Therefore, knowledge about degradation processes in the environment is crucial in studies related to the dynamics and behavior of these substances in the environment and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This review aims to show the influence of natural degradation processes on the persistence of pesticides, their ecotoxicity and dynamics. Also discuss the application of the degradation processes in water treatment and pesticides removal. While biodegradation processes have been improved by using genetically engineered microorganisms, in the photodegradation has been applied advanced oxidation technologies (TAOS) in the treatment of water contaminated with pesticides.

  3. Fast degradation of dyes in water using manganese-oxide-coated diatomite for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Trung-Dung; Banerjee, Arghya Narayan; Tran, Quang-Tung; Roy, Sudipta

    2016-11-01

    By a simple wet-chemical procedure using a permanganate in the acidic medium, diatomite coated with amorphous manganese oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. The structural, microstructural and morphological characterizations of the as-synthesized catalysts confirmed the nanostructure of MnO2 and its stabilization on the support - diatomite. The highly efficient and rapid degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange over synthesized MnO2 coated Diatomite has been carried out. The results revealed considerably faster degradation of the dyes against the previously reported data. The proposed mechanism of the dye-degradation is considered to be a combinatorial effect of chemical, physicochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the fabricated catalysts have potential application in waste water treatment, and pollution degradation for environmental remediation.

  4. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation: Evidence from BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: artur.tamazian@usc.es; Chousa, Juan Pineiro [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: efjpch@usc.es; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: kc_dcm@yahoo.co.in

    2009-01-15

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO{sub 2} reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings.

  5. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation. Evidence from BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur; Chousa, Juan Pineiro; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO{sub 2} reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings. (author)

  6. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation. Evidence from BRIC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazian, Artur; Chousa, Juan Pineiro; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2009-01-01

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO 2 reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings. (author)

  7. Environmental characteristics, agricultural land use, and vulnerability to degradation in Malopolska Province (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Schneider, Christian

    2017-07-15

    Environmental degradation encompasses multiple processes that are rarely combined in analyses. This study refers to three types of environmental degradation resulting from agricultural activity: soil erosion, nutrient loss, and groundwater pollution. The research was conducted in seven distinct study areas in the Malopolska Province, Poland, each characterized by different environmental properties. Calculations were made on the basis of common models, i.e., USLE (soil erosion), InVEST (nutrient loss), and DRASTIC (groundwater pollution). Two scenarios were calculated to identify the areas contributing to potential and actual degradation. For the potential degradation scenario all study areas were treated as arable land. To identify the areas actually contributing to all three types of degradation, the de facto land use pattern was used for a second scenario. The results show that the areas most endangered by agricultural activity are located in the mountainous region, whereas most of the degraded zones were located in valley bottoms and areas with intensive agriculture. The different hazards rarely overlap spatially in the given study areas - meaning that different areas require different management approaches. The distribution of arable land was negatively correlated with soil erosion hazard, whereas no linkage was found between nutrient loss or groundwater pollution hazards and the proportion of arable land. This indicates that the soil erosion hazard is the most influential factor in the distribution of arable land, whereas nutrient loss and groundwater pollution is widely ignored during land use decision-making. Slope largely and most frequently influences all hazard types, whereas land use also played an important role in the case of soil and nutrient losses. In this study we presented a consistent methodology to capture complex degradation processes and provide robust indicators which can be included in existing impact assessment approaches like Life Cycle

  8. A tuneable switch for controlling environmental degradation of bioplastics: addition of isothiazolinone to polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, Catherine Anne; Yee, Lachlan Hartley; Charlton, Timothy Stuart; Foster, Leslie John Ray

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV) films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications.

  9. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier-Larabie, S.; Segura, P.A.; Gagnon, C.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15 years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4 days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57 days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11 days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58 days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70 days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental

  10. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier-Larabie, S. [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Science and Water Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Montréal, Québec H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Segura, P.A. [Department of Chemistry, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1K 2R1 (Canada); Gagnon, C., E-mail: christian.gagnon@canada.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Science and Water Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Montréal, Québec H2Y 2E7 (Canada)

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15 years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4 days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57 days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11 days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58 days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70 days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental

  11. Proteasome-mediated degradation of cell division cycle 25C and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 in phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced G2-M-phase cell cycle arrest in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Singh, Shivendra V

    2004-05-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a constituent of many cruciferous vegetables, offers significant protection against cancer in animals induced by a variety of carcinogens. The present study demonstrates that PEITC suppresses proliferation of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner by causing G(2)-M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), which is a structural analogue of PEITC but lacks the -CH(2) spacers that link the aromatic ring to the -N=C=S group, neither inhibited PC-3 cell viability nor caused cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. These results indicated that even a subtle change in isothiocyanate (ITC) structure could have a significant impact on its biological activity. The PEITC-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with a >80% reduction in the protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C; 24 h after treatment with 10 micro M PEITC), which led to an accumulation of Tyr(15) phosphorylated (inactive) Cdk1. On the other hand, PITC treatment neither reduced protein levels of Cdk1 or Cdc25C nor affected Cdk1 phosphorylation. The PEITC-induced decline in Cdk1 and Cdc25C protein levels and cell cycle arrest were significantly blocked on pretreatment of PC-3 cells with proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. A 24 h exposure of PC-3 cells to 10 micro M PEITC, but not PITC, resulted in about 56% and 44% decrease in the levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), respectively. However, ectopic expression of Bcl-2 failed to alter sensitivity of PC-3 cells to growth inhibition or apoptosis induction by PEITC. Treatment of cells with PEITC, but not PITC, also resulted in cleavage of procaspase-3, procaspase-9, and procaspase-8. Moreover, the PEITC-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated in the presence of general caspase inhibitor and specific inhibitors of caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, our data indicate that PEITC-induced cell cycle arrest in PC-3 cells is likely due

  12. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and 'best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and 'best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the 'response assemblage', for the study of 'responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio-ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and 'problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders 'best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  13. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and `best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and `best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the `response assemblage', for the study of `responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio- ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and `problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders `best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  14. Stigma and attachment: performance of identity in an environmentally degraded place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broto, V.C.; Burningham, K.; Carter, C.; Elghali, L. [University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology

    2010-07-01

    Research examining the relationship between place and identity shows that the experience of places influences a person's process of identification, through which an emotional bond with the place may be developed. However, the implications of this literature for land restoration remain unexplored. This is partially due to a gap in empirical research that explores the performance of identities in environmentally degraded settings. This article examines the relationship between identity and place among residents living around five coal ash disposal sites in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The article develops a qualitative model to understand the emergence of divergent responses toward the pollution and illustrates that in an environmentally degraded setting the bonds between the individuals and the place are not necessarily dislocated; in some cases, these bonds may be even reinforced by the performance of adaptative identities in response to environmental change.

  15. Understanding and arresting degradation in highly efficient blue emitting BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor—A longstanding technological problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, Ravi; Khan, A.F.; Kumar, Raj; Chander, H.; Shanker, V.; Chawla, Santa, E-mail: santa@mail.nplindia.ernet.in

    2013-11-15

    Blue emitting BaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+} (BAM) phosphor is indispensable for Plasma Display panel and lighting because of high luminescence efficiency. However, thermal degradation (annealing in air at 500–600 °C) of BAM (upto ∼30%) remains an intriguing problem for display industry worldwide. In the present study, a systematic approach is pursued to develop highly efficient BAM phosphor that exhibits least degradation, understand the role of Eu{sup 2+} site occupancy in such BAM phosphor and encapsulate individual phosphor grains with a shell of silica nanoparticles. The approaches lead to highly efficient BAM:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor that showed no degradation against thermal baking (annealing at 500 °C in air) for both UV and VUV radiation under UV and VUV excitation. An optimum solid state chemical route including precursor phases, dopant concentration, and thermal regimes has been evolved to develop BAM. Emission from Eu{sup 2+} occupying three different sites is identified with energetically stable anti Beevers Ross as the dominant contributor. Coating by nano sized amorphous silica sol with subsequent sintering lead to uniform silica shell. This nano silica layer also helps to enhance the luminescence from phosphor grains. -- Highlights: • Synthesis process optimization done to obtain BAM:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor of high QE (95%). • Site occupancy of Eu{sup 2+} ions in BAM lattice and its relation to stability analyzed. • Individual phosphor grains coated by layer of silica nanoparticles. • Preferred Eu{sup 2+} site occupancy and inert silica layer arrested thermal degradation in BAM. • Developed BAM:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor with high QE is completely thermal degradation resistant.

  16. DEGRADATION WORKS OF MONUMENTAL ART CAST BRONZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia NICA-BADEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive pollution, combined with the lack of conservation of monuments exposed to these environments make the main cause of deterioration of cultural objects to atmospheric corrosion metal. This paper proposes a study of the main factors leading to degradation Bronze alloy, cast bronze monuments exposed to open atmosphere: corrosive environmental factors, stability and products of corrosion of bronze. In general, all corrosion products present on a metal surface are indicated as 'skate', can be composed of single-layer or multilayer products. The paper also includes a case study on the influence of environmental factors on degradation Matthias monument statue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Visual inspection of the monument informs us that have white spots, gray, reddish not consistent with the base color green patina, surfaces showing depigmentation, the rain washed areas, crystallization, deposition of air-borne particles.

  17. Environmental degradation, population displacement and global security: An overview of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    An initial investigation is presented on the interrelationship between environmental degradation and population displacements, in the broader context of how this linkage affects human security. Emphasis is placed on both the causes and effects of population movements, with specific examples drawn from Southeast Asia. Types of migrants, the importance of environmental degradation with respect to other contributing factors, and the effects on origin and destination regions are considered. A key issue is the multi-causality of population displacements and the importance of improving understanding of the issues in order to develop appropriate policies. It is clear from the study that the discussion of environment as a cause or contributing factor to population displacement has, to date, been speculative, and the information provided largely anecdotal. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Degradation of the insecticide ethyl parathion in different environmental matrices by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, Luiz Carlos

    1995-01-01

    This work studies the use of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 to induce parathion degradation in different matrices, as well as, quantified GC-NPD and identified by GC-MS, the radiolysis resulting products. Results show that the insecticide was completely degraded in aqueous solution after treatment with 1.0 kGy dosis in a dosis rate of 3.12 kGy h -1 . In methanol, parathion was completely degraded only with 30 kGy at 3.12 kGy h -1 . The metabolites detected after radiolysis were the same formed by biological degradation, i.e, p-nitrophenol, p-aminophenol, paraoxon and aminoparathion. The gamma radiation also degraded paraoxon which is the most toxic metabolite of parathion. It was verified that, not only the total radiation, but also the dosis rate supplied to the aqueous solution had a significant effect on the insecticide degradation, and the formation of metabolites occurred in a selective way respecting the dosis and dosis rate. Otherwise, the gamma radiation did almost not degraded the parathion adsorbed in solid matrices as rice, moist and dry soil, even using dosis of 5,30 and 50 kGy, respectively. The parathion yield and the dosis of gamma radiation needed for 50% reduction of the insecticide initial concentration in aqueous solution were also calculated and presented. Thus, it was verified that irradiation of parathion besides to be an important instrument for environmental decontamination of this pesticide in aqueous matrix, it allows the production of parathion metabolites for ecotoxicological studies. (author)

  19. Trade Unions facing the dual challenge of globalising work division and globalising environmental degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Räthzel, N; Uzzell, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a project aimed at investigating the ways in which trade unions in the “Global North” and the “Global South” respond to the dual challenge of a globalising work division and globalising environmental degradation, and whether and under what conditions trade unions perceive and address these issues as connected. While globalising corporations are forming new international relations of power, trade unions are lagging behind in unifying their efforts to counter glob...

  20. Determinants of Environmental Degradation under the Perspective of Globalization: A Panel Analysis of Selected MENA Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad

    2018-01-01

    This paper has examined the determinants of environmental degradation under the perspective of globalization in the case of selected MENA nations (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Qatar, Lebanon, Egypt, Bahrain, Iran, Morocco, Israel, Kuwait, Oman and Tunisia) over the period of 1980 to 2013. ADF - Fisher Chi-square, Im, Pesaran and Shin W-stat, Levin, Lin & Chu t*, and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests are used for analyzing the stationarity of the variables. This stud...

  1. Hydrogen in trapping states innocuous to environmental degradation of high-strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen in trapping states innocuous to environmental degradation of the mechanical properties of high-strength steels has been separated and extracted using thermal desorption analysis (TDA) and slow strain rate test (SSRT). The high-strength steel occluding only hydrogen desorbed at low temperature (peak 1), as determined by TDA, decreases in maximum stress and plastic elongation with increasing occlusion time of peak 1 hydrogen. Thus the trapping state of peak 1 hydrogen is directly associated with environmental degradation. The trap activation energy for peak 1 hydrogen is 23.4 kJ/mol, so the peak 1 hydrogen corresponds to weaker binding states and diffusible states at room temperature. In contrast, the high-strength steel occluding only hydrogen desorbed at high temperature (peak 2), by TDA, maintains the maximum stress and plastic elongation in spite of an increasing content of peak 2 hydrogen. This result indicates that the peak 2 hydrogen trapping state is innocuous to environmental degradation, even though the steel occludes a large amount of peak 2 hydrogen. The trap activation energy for peak 2 hydrogen is 65.0 kJ/mol, which indicates a stronger binding state and nondiffusibility at room temperature. The trap activation energy for peak 2 hydrogen suggests that the driving force energy required for stress-induced, diffusion during elastic and plastic deformation, and the energy required for hydrogen dragging by dislocation mobility during plastic deformation are lower than the binding energy between hydrogen and trapping sites. The peak 2 hydrogen, therefore, is believed to not accumulate in front of the crack tip and to not cause environmental degradation in spite of being present in amounts as high as 2.9 mass ppm. (author)

  2. [Between everyday practices and interventions: narrative fragments on environmental degradation and health in Aracaju, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Lázaro Batista; Nobre, Maria Teresa; dos Santos, João José Gomes

    2014-10-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe the relationship between health production, urban growth and environmental degradation in the community of the "Urban Expansion Zone" of Aracaju in the State of Sergipe. It also touches on the impacts on the health of the population due to tourism and real estate speculation associated with the absence of basic services. Based on the assumption that illnesses caused by such changes only appear on the public health care system as a worsening of symptoms, neglecting the complex health-environment relationship, this paper highlights the possibility of pondering the bases upon which urban growth occurs in the light of imminent environmental degradation. The activities of health community agents were monitored duly connecting them to regional growth and environmental degradation. This was done from March 2010 and June 2011 adopting the ethnographic perspective as the method of choice. Other ways of inclusion in the community were mapped: contact with older residents, religious leaderships and the members of the traditional professions, etc. The results show the changes that have been occurring in the region, especially with respect to the extinction of traditional practices, increase in violence, unemployment, loss of community ties and illness.

  3. Environmental degradation costs in electricity generation: The case of the Brazilian electrical matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Laura Araujo; Uturbey, Wadaed

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of including environmental degradation costs in the long-term planning of the Brazilian electricity sector. To this aim, environmental external costs associated to both hydro-power and thermal-power electricity generation are investigated. Monetary valuation methodologies are applied and environmental degradation costs, expressed in per kWh of generated energy, are obtained for the main types of generation sources of the Brazilian electricity matrix. Both local pollution due to particulate matter emissions and global warming effects are assessed. A classification of the sources from the point of view of their impact on the environment is given. Degradation costs associated to the installed capacity expansion in the Brazilian electricity sector during the time horizon 2007-2016 are estimated. These resulting costs represent lower boundary damage estimates associated only with the energy to be generated during the period. Results indicate that local pollution caused by a small number of plants could be even more costly to society than global warming and, also, show the importance of considering not only unitary damage costs but the participation of each source on the generated energy during the time horizon, as a guide to planning and policy making.

  4. Producing Gorongosa: Space and the Environmental Politics of Degradation in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Madison Walker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the spatial production of the greater Gorongosa ecosystem, linking the production of space with scientific discourses on environmental degradation. Ecological research conducted in Gorongosa National Park (GNP in the 1960s established the spatial contours and produced the greater Gorongosa ecosystem that is continually under threat from Mozambican cultivators. This discursive production and its material effects obscure a long history of human occupancy and transformation of the landscape that is now categorised as a national park. The use of aerial surveys and satellite imagery by conservationists to chart biophysical changes in the landscape is central to the spatial production of the greater Gorongosa ecosystem. The knowledge produced through these ways of seeing the landscape is used to justify various socio-technical and legal interventions to protect the environment. Through analysing the discourse on human-induced environmental degradation in GNP between 2005 and 2010, I suggest that when nature and space are taken as self evident by conservation practitioners, there is a danger of reproducing narratives of environmental degradation that simplify historically dynamic interactions between people, institutions, and their biophysical surroundings, and serve as further justification for intervening in the lives and livelihoods of adjacent residents.

  5. Degradation kinetics of a potent antifouling agent, butenolide, under various environmental conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Here, we investigated the degradation kinetics of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, under various environmental conditions. The active ingredient of the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), was used as positive control. The results showed that the degradation rate increased with increasing temperature. Half-lives of butenolide at 4. °C, 25. °C and 40. °C were. >64. d, 30.5. d and 3.9. d, respectively. Similar half-lives were recorded for DCOIT: >64. d at 4. °C, 27.9. d at 25. °C and 4.5. d at 40. °C. Exposure to sunlight accelerated the degradation of both butenolide and DCOIT. The photolysis half-lives of butenolide and DCOIT were 5.7. d and 6.8. d, respectively, compared with 9.7. d and 14.4. d for the dark control. Biodegradation led to the fastest rate of butenolide removal from natural seawater, with a half-life of 0.5. d, while no obvious degradation was observed for DCOIT after incubation for 4. d. The biodegradative ability of natural seawater for butenolide was attributed mainly to marine bacteria. During the degradation of butenolide and DCOIT, a gradual decrease in antifouling activity was observed, as indicated by the increased settlement percentage of cypris larvae from barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Besides, increased cell growth of marine diatom Skeletonema costatum demonstrated that the toxicity of seawater decreased gradually without generation of more toxic by-products. Overall, rapid degradation of butenolide in natural seawater supported its claim as a promising candidate for commercial antifouling industry.

  6. Unequal Ecological Exchange and Environmental Degradation: A Theoretical Proposition and Cross-National Study of Deforestation, 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.

    2006-01-01

    Political-economic sociologists have long investigated the dynamics and consequences of international trade. With few exceptions, this area of inquiry ignores the possible connections between trade and environmental degradation. In contrast, environmental sociologists have made several assumptions about the environmental impacts of international…

  7. Impacts of environmental degradation and climate change on electricity generation in Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaunda, Chiyembekezo S. [Department of Energy and Process Engineering – WaterPower Laboratory, Norway University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway); Mtalo, Felix [Department of Water Resources Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35031, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Hydropower is an important energy source in Malawi because it provides almost all of the country’s electricity generation capacity. This paper has reviewed the impacts of environmental degradation and climate change on hydropower generation in Malawi. Energy scenario and other issues that contribute towards the current state of environment have been discussed. All of Malawi’s hydropower stations are run-of-river schemes cascaded along the Shire River with an installed capacity of nearly 280 MW. The generation is impacted negatively by floods, siltation, droughts and aquatic weeds infestation. The way how these challenges are being exacerbated by the poor state of the environment, especially within the Shire River basin in particular is also discussed in the paper. Measures taken by the national electricity utility company on how to manage the impacts are discussed as well. The paper concludes that hydropower generation system in a highly environmental degraded area is difficult to manage both technically and economically. In the case of Malawi, diversifying to other energy sources of generating electricity is considered to be a viable option. Some mitigation measures concerning environment degradation and climate change challenges have been suggested in the paper.

  8. Taking the 'U' out of Kuznets. A comprehensive analysis of the EKC and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caviglia-Harris, Jill L.; Chambers, Dustin; Kahn, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike most Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) studies which focus on narrow measures of pollution as proxies for environmental quality, we test the validity of the EKC using the Ecological Footprint (EF), a more comprehensive measure of environmental degradation. We find no empirical evidence of an EKC relationship between the EF and economic development, and only limited support for such a relationship among the components of the EF. In addition, we discover that energy is largely responsible for the lack of an EKC relationship, and that energy consumption levels would have to be cut by over 50% in order for a statistically significant EKC relationship to emerge from the data. Overall, these results suggest that growth alone will not lead to sustainable development. (author)

  9. Study of polypropylene irradiation to ensure the control of its environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Rebeca da Silva Grecco

    2017-01-01

    UV light, heat, and pollutants can interact with Polypropylene (PP) molecules, mainly with the tertiary carbon producing free radicals which can react with oxygen producing changes in its properties. PP has outstanding chemical and physical properties and a good processability at very low market price. In addition, PP is extensively used for manufacturing various kinds of products, however due to its large-scale consumption a lot of waste is generated at the end of their life cycle to the environment with low rate degradation. Controlled degradation of PP can be achieved by exposing the polymers to well defined parameters, such as absorbed dose, intemperies, oxygen, etc. In this study, structural changes in PP macro-molecule are created upon exposure to ionizing radiation such as: main chain scission, crosslinking and peroxidation (in presence of air). This study has the objective of comparing the environmental and accelerated exposures of PP neat, PP irradiated with 12,5 kGy and 20 kGy and the incorporation of the commercial pro-degradant d2w®. Dumbbell samples were manufactured by injection molding and exposed to the environment during 180 days and to accelerated aging to 192 days. The samples were characterized by Mechanical Testing, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (DRX) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The samples previously irradiated, PP 20 kGy, after environmental aging showed higher oxidation and presence of surface cracks than the PP d2w® and PP neat. They also showed presence of carbonyl groups, decreases in elongation at break, increase in Strength Modulus and decrease of melting temperature corroborating with degradation. (author)

  10. Perception of the Environmental Degradation of Gold Mining on Socio-Economic Variables in Eastern Cameroon, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Anselme Kamga; Charles Olufisayo Olatubara; Moses Monday Atteh; Serge Nzali; Adeola Adenikinju; Théodore Yimgnia Mbiatso; Ralain Bryan Ngatcha

    2018-01-01

    Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil), dust and noise pollution. The study examines the perception of environmental degradation of gold mining sites in eastern Cameroon. Human-environment interaction and distance decay models are the conceptual framework for this study.  This study employed a survey re...

  11. Proteasomal degradation of sphingosine kinase 1 and inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase by the sphingosine kinase inhibitors, SKi or ABC294640, induces growth arrest in androgen-independent LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Melissa; Pitman, Melissa; Pitson, Stuart M; Pyne, Nigel J; Pyne, Susan

    2016-03-29

    Sphingosine kinases (two isoforms termed SK1 and SK2) catalyse the formation of the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate. We demonstrate here that the SK2 inhibitor, ABC294640 (3-(4-chlorophenyl)-adamantane-1-carboxylic acid (pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amide) or the SK1/SK2 inhibitor, SKi (2-(p-hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-chlorophenyl)thiazole)) induce the proteasomal degradation of SK1a (Mr = 42 kDa) and inhibit DNA synthesis in androgen-independent LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. These effects are recapitulated by the dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1) inhibitor, fenretinide. Moreover, SKi or ABC294640 reduce Des1 activity in Jurkat cells and ABC294640 induces the proteasomal degradation of Des1 (Mr = 38 kDa) in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, SKi or ABC294640 or fenretinide increase the expression of the senescence markers, p53 and p21 in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. The siRNA knockdown of SK1 or SK2 failed to increase p53 and p21 expression, but the former did reduce DNA synthesis in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. Moreover, N-acetylcysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger) blocked the SK inhibitor-induced increase in p21 and p53 expression but had no effect on the proteasomal degradation of SK1a. In addition, siRNA knockdown of Des1 increased p53 expression while a combination of Des1/SK1 siRNA increased the expression of p21. Therefore, Des1 and SK1 participate in regulating LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cell growth and this involves p53/p21-dependent and -independent pathways. Therefore, we propose targeting androgen-independent prostate cancer cells with compounds that affect Des1/SK1 to modulate both de novo and sphingolipid rheostat pathways in order to induce growth arrest.

  12. Metrics derived from fish assemblages as indicators of environmental degradation in Cerrado streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton P. Ávila

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of effective monitoring tools depends on finding sensitive metrics that are capable of detecting the most important environmental impacts at a given region. We assessed if metrics derived from stream fish assemblages reflect physical habitat degradation and changes in land cover. We sampled the ichthyofauna and environmental characteristics of 16 stream sites of first and second order in the Upper Tocantins River basin. The streams were classified according to their environmental characteristics into reference (n = 5, intermediate (n = 4, and impacted (n = 7. A total of 4,079 individuals in five orders, 12 families, and 30 species were collected. Of the 20 metrics tested, eight were non-collinear and were tested for their performance in discriminating among groups of streams. Three metrics were sensitive to the gradient of degradation: Berger-Parker dominance index, percentage of characiform fish, and percentage of rheophilic individuals. Some commonly used metrics did not reflect the disturbances and many others were redundant with those that did. These results indicate that the metrics derived from fish assemblages may be informative for identifying the conservation status of streams, with the potential to be used in biomonitoring.

  13. Environmental degradation and migration: the U.S.-Mexico case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a detailed account of the conclusions and policy recommendations of a study of environmental degradation and migration between the US and Mexico. Key recommendations and findings were included in the official US Congressional Commission on Immigration Reform report (September 1997). The Congressional report urges Congress to consider environment and development root causes of migration in establishing foreign policies with Mexico and other countries. It appears that the root cause of Mexican migration is rural land degradation or desertification. The study suggests feasible solutions, and not additional border security and employment-related sanctions. The US has the technology and expertise to facilitate programs that address environmental and development issues in targeted and integrated ways. The recommendations serve as a framework for policy reform and debate on rural development and agricultural productivity. Mexican states should be targeted that are new migration-sending states with extensive poverty and soil erosion problems and well-established migration states. Environment, population, and migration are all housed in the Global Affairs Office in the US Department of State, but there is little program integration. The USAID bureaucracy separates agricultural and environmental programs. Solutions include, for example, reducing the costs of remittances from the US to Mexico, conducting research on integrated solutions, and contributing to improved land and water management practices, forest management and land tenure, and the competitiveness of smallholders.

  14. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF LILIFUK CUSTOMARY LAW TOWARDS COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF KUPANG BAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranny Christine Unbanunaek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The kuanheun coastal communities have a customary law that help maintain coastal environmental sustainability resourceS called as lilifuk customary law(lilifuk atolan instrument. This research applied empirical method by formulating three problems: what are the values embedded in lilifuk customary law; how is the of lilifuk customary law contribution to prevent coastal environmental degradation; and how is the correlation between lilifuk customary law values and the law provision on coastal areas and small islands management. The result of the research identified the following; the first, Lilifuk customary law contains religious value, ecological value, communal value, social relations value, solidarity and responsibility value, social leadership value, and educational value. Second, the settlement of law violation by lilifuk customary law is conduted by the following steps: reporting; discussion; verdict; and  execution. Third, there is a correlation between the lilifuk customary lilifuk values and  WP3K Law values. Keywords: lilifuk customary law, environmental degradation, kupang bay

  15. Circulatory Arrest, Brain Arrest and Death Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam David Shemie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances, particularly in the capacity to support, replace or transplant failing organs, continue to challenge and refine our understanding of human death. Given the ability to reanimate organs before and after death, both inside and outside of the body, through reinstitution of oxygenated circulation, concepts related to death of organs (e.g. cardiac death are no longer valid. This paper advances the rationale for a single conceptual determination of death related to permanent brain arrest, resulting from primary brain injury or secondary to circulatory arrest. The clinical characteristics of brain arrest are the permanent loss of capacity for consciousness and loss of all brainstem functions. In the setting of circulatory arrest, death occurs after the arrest of circulation to the brain rather than death of the heart. Correspondingly, any intervention that resumes oxygenated circulation to the brain after circulatory arrest would invalidate the determination of death.

  16. Do economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental degradation? Evidence from transitional economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bhaskara Rao, B. [School of Economics and Finance, University of Western Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Several studies have examined the relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth. However, most of them did not take into account financial developments and institutional quality. Moreover, Stern [Stern, D., 2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32(8): 1419-1439.] noted that there are important econometric weaknesses in the earlier studies, such as endogeneity, heteroscedasticity, omitted variables, etc. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature by investigating the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also financial development and institutional quality. We employ the standard reduced-form modelling approach to control for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity and GMM estimation to control for endogeneity. Our study considers 24 transition economies and panel data for 1993-2004. Our results support the EKC hypothesis while confirming the importance of both institutional quality and financial development for environmental performance. We also found that financial liberalization may be harmful for environmental quality if it is not accomplished in a strong institutional framework. (author)

  17. Environmental degradation of 316 stainless steel in high temperature low cycle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Manson, S. Stanford; Halford, Gary R.

    1987-01-01

    Procedures based on modification of the conventional Strainrange Partitioning method are proposed to characterize the time-dependent degradation of engineering alloys in high-temperature, low-cycle fatigue. Creep-fatigue experiments were conducted in air using different waveforms of loading on 316 stainless steel at 816 C (1500 F) to determine the effect of exposure time on cyclic life. Reductions in the partitioned cyclic lives were observed with an increase in the time of exposure (or with the corresponding decrease in the steady-state creep rate) for all the waveforms involving creep strain. Excellent correlations of the experimental data were obtained by modifying the Conventional Strainrange Partitioning life relationships involving creep strain using a power-law term of either: (1) time of exposure, or (2) steady-state creep rate of the creep-fatigue test. Environmental degradation due to oxidation, material degradation due to the precipitation of carbides along the grain boundaries and detrimental deformation modes associated with the prolonged periods of creep were observed to be the main mechanisms responsible for life reductions at long exposure times.

  18. A tuneable switch for controlling environmental degradation of bioplastics: addition of isothiazolinone to polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Anne Woolnough

    Full Text Available Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, <10% w/w restricted microbial colonisation in soil, but did not significantly affect melting temperature or the tensile strength of films. DCOI films showed reduced biofouling and postponed the onset of weight loss by up to 100 days, a 10-fold increase compared to unmodified films where the microbial coverage was significant. In addition, the rate of PHA-DCOI weight loss, post-onset, reduced by about 150%; in contrast a recorded weight loss of only 0.05% per day for P(HB-co-HV with a 10% DCOI loading was observed. This is in stark contrast to the unmodified PHB film, where a recorded weight loss of only 0.75% per day was made. The 'switch' that initiates film weight loss, and its subsequent reduced rate, depended on the DCOI loading to control biofouling. The control of biofouling and environmental degradation for these DCOI modified bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications.

  19. Environmental degradation, economic growth and energy consumption: Evidence of the environmental Kuznets curve in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, Behnaz; Sulaiman, Jamalludin

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests for the short and long-run relationship between economic growth, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and energy consumption, using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) by employing both the aggregated and disaggregated energy consumption data in Malaysia for the period 1980–2009. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology and Johansen–Juselius maximum likelihood approach were used to test the cointegration relationship; and the Granger causality test, based on the vector error correction model (VECM), to test for causality. The study does not support an inverted U-shaped relationship (EKC) when aggregated energy consumption data was used. When data was disaggregated based on different energy sources such as oil, coal, gas and electricity, the study does show evidences of the EKC hypothesis. The long-run Granger causality test shows that there is bi-directional causality between economic growth and CO 2 emissions, with coal, gas, electricity and oil consumption. This suggests that decreasing energy consumption such as coal, gas, electricity and oil appears to be an effective way to control CO 2 emissions but simultaneously will hinder economic growth. Thus suitable policies related to the efficient consumption of energy resources and consumption of renewable sources are required. - Highlights: • We investigated the EKC hypothesis by using Malaysian energy aggregated and disaggregated data. • It was found that the EKC is not supported, using the aggregated data (energy consumption). • However using disaggregated energy data (oil, coal and electricity) there is evidence of EKC. • Causality shows no causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in the short-run. • Economic growth Granger causes energy consumption and energy consumption causes CO 2 emissions in long-run

  20. Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII binds to two distant regions of coa mRNA to arrest translation and promote mRNA degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Chevalier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII is the intracellular effector of the quorum sensing system that temporally controls a large number of virulence factors including exoproteins and cell-wall-associated proteins. Staphylocoagulase is one major virulence factor, which promotes clotting of human plasma. Like the major cell surface protein A, the expression of staphylocoagulase is strongly repressed by the quorum sensing system at the post-exponential growth phase. Here we used a combination of approaches in vivo and in vitro to analyze the mechanism used by RNAIII to regulate the expression of staphylocoagulase. Our data show that RNAIII represses the synthesis of the protein through a direct binding with the mRNA. Structure mapping shows that two distant regions of RNAIII interact with coa mRNA and that the mRNA harbors a conserved signature as found in other RNAIII-target mRNAs. The resulting complex is composed of an imperfect duplex masking the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of coa mRNA and of a loop-loop interaction occurring downstream in the coding region. The imperfect duplex is sufficient to prevent the formation of the ribosomal initiation complex and to repress the expression of a reporter gene in vivo. In addition, the double-strand-specific endoribonuclease III cleaves the two regions of the mRNA bound to RNAIII that may contribute to the degradation of the repressed mRNA. This study validates another direct target of RNAIII that plays a role in virulence. It also illustrates the diversity of RNAIII-mRNA topologies and how these multiple RNAIII-mRNA interactions would mediate virulence regulation.

  1. Characterization of adhesion at carbon fiber-fluorinated epoxy interface and effect of environmental degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Suman

    2011-12-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers are excellent candidates for aerospace, automobile and other mobile applications due to their high specific strength and modulus. The most prominent aerospace application of carbon fiber composites in recent times is the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, which is the world's first major commercial airliner to extensively use composite materials. The critical issue, which needs to be addressed hereby, is long-term safety. Hence, long-term durability of composite materials in such applications becomes a point of concern. Conventional polymer matrices, such as thermosetting resins, which are used as matrix material in carbon fiber composites, are susceptible to degradation in the form of chemical corrosion, UV degradation and moisture, in severe environmental conditions. Fluorinated polymers offer a viable alternative as matrix material, due to their reduced susceptibility to environmental degradation. The epoxy system used in this study is fluorinated Tetra-glycidyl methylene di-aniline (6F-TGMDA), which was developed by polymer scientists at NASA Langley Research Center. The hydrophobic nature of this epoxy makes it a potential matrix material in aerospace applications. However, its compatibility in carbon fiber-reinforced composites remains to be investigated. This study aims to characterize the interfacial properties in carbon fiber reinforced fluorinated epoxy composites. Typical interfacial characterization parameters, like interfacial shear strength, estimated from the microbond test, proved to be inadequate in accurately estimating adhesion since it assumes a uniform distribution of stresses along the embedded fiber length. Also, it does not account for any residual stresses present at the interface, which might arise due to thermal expansion differences and Poisson's ratio differences of the fiber and matrix. Hence, an analytical approach, which calculates adhesion pressure at the interface, was adopted. This required determination of

  2. Climate, hydrology, land use, and environmental degradation in the lower Rhone Valley during the Roman period

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leeuw, Sander E.; The Archaeomedes Research Team

    2005-02-01

    This paper's aims are three: firstly, to demonstrate the importance of a long-term perspective on socio-environmental dynamics; secondly, to show the relevance of archaeological data in constructing such a long-term history of such dynamics; thirdly, to illustrate with a case study how one may identify the component processes of environmental change from archaeological materials. Taking the Roman occupation of the middle and lower Rhone Valley as a point of departure, the paper identifies some of the processes of regional environmental change. Firstly, it demonstrates the existence of a regional phase of climate degradation during the 2nd century AD. It is in all probability of anthropogenic origin. This degradation seems to have been caused by widespread deforestation in preparation for intensive cultivation of cereals, wine and olives for export to other parts of the Roman Empire. Next, it isolates the principal interactions occurring between relief, soils, and water on the one hand, and the societal dynamics on the other. The location of each settlement is considered representative of an environmental choice, made by its founders at the time the settlement is initiated. These environmental choices, in turn, reflect the perception of the landscape and its resources by the settlers. The principal indicators at our disposal for this study are the relief, soil, and hydrological maps. They are used as a basis for the calculation of the altitude, slope, orientation, annual solar radiation, exposure to the prevailing winds, and fertility of the soil of all sites and their environment. Subsequently, preferences are calculated statistically based on the 1000-odd settlements concerned. The third part of the paper concerns the evolution of the sites. It turns out that the earlier ones are the most successful, in part because they occupied the best locations, but also because they structured the landscape and the territory to their advantage, determined the road network

  3. Solar plants, environmental degradation and local socioeconomic contexts: A case study in a Mediterranean country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfanti, Lavinia [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Colantoni, Andrea, E-mail: colantoni@unitus.it [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Recanatesi, Fabio [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Bencardino, Massimiliano [University of Salerno, Department of Political, Social and Communication Sciences, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Sateriano, Adele [Via A. Di Tullio 40, I-00136, Rome (Italy); Zambon, Ilaria [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Salvati, Luca, E-mail: luca.salvati@crea.gov.it [Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-RPS), Via della Navicella 2-4, I-00184, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Photovoltaic plants developed on rural land are becoming a common infrastructure in the Mediterranean region and may contribute, at least indirectly, to various forms of environmental degradation including landscape deterioration, land take, soil degradation and loss in traditional cropland and biodiversity. Our study illustrates a procedure estimating (i) the extension of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields at the municipal scale in Italy and (ii) inferring the socioeconomic profile of the Italian municipalities experiencing different expansion rates of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields over the last years (2007-2014). The procedure was based on diachronic information derived from official data sources integrated into a geographical decision support system. Our results indicate that the surface area of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields into rural land grew continuously in Italy between 2007 and 2014 with positive and increasing growth rates observed during 2007-2011 and positive but slightly decreasing growth rates over 2012-2014, as a result of market saturation and policies containing the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields. We found important differences in the density of ground-mounted solar plants between northern and southern Italian municipalities. We identified accessible rural municipalities in southern Italy with intermediate population density and large availability of non-urban land as the most exposed to the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields in the last decade. Our approach is a promising tool to estimate changes in the use of land driven by the expansion of photovoltaic fields into rural land.

  4. Solar plants, environmental degradation and local socioeconomic contexts: A case study in a Mediterranean country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfanti, Lavinia; Colantoni, Andrea; Recanatesi, Fabio; Bencardino, Massimiliano; Sateriano, Adele; Zambon, Ilaria; Salvati, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic plants developed on rural land are becoming a common infrastructure in the Mediterranean region and may contribute, at least indirectly, to various forms of environmental degradation including landscape deterioration, land take, soil degradation and loss in traditional cropland and biodiversity. Our study illustrates a procedure estimating (i) the extension of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields at the municipal scale in Italy and (ii) inferring the socioeconomic profile of the Italian municipalities experiencing different expansion rates of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields over the last years (2007-2014). The procedure was based on diachronic information derived from official data sources integrated into a geographical decision support system. Our results indicate that the surface area of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields into rural land grew continuously in Italy between 2007 and 2014 with positive and increasing growth rates observed during 2007-2011 and positive but slightly decreasing growth rates over 2012-2014, as a result of market saturation and policies containing the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields. We found important differences in the density of ground-mounted solar plants between northern and southern Italian municipalities. We identified accessible rural municipalities in southern Italy with intermediate population density and large availability of non-urban land as the most exposed to the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields in the last decade. Our approach is a promising tool to estimate changes in the use of land driven by the expansion of photovoltaic fields into rural land.

  5. An overview of environmental degradation of materials in nuclear power plant piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Several types of environmental degradation of piping in light water reactor (LWR) power systems have already had significant economic impact on the industry. These include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel piping, erosion-corrosion of carbon steel piping in secondary systems, and a variety of types of fatigue failures. In addition, other problems have been identified that must be addressed in considering extended lifetimes for nuclear plants. These include the embrittlement of cast stainless steels after extended thermal aging at reactor operating temperatures and the effect of reactor environments on the design margin inherent in the ASME Section III fatigue design curves especially for carbon steel piping. These problems are being addressed by wide-ranging research programs in this country and abroad. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the accomplishments of these programs and to note some of the remaining unanswered questions

  6. Environmental degradation, global food production, and risk for large-scale migrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeoes, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate to what extent global food production is affected by the ongoing environmental degradation through processes, such as soil erosion, salinization, chemical contamination, ultraviolet radiation, and biotic stress. Estimates have also been made of available opportunities to improve food production efficiency by, e.g., increased use of fertilizers, irrigation, and biotechnology, as well as improved management. Expected losses and gains of agricultural land in competition with urbanization, industrial development, and forests have been taken into account. Although estimated gains in food production deliberately have been overestimated and losses underestimated, calculations indicate that during the next 30-35 years the annual net gain in food production will be significantly lower than the rate of world population growth. An attempt has also been made to identify possible scenarios for large-scale migrations, caused mainly by rapid population growth in combination with insufficient local food production and poverty. 18 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Use of solar energy: to eradicate poverty, prevent environmental degradation, and diseases in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odey, J. A

    2006-01-01

    With intensive research conducted in to the usefulness of energy obtained from solar, result has indicate that the rate of environmental degradation with hardship associated with such natural discomfort, a readily solution could be found by using the simple and free natural solar radiation to control the menace. In a developing country like Nigeria this experiment was carried out and proved to be the medium by which solution could be built upon. This paper gives details about the success recorded at demonstration and workshops in selected areas around the country and recommend its findings to either developing or developed nations of the world to benefit from. Exorbitant cost of fossil fuel could be relieved for those living below the average of human endeavors.(Author)

  8. 13th International conference on environmental degradation of materials in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 13th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems was held on August 19-23, 2007 in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. More of a scientific meeting than a convention, this conference series is the premier nuclear industry corrosion meeting where the 225 registrations consisted of world experts of the field from utilities, engineering and service organizations, manufacturers, research establishments and universities gathered to listen to 144 technical papers on new work and to explore new insights into corrosion mechanisms in the many water cooled systems in nuclear power plants. Over 225 delegates attended the conference, over 144 technical papers were presented in the following sessions: IASCC; Waste; PWR Secondary; Ni-Base Welds; Operating Experience; Low Alloy Steels; Alloy 800 Steam Generator Tubing; Zirconium Alloys; Crack Growth; SCWR; PWR Primary; BWR SCC; Irradiation Effects; Flow Accelerated Corrosion; and, Nobel Metal

  9. An overview of environmental degradation of materials in nuclear power plant piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    Piping in light water reactor (LWR) power systems is affected by several types of environmental degradation: intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) has required research, inspection, and mitigation programs that will ultimately cost several billion dollars; erosion-corrosion of carbon steel piping has been observed frequently in the secondary systems of both BWRs and pressurized water reactors (PWRs); the effect of the BWR environment can greatly diminish the design margin inherent in the ASME Section III fatigue design curves for carbon steel piping; and cast stainless steels are subject to embrittlement after extended thermal aging at reactor operating temperatures. These problems are being addressed by wide-ranging research programs in this country and abroad. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the accomplishments of these programs and to note some of the remaining unanswered questions

  10. Economic development, income inequality and environmental degradation of fisheries resources in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhee, Sanjeev K

    2004-07-01

    This article examines how environmental degradation of fisheries resources in the context of Mauritius is linked up with human investment in education, economic growth, and income inequality. Empirical evidence shows that public-sector investment in education promotes economic growth, but at the expense of greater inequality of income. Among the vulnerable groups affected by this type of development process lies the fisherman community. In fact, children of poor families in coastal Mauritius have constrained access to complete school education because of the persistently high opportunity cost involved. Hence, this community is caught up in a vicious circle, as its children or grandchildren would barely be redeployed elsewhere other than in the fisheries sector itself. Such exclusion might account for the overexploitation of marine resources of the island and the accompanying reduction in fish catch over recent years.

  11. Two African woodfuel markets: urban demand, resource depletion, and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.; Milukas, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines charcoal markets in two African cities: Mogadishu, Somalia and Kigali, Rwanda. Economic theory dictates that if woodfuel resources become scarce, their real price will increase commensurately with the interest rate. Although Rwanda and Somalia represent drastically different physical environments, both are considered to be wood-scarce. But neither market has demonstrated straightforward depletion effects. In Mogadishu, the price first rose and then fell in reaction to shifts in the structure of the charcoal market, relaxed regulations, and economic contraction. In Rwanda, the price began rising only after the closing of the Bugasera Region to charcoal producers. Charcoal must be increasingly produced from private farmland. These two case studies highlight the importance of agricultural land clearance, conflicting government regulations, and shifts in market structure in determining whether or not charcoal prices will demonstrate depletion effects, and whether or not charcoal production will lead to local environmental degradation. (author)

  12. Growth-corruption-health triaca and environmental degradation: empirical evidence from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the impact of economic growth, corruption, health, and poverty on environmental degradation for three countries from ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand using annual data over the period of 1994-2014. The relationship between environmental degradation (pollution) by carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and economic growth is examined along with some other variables, namely health expenditure, poverty, agriculture value added growth, industrial value added growth, and corruption. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method is applied as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The empirical results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant at the 5% level of significance, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non-cointegration, indicating that all variables play an important role in affecting the environment across countries. Empirical results also indicate that economic growth has significant positive impact, while health expenditures show significantly negative impact on the environment. Corruption has significant positive effect on environment in the case of Malaysia; while in the case of Indonesia and Thailand, it has insignificant results. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the regression estimate suggests that economic growth has a significant positive relationship with environment for Indonesia, while it is found insignificantly negative and positive in the case of Malaysia and Thailand, respectively, during the period under the study. Empirical findings of the study suggest that policy-makers require to make technological-friendly environment sequentially to surmount unregulated pollution, steady population transfers from rural areas to urban areas are also important, and poverty alleviation and better health provision can also help to improve the environment.

  13. Environmental degradation of oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings for fuel-flexible gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Prabhakar

    spinel oxides. Based on the detailed investigation on degradation of the APS YSZ and CoNiCrAlY by various corrosive deposits, an experimental attempt was carried out to mitigate the melt-induced deposit attack. Experimental results from this study demonstrate, for the first time, that an oxide overlay produced by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) can effectively perform as an environmental barrier overlay for APS TBCs. The EPD protective overlay has a uniform and easily-controllable thickness, uniformly distributed closed pores and tailored chemistry. The EPD Al2O3 and MgO overlays were successful in protecting the APS YSZ TBCs against CMAS attack and hot corrosion attack (e.g., sulfate and vanadate), respectively. Furnace thermal cyclic oxidation testing of overlay-modified TBCs on bond-coated superalloy also demonstrated the good adhesive durability of the EPD Al2O3 overlay.

  14. Rural poverty and environmental degradation in the Philippines: A system dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayno, Phares Penuliar

    Poverty among the small cultivators in the Philippines remains widespread despite a general increase in per capita income during the last three decades. At the same time, the degradation of agricultural land resources, as sources of daily subsistence for the rural workers, is progressing. Past policy studies on the alleviation of rural poverty in the developing countries have centered on the issue of increasing food production and expanding economic growth but gave little attention to the issue of constraints imposed by degradation of agricultural land resources. Only in recent years have there been increasing focus on the relationship between rural poverty and environmental degradation. Inquiry is, however, often done by simplistic one way causal relationships which, although often illuminating, does not provide a comprehensive understanding of the different interacting processes that create rural poverty and land degradation. Thus, policies ensuing from such analyses provide only short-term gains without effecting lasting improvement in the living conditions of the small cultivators. This dissertation examines the complex interrelationships between rural poverty and land degradation and attempts to explain the inefficacy of broad development programs implemented in alleviating rural poverty and reversing deterioration of land resources. The study uses the case of the Philippines for empirical validation. The analysis employs computer simulation experiments with a system dynamics model of a developing economy consisting of an agricultural sector whose microstructure incorporates processes influencing: agricultural production; disbursement of income; changes in the quality of agricultural land resources; demographic behavior; and rural-urban transfer of real and monetary resources. The system dynamics model used in this study extends the wage and income distribution model of Saeed (1988) by adding to it decision structures concerning changes in the quality of

  15. An evaluation of the MEDALUS ESA index (environmental sensitivity to land degradation), from regional to plot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavado Contador, J. J.; Schnabel, S.; Gomez Gutierrez, A.

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of the sensitivity to land degradation have been carried out for the region of Extramadura, Sw Spain, by means of the modelling approach developed in the European Commission funded MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use) which identifies such areas on the basis of an index (ESA index) that incorporates data on environmental quality (climate, vegetation, soil) as well as on anthropogenic factors (management). Two maps of environmental sensitivity to degradation with different legend resolution (4 and 8 classes of sensitivity) have been made. (Author) 6 refs.

  16. Adsorption and degradation of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in an agricultural soil system under an anaerobic condition: Kinetics and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Genxiang; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Shuangqing; Zhang, Hongchang; Yuan, Zhejun; Zhang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Sulfonamides, one of the commonest antibiotics, were widely used on humans and livestock to control pathema and bacterial infections resulting in further environmental risks. The present study evaluated the adsorption and degradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in an agricultural soil system under an anaerobic condition. Low sorption coefficients (K d , 1.22 L kg -1 for SDZ and 1.23 L kg -1 for SMX) obtained from Freundlich isotherms experiment indicated that poor sorption of both antibiotics may pose a high risk to environment due to their high mobility and possibility of entering surface and ground water. Degradation occurred at a lower rate under the anaerobic environment, where both two antibiotics had higher persistence in sterile and non-sterile soils with degradation ratio  20 d. Additionally, the addition of manure slightly increased degradation rates of SDZ and SMX, but there were no significant differences between single and repeated manure application at a later stage (p > 0.05), which suggested that the degradation was affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. Degradation rates would be slower at a higher concentration, indicating that degradation kinetics of SDZ and SMX were dependent on initial concentrations. During the degradation period, the antibiotics removal may change temperature, pH, sulfate and nitrate in soil, which suggested that the variation of antibiotics concentrations was related to the changes of soil physicochemical properties. An equation was proposed to elucidate the link between adsorption and degradation under different conditions, and to predict potential environmental risks of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Reactions and Degradation Mechanisms of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborg, Nadia L.; Zhu, Dongming

    2013-01-01

    The thermochemical reactions between calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate- (CMAS-) based road sand and several advanced turbine engine environmental barrier coating (EBC) materials were studied. The phase stability, reaction kinetics and degradation mechanisms of rare earth (RE)-silicates Yb2SiO5, Y2Si2O7, and RE-oxide doped HfO2 and ZrO2 under the CMAS infiltration condition at 1500 C were investigated, and the microstructure and phase characteristics of CMAS-EBC specimens were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Experimental results showed that the CMAS dissolved RE-silicates to form crystalline, highly non-stoichiometric apatite phases, and in particular attacking the silicate grain boundaries. Cross-section images show that the CMAS reacted with specimens and deeply penetrated into the EBC grain boundaries and formed extensive low-melting eutectic phases, causing grain boundary recession with increasing testing time in the silicate materials. The preliminary results also showed that CMAS reactions also formed low melting grain boundary phases in the higher concentration RE-oxide doped HfO2 systems. The effect of the test temperature on CMAS reactions of the EBC materials will also be discussed. The faster diffusion exhibited by apatite and RE-doped oxide phases and the formation of extensive grain boundary low-melting phases may limit the CMAS resistance of some of the environmental barrier coatings at high temperatures.

  18. Environment, Agriculture and Sustainability Relations: From the Environmental Degradation to the Necessity of Conservation of Natural Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórida Rosa Mali Assêncio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief approach on environmental aspects related to the development of agriculture in the world and especially in Brazil, detaching some historical aspects. Some characteristics of the social and environmental degradation generated by the processes of production of modern agriculture, based on studies of Environmental Sciences, in general, and, more specifically, of Agroecology, are presented, as well as the necessity of searching for new models of development according to the recent paradigm of sustainability (social, economic and environmental, debated in international conferences on 'environment and development'.

  19. Menadione induces G2/M arrest in gastric cancer cells by down-regulation of CDC25C and proteasome mediated degradation of CDK1 and cyclin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Ho; Cho, Yoonjung; Kim, Do Hyun; Woo, Hyun Jun; Yang, Ji Yeong; Kwon, Hye Jin; Yeon, Min Ji; Park, Min; Kim, Sa-Hyun; Moon, Cheol; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Kim, Tae Ue; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Menadione (vitamin K3) has been reported to induce apoptotic cell death and growth inhibition in various types of cancer cells. However, involvement of menadione in cell cycle control has not been considered in gastric cancer cells yet. In the current study, we have investigated whether menadione is involved in the cell cycle regulation and suppression of growth in gastric cancer cells. In the cell cycle analysis, we found that menadione induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in AGS cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated the cell cycle regulatory molecules involved in the G2/M cell cycle transition. After 24 h of menadione treatment, the protein level of CDK1, CDC25C and cyclin B1 in AGS cells was decreased in a menadione dose-dependent manner. In the time course experiment, the protein level of CDC25C decreased in 6 h, and CDK1and cyclin B1 protein levels began to decrease after 18 h of menadione treatment. We found that mRNA level of CDC25C decreased by menadione treatment in 6 h. Menadione did not have an influence on mRNA level of CDK1 and cyclin B1 though the protein levels were decreased. However, the decreased protein levels of CDK1 and cyclin B1 were recovered by inhibition of proteasome. Collectively, these results suggest that menadione inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells by reducing expression of CDC25C and promoting proteasome mediated degradation of CDK1 and cyclin B1 thereby blocking transition of the cell cycle from G2 phase to M phase. PMID:28077999

  20. Assessment of the environmental degradation susceptibility of the Macaé River Hydrographic Basin with support of geoprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunna Rocha Werneck

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a thematic exploration of the environmental degradation in the Macaé River Hydrographic Basin. The objective was to provide a cartographic base on relevant issues regarding the Basin, by doing environmental assessment with support of geoprocessing. This aims at providing assistance for public actions in environmental decisions, and suggest applications of data in local and/or regional plannings that may support the development of the Basin Plan. The AHP method – Hierarchic Analytical Process – was used. The resulting map shows the areas of potential environmental degradation, in which those with greater susceptibility are located at the top and middle sections of the river, and the less likely are found on its lower course.

  1. Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hans Harmen; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

  2. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangguo, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: guang-guo.ying@gig.ac.cn; Xiangyang, Yu [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Food Safety Research Institute, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Kookana, Rai S [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil.

  3. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Guangguo; Yu Xiangyang; Kookana, Rai S.

    2007-01-01

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil

  4. Land quality, sustainable development and environmental degradation in agricultural districts: A computational approach based on entropy indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambon, Ilaria; Colantoni, Andrea; Carlucci, Margherita; Morrow, Nathan; Sateriano, Adele; Salvati, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Land Degradation (LD) in socio-environmental systems negatively impacts sustainable development paths. This study proposes a framework to LD evaluation based on indicators of diversification in the spatial distribution of sensitive land. We hypothesize that conditions for spatial heterogeneity in a composite index of land sensitivity are more frequently associated to areas prone to LD than spatial homogeneity. Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas that act as hotspots for future degradation processes. A diachronic analysis (1960–2010) was performed at the Italian agricultural district scale to identify environmental factors associated with spatial heterogeneity in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation based on the Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI). In 1960, diversification in the level of land sensitivity measured using two common indexes of entropy (Shannon's diversity and Pielou's evenness) increased significantly with the ESAI, indicating a high level of land sensitivity to degradation. In 2010, surface area classified as “critical” to LD was the highest in districts with diversification in the spatial distribution of ESAI values, confirming the hypothesis formulated above. Entropy indexes, based on observed alignment with the concept of LD, constitute a valuable base to inform mitigation strategies against desertification. - Highlights: • Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas. • Entropy indexes can inform mitigation strategies against desertification. • Assessing spatial diversification in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation. • Mediterranean rural areas have an evident diversity in agricultural systems. • A diachronic analysis carried out at the Italian agricultural district scale.

  5. Land quality, sustainable development and environmental degradation in agricultural districts: A computational approach based on entropy indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, Ilaria, E-mail: ilaria.zambon@unitus.it [Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs (DAFNE), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Colantoni, Andrea [Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs (DAFNE), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Carlucci, Margherita [Department of Social and Economic Science, University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Morrow, Nathan [Tulane University, Payson Program in International Development at the School of Law, New Orleans (United States); Sateriano, Adele; Salvati, Luca [Italian Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-RPS), Via della Navicella 2-4, I-00184 Rome (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    Land Degradation (LD) in socio-environmental systems negatively impacts sustainable development paths. This study proposes a framework to LD evaluation based on indicators of diversification in the spatial distribution of sensitive land. We hypothesize that conditions for spatial heterogeneity in a composite index of land sensitivity are more frequently associated to areas prone to LD than spatial homogeneity. Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas that act as hotspots for future degradation processes. A diachronic analysis (1960–2010) was performed at the Italian agricultural district scale to identify environmental factors associated with spatial heterogeneity in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation based on the Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI). In 1960, diversification in the level of land sensitivity measured using two common indexes of entropy (Shannon's diversity and Pielou's evenness) increased significantly with the ESAI, indicating a high level of land sensitivity to degradation. In 2010, surface area classified as “critical” to LD was the highest in districts with diversification in the spatial distribution of ESAI values, confirming the hypothesis formulated above. Entropy indexes, based on observed alignment with the concept of LD, constitute a valuable base to inform mitigation strategies against desertification. - Highlights: • Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas. • Entropy indexes can inform mitigation strategies against desertification. • Assessing spatial diversification in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation. • Mediterranean rural areas have an evident diversity in agricultural systems. • A diachronic analysis carried out at the Italian agricultural district scale.

  6. Wetland degradation: its driving forces and environmental impacts in the Sanjiang Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Wang, Zongming; Du, Jia; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Lihong; Ren, Chunying

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated human-induced long-term wetland degradation that occurred in the Sanjiang Plain. Results from analyzing land-use/land-cover data sets derived from remotely sensed Landsat Multispectral Scanner/Thematic Mapper imagery for four time points showed that wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain have been severely transformed, and the area of wetlands decreased by 38 % from 1976 to 1986, by 16 % from 1986 to 1995, and by 31 % from 1995 to 2005. This study showed that transition to agricultural cultivation accounted for 91 % of wetland losses, whereas transition to grassland and forest accounted for 7 % of the wetlands losses. Institutional strategies and market policies probably exerted great impacts on agricultural practice that directly or indirectly influenced the decrease in wetlands. This study also indicated that an increased population likely led to wetland conversion to cropland by showing a high correlation between population and cropland (R (2) = 0.92, P reinforced further because of possible environmental consequences of wetland loss, such as enhanced soil carbon emission, changed hydrological cycling, and regional temperature increase.

  7. Ethanol and sodium acetate as a preservation method to delay degradation of environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladell, Bridget A.; Walleser, Liza R.; McCalla, S. Grace; Erickson, Richard A.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) samples that are collected from remote locations depend on rapid stabilization of the DNA. The degradation of eDNA in water samples is minimized when samples are stored at ≤ 4 °C. Developing a preservation technique to maintain eDNA integrity at room temperature would allow a wider range of locations to be sampled. We evaluated an ethanol and sodium acetate solution to maintain the integrity of the DNA samples for the time between collection and lab testing. For this evaluation, replicate water samples taken from a tank housing Asian carp were placed on ice or held at room temperature. At both temperatures, water samples were left untreated or were preserved with an ethanol and sodium acetate solution (EtOH–NaAc). Every day for 6 days following collection, a subset of the samples was removed from each preservation method and DNA was extracted and nuclear and mitochondrial markers were assayed with qPCR. Results showed comparable persistence of DNA between iced samples without the EtOH–NaAc treatment and samples that received EtOH–NaAc treatment that were kept at room temperature. We found that DNA can be amplified from preserved samples using an EtOH–NaAc solution after up to 7 days at room temperature.

  8. Environmental Degradation of Dissimilar Austenitic 316L and Duplex 2205 Stainless Steels Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topolska S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes structure and properties of dissimilar stainless steels welded joints between duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L steels. Investigations were focused on environmentally assisted cracking of welded joints. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC and hydrogen embrittlement was determined in slow strain rate tests (SSRT with the strain rate of 2.2 × 10−6 s−1. Chloride-inducted SCC was determined in the 35% boiling water solution of MgCl2 environment at 125°C. Hydrogen assisted SCC tests were performed in synthetic sea water under cathodic polarization condition. It was shown that place of the lowest resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking is heat affected zone at duplex steel side of dissimilar joins. That phenomenon was connected with undesirable structure of HAZ comprising of large fractions of ferrite grains with acicular austenite phase. Hydrogen assisted SCC tests showed significant reduction in ductility of duplex 2205 steel while austenitic 316L steel remains almost immune to degradation processes. SSR tests of dissimilar welded joints revealed a fracture in the area of austenitic steel.

  9. The invisible hand and EKC hypothesis: what are the drivers of environmental degradation and pollution in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkodie, Samuel Asumadu

    2018-05-24

    This study examined the drivers of environmental degradation and pollution in 17 countries in Africa from 1971 to 2013. The empirical study was analyzed with Westerlund error-correction model and panel cointegration tests with 1000 bootstrapping samples, U-shape test, fixed and random effect estimators, and panel causality test. The investigation of the nexus between environmental pollution economic growth in Africa confirms the validity of the EKC hypothesis in Africa at a turning point of US$ 5702 GDP per capita. However, the nexus between environmental degradation and economic growth reveals a U shape at a lower bound GDP of US$ 101/capita and upper bound GDP of US$ 8050/capita, at a turning point of US$ 7958 GDP per capita, confirming the scale effect hypothesis. The empirical findings revealed that energy consumption, food production, economic growth, permanent crop, agricultural land, birth rate, and fertility rate play a major role in environmental degradation and pollution in Africa, thus supporting the global indicators for achieving the sustainable development goals by 2030.

  10. Photocatalytic Degradation Effect of μ-Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treated Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Environmental Contaminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyeon Jin; Hwang, Ki-Hwan; Na, Young Hoon; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2018-09-01

    This study focused on the photocatalytic degradation effect of the μ-dielectric barrier discharge (μ-DBD) plasma treated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on environmental contaminant such as formaldehyde. TiO2 nanoparticles were treated by a μ-DBD plasma source with nitrogen gas. We analyzed the degradation of formaldehyde with the plasma treated TiO2 nanoparticles by UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS), and demonstrated that the photocatalytic activity of the μ-DBD plasma-treated TiO2 nanoparticles showed significantly high catalytic efficiency rather than without plasma treated TiO2 nanoparticles. Field emission scanning electron microscopes (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and water contact angle analyzer were used to measure the effects of photocatalytic degradation for the plasma treated TiO2 nanoparticles.

  11. Vulnerability and Resilience of the Niger Delta Coastal Communities to Pollution and Environmental Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, P. E.; Whenu, O. O.; Anwan, H. R.; Anetekhai, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Niger Delta is Africa's largest delta consisting of the third largest mangrove forest in the world and covering 70,000km2 of Nigeria land mass. This delta is the largest wetland in Africa and among the ten most important wetland and marine ecosystems in the world. The delta is home to all of Nigeria's endemic or near-endemic mammal species and to six IUCN Red List mammals. The Niger Delta harbours globally outstanding fish fauna and displays exceptional evolutionary phenomena with its higher taxonomic endemism and distinct species assemblages. The Niger delta is blessed with abundance of natural and human resources, including the majority of Nigeria's oil and gas deposits, good agricultural land, extensive forests, excellent fisheries as well as a well-developed industrial base, a large labour force and a vibrant private sector. However, this fragile but rich ecosystem is seriously threatened by increased industrial pollution, resource over-exploitation and environmental degradation caused by over six decades of oil exploitation. Aquatic life has been destroyed with the pollution of traditional fishing grounds, exacerbating hunger and poverty in fishing communities. The multifarious use of the delta has led to human-induced changes in biota, habitats and landscapes necessitating the development of a holistic policy that considers all the interacting factors in the ecosystem. Taking a systems approach incorporating an understanding of The Ecosystem Approach, vulnerability, resilience, the DPSIR framework, ecosystem services and societal benefits are integrated in order to evolve a management tool that will result in sustainable resource exploitation, improvement in living standards of locals and restoration of the ecosystem.

  12. Environmental degradation of Opalinus Clay with cyclic variations in relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Katrin; Walter, Patric; Madonna, Claudio; Amann, Florian

    2016-04-01

    throughout the cycles. For the RH variation used, the results suggest that the long-term crack evolution around excavations in OPA is not expected to be significantly influenced by environmental degradation but dominated by other processes such as consolidation and creep.

  13. Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread

  14. Pittsburgh Police Arrest Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...

  15. Integrated approach to the understanding of the degradation of an urban river: local perceptions, environmental parameters and geoprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Carolina A; Almeida Neto, Miguel S de; Aretakis, Gabriela M A; Santos, Rangel E; de Oliveira, Tiago H; Mourão, José S; Severi, William; El-Deir, Ana C A

    2015-09-15

    The use of interdisciplinary approaches such as the proposed report provides a broad understanding of the relationship between people and the environment, revealing reliable aspects not previously considered in the study of this relationship. This study compiled evidence on the environmental degradation of an urbanized river over the past few decades, providing a diagnosis of the consequences of this process for the river, its ichthyofauna, and the local human population. The study was focused on the Beira Rio community on the Capibaribe River in the municipality of São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil. Data were collected using geoprocessing and ethnobiological approaches, as well as environmental parameters. This research was conducted with the most experienced long-term residents in the local community, through interviews and participatory methodologies to recovering information about the river environment, its ichthyofauna and its environmental services for the last decades. According to the GIS analysis, the study area was subject to an accelerated process of urbanization, with the total urban area increasing from 73 565, 98 m(2) in 1974 to 383 363, 6 m(2) in 2005. The informants perceived the urban growth, especially in the late twentieth century, being this period recognized as the phase of greatest negative changes in the river environment. The perceived decline of fish stocks was indicated by the community as one of the effects of river degradation. According to the interviews, the deterioration of the river affected the ecosystem services and the relationship of the adjacent human community with this ecosystem. The environmental data indicated that the river is suffering eutrophization and has fecal coliform concentrations 160 times higher than the maximum level permitted by Brazilian legislation. The interdisciplinary approach used in this research allowed the understanding of the degradation process of an urban river and some negative effects

  16. Laboratory Test Methods to Determine the Degradation of Plastics in Marine Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plast...

  17. Competing Forces of Socioeconomic Development and Environmental Degradation on Health and Happiness for Different Income Groups in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lijuan; Rosenberg, Mark W; Zeng, Juxin

    2017-10-01

    China's rapid socioeconomic growth in recent years and the simultaneous increase in many forms of pollution are generating contradictory pictures of residents' well-being. This paper applies multilevel analysis to the 2013 China General Social Survey data on social development and health to understand this twofold phenomenon. Multilevel models are developed to investigate the impact of socioeconomic development and environmental degradation on self-reported health (SRH) and self-reported happiness (SRHP), differentiating among lower, middle, and higher income groups. The results of the logit multilevel analysis demonstrate that income, jobs, and education increased the likelihood of rating SRH and SRHP positively for the lower and middle groups but had little or no effect on the higher income group. Having basic health insurance had an insignificant effect on health but increased the likelihood of happiness among the lower income group. Provincial-level pollutants were associated with a higher likelihood of good health for all income groups, and community-level industrial pollutants increased the likelihood of good health for the lower and middle income groups. Measures of community-level pollution were robust predictors of the likelihood of unhappiness among the lower and middle income groups. Environmental hazards had a mediating effect on the relationship between socioeconomic development and health, and socioeconomic development strengthened the association between environmental hazards and happiness. These outcomes indicate that the complex interconnections among socioeconomic development and environmental degradation have differential effects on well-being among different income groups in China.

  18. Environmental, biochemical and genetic drivers of DMSP degradation and DMS production in the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Naomi Marcil; Varaljay, Vanessa A; Toole, Dierdre A; Dacey, John W H; Doney, Scott C; Moran, Mary Ann

    2012-05-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is a climatically relevant trace gas produced and cycled by the surface ocean food web. Mechanisms driving intraannual variability in DMS production and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) degradation in open-ocean, oligotrophic regions were investigated during a 10-month time-series at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site in the Sargasso Sea. Abundance and transcription of bacterial DMSP degradation genes, DMSP lyase enzyme activity, and DMS and DMSP concentrations, consumption rates and production rates were quantified over time and depth. This interdisciplinary data set was used to test current hypotheses of the role of light and carbon supply in regulating upper-ocean sulfur cycling. Findings supported UV-A-dependent phytoplankton DMS production. Bacterial DMSP degraders may also contribute significantly to DMS production when temperatures are elevated and UV-A dose is moderate, but may favour DMSP demethylation under low UV-A doses. Three groups of bacterial DMSP degraders with distinct intraannual variability were identified and niche differentiation was indicated. The combination of genetic and biochemical data suggest a modified 'bacterial switch' hypothesis where the prevalence of different bacterial DMSP degradation pathways is regulated by a complex set of factors including carbon supply, temperature and UV-A dose. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. I. Degradation of roxarsone during composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, J.R.; Bednar, A.J.; Rutherford, D.W.; Beyer, R.S.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Roxarsone, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, is an organoarsenic compound that is used extensively in the feed of broiler poultryto control coccidial intestinal parasites, improve feed efficiency, and promote rapid growth. Nearly all the roxarsone in the feed is excreted unchanged in the manure. Poultry litter composed of the manure and bedding material has a high nutrient content and is used routinely as a fertilizer on cropland and pasture. Investigations were conducted to determine the fate of poultrylitter roxarsone in the environment. Experiments indicated that roxarsone was stable in fresh dried litter; the primary arsenic species extracted with water from dried litter was roxarsone. However, when water was added to litter at about 50 wt % and the mixture was allowed to compost at 40oC, the speciation of arsenic shifted from roxarsone to primarily arsenate in about 30 days. Increasing the amount of water increased the rate of degradation. Experiments also suggested that the degradation process most likely was biotic in nature. The rate of degradation was directly proportional to the incubation temperature; heat sterilization eliminated the degradation. Biotic degradation also was supported by results from enterobacteriaceae growth media that were inoculated with litter slurry to enhance the biotic processes and to reduce the concomitant abiotic effects from the complex litter solution. Samples collected from a variety of litter windrows in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Maryland also showed that roxarsone originally present had been converted to arsenate.

  20. Taking the 'U' out of Kuznets. A comprehensive analysis of the EKC and environmental degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviglia-Harris, Jill L.; Chambers, Dustin [Salisbury University, 1101 Camden Ave., Salisbury, MD 21804 (United States); Kahn, James R. [Washington and Lee University, Science AG-15, Lexington, VA 24450 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Unlike most Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) studies which focus on narrow measures of pollution as proxies for environmental quality, we test the validity of the EKC using the Ecological Footprint (EF), a more comprehensive measure of environmental degradation. We find no empirical evidence of an EKC relationship between the EF and economic development, and only limited support for such a relationship among the components of the EF. In addition, we discover that energy is largely responsible for the lack of an EKC relationship, and that energy consumption levels would have to be cut by over 50% in order for a statistically significant EKC relationship to emerge from the data. Overall, these results suggest that growth alone will not lead to sustainable development. (author)

  1. Efficient heterogeneous and environmentally friendly degradation of nerve agents on a tungsten-based POM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrahi, Dana M., E-mail: danami@iibr.gov.il [Department of Organic Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100 (Israel); Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay [Department of Organic Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100 (Israel)

    2010-07-15

    Common (chemical warfare agent) CWA decontaminants exhibit harsh and corrosive characteristics, and are harmful to the environment. In the course of our quest for active sorbents as efficient decontaminants, Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} was tested for oxidative degradation of CWAs. Although oxidation did not take place, sarin (GB) and VX were smoothly decontaminated to non-toxic products within 1 and 10 days, respectively. Degradation was carried out directly on the powder, eliminating the need for solvents. Mustard gas (HD), whose degradation is highly dependent on oxidation, was not decontaminated by this POM. Solid state MAS NMR ({sup 31}P and {sup 13}C) was utilized both for POM characterization and for decontamination studies monitoring.

  2. Efficient heterogeneous and environmentally friendly degradation of nerve agents on a tungsten-based POM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizrahi, Dana M.; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay

    2010-01-01

    Common (chemical warfare agent) CWA decontaminants exhibit harsh and corrosive characteristics, and are harmful to the environment. In the course of our quest for active sorbents as efficient decontaminants, Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) (NH 4 ) 3 PW 12 O 40 was tested for oxidative degradation of CWAs. Although oxidation did not take place, sarin (GB) and VX were smoothly decontaminated to non-toxic products within 1 and 10 days, respectively. Degradation was carried out directly on the powder, eliminating the need for solvents. Mustard gas (HD), whose degradation is highly dependent on oxidation, was not decontaminated by this POM. Solid state MAS NMR ( 31 P and 13 C) was utilized both for POM characterization and for decontamination studies monitoring.

  3. Measurement of Pyrethroids and Their Environmental Degradates in Fruits and Vegetables using a Modification of the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on food products such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring ...

  4. Plastic Degradation and Its Environmental Implications with Special Reference to Poly(ethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing global consumption and their natural resistance to degradation, plastic materials and their accumulation in the environment is of increasing concern. This review aims to present a general overview of the current state of knowledge in areas that relate to biodegradation of polymers, especially poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET. This includes an outline of the problems associated with plastic pollution in the marine environment, a description of the properties, commercial manufacturing and degradability of PET, an overview of the potential for biodegradation of conventional polymers and biodegradable polymers already in production.

  5. Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Infiltration and Cyclic Degradations of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings in Thermal Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Smialek, Jim; Miller, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop higher temperature capable turbine thermal barrier and environmental barrier coating systems, Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) resistance of the advanced coating systems needs to be evaluated and improved. This paper highlights some of NASA past high heat flux testing approaches for turbine thermal and environmental barrier coatings assessments in CMAS environments. One of our current emphases has been focused on the thermal barrier - environmental barrier coating composition and testing developments. The effort has included the CMAS infiltrations in high temperature and high heat flux turbine engine like conditions using advanced laser high heat flux rigs, and subsequently degradation studies in laser heat flux thermal gradient cyclic and isothermal furnace cyclic testing conditions. These heat flux CMAS infiltration and related coating durability testing are essential where appropriate CMAS melting, infiltration and coating-substrate temperature exposure temperature controls can be achieved, thus helping quantify the CMAS-coating interaction and degradation mechanisms. The CMAS work is also playing a critical role in advanced coating developments, by developing laboratory coating durability assessment methodologies in simulated turbine engine conditions and helping establish CMAS test standards in laboratory environments.

  6. Menadione induces G2/M arrest in gastric cancer cells by down-regulation of CDC25C and proteasome mediated degradation of CDK1 and cyclin B1

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min Ho; Cho, Yoonjung; Kim, Do Hyun; Woo, Hyun Jun; Yang, Ji Yeong; Kwon, Hye Jin; Yeon, Min Ji; Park, Min; Kim, Sa-Hyun; Moon, Cheol; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Kim, Tae Ue; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Menadione (vitamin K3) has been reported to induce apoptotic cell death and growth inhibition in various types of cancer cells. However, involvement of menadione in cell cycle control has not been considered in gastric cancer cells yet. In the current study, we have investigated whether menadione is involved in the cell cycle regulation and suppression of growth in gastric cancer cells. In the cell cycle analysis, we found that menadione induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in AGS cells. To elucida...

  7. Degradation kinetics of a potent antifouling agent, butenolide, under various environmental conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo; Xu, Ying; Wang, Wenxiong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    -lives were recorded for DCOIT: >64. d at 4. °C, 27.9. d at 25. °C and 4.5. d at 40. °C. Exposure to sunlight accelerated the degradation of both butenolide and DCOIT. The photolysis half-lives of butenolide and DCOIT were 5.7. d and 6.8. d, respectively

  8. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eTosin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain. However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation. Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone, to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = -66% in 2 years when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain, and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88% when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain. This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment.

  9. Laboratory test methods to determine the degradation of plastics in marine environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = -66% in 2 years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment.

  10. Laboratory Test Methods to Determine the Degradation of Plastics in Marine Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosin, Maurizio; Weber, Miriam; Siotto, Michela; Lott, Christian; Degli Innocenti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment. The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea. Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water (pelagic domain). However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied. Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration (visual disappearing) as a simulation of the tidal zone. Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor. Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption (biodegradation). Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties. The test material (Mater-Bi) was shown to degrade (total disintegration achieved in less than 9 months) when buried in wet sand (simulation test of the tidal zone), to lose mechanical properties but still maintain integrity (tensile strength at break = −66% in 2 years) when exposed to sea water in an aquarium (simulation of pelagic domain), and substantially biodegrade (69% in 236 days; biodegradation relative to paper: 88%) when located at the sediment/sea water interface (simulation of benthic domain). This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment. PMID:22737147

  11. Influence of PAHs among other coastal environmental variables on total and PAH-degrading bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Caroline; Tedetti, Marc; Guigue, Catherine; Dumas, Chloé; Lami, Raphaël; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Goutx, Madeleine; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the relative impact of anthropogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among biogeochemical variables on total, metabolically active, and PAH bacterial communities in summer and winter in surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface seawaters (SSW) across short transects along the NW Mediterranean coast from three harbors, one wastewater effluent, and one nearshore observatory reference site. At both seasons, significant correlations were found between dissolved total PAH concentrations and PAH-degrading bacteria that formed a gradient from the shore to nearshore waters. Accumulation of PAH degraders was particularly high in the SML, where PAHs accumulated. Harbors and wastewater outfalls influenced drastically and in a different way the total and active bacterial community structure, but they only impacted the communities from the nearshore zone (PAH concentrations on the spatial and temporal dynamic of total and active communities in this area, but this effect was putted in perspective by the importance of other biogeochemical variables.

  12. Roles and responsibilities of health care professionals in combating environmental degradation and social injustice: education and activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the causes and health consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. These issues, which impact primarily on the poor and underserved (both in the United States and internationally) are rarely or inadequately covered in the curriculums of traditional health care professions. The discussion offers ways for health care professionals to promote equality and justice and uses the example of Rudolph Virchow's social activism to illustrate how one physician can lead society toward major public health gains. There is also an examination of the roles of institutions and organisations in enhancing environmental preservation and promoting social justice. Specific curricular suggestions from history and the humanities are offered for those teaching and mentoring new health professionals.

  13. Runway Arrested Landing Site (RALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Runway Arrested Landing Site includes an underground complex located on a Mod 2, Mod 3, and Mod 3+ arresting gear and are located under the runway and accurately...

  14. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Ye, Tianyuan; Feng, Qiang; Yao, Jinghua; Wei, Mumeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu2O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu2(OH)3Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl− was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss), degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO) and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet. PMID:28793549

  15. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Ye, Tianyuan; Feng, Qiang; Yao, Jinghua; Wei, Mumeng

    2015-09-10

    This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu₂O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu₂(OH)₃Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl - was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss), degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e. , dissolved oxygen (DO) and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet.

  16. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu2O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu2(OH3Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl− was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss, degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet.

  17. Evaluation of environmental degradation effects in morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas, Viviane; Zylberberg, Marcel P.; Cardoso, Andre Luis V.; Pereira, Iaci M.; Weber, Ricardo P.; Suarez, Joao C. Miguez

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate changes in the morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE), before and after exposure to environmental agents. Fibers produced by two different manufacturers were analyzed. To characterize the morphology, we used the technique of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The results demonstrate that the original morphology of the fibers was UHMWPE affected by the defects caused by exposure to environmental agents. (author)

  18. Bacterial populations and environmental factors controlling cellulose degradation in an acidic Sphagnum peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Timofey A; Ivanova, Anastasia O; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner

    2011-07-01

    Northern peatlands represent a major global carbon store harbouring approximately one-third of the global reserves of soil organic carbon. A large proportion of these peatlands consists of acidic Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic bogs, which are characterized by extremely low rates of plant debris decomposition. The degradation of cellulose, the major component of Sphagnum-derived litter, was monitored in long-term incubation experiments with acidic (pH 4.0) peat extracts. This process was almost undetectable at 10°C and occurred at low rates at 20°C, while it was significantly accelerated at both temperature regimes by the addition of available nitrogen. Cellulose breakdown was only partially inhibited in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that bacteria participated in this process. We aimed to identify these bacteria by a combination of molecular and cultivation approaches and to determine the factors that limit their activity in situ. The indigenous bacterial community in peat was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The addition of cellulose induced a clear shift in the community structure towards an increase in the relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes. Increasing temperature and nitrogen availability resulted in a selective development of bacteria phylogenetically related to Cytophaga hutchinsonii (94-95% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), which densely colonized microfibrils of cellulose. Among isolates obtained from this community only some subdivision 1 Acidobacteria were capable of degrading cellulose, albeit at a very slow rate. These Acidobacteria represent indigenous cellulolytic members of the microbial community in acidic peat and are easily out-competed by Cytophaga-like bacteria under conditions of increased nitrogen availability. Members of the phylum Firmicutes, known to be key players in cellulose degradation in neutral habitats, were not detected in the cellulolytic community enriched at low pH. © 2011 Society for

  19. Organophosphate degrading microorganisms and enzymes as biocatalysts in environmental and personal decontamination applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Simo; Ofer, Butnaro; Arik, Eisenkraft; Shai, Shrot; Yossi, Rosman; Tzvika, Dushnitsky; Amir, Krivoy

    2008-01-01

    One of the major challenges in dealing with chemical warfare agent (CWA) dispersal, whether in the battlefield or after a terror act, is decontamination and rehabilitation of any contaminated area. Organophosphates (OPs) are considered to be among the deadliest CWAs to date. Other OPs are used as pesticides in modern agriculture, and are considered environmentally hazardous. Current methods for OP decontamination are either dangerous or insufficiently effective. As a promising solution for this problem, bioremediation--the use of biocomponents for environmental remediation--is a potentially effective, safe, and environment-friendly method. The technology relies on several enzymatic mechanisms, and can be applied in various ways. We will review recent achievements and potential applications, such as biocatalyst-containing foams and an enzymatic sponge, for environmental as well as personal exterior decontamination.

  20. Development of root-carving industry leads to ecological and environmental degradation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Xi, W.; Anten, N.P.R.; Bi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Root-carving artwork is among the most highly appreciated traditional forms of art in China because of its ornamental and collection value. However, this ancient and highly appreciated art form is in fact currently a major cause of environmental damage. We argue that the state and local forestry

  1. Degradation of Environmental Contaminants with Water-Soluble Cobalt Catalysts: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra L.; Messersmith, Reid E.; Green, David B.; Fritsch, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an integrative laboratory investigation incorporating skills from inorganic chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and physical chemistry applied to a laboratory-scale model of the environmental problem of chlorinated ethylenes in groundwater. Perchloroethylene (C[subscript 2]Cl[subscript 4], PCE) a common dry cleaning solvent,…

  2. Environmental Impact of Ionic Liquids: Recent Advances in (Eco)toxicology and (Bio)degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Susana P F; Azevedo, Ana M O; Pinto, Paula C A G; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2017-06-09

    This Review aims to integrate the most recent and pertinent data available on the (bio)degradability and toxicity of ionic liquids for global and critical analysis and on the conscious use of these compounds on a large scale thereafter. The integrated data will enable focus on the recognition of toxicophores and on the way the community has been dealing with them, with the aim to obtain greener and safer ionic liquids. Also, an update of the most recent biotic and abiotic methods developed to overcome some of these challenging issues will be presented. The review structure aims to present a potential sequence of events that can occur upon discharging ionic liquids into the environment and the potential long-term consequences. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of Safranin-O by heterogeneous nanoparticles for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kemary, Maged; Abdel-Moneam, Yasser; Madkour, Metwally; El-Mehasseb, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructure titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been synthesized by hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in aqueous solution and Ag-TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized by photoreduction method. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the sizes of the synthesized TiO 2 and Ag-TiO 2 particles are in the range of 1.9-3.2 nm and 2-10 nm, respectively. Moreover, Ag-TiO 2 nanoparticles exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity on photodegradation of Safranin-O (SO) dye as compared to pure TiO 2 . The positive effect of silver on the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 may be explained by its ability to trap electrons. This process reduces the recombination of light generated electron-hole pairs at TiO 2 surface and therefore enhances the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles. The effects of initial dye and nanoparticle concentrations on the photocatalytic activity have been studied and the results demonstrate that the dye photodegradation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The observed maximum degradation efficiency of SO is about 60% for TiO 2 and 96% for Ag-TiO 2 . - Research highlights: → Ag-TiO 2 nanoparticles exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity on photodegradation of Safranin-O (SO) dye as compared to pure TiO 2 . → Dye photodegradation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. → Observed maximum degradation efficiency of SO is about 60% for TiO 2 and 96% for Ag-TiO 2 .

  4. Reparations for environmental degradation and species extinction: a moral and ethical imperative for human society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available While the history of reparations within Homo sapiens is lengthy, only recently has the concept been applied to events that have caused degradation or damage to natural systems. Some effects have been unmistakable, even to the untrained eye, and reparations have been made in a short temporal span. However, what should be done about ecological damage that has occurred incrementally over large temporal or spatial spans? If all parties involved are no longer living (e.g. slavery, colonialism, should the descendants of one group, who had nothing to do with the situation and are individually innocent, pay descendants of the other, who did not suffer directly? Degradation of the planet's ecological life support system will cause all humans to suffer, directly or indirectly, regardless of the degree to which they contributed to the damage. Repair of ecological damage is an act of enlightened self-interest, as well as an ethical imperative. Although current events may make restoring the planet's ecological life support system seem futile, even irrational, the forces of destruction cannot exceed those of restoration for a substantial period of time without resulting in severe disequilibrium, whether societal or ecological. The only long-term hope for the human species - sustainability - is a constructive, compassionate approach. Regardless of what happens to humankind, it is probably that some species will survive until the sun fails. Even if the human species does not, it seems ethical to make an exit that is notable for acts of compassion rather than acts of rage and revenge.

  5. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasir Uddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1 the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies as a result of changes in climate; (2 ranking the potential coping strategies based on their perceived importance to agricultural enterprises; (3 identification the socio-economic factors associated with adoption of coping strategies, and (4 ranking potential constraints to adoption of coping strategies based on farmers’ reporting on the degree to which they face these constraints. As a preliminary matter, this paper also reports on the perceptions of farmers in the study about their experiences with climatic change. The research area is comprised of three villages in the coastal region (Sathkhira district, a geographic region which climate change literature has highlighted as prone to accelerated degradation. One-hundred (100 farmers participated in the project’s survey, from which the data was used to calculate weighted indexes for rankings and to perform logistic regression. The rankings, model results, and descriptive statistics, are reported here. Results showed that a majority of the farmers self-identified as having engaged in adaptive behavior. Out of 14 adaptation strategies, irrigation ranked first among farm adaptive measures, while crop insurance has ranked as least utilized. The logit model explained that out of eight factors surveyed, age, education, family size, farm size, family income, and involvement in cooperatives were significantly related to self-reported adaptation. Despite different support and technological interventions being available, lack of available water, shortage of cultivable land, and unpredictable weather ranked highest as the respondent group’s constraints to coping with environmental

  6. Enantioseparation and determination of the chiral phenylpyrazole insecticide ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples and its enantioselective degradation in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qing; Shi, Haiyan; Gao, Beibei; Tian, Mingming; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua, E-mail: wangmha@njau.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    An effective method for the enantioselective determination of ethiprole enantiomers in agricultural and environmental samples was developed. The effects of solvent extraction, mobile phase and thermodynamic parameters for chiral recognition were fully investigated. Complete enantioseparation of the ethiprole enantiomers was achieved on a Lux Cellulose-2 column. The stereochemical structures of ethiprole enantiomers were also determined, and (R)-(+)-ethiprole was first eluted. The average recoveries were 82.7–104.9% with intra-day RSD of 1.7–8.2% in soil, cucumber, spinach, tomato, apple and peach under optimal conditions. Good linearity (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.9991) was obtained for all the matrix calibration curves within a range of 0.1 to 10 mg L{sup −1}. The limits of detection for both enantiomers were estimated to be 0.008 mg kg{sup −1} in soil, cucumber, spinach and tomato and 0.012 mg kg{sup −1} in apple and peach, which were lower than the maximum residue levels established in Japan. The results indicate that the proposed method is convenient and reliable for the enantioselective detection of ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples. The behavior of ethiprole in soil was studied under field conditions and the enantioselective degradation was observed with enantiomer fraction values varying from 0.494 to 0.884 during the experiment. The (R)-(+)-ethiprole (t{sub 1/2} = 11.6 d) degraded faster than (S)-(−)-ethiprole (t{sub 1/2} = 34.7 d). This report is the first describe a chiral analytical method and enantioselective behavior of ethiprole, and these results should be extremely useful for the risk evaluation of ethiprole in food and environmental safety. - Highlights: • The ethiprole enantiomers were completely separated. • A novel method for enantioselective determination of ethiprole was developed. • The absolute configurations of ethiprole enantiomers were firstly determined. • The (R)-(+)-ethiprole was preferentially degraded in

  7. The evolution of agricultural intensification and environmental degradation in the UK: a data-driven systems dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong McKay, David I.; Dearing, John A.; Dyke, James G.; Poppy, Guy; Firbank, Les

    2016-04-01

    The world's population continues to grow rapidly, yet the current demand for food is already resulting in environmental degradation in many regions. As a result, an emerging challenge of the 21st century is how agriculture can simultaneously undergo sustainable intensification and be made more resilient to accelerating climate change. Key to this challenge is: a) finding the "safe and just operating space" for the global agri-environment system that both provides sufficient food for humanity and avoids crossing dangerous planetary boundaries, and b) downscaling this framework from a planetary to a regional scale in order to better inform decision making and incorporate regional dynamics within the planetary boundaries framework. Regional safe operating spaces can be defined and explored using a combination of metrics that indicate the changing status of ecosystem services (both provisioning and regulating), statistical techniques that reveal early warning signals and breakpoints, and dynamical system models of the regional agri-environment system. Initial attempts to apply this methodology have been made in developing countries (e.g. China [Dearing et al., 2012, 2014; Zhang et al., 2015]), but have not yet been attempted in more developed countries, for example the UK. In this study we assess the changes in ecosystem services in two contrasting agricultural regions in the UK, arable-dominated East England and pastoral-dominated South-West England, since the middle of the 20th Century. We identify and establish proxies and indices of various provisioning and regulating services in these two regions and analyse how these have changed over this time. We find that significant degradation of regulating services occurred in Eastern England in the early 1980s, reflecting a period of rapid intensification and escalating fertiliser usage, but that regulating services have begun to recover since 2000 mainly as a result of fertiliser usage decoupling from increasing wheat

  8. Treatment pf pig slurry in Spain to minimize soil degradation and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo Marin, C.; Garcia Marin, R.

    2009-01-01

    The pig farms in Spain have experimented on the last years a great development, giving place to a new productive, sanitary, economic and environmental reality. His intensification has generated the presence of farms of great capacity, which generate high quantities of excrements and residues. Due to the dynamism of the sector, the legislative existing frame until ends of the nineties of the past 20th century remains obsolete. For such motive, the Government of Spain established basic standards of management of pig farms (RD 324/2000); regulatory rules for awarding grants to projects that seek to improve environmental management of pig farms (RD 987/2008); and, in December 2008, is approved, in Ministers council, a plan of bio-digestion of excrements, which has as aim decrease the greenhouse gases and reduce the risk of pollution of soils, fluvial riverbeds and underground aquifers. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. Carbon dioxide fluxes from a degraded woodland in West Africa and their responses to main environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ago, Expedit Evariste; Serça, Dominique; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi; Galle, Sylvie; Aubinet, Marc

    2015-12-01

    In West Africa, natural ecosystems such as woodlands are the main source for energy, building poles and livestock fodder. They probably behave like net carbon sinks, but there are only few studies focusing on their carbon exchange with the atmosphere. Here, we have analyzed CO 2 fluxes measured for 17 months by an eddy-covariance system over a degraded woodland in northern Benin. Specially, temporal evolution of the fluxes and their relationships with the main environmental factors were investigated between the seasons. This study shows a clear response of CO 2 absorption to photosynthetic photon flux density (Q p ), but it varies according to the seasons. After a significant and long dry period, the ecosystem respiration (R) has increased immediately to the first significant rains. No clear dependency of ecosystem respiration on temperature has been observed. The degraded woodlands are probably the "carbon neutral" at the annual scale. The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was negative during wet season and positive during dry season, and its annual accumulation was equal to +29 ± 16 g C m -2 . The ecosystem appears to be more efficient in the morning and during the wet season than in the afternoon and during the dry season. This study shows diurnal and seasonal contrasted variations in the CO 2 fluxes in relation to the alternation between dry and wet seasons. The Nangatchori site is close to the equilibrium state according to its carbon exchanges with the atmosphere. The length of the observation period was too short to justify the hypothesis about the "carbon neutrality" of the degraded woodlands at the annual scale in West Africa. Besides, the annual net ecosystem exchange depends on the intensity of disturbances due to the site management system. Further research works are needed to define a woodland management policy that might keep these ecosystems as carbon sinks.

  10. Enhancement of Environmental Hazard Degradation in the Presence of Lignin: a Proteomics Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Su; Xie, Shangxian; Cheng, Yanbing; Yu, Hongbo; Zhao, Honglu; Li, Muzi; Li, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Joshua S.; Dai, Susie Y.

    2017-01-01

    Proteomics studies of fungal systems have progressed dramatically based on the availability of more fungal genome sequences in recent years. Different proteomics strategies have been applied toward characterization of fungal proteome and revealed important gene functions and proteome dynamics. Presented here is the application of shot-gun proteomic technology to study the bio-remediation of environmental hazards by white-rot fungus. Lignin, a naturally abundant component of the plant biomass,...

  11. The environmental degradation caused by the inadequate dispose of plastic packs: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claudionor Oliveira; Santos, Gilbertânia Mendonça; Silva, Lucicleide Neves

    2013-01-01

    Modern society is accustomed to living with the ease and versatility that high consumption forms offer. Given a high level of consumption, globalization, technological innovations that seek every day to ensure your space in the market, and thereby contribute to the socioeconomic balance. The modernization making life easier for the general public and the other side may generate environmental disorders is the case of plastic packaging has on the environment long term. With their disuse and dis...

  12. Does financial development reduce environmental degradation? Evidence from a panel study of 129 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Tang, Chor Foon; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of financial development on CO2 emission in 129 countries classified by the income level. A panel CO2 emission model using urbanisation, GDP growth, trade openness, petroleum consumption and financial development variables that are major determinants of CO2 emission was constructed for the 1980-2011 period. The results revealed that the variables are cointegrated based on the Pedroni cointegration test. The dynamic ordinary least squares (OLS) and the Granger causality test results also show that financial development can improve environmental quality in the short run and long run due to its negative effect on CO2 emission. The rest of the determinants, especially petroleum consumption, are determined to be the major source of environmental damage in most of the income group countries. Based on the results obtained, the investigated countries should provide banking loans to projects and investments that can promote energy savings, energy efficiency and renewable energy to help these countries reduce environmental damage in both the short and long run.

  13. Effect of Environmental Degradation on Mechanical Properties of Kenaf/Polyethylene Terephthalate Fiber Reinforced Polyoxymethylene Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zaki Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of environmental degradation on the mechanical properties of kenaf/PET fiber reinforced POM hybrid composite. Kenaf and PET fibers were selected as reinforcements because of their good mechanical properties and resistance to photodegradation. The test samples were produced by compression molding. The samples were exposed to moisture, water spray, and ultraviolet penetration in an accelerated weathering chamber for 672 hours. The tensile strength of the long fiber POM/kenaf (80/20 composite dropped by 50% from 127.8 to 64.8 MPa while that of the hybrid composite dropped by only 2% from 73.8 to 72.5 MPa. This suggests that the hybrid composite had higher resistance to tensile strength than the POM/kenaf composite. Similarly, the results of flexural and impact strengths also revealed that the hybrid composite showed less degradation compared to the kenaf fiber composite. The results of the investigation revealed that the hybrid composite had better retention of mechanical properties than that of the kenaf fiber composites and may be suitable for outdoor application in the automotive industry.

  14. Environmental aging in polycrystalline-Si photovoltaic modules: comparison of chamber-based accelerated degradation studies with field-test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, T.; Biggie, R.; Brooks, A.; Potter, B. G.; Simmons-Potter, K.

    2015-09-01

    Lifecycle degradation testing of photovoltaic (PV) modules in accelerated-degradation chambers can enable the prediction both of PV performance lifetimes and of return-on-investment for installations of PV systems. With degradation results strongly dependent on chamber test parameters, the validity of such studies relative to fielded, installed PV systems must be determined. In the present work, accelerated aging of a 250 W polycrystalline silicon module is compared to real-time performance degradation in a similar polycrystalline-silicon, fielded, PV technology that has been operating since October 2013. Investigation of environmental aging effects are performed in a full-scale, industrial-standard environmental chamber equipped with single-sun irradiance capability providing illumination uniformity of 98% over a 2 x 1.6 m area. Time-dependent, photovoltaic performance (J-V) is evaluated over a recurring, compressed night-day cycle providing representative local daily solar insolation for the southwestern United States, followed by dark (night) cycling. This cycle is synchronized with thermal and humidity environmental variations that are designed to mimic, as closely as possible, test-yard conditions specific to a 12 month weather profile for a fielded system in Tucson, AZ. Results confirm the impact of environmental conditions on the module long-term performance. While the effects of temperature de-rating can be clearly seen in the data, removal of these effects enables the clear interpretation of module efficiency degradation with time and environmental exposure. With the temperature-dependent effect removed, the normalized efficiency is computed and compared to performance results from another panel of similar technology that has previously experienced identical climate changes in the test yard. Analysis of relative PV module efficiency degradation for the chamber-tested system shows good comparison to the field-tested system with ~2.5% degradation following

  15. Prevention of Tibetan eco-environmental degradation caused by traditional use of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Tibet is short in fossil energy, but rich in renewable energy sources, such as biomass, hydro, solar, geothermal, and wind power. This potential energy supply in Tibet can be juxtaposed to what drives Tibetan energy consumption its economic motivation and its cultural traditions. Currently, biomass heavily dominates Tibet's energy consumption. In 2003, total energy consumption was about 2 million tce (ton coal equivalent), traditional biomass accounting for nearly 70%. The rarified atmosphere and use of outdated stoves, make for a very low combustion efficiency, utilizing 10-15% of the potential energy of biomass. With population and economic growth, traditional use of biomass has become the principal factor responsible for deforestation, grassland degradation, desertification, and soil erosion. To eradicate the negative impact of the traditional use of biomass on the eco-environment in Tibet, a series of effective countermeasures are investigated. Among these are improved efficiency of stoves, widespread use of solar energy, hydroelectricity as a substitute for traditional biomass, and the development of biogas. (author)

  16. Cdc20 control of cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The fate of cells arrested in mitosis by antimitotic compounds is complex but is influenced by competition between pathways promoting cell death and pathways promoting mitotic exit. As components of both of these pathways are regulated by Cdc20-dependent degradation, I hypothesize that variations...

  17. The Relationship between Growth-Inequality-Poverty Triangle and Environmental Degradation: Unveiling the Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Anam Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to recognize that increase in well-being is no longer dependent on further economic growth, but on economic and social well-being, which means that the decline in carbon dioxide emission without reducing real wellbeing and growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the main driving forces affecting short and long-run carbon emissions pattern due to changes in growth, inequality and poverty triangle in Pakistan over the period 1980 – 2011 by using multivariate cointegration approach. This study uses five different models i.e., each model have an important policy implication in the context of Pakistan. The results indicate that, on the short run, there is a significant negative relationship between economic growth & carbon emissions and economic growth & poverty while there is a positive relationship between i economic growth & income inequality; and ii poverty & income inequality. On the long-run, there is a significant positive relationship between GDP & income inequality, carbon dioxide emissions & income inequality, and poverty & income inequality in Pakistan. On the other side, there is a negative relationship between carbon emissions & economic growth, carbon emissions & income inequality, and economic growth & income inequality. The results of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC hypothesis show an inverted U-shaped trajectory in relation to economic growth in Pakistan. This study contributes to the debate on the existence and policy relevance of the EKC for Pakistan. The conclusion ensures the sustainability of an urgent need to look beyond the EKC by adopting courageous policy measures of environmental preservation in Pakistan irrespective of the country's level of income. For reduction of CO2 emission, environmental progressive management policies, economic transport system regulations, and low emit fuel consumption by industries are the need of the world.

  18. Testing the role of external debt in environmental degradation: empirical evidence from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu, Salih; Celebi, Aysem

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the role of external debt stock in Turkey, which has suffered from heavy (external and domestic) debt stock for many years. Annual data from 1960 to 2013 was analyzed using time series analysis in order to study this. The results confirm the validity of the conventional environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the case of Turkey. However, this study also found that Turkey's external debt stock did not influence the Turkish economy's long-term EKC behavior. Fortunately, the results suggest that there are important interactions among external debt stock, CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and real income; that is, changes in external debt volume precede changes in these aggregates' volumes.

  19. Testing the role of fiscal policy in the environmental degradation: the case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu, Salih; Katircioglu, Setareh

    2018-02-01

    This study introduces a new research topic that investigates the relationship between fiscal development and carbon emissions in Turkey through testing Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Annual data covering the period, 1960-2013, has been used and in addition to gross domestic product and energy consumption, fiscal policy variables have been regressed on the level of carbon emissions in Turkey. Results reveal that fiscal policies and carbon emissions are in long-term equilibrium relationship in Turkey; carbon dioxide emission level converges towards long-term paths as contributed by fiscal policy. The effects of fiscal aggregates on the level of carbon dioxide emissions are negatively significant revealing that growth in fiscal aggregates leads to declines on the levels of carbon emissions. This proves that as far as environmental effects are concerned, fiscal policies regarding energy sector is successful in Turkey. Thus, the major finding of this study confirmed the validity of the fiscal policy-induced EKC hypothesis in the case of Turkey.

  20. Chemical characterization of polymeric surge arresters and insulators used in high voltage lines; Caracterizacao quimica de para-raios e isoladores utilizados em linhas de alta tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, Joao B. de; Castro Junior, Joao B. de; Silva, Maria Elisa S.R. e; Freitas, Roberto F.S.; Sousa, Ricardo G. de [Lab. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Polimeros, Dept. de Engenharia Quimica da EE.UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Souza, Breno P.G. de [CEMIG Distribuicao S/A, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: bpgsouza@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In the last two decades, traditional porcelain and glass surge arresters and insulators, used in the electrical system, have been replaced by polymeric materials. For this type of application it is recommended that these devices have a high resistance to environmental stresses and impacts without suffering degradation process. Considering the environmental conditions these polymers are exposed to, when used for this purpose, studies of their chemical composition are needed. In this work, polymeric materials present in surge arresters and insulators used in electrical system were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). FTIR analysis showed that the samples tested are made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) - PDMS (silicone) and additives such as alumina trihydrated [Al (OH)3] and calcium carbonate. (author)

  1. Resistance of CFRP structures to environmental degradation in low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Agnieszka

    Within this study, a development of a protection strategy for ultra-thin CFRP structures from degrading effects of low Earth orbit (LEO) is presented. The proposed strategy involves an application of a modified epoxy resin system on outer layers of the structure, which is cycloaliphatic in its chemical character and reinforced with POSS nanoparticles. The core of the CFRP structure is manufactured using a highly aromatic epoxy resin system which provides excellent mechanical properties, however, its long-term ageing performance in space is not satisfactory, and hence a surface treatment is required to improve its longevity. The developed resin system presented in this thesis is a hybrid material, designed in such a way that its individual constituents each contribute to combating the detrimental effects of radiation, atomic oxygen (AO), temperature extremes and vacuum induced outgassing of exposed material surfaces while operating in LEO. The cycloaliphatic nature of the outer epoxy increases UV resistance and the embedded silicon nanoparticles improve AO and thermal stability. During the study, a material characterization of the developed cycloaliphatic epoxy resins was performed including the effects of nanoparticles on morphology, curing behaviour, thermal-mechanical properties and surface chemistry. Following on that, the efficacy of the modified resin system on space-like resistance was studied. It was found that when the ultra-thin CFRP structures are covered with the developed resin system, their AO resistance is approximately doubled, UV susceptibility decreased by 80% and thermal stability improved by 20%. Following on the successful launch of the InflateSail mission earlier this year, which demonstrated a sail deployment and a controlled de-orbiting, the findings of this study are of importance for the future generation of similar, but significantly longer missions. Ensuring resistance of CFRP structures in a highly corrosive LEO environment is a critical

  2. POLA ADAPTASI MASYARAKAT PESISIR GENUK KOTA SEMARANG (Patterns of Community Adaptation to Environmental Degradation in Genuk Coastal Area, Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sariffuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization brings many consequences for Indonesian urban development and the communities. Industrialization is one of them. Globalization also brings policy transformation affecting the community’s welfare and lifestyle. One of the indicators is that local values have started to fade. The similar condition also occurs in fishermen’s and fish farmers’ settlements in Semarang, which have transformed into industrial settlements in 1980s during the industrialization period. Land conversion occurred in a short time from ponds and rice fields into factories, warehouses, and new labor’s settlements. It did not take a long time for the community’s local values to transform into the new ones influenced by the welfare level of the new community. Based on the phenomena, this study aims to understand the lifestyle of the community and its influence in managing the housing environment with Genuk coastal area of Semarang City as a case. This research has three objectives: to understand the motivation to urbanization, to comprehend the neighborhoods’ conditions, and to comprehend the influence of community’s lifestyle towards the settlement condition. In achieving the objectives, the qualitative approach supported by some quantitative data is used.  The results show that there are three classes of the community influencing the environmental management. It is found that the people’s migration reasons had a big influence for the environmental management. In this case, the middle-class community is a key stakeholder to overcome the environmental problems. It becomes good initiator. On the contrary, the lower class has a less role in dealing with the environmental problems. It has even a big contribution on environmental degradation. Meanwhile, the upper class pays less attention to the environment. Only a little part of it, especially the local one, is willing to take part in the environmental management. The middle-class people consider that

  3. Dynamics of FDI, Technological Transformation and Environmental Degradation in Developing Countries: A Panel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farwa Amjad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between FDI, technology and environment with an assessment of aggregated relationship, by technical composition and the mode of technology transferability through FDI. A panel data for 19 developing countries has been used to for 14 years of data. The empirical results have suggested that FDI is the significant variable in explaining the carbon emission in developing countries followed by energy consumption and technology transformation. Our findings suggest that to manage both energy consumption and FDI flows via investment in research and development (RDY or energy efficiency demand to reduce CO2 emissions is not possible without stringent environmental regulations and without retaining the developing countries’ competitiveness.

  4. [Ethnic conflicts and environmental degradation in Central Asia. The Ferghana valley and northern Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cordier, B

    1996-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate that the combination of ecological degradation, demographic pressure, and ethnic heterogeneity in Central Asia constitute a serious threat to the future stability of the region. The predominantly rural Ferghana Valley and Northern Kazakhstan suffer from shortages of water and land and from unemployment that leads to extensive out-migration to cities suffering from decline in their Soviet-era industries. The problem in the Ferghana Valley began with Tsarist conquest of the valley in 1876 and the subsequent imposition of cotton cultivation, which was greatly expanded by the Soviet Union. The Ferghana Valley, despite being a natural unit, was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s and 1930s, and remains divided between the independent states. The current population of 11 million is ethnically diverse, with Uzbeks in the majority and increasing most rapidly. Immigration from the Caucasus since 1950 added to the tension. Future peace will depend on such factors as whether the neo-Communist political regime chooses to incite ethnic hostilities, the manner in which land is redistributed, and the outcome of struggles for control of the flourishing narcotics trade. The northern Kazakhstan region was designated a pioneer wheat-growing region by Soviet planners in 1954. Russian and Ukrainian migrants established between 1954 and 1956 are today the predominant population sector, but feel their privileged position threatened by nationalist policies making Kazakh the official language and giving preference in employment to Kazakhs. Resettlement of Kazakhs from Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan in the region and the high Kazakh birth rate increase tensions. Grain production initially grew rapidly, but the mediocre soil and erosion-inducing constant dry winds have caused production to stagnate or decline. Regional disputes within Kazakhstan complicate the situation. Northern Kazakhstan, with its industrial development, is

  5. Characterization of Drain Surface Water: Environmental Profile, Degradation Level and Geo-statistic Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, M.W.; Raza, M.A.; Ahmed, Z.; Abbas, M.N.; Hussain, M.

    2015-01-01

    The physico-chemical characterization of the surface water. Samples was carried out collected from nine sampling points of drain passing by the territory of Hafizabad city, Punjab, Pakistan. The water of drain is used by farmers for irrigation purposes in nearby agricultural fields. Twenty water quality parameters were evaluated in three turns and the results obtained were compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) municipal and industrial effluents prescribed limits. The highly significant difference (p<0.01) was recorded for the content of phenols, carbonyl compounds, cyanides, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, total soluble salts, total dissolved salts, nitrates and sulphates, whereas, the concentration of magnesium, potassium and oil and grease differed significantly (p<0.05) with respect to the sampling points on average basis. Non-significant difference (p>0.05) was noted for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, hardness, calcium, sodium, chemical oxygen demand and chloride among water samples from different sampling points. Furthermore, the experimental results of different water quality parameters studied at nine sampling points of the drain were used and interpolated in ArcGIS 9.3 environment system using kriging techniques to obtain calculated values for the remaining locations of the Drain. (author)

  6. Explaining the persistence of low income and environmentally degrading land uses in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests continue to be plagued by the dual sustainability challenges of deforestation and rural poverty. We seek to understand why many of the farmers living in the Brazilian Amazon, home to the world's largest tropical agricultural-forest frontier, persist in agricultural activities associated with low incomes and high environmental damage. To answer this question, we assess the factors that shape the development and distribution of agricultural activities and farmer well-being in these frontiers. Our study utilizes a uniquely comprehensive social-ecological dataset from two regions in the eastern Brazilian Amazon and employs a novel conceptual framework that highlights the interdependencies between household attributes, agricultural activities, and well-being. We find that livestock production, which yields the lowest per hectare incomes, remains the most prevalent land use in remote areas, but many examples of high income fruit, horticulture, and staple crop production exist on small properties, particularly in peri-urban areas. The transition to more profitable land uses is limited by lagging supply chain infrastructure, social preferences, and the fact that income associated with land use activities is not a primary source of perceived life quality. Instead subjective well-being is more heavily influenced by the nonmonetary attributes of a rural lifestyle (safety, tranquility, community relations, etc.. We conclude that transitions away from low-income land uses in agricultural-forest frontiers of the Brazilian Amazon need not abandon a land-focused vision of development, but will require policies and programs that identify and discriminate households based on a broader set of household assets, cultural attributes, and aspirations than are traditionally applied. At a broader scale, access to distant markets for high value crops must be improved via investments in processing, storage, and marketing infrastructure.

  7. Comparison between the Understanding Levels of Boys and Girls on the Concepts of Environmental Degradation, Meteorology and Climate Change in Tanzanian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Ernest S.; Komba, Sotco C.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether there was any significant difference in understanding levels between secondary school boys and girls on the concepts of environmental degradation, meteorology and climate change. Both structured survey and focus group discussions were used to collect information from 480 students, sampled randomly from 12…

  8. Perception of the Environmental Degradation of Gold Mining on Socio-Economic Variables in Eastern Cameroon, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Anselme Kamga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil, dust and noise pollution. The study examines the perception of environmental degradation of gold mining sites in eastern Cameroon. Human-environment interaction and distance decay models are the conceptual framework for this study.  This study employed a survey research design through the use of primary data while a purposive sampling technique was utilized. A total of 440 questionnaires were administered to selected households across the localities in the study area. Frequencies, percentages, chart, cross tabulations and chi-square tests were used for the data analysis. In other to achieve the aim of this study, a comparison between the nearby and far away residents were done. The study revealed that mining exploitations have brought about changes in the colour and taste of water in the active mining sites (41.7%. Malaria is the number one type of disease that has caused more damage in the localities (81.6%. Mining activities have successfully enabled children in the active mining sites to abandoned school for mining (75.0%. Inhabitants of unit 1 directly linked the problems facing their economic activities to inadequate arable land for agriculture (33.8% and inhabitants across the study area correlated the problems facing livestock farming to diseases as a result of mining activities (64.6%. The perceived negative effects of gold mining on different socio-economic variables (such as culture, health, education, economy and livestock vary significantly depending on the proximity from the mining areas (p<0.05. The study concludes that residents living within and far away from the active mining sites were affected by gold mining activities. However, the most worrisome situation concern people working and living within the

  9. Cardiac arrest – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Lenjani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care the rate of survival is higher.

  10. Cardiac Arrest: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handouts Cardiac arrest (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Cardiac Arrest updates ... this? GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Cardiac arrest Related Health Topics Arrhythmia CPR Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators National Institutes ...

  11. "House Arrest" or "Developmental Arrest"? A Study of Youth Under House Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamiel, Elad; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-06-01

    Studies have examined the potential benefits and risks of alternative forms of detention, such as house arrest, for adults but, despite its growing use, little research has examined the implications of house arrest for juveniles. The current research examined the experience of 14 adolescents under house arrest. Six main themes were identified in the narratives of the participants: the experience of detention, daily schedule and utilization of time, emotions and self-reflection, relationships with peers, relation to parents and supervisor(s), and contact with professionals. Findings emphasized the potential developmental dangers of house arrest at the critical stage of adolescence. Yet, analysis also showed that the period of house arrest has the potential to be a period of positive changes, and can be used for successful rehabilitation.

  12. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  13. Environmental degradation in biocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, Maya J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available green flax fibres and duralin flax fibres where flax fibres were subjected to steam or water-heating at temperatures above 160°C for 30 min in an autoclave. The fibres were placed in dessicators at different relative hu- midities followed by weighing...-epoxy composites containing fillers of cow dung, wheat husk, and rice husk. The authors immersed samples in water at 100°C for 24 h. Samples were also placed in water at room temperature for a week and the resulting changes in tensile properties were monitored...

  14. Chlorination pattern effect on thermodynamic parameters and environmental degradability for C₁₀-SCCPs: Quantum chemical calculation based on virtual combinational library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuzhen; Pan, Wenxiao; Lin, Yuan; Fu, Jianjie; Zhang, Aiqian

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are still controversial candidates for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention. The inherent mixture nature of SCCPs makes it rather difficult to explore their environmental behaviors. A virtual molecule library of 42,720 C10-SCCP congeners covering the full structure spectrum was constructed. We explored the structural effects on the thermodynamic parameters and environmental degradability of C10-SCCPs through semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations. The thermodynamic properties were acquired using the AM1 method, and frontier molecular orbital analysis was carried out to obtain the E(HOMO), E(LUMO) and E(LUMO)-E(HOMO) for degradability exploration at the same level. The influence of the chlorination degree (N(Cl)) on the relative stability and environmental degradation was elucidated. A novel structural descriptor, μ, was proposed to measure the dispersion of the chlorine atoms within a molecule. There were significant correlations between thermodynamic values and N(Cl), while the reported N(Cl)-dependent pollution profile of C10-SCCPs in environmental samples was basically consistent with the predicted order of formation stability of C10-SCCP congeners. In addition, isomers with large μ showed higher relative stability than those with small μ. This could be further verified by the relationship between μ and the reactivity of nucleophilic substitution and OH attack respectively. The C10-SCCP congeners with less Cl substitution and lower dispersion degree are susceptible to environmental degradation via nucleophilic substitution and hydroxyl radical attack, while direct photolysis of C10-SCCP congeners cannot readily occur due to the large E(LUMO)-E(HOMO) values. The chlorination effect and the conclusions were further checked with appropriate density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Combined use of GIS and environmental indicators for assessment of chemical, physical and biological soil degradation in a Spanish Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paz, José-Miguel; Sánchez, Juan; Visconti, Fernando

    2006-04-01

    Soil is one of the main non-renewable natural resources in the world. In the Valencian Community (Mediterranean coast of Spain), it is especially important because agriculture and forest biomass exploitation are two of the main economic activities in the region. More than 44% of the total area is under agriculture and 52% is forested. The frequently arid or semi-arid climate with rainfall concentrated in few events, usually in the autumn and spring, scarcity of vegetation cover, and eroded and shallow soils in several areas lead to soil degradation processes. These processes, mainly water erosion and salinization, can be intense in many locations within the Valencian Community. Evaluation of soil degradation on a regional scale is important because degradation is incompatible with sustainable development. Policy makers involved in land use planning require tools to evaluate soil degradation so they can go on to develop measures aimed at protecting and conserving soils. In this study, a methodology to evaluate physical, chemical and biological soil degradation in a GIS-based approach was developed for the Valencian Community on a 1/200,000 scale. The information used in this study was obtained from two different sources: (i) a soil survey with more than 850 soil profiles sampled within the Valencian Community, and (ii) the environmental information implemented in the Geo-scientific map of the Valencian Community digitised on an Arc/Info GIS. Maps of physical, chemical and biological soil degradation in the Valencian Community on a 1/200,000 scale were obtained using the methodology devised. These maps can be used to make a cost-effective evaluation of soil degradation on a regional scale. Around 29% of the area corresponding to the Valencian Community is affected by high to very high physical soil degradation, 36% by high to very high biological degradation, and 6% by high to very high chemical degradation. It is, therefore, necessary to draw up legislation and to

  16. Nanotechnology in environmental remediation: degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over visible-light-active nanostructured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Rengaraj; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Silanpaa, Mika; Kim, Younghun

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants and are considered to be one of the most important contaminants generated by human beings living in urban and industrial areas. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a VOC that has been widely used as a gasoline additive to reduce VOC emissions from motor vehicles. However, new gasoline additives like MTBE are having negative environmental impacts. Recent survey reports clearly show that groundwater is often polluted owing to leakage of petroleum products from underground storage tanks. MTBE is highly soluble in water (e.g., 0.35-0.71 M) and has been detected at high concentrations in groundwater. The presence of MTBE in groundwater poses a potential health problem. The documented effects of MTBE exposure are headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, cough, muscle aches, sleepiness, disorientation, dizziness, and skin and eye irritation. To address these problems, photocatalytic treatment is the preferred treatment for polluted water. In the present work, a simple and template-free solution phase synthesis method has been developed for the preparation of novel cadmium sulfide (CdS) hollow microspheres using cadmium nitrate and thioacetamide precursors. The synthesized products have been characterized by a variety of methods, including X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The HR-SEM measurements revealed the spherical morphology of the CdS microspheres, which evolved by the oriented aggregation of the primary CdS nanocrystals. Furthermore, studies of photocatalytic activity revealed that the synthesized CdS hollow microspheres exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance in rapidly degrading MTBE in aqueous solution under visible light illumination. These results suggest that CdS microspheres will be an interesting candidate for photocatalytic detoxification studies under visible light

  17. Environmental biodegradability of diesel oil: composition and performances of degradative micro-floras; Biodegradabilite du gazole dans l'environnement: composition et performances des microflores degradatrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penet, S.

    2004-09-01

    The large use of petroleum products makes them a significant source of pollutants in ground water and soils. Biodegradation studies are therefore relevant either to evaluate possibilities of natural attenuation or define bio-remediation strategies. In this study, the possible relationship between the environmental microflora structures and their capabilities for diesel oil biodegradation was investigated. The degradation capacities, i.e. kinetics and extent of biodegradation, were evaluated in closed batch systems by hydrocarbon consumption and CO{sub 2} production, both determined by gas chromatography. The intrinsic biodegradability of different types of diesel oils and the degradation capacities of microflora from ten polluted and ten unpolluted soils samples were determined. The data showed that: i) diesel oil was biodegradable, ii) n-alkanes were totally degraded by each microflora, the final amount of residual hydrocarbons being variable, iii) polluted-soil samples exhibited a slightly higher degradation rate (80%) that polluted-soil samples (67%) or activated sludge (64%). In order to define the contribution of various bacterial groups to diesel oil degradation, enrichment cultures were performed on hydrocarbons representative from the structural classes of diesel oil: hexadecane for n-alkanes, pristane for iso-alkanes, decalin for cyclo-alkanes, phenanthrene for aromatics. By using a 16S rDNA-sequencing method, the bacterial structures of the adapted microflora were determined and compared to that of the native microflora. A marked effect of the selection pressure was observed on the diversity of the microflora, each microflora harboring a major and specific bacterial group. The degradation capacities of the adapted microflora and the occurrence of genes coding for initial hydrocarbon oxidation (alkB, nahAc, cypP450) were also studied. No clear relationship between microflora genes and degradation performances was noted. This seemed to indicate that

  18. Environmental biodegradability of diesel oil: composition and performances of degradative micro-floras; Biodegradabilite du gazole dans l'environnement: composition et performances des microflores degradatrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penet, S

    2004-09-01

    The large use of petroleum products makes them a significant source of pollutants in ground water and soils. Biodegradation studies are therefore relevant either to evaluate possibilities of natural attenuation or define bio-remediation strategies. In this study, the possible relationship between the environmental microflora structures and their capabilities for diesel oil biodegradation was investigated. The degradation capacities, i.e. kinetics and extent of biodegradation, were evaluated in closed batch systems by hydrocarbon consumption and CO{sub 2} production, both determined by gas chromatography. The intrinsic biodegradability of different types of diesel oils and the degradation capacities of microflora from ten polluted and ten unpolluted soils samples were determined. The data showed that: i) diesel oil was biodegradable, ii) n-alkanes were totally degraded by each microflora, the final amount of residual hydrocarbons being variable, iii) polluted-soil samples exhibited a slightly higher degradation rate (80%) that polluted-soil samples (67%) or activated sludge (64%). In order to define the contribution of various bacterial groups to diesel oil degradation, enrichment cultures were performed on hydrocarbons representative from the structural classes of diesel oil: hexadecane for n-alkanes, pristane for iso-alkanes, decalin for cyclo-alkanes, phenanthrene for aromatics. By using a 16S rDNA-sequencing method, the bacterial structures of the adapted microflora were determined and compared to that of the native microflora. A marked effect of the selection pressure was observed on the diversity of the microflora, each microflora harboring a major and specific bacterial group. The degradation capacities of the adapted microflora and the occurrence of genes coding for initial hydrocarbon oxidation (alkB, nahAc, cypP450) were also studied. No clear relationship between microflora genes and degradation performances was noted. This seemed to indicate that

  19. Formulation of economical microbial feed using degraded chicken feathers by a novel Streptomyces sp: mitigation of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayapradha Ramakrishnan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new Streptomyces sp. IF 5 was isolated from the feather dumped soil and found to have a tremendous keratinase activity. The strain enabled the degradation of the chicken feathers very effectively in 60 h. The 16S rRNA sequence of 1474 bp long was submitted to the National centre for Biotechnological information. The keratinolytic activity in the culture medium was 1181 U/ml. The release and analyses of sulphydryl groups in the culture medium evident the degradation activity by the Streptomyces sp. IF 5. The idea of the present study was to use the degraded chicken feathers as the substrate for the growth and cultivation of microorganisms. We have designed a very economical culture medium that includes the usage of some basal salts alone and degraded chicken feathers (10 g/l. The results of the specific growth rate of the tested microbes confirm the usage of the new designed medium for microbial culturing.

  20. High Potential Source for Biomass Degradation Enzyme Discovery and Environmental Aspects Revealed through Metagenomics of Indian Buffalo Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex microbiomes of the rumen functions as an effective system for plant cell wall degradation, and biomass utilization provide genetic resource for degrading microbial enzymes that could be used in the production of biofuel. Therefore the buffalo rumen microbiota was surveyed using shot gun sequencing. This metagenomic sequencing generated 3.9 GB of sequences and data were assembled into 137270 contiguous sequences (contigs. We identified potential 2614 contigs encoding biomass degrading enzymes including glycoside hydrolases (GH: 1943 contigs, carbohydrate binding module (CBM: 23 contigs, glycosyl transferase (GT: 373 contigs, carbohydrate esterases (CE: 259 contigs, and polysaccharide lyases (PE: 16 contigs. The hierarchical clustering of buffalo metagenomes demonstrated the similarities and dissimilarity in microbial community structures and functional capacity. This demonstrates that buffalo rumen microbiome was considerably enriched in functional genes involved in polysaccharide degradation with great prospects to obtain new molecules that may be applied in the biofuel industry.

  1. Toxicity of tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products to environmentally relevant bacteria, including selected tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, B.; Sengeløv, G.; Tjørnelund, J.

    2002-01-01

    Tetracyclines used in veterinary therapy invariably will find their way as parent compound and degradation products to the agricultural field. Major degradation products formed due to the limited stability of parent tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline) in aqueous...... at the same concentration level as tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline on both the sludge and the tetracycline-sensitive soil bacteria. Further, both 5a,6-anhydrotetracychne and 5a,6-anhydrochlortetracycline had potency on tetracycline-resistant bacteria supporting a mode of action different...

  2. Degradation of Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers Contributes to the Global Occurrence of Fluorotelomer Alcohol and Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylates: A Combined Dynamic Substance Flow and Environmental Fate Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Hu, Jianxin; Wania, Frank

    2017-04-18

    Using coupled dynamic substance flow and environmental fate models, CiP-CAFE and BETR-Global, we investigated whether the degradation of side-chain fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs), mostly in waste stocks (i.e., landfills and dumps), serves as a long-term source of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) to the global environment. The modeling results indicate that, in the wake of the worldwide transition from long-chain to short-chain products, in-use stocks of C8 FTPs will peak and decline afterward, while the in-use stocks of C6 FTPs, and the waste stocks of both FTPs will generally grow. FTP degradation in waste stocks is making an increasing contribution to FTOH generation, the bulk of which readily migrates from waste stocks and degrades into PFCAs in the environment; the remaining part of the generated FTOHs degrade in waste stocks, which makes those stocks reservoirs that slowly release PFCAs into the environment over the long run because of the low leaching rate and extreme persistence of PFCAs. Short-chain FTPs have higher relative release rates of PFCAs from waste stocks than long-chain ones. Estimates of in-use and waste stocks of FTPs were more sensitive to the selected lifespan of finished products, while those of the emissions of FTOHs and PFCAs were more sensitive to the degradation half-life of FTPs in waste stocks. Our preliminary calculations highlight the need for environmentally sound management of obsolete FTP-containing products into the foreseeable future.

  3. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    with other subsystems like South East Asia may have different approaches to global governance, international constitutional order, or particular cases such as the measure of infringement of human rights when targeting individuals suspected of terrorist links. Yet international law remains the key part of the Asian and global security regime. The hypothesis of this study is that the "void of governance" regime in territorial and international waters provides lucrative environment for developing terrorism, piracy, environmental degradation, and other criminal activities that pose untraditional threats to the regional security. This "void of governance" regime can be caused by either, or both, de jure or de facto insufficient control over particular marine territories.

  4. Photo catalytic Degradation of Organic Dye by Sol-Gel-Derived Gallium-Doped Anatase Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arghya, N.B.; Sang, W.J.; Bong-Ki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Photo catalytic degradation of toxic organic chemicals is considered to be the most efficient green method for surface water treatment. We have reported the sol-gel synthesis of Gadoped anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles and the photo catalytic oxidation of organic dye into nontoxic inorganic products under UV irradiation. Photodegradation experiments show very good photo catalytic activity of Ga-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles with almost 90% degradation efficiency within 3 hrs of UV irradiation, which is faster than the undoped samples. Doping levels created within the bandgap of TiO 2 act as trapping centers to suppress the photo generated electron-hole recombination for proper and timely utilization of charge carriers for the generation of strong oxidizing radicals to degrade the organic dye. Photo catalytic degradation is found to follow the pseudo-first-order kinetics with the apparent 1 st-order rate constant around 1.3 x 10 -2 min -1 . The cost-effective, sol-gel-derived TiO 2 : Ga nanoparticles can be used efficiently for light-assisted oxidation of toxic organic molecules in the surface water for environmental remediation.

  5. Arrester Resistive Current Measuring System Based on Heterogeneous Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun Hua; Li, Zai Lin; Yuan, Feng; Hou Pan, Feng; Guo, Zhan Nan; Han, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Metal Oxide Arrester (MOA) suffers from aging and poor insulation due to long-term impulse voltage and environmental impact, and the value and variation tendency of resistive current can reflect the health conditions of MOA. The common wired MOA detection need to use long cables, which is complicated to operate, and that wireless measurement methods are facing the problems of poor data synchronization and instability. Therefore a novel synchronous measurement system of arrester current resistive based on heterogeneous network is proposed, which simplifies the calculation process and improves synchronization, accuracy and stability and of the measuring system. This system combines LoRa wireless network, high speed wireless personal area network and the process layer communication, and realizes the detection of arrester working condition. Field test data shows that the system has the characteristics of high accuracy, strong anti-interference ability and good synchronization, which plays an important role in ensuring the stable operation of the power grid.

  6. Molecular and Supramolecular Changes in Polybutylene Succinate (PBS and Polybutylene Succinate Adipate (PBSA Copolymer during Degradation in Various Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Puchalski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the various degradation conditions, on the molecular and supramolecular structure of polybutylene succinate (PBS and polybutylene succinate adipate (PBSA copolymer during degradation is described. The experiment was carried out by the use of injection molded samples and normalized conditions of biodegradation in soil, composting and artificial weathering. Materials were studied by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC coupled with multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS detection and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD. Additionally, the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were determined. The performed experiments clearly show difference impacts of the selected degradation conditions on the macroscopic, supramolecular and molecular parameters of the studied aliphatic polyesters. The structural changes in PBS and PBSA explain the observed changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained injection molded samples.

  7. Measurement of pyrethroids and their environmental degradation products in fresh fruits and vegetables using a modification of the quick easy cheap effective rugged safe (QuEChERS) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture, and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on foods such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring, it is ...

  8. Macrozoobenthos response to environmental degradation in a heavily modified stream: case study the Upper Elbe River, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Zdeněk; Orendt, C.; Wolfram, G.; Sychra, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2010), s. 527-536 ISSN 0006-3088 Grant - others:6th Framework Programme EC(XE) MODELKEY (511237-GOCE) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : macrozoobenthos * pollution * channelization * degradation * the Elbe River Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2010

  9. Identification of Unsaturated and 2H Polyfluorocarboxylate Homologous Series and Their Detection in Environmental Samples and as Polymer Degradation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pair of homologous series of polyfluorinated degradation products have been identified, both having structures similar to perfluorocarboxylic acids but (i) having a H substitution for F on the α carbon for 2H polyfluorocarboxylic acids (2HPFCAs) and (ii) bearing a double ...

  10. Degradation of Transformer Oil (PCB Compounds by Microwave Radiation, Ethanol Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium for Reducing Environmental Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tajik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of chlorinated organic chemicals that do not easily degrade in the environment. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microwave rays, hydrogen peroxide, dioxide titanium and ethanol solvent on the degradation of PCBs. Methods: A 900w domestic MW oven with a fixed frequency of 2450 MHZ was used to provide MW irradiation. Ray powers were used in 540, 720, and 900w. A hole was made on the top portion of the oven and a Pyrex vessel reactor (250ml volume was connected to condensing system with a Pyrex tube connector. The PCBs were analyzed by GC-ECD. Results: The degradation of total PCBs was 54.62%, 79.71%, and 95.76% in terms of their ratio to solvent with transformer oil at 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 84.27%, 89.18%, and 96.1% when using 540, 720, and 900W microwave radiation, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 70.72%, 93.02%, 94.16, 95.23% and 96.1% when not using H2O2/ Tio2 and using 20% H2O2 and 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2g Tio2, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, the optimum conditions to decompose PCBs efficiently included 50 ml volume of ratio to solvent with transformer oil (3:1, sodium hydroxide solution (0.2N 1 cc, use of 20% hydrogen peroxide of total volume of samples, dioxide titanium (0.2g, and irradiation for 9 minutes. Under these optimum conditions, efficiency of PCBs decomposition increased.

  11. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HRS Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... people of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  12. The Impact of Gender Inequality and Environmental Degradation on Human Well-Being in The Case of Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bibi, Chan; Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    This study has investigated the impact of gender inequality and environmental degradation on human well-being in the case of Pakistan from 1980 to 2014. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test is used for stationarity of the variables. Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ARDL) is used for co-integration among the variables of the model. The results show that gender inequality has a negative and significant impact on human well-being in Pakistan, while gender equality encourages human well-be...

  13. Potential Environmental Factors Affecting Oil-Degrading Bacterial Populations in Deep and Surface Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding bacterial community dynamics as a result of an oil spill is important for predicting the fate of oil released to the environment and developing bioremediation strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the roles of temperature, water chemistry (nutrients), and initial bacterial community in selecting oil degraders through a series of incubation experiments. Surface (2 m) and bottom (1537 m) waters, collected near the Deepwater Horizon site, were amended with 200 ppm light Louisiana sweet crude oil and bacterial inoculums from surface or bottom water, and incubated at 4 or 24°C for 50 days. Bacterial community and residual oil were analyzed by pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results showed that temperature played a key role in selecting oil-degrading bacteria. Incubation at 4°C favored the development of Cycloclasticus, Pseudoalteromonas , Sulfitobacter , and Reinekea , while 24°C incubations enhanced Oleibacter, Thalassobius, Phaeobacter, and Roseobacter. Water chemistry and the initial community also had potential roles in the development of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities. Pseudoalteromonas , Oleibacter , and Winogradskyella developed well in the nutrient-enriched bottom water, while Reinekea and Thalassobius were favored by low-nutrient surface water. We revealed that the combination of 4°C, crude oil and bottom inoculum was a key factor for the growth of Cycloclasticus , while the combination of surface inoculum and bottom water chemistry was important for the growth of Pseudoalteromonas . Moreover, regardless of the source of inoculum, bottom water at 24°C was a favorable condition for Oleibacter. Redundancy analysis further showed that temperature and initial community explained 57 and 19% of the variation observed, while oil and water chemistry contributed 14 and 10%, respectively. Overall, this study revealed the relative roles of temperature, water

  14. NASA's Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Understanding Calcium Magnesium Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) Degradations and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is essential to the viability and reliability of the envisioned CMC engine component applications, ensuring integrated EBC-CMC system durability and designs are achievable for successful applications of the game-changing component technologies and lifing methodologies.This paper will emphasize recent NASA environmental barrier coating developments for SiCSiC turbine airfoil components, utilizing advanced coating compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and combined mechanical and environment testing and durability evaluations. The coating-CMC degradations in the engine fatigue-creep and operating environments are particularly complex; one of the important coating development aspects is to better understand engine environmental interactions and coating life debits, and we have particularly addressed the effect of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the durability of the environmental barrier coating systems, and how the temperature capability, stability and cyclic life of the candidate rare earth oxide and silicate coating systems will be impacted in the presence of the CMAS at high temperatures and under simulated heat flux conditions. Advanced environmental barrier coating systems, including HfO2-Si with rare earth dopant based bond coat systems, will be discussed for the performance improvements to achieve better temperature capability and CMAS resistance for future engine operating conditions.

  15. Environmental Degradation in a Eutrophic Shallow Lake is not Simply Due to Abundance of Non-native Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrejón, Juan P.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Balart, Eduardo F.; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Mar-Silva, Valentín; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Non-native species are often major drivers of the deterioration of natural ecosystems. The common carp Cyprinus carpio are known to cause major changes in lentic systems, but may not be solely responsible for large scale changes in these ecosystems. We used data from extensive collection efforts to gain insight into the importance of carp as drivers of ecosystem change in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. We compared the structure (fish density, biomass, diversity, and evenness) of fish assemblages from six Lake Patzcuaro sites with different habitat characteristics. Intersite comparisons were carried out for both wet and dry seasons. We explored the relationships between non-carp species and carp; and studied multivariate interactions between fish abundance and habitat characteristics. From a biomass perspective, carp was dominant in only four of six sites. In terms of density, carp was not a dominant species in all sites. Further, carp density and biomass were not negatively related to native species density and biomass, even when carp density and biomass were positively correlated to water turbidity levels. Carp dominated fish assemblages in the shallowest sites with the highest water turbidity, plant detritus at the bottom, and floating macrophytes covering the lake surface. These results suggest that the effect of carp on fish assemblages may be highly dependent on habitat characteristics in Lake Patzcuaro. Watershed degradation, pollution, water level loss, and other sources of anthropogenic influence may be more important drivers of Lake Patzcuaro degradation than the abundance of carp.

  16. Environmental Degradation in a Eutrophic Shallow Lake is not Simply Due to Abundance of Non-native Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrejón, Juan P; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Balart, Eduardo F; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Mar-Silva, Valentín; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Non-native species are often major drivers of the deterioration of natural ecosystems. The common carp Cyprinus carpio are known to cause major changes in lentic systems, but may not be solely responsible for large scale changes in these ecosystems. We used data from extensive collection efforts to gain insight into the importance of carp as drivers of ecosystem change in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. We compared the structure (fish density, biomass, diversity, and evenness) of fish assemblages from six Lake Patzcuaro sites with different habitat characteristics. Intersite comparisons were carried out for both wet and dry seasons. We explored the relationships between non-carp species and carp; and studied multivariate interactions between fish abundance and habitat characteristics. From a biomass perspective, carp was dominant in only four of six sites. In terms of density, carp was not a dominant species in all sites. Further, carp density and biomass were not negatively related to native species density and biomass, even when carp density and biomass were positively correlated to water turbidity levels. Carp dominated fish assemblages in the shallowest sites with the highest water turbidity, plant detritus at the bottom, and floating macrophytes covering the lake surface. These results suggest that the effect of carp on fish assemblages may be highly dependent on habitat characteristics in Lake Patzcuaro. Watershed degradation, pollution, water level loss, and other sources of anthropogenic influence may be more important drivers of Lake Patzcuaro degradation than the abundance of carp.

  17. Arrested embryonic development: a review of strategies to delay hatching in egg-laying reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anthony R.; Reina, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Arrested embryonic development involves the downregulation or cessation of active cell division and metabolic activity, and the capability of an animal to arrest embryonic development results in temporal plasticity of the duration of embryonic period. Arrested embryonic development is an important reproductive strategy for egg-laying animals that provide no parental care after oviposition. In this review, we discuss each type of embryonic developmental arrest used by oviparous reptiles. Environmental pressures that might have directed the evolution of arrest are addressed and we present previously undiscussed environmentally dependent physiological processes that may occur in the egg to bring about arrest. Areas for future research are proposed to clarify how ecology affects the phenotype of developing embryos. We hypothesize that oviparous reptilian mothers are capable of providing their embryos with a level of phenotypic adaptation to local environmental conditions by incorporating maternal factors into the internal environment of the egg that result in different levels of developmental sensitivity to environmental conditions after they are laid. PMID:22438503

  18. The real performance of radioactive lightning arrester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the performance of radioactive lightning arrester comparing to the performance of conventional one are presented. Measurements of currents between lightning arrester and an energyzed plate with wind simulation were done for radioactive and conventional lightning arresters, separately. The attraction range of radioactive and conventional lightning arresters using atmospheric pulses produced by a generator of 3MV were verified, separately and simultaneously. The influence of ionization produced by radioactive lightning arrester on critical disruptive tension of a spark plate, testing two lightning arresters for differents nominal attraction distances with applications of atmospheric pulses (positive and negative polarity) and tensions of 60 Hz was verified. The radiation emitted by a radioactive lightning had used in a building was retired and handled without special carefullness by a personnel without worthy of credence to evaluate the hazard in handling radioactive lightning arrester was measured. Critical disruptive tensions of radioactive and conventional lightning arrester using a suspensed electrode and external pulse generator of 6MV was measured. The effect of attraction of a radioactive and conventional lightning arresters disposed symmetrically regarding the same suspensed electrode was verified simultaneously. Seven cases on faults of radioactive lightning arrester in external areas are present. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Microwave assisted polymer stabilized synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application in the degradation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Krishnamoorthi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and dextran are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone. ► Silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM) is synthesized by microwave heating. ► The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as stabilizing and reducing agent. ► Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite shows efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of environmental pollutants. - Abstract: Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide (PAM) and dextran (Dx) are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone (Dx-g-PAM) with ceric ion induced solution polymerization technique. Partial hydrolysis of Dx-g-PAM is carried out with sodium hydroxide solution to obtain HDx-g-PAM. To synthesize silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM), reduction of silver ions with HDx-g-PAM is carried out using microwave heating. The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as both stabilizer and reducing agent. The copolymer nano-composite, Ag-HDx-g-PAM is characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Further, the catalytic activity of Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite towards the reduction of environmental pollutants like phenosafranine dye and aromatic nitro compounds are studied.

  20. Effect of environmental conditions on the mechanical properties and fungal degradation of polycaprolactone/microcrystalline cellulose/wood flour composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Liwei Jin; Nicole Stark; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), wood flour (WF), or both were characterized before and after exposure to various environmental conditions for 60 days. PCL/WF composites had the greatest tensile strength and modulus compared to neat PCL or PCL composites containing MCC. Electron microscopy indicated better adhesion between WF...

  1. Microwave assisted polymer stabilized synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application in the degradation of environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India); Ganesan, Vellaichamy, E-mail: velganesh@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India); Krishnamoorthi, S., E-mail: dr.skmoorthi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and dextran are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM) is synthesized by microwave heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as stabilizing and reducing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite shows efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of environmental pollutants. - Abstract: Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide (PAM) and dextran (Dx) are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone (Dx-g-PAM) with ceric ion induced solution polymerization technique. Partial hydrolysis of Dx-g-PAM is carried out with sodium hydroxide solution to obtain HDx-g-PAM. To synthesize silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM), reduction of silver ions with HDx-g-PAM is carried out using microwave heating. The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as both stabilizer and reducing agent. The copolymer nano-composite, Ag-HDx-g-PAM is characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Further, the catalytic activity of Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite towards the reduction of environmental pollutants like phenosafranine dye and aromatic nitro compounds are studied.

  2. IAEA specialists' meeting on Environmental factors causing cracks and degradation in primary system components: conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlkopf, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomenon of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in BWR stainless steel piping joints is well understood, and does not present a safety hazard as leak before break can be shown. It is recommended that work should proceed to reduce the probability of stress corrosion cracking by changing the BWR environment by hydrogen feedwater additions to remove oxygen. The cause of LWR pipe cracking is understood to be thermal fatigue caused by thermal stratifications at low flow rates during operation (PWR) and thermal mixing in piping tees (PWR). Recommendations include, research on corrosion fatigue crack propagation, evaluation of compressive stress state, design changes, and additional development of NDT methods for detection and sizing of cracks. Conclusions drawn steam generator tube degradation suggest that this is a potentially large problem. Recommendation include the use of stress corrosion resistant materials, oxygen reduction through use of deaeration feed banks, and inclusion in future design of inspection access to evaluate conditions of steam generators. (author)

  3. Degradation and ecotoxicity of dye Reactive Black 5 after reductive-oxidative process : Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo Lumbaque, Elisabeth; Gomes, Monike Felipe; Da Silva Carvalho, Vanessa; de Freitas, Adriane Martins; Tiburtius, Elaine Regina Lopes

    2017-03-01

    This research paper describes the study of a reduction-oxidation system using commercial steel wool (Fe 0 ) and H 2 O 2 for degradation of the dye Reactive Black 5 and aromatic compounds in water. The reductive process alone allowed the almost complete removal of color (97 ± 1 %) after 60 min of reaction. The decrease in spectral area (λ = 599 nm) associated with the chromophore group indicates breakage of the azo bonds. Moreover, the significant change in UV spectra can be associated with the formation of aromatic amines. Regarding the transformation products, a spectrophotometric method based on the diazotization reaction was employed to identify aromatic amines after reductive process, using sulfanilic acid as a model of aromatic amines. In addition, association with Fenton reagents improved the efficiency in the system with 93 ± 1 % degradation of intermediates formed during the reductive process. Ecotoxicological analysis revealed that the dye solution, after the reductive and oxidative processes, was not toxic to Lactuca sativa seeds. For Daphnia magna, the EC 50 (%) values observed revealed that dye solution has an EC 50 (%) = 74.1 and after reductive process, the toxicity increased (EC 50 (%) = 63.5), which might be related to the formation of aromatic amines. However, after the Fenton process, the EC 50 (%) was >100. These results demonstrated that the Fenton reaction using steel wool as an iron source was very efficient to decrease color, aromatic transformation products, and the ecotoxicity of Reactive Black 5 in solution.

  4. An engineering interpretation of pop-in arrest and tearing arrest in terms of static crack arrest, Ksub(Ia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    When fracture toughness specimens are tested under displacement controlled conditions, they are often observed to exhibit unstable cleavage fracture followed by arrest of the cleavage mode wherein a significant load remains on the specimen (pop-in arrest). This behavior carries over into the ductile tearing regime wherein tearing may occur rapidly identified by load reduction and then proceeds at a discernible less rate (tearing arrest). Both these behaviors represent an initiation condition followed by an arrest condition. In this paper it is demonstrated that from either of the arrest conditions an arrest value may be determined which, for available experimental data, is shown to be an engineering estimate for the static crack arrest toughness, Ksub(Ia). A data analysis procedure is outlined and Ksub(Ic) and Ksub(Ia) estimates from sixty-eight 1/2, 1 and 2 in. thick compact specimens from two steels (A533 Grade B Class 1 and AISI 1018) tested between -40 deg F and 200 deg F are summarized. The crack arrest estimates are seen to compare favorably with Ksub(Ia) results obtained by other investigators using 2 in. thick specimens. Also it is demonstrated that when failure is by fully ductile tearing, the crack arrest toughness is at least equal to the estimate for Ksub(Ic) for the specimen. (author)

  5. Dynamic photoelastic investigation of crack arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, G.R.; Dally, J.W.; Kobayashi, T.; Fourney, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Crack arrest and crack arrest toughness are of great interest, particularly for studies pertaining to safety of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Investigations are needed in which the instantaneous values of stress intensity factor (K) can be observed during crack propagation and arrest. Such observations are possible if the test specimens are made from plates of a transparent photoelastic sensitive material. Values of K as a function of crack speed are shown for Homalite 100 and various epoxy blends. 9 figures

  6. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  7. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment. Copyright

  8. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  9. Tackling soil degradation and environmental changes in Lake Manyara Basin, Tanzania to support sustainable landscape/ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munishi, Linus; Mtei, Kelvin; Bode, Samuel; Dume, Bayu; Navas, Ana; Nebiyu, Amsalu; Semmens, Brice; Smith, Hugh; Stock, Brian; Boeckx, Pascal; Blake, Will

    2017-04-01

    The Lake Manyara Basin (LMB), which encompasses Lake Manyara National Park a world ranking World Biosphere Reserve, is of great ecological and socio-economic value because it hosts a small-holder rain fed and extensive irrigation agriculture, grazing grounds for pastoralists, terrestrial and aquatic habitat for wildlife and tourism business contributing to poverty alleviation. Despite these multiple ecosystem services that support the local communities, the LMB is threatened by; (a) siltation from eroded soil fed from the wider catchment and rift escarpment of the basin and (b) declining water levels due to water capture by agriculture and possibly climate change. These threats to the ecosystem and its services are augmented by increasing human population, pollution by agricultural pesticides, poaching, human encroachment and infrastructure development, and illegal fisheries. Despite these challenges, here is a dearth of information on erosion hotspots and to date soil erosion and siltation problems in LMB have been interpreted largely in qualitative terms, and no coherent interpretative framework of these records exists. Despite concerns that modern sediment fluxes to the Lake may exceed long-term fluxes, little is known about erosion sources, how erosion rates and processes vary across the landscape and how erosion rates are influenced by the strong climate gradients in the basin. This contribution describes a soil erosion and sediment management project that aims to deliver a demonstration dataset generated from inter-disciplinary sediment-source tracing technologies and approaches to assess erosion hotspots, processes and spatial patterns of erosion in the area. The work focuses on a sub basin, the Monduli Sub catchment, located within the greater LMB. This is part of efforts to establish an understanding of soil erosion and landscape degradation in the basin as a pathway for generating and developing knowledge, building capacity to assist conservationists

  10. Sending the Right Bill to the Right People: Climate change, environmental degradation, and social vulnerabilities in Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2012-01-01

    In a range of international reports Vietnam is pointed out as among the 5 to 10 most climate-vulnerable countries, which are taking center stage in global climate change assistance and thus attracting huge amounts of foreign aid for research, mitigation, adaptation, disaster management, etc....... However, for various reasons relating to global and domestic politics, climate change adaptation and mitigation in Vietnam are separating from general environmental management, while at the same time failing to address social inequality. From a global justice perspective this may seem irrelevant but when...... the resulting technocratic approaches are applied to aid programs, addressing climate change as an autonomous field, the problems on the ground become distorted. Based on field studies in central Vietnam, the paper argues that fragmented approaches risk missing the target of helping the most vulnerable...

  11. Recent Developments in Environmental Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants: The Case of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mphilisi M. Mahlambi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of both organic and inorganic pollutants in water due to industrial, agricultural, and domestic activities has led to the global need for the development of new, improved, and advanced but effective technologies to effectively address the challenges of water quality. It is therefore necessary to develop a technology which would completely remove contaminants from contaminated waters. TiO2 (titania nanocatalysts have a proven potential to treat “difficult-to-remove” contaminants and thus are expected to play an important role in the remediation of environmental and pollution challenges. Titania nanoparticles are intended to be both supplementary and complementary to the present water-treatment technologies through the destruction or transformation of hazardous chemical wastes to innocuous end-products, that is, CO2 and H2O. This paper therefore explores and summarizes recent efforts in the area of titania nanoparticle synthesis, modifications, and application of titania nanoparticles for water treatment purposes.

  12. THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND CONFLICT IN THE DRYLANDS OF SUBSAHARAN AFRICA (SSA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NORTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Spiess

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, major parts of Sub-Saharan Africa are seriously threatened by progressivedesertification and in addition continue to face some of the world’s greatest developmentchallenges. More than 200 million people are undernourished, thousands of displaced personsare accommodated in refugee camps and the quality of essential resources such as water,grazing- and arable land are seriously under threat. While income in these regions reliesmainly on natural resources, desertification, caused by anthropogenic activities and enhancedby climatic changes, has massive and negative social, environmental and economic impacts.Once productive drylands are degraded, livelihoods are no longer secure, resources becomeoverexploited, social tension increases, traditional cultural systems collapse and armedconflicts are increasingly driven by resource availability. In the next decades, populationgrowth, rising average resource demand, and persistent inequalities in resource access ensurethat scarcities will affect many environmentally sensitive regions with a severity, speed, andscale unprecedented in history. Approximately 60 million people are expected to eventuallymove from the desertified regions in Sub-Saharan Africa towards North Africa and Europewithin the next 20 years. Long term studies conducted on West Africa on the other handproject a constant migratory flow from Sahelian regions to the coastal cities, such as Lagosand Abidjan, whose population is expected to grow 3.5 times the numbers in 1997 to 271million in 2020.

  13. Exploring the linkage between spontaneous grass cover biodiversity and soil degradation in two olive orchard microcatchments with contrasting environmental and management conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, E. V.; Arroyo, C.; Lora, A.; Guzmán, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Gómez, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous grass covers are an inexpensive soil erosion control measure in olive orchards. Olive farmers allow grass to grow on sloping terrain to comply with the basic environmental standards derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, European Commission). However, to date there are few studies assessing the environmental quality considering such covers. In this study, we measured biodiversity indices for spontaneous grass cover in two olive orchards with contrasting site conditions and management regimes in order to evaluate the potential for biodiversity metrics to serve as an indicator of soil degradation. In addition, the differences and temporal variability of biodiversity indicators and their relationships with environmental factors such as soil type and properties, precipitation, topography and soil management were analysed. Different grass cover biodiversity indices were evaluated in two olive orchard catchments under conventional tillage and no tillage with grass cover, during 3 hydrological years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and photographs in a permanent grid (4 samples ha-1) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the number of species, frequency of life forms, diversity and modified Shannon and Pielou indices. Sorensen's index showed strong differences in species composition for the grass covers in the two olive orchard catchments, which are probably linked to the different site conditions. The catchment (CN) with the best site conditions (deeper soil and higher precipitation) and most intense management presented the highest biodiversity indices as well as the highest soil losses (over 10 t ha-1). In absolute terms, the diversity indices of vegetation were reasonably high for agricultural systems in both catchments, despite the fact that management activities usually severely limit the landscape and the variety of species. Finally, a significantly higher content of organic matter in the first 10 cm of soil

  14. Cardiac arrest while exercising on mountains in national or provincial parks: A national observational study from 2012 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eujene; Park, Jeong Ho; Kong, So Yeon; Hong, Ki Jeong; Ro, Young Sun; Song, Kyoung Jun; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Shin, Sang Do

    2017-12-20

    Previous studies on cardiac arrest in mountainous areas were focused on environmental features such as altitude and temperature. However, those are limited to factors affecting the prognosis of patients after cardiac arrest. We analyzed the cardiac arrests in national or provincial parks located in the mountains and determined the factors affecting the prognosis of patients after cardiac arrest. This study included all emergency medical service (EMS) treated patients over the age of 40 experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) of presumed cardiac etiology during exercise, between January 2012 and December 2015. The main focus of interest was the location of cardiac arrest occurrence (national mountain parks and provincial parks vs. other sites). The main outcome was survival to discharge and multivariable logistic regression was performed to adjust for possible confounding effects. A total 1835 patients who suffered a cardiac arrest while exercising were included. From these, 68 patients experienced cardiac arrest in national or provincial parks, and 1767 occurred in other locations. The unadjusted and adjusted ORs (95% CI) for a good cerebral performance scale (CPC) were 0.09 (0.01-0.63) and 0.08(0.01-0.56), survival discharges were 0.13(0.03-0.53) and 0.11 (0.03-0.48). Cardiac arrests occurring while exercising in the mountainous areas have worse prognosis compared to alternative locations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Degradation of the tricyclic antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine under environmental conditions, identification of its main aquatic biotic and abiotic transformation products by LC-MSn and their effects on environmental bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2012-03-15

    The search for environmental transformation products of organic pollutants (like drugs) is a difficult task and usually only few compounds are detected. This might be due to effective degradation but could also be a result of analytical deficits dealing with complex matrices. Especially transformation products of very low concentrations in sludge were difficult to identify so far. Additionally, the use of standard separation techniques might lead to the loss of isomeric compounds, which possess identical spectroscopic and spectrometric properties. To date no complete study investigating the environmental fate of any tricyclic antipsychotic drug has been reported. Therefore, this study investigated the popular neuroleptic drug chlorpromazine and its potential transformation by all main environmental pathways: aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation as well as abiotic photolytic degradation by sunlight. Analysis of test samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple stage mass-spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) allowed the detection of numerous compounds. Further, the use of a special software allowed distinguishing between transformation products of small intensities and background "noise" caused by sludge or matrix. Three aerobic tests of different bacterial density (the Closed Bottle test, OECD 301D; the Manometric Respiratory test, OECD 301F; the modified Zahn-Wellens test, 302B; one anaerobic test (a modified anaerobic degradation test according to ISO 11734) as well as a photodegradation test were performed in the present study. According to the individual test guidelines, chlorpromazine had to be classified as not biodegradable in all of the biodegradation tests. However, a special chromatographic column and gradient along with mass spectrometric fragmentation experiments of higher order uncovered the presence of a total of 61 abiotic and biotic transformation products which where formed during the course of the tests. The structures of three

  16. Environmental degradation as the result of NATO air-raids against Pancevo chemical plants - oil refinery/petrochemical plant/azotara fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogojevic, S.; Mirkov, Lj.; Stoimirovic, N.; Pajevic, V.; Krasulja, S.; Spasojevic, N.

    2002-01-01

    The long period of sanctions followed by the NATO air raids against the chemical plants of Pancevo caused ecological disaster of enormous proportions in the district, leaving the consequences to the population of the region,making it a transboundary issue of utmost urgency and importance. Due to the impossibility to organize the running under normal conditions during a decade of sanctions imposed on our country, the mentioned companies were constantly facing difficulties concerning the purchasing of the raw materials, devices and equipment since the export to FRY was banned. Thus the companies have been prevented from the realization of the environmental programs and plans including the introduction and implementation of new technologies having as the objectives the remediation of the already existing environmental problems, instead the environmental degradation was increased. During the period from 4th April-7th June 1999, Pancevo was targeted by the NATO on seven occasions. The area where the chemical plants are located was targeted with 35 missiles causing not only the damages but also endangered the environment of Pancevo and the consequences remain to be monitored in the coming years. Three employees of the Oil Refinery were killed at work while more than 50 were injured. Approximately 58.500 tons of crude oil, oil derivates, vinylchloride monomer and other petrochemical products and components were burnt in fire. Serious spills of approximately 5.000 tons of crude oil, oil derivates, 23.000 tons of 1,2 dichloroethane (EDC), 600 tons of HCl, 8 tons of mercury, 3000 tons of NaOH, 230 tons of ammonia water and ammonia and large quantities of other toxic substances contaminated the surrounding soil, ground water, the waste water canal and the river Danube.The sewerage systems were seriously damaged and blocked. A considerable damage was caused to the wastewater treatment facilities resulting in pollution of HIP-Azotara wastewater canal and the river Danube. The

  17. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshagh, Morteza; Khajeh, Farzaneh; Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh; Fattahi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Different environmental conditions, such as high temperature or exposure to some chemical agents, may affect the force decay of different methods of space closure during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decay pattern in the presence of tea as a popular drink in some parts of the world and two mouthwashes that are usually prescribed by the orthodontist once the treatment is in progress. Elastic chain (EC), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring and tie-back (TB) method were used as the means of space closure. The specimens were placed in five different media: Hot tea, hot water (65°), chlorhexidine mouthwash, fluoride mouthwash and the control group (water at 37°). The specimens were stretched 25 mm and the elastic force of three systems was measured at the beginning of the study, after 24 h, after 1 week and after 3 weeks. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the results between the groups and Duncan test was carried out to compare the sets of means in different groups (P ≤ 0.05). Tea increases the force decay in the EC and TB groups. Oral mouthwashes also resulted in more rapid force decay than the control group. EC and Ni-Ti groups were not much affected in the presence of oral mouthwashes. Regarding the immersion media, TB method showed the biggest variation in different media and Ni-Ti coil spring was least affected by the type of media.

  18. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon mixtures in surface waters at environmentally relevant levels - Effect of inoculum origin on kinetics and sequence of degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Heidi; Hammershøj, Rikke; Comber, Mike; Mayer, Philipp

    2017-10-01

    Biodegradation is a dominant removal process for many organic pollutants, and biodegradation tests serve as tools for assessing their environmental fate within regulatory risk assessment. In simulation tests, the inoculum is not standardized, varying in microbial quantity and quality, thereby potentially impacting the observed biodegradation kinetics. In this study we investigated the effect of inoculum origin on the biodegradation kinetics of hydrocarbons for five inocula from surface waters varying in urbanization and thus expected pre-exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. A new biodegradation method for testing mixtures of hydrophobic chemicals at trace concentrations was demonstrated: Aqueous solutions containing 9 hydrocarbons were generated by passive dosing and diluted with surface water resulting in test systems containing native microorganisms exposed to test substances at ng-μg/L levels. Automated Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction coupled to GC-MS was applied directly to these test systems to determine substrate depletion relative to abiotic controls. Lag phases were generally less than 8 days. First order rate constants were within one order of magnitude for each hydrocarbon in four of the five waters but lower in water from a rural lake. The sequence of degradation between the 9 hydrocarbons showed similar patterns in the five waters indicating the potential for using selected hydrocarbons for benchmarking between biodegradation tests. Degradation half-times were shorter than or within one order of magnitude of BioHCwin predictions for 8 of 9 hydrocarbons. These results showed that location choice is important for biodegradation kinetics and can provide a relevant input to aquatic exposure and fate models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  20. Plant community tolerant to trace elements growing on the degraded soils of São Domingos mine in the south east of Portugal: environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    The selection of trace element tolerant species is a key factor to the success of remediation of degraded mine soils. Mining activities generate a large amount of waste rocks and tailings, which get deposited at the surface. The degraded soils, the waste rocks and tailings are often very unstable and will become sources of pollution. The direct effects will be the loss of cultivated land, forest or grazing land, and the overall loss of production. The indirect effects will include air and water pollution and siltation of rivers. These will eventually lead to the loss of biodiversity, amenity and economic wealth. Restoration of a vegetation cover can fulfil the objectives of stabilization, pollution control, visual improvement and removal of threats to human beings. Thus, remediation of mine spoils/tailings and biogeochemical prospecting would rely on the appropriate selection of plant species. Plant community responds differently on their ability to uptake or exclude a variety of metals. In this work, plant species were sampled from all populations established in an abandoned copper mine of São Domingos, SE Portugal. Plants belonging to 24 species, 16 genera and 13 families were collected from the degraded copper mine of São Domingos. Plant samples were analysed for total Ag, As, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The highest concentrations of metals in soils dry matter were 11217.5 mg Pb kg(-1), 1829 mg Cu kg(-1), 1291 mg As kg(-1), 713.7 mg Zn kg(-1), 84.6 mg Cr kg(-1), 54.3 mg Co kg(-1), 52.9 mg Ni kg(-1) and 16.6 mg Ag kg(-1). With respect to plants, the higher concentrations of Pb and As were recorded in the semi-aquatic species Juncus conglomeratus with 84.8 and 23.5 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW), Juncus efusus with 22.4 and 8.5 mg kg(-1) DW, and Scirpus holoschoenus with 51.7 and 8.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Thymus mastichina also showed high content of As in the aboveground parts, 13.6 mg kg(-1) DW. Overall, the results indicate accumulation of various metals by

  1. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  2. Genetic, clinical and pharmacological determinants of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : rationale and outline of the AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies (ARREST) registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M T; van Hoeijen, D A; Bardai, A; Berdowski, J; Souverein, P C; De Bruin, M L; Koster, R W; de Boer, A; Tan, H L

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. Recognising the complexity of the underlying causes of OHCA in the community, we aimed to establish the clinical, pharmacological, environmental and genetic factors and their interactions that may cause OHCA.

  3. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Conrad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR is the use of rapid deployment venoarterial (VA extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support systemic circulation and vital organ perfusion in patients in refractory cardiac arrest not responding to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Although prospective controlled studies are lacking, observational studies suggest improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR when ECPR is instituted within 30-60 min following cardiac arrest. Adult and pediatric patients with witnessed in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and good quality CPR, failure of at least 15 min of conventional resuscitation, and a potentially reversible cause for arrest are candidates. Percutaneous cannulation where feasible is rapid and can be performed by nonsurgeons (emergency physicians, intensivists, cardiologists, and interventional radiologists. Modern extracorporeal systems are easy to prime and manage and are technically easy to manage with proper training and experience. ECPR can be deployed in the emergency department for out-of-hospital arrest or in various inpatient units for in-hospital arrest. ECPR should be considered for patients with refractory cardiac arrest in hospitals with an existing extracorporeal life support program, able to provide rapid deployment of support, and with resources to provide postresuscitation evaluation and management.

  4. Loading and Light Degradation Characteristics of B t Toxin on Nano goethite: A Potential Material for Controlling the Environmental Risk of B t Toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; She, Ch.; She, Ch.; Liu, H.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic B t-modified crops release toxins into soil through root exudate s and upon decomposition of residues. The fate of these toxins in soil has not been yet clearly elucidated. Nano goethite was found to have a different influence on the lifetime and identicalness activity of B t toxin. The aim of this study was to elucidate the adsorption characteristics of B t toxin on nano goethite and its activity changes before and after adsorption. The adsorption of toxin on nano goethite reached equilibrium within 5 h, and the adsorption isotherm of B t toxin on nano goethite conformed to the Langmuir equation (). In the range of ph from 6.0 to 8.0, larger adsorption occurred at lower ph value. The toxin adsorption decreased with the temperature between 10 and 50 degree. The results of Ftir, XRD, and SEM indicated that toxin did not influence the structure of nano goethite and the adsorption of toxin only on the surface of nano goethite. The LC_5_0 value for bound toxin was higher than that of free toxin, and the nano goethite greatly accelerated the degradation of toxin by ultraviolet irradiation. The above results suggested that nano goethite is a potential material for controlling the environmental risk of toxin released by Bt transgenic plants

  5. Comparison of crack arrest methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The ASTM Cooperative Test Program Data were used to compare the static (K/sub Ia/) and dynamic (K/sud ID/, K/sub IDm/) approaches to crack arrest. K/sub Ia/ is not dependent on K/sub Q/. This is consistent with the requirements of the static approach, but not the dynamic one which requires that K/sub Ia/ decrease with K/sub Q/ if K/sub ID/ (= K/sub IDm/) is a constant. K/sub ID/ increases systematically with K/sub Q/ at a rate that is consistent with calculations based on the use of a constant value for K/sub Ia/ which is equal to its measured mean value. Only in the limiting case of very short crack jumps (associated with very low average crack speeds) can K/sub ID/ be identified as a minimum value at which K/sub ID/ = K/sub IDm/. In this case K/sub IDm/ approx. K/sub Ia/ approx. K/sub Im/. The latter is the idealized minimum value of K that will support the continued propagation of a running crack

  6. Cell cycle arrest in the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis in larval diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuta; Mukai, Ayumu; Goto, Shin G

    2018-04-01

    Insects enter diapause to synchronise their life cycle with biotic and abiotic environmental conditions favourable for their development, reproduction, and survival. One of the most noticeable characteristics of diapause is the blockage of ontogeny. Although this blockage should occur with the cessation of cellular proliferation, i.e. cell cycle arrest, it was confirmed only in a few insect species and information on the molecular pathways involved in cell cycle arrest is limited. In the present study, we investigated developmental and cell cycle arrest in diapause larvae of the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Developmental and cell cycle arrest occur in the early fourth instar larval stage of N. vitripennis under short days. By entering diapause, the S fraction of the cell cycle disappears and approximately 80% and 20% of cells arrest their cell cycle in the G0/G1 and G2 phases, respectively. We further investigated expression of cell cycle regulatory genes and some housekeeping genes to dissect molecular mechanisms underlying the cell cycle arrest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Crisis management during anaesthesia: cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, W B; Morris, R W; Watterson, L M; Williamson, J A; Paix, A D

    2005-06-01

    Cardiac arrest attributable to anaesthesia occurs at the rate of between 0.5 and 1 case per 10 000 cases, tends to have a different profile to that of cardiac arrest occurring elsewhere, and has an in-hospital mortality of 20%. However, as individual practitioners encounter cardiac arrest rarely, the rapidity with which the diagnosis is made and the consistency of appropriate management varies considerably. To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD-A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a sub-algorithm for cardiac arrest, in the management of cardiac arrest occurring in association with anaesthesia. The potential performance of this structured approach for each the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. There were 129 reports of cardiac arrest associated with anaesthesia among the first 4000 AIMS incident reports. Identified aetiological factors were grouped into five categories: (1) anaesthetic technique (11 cases with this category alone; 32 with this and one or more of the other categories, representing 25% of all 129 cardiac arrests); (2) drug related (16; 32, 25%); (3) associated with surgical procedure (9; 29, 22%); (4) associated with pre-existing medical or surgical disease (30; 82, 64%); (5) unknown (8; 14, 11%). The "real life" presentation and management of cardiac arrest in association with anaesthesia differs substantially from that detailed in general published guidelines. Cardiac rhythms at the time were sinus bradycardia (23%); asystole (22%); tachycardia/ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (14%); and normal (7%), with a further third unknown. Details of treatment were recorded in 110 reports; modalities employed included cardiac compression (72%); adrenaline (61%); 100% oxygen (58%); atropine (38%); intravenous fluids (25%), and electrical defibrillation (17%). There

  8. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human t...

  9. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  10. Environmental degradation of structured nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Figure 21. Optical Microscope Images of Neat Epoxy, CNT, Ni and Ni/NiO Samples before and after UV and Humidity Exposure. .............................26...weather conditions on the epoxy-metallic interfaces. 1. OPTICAL MICROSCOPE A Nikon Epiphot 200 Inverted Metallurgical Microscope was used to...paths and do not seem to be interconnected, most are in the 100 µm length. 26 Figure 21. Optical Microscope Images of Neat Epoxy, CNT, Ni and

  11. Environmental toxicology: Degradation of herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, F.T.; Monaco, T.J.; Bjelk, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the advances that have been made for the quantitative analysis of radiotracers in thin-layer chromatography through the development of computer controlled imaging proportional counters (IPC). IPC has been developed to give high sensitivity digital data from an entire TLC separation in one measurement. The imaging capability provides a 100 percent improvement over mechanical scanners. Sensitivity is 100 DPM or less with 14 C and higher energy isotopes. Investigations of herbicide metabolism in plant cell suspension cultures are presented with procedures for the use of this technique

  12. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  13. EVIDÊNCIAS DA DEGRADAÇÃO AMBIENTAL NA VERTENTE SECA DA SERRA DE URUBURETAMA, CEARÁ-BRASIL. / EVIDENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN THE DRY SIDE OF THE SAW URUBURETAMA, CEARÁ, BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Rodrigues Rabelo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify, map and analyze the environmental degradation processes encountered in the dry part of the massive Uruburetama, situated at the northern end of Ceará. For research claims was taken based on the integrated analysis of the physical and anthropic environment, developed from the use of techniques and remote sensing and GIS tools. With these techniques we tried to at the various stages of the work, identify and analyze, by crossing information and analysis, the focus of degradation of physical and biological factors. From this research it can be concluded that in the dry part of Uruburetama massive degradation processes are speeding up due to human interventions. Factor contributing to suppression of natural vegetation and replacing it by different plants and pastures, changing the natural dynamics of the mountainous landscape.

  14. Evaluation of 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene degradation in the detailed tropospheric chemistry mechanism, MCMv3.1, using environmental chamber data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Metzger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The degradation mechanism of 1,3,5-trimethyl- benzene (TMB as implemented in the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM was evaluated using data from the environmental chamber at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The results show that the MCM provides a consistent description of the photo-oxidation of TMB/NOx mixtures for a range of conditions. In all cases the agreement between the measurement and the simulation decreases with decreasing VOC-NOx ratio and in addition with increasing precursor concentration. A significant underestimation of the decay rate of TMB and thus underestimation of reactivity in the system, consistent with results from previous appraisals of the MCM, was observed.

    Much higher nitrous acid (HONO concentrations compared to simulations and expected from chamber characterization experiments were measured during these smog chamber experiments. A light induced NO2 to HONO conversion at the chamber walls is suggested to occur. This photo-enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion with subsequent HONO photolysis enhances the reactivity of the system. After the implementation of this reaction in the model it describes the decay of TMB properly. Nevertheless, the model still over-predicts ozone at a later stage of the experiment. This can be attributed to a too slow removal of NO2. It is also shown that this photo-enhanced HONO formation is not restricted to TMB photo-oxidation but also occurs in other chemical systems (e.g. α-pinene. However, the influence of HONO as a source of OH radicals is less important in these more reactive systems and therefore the importance of the HONO chemistry is less obvious.

  15. Characterisation of manganese peroxidase and laccase producing bacteria capable for degradation of sucrose glutamic acid-Maillard reaction products at different nutritional and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Chandra, Ram

    2018-02-02

    Maillard reactions products (MRPs) are a major colorant of distillery effluent. It is major source of environmental pollution due to its complex structure and recalcitrant nature. This study has revealed that sucrose glutamic acid-Maillard reaction products (SGA-MRPs) showed many absorption peaks between 200 and 450 nm. The absorption maximum peak was noted at 250 nm in spectrophotometric detection. This indicated the formation of variable molecular weight Maillard products during the SGA-MRPs formation at high temperature. The identified aerobic bacterial consortium consisting Klebsiella pneumoniae (KU726953), Salmonella enterica (KU726954), Enterobacter aerogenes (KU726955), Enterobacter cloaceae (KU726957) showed optimum production of MnP and laccase at 120 and 144 h of growth, respectively. The potential bacterial consortium showed decolourisation of Maillard product up to 70% in presence of glucose (1%), peptone (0.1%) at optimum pH (8.1), temperature (37 °C) and shaking speed (180 rpm) within 192 h of incubation. The reduction of colour of Maillard product correlated with shifting of absorption peaks in UV-Vis spectrophotometry analysis. Further, the changing of functional group in FT-IR data showed appearance of new peaks and GC-MS analysis of degraded sample revealed the depolymerisation of complex MRPs. The toxicity evaluation using seed of Phaseolus mungo L. showed reduction of toxicity of MRPs after bacterial treatment. Hence, this study concluded that developed bacterial consortium have capability for decolourisation of MRPs due to high content of MnP and laccase.

  16. Genetic, clinical and pharmacological determinants of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, M T; van Hoeijen, D A; Bardai, A

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. Recognising the complexity of the underlying causes of OHCA in the community, we aimed to establish the clinical, pharmacological, environmental and genetic factors and their interactions that may cause OHCA. ME......-reviewed journals and presented at relevant scientific symposia....

  17. Degradation of the insecticide ethyl parathion in different environmental matrices by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60; Degradacao do inseticida paration etilico em diversas matrizes ambientais por meio de radiacao ionizante gama do cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchini, Luiz Carlos

    1995-07-01

    This work studies the use of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 to induce parathion degradation in different matrices, as well as, quantified GC-NPD and identified by GC-MS, the radiolysis resulting products. Results show that the insecticide was completely degraded in aqueous solution after treatment with 1.0 kGy dosis in a dosis rate of 3.12 kGy h{sup -1}. In methanol, parathion was completely degraded only with 30 kGy at 3.12 kGy h{sup -1}. The metabolites detected after radiolysis were the same formed by biological degradation, i.e, p-nitrophenol, p-aminophenol, paraoxon and aminoparathion. The gamma radiation also degraded paraoxon which is the most toxic metabolite of parathion. It was verified that, not only the total radiation, but also the dosis rate supplied to the aqueous solution had a significant effect on the insecticide degradation, and the formation of metabolites occurred in a selective way respecting the dosis and dosis rate. Otherwise, the gamma radiation did almost not degraded the parathion adsorbed in solid matrices as rice, moist and dry soil, even using dosis of 5,30 and 50 kGy, respectively. The parathion yield and the dosis of gamma radiation needed for 50% reduction of the insecticide initial concentration in aqueous solution were also calculated and presented. Thus, it was verified that irradiation of parathion besides to be an important instrument for environmental decontamination of this pesticide in aqueous matrix, it allows the production of parathion metabolites for ecotoxicological studies. (author)

  18. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  19. Degradation Mechanisms of Military Coating Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keene, L. T; Halada, G. P; Clayton, C. R; Kosik, W. E; McKnight, S. H

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the development and application of specialized characterization techniques used to study the environmental degradation mechanisms of organic coating systems employed by the United...

  20. Temporal variation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in an equatorial climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Marcus Eh; Ng, Faith Sp; Yap, Susan; Yong, Kok Leong; Peberdy, Mary A; Ornato, Joseph P

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether there is a seasonal variation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in an equatorial climate, which does not experience seasonal environmental change. We conducted an observational prospective study looking at the occurrence of OHCA in Singapore. Included were all patients with OHCA presented to Emergency Departments across the country. We examined the monthly, daily, and hourly number of cases over a three-year period. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). From October, 1st 2001 to October, 14th 2004, 2428 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age for cardiac arrests was 60.6 years with 68.0% male. Ethnic distribution was 69.5% Chinese, 15.0% Malay, 11.0% Indian, and 4.4% Others. There was no significant seasonal variation (spring/summer/fall/winter) of events (ANOVA P = 0.71), monthly variation (P = 0.88) or yearly variation (P = 0.26). We did find weekly peaks on Mondays and a circadian pattern with daily peaks from 9-10 am. We did not find any discernable seasonal pattern of cardiac arrests. This contrasts with findings from temperate countries and suggests a climatic influence on cardiac arrest occurrence. We also found that sudden cardiac arrests follow a circadian pattern.

  1. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...... in the atmosphere to yield a homologous series of PFCAs. Atmospheric degradation of FTOHs is likely to contribute to the widespread dissemination of PFCAs. After their bioaccumulation potential is accounted for, the pattern of PFCAs yielded from FTOHs could account for the distinct contamination profile of PFCAs....... The significance of the gas-phase peroxy radical cross reactions that produce PFCAs has not been recognized previously. Such reactions are expected to occur during the atmospheric degradation of all polyfluorinated materials, necessitating a reexamination of the environmental fate and impact of this important...

  2. Location of cardiac arrest and impact of pre-arrest chronic disease and medication use on survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granfeldt, Asger; Wissenberg, Mads; Hansen, Steen Møller

    2017-01-01

    location and a higher mortality can be explained by differences in chronic diseases and medication. METHODS: We identified 27,771 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients ≥18 years old from the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry (2001-2012). Using National Registries, we identified pre-arrest chronic disease......INTRODUCTION: Cardiac arrest in a private location is associated with a higher mortality when compared to public location. Past studies have not accounted for pre-arrest factors such as chronic disease and medication. AIM: To investigate whether the association between cardiac arrest in a private...

  3. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics and mechanism of environmental pharmaceuticals in aqueous suspension of TiO{sub 2}: A case of {beta}-blockers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Hai [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); An Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Guiying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Song Weihua; Cooper, William J. [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Luo Haiying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guangzhou Product Quality Supervision and Testing Institute, National Centre for Quality Supervision and Testing of Processed Food (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 510110 (China); Guo Xindong [Guangzhou Product Quality Supervision and Testing Institute, National Centre for Quality Supervision and Testing of Processed Food (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 510110 (China)

    2010-07-15

    This study investigated the photocatalytic degradation of three {beta}-blockers in TiO{sub 2} suspensions. The disappearance of the compounds followed pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and the rate constants were 0.075, 0.072 and 0.182 min{sup -1} for atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol, respectively. After 240 min irradiation, the reaction intermediates were completely mineralized to CO{sub 2} and the nitrogen was predominantly as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The influence of initial pH and {beta}-blocker concentration on the kinetics was also studied. From adsorption studies it appears that the photocatalytic degradation occurred mainly on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. Further studies indicated that surface reaction with {center_dot}OH radical was principally responsible for the degradation of these three {beta}-blockers. The major degradation intermediates were identified by HPLC/MS analysis. Cleavage of the side chain and the addition of the hydroxyl group to the parent compounds were found to be the two main degradation pathways for all three {beta}-blockers.

  4. Cell cycle arrest induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okaichi, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hideki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    1994-01-01

    It is known that various chemical reactions, such as cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and cell killing, can occur within the cells when exposed to ionizing radiation and ultraviolet radiation. Thus protein dynamics involved in such chemical reactions has received considerable attention. In this article, cell cycle regulation is first discussed in terms of the G2/M-phase and the G1/S-phase. Then, radiation-induced cell cycle arrest is reviewed. Cell cycle regulation mechanism involved in the G2 arrest, which is well known to occur when exposed to radiation, has recently been investigated using yeasts. In addition, recent study has yielded a noticeable finding that the G1 arrest can occur with intracellular accumulation of p53 product following ionization radiation. p53 is also shown to play an extremely important role in both DNA repair and cell killing due to DNA damage. Studies on the role of genes in protein groups induced by radiation will hold promise for the elucidation of cell cycle mechanism. (N.K.) 57 refs

  5. Genetic, clinical and pharmacological determinants of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: rationale and outline of the AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies (ARREST) registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, M T; van Hoeijen, D A; Bardai, A; Berdowski, J; Souverein, P C; De Bruin, M L; Koster, R W; de Boer, A; Tan, H L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. Recognising the complexity of the underlying causes of OHCA in the community, we aimed to establish the clinical, pharmacological, environmental and genetic factors and their interactions that may cause OHCA. Methods and analysis We set up a large-scale prospective community-based registry (AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies, ARREST) in which we prospectively include all resuscitation attempts from OHCA in a large study region in the Netherlands in collaboration with Emergency Medical Services. Of all OHCA victims since June 2005, we prospectively collect medical history (through hospital and general practitioner), and current and previous medication use (through community pharmacy). In addition, we include DNA samples from OHCA victims with documented ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation during the resuscitation attempt since July 2007. Various study designs are employed to analyse the data of the ARREST registry, including case–control, cohort, case only and case-cross over designs. Ethics and dissemination We describe the rationale, outline and potential results of the ARREST registry. The design allows for a stable and reliable collection of multiple determinants of OHCA, while assuring that the patient, lay-caregiver or medical professional is not hindered in any way. Such comprehensive data collection is required to unravel the complex basis of OHCA. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant scientific symposia. PMID:25332818

  6. Effect of artificial aging on polymeric surge arresters and polymer insulators for electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Carlos A.; Coser, E. [Laboratorio de Materiais Polimericos, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], e-mail: ferreira.carlos@ufrgs.br; Angelini, Joceli M.G. [Departamento de Materiais Eletricos, CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rossi, Jose A.D. [Materiais Alta Tensao, CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Martinez, Manuel L.B. [Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, UNIFEI, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate new and laboratory-aged samples of surge arresters and anchorage polymeric insulators, for 12 and 24 kV networks, which are used by the Rio Grande Energia (RGE). Power utility polymeric compounds were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), Dynamic-Mechanic Analysis (DMA), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) to verify changes in the insulator properties due to degradation occurred during the experiments. The analyses were carried out before and after 6 months of aging in laboratory devices (weather meter, 120 deg C, salt spray, immersion in water). After the aging experiments, high-voltage electrical tests were also conducted: a radio interference voltage test and, simultaneously, the total and the internal leakage currents were measured to verify the surface degradation of the polymeric material used in the housing. The impulse current test was applied with current values close to 5, 10 and 30 k A, in order to force an internal degradation. Results showed that only surface degradation is detected at the polymer. The main properties of the parts were not affected by the aging. It confirms that polymer insulator and surge arrester are appropriate for use in electricity distribution networks. (author)

  7. Rapidly Degradable Pyrotechnic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    material system (structural polymer and degradation agent ) for producing a high strength, non-corroding, highly inert, environmentally safe, extended...polymer sites in the active enzyme center differs dramatically between alkyl and aromatic polyesters. More specifically, as the degree of backbone...capped and centrifuged at 3,000 g. This procedure was repeated twice. To the remaining biomass pellet 15 mL of 1 mg/mL solution of N-ethyl-N- nitrosourea

  8. 32 CFR 935.125 - Citation in place of arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation in place of arrest. 935.125 Section 935... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.125 Citation in place of arrest. In any case in which a peace officer may make an arrest without a warrant, he may issue and serve a citation if he...

  9. Transient Central Diabetes Insipidus and Marked Hypernatremia following Cardiorespiratory Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar H. Koubar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Diabetes Insipidus is often an overlooked complication of cardiopulmonary arrest and anoxic brain injury. We report a case of transient Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI following cardiopulmonary arrest. It developed 4 days after the arrest resulting in polyuria and marked hypernatremia of 199 mM. The latter was exacerbated by replacing the hypotonic urine by isotonic saline.

  10. An Audit Of Perioperative Cardiac Arrest At Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Intraoperative cardiac arrests are not uncommon and are related to both surgical and anaesthetic factors. This study aimed to examine the factors which predispose to a periopeartive cardiac arrest, to assess the appropriateness of therapy and the outcome. Materials and Methods: All perioperative cardiac arrests ...

  11. Witnessed arrest, but not delayed bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves prehospital cardiac arrest survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmir, R B

    2004-05-01

    This study correlated the effect of witnessing a cardiac arrest and instituting bystander CPR (ByCPR), as a secondary end point in a study evaluating the effect of bicarbonate on survival. This prospective, randomised, double blinded clinical intervention trial enrolled 874 prehospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients encountered in a prehospital urban, suburban, and rural regional emergency medical service (EMS) area. This group underwent conventional advanced cardiac life support intervention followed by empiric early administration of sodium bicarbonate (1 mEq/l), monitoring conventional resuscitation parameters. Survival was measured as presence of vital signs on emergency department (ED) arrival. Data were analysed using chi(2) with Pearson correlation and odds ratio where appropriate. The overall survival rate was 13.9% (110 of 792) of prehospital cardiac arrest patients. The mean (SD) time until provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ByCPR) by laymen was 2.08 (2.77) minutes, and basic life support (BLS) by emergency medical technicians was 6.62 (5.73) minutes. There was improved survival noted with witnessed cardiac arrest-a 2.2-fold increase in survival, 18.9% (76 of 402) versus 8.6% (27 of 315) compared with unwitnessed arrests (ptwo minutes (p = 0.3752). Survival after prehospital cardiac arrest is more likely when witnessed, but not necessarily when ByCPR was performed by laymen.

  12. Study of polypropylene irradiation to ensure the control of its environmental degradation; Estudo da irradiação do polipropileno para possibilitar o controle de sua degradação ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Rebeca da Silva Grecco

    2017-07-01

    UV light, heat, and pollutants can interact with Polypropylene (PP) molecules, mainly with the tertiary carbon producing free radicals which can react with oxygen producing changes in its properties. PP has outstanding chemical and physical properties and a good processability at very low market price. In addition, PP is extensively used for manufacturing various kinds of products, however due to its large-scale consumption a lot of waste is generated at the end of their life cycle to the environment with low rate degradation. Controlled degradation of PP can be achieved by exposing the polymers to well defined parameters, such as absorbed dose, intemperies, oxygen, etc. In this study, structural changes in PP macro-molecule are created upon exposure to ionizing radiation such as: main chain scission, crosslinking and peroxidation (in presence of air). This study has the objective of comparing the environmental and accelerated exposures of PP neat, PP irradiated with 12,5 kGy and 20 kGy and the incorporation of the commercial pro-degradant d2w®. Dumbbell samples were manufactured by injection molding and exposed to the environment during 180 days and to accelerated aging to 192 days. The samples were characterized by Mechanical Testing, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (DRX) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The samples previously irradiated, PP 20 kGy, after environmental aging showed higher oxidation and presence of surface cracks than the PP d2w® and PP neat. They also showed presence of carbonyl groups, decreases in elongation at break, increase in Strength Modulus and decrease of melting temperature corroborating with degradation. (author)

  13. Naphthalimides Induce G2 Arrest Through the ATM-Activated Chk2-Executed Pathway in HCT116 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalimides, particularly amonafide and 2-(2-dimethylamino-6-thia-2-aza-benzo[def]chrysene-1,3-diones (R16, have been identified to possess anticancer activities and to induce G2-M arrest through inhibiting topoisomerase II accompanied by Chk1 degradation. The current study was designed to precisely dissect the signaling pathway(s responsible for the naphthalimide-induced cell cycle arrest in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Using phosphorylated histone H3 and mitotic protein monoclonal 2 as mitosis markers, we first specified the G2 arrest elicited by the R16 and amonafide. Then, R16 and amonafide were revealed to induce phosphorylation of the DNA damage sensor ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM responding to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Inhibition of ATM by both the pharmacological inhibitor caffeine and the specific small interference RNA (siRNA rescued the G2 arrest elicited by R16, indicating its ATM-dependent characteristic. Furthermore, depletion of Chk2, but not Chk1 with their corresponding siRNA, statistically significantly reversed the R16- and amonafide-triggered G2 arrest. Moreover, the naphthalimides phosphorylated Chk2 in an ATM-dependent manner but induced Chk1 degradation. These data indicate that R16 and amonafide preferentially used Chk2 as evidenced by the differential ATM-executed phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Thus, a clear signaling pathway can be established, in which ATM relays the DNA DSBs signaling triggered by the naphthalimides to the checkpoint kinases, predominantly to Chk2,which finally elicits G2 arrest. The mechanistic elucidation not only favors the development of the naphthalimides as anticancer agents but also provides an alternative strategy of Chk2 inhibition to potentiate the anticancer activities of these agents.

  14. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, Kathrine B; Hansen, Steen Moller; Pallisgaard, Jannik L

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Despite wide dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), bystander defibrillation rates remain low. We aimed to investigate how route distance to the nearest accessible AED was associated with probability of bystander defibrillation in public and residential locations. METHODS......: We used data from the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry and the Danish AED Network to identify out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and route distances to nearest accessible registered AED during 2008-2013. The association between route distance and bystander defibrillation was described using...... in public locations, the probability of bystander defibrillation at 0, 100 and 200meters from the nearest AED was 35.7% (95% confidence interval 28.0%-43.5%), 21.3% (95% confidence interval 17.4%-25.2%), and 13.7% (95% confidence interval 10.1%-16.8%), respectively. The corresponding numbers for cardiac...

  15. HSST crack-arrest studies overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.; Whitman, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of the efforts underway in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program to better understand and model crack-arrest behavior in reactor pressure vessel steels. The efforts are both experimental and analytical. The experimental work provides K/sub Ia/ data from laboratory-sized specimens, from thick-wall cylinders which exhibit essentially-full restraint and from nonisothermal wide-plate specimens. These data serve to define toughness-temperature trends and to provide validation data under prototypical reactor conditions. The analytical efforts interpret and correlate the data, plus provide LEFM, elastodynamic and viscoplastic methods for analyzing crack run-arrest behavior in reactor vessels. The analysis methods are incorporated into finite element computer programs which are under development at three separate laboratories. 22 refs., 10 figs

  16. F-box protein FBXO31 is a dedicated checkpoint protein to facilitate cell cycle arrest through activation of regulators in radiation induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Manas Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In response to radiation-induced DNA damage, eukaryotic cells initiate a complex signalling pathway, termed the DNA damage response (DDR), which coordinates cell cycle arrest with DNA repair. Previous study showed that induction of G1 arrest in response to radiation induced DNA damage is minimally a two-step process: a fast p53-independent initiation of G1 arrest mediated by cyclin D1 proteolysis and a slower maintenance of arrest resulting from increased p53 stability. We elucidated the molecular mechanism of slow and fast response of radiation induced DDR. We showed that FBXO31, a member of F-box family proteins, plays important role in DDR induced by ionizing radiation. We show that FBXO31 is responsible for promoting MDM2 degradation following radiation. FBXO31 interacts with and directs the degradation of MDM2 in ATM dependent phosphorylation of MDM2. FBXO31-mediated loss of MDM2 leads to elevated levels of p53, resulting in growth arrest. In cells depleted of FBXO31, MDM2 is not degraded and p53 levels do not increase following genotoxic stress. Thus, FBXO31 is essential for the classic robust increase in p53 levels following DNA damage

  17. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E

    An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  18. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  19. Cell fate after mitotic arrest in different tumor cells is determined by the balance between slippage and apoptotic threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galán-Malo, Patricia; Vela, Laura; Gonzalo, Oscar; Calvo-Sanjuán, Rubén; Gracia-Fleta, Lucía; Naval, Javier; Marzo, Isabel, E-mail: imarzo@unizar.es

    2012-02-01

    Microtubule poisons and other anti-mitotic drugs induce tumor death but the molecular events linking mitotic arrest to cell death are still not fully understood. We have analyzed cell fate after mitotic arrest produced by the microtubule-destabilizing drug vincristine in a panel of human tumor cell lines showing different response to vincristine. In Jurkat, RPMI 8226 and HeLa cells, apoptosis was triggered shortly after vincristine-induced mitotic arrest. However, A549 cells, which express a great amount of Bcl-x{sub L} and undetectable amounts of Bak, underwent mitotic slippage prior to cell death. However, when Bcl-x{sub L} gene was silenced in A549 cells, vincristine induced apoptosis during mitotic arrest. Another different behavior was found in MiaPaca2 cells, where vincristine caused death by mitotic catastrophe that switched to apoptosis when cyclin B1 degradation was prevented by proteasome inhibition. Overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L} or silencing Bax and Bak expression delayed the onset of apoptosis in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells, enabling mitotic slippage and endoreduplication. In HeLa cells, overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L} switched cell death from apoptosis to mitotic catastrophe. Mcl-1 offered limited protection to vincristine-induced cell death and Mcl-1 degradation was not essential for vincristine-induced death. All these results, taken together, indicate that the Bcl-x{sub L}/Bak ratio and the ability to degrade cyclin B1 determine cell fate after mitotic arrest in the different tumor cell types. Highlights: ► Vincristine induces cell death by apoptosis or mitotic catastrophe. ► Apoptosis-proficient cells die by apoptosis during mitosis upon vincristine treatment. ► p53wt apoptosis-deficient cells undergo apoptosis from a G1-like tetraploid state. ► p53mt apoptosis-deficient cells can survive and divide giving rise to 8N cells.

  20. Distinct mechanisms act in concert to mediate cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toettcher, Jared E; Loewer, Alexander; Ostheimer, Gerard J; Yaffe, Michael B; Tidor, Bruce; Lahav, Galit

    2009-01-20

    In response to DNA damage, cells arrest at specific stages in the cell cycle. This arrest must fulfill at least 3 requirements: it must be activated promptly; it must be sustained as long as damage is present to prevent loss of genomic information; and after the arrest, cells must re-enter into the appropriate cell cycle phase to ensure proper ploidy. Multiple molecular mechanisms capable of arresting the cell cycle have been identified in mammalian cells; however, it is unknown whether each mechanism meets all 3 requirements or whether they act together to confer specific functions to the arrest. To address this question, we integrated mathematical models describing the cell cycle and the DNA damage signaling networks and tested the contributions of each mechanism to cell cycle arrest and re-entry. Predictions from this model were then tested with quantitative experiments to identify the combined action of arrest mechanisms in irradiated cells. We find that different arrest mechanisms serve indispensable roles in the proper cellular response to DNA damage over time: p53-independent cyclin inactivation confers immediate arrest, whereas p53-dependent cyclin downregulation allows this arrest to be sustained. Additionally, p21-mediated inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity is indispensable for preventing improper cell cycle re-entry and endoreduplication. This work shows that in a complex signaling network, seemingly redundant mechanisms, acting in a concerted fashion, can achieve a specific cellular outcome.

  1. Decolorization and degradation of malachite green by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioremediation using a variety of microbes for the degradation of xenobiotics seems a green solution to the problem of environmental pollution. Microbes have been gifted by nature with the ability of degrading a wide spectrum of environmental pollutants. Different fungi have the potentials to degrade complex and ...

  2. Nucleation Techniques as a Strategy for Recovery and Environmental Valuation of Degraded Areas Located in Alto Rio São Lourenço, Campo Verde-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Freitag Daltro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of different techniques that comprise the recovery plan of degraded area (RPDA in one of the headwaters of São Lourenço River, Campo Verde-MT, by monitoring the early stage of plant regeneration of permanent preservation degraded areas, according to the Federal Law 4.771/65 and its updates. The experimental area was divided into five treatments, for the planting of native plants, fruit, legumes, green manure and muvuca seed, based on the precepts of nucleation. For each treatment there was a random selection of three installments, measuring 81m2, totaling 12 plots. The planting, the identification and the characterization of indicators of vegetation regeneration site were monitored in these plots. The indicators found at the site were: flowers, fruits and seeds of revegetated species; traces and presence of wildlife; litter production and soil cover, and formation of microclimates, with increasing relative humidity and decreased atmospheric temperature.

  3. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of monoclinic and hexagonal WO 3 nanostructures. • Nanocuboid and nanofiber growth using different structure directing agents. • WO 3 –ZnO nanocomposites for dye degradation under UV and visible light. • High photocatalytic efficiency is achieved by 10 wt% monoclinic WO 3 . • WO 3 assists to trap hole in UV and arrests electron in visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Organic contaminants are a growing threat to the environment that widely demands their degradation by high efficient photocatalysts. Thus, the proposed research work primely focuses on the efficient degradation of methyl orange using designed WO 3 –ZnO photocatalysts under both UV and visible light irradiation. Two different sets of WO 3 nanostructures namely, monoclinic WO 3 (m-WO 3 ) and hexagonal WO 3 (h-WO 3 ) synthesizes in presence of a different structure directing agents. A specific dispersion technique allows the intimate contact of as-synthesized WO 3 and ultra-violet active commercial ZnO photocatalyst in different weight variations. ZnO nanocrystal in presence of an optimum 10 wt% m-WO 3 shows a high degree of photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation compared to counterpart h-WO 3 . Symmetrical monoclinic WO 3 assists to trap hole in UV, but electron arresting mechanism predominates in visible irradiation. Coupling of monoclinic nanocuboid WO 3 with ZnO proves to be a promising photocatalyst in both wavelengths.

  4. A case of thyroid storm with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest

  5. Hydroxylated PBDEs induce developmental arrest in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenko, Crystal Y., E-mail: Crystal_usenko@baylor.edu; Hopkins, David C.; Trumble, Stephen J., E-mail: Stephen_trumble@baylor.edu; Bruce, Erica D., E-mail: Erica_bruce@baylor.edu

    2012-07-01

    The ubiquitous spread of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has led to concerns regarding the metabolites of these congeners, in particular hydroxylated PBDEs. There are limited studies regarding the biological interactions of these chemicals, yet there is some concern they may be more toxic than their parent compounds. In this study three hydroxylated PBDEs were assessed for toxicity in embryonic zebrafish: 3-OH-BDE 47, 5-OH-BDE 47, and 6-OH-BDE 47. All three congeners induced developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner; however, 6-OH-BDE 47 induced adverse effects at lower concentrations than the other congeners. Furthermore, all three induced cell death; however apoptosis was not observed. In short-term exposures (24–28 hours post fertilization), all hydroxylated PBDEs generated oxidative stress in the region corresponding to the cell death at 5 and 10 ppm. To further investigate the short-term effects that may be responsible for the developmental arrest observed in this study, gene regulation was assessed for embryos exposed to 0.625 ppm 6-OH-BDE 47 from 24 to 28 hpf. Genes involved in stress response, thyroid hormone regulation, and neurodevelopment were significantly upregulated compared to controls; however, genes related to oxidative stress were either unaffected or downregulated. This study suggests that hydroxylated PBDEs disrupt development, and may induce oxidative stress and potentially disrupt the cholinergic system and thyroid hormone homeostasis. -- Highlights: ► OH-PBDEs induce developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. ► Hydroxyl group location influences biological interaction. ► OH-PBDEs induce oxidative stress. ► Thyroid hormone gene regulation was disrupted following exposure. ► To our knowledge, this is the first whole organism study of OH-PBDE toxicity.

  6. Chemical degradation of pentachlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.S.; Shukla, A.; Chandrasekharaiah, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    Industry produces a large volume of hazardous wastes containing pentachlorophenol, a U.S. EPA priority hazardous organic material. The environmentally safe disposal of these PCP-contaminated wastes is a serious problem for the waste management authorities as the current treatment processes are unsatisfactory. In this paper, the results of a feasibility study of chemical degradation and/or solidification methods for PCP-containing wastes. The photochemical decomposition of the PCP in a microemulsion or in micellar media obtained with the help of SDS or CTAB show the greatest promise

  7. Crack arrest concepts for failure prevention and life extension. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings contain the thirteen papers presented at a seminar on crack arrest concepts for failure prevention and life extension. They provide a picture of the current position of crack arrest testing, models and applications, discussion of the relevance of recent research to industrial problems, and an assessment of whether the application of crack arrest models provides additional safety. Separate abstracts have been prepared for seven papers of relevance to the nuclear industry and, in particular, reactor pressure vessels. (UK)

  8. Abiotic degradation of plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-López, Y. G.; Gutiérrez-Mayen, A. M.; Velasco-Pérez, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, M.; Vázquez-Morillas, A.; Cano-Blanco, M.

    2017-01-01

    Degradable plastics have been promoted as an option to mitigate the environmental impacts of plastic waste. However, there is no certainty about its degradability under different environmental conditions. The effect of accelerated weathering (AW), natural weathering (NW) and thermal oxidation (TO) on different plastics (high density polyethylene, HDPE; oxodegradable high density polyethylene, HDPE-oxo; compostable plastic, Ecovio ® metalized polypropylene, PP; and oxodegradable metalized polypropylene, PP-oxo) was studied. Plastics films were exposed to AW per 110 hours; to NW per 90 days; and to TO per 30 days. Plastic films exposed to AW and NW showed a general loss on mechanical properties. The highest reduction in elongation at break on AW occurred to HDPE-oxo (from 400.4% to 20.9%) and was higher than 90% for HDPE, HDPE-oxo, Ecovio ® and PP-oxo in NW. No substantial evidence of degradation was found on plastics exposed to TO. Oxo-plastics showed higher degradation rates than their conventional counterparts, and the compostable plastic was resistant to degradation in the studied abiotic conditions. This study shows that degradation of plastics in real life conditions will vary depending in both, their composition and the environment.

  9. Environmental Fate of the Herbicide Fluazifop-P-butyl and Its Degradation Products in Two Loamy Agricultural Soils: A Combined Laboratory and Field Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawi, Nora; Rosenbom, Anette E.; Olsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The herbicide fluazifop-P-butyl (FPB) is used against grasses in agricultural crops such as potato, oilseed rape and sugar beet. Limited information is available in Scientific literature on its environmental fate, therefore extensive monitoring at two agricultural test fields was combined...

  10. Predicting degradability of organic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finizio, A; Vighi, M [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Entomologia Agraria

    1992-05-01

    Degradability, particularly biodegradability, is one of the most important factors governing the persistence of pollutants in the environment and consequently influencing their behavior and toxicity in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The need for reliable persistence data in order to assess the environmental fate and hazard of chemicals by means of predictive approaches, is evident. Biodegradability tests are requested by the EEC directive on new chemicals. Neverthless, degradation tests are not easy to carry out and data on existing chemicals are very scarce. Therefore, assessing the fate of chemicals in the environment from the simple study of their structure would be a useful tool. Rates of degradation are a function of the rates of a series of processes. Correlation between degradation rates and structural parameters are will be facilitated if one of the processes is rate determining. This review is a survey of studies dealing with relationships between structure and biodegradation of organic chemicals, to identify the value and limitations of this approach.

  11. Cell cycle G2/M arrest through an S phase-dependent mechanism by HIV-1 viral protein R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Park, Hyeon U; Liang, Dong; Zhao, Richard Y

    2010-07-07

    Cell cycle G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr is thought to benefit viral proliferation by providing an optimized cellular environment for viral replication and by skipping host immune responses. Even though Vpr-induced G2 arrest has been studied extensively, how Vpr triggers G2 arrest remains elusive. To examine this initiation event, we measured the Vpr effect over a single cell cycle. We found that even though Vpr stops the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, but the initiation event actually occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle. Specifically, Vpr triggers activation of Chk1 through Ser345 phosphorylation in an S phase-dependent manner. The S phase-dependent requirement of Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation by Vpr was confirmed by siRNA gene silencing and site-directed mutagenesis. Moreover, downregulation of DNA replication licensing factors Cdt1 by siRNA significantly reduced Vpr-induced Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation and G2 arrest. Even though hydroxyurea (HU) and ultraviolet light (UV) also induce Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation in S phase under the same conditions, neither HU nor UV-treated cells were able to pass through S phase, whereas vpr-expressing cells completed S phase and stopped at the G2/M boundary. Furthermore, unlike HU/UV, Vpr promotes Chk1- and proteasome-mediated protein degradations of Cdc25B/C for G2 induction; in contrast, Vpr had little or no effect on Cdc25A protein degradation normally mediated by HU/UV. These data suggest that Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest through a unique molecular mechanism that regulates host cell cycle regulation in an S-phase dependent fashion.

  12. Cell cycle G2/M arrest through an S phase-dependent mechanism by HIV-1 viral protein R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Dong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell cycle G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr is thought to benefit viral proliferation by providing an optimized cellular environment for viral replication and by skipping host immune responses. Even though Vpr-induced G2 arrest has been studied extensively, how Vpr triggers G2 arrest remains elusive. Results To examine this initiation event, we measured the Vpr effect over a single cell cycle. We found that even though Vpr stops the cell cycle at the G2/M phase, but the initiation event actually occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle. Specifically, Vpr triggers activation of Chk1 through Ser345 phosphorylation in an S phase-dependent manner. The S phase-dependent requirement of Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation by Vpr was confirmed by siRNA gene silencing and site-directed mutagenesis. Moreover, downregulation of DNA replication licensing factors Cdt1 by siRNA significantly reduced Vpr-induced Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation and G2 arrest. Even though hydroxyurea (HU and ultraviolet light (UV also induce Chk1-Ser345 phosphorylation in S phase under the same conditions, neither HU nor UV-treated cells were able to pass through S phase, whereas vpr-expressing cells completed S phase and stopped at the G2/M boundary. Furthermore, unlike HU/UV, Vpr promotes Chk1- and proteasome-mediated protein degradations of Cdc25B/C for G2 induction; in contrast, Vpr had little or no effect on Cdc25A protein degradation normally mediated by HU/UV. Conclusions These data suggest that Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest through a unique molecular mechanism that regulates host cell cycle regulation in an S-phase dependent fashion.

  13. Pathological links between stroke and cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaila Ghanekar; Sydney Corey; Trenton Lippert; Cesar V.Borlongan

    2017-01-01

    There may be a pathological connection between cardiac failure and ischemic stroke.In this article we describe pertinent research that demonstrates subsequent death of cardiac and neural myocytes in the post ischemic stroke brain.Current stroke therapy overlooks the connection between cardiac and cerebrovascular events and fails to address the shared risk factors.Current pre-clinical stroke investigations have provided evidence that suggests the presence of an indirect cell death pathway in which toxic molecules emanate from the stroke brain and trigger cardiac cell death.On the other hand,other studies highlight the presence of a reverse cell death cascade in which toxic molecules from the heart,following cardiac arrest,travel to the brain and induce ischemic cell death.Further examination of these putative cell death pathways between ischemic stroke and cardiac arrest will prompt the advancement of innovative treatments specifically targeting both diseases,leading to ameliorated clinical results of patients diagnosed with heart failure and ischemic stroke.

  14. Cerebral intolerance during flow arrested carotid angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Myron; Park, Brian D; Dahn, Michael; Bozeman, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The use of flow arrest as a means of providing cerebral protection during carotid angioplasty offers the advantages of improved efficiency of debris removal and the ability to provide protection under unfavorable (tortuous) anatomic circumstances. However, in contrast to the filtration methods of cerebral protection, this modality requires complete interruption of antegrade carotid artery flow during balloon angioplasty and stent deployment. We report our experience with 9 patients undergoing carotid angioplasty with the Mo.Ma device, which utilizes common and external carotid artery balloon occlusion during the angioplasty procedure. We assessed the clinical outcomes and intraprocedural hemodynamic data. The average duration of carotid occlusion was 8.3 minutes. Of the 9 patients, 2 patients (22%) experienced cerebral intolerance. No stroke occurred in this patient cohort. There appeared to be a poor relationship between procedure intolerance and the presence of significant contralateral stenosis or low carotid back pressure. Furthermore, the incidence of postangioplasty hypotension was not clearly related to cerebral intolerance. Carotid angioplasty with stenting can be safely conducted with flow arrest as an alternative to filter-type cerebral protection devices. However, because cerebral intolerance is not an infrequent occurrence with this approach, clinicians must be cognizant of management strategies for transient cerebral intolerance.

  15. The Degradation of a Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Galina Fedorouna

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that the process of national degradation is a real danger and concern of all Russian society. Discusses environmental concerns, such as water, soil, and air pollution; falling birth rates; aging of the population; crime; and decline in moral values. Concludes that it is imperative for all citizens to stop and reverse these trends. (CFR)

  16. Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Pernille; Bak, Søren A; Björklund, Erland

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C f...... because they absorb light of environmentally irrelevant wavelengths....

  17. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  18. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Optimization and Comparison of ESI and APCI LC-MS/MS Methods: A Case Study of Irgarol 1051, Diuron, and their Degradation Products in Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragou, Niki C.; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Koupparis, Michael A.

    2011-10-01

    A systematic and detailed optimization strategy for the development of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) LC-MS/MS methods for the determination of Irgarol 1051, Diuron, and their degradation products (M1, DCPMU, DCPU, and DCA) in water, sediment, and mussel is described. Experimental design was applied for the optimization of the ion sources parameters. Comparison of ESI and APCI was performed in positive- and negative-ion mode, and the effect of the mobile phase on ionization was studied for both techniques. Special attention was drawn to the ionization of DCA, which presents particular difficulty in API techniques. Satisfactory ionization of this small molecule is achieved only with ESI positive-ion mode using acetonitrile in the mobile phase; the instrumental detection limit is 0.11 ng/mL. Signal suppression was qualitatively estimated by using purified and non-purified samples. The sample preparation for sediments and mussels is direct and simple, comprising only solvent extraction. Mean recoveries ranged from 71% to 110%, and the corresponding (%) RSDs ranged between 4.1 and 14%. The method limits of detection ranged between 0.6 and 3.5 ng/g for sediment and mussel and from 1.3 to 1.8 ng/L for sea water. The method was applied to sea water, marine sediment, and mussels, which were obtained from marinas in Attiki, Greece. Ion ratio confirmation was used for the identification of the compounds.

  20. Green synthesis and characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles using Mussaenda glabrata leaf extract and their environmental applications to dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sijo; Joseph, Siby; Koshy, Ebey P; Mathew, Beena

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived nanomaterials opened a green approach in solving the current environment issues. Present study focused on rapid microwave-assisted synthesis and applications of gold and silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extract of Mussaenda glabrata. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, powder XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron (TEM), and atomic force microscopic techniques (AFM). FCC crystal structure of both nanoparticles was confirmed by peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes in XRD spectra and bright circular spots in SAED pattern. IC 50 values shown by gold and silver nanoparticles (44.1 ± 0.82 and 57.92 ± 1.33 μg/mL) reflected their high free radical scavenging potential. The synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles revealed their potency to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Anthropogenic pollutants rhodamine B and methyl orange were effectively degraded from aquatic environment and waste water sewages of dye industries using the prepared nanocatalysts. The catalytic capacities of the synthesized nanoparticles were also exploited in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Graphical abstract.

  1. What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribbia, John Luke

    . The STIRPAT method is used to test four social theories of environmental degradation -- the treadmill of production, ecological modernization, urban ecological transitions, and human ecology theories -- by quantifying variables associated with energy use and CO2 emissions drawn from each theory. The specific findings demonstrate that various demographic, economic, and governmental factors are related strongly to metropolitan area energy consumption and county-level CO2 emissions. The human ecology, treadmill of production, and urban ecological transitions theories are important to explaining how and why climate-related impacts differ for a wide variety of local areas in the United States. Related to human ecology and treadmill of production theory, environmental degradation is highest in metropolitan areas and counties with large populations and large economies that have various mechanisms in place to facilitate economic growth. By contrast, some U.S. counties are beginning to remedy their impact on the environment by applying economic and governmental resources toward the mitigation of CO2 emissions, which provides evidence of support for urban ecological transitions theory. However, because climate change is a complex cross-scale global environmental problem and the results in this dissertation confirm that this problem is locally driven by similar population and economic factors also affecting the climate at larger spatial scales, mitigation efforts to reduce energy use and emissions at the local level will be fruitless without a well-coordinated, cross-scale (local to global) ideological shift that puts less priority on economic goals and more on environmental sustainability. These results, and the methodological and theoretical framework applied in this dissertation, thus provide a useful platform for the successful application of future research that specifically addresses mitigation strategies to reduce local-level environmental impacts. This dissertation

  2. Association of National Initiatives to Improve Cardiac Arrest Management With Rates of Bystander Intervention and Patient Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Lippert, Freddy K; Folke, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    resuscitation was attempted were identified between 2001 and 2010 in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Of 29 111 patients with cardiac arrest, we excluded those with presumed noncardiac cause of arrest (n = 7390) and those with cardiac arrests witnessed by emergency medical services personnel (n...

  3. Performance of Surge Arrester Installation to Enhance Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbunwe Muncho Josephine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of abnormal voltages on power system equipment and appliances in the home have raise concern as most of the equipments are very expensive. Each piece of electrical equipment in an electrical system needs to be protected from surges. To prevent damage to electrical equipment, surge protection considerations are paramount to a well designed electrical system. Lightning discharges are able to damage electric and electronic devices that usually have a low protection level and these are influenced by current or voltage pulses with a relatively low energy, which are induced by lightning currents. This calls for proper designed and configuration of surge arresters for protection on the particular appliances. A more efficient non-linear surge arrester, metal oxide varistor (MOV, should be introduced to handle these surges. This paper shows the selection of arresters laying more emphasis on the arresters for residential areas. In addition, application and installation of the arrester will be determined by the selected arrester. This paper selects the lowest rated surge arrester as it provides insulation when the system is under stress. It also selected station class and distribution class of arresters as they act as an open circuit under normal system operation and to bring the system back to its normal operation mode as the transient voltage is suppressed. Thus, reduces the risk of damage, which the protection measures can be characterized, by the reduction value of the economic loss to an acceptable level.

  4. Cardiac arrest during anesthesia at a University Hospital in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We assessed the incidence and outcomes of cardiac arrest during anesthesia in the operating room at our university hospital. A previous study on intraoperative cardiac arrests covered a period from 1994-1998 and since then; anesthetic personnel, equipment, and workload have increased remarkably.

  5. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride for Arresting Caries Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yee, R.T.F.; Holmgren, C.J.; Mulder, J.; Lama, D.; Walker, D.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Arresting Caries Treatment (ACT) has been proposed to manage untreated dental caries in children. This prospective randomized clinical trial investigated the caries-arresting effectiveness of a single spot application of: (1) 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) with tannic acid as a reducing agent;

  6. Cooling the crisis: Therapeutic hypothermia after sickle cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metske, Hennie A.; Postema, Pieter G.; Biemond, Bart J.; Bouman, Catherine S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The management of patients with sickle-cell disease and cardiac arrest presents special challenges. Mild therapeutic hypothermia may improve survival and neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest, however, it may also precipitate sickling in patients with sickle-cell disease. Rigorous

  7. 29 CFR 1915.159 - Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS). 1915.159 Section 1915... Protective Equipment (PPE) § 1915.159 Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS). The criteria of this section apply to PFAS and their use. Effective January 1, 1998, body belts and non-locking snaphooks are not...

  8. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qin Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as "oocyte factor." The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation.

  9. Growth arrest specific protein (GAS) 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, T N; Rasmussen, Morten; Jaksch, C A M

    2013-01-01

    using RNA microarray and quantitative PCR. The role of a differentially expressed gene, growth arrest specific protein 6 (GAS6), was evaluated in vitro using neonatal rat islets. Results The mRNA level of Gas6, known to be mitogenic in other tissues, was reduced in LP offspring. The mRNA content of Mafa...... was increased in LP offspring suggesting an early maturation of beta cells. When applied in vitro, GAS6 increased proliferation of neonatal pancreatic beta cells, while reducing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without changing the total insulin content of the islets. In addition, GAS6 decreased the m......RNA content of Mafa. Conclusions/interpretation We propose a role for GAS6 in the regulation of pancreatic beta cells in the critical period around the time of birth. Our results support the hypothesis that the reduced beta cell mass seen in LP offspring is caused by a change in the intra-uterine environment...

  10. Structural arrest in an ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ketel, Willem; Das, Chinmay; Frenkel, Daan

    2005-04-08

    We report a molecular dynamics study of a simple model system that has the static properties of an ideal gas, yet exhibits nontrivial "glassy" dynamics behavior at high densities. The constituent molecules of this system are constructs of three infinitely thin hard rods of length L, rigidly joined at their midpoints. The crosses have random but fixed orientation. The static properties of this system are those of an ideal gas, and its collision frequency can be computed analytically. For number densities NL(3)/V>1, the single-particle diffusivity goes to zero. As the system is completely structureless, standard mode-coupling theory cannot describe the observed structural arrest. Nevertheless, the system exhibits many dynamical features that appear to be mode-coupling-like. All high-density incoherent intermediate scattering functions collapse onto master curves that depend only on the wave vector.

  11. ERC initiatives to reduce the burden of cardiac arrest: the European Cardiac Arrest Awareness Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Marios; Lockey, Andrew S

    2013-09-01

    The rate of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe remains unacceptably low and could be increased by better bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates. The European Resuscitation Council has announced that there will be a European Cardiac Arrest Awareness Day every year on the 16th of October. This is to coincide with the goals of the Written Declaration passed by the European Parliament in June 2012 that emphasised the importance of equal access to CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) training. The topic of this year's Awareness Day is 'Children Saving Lives' and it is hoped that all national resuscitation councils will promote awareness of the benefits of training all children in CPR and AED use and lobby for legislative change to ensure that all children receive this training. Children are not just the adults of tomorrow - they are the lifesavers of today and tomorrow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prehospital cardiac arrest survival and neurologic recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, M; Sinclair, D; Butler, G; Cain, E

    1993-01-01

    Many studies of prehospital defibrillation have been conducted but the effects of airway intervention are unknown and neurologic follow-up has been incomplete. A non-randomized cohort prospective study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of defibrillation in prehospital cardiac arrest. Two ambulance companies in the study area developed a defibrillation protocol and they formed the experimental group. A subgroup of these patients received airway management with an esophageal obturator airway (EOA) or endotracheal intubation (ETT). The control group was composed of patients who suffered a prehospital cardiac arrest and did not receive prehospital defibrillation. All survivors were assessed for residual deficits using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). A total of 221 patients were studied over a 32-month period. Both the experimental group (N = 161) and the control group (N = 60) were comparable with respect to age, sex distribution, and ambulance response time. Survival to hospital discharge was 2/60 (3.3%) in the control group and 12/161 (6.3%) in the experimental group. This difference is not statistically significant. Survival in the experimental group by airway management technique was basic airway support (3/76 3.9%), EOA (3/67 4.5%), and ETT (6/48 12.5%). The improved effect on survival by ETT management was statistically significant. Survivors had minor differences in memory, work, and recreation as compared to ischemic heart disease patients as measured by the SIP and DRS. No effect of defibrillation was found on survival to hospital discharge. However, endotracheal intubation improved survival in defibrillated patients. Survivors had a good functional outcome.

  13. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon mixtures in surface waters at environmentally relevant levels - Effect of inoculum origin on kinetics and sequence of degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Hammershøj, Rikke Høst; Comber, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradation is a dominant removal process for many organic pollutants, and biodegradation tests serve as tools for assessing their environmental fate within regulatory risk assessment. In simulation tests, the inoculum is not standardized, varying in microbial quantity and quality, thereby...... potentially impacting the observed biodegradation kinetics. In this study we investigated the effect of inoculum origin on the biodegradation kinetics of hydrocarbons for five inocula from surface waters varying in urbanization and thus expected pre-exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. A new biodegradation...... method for testing mixtures of hydrophobic chemicals at trace concentrations was demonstrated: Aqueous solutions containing 9 hydrocarbons were generated by passive dosing and diluted with surface water resulting in test systems containing native microorganisms exposed to test substances at ng...

  14. Sudden Cardiac Arrest during Participation in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Cameron H; Allan, Katherine S; Connelly, Kim A; Cunningham, Kris; Morrison, Laurie J; Dorian, Paul

    2017-11-16

    The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during participation in sports activities remains unknown. Preparticipation screening programs aimed at preventing sudden cardiac arrest during sports activities are thought to be able to identify at-risk athletes; however, the efficacy of these programs remains controversial. We sought to identify all sudden cardiac arrests that occurred during participation in sports activities within a specific region of Canada and to determine their causes. In this retrospective study, we used the Rescu Epistry cardiac arrest database (which contains records of every cardiac arrest attended by paramedics in the network region) to identify all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred from 2009 through 2014 in persons 12 to 45 years of age during participation in a sport. Cases were adjudicated as sudden cardiac arrest (i.e., having a cardiac cause) or as an event resulting from a noncardiac cause, on the basis of records from multiple sources, including ambulance call reports, autopsy reports, in-hospital data, and records of direct interviews with patients or family members. Over the course of 18.5 million person-years of observation, 74 sudden cardiac arrests occurred during participation in a sport; of these, 16 occurred during competitive sports and 58 occurred during noncompetitive sports. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during competitive sports was 0.76 cases per 100,000 athlete-years, with 43.8% of the athletes surviving until they were discharged from the hospital. Among the competitive athletes, two deaths were attributed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and none to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Three cases of sudden cardiac arrest that occurred during participation in competitive sports were determined to have been potentially identifiable if the athletes had undergone preparticipation screening. In our study involving persons who had out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the incidence of sudden cardiac

  15. PROBLEMS OF DEGRADATION OF RECREATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL AREAS OF THE CITY OF KYIV AND EVALUATION BIODIVERSITY LOSES IN THE CONTEXT OF FUTURE INTEGRATION INTO EU ECOLOGICAL NETWORK NATURA 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkulskyi R.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades the European Union has put in place a broad range of environmental legislation. As a result, air, water and soil pollution has significantly been reduced. Chemicals legislation has been modernised and the use of many toxic or hazardous substances has been restricted. Today, EU citizens enjoy some of the best water quality in the world and over 18% of EU's territory has been designated as protected areas for nature. On 9 November 2009 under the aegis of Eastern Partnership Platform “Economic Integration and Convergence with the EU Policies” there was established a Panel on the issues of environment and climate change. The Panel facilitates the information and good practices exchange on development and implementation of environmental and climate policies with the aim to promote the approximation of Eastern Partnership countries (includes Ukraine to the EU legislature in these spheres. The principles of ecological network system in Ukraine and the EU in the context of the EU Directive number 92/43 / EC are analyzed in this article. The necessary preconditions for Ukraine’s ecological network integration to the NATURA 2000 in the future should be: - establishment of Special Protection Areas (SPA’s on the principles of habitats and species protection; - amendments to legislation of Ukraine in terms of criteria ecological network definition. Biodiversity losses and degradation are identified in recreational and environmental areas of the city of Kyiv. Green areas in Kiev (especially parks has tendentions of lose their identity because of forest stand changes. The economic value of biodiversity should be factored into decision making in city planning, land management etc.

  16. Effect of artificial aging on polymeric surge arresters and polymer insulators for electricity distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate new and laboratory-aged samples of surge arresters and anchorage polymeric insulators, for 12 and 24 kV networks, which are used by the Rio Grande Energia (RGE. Power Utility Polymeric compounds were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG, Dynamic-Mechanic Analysis (DMA, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM to verify changes in the insulator properties due to degradation occurred during the experiments. The analyses were carried out before and after 6 months of aging in laboratory devices (weatherometer, 120 °C, salt spray, immersion in water. After the aging experiments, high-voltage electrical tests were also conducted: a radio interference voltage test and, simultaneously, the total and the internal leakage currents were measured to verify the surface degradation of the polymeric material used in the housing. The impulse current test was applied with current values close to 5, 10 and 30 kA, in order to force an internal degradation. Results showed that only surface degradation is detected at the polymer. The main properties of the parts were not affected by the aging. It confirms that polymer insulator and surge arrestor are appropriate for use in electricity distribution networks.

  17. Degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Petersen, Elijah J.; Habteselassie, Mussie Y.; Mao, Liang; Huang, Qingguo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental transformation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is important to their life cycle assessment and potential environmental impacts. We report that a bacterial community is capable of degrading 14 C-labeled MWCNTs into 14 CO 2 in the presence of an external carbon source via co-metabolism. Multiple intermediate products were detected, and genotypic characterization revealed three possible microbial degraders: Burkholderia kururiensis, Delftia acidovorans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This result suggests that microbe/MWCNTs interaction may impact the long-term fate of MWCNTs. Highlights: •Mineralization of MWCNTs by a bacterial community was observed. •The mineralization required an external carbon source. •Multiple intermediate products were identified in the MWCNT degrading culture. •Three bacterial species were found likely responsible for MWCNT degradation. -- The 14 C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes can be degraded to 14 CO 2 and other byproducts by a bacteria community under natural conditions

  18. Post-resuscitation care for survivors of cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvarya Mangla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest can occur following a myriad of clinical conditions. With advancement of medical science and improvements in Emergency Medical Services systems, the rate of return of spontaneous circulation for patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA continues to increase. Managing these patients is challenging and requires a structured approach including stabilization of cardiopulmonary status, early consideration of neuroprotective strategies, identifying and managing the etiology of arrest and initiating treatment to prevent recurrence. This requires a closely coordinated multidisciplinary team effort. In this article, we will review the initial management of survivors of OHCA, highlighting advances and ongoing controversies.

  19. Soil degradation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper diagnoses the issues involved behind the current state, usage, interactions and linkages in the soils in Pakistan. The condition of soils is deteriorating due to developmental and environmental factors such as soil degradation, water pollution, fauna degeneration etc. Issues, problems and constraints faced in the management and usage of soils are diagnosed at different levels in the ecosystems predominant in Pakistan. The research questions propose effective solutions, types of instruments, methods or processes to resolve the issues within the various areas or ecosystems in the most sustainable and effective manner [23]. Biological solutions and methods can be applied at the sub-system level by private individuals or communities at a lower cost, and at a more localized level than engineering methods. Engineering methods may be suited for interventions at a system level rather than at a sub-system level; but even at this level they will be complementary with biological methods. (author)

  20. Bacteria-mediated bisphenol A degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yin, Kun; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, food cans, and other daily used chemicals. Daily and worldwide usage of BPA and BPA-contained products led to its ubiquitous distribution in water, sediment/soil, and atmosphere. Moreover, BPA has been identified as an environmental endocrine disruptor for its estrogenic and genotoxic activity. Thus, BPA contamination in the environment is an increasingly worldwide concern, and methods to efficiently remove BPA from the environment are urgently recommended. Although many factors affect the fate of BPA in the environment, BPA degradation is mainly depended on the metabolism of bacteria. Many BPA-degrading bacteria have been identified from water, sediment/soil, and wastewater treatment plants. Metabolic pathways of BPA degradation in specific bacterial strains were proposed, based on the metabolic intermediates detected during the degradation process. In this review, the BPA-degrading bacteria were summarized, and the (proposed) BPA degradation pathway mediated by bacteria were referred.

  1. Microbial Enzymatic Degradation of Biodegradable Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi; Bano, Kulsoom; Kuddus, Mohammed; Zaheer, Mohammed R; Zia, Qamar; Khan, Mohammed F; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Gupta, Anamika; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The renewable feedstock derived biodegradable plastics are important in various industries such as packaging, agricultural, paper coating, garbage bags and biomedical implants. The increasing water and waste pollution due to the available decomposition methods of plastic degradation have led to the emergence of biodegradable plastics and biological degradation with microbial (bacteria and fungi) extracellular enzymes. The microbes utilize biodegradable polymers as the substrate under starvation and in unavailability of microbial nutrients. Microbial enzymatic degradation is suitable from bioremediation point of view as no waste accumulation occurs. It is important to understand the microbial interaction and mechanism involved in the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastics under the influence of several environmental factors such as applied pH, thermo-stability, substrate molecular weight and/or complexity. To study the surface erosion of polymer film is another approach for hydrolytic degradation characteristion. The degradation of biopolymer is associated with the production of low molecular weight monomer and generation of carbon dioxide, methane and water molecule. This review reported the degradation study of various existing biodegradable plastics along with the potent degrading microbes (bacteria and fungi). Patents available on plastic biodegradation with biotechnological significance is also summarized in this paper. This paper assesses that new disposal technique should be adopted for the degradation of polymers and further research is required for the economical production of biodegradable plastics along with their enzymatic degradation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Prediction of cardiac arrest recurrence using ensemble classifiers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nachiket Tapas

    ECG dataset from PhysioNet, Pima Indian Diabetes dataset from UCI Machine Learning Repository and gene expression ... electrical activity, medically the condition is known as cardiac arrest ... ing, (5) lack of physical exercise, etc. [9]. Using ...

  3. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  4. The outcome of anaesthesia related cardiac arrest in a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Adekola

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Anaesthesia related cardiac arrest and mortality were linked to cardiovascular depression from halothane overdose in our institution. The burden can be reduced by improving on establishing standard monitoring in the perioperative period, and a team approach to patients care.

  5. Dynamic propagation and cleavage crack arrest in bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaj, M.

    2006-06-01

    In complement of the studies of harmfulness of defects, generally realized in term of initiation, the concept of crack arrest could be used as complementary analyses to the studies of safety. The stop occurs when the stress intensity factor becomes lower than crack arrest toughness (KIa) calculated in elasto-statics (KI ≤ KIa). The aim of this thesis is to understand and predict the stop of a crack propagating at high speed in a 18MND5 steel used in the pressure water reactor (PWR). The test chosen to study crack arrest is the disc thermal shock test. The observations under the scanning electron microscope of the fracture surface showed that the crack arrest always occurs in cleavage mode and that the critical microstructural entity with respect to the propagation and crack arrest corresponds to at least the size of the prior austenitic grain. The numerical analyses in elasto-statics confirm the conservatism of the codified curve of the RCC-M with respect to the values of KIa. The dynamic numerical analyses show that the deceleration of the crack measured at the end of the propagation is related to the global dynamic of the structure (vibrations). The transferability to components of crack arrest toughness obtained from tests analysed in static is thus not assured. The disc thermal shock tests were also modelled by considering a criterion of propagation and arrest of the type 'RKR' characterized by a critical stress sc which depends on the temperature. The results obtained account well for the crack jump measured in experiments as well as the shape of the crack arrest front. (author)

  6. Al-Qaeda arrest casts shadow over the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Dacey, James

    2010-01-01

    "Cern remains on course for the imminent switch-on of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) despite the media frenzy following the recent arrest of a physicist who had been working at the facility. The researcher in question is a 32-year-old man of Algerian descent who is expected to face trail in France - the country in which he was arrested" (0.5 page)

  7. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Sarkar, Debasish, E-mail: dsarkar@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of monoclinic and hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanostructures. • Nanocuboid and nanofiber growth using different structure directing agents. • WO{sub 3}–ZnO nanocomposites for dye degradation under UV and visible light. • High photocatalytic efficiency is achieved by 10 wt% monoclinic WO{sub 3}. • WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV and arrests electron in visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Organic contaminants are a growing threat to the environment that widely demands their degradation by high efficient photocatalysts. Thus, the proposed research work primely focuses on the efficient degradation of methyl orange using designed WO{sub 3}–ZnO photocatalysts under both UV and visible light irradiation. Two different sets of WO{sub 3} nanostructures namely, monoclinic WO{sub 3} (m-WO{sub 3}) and hexagonal WO{sub 3} (h-WO{sub 3}) synthesizes in presence of a different structure directing agents. A specific dispersion technique allows the intimate contact of as-synthesized WO{sub 3} and ultra-violet active commercial ZnO photocatalyst in different weight variations. ZnO nanocrystal in presence of an optimum 10 wt% m-WO{sub 3} shows a high degree of photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation compared to counterpart h-WO{sub 3}. Symmetrical monoclinic WO{sub 3} assists to trap hole in UV, but electron arresting mechanism predominates in visible irradiation. Coupling of monoclinic nanocuboid WO{sub 3} with ZnO proves to be a promising photocatalyst in both wavelengths.

  8. Associates of Cardiopulmonary Arrest in the Perihemodialytic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flythe, Jennifer E.; Li, Nien-Chen; Brunelli, Steven M.; Lacson, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest during and proximate to hemodialysis is rare but highly fatal. Studies have examined peridialytic sudden cardiac event risk factors, but no study has considered associates of cardiopulmonary arrests (fatal and nonfatal events including cardiac and respiratory causes). This study was designed to elucidate patient and procedural factors associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Data for this case-control study were taken from the hemodialysis population at Fresenius Medical Care, North America. 924 in-center cardiopulmonary events (cases) and 75,538 controls were identified. Cases and controls were 1 : 5 matched on age, sex, race, and diabetes. Predictors of cardiopulmonary arrest were considered for logistic model inclusion. Missed treatments due to hospitalization, lower body mass, coronary artery disease, heart failure, lower albumin and hemoglobin, lower dialysate potassium, higher serum calcium, greater erythropoietin stimulating agent dose, and normalized protein catabolic rate (J-shaped) were associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Of these, lower albumin, hemoglobin, and body mass index; higher erythropoietin stimulating agent dose; and greater missed sessions had the strongest associations with outcome. Patient health markers and procedural factors are associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. In addition to optimizing nutritional status, it may be prudent to limit exposure to low dialysate potassium (<2 K bath) and to use the lowest effective erythropoietin stimulating agent dose. PMID:25530881

  9. Associates of Cardiopulmonary Arrest in the Perihemodialytic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Flythe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary arrest during and proximate to hemodialysis is rare but highly fatal. Studies have examined peridialytic sudden cardiac event risk factors, but no study has considered associates of cardiopulmonary arrests (fatal and nonfatal events including cardiac and respiratory causes. This study was designed to elucidate patient and procedural factors associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Data for this case-control study were taken from the hemodialysis population at Fresenius Medical Care, North America. 924 in-center cardiopulmonary events (cases and 75,538 controls were identified. Cases and controls were 1 : 5 matched on age, sex, race, and diabetes. Predictors of cardiopulmonary arrest were considered for logistic model inclusion. Missed treatments due to hospitalization, lower body mass, coronary artery disease, heart failure, lower albumin and hemoglobin, lower dialysate potassium, higher serum calcium, greater erythropoietin stimulating agent dose, and normalized protein catabolic rate (J-shaped were associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Of these, lower albumin, hemoglobin, and body mass index; higher erythropoietin stimulating agent dose; and greater missed sessions had the strongest associations with outcome. Patient health markers and procedural factors are associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. In addition to optimizing nutritional status, it may be prudent to limit exposure to low dialysate potassium (<2 K bath and to use the lowest effective erythropoietin stimulating agent dose.

  10. Cardiac arrest due to lymphocytic colitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groth Kristian A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia caused by lymphocytic colitis. Case presentation A 69-year-old Caucasian man presented four months prior to a cardiac arrest with watery diarrhea and was diagnosed with lymphocytic colitis. Our patient experienced a witnessed cardiac arrest at his general practitioner's surgery. Two physicians and the emergency medical services resuscitated our patient for one hour and four minutes before arriving at our university hospital. Our patient was defibrillated 16 times due to the recurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. An arterial blood sample revealed a potassium level of 2.0 mmol/L (reference range: 3.5 to 4.6 mmol/L and pH 6.86 (reference range: pH 7.37 to 7.45. As the potassium level was corrected, the propensity for ventricular tachyarrhythmias ceased. Our patient recovered from his cardiac arrest without any neurological deficit. Further tests and examinations revealed no other reason for the cardiac arrest. Conclusion Diarrhea can cause life-threatening situations due to the excretion of potassium, ultimately causing cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia. Physicians treating patients with severe diarrhea should consider monitoring their electrolyte levels.

  11. The neighborhood context of racial and ethnic disparities in arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David S

    2008-02-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.

  12. Interfacial crack arrest in sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading using a novel crack arresting device – Numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J.H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A novel crack arresting device is implemented in foam-cored composite sandwich beams and tested using the Sandwich Tear Test (STT) configuration. A finite element model of the setup is developed, and the predictions are correlated with observations and results from a recently conducted experiment...... concept, as well as a design tool that can be used for the implementation of crack arresting devises in engineering applications of sandwich components and structures....

  13. Knockdown of human deubiquitinase PSMD14 induces cell cycle arrest and senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Ann; McLaren, Rajashree P.; Mason, Paul; Chai, Lilly; Dufault, Michael R.; Huang, Yinyin; Liang, Beirong; Gans, Joseph D.; Zhang, Mindy; Carter, Kara; Gladysheva, Tatiana B.; Teicher, Beverly A.; Biemann, Hans-Peter N.; Booker, Michael; Goldberg, Mark A.; Klinger, Katherine W.; Lillie, James [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States); Madden, Stephen L., E-mail: steve.madden@genzyme.com [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States); Jiang, Yide, E-mail: yide.jiang@genzyme.com [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The PSMD14 (POH1, also known as Rpn11/MPR1/S13/CepP1) protein within the 19S complex (19S cap; PA700) is responsible for substrate deubiquitination during proteasomal degradation. The role of PSMD14 in cell proliferation and senescence was explored using siRNA knockdown in carcinoma cell lines. Our results reveal that down-regulation of PSMD14 by siRNA transfection had a considerable impact on cell viability causing cell arrest in the G0-G1 phase, ultimately leading to senescence. The molecular events associated with decreased cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and senescence include down-regulation of cyclin B1-CDK1-CDC25C, down-regulation of cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p21{sup /Cip} and p27{sup /Kip1}. Most notably, phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein was markedly reduced in PSMD14 knockdown cells. A comparative study with PSMB5, a subunit of the 20S proteasome, revealed that PSMB5 and PSMD14 have different effects on cell cycle, senescence and associated molecular events. These data support the view that the 19S and 20S subunits of the proteasome have distinct biological functions and imply that targeting 19S and 20S would have distinct molecular consequences on tumor cells.

  14. ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION BASIS FOR INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS RENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Milićević

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the most environmental pressure in Serbia comes from urban areas and associated industries,with collection, treatment and disposal all kinds of hazardous waste, non hazardous waste, and waste water being among the most challenging issues.There is an urgency to prevent further environmental degradation and to initiate new environmental and industrial management practices. Industrial systems reingeneering is one of possible solutions, from the authors stand point.

  15. A model of survival following pre-hospital cardiac arrest based on the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Masha; Barnes, Vanessa; Whyman, Andrew; Currell, Alex; Bernard, Stephen; Walker, Tony; Smith, Karen L

    2007-11-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of sudden cardiac arrest patients in Victoria, Australia, as captured via the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Register (VACAR). We used the VACAR data to construct a new model of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), which was specified in accordance with observed trends. All cases of cardiac arrest in Victoria that were attended by Victorian ambulance services during the period of 2002-2005. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 3.8% among 18,827 cases of OHCA. Survival was 15.7% among 1726 bystander witnessed, adult cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac aetiology, presenting in ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT), where resuscitation was attempted. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, bystander CPR, cardiac arrest (CA) location, response time, age and sex were predictors of VF/VT, which, in turn, was a strong predictor of survival. The same factors that affected VF/VT made an additional contribution to survival. However, for bystander CPR, CA location and response time this additional contribution was limited to VF/VT patients only. There was no detectable association between survival and age younger than 60 years or response time over 15min. The new model accounts for relationships among predictors of survival. These relationships indicate that interventions such as reduced response times and bystander CPR act in multiple ways to improve survival.

  16. Characterization of Mitochondrial Injury after Cardiac Arrest (COMICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W.; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Gaieski, David F.; Ornato, Joseph P.; Gazmuri, Raúl J.; Grossestreur, Anne V.; Cocchi, Michaen N.; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. Methods We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Results Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0 hours. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18 ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16 ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0 hours cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66 ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27 ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher RNAase P (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and B2M (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Conclusions Cytochrome C was increased in post-cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in post-arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. PMID:28126408

  17. Characterization of mitochondrial injury after cardiac arrest (COMICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W; Rittenberger, Jon C; Abella, Benjamin S; Gaieski, David F; Ornato, Joseph P; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Grossestreuer, Anne V; Cocchi, Michael N; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton W

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48h after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0h. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0h cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher Ribonuclease P (RNaseP) (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and Beta-2microglobulin (B2M) (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Cytochrome c was increased in post- cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in the post-cardiac arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S. [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Perkins, Edward J. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Meyer, Sharon A., E-mail: meyer@ulm.edu [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  19. 1 Evaluating Biophysical Attributes of Environmentally Degraded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    This study provides base-line information and add to land cover knowledge for this and similar regions. .... LANDSAT ETM Data and Image Processing .... attitudes (from 1500 to 2700 m asl), which .... combination of shallow rooting depth.

  20. TFD, Environmental Degradation and Health Issues | Obonguko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creative Artist: A Journal of Theatre and Media Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Environmental degradation, energy consumption, population growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the result, there is no evidence of unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions and energy consumption to economic growth and strong unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth to population growth was found. The long run and short run estimates ...

  2. Corrosion and Environmental Degradation, 2 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Michael; Cahn, Robert W.; Haasen, Peter; Kramer, E. J.

    2001-06-01

    Corrosion and corrosion protection is one of most important topics in applied materials science. Corrosion science is not only important from an economic point of view, but, due to its interdisciplinary nature combining metallurgy, materials physics and electrochemistry, it is also of high scientific interest. Nowadays corrosion science even gets new impetus from surface science and polymer chemistry. This two-volume reference work belonging to the well renown series Materials Science and Tehcnology provides the reader with a sound and broad survey on the whole subject - from the fundamentals to the latest research results. Written by a team of international top-experts it will become an indispensable reference for any materials scientist, physicist or chemist involved in corrosion science.

  3. Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    able exploitation by man. One notable .... action of any of the parties in the quest to realise or secure those values. The struggle ... ethnic conflicts when they move to new areas, while decreases in ..... and Responses to International Conflict.

  4. Environmental Degradation, Social Marginalization and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On 8 October 2005, an earthquake registering 7.6 on the Richter scale struck northeast Pakistan. Although concentrated in a small area, the damage was severe. At least 73 000 people were killed, 70 000 were injured, and 2.8 million were left homeless and susceptible to further injury. So far, little attention has been paid to ...

  5. Visualizing Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Murakami

    Full Text Available Vpr is an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with multiple functions. The induction of G2 arrest by Vpr plays a particularly important role in efficient viral replication because the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat is most active in G2 phase. The regulation of apoptosis by Vpr is also important for immune suppression and pathogenesis during HIV infection. However, it is not known whether Vpr-induced apoptosis depends on the ability of Vpr to induce G2 arrest, and the dynamics of Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis have not been visualized. We performed time-lapse imaging to examine the temporal relationship between Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis using HeLa cells containing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator2 (Fucci2. The dynamics of G2 arrest and subsequent long-term mitotic cell rounding in cells transfected with the Vpr-expression vector were visualized. These cells underwent nuclear mis-segregation after prolonged mitotic processes and then entered G1 phase. Some cells subsequently displayed evidence of apoptosis after prolonged mitotic processes and nuclear mis-segregation. Interestingly, Vpr-induced apoptosis was seldom observed in S or G2 phase. Likewise, visualization of synchronized HeLa/Fucci2 cells infected with an adenoviral vector expressing Vpr clearly showed that Vpr arrests the cell cycle at G2 phase, but does not induce apoptosis at S or G2 phase. Furthermore, time-lapse imaging of HeLa/Fucci2 cells expressing SCAT3.1, a caspase-3-sensitive fusion protein, clearly demonstrated that Vpr induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Finally, to examine whether the effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and apoptosis were reversible, we performed live-cell imaging of a destabilizing domain fusion Vpr, which enabled rapid stabilization and destabilization by Shield1. The effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and subsequent apoptosis were reversible. This study is the first to

  6. Autonomous valve for detection of biopolymer degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Urs; Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Fetz, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    We present a polymer microvalve that allows the detection of biopolymer degradation without the need of external energy. The valve is based on a polymer container filled with a colored marker solution and closed by a thin lid. This structure is covered by a film of poly(L-lactide) and degradation...... of the biopolymer triggers the release of the color which is detected visually. The autonomous valve has potential for the fast testing of biopolymer degradation under various environmental conditions or by specific enzymes....

  7. Degradation of materials and passivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, W.

    1997-01-01

    Demanding for a reduction in materials degradation is a serious problem all over the world. Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) is, among others, a very valuable tool to follow many degradation processes. Evidently, Fe is the most important Moessbauer element considering the overall presence of iron in everyday life. MS may contribute to our knowledge about nearly all fields of materials degradation, chemical, mechanical, thermal, irradiative, etc. Following some general lines, corrosion is considered in particular. MS is applicable to investigate the bulk of materials as well as their surface layers with an information depth of ca. 250 nm. In general, it has to be applied as a surface sensitive method in combination with other relevant methods in order to get a detailed insight into ongoing processes. Some examples have been selected to elucidate the application of MS in this field. Another class of examples concerns attempts to prevent corrosion, i.e., the application of coatings and transforming chemicals. A very effective and most natural way to reduce corrosion is the passivation of materials. The effect of passive layers and their destruction by environmental influences are discussed using results of MS and related methods. It is outlined that passivity is not restricted to chemically treated metals but can be considered as a general concept for preventing different kinds of materials from degradation. (orig.)

  8. Serum tau and neurological outcome in cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Nielsen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test serum tau as a predictor of neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. METHODS: We measured the neuronal protein tau in serum at 24, 48, and 72 hours after cardiac arrest in 689 patients in the prospective international Target Temperature Management trial. The main outcome...... was poor neurological outcome, defined as Cerebral Performance Categories 3-5 at 6 months. RESULTS: Increased tau was associated with poor outcome at 6 months after cardiac arrest (median = 38.5, interquartile range [IQR] = 5.7-245ng/l in poor vs median = 1.5, IQR = 0.7-2.4ng/l in good outcome, for tau....... The accuracy in predicting outcome by serum tau was equally high for patients randomized to 33 °C and 36 °C targeted temperature after cardiac arrest. INTERPRETATION: Serum tau is a promising novel biomarker for prediction of neurological outcome in patients with cardiac arrest. It may be significantly better...

  9. Major life events as potential triggers of sudden cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, April F; Lumley, Thomas; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara; Strogatz, David S; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Siscovick, David S

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the risk of sudden cardiac arrest in association with the recent loss of, or separation from, a family member or friend. Our case-crossover study included 490 apparently healthy married residents of King County, Washington, who suffered sudden cardiac arrest between 1988 and 2005. We compared exposure to spouse-reported family/friend events occurring ≤ 1 month before sudden cardiac arrest with events occurring in the previous 5 months. We evaluated potential effect modification by habitual vigorous physical activity. Recent family/friend events were associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.4). ORs for cases with and without habitual vigorous physical activity were 1.1 (0.6-2.2) and 2.0 (1.2-3.1), respectively (interaction P = 0.02). These results suggest family/friend events may trigger sudden cardiac arrest and raise the hypothesis that habitual vigorous physical activity may lower susceptibility to these potential triggers.

  10. Current Pharmacological Advances in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Papastylianou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is defined as the sudden cessation of spontaneous ventilation and circulation. Within 15 seconds of cardiac arrest, the patient loses consciousness, electroencephalogram becomes flat after 30 seconds, pupils dilate fully after 60 seconds, and cerebral damage takes place within 90–300 seconds. It is essential to act immediately as irreversible damage can occur in a short time. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation through a broad range of interventions which are early defibrillation, high-quality and uninterrupted chest compressions, advanced airway interventions, and pharmacological interventions. Drugs should be considered only after initial shocks have been delivered (when indicated and chest compressions and ventilation have been started. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, no specific drug therapy has been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest, and only few drugs have a proven benefit for short-term survival. This paper reviews current pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrest. There are three groups of drugs relevant to the management of cardiac arrest: vasopressors, antiarrhythmics, and other drugs such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, atropine, fibrinolytic drugs, and corticosteroids.

  11. The effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride in arresting caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2017-10-27

    Data sourcesPubMed, Embase, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Ichushi-web, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud Espana (BVSE) and Biblioteca Virtual em Saude (BVS) databases. There were no limits on language or publication dates.Study selectionTwo reviewers selected prospective clinical studies investigating SDF treatment for caries prevention in children.Data extraction and synthesisData was abstracted independently by two reviewers and risk of bias assessed. Meta-analysis was performed on studies in which the caries-arresting rate using 38% SDF solution on primary teeth could be obtained or calculated.ResultsNineteen studies were included; 16 were conducted in the primary dentition and three in permanent dentition. Fourteen studies used 38% SDF, three 30% SDF, and two 10% SDF. Eight studies using 38% SDF contributed to a meta-analysis and the overall proportion of arrested caries was 81% (95% CI; 68-89%). Percentage reductions were also calculated for 6,12,18,24 and >30 months. Arrested carious lesions stained black but no other adverse effects were reported.ConclusionsSDF commonly used at a high concentration (38%, 44,800ppm fluoride) is effective in arresting caries among children. There is no consensus on its number and frequency of application to arrest caries. Further studies are necessary to develop evidence-based guidelines on its use in children.

  12. International Organizations and Environmental Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik; Kaiser, Wolfram

    . This volume is the first to comprehensively explore the environmental activities of professional communities, NGOs, regional bodies, the United Nations, and other international organizations during the twentieth century. It follows their efforts to shape debates about environmental degradation, develop...

  13. Pattern of perioperative cardiac arrests at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwari, Y D; Bello, M R; Eni, U E

    2010-01-01

    Perioperative cardiac arrests and death on the table represent the most serious complications of surgery and anaesthesia. This paper was designed to study their pattern, causes and outcomes following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and intensive care unit (ICU) management in our institution. Three year retrospective review of perioperative cardiac arrests and death on operating table following surgical procedure under anaesthesia. For each cardiac arrest or death on the table the sequence of events leading to the arrest was evaluated using case notes, anaesthetic chart and ICU records. Study variables which include demographic data, ASA score, anaesthetic technique, causes and outcome were analysed and discussed. Fourteen perioperative cardiac arrests were encountered following 4051 anaesthetics administered over the three year study period. Twelve out of the fourteen cardiac arrests occurred following general anaesthesia, while the remaining two occurred following spinal anaesthesia. There was no cardiac arrest following local anaesthesia. Children suffered more cardiac arrest than adults. ASA class III and IV risk status suffered more arrests than ASA I and II. Hypoxia from airway problems was the commonest cause of cardiac arrest followed by septic shock. Monitoring with pulse oximeter was done in only 4 out of the 14 cardiac arrests. Only 2 (14%) out of 14 cardiac arrests recovered to home discharge, one of them with significant neurological deficit. Majority of arrests were due to hypoxia from airway problems that were not detected early There is need to improve on patient monitoring, knowledge of CPR and intensive care so as to improve the outcome of perioperative cardiac arrest.

  14. Wogonin induced G1 cell cycle arrest by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inactivating CDK8 in human colorectal cancer carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Licheng; Lu, Na; Dai, Qinsheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Li; Wang, Hu; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Wogonin inhibited HCT116 cells growth and arrested at G1 phase of the cell cycle. • Wogonin down-regulated the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • Wogonin interfered in the combination of β-catenin and TCF/Lef. • Wogonin limited the kinase activity of CDK8. - Abstract: Wogonin, a naturally occurring mono-flavonoid, has been reported to have tumor therapeutic potential and good selectivity both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we investigated the anti-proliferation effects and associated mechanisms of wogonin in human colorectal cancer in vitro. The flow-cytometric analysis showed that wogonin induced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the cell cycle-related proteins, such as cyclin A, E, D1, and CDK2, 4 were down-regulated in wogonin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we showed that the anti-proliferation and G1 arrest effect of wogonin on HCT116 cells was associated with deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Wogonin-treated cells showed decreased intracellular levels of Wnt proteins, and activated degradation complex to phosphorylated and targeted β-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Wogonin inhibited β-catenin-mediated transcription by interfering in the transcriptional activity of TCF/Lef, and repressing the kinase activity of CDK8 which has been considered as an oncogene involving in the development of colorectal cancers. Moreover, CDK8 siRNA-transfected HCT116 cells showed similar results to wogonin treated cells. Thus, our data suggested that wogonin induced anti-proliferation and G1 arrest via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and it can be developed as a therapeutic agent against human colorectal cancer

  15. Mechanisms promoting and inhibiting the process of proteasomal degradation of cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrycz Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Defects in the process of degradation of unneeded cellular proteins underlie many diseases. This article discusses one of the most important systems of removal of abnormal proteins. It describes the process of ubiquitination of proteins for proteasome degradation. It also describes the structure of the 26S and 20S proteasomes and the mechanism of ubiquitin-proteasome system. Proteasome proteolytic system is highly specialized and organized. Protease-proteasome 26S is particularly important for proper cell functioning. It recognizes and degrades marked proteins. Inhibition of proteasome pathway leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation by marine-derived basidiomycetes: optimization of the degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gabriela A L; Magrini, Mariana Juventina; Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C; Rodrigues, Marili V N; Sette, Lara D

    2018-05-03

    Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recalcitrant to microbial attack. Although studies related to the microbial degradation of PAHs have been carried out in the last decades, little is known about degradation of these environmental pollutants by fungi from marine origin. Therefore, this study aimed to select one PAHs degrader among three marine-derived basidiomycete fungi and to study its pyrene detoxification/degradation. Marasmiellus sp. CBMAI 1062 showed higher levels of pyrene and BaP degradation and was subjected to studies related to pyrene degradation optimization using experimental design, acute toxicity, organic carbon removal (TOC), and metabolite evaluation. The experimental design resulted in an efficient pyrene degradation, reducing the experiment time while the PAH concentration applied in the assays was increased. The selected fungus was able to degrade almost 100% of pyrene (0.08mgmL -1 ) after 48h of incubation under saline condition, without generating toxic compounds and with a TOC reduction of 17%. Intermediate metabolites of pyrene degradation were identified, suggesting that the fungus degraded the compound via the cytochrome P450 system and epoxide hydrolases. These results highlight the relevance of marine-derived fungi in the field of PAH bioremediation, adding value to the blue biotechnology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  17. Cardiac arrest following ventilator fire: A rare cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Nazeer Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating room fires are rare events, but when occur they result in serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Anaesthesia ventilator fire leading to cardiac arrest is a rare incident and has not been reported. We report a near catastrophic ventilator fire leading to cardiac arrest in a patient undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy. In the present case sparks due to friction or electrical short circuit within the ventilator might have acted as source of ignition leading to fire and explosion in the oxygen rich environment. The patient was successfully resuscitated and revived with uneventful recovery and no adverse sequelae. The cardiac arrest was possibly due to severe hypoxia resulting from inhalation of smoke containing high concentrations of carbon monoxide and other noxious gases.

  18. Crack arrest toughness measurements with A533B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, Seppo.

    1979-11-01

    This work covers crack arrest toughness measurements on A533B steel done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. These measurements are one part of a multinational effort, involving 30 laboratories. The aim of the cooperative test program is to examine two test procedures for measuring the crack arrest toughness, to give information about their reproducibility, and to identify the factors affecting the interpretation. The principles given for the testing were easy to apply in general and the results were satisfactory. Some factors in the test runs and in the specimen's behaviour are indicated which can cause error in the results or make implementation of the test more difficult. By comparing the results from our laboratory with average values from the test program a good agreement can be seen. Crack arrest toughness values derived from the compared procedures with a static analysis agree closely, but values calculated using a dynamic analysis differ considerably. (author)

  19. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  20. A crack arrest test using a toughness gradient steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, H.; Yagawa, G.; Urabe, Y.; Satoh, M.; Sano, J.

    1995-01-01

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) is a phenomenon that can occur in the reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with internal pressure and is one of the most severe stress conditions that can be applied to the vessel. Preliminary research has shown that no PTS concern is likely to exist on Japanese RPVs during their design service lives. However, public acceptance of vessel integrity requires analyses and experiment in order to establish an analytical method and a database for life extension of Japanese RPVs. The Japanese PTS integrity study was carried out from FY 1983 to FY 1991 as a national project by Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) under contract with Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in cooperation with LWR utilities and vendors. Here, a crack arrest test was carried out using a toughness gradient steel plate with three layers to study the concept of crack arrest toughness. Four-point bending load with thermal shock was applied to the large flat plate specimen with a surface crack. Five crack initiations and arrests were observed during the test and the propagated crack bifurcated. Finally, cracks were arrested at the boundary of the first and the second layer, except for a small segment of the crack. The first crack initiation took place slightly higher than the lower bound of K Ic data obtained by ITCT specimens. That is, the K IC concept for brittle crack initiation was verified for heavy section steel plates. The first crack arrest took place within the scatter band of K Ia and K Id data for the first layer. That is, the K Ia concept appears applicable for crack arrest of a short crack jump

  1. Environmental Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This book introduces business strategy to save the earth, which are foundation of system in the company, collection of disposable camera, resort which don't destroy environment, core strategy of item project, cutback of Freon gas, production of plastic which is degraded, export of pollution prevention technology, increasing waste and changing waste, rule on construction waste, responsibility of business and waste problems, recycling of aluminum can and responsibility on environmental problems.

  2. Complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, B S; Burke, T J

    1988-04-01

    A case of complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest from massive lidocaine overdose is presented. A 27-year-old woman at 15 weeks gestation had a complete neurologic recovery after 22 minutes of CPR, including 19 minutes of electromechanical dissociation and asystole, with normal fetal heart function and fetal motion confirmed by ultrasound immediately after resuscitation. The patient delivered a healthy and neurologically normal infant at 40 weeks gestation. This is the longest cardiac arrest in early pregnancy reported in the medical literature with normal maternal and fetal outcome.

  3. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Søholm, Helle

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopres......AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level...

  4. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg Jørgensen, Mads

    challenges, due to the victim’s physical location, which brings an inherent risk of delay (or altogether absence) of recognition and treatment of cardiac arrest. A low frequency of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and low 30-day survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were identified nearly ten...... years ago in Denmark. These findings led to several national initiatives to strengthen bystander resuscitation attempts and advance care. Despite these nationwide efforts, it was unknown prior to this project whether these efforts resulted in changes in resuscitation attempts by bystanders and changes...

  5. Proteasome inhibition enhances the efficacy of volasertib-induced mitotic arrest in AML in vitro and prolongs survival in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnerch, Dominik; Schüler, Julia; Follo, Marie; Felthaus, Julia; Wider, Dagmar; Klingner, Kathrin; Greil, Christine; Duyster, Justus; Engelhardt, Monika; Wäsch, Ralph

    2017-03-28

    Elderly and frail patients, diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and ineligible to undergo intensive treatment, have a dismal prognosis. The small molecule inhibitor volasertib induces a mitotic block via inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and has shown remarkable anti-leukemic activity when combined with low-dose cytarabine. We have demonstrated that AML cells are highly vulnerable to cell death in mitosis yet manage to escape a mitotic block through mitotic slippage by sustained proteasome-dependent slow degradation of cyclin B. Therefore, we tested whether interfering with mitotic slippage through proteasome inhibition arrests and kills AML cells more efficiently during mitosis. We show that therapeutic doses of bortezomib block the slow degradation of cyclin B during a volasertib-induced mitotic arrest in AML cell lines and patient-derived primary AML cells. In a xenotransplant mouse model of human AML, mice receiving volasertib in combination with bortezomib showed superior disease control compared to mice receiving volasertib alone, highlighting the potential therapeutic impact of this drug combination.

  6. Anthropogenic changes and environmental degradation in pre-Hispanic and post-Colonial periods: soil erosion modelled with WEPP during Late Holocene in Teotihuacán Valley (central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdes González-Arqueros, M.; Mendoza Cantú, Manuel E.

    2015-04-01

    Land use changes and support practices are a worldwide significant issue in soil erosion and subsequently, land degradation. Anthropogenic changes, along different periods of the history in the last 2000 years in the Valley of Teotihuacan (central Mexico), highlight that soil erosion varies depending on how the management and the intensity of soil use is handled, considering the soils as a main resource. As a part of a broader effort to reconstruct the erosion dynamics in the Teotihuacán Valley through geoarchaeological approaches, this study apply a process-based watershed hydrology and upland erosion model, Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). This research aims to contribute with insights through modelling and to recreate soil erosion and sedimentation dynamics in several historical periods with different environmental and anthropogenic scenarios. The Geo-spatial interface for WEPP (GeoWEPP) was used to characterize location of detachment, depositions and erosion predicted on the profile through time, based on current and hypothetical reconstructed conditions in the watershed. Climate, topography, soil and land use were used as inputs for the WEPP model to estimate runoff fluxes, soil loss rates, and sediment delivery ratio (SDR) for three historical scenarios: current period, reconstructed Teotihuacán period (AD 1-650), and reconstructed Aztec period (AD 1325-1520). Over a simulated and stablished timeframe for those social periods, the runoff, soil loss rate and SDR were estimated to be greater during the Aztec period. We assume that in general the climate conditions for this period were wetter, compared with present, in agreement with several authors that proposed climate reconstructions for the center of Mexico. It is also highlighted that support practices were more effective in this period. The next period with higher values is the current one, and fewer rates are estimated for the Teotihuacán period. This comparison release new arguments in the

  7. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westhall, Erik; Rossetti, Andrea O.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Wesenberg Kjaer, Troels; Horn, Janneke; Ullén, Susann; Friberg, Hans; Nielsen, Niklas; Rosén, Ingmar; Åneman, Anders; Erlinge, David; Gasche, Yvan; Hassager, Christian; Hovdenes, Jan; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Pellis, Tommaso; Stammet, Pascal; Wanscher, Michael; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wise, Matt P.; Cronberg, Tobias; Saxena, Manoj; Miller, Jennene; Inskip, Deborah; Macken, Lewis; Finfer, Simon; Eatough, Noel; Hammond, Naomi; Bass, Frances; Yarad, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Anne; Bird, Simon; Jewell, Timothy; Davies, Gareth; Ng, Karl; Coward, Sharon; Stewart, Antony; Micallef, Sharon; Parker, Sharyn; Cortado, Dennis; Gould, Ann; Harward, Meg; Thompson, Kelly; Glass, Parisa; Myburgh, John; Smid, Ondrej; Belholavek, Jan; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Boerma, EC

    2016-01-01

    To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists, blinded to outcome,

  8. Ventilation and gas exchange management after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherasan, Yuda; Raimondo, Pasquale; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    For several decades, physicians had integrated several interventions aiming to improve the outcomes in post-cardiac arrest patients. However, the mortality rate after cardiac arrest is still as high as 50%. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to not only poor neurological outcome and cardiovascular failure but also respiratory dysfunction. To minimize ventilator-associated lung injury, protective mechanical ventilation by using low tidal volume ventilation and driving pressure may decrease pulmonary complications and improve survival. Low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be initiated and titrated with careful cardiac output and respiratory mechanics monitoring. Furthermore, optimizing gas exchange by avoiding hypoxia and hyperoxia as well as maintaining normocarbia may improve neurological and survival outcome. Early multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation intervention is recommended. Minimally invasive monitoring techniques, that is, echocardiography, transpulmonary thermodilution method measuring extravascular lung water, as well as transcranial Doppler ultrasound, might be useful to improve appropriate management of post-cardiac arrest patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endothelial Dysfunction in Resuscitated Cardiac Arrest (ENDO-RCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anna Sina P; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality following initial survival of cardiac arrest remain high despite great efforts to improve resuscitation techniques and post-resuscitation care, in part due to the ischemia-reperfusion injury secondary to the restoration of the blood circulation. Patients resusc...

  10. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162...

  11. Crack arrest toughness of structural steels evaluated by compact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Michihiro

    1982-01-01

    Crack arrest tests such as compact, ESSO and DCB tests were made on SA533B Cl. 1, HT80 and KD32 steels to evaluate the crack arrest toughness. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) The crack arrest toughness could be evaluated by K sub(Ia) which was obtained by the static analysis of compact test. (2) K sub(ID) determined by the dynamic analysis of compact test was greater than K sub(Ia), though K sub(ID) became close to K sub(Ia)/K sub(Q) became a unity where K sub(Q) is the stress intensity factor at the crack initiation. (3) No significant difference was observed between K sub(Ia) and K sub(ca) obtained by ESSO and DCB tests, though K sub(ca) obtained by DCB test tended to be smaller than K sub(Ia) at lower temperatures. (4) K sub(Ia) was smaller than K sub(Ic) in the transition temperature range, while it was greater than K sub(Id). In the temperature range where K sub(Ic), which was determined from J sub(Ic), decreased with temperature increase, however, it was smaller than K sub(Ia). (5) The fracture appearance transition temperature and the absorbed energy obtained by 2 mm V-notch Charpy test were appropriate parameters for representing the crack arrest toughness, while the NDT temperature was not. (author)

  12. Growth arrest despite growth hormone replacement, post-craniopharyngioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVile, C J; Hayward, R D; Neville, B G; Grant, D B; Stanhope, R

    1995-01-01

    Children with growth failure, whether secondary to an endocrinopathy such as growth hormone deficiency or secondary to neurological handicap with poor nutrient intake, grow at a subnormal rate but it is most unusual for a child to have complete growth arrest. PMID:7745571

  13. Carbamazepine induces mitotic arrest in mammalian Vero cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, J.M.; Fernandez Freire, P.; Labrador, V.; Hazen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells

  14. Outcomes After Cardiac Arrest in an Adult Burn Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-07

    of in-hospital CA are likely to report widely varying survival rates as a result of study populations with characteristic but distinct demo- graphics ...Rehabil 1997;18:S119. [2] Sandroni C, Nolan J. In-hospital cardiac arrest: incidence, prognosis and possible measures to improve survival. Intens Care Med

  15. Trichostrongylus colubriformis rDNA polymorphism associated with arrested development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langrová, I.; Zouhar, M.; Vadlejch, J.; Borovský, M.; Jankovská, I.; Lytvynets, Andrej

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2008), s. 401-403 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : arrested development * polymorphism * rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  16. Carbamazepine induces mitotic arrest in mammalian Vero cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martin, J.M.; Fernandez Freire, P.; Labrador, V. [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hazen, M.J. [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mariajose.hazen@uam.es

    2008-01-01

    We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells.

  17. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald

    2013-01-01

    intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance...

  18. Lupeol induces S-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48

    Lupeol induces S-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Nupoor Prasad1, Akash Sabarwal2, Umesh C. S. Yadav1, Rana P. Singh2,*. 1School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. 2Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal ...

  19. Cardiac Arrest after Local Anaesthetic Toxicity in a Paediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Maria Torres de Araújo Azi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a paediatric patient undergoing urological procedure in which a possible inadvertent intravascular or intraosseous injection of bupivacaine with adrenaline in usual doses caused subsequent cardiac arrest, completely reversed after administration of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion. Early diagnosis of local anaesthetics toxicity and adequate cardiovascular resuscitation manoeuvres contribute to the favourable outcome.

  20. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  1. Is Ward Experience in Resuscitation Effort Related to the Prognosis of Unexpected Cardiac Arrest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-Kuang Hou

    2007-09-01

    Conclusion: Hospital wards with more than 5 cardiac arrests per year have a better patient survival rate than those with fewer arrests. This is despite all ward staff receiving the same level of training.

  2. Therapeutic Hypothermia after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moler, Frank W; Silverstein, Faye S; Holubkov, Richard; Slomine, Beth S; Christensen, James R; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Meert, Kathleen L; Browning, Brittan; Pemberton, Victoria L; Page, Kent; Gildea, Marianne R; Scholefield, Barnaby R; Shankaran, Seetha; Hutchison, Jamie S; Berger, John T; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Newth, Christopher J L; Topjian, Alexis; Bennett, Kimberly S; Koch, Joshua D; Pham, Nga; Chanani, Nikhil K; Pineda, Jose A; Harrison, Rick; Dalton, Heidi J; Alten, Jeffrey; Schleien, Charles L; Goodman, Denise M; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Bhalala, Utpal S; Schwarz, Adam J; Porter, Melissa B; Shah, Samir; Fink, Ericka L; McQuillen, Patrick; Wu, Theodore; Skellett, Sophie; Thomas, Neal J; Nowak, Jeffrey E; Baines, Paul B; Pappachan, John; Mathur, Mudit; Lloyd, Eric; van der Jagt, Elise W; Dobyns, Emily L; Meyer, Michael T; Sanders, Ronald C; Clark, Amy E; Dean, J Michael

    2017-01-26

    Targeted temperature management is recommended for comatose adults and children after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; however, data on temperature management after in-hospital cardiac arrest are limited. In a trial conducted at 37 children's hospitals, we compared two temperature interventions in children who had had in-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose children older than 48 hours and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a score of 70 or higher on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II, on which scores range from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients who had had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before the cardiac arrest. The trial was terminated because of futility after 329 patients had undergone randomization. Among the 257 patients who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest and who could be evaluated, the rate of the primary efficacy outcome did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (36% [48 of 133 patients] and 39% [48 of 124 patients], respectively; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.27; P=0.63). Among 317 patients who could be evaluated for change in neurobehavioral function, the change in VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.70). Among 327 patients who could be evaluated for 1-year survival, the rate of 1-year survival did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (49% [81 of 166 patients] and 46% [74 of 161 patients], respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.34; P=0.56). The incidences of blood-product use, infection, and serious adverse

  3. Degradation characteristics of waste polyurethane by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Seok; Ahn, Sung Jun; Gwon Hui Jeong; Jeong, Sung In; Nho, Young Chang; Lim, Youn Mook [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Polyurethane (PU) is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, waste PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. The aim of this work was to investigate the degradation characteristics of waste PU to recycle. Degradation of waste PU was carried out using a radiation techniques. Waste PUs were exposed to a gamma {sup 60}Co sources. To verify degradation, the irradiated PUs were characterized using FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and their thermal/mechanical properties are reported. When the radiation dose was 500 kGy, the molecular weight of the waste PU drastically decreased. Also, the mechanical properties of waste PU were approximately 4 times lower than those of non-irradiated PU. This study has confirmed the possibility of making fine particle of waste PU for recycling through radiation degradation techniques.

  4. Degradation of magnetite nanoparticles in biomimetic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceño, Sarah; Hernandez, Ana C.; Sojo, Juan [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Laboratorio de Materiales, Centro de Ingeniería de Materiales y Nanotecnología (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Lascano, Luis [Dpto. Física, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Ecuador); Gonzalez, Gema, E-mail: gemagonz@ivic.gob.ve, E-mail: gema.gonzalez@epn.edu.ec [Escuela Nacional Politécnica (Ecuador)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) of magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} obtained by coprecipitation (COP), thermal decomposition (DT), and commercial sample (CM) have been degraded in similar conditions to physiological medium at pH 4.7 and in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pH 7.4. The formation of the nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In view of medical and environmental applications, the stability of the particles was measured with dynamic light scattering. The degradation processes were followed with atomic absorption spectroscopy (EAA) and TEM. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Our results revealed that the structural and magnetic properties of the remaining nanoparticles after the degradation process were significantly different to those of the initial suspension. The degradation kinetics is affected by the pH, the coating, and the average particle size of the nanoparticles.

  5. Epidemiology and Outcomes After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Punkaj; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Hill, Kevin D.; Gaynor, J. William; O’Brien, Sean M.; He, Max; Sheng, Shubin; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Imamura, Michiaki; Jacobs, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multicenter data regarding cardiac arrest in children undergoing heart operations are limited. We describe epidemiology and outcomes associated with postoperative cardiac arrest in a large multiinstitutional cohort. Methods Patients younger than 18 years in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2007 through 2012) were included. Patient factors, operative characteristics, and outcomes were described for patients with and without postoperative cardiac arrest. Multivariable models were used to evaluate the association of center volume with cardiac arrest rate and mortality after cardiac arrest, adjusting for patient and procedural factors. Results Of 70,270 patients (97 centers), 1,843 (2.6%) had postoperative cardiac arrest. Younger age, lower weight, and presence of preoperative morbidities (all p < 0.0001) were associated with cardiac arrest. Arrest rate increased with procedural complexity across common benchmark operations, ranging from 0.7% (ventricular septal defect repair) to 12.7% (Norwood operation). Cardiac arrest was associated with significant mortality risk across procedures, ranging from 15.4% to 62.3% (all p < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, arrest rate was not associated with center volume (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.57 in low- versus high-volume centers). However, mortality after cardiac arrest was higher in low-volume centers (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 2.63). This association was present for both high- and low-complexity operations. Conclusions Cardiac arrest carries a significant mortality risk across the stratum of procedural complexity. Although arrest rates are not associated with center volume, lower-volume centers have increased mortality after cardiac arrest. Further study of mechanisms to prevent cardiac arrest and to reduce mortality in those with an arrest is warranted. PMID:25443018

  6. The geometry of empty space is the key to arresting dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, Aonghus; De Gregorio, Paolo; Dawson, K A [Department of Chemistry, University College Dublin, Irish Centre for Colloid Science and Biomaterials, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2004-10-27

    We present the concept of dynamically available volume as a suitable order parameter for dynamical arrest. We show that dynamical arrest can be understood as a de-percolation transition of a vacancy network or available space. Beyond the arrest transition we find that droplets of available space are disconnected and the dynamics is frozen. This connection of the dynamics to the underlying geometrical structure of empty space provides us with a rich framework for studying the arrest transition.

  7. Crack propagation and arrest simulation of X90 gas pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fengping; Huo, Chunyong; Luo, Jinheng; Li, He; Li, Yang

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether X90 steel pipe has enough crack arrest toughness or not, a damage model was suggested as crack arrest criterion with material parameters of plastic uniform percentage elongation and damage strain energy per volume. Fracture characteristic length which characterizes fracture zone size was suggested to be the largest mesh size on expected cracking path. Plastic uniform percentage elongation, damage strain energy per volume and fracture characteristic length of X90 were obtained by five kinds of tensile tests. Based on this criterion, a length of 24 m, Φ1219 × 16.3 mm pipe segment model with 12 MPa internal gas pressure was built and computed with fluid-structure coupling method in ABAQUS. Ideal gas state equation was used to describe lean gas behavior. Euler grid was used to mesh gas zone inside the pipe while Lagrangian shell element was used to mesh pipe. Crack propagation speed and gas decompression speed were got after computation. The result shows that, when plastic uniform percentage elongation is equal to 0.054 and damage strain energy per volume is equal to 0.64 J/mm"3, crack propagation speed is less than gas decompression speed, which means the simulated X90 gas pipe with 12 MPa internal pressure can arrest cracking itself. - Highlights: • A damage model was suggested as crack arrest criterion. • Plastic uniform elongation and damage strain energy density are material parameters. • Fracture characteristic length is suggested to be largest mesh size in cracking path. • Crack propagating simulation with coupling of pipe and gas was realized in ABAQUS. • A Chinese X90 steel pipe with 12 MPa internal pressure can arrest cracking itself.

  8. Review: Microbial degradation of toluene | Gopinath | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of positive potential application, toluene results in many mishaps especially health hazards; hence amputation of toluene is crucial for human welfare as well as environmental issues. This review deals with destruction of toluene using microbial degradation. The overall aerobic biodegradation of toluene into carbon ...

  9. Experimental investigation of interfacial crack arrest in sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading using a novel crack arresting device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J.H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A recently proposed face-sheet–core interface crack arresting device is implemented in sandwich beams and tested using the Sandwich Tear Test configuration. Fatigue loading conditions are applied to propagate the crack and determine the effect of the crack stopper on the fatigue growth rate and a...

  10. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and... leads underground shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters of approved type within 100 feet...

  11. Gender and Relational-Distance Effects in Arrests for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, William; DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black's relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger's leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for…

  12. Andrographolide Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis of Chondrosarcoma by Targeting TCF-1/SOX9 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan-Tian; Yang, Jie; Liang, Gui-Hong; Gao, Xue-Juan; Sang, Yuan; Gui, Tao; Liang, Zu-Jian; Tam, Man-Seng; Zha, Zhen-Gang

    2017-12-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most malignant bone tumor with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Thus, development of more effective treatments has become urgent. Recently, natural compounds derived from medicinal plants have emerged as promising therapeutic options via targeting multiple key cellular molecules. Andrographolide (Andro) is such a compound, which has previously been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in several human cancers. However, the molecular mechanism through which Andro exerts its anti-cancer effect on chondrosarcoma remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we showed that Andro-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest of chondrosarcoma by fine-tuning the expressions of several cell cycle regulators such as p21, p27, and Cyclins, and that prolonged treatment of cells with Andro caused pronounced cell apoptosis. Remarkably, we found that SOX9 was highly expressed in poor-differentiated chondrosarcoma, and that knockdown of SOX9 suppressed chondrosarcoma cell growth. Further, our results showed that Andro dose-dependently down-regulated SOX9 expression in chondrosarcoma cells. Concomitantly, an inhibition of T cell factor 1 (TCF-1) mRNA expression and an enhancement of TCF-1 protein degradation by Andro were observed. In contrast, the expression and subcellular localization of β-catenin were not altered upon the treatment of Andro, suggesting that β-catenin might not function as the primary target of Andro. Additionally, we provided evidence that there was a mutual regulation between TCF-1 and SOX9 in chondrosarcoma cells. In conclusion, these results highlight the potential therapeutic effects of Andro in treatment of chondrosarcoma via targeting the TCF-1/SOX9 axis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4575-4586, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mechanisms of silver diamine fluoride on arresting caries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Irene Shuping; Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Hiraishi, Noriko; Burrow, Michael Francis; Duangthip, Duangporn; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2018-04-01

    To review the evidence regarding the mechanisms of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) for arresting caries. A literature search was conducted using the keywords silver diamine fluoride, and its alternative names, in seven databases: PubMed, Embase and Scopus (English); China National Knowledge Infrastructure (Chinese); Bilioteca Virtual em Saude (Portuguese); Biblioteca Virtual en Salud Espana (Spanish); and Ichushi-Web (Japanese). The titles and abstracts were screened. Full texts were retrieved for publications that studied mechanisms of actions of SDF, including its effects on remineralisation of carious lesions and on cariogenic bacteria. A total of 1,123 publications were identified. Twenty-nine articles were included and they investigated the effect of SDF on cariogenic bacteria and dental hard tissues. Eleven studies investigated the antibacterial properties of SDF. They found that SDF was bactericidal to cariogenic bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. It inhibited the growth of cariogenic biofilms on teeth. Twenty studies reported the remineralisation of demineralised enamel or dentine by SDF. They found that mineral loss of demineralised enamel and dentine was reduced after SDF treatment. A highly mineralised surface rich in calcium and phosphate was formed on arrested carious lesions. Four studies examined the effect of SDF on dentine collagen. They found that SDF inhibited collagenases (matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine cathepsins) and protected dentine collagen from destruction. SDF is a bactericidal agent and reduces the growth of cariogenic bacteria. It inhibits demineralisation and promotes the remineralisation of demineralised enamel and dentine. It also hampers degradation of the dentine collagen. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  15. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  16. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  17. Mechanisms of metallization degradation in high power diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Mads; Kristensen, Peter Kjær; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup

    2016-01-01

    Under operation the topside metallization of power electronic chips is commonly observed to degrade and thereby affecta device's electrical characteristics. However, the mechanisms of the degradation process and the role of environmental factors are not yet fully understood. In this work, we...

  18. Mechanisms of Photo Degradation for Layered Silicate-Polycarbonate Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sloan, James M; Patterson, Philip

    2005-01-01

    ...., lightweight structure, rugged abrasion resistance, and high ballistic impact strength). However, as with any polymer system, these materials are susceptible to degradation over time when exposed to various environmental (i.e...

  19. Community involvement in out of hospital cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Ali; Raad, Mohamad; Chams, Nour; Chams, Sana; Bachir, Rana; El Sayed, Mazen J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Developing countries including Lebanon report low survival rates and poor neurologic outcomes in affected victims. Community involvement through early recognition and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can improve OHCA survival. This study assesses knowledge and attitude of university students in Lebanon and identifies potential barriers and facilitators to learning and performing CPR. A cross-sectional survey was administered to university students. The questionnaire included questions regarding the following data elements: demographics, knowledge, and awareness about sudden cardiac arrest, CPR, automated external defibrillator (AED) use, prior CPR and AED training, ability to perform CPR or use AED, barriers to performing/learning CPR/AED, and preferred location for attending CPR/AED courses. Descriptive analysis followed by multivariate analysis was carried out to identify predictors and barriers to learning and performing CPR. A total of 948 students completed the survey. Participants’ mean age was 20.1 (±2.1) years with 53.1% women. Less than half of participants (42.9%) were able to identify all the presenting signs of cardiac arrest. Only 33.7% of participants felt able to perform CPR when witnessing a cardiac arrest. Fewer participants (20.3%) reported receiving previous CPR training. Several perceived barriers to learning and performing CPR were also reported. Significant predictors of willingness to perform CPR when faced with a cardiac arrest were: earning higher income, previous CPR training and feeling confident in one's ability to apply an AED, or perform CPR. Lacking enough expertise in performing CPR was a significant barrier to willingness to perform CPR. University students in Lebanon are familiar with the symptoms of cardiac arrest, however, they are not well trained in CPR and lack confidence to perform it. The attitude towards the importance of

  20. Characterization and degradation potential of diesel-degrading bacterial strains for application in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Kidd, Petra S; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Weyens, Nele; Monterroso, Carmen; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2017-10-03

    Bioremediation of polluted soils is a promising technique with low environmental impact, which uses soil organisms to degrade soil contaminants. In this study, 19 bacterial strains isolated from a diesel-contaminated soil were screened for their diesel-degrading potential, biosurfactant (BS) production, and biofilm formation abilities, all desirable characteristics when selecting strains for re-inoculation into hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Diesel-degradation rates were determined in vitro in minimal medium with diesel as the sole carbon source. The capacity to degrade diesel range organics (DROs) of strains SPG23 (Arthobacter sp.) and PF1 (Acinetobacter oleivorans) reached 17-26% of total DROs after 10 days, and 90% for strain GK2 (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus). The amount and rate of alkane degradation decreased significantly with increasing carbon number for strains SPG23 and PF1. Strain GK2, which produced BSs and biofilms, exhibited a greater extent, and faster rate of alkane degradation compared to SPG23 and PF1. Based on the outcomes of degradation experiments, in addition to BS production, biofilm formation capacities, and previous genome characterizations, strain GK2 is a promising candidate for microbial-assisted phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils. These results are of particular interest to select suitable strains for bioremediation, not only presenting high diesel-degradation rates, but also other characteristics which could improve rhizosphere colonization.

  1. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Roché

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  2. Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2013-03-01

    With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

  3. Interrater variability of EEG interpretation in comatose cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westhall, Erik; Rosén, Ingmar; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: EEG is widely used to predict outcome in comatose cardiac arrest patients, but its value has been limited by lack of a uniform classification. We used the EEG terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) to assess interrater variability in a cohort...... who were blinded for patient outcome. Percent agreement and kappa (κ) for the categories in the ACNS EEG terminology and for prespecified malignant EEG-patterns were calculated. RESULTS: There was substantial interrater agreement (κ 0.71) for highly malignant patterns and moderate agreement (κ 0.......42) for malignant patterns. Substantial agreement was found for malignant periodic or rhythmic patterns (κ 0.72) while agreement for identifying an unreactive EEG was fair (κ 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: The ACNS EEG terminology can be used to identify highly malignant EEG-patterns in post cardiac arrest patients...

  4. Metazoan operons accelerate recovery from growth arrested states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Baugh, L. Ryan; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Existing theories explain why operons are advantageous in prokaryotes, but their occurrence in metazoans is an enigma. Nematode operon genes, typically consisting of growth genes, are significantly up-regulated during recovery from growth-arrested states. This expression pattern is anti-correlated to non-operon genes consistent with a competition for transcriptional resources. We find that transcriptional resources are initially limiting during recovery, and that recovering animals are highly sensitive to any additional decrease in transcriptional resources. Operons become advantageous because by clustering growth genes into operons, fewer promoters compete for the limited transcriptional machinery, effectively increasing the concentration of transcriptional resources, and accelerating recovery. Mathematical modeling reveals how a moderate increase in transcriptional resources can substantially enhance transcription rate and recovery. This design principle occurs in different nematodes and the chordate C. intestinalis. As transition from arrest to rapid growth is shared by many metazoans, operons could have evolved to facilitate these processes. PMID:21663799

  5. Cardiac arrest during a twin birth caesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampín-Huerta, F R; Moreira-Gómez, D; Lozano-Requelme, M L; Molina-Nieto, F; Fontán-García-Boente, L; Moreira-Pacheco, M

    2016-04-01

    The case of a 35 year-old pregnant woman with a right ovarian vein thrombosis complicated with a floating thrombus in the inferior vena cava reaching the right atrium, is presented. The patient had a cardiac arrest due to a pulmonary embolism during a twin-birth caesarean delivery. Discussion includes the pathophysiology of this condition and management options in a cardiac arrest secondary to this aetiology, recovered with stable blood pressure, highlighting the role of thrombolytic therapy in the Postoperative Care Unit in this situation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between chest compression rates and outcomes from cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahamed H; Guffey, Danielle; Aufderheide, Tom P; Brown, Siobhan; Morrison, Laurie J; Nichols, Patrick; Powell, Judy; Daya, Mohamud; Bigham, Blair L; Atkins, Dianne L; Berg, Robert; Davis, Dan; Stiell, Ian; Sopko, George; Nichol, Graham

    2012-06-19

    Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend a chest compression rate of at least 100 compressions per minute. Animal and human studies have reported that blood flow is greatest with chest compression rates near 120/min, but few have reported rates used during out-of-hospital (OOH) cardiopulmonary resuscitation or the relationship between rate and outcome. The purpose of this study was to describe chest compression rates used by emergency medical services providers to resuscitate patients with OOH cardiac arrest and to determine the relationship between chest compression rate and outcome. Included were patients aged ≥ 20 years with OOH cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical services providers participating in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. Data were abstracted from monitor-defibrillator recordings during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression analysis assessed the association between chest compression rate and outcome. From December 2005 to May 2007, 3098 patients with OOH cardiac arrest were included in this study. Mean age was 67 ± 16 years, and 8.6% survived to hospital discharge. Mean compression rate was 112 ± 19/min. A curvilinear association between chest compression rate and return of spontaneous circulation was found in cubic spline models after multivariable adjustment (P=0.012). Return of spontaneous circulation rates peaked at a compression rate of ≈ 125/min and then declined. Chest compression rate was not significantly associated with survival to hospital discharge in multivariable categorical or cubic spline models. Chest compression rate was associated with return of spontaneous circulation but not with survival to hospital discharge in OOH cardiac arrest.

  7. Arresting Strategy Based on Dynamic Criminal Networks Changing over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.

  8. Circulatory Arrest: A Surgical Option for Adult Window Ductus Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithalkumar Malleshi Betigeri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The window ductus , an atypical type of patent ductus arteriosus(PDA is a characteristically large in size(>2cm with no recognizable length, characteristic continuation of main pulmonary artery with aortic arch and absence of internal ductal tissue. Surgical safety and effectiveness of its closure can be increased by using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and hypothermic total circulatory arrest (HTCA via median sternotomy.

  9. The Neighborhood Context of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    KIRK, DAVID S.

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with a focus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disad...

  10. Advances in crack-arrest technology for reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is continuing to improve the understanding of conditions that govern the initiation, rapid propagation, arrest, and ductile tearing of cracks in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This paper describes recent advances in a coordinated effort being conducted under the HSST Program by ORNL and several subcontracting groups to develop the crack-arrest data base and the analytical tools required to construct inelastic dynamic fracture models for RPV steels. Large-scale tests are being carried out to generate crack-arrest toughness data at temperatures approaching and above the onset of Charpy upper-shelf behavior. Small- and intermediate-size specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading are being developed and tested to provide additional fracture data for RPV steels. Viscoplastic effects are being included in dynamic fracture models and computer programs and their utility validated through analyses of data from carefully controlled experiments. Recent studies are described that examine convergence problems associated with energy-based fracture parameters in viscoplastic-dynamic fracture applications. Alternative techniques that have potential for achieving convergent solutions for fracture parameters in the context of viscoplastic-dynamic models are discussed. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Initiation and arrest - two approaches to pressure vessel safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Stepanek, S.

    1976-01-01

    The safety analysis is described of the reactor pressure vessel related to brittle fracture based on the fracture mechanics theory using two different approximations, i.e., the Crack Arrest Temperature (CAT) or Nil Ductility Temperature (NDT), and fracture toughness. The variation of CAT with stress was determined for different steel specimens of 120 to 200 mm in thickness. A diagram is shown of CAT variation with stress allowing the determination of crack arrest temperature for all types of commonly used steels independently of the NDT initial value. The diagram also shows that the difference between fracture transition elastic (FTE) and NDT depends on the type of material and determines the value of the ΔTsub(sigma) factor typical of the safety coefficient. The so-called fracture toughness reference value Ksub(IR) is recommended for the computation of pressure vessel criticality. Also shown is a defect analysis diagram which may be used for the calculation of pressure vessel safety prior to and during operation and which may also be used in making the decision on what crack sizes are critical, what cracks may be arrested and what cracks are likely to expand. The diagram is also important for the fact that it is material-independent and may be employed for the estimates of pre-operational and operational inspections and for pressure vessel life prediction. It is generally applicable to materials of greater thickness in the region where the validity of linear elastic fracture mechanics is guaranteed. (J.P.)

  12. Purex diluent degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-02-01

    The chemical degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) diluents both in the pure state and mixed with 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated in a series of experiments. The results show that degradation of NPH in the TBP-NPH-HNO 3 system is consistent with the active chemical agent being a radical-like nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) molecule, not HNO 3 as such. Spectrophotometric, gas chromatographic, mass spectrographic, and titrimetric methods were used to identify the degradation products, which included alkane nitro and nitrate compounds, alcohols, unsaturated alcohols, nitro alcohols, nitro alkenes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. The degradation rate was found to increase with increases in the HNO 3 concentration and the temperature. The rate was decreased by argon sparging to remove NO 2 and by the addition of butanol, which probably acts as a NO 2 scavenger. 13 references, 11 figures

  13. Rationale and Design of the ARREST Trial Investigating Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S Keisin; Green, Linden A; Gutwein, Ashley R; Drucker, Natalie A; Motaganahalli, Raghu L; Fajardo, Andres; Babbey, Clifford M; Murphy, Michael P

    2018-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a major source of morbidity and mortality despite continuing advances in surgical technique and care. Although the inciting factors for AAA development continue to be elusive, accumulating evidence suggests a significant periaortic inflammatory response leading to degradation and dilation of the aortic wall. Previous human trials have demonstrated safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of inflammation-related pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis, graft versus host disease, and transplant rejection. Therefore, herein, we describe the Aortic Aneurysm Repression with Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ARREST) trial, a phase I investigation into the safety of MSC infusion for patients with small AAA and the cells' effects on modulation of AAA-related inflammation. ARREST is a phase I, single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating infusion both dilute and concentrated MSCs compared to placebo in 36 small AAA (35-45 mm) patients. Subjects will be followed by study personnel for 12 months to ascertain incidence of adverse events, immune cell phenotype expression, peripheral cytokine profile, and periaortic inflammation. Maximum transverse aortic diameter will be assessed regularly for 5 years by a combination of computed tomography and duplex sonography. Four patients have thus far been enrolled, randomized, and treated per protocol. We anticipate the conclusion of the treatment phase within the next 24 months with ongoing long-term follow-up. ARREST will be pivotal in assessing the safety of MSC infusion and provide preliminary data on the ability of MSCs to favorably modulate the pathogenic AAA host immune response. The data gleaned from this phase I trial will provide the groundwork for a larger, phase III RCT which may provide the first pharmaceutical intervention for AAA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrolytic And Enzymatic Degradation Characteristics Of Biodegradable Aliphatic Polysters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Suming

    2004-01-01

    Aliphatic polyesters, especially those derived from lactide (PLA), glycolide (PGA) and ε-caprolactone (PCL), are being investigated worldwide for applications in the field of surgery (suture material, devices for internal bone fracture fixation), pharmacology (sustained drug delivery systems), and tissue engineering (scaffold for tissue regeneration) [1,2]. This is mainly due to their good biocompatibility and variable degradability. These polymers present also a growing interest for environmental applications in agriculture (mulch films) and in our everyday life (packaging material)as the development of biodegradable materials is now considered as one of the potential solutions to the problem of plastic waste management.For both biomedical and environmental applications, it is of major importance to understand the degradation characteristics of the polymers. The hydrolytic degradation of aliphatic polyesters has been investigated by many research groups. Our group has shown that degradation of PLAGA large size devices is faster inside than at the surface. This heterogeneous degradation is due to the autocatalytic effect of carboxylic endgroups formed by ester bond cleavage. Moreover,degradation-induced morphological and compositional changes were also elucidated. In the case of PCL, the hydrolytic degradation is very slow due to its hydrophobicity and crystallinity.The enzymatic degradation of these polymers has been investigated by a number of authors. A specific enzyme, proteinase K, has been shown to have significant effects on PLA degradation. This enzyme preferentially degrade L-lactate units as opposed to D-lactate ones, amorphous zones as opposed to crystalline ones [3]. The enzymatic degradation of PCL polymers has also been investigated. A number of lipase-type enzymes were found to significantly accelerate the degradation of PCL despite its high crystallinity. In the case of PLA/PCL blends, the two components exhibited well separated crystalline domains

  15. DNA degradation and reduced recombination following UV irradiation during meiosis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salts, Y.; Pinon, R.; Simchen, G.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of meiotic yeast cells with moderate doses of ultraviolet irradiation (1,600 erg/mm 2 ) leads to the arrest of premeiotic DNA synthesis, massive (5-40%) DNA degradation, and a 40-50% loss of cell viability. In contrast, such doses of UV irradiation had a minor effect on viability (15-20% loss) of logarithmically growing cells, and no comparable DNA degradation was observed in irradiated synchronized vegetative cells. Meiotic recombination is also affected by UV irradiation. When administered at a stage comparable to meiotic prophase, low doses of irradiation result in a reduction in recombination frequency without significantly affecting cell viability. (orig.) [de

  16. Descriptive Analysis of Medication Administration During Inpatient Cardiopulmonary Arrest Resuscitation (from the Mayo Registry for Telemetry Efficacy in Arrest Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipelisky, David; Ray, Jordan; Matcha, Gautam; Roy, Archana; Dumitrascu, Adrian; Harris, Dana; Bosworth, Veronica; Clark, Brooke; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler; Kusumoto, Fred; Burton, M Caroline

    2016-05-15

    Advanced cardiovascular life support guidelines exist, yet there are variations in clinical practice. Our study aims to describe the utilization of medications during resuscitation from in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. A retrospective review of patients who suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest from May 2008 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical and resuscitation data, including timing and dose of medications used, were extracted from the electronic medical record and comparisons made. A total of 94 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into different groups based on the medication combination used during resuscitation: (1) epinephrine; (2) epinephrine and bicarbonate; (3) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and calcium; (4) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and epinephrine drip; and (5) epinephrine, bicarbonate, calcium, and epinephrine drip. No difference in baseline demographics or clinical data was present, apart from history of dementia and the use of calcium channel blockers. The number of medications given was correlated with resuscitation duration (Spearman's rank correlation = 0.50, p resuscitation durations compared to that of the other groups (p resuscitation efforts for in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests. Increased duration and mortality rates were found in those resuscitations compared with epinephrine alone, likely due to the longer resuscitation duration in the former groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling sulfamethoxazole degradation under different redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Rodriguez-Escales, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a low adsorptive, polar, sulfonamide antibiotic, widely present in aquatic environments. Degradation of SMX in subsurface porous media is spatially and temporally variable, depending on various environmental factors such as in situ redox potential, availability of nutrients, local soil characteristics, and temperature. It has been reported that SMX is better degraded under anoxic conditions and by co-metabolism processes. In this work, we first develop a conceptual model of degradation of SMX under different redox conditions (denitrification and iron reducing conditions), and second, we construct a mathematical model that allows reproducing different experiments of SMX degradation reported in the literature. The conceptual model focuses on the molecular behavior and contemplates the formation of different metabolites. The model was validated using the experimental data from Barbieri et al. (2012) and Mohatt et al. (2011). It adequately reproduces the reversible degradation of SMX under the presence of nitrite as an intermediate product of denitrification. In those experiments degradation was mediated by the transient formation of a diazonium cation, which was considered responsible of the substitution of the amine radical by a nitro radical, forming the 4-nitro-SMX. The formation of this metabolite is a reversible process, so that once the concentration of nitrite was back to zero due to further advancement of denitrification, the concentration of SMX was fully recovered. The forward reaction, formation of 4-nitro SMX, was modeled considering a kinetic of second order, whereas the backward reaction, dissociation of 4-nitro-SMX back to the original compound, could be modeled with a first order degradation reaction. Regarding the iron conditions, SMX was degraded due to the oxidation of iron (Fe2+), which was previously oxidized from goethite due to the degradation of a pool of labile organic carbon. As the oxidation of iron occurred on the

  18. C.A.U.S.E.: Cardiac arrest ultra-sound exam--a better approach to managing patients in primary non-arrhythmogenic cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Caleb; Shuler, Klaus; Hannan, Hashibul; Sonyika, Chionesu; Likourezos, Antonios; Marshall, John

    2008-02-01

    Cardiac arrest is a condition frequently encountered by physicians in the hospital setting including the Emergency Department, Intensive Care Unit and medical/surgical wards. This paper reviews the current literature involving the use of ultrasound in resuscitation and proposes an algorithmic approach for the use of ultrasound during cardiac arrest. At present there is the need for a means of differentiating between various causes of cardiac arrest, which are not a direct result of a primary ventricular arrhythmia. Identifying the cause of pulseless electrical activity or asystole is important as the underlying cause is what guides management in such cases. This approach, incorporating ultrasound to manage cardiac arrest aids in the diagnosis of the most common and easily reversible causes of cardiac arrest not caused by primary ventricular arrhythmia, namely; severe hypovolemia, tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, and massive pulmonary embolus. These four conditions are addressed in this paper using four accepted emergency ultrasound applications to be performed during resuscitation of a cardiac arrest patient with the aim of determining the underlying cause of a cardiac arrest. Identifying the underlying cause of cardiac arrest represents the one of the greatest challenges of managing patients with asystole or PEA and accurate determination has the potential to improve management by guiding therapeutic decisions. We include several clinical images demonstrating examples of cardiac tamponade, massive pulmonary embolus, and severe hypovolemia secondary to abdominal aortic aneurysm. In conclusion, this protocol has the potential to reduce the time required to determine the etiology of a cardiac arrest and thus decrease the time between arrest and appropriate therapy.

  19. Enzyme stabilization for pesticide degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivers, D.B.; Frazer, F.R. III; Mason, D.W.; Tice, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Enzymes offer inherent advantages and limitations as active components of formulations used to decontaminate soil and equipment contaminated with toxic materials such as pesticides. Because of the catalytic nature of enzymes, each molecule of enzyme has the potential to destroy countless molecules of a contaminating toxic compound. This degradation takes place under mild environmental conditions of pH, temperature, pressure, and solvent. The basic limitation of enzymes is their degree of stability during storage and application conditions. Stabilizing methods such as the use of additives, covalent crosslinking, covalent attachment, gel entrapment, and microencapsulation have been directed developing an enzyme preparation that is stable under extremes of pH, temperature, and exposure to organic solvents. Initial studies were conducted using the model enzymes subtilisin and horseradish peroxidase.

  20. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Kicker

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA

  1. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal

  2. Polycomb Group Protein PHF1 Regulates p53-dependent Cell Growth Arrest and Apoptosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Chenji; Zhang, Pingzhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dejie; Yu, Hongxiu; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Sirui; Hexige, Saiyin; Hong, Zehui; Yasui, Akira; Liu, Jun O.; Huang, Haojie; Yu, Long

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb group protein PHF1 is well known as a component of a novel EED-EZH2·Polycomb repressive complex 2 complex and plays important roles in H3K27 methylation and Hox gene silencing. PHF1 is also involved in the response to DNA double-strand breaks in human cells, promotes nonhomologous end-joining processes through interaction with Ku70/Ku80. Here, we identified another function of PHF1 as a potential p53 pathway activator in a pathway screen using luminescence reporter assay. Subsequent studies showed PHF1 directly interacts with p53 proteins both in vivo and in vitro and co-localized in nucleus. PHF1 binds to the C-terminal regulatory domain of p53. Overexpression of PHF1 elevated p53 protein level and prolonged its turnover. Knockdown of PHF1 reduced p53 protein level and its target gene expression both in normal state and DNA damage response. Mechanically, PHF1 protects p53 proteins from MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Furthermore, we showed that PHF1 regulates cell growth arrest and etoposide-induced apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Finally, PHF1 expression was significantly down-regulated in human breast cancer samples. Taken together, we establish PHF1 as a novel positive regulator of the p53 pathway. These data shed light on the potential roles of PHF1 in tumorigenesis and/or tumor progression. PMID:23150668

  3. Lubricating oil-degrading bacteria in soils from filling stations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... 1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of ... Key words: environmental pollution, oil-degrading bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, physico-chemical factors, ..... Manual of Environmental.

  4. UTILITY OF SPLENIC MACROPHAGE AGGREGATES AS AN INDICATOR OF FISH EXPOSURE TO DEGRADED ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs) as an indicator of fish exposure to degraded environments was evaluated in several species of estuarine fishes as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Estuaries (EMAP-E)...

  5. Use of Chiral Alcohols for Elucidating the Mode and Kinetics of Degradation of Fluorotelomer Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorotelomer polymers are the dominant product line of the fluorotelomer industry. Fluorotelomer polymers have been shown to degrade under environmental conditions to form numerous fluorotelomer and perfluorinated monomers that are of environmental and toxicological concern; how...

  6. Developments in polymer degradation - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, N.

    1987-01-01

    A selection of topics which are representative of the continually expanding area of polymer degradation is presented. The aspects emphasised include the products of degradation of specific polymers, degradation by high energy radiation and mechanical forces, fire retardant studies and the special role of small radicals in degradation processes. (author)

  7. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  8. Endocytic collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Ingvarsen, Signe Ziir

    2012-01-01

    it crucially important to understand both the collagen synthesis and turnover mechanisms in this condition. Here we show that the endocytic collagen receptor, uPARAP/Endo180, is a major determinant in governing the balance between collagen deposition and degradation. Cirrhotic human livers displayed a marked...... up-regulation of uPARAP/Endo180 in activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells located close to the collagen deposits. In a hepatic stellate cell line, uPARAP/Endo180 was shown to be active in, and required for, the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen. To evaluate the functional...... groups of mice clearly revealed a fibrosis protective role of uPARAP/Endo180. This effect appeared to directly reflect the activity of the collagen receptor, since no compensatory events were noted when comparing the mRNA expression profiles of the two groups of mice in an array system focused on matrix-degrading...

  9. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  10. PWR degraded core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1982-04-01

    A review is presented of the various phenomena involved in degraded core accidents and the ensuing transport of fission products from the fuel to the primary circuit and the containment. The dominant accident sequences found in the PWR risk studies published to date are briefly described. Then chapters deal with the following topics: the condition and behaviour of water reactor fuel during normal operation and at the commencement of degraded core accidents; the generation of hydrogen from the Zircaloy-steam and the steel-steam reactions; the way in which the core deforms and finally melts following loss of coolant; debris relocation analysis; containment integrity; fission product behaviour during a degraded core accident. (U.K.)

  11. Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Hasan, Fariha; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

    2008-01-01

    Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. The interest in environmental issues is growing and there are increasing demands to develop material which do not burden the environment significantly. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-immiscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms and the biochemical changes involved. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. This paper reviews the current research on the biodegradation of biodegradable and also the conventional synthetic plastics and also use of various techniques for the analysis of degradation in vitro.

  12. Biomechanics of fall arrest using the upper extremity: age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Jung; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2003-05-01

    This study tried to isolate critical biomechanical factors in fall arrests using the upper extremity during simulated forward falls. This study also attempted to find the differences in those factors between young and old age groups. The role of the upper extremity is not well defined despite its primary usage as a local shock absorber during fall impact. Comparative study in which two age groups underwent motion analysis.Methods. Ten healthy older males (mean age, 66.4 years) and 10 young males (mean age, 24.1 years) volunteered to perform self-initiated and cable-released falls at selected falling distances, while the joint motion and impact forces at the hand were recorded. Significant age differences were demonstrated in joint kinematics and impact force parameters at close distances. Excessive reflexive responses of the upper extremity in cable-released falls for the older adults resulted in 10-15 times higher peak impact forces and 2-3 times shorter body braking time than in self-initiated falls. Pre-impact activities of the upper extremity predispose the post-impact response during fall arrests. Suppressing excessive pre-impact reflexive activation of the arms could efficiently decrease the risk of fall-related injuries, which calls for securing sufficient arm movement time. Any fall prevention strategy that can increase arm movement time would be effective against injuries of the upper extremity during falling in the older adults. The findings will help to understand underlying mechanisms of fall arrest using the upper extremity for prevention of fall-related fractures.

  13. Calmodulin Mutations Associated with Recurrent Cardiac Arrest in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, Lia; Johnson, Christopher N.; Graf, Elisabeth; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Cuneo, Bettina F.; Ovadia, Marc; Papagiannis, John; Feldkamp, Michael D.; Rathi, Subodh G.; Kunic, Jennifer D.; Pedrazzini, Matteo; Wieland, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Beckmann, Britt-Maria; Clark, Travis; Shaffer, Christian; Benson, D. Woodrow; Kääb, Stefan; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M.; Chazin, Walter J.; Schwartz, Peter J.; George, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Life-threatening disorders of heart rhythm may arise during infancy and can result in the sudden and tragic death of a child. We performed exome sequencing on two unrelated infants presenting with recurrent cardiac arrest to discover a genetic cause. Methods and Results We ascertained two unrelated infants (probands) with recurrent cardiac arrest and dramatically prolonged QTc interval who were both born to healthy parents. The two parent-child trios were investigated using exome sequencing to search for de novo genetic variants. We then performed follow-up candidate gene screening on an independent cohort of 82 subjects with congenital long-QT syndrome without an identified genetic cause. Biochemical studies were performed to determine the functional consequences of mutations discovered in two genes encoding calmodulin. We discovered three heterozygous de novo mutations in either CALM1 or CALM2, two of the three human genes encoding calmodulin, in the two probands and in two additional subjects with recurrent cardiac arrest. All mutation carriers were infants who exhibited life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias combined variably with epilepsy and delayed neurodevelopment. Mutations altered residues in or adjacent to critical calcium binding loops in the calmodulin carboxyl-terminal domain. Recombinant mutant calmodulins exhibited several fold reductions in calcium binding affinity. Conclusions Human calmodulin mutations disrupt calcium ion binding to the protein and are associated with a life-threatening condition in early infancy. Defects in calmodulin function will disrupt important calcium signaling events in heart affecting membrane ion channels, a plausible molecular mechanism for potentially deadly disturbances in heart rhythm during infancy. PMID:23388215

  14. Survey on current practices for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Dünser, Martin W; Duranteau, Jacques; Horn, Janneke; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    To investigate current practices and timing of neurological prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to the 8000 members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine during September and October 2012. The survey had 27 questions divided into three categories: background data, clinical data, decision-making and consequences. A total of 1025 respondents (13%) answered the survey with complete forms in more than 90%. Twenty per cent of respondents practiced outside of Europe. Overall, 22% answered that they had national recommendations, with the highest percentage in the Netherlands (>80%). Eighty-nine per cent used induced hypothermia (32-34 °C) for comatose cardiac arrest patients, while 11% did not. Twenty per cent had separate prognostication protocols for hypothermia patients. Seventy-nine per cent recognized that neurological examination alone is not enough to predict outcome and a similar number (76%) used additional methods. Intermittent electroencephalography (EEG), brain computed tomography (CT) scan and evoked potentials (EP) were considered most useful. Poor prognosis was defined as cerebral performance category (CPC) 3-5 (58%) or CPC 4-5 (39%) or other (3%). When prognosis was considered poor, 73% would actively withdraw intensive care while 20% would not and 7% were uncertain. National recommendations for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest are uncommon and only one physician out of five uses a separate protocol for hypothermia treated patients. A neurological examination alone was considered insufficient to predict outcome in comatose patients and most respondents advocated a multimodal approach: EEG, brain CT and EP were considered most useful. Uncertainty regarding neurological prognostication and decisions on level of care was substantial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antifoam degradation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Newell, D. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL)

    2015-08-20

    This report describes the results of testing to quantify the degradation products resulting from the dilution and storage of Antifoam 747. Antifoam degradation is of concern to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) due to flammable decomposition products in the vapor phase of the Chemical Process Cell vessels, as well as the collection of flammable and organic species in the offgas condensate. The discovery that hexamethyldisiloxane is formed from the antifoam decomposition was the basis for a Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis declaration by the DWPF.

  16. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  17. Multiple contacts with diversion at the point of arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Sharon; Wix, Stuart; Haque, M Sayeed; Humphreys, Martin

    2003-04-01

    A diversion at the point of arrest (DAPA) scheme was set up in five police stations in South Birmingham in 1992. In a study of all referrals made over a four-year period a sub group of multiple contact individuals was identified. During that time four hundred and ninety-two contacts were recorded in total, of which 130 were made by 58 individuals. The latter group was generally no different from the single contact group but did have a tendency to be younger. This research highlights the need for a re-evaluation of service provision and associated education of police officers and relevant mental health care professionals.

  18. ADULTHOOD ANIMAL ABUSE AMONG MEN ARRESTED FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend towards a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. PMID:25324474

  19. Elastodynamic fracture analyses of large crack-arrest experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Walker, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results obtained to date show that the essence of the run-arrest events, including dynamic behavior, is being modeled. Refined meshes and optimum solution algorithms are important parameters in elastodynamic analysis programs to give sufficient resolution to the geometric and time-dependent aspects of fracture analyses. Further refinements in quantitative representation of material parameters and the inclusion of rate dependence through viscoplastic modeling is expected to give an even more accurate basis for assessing the fracture behavior of reactor pressure vessels under PTS and other off-normal loading conditions

  20. A CASE OF GRANISETRON ASSOCIATED INTRAOPERATIVE CARDIAC ARREST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harbi, Mohammed; Al Rifai, Derar; Al Habeeb, Hassan; Wambi, Freddie; Geldhof, Georges; Dimitriou, Vassilios

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of intraoperative severe bradycardia that resulted in asystole and cardiac arrest shortly after (granisetron 1mg for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis, that occurred in a female patient who underwent an elective total thyroidectomy. After two cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, spontaneous circulation and sinus rhythm returned successfully. Postoperatively, the patient was diagnosed with a drug-induced long QT syndrome. At the time of the event, granisetron was the only medication administered. Furthermore, there was no reason to suspect electrolyte abnormalities. We explore the association of the onset of severe sinus bradycardia with the intravenous administration of granisetron.

  1. Advanced life support for cardiac arrest beyond the algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Søren Steemann; Isbye, Dan Lou; Pfeiffer, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In an advanced emergency medical service all parts of the advanced life support (ALS) algorithm can be provided. This evidence-based algorithm outlines resuscitative efforts for the first 10-15 minutes after cardiac arrest, whereafter the algorithm repeats itself. Restoration of spontaneous...... circulation fails in most cases, but in some circumstances the patient may benefit from additional interventional approaches, in which case transport to hospital with ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation is indicated. This paper has summarized treatments outside the ALS algorithm, which may be beneficial...

  2. [Cerebral oximetry in pulmonary thromboendarterectomy with circulatory arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán Escudero, P; González Román, A; Serra Ruiz, C N; Barbero Mielgo, M; García Fernández, J

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is an uncommon procedure and should be performed with circulatory arrest. One of the major concerns is the postoperative central neurological injuries. Perioperative brain oxygen monitoring is advisable in this surgical procedure for the early detection of brain hypoperfusion episodes and their intensity as well as any other postoperative episodes that can deteriorate the neurological outcome. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamical arrest in dense short-ranged attractive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foffi, G; Sciortino, F; Zaccarelli, E; Tartaglia, P

    2004-01-01

    We study thermodynamic and dynamic properties of model colloidal systems interacting with a hard core repulsion and a short-range attraction, and provide an overall picture of their phase diagrams which shows a very rich phenomenology. We focus on the slow dynamic properties of this model, investigating in detail the glass transition lines (both repulsive and attractive), the glass-glass transitions and the location of the higher order singularities. We discuss the relative location of the glass lines and of the metastable liquid-gas binodal, an issue relevant for the understanding of low density arrested states of matter

  4. Adulthood animal abuse among men arrested for domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Nanobiocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jason

    The catalytic properties of various metal nanoparticles have led to their use in environmental remediation applications. However, these remediation strategies are limited by their ability to deliver catalytic nanoparticles and a suitable electron donor to large treatment zones. Clostridium pasteurianum BC1 cells, loaded with bio-Pd nanoparticles, were used to effectively catalyze the reductive degradation and removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), a model azo compound. Hydrogen produced fermentatively by the C. pasteurianum BC1 acted as the electron donor for the process. Pd-free bacterial cultures or control experiments conducted with heat-killed cells showed limited reduction of AO7. Experiments also showed that the in situ biological production of H2 by C. pasteurianum BC1 was essential for the degradation of AO7, which suggests a novel process where the in situ microbial production of hydrogen is directly coupled to the catalytic bio-Pd mediated reduction of AO7. The differences in initial degradation rate for experiments conducted using catalyst concentrations of 1ppm Pd and 5ppm Pd and an azo dye concentration of 100ppm AO7 was 0.39 /hr and 1.94 /hr respectively, demonstrating the importance of higher concentrations of active Pd(0). The degradation of AO7 was quick as demonstrated by complete reductive degradation of 50ppm AO7 in 2 hours in experiments conducted using a catalyst concentration of 5ppm Pd. Dye degradation products were analyzed via Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), UltraViolet-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) spectrometry. The presence of 1-amino 2-naphthol, one of the hypothesized degradation products, was confirmed using mass spectrometry.

  6. Characteristics and possibilities of software tool for metal-oxide surge arresters selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for the selection of metal-oxide surge arresters based on the instructions given in the Siemens and ABB catalogues, respecting their differences and the characteristics and possibilities of the software tool. The software tool was developed during the preparation of a Master's thesis titled, 'Automation of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters Selection'. An example is presented of the selection of metal-oxide surge arresters using the developed software tool.

  7. Analysis of the G1 arrest position of senescent WI38 cells by quinacrine dihydrochloride nuclear fluorescence: evidence for a late G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, S.D.; Cristofalo, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    Senescence of the human diploid fibroblast-like cell line, W138, is characterized by a loss of proliferative activity and an arrest of cells with a 2C DNA content (G1 or G0). To examine the specific region within G1 in which senescent cells arrest, senescent cells were stained with quinacrine dihydrochloride (QDH) and their nuclear fluorescence was compared with that of young cultures arrested in early and late G1 by serum deprivation and hydroxyurea exposure, respectively. Release of these G1-arrested young cultures from their blocking conditions and timing the kinetics of their entry into the S phase by autoradiographic detection of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation revealed that serum-deprived cells entered the S phase within 15-18h, whereas hydroxyurea-exposed cells entered the S phase within 1.5h, thus confirming their relative G1-arrest positions. QDH-stained, serum-deprived and hydroxyurea-exposed young cells exhibited relative nuclear fluorescence intensities of 51.7 and 23.9, respectively. Senescent cells exhibited a relative nuclear fluorescence intensity of 17.4, closely resembling the fluorescence of young cultures arrested in late G1 by hydroxyurea exposure. These data support the concept that senescent cells are arrested from further progression in the cell cycle in late G1

  8. G2 phase arrest of cell cycle induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangwei; Gong Shouliang

    2002-01-01

    The exposure of mammalian cells to X rays results in the prolongation of the cell cycle, including the delay or the arrest in G 1 , S and G 2 phase. The major function of G 1 arrest may be to eliminate the cells containing DNA damage and only occurs in the cells with wild type p53 function whereas G 2 arrest following ionizing radiation has been shown to be important in protecting the cells from death and occurs in all cells regardless of p53 status. So the study on G 2 phase arrest of the cell cycle induced by ionizing radiation has currently become a focus at radiobiological fields

  9. An Exploratory Study of Functional Status in Post Cardiac Arrest Survivors Discharged To Home

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitcomb, John J

    2005-01-01

    .... Aims of the project were to describe perceived functional capacity, physical functional performance, mental health, symptom distress, and demographic factors in survivors of cardiopulmonary arrest...

  10. Fungal degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates and a semiquantitative assay for screening their degradation by terrestrial fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matavulj, M; Molitoris, H P

    1992-12-01

    The current problems with decreasing fossile resources and increasing environmental pollution by petrochemical-based plastics have stimulated investigations to find biosynthetic materials which are also biodegradable. Bacterial reserve materials such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been discovered to possess thermoplastic properties and can be synthesized from renewable resources. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) is at present the most promising PHA; and BIOPOL, its copolymer with poly-beta-hydroxy-valerate (PHV), is already industrially produced (ICI, UK), and used as packaging material (WELLA, FRG). According to the literature, PHA degradation has so far mainly been observed in bacteria; only under certain environmental conditions has fungal degradation of PHAs been indicated. Since fungi constitute an important part of microbial populations participating in degradation processes, a simple screening method for fungal degradation of BIOPOL, a PHA-based plastic, was developed. Several media with about 150 fungal strains from different terrestrial environments and belonging to different systematic and ecological groups were used. PHA depolymerization was tested on three PHB-based media, each with 0.1% BIOPOL or PHB homopolymer causing turbidity of the medium. The media contained either a comparatively low or high content of organic carbon (beside PHA) or were based on mineral medium with PHA as the principal source of carbon. The degradation activity was detectable due to formation of a clear halo around the colony (Petri plates) or a clear zone under the colony (test tubes).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])

  12. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    could potentially improve bioremediation of BAM. An important prerequisite for bioaugmentation is the potential to produce the degrader strain at large quantities within reasonable time. The aim of manuscript II, was to optimize the growth medium for Aminobacter MSH1 and to elucidate optimal growth...

  13. Radiation degradation of silk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Kazushige; Kamiishi, Youichi [Textile Research Institute of Gunma, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Silk fibroin powder was prepared from irradiated silk fibroin fiber by means of only physical treatment. Silk fibroin fiber irradiated with an accelerated electron beam in the dose range of 250 - 1000 kGy was pulverized by using a ball mill. Unirradiated silk fibroin fiber was not pulverized at all. But the more irradiation was increased, the more the conversion efficiency from fiber to powder was increased. The conversion efficiency of silk fibroin fiber irradiated 1000 kGy in oxygen was 94%. Silk fibroin powder shows remarkable solubility, which dissolved 57% into water of ambient temperature. It is a very interesting phenomenon that silk fibroin which did not treat with chemicals gets solubility only being pulverized. In order to study mechanism of solubilization of silk fibroin powder, amino acid component of soluble part of silk fibroin powder was analyzed. The more irradiation dose up, the more glycine or alanine degraded, but degradation fraction reached bounds about 50%. Other amino acids were degraded only 20% even at the maximum. To consider crystal construction of silk fibroin, it is suggested that irradiation on silk fibroin fiber selectively degrades glycine and alanine in amorphous region, which makes it possible to pulverize and to dissolve silk fibroin powder. (author)

  14. Human resilience in a degrading environment: A case study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaften, A.J.; Yu, Z.R.; Vijver, van den F.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Psychological aspects of environmental degradation were studied among 753 Chinese farmers. A good fit was found for a structural equation model postulating a relationship between various input variables (i.e. environmental degradation, socio-economic status, education, coping, and locus of control),

  15. Perioperative cardiac arrest: an evolutionary analysis of the intra-operative cardiac arrest incidence in tertiary centers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fachini Vane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Great changes in medicine have taken place over the last 25 years worldwide. These changes in technologies, patient risks, patient profile, and laws regulating the medicine have impacted the incidence of cardiac arrest. It has been postulated that the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest has decreased over the years, especially in developed countries. The authors hypothesized that, as in the rest of the world, the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest is decreasing in Brazil, a developing country. Objectives: The aim of this study was to search the literature to evaluate the publications that relate the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in Brazil and analyze the trend in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest. Contents: There were 4 articles that met our inclusion criteria, resulting in 204,072 patients undergoing regional or general anesthesia in two tertiary and academic hospitals, totalizing 627 cases of intraoperative cardiac arrest. The mean intraoperative cardiac arrest incidence for the 25 years period was 30.72:10,000 anesthesias. There was a decrease from 39:10,000 anesthesias to 13:10,000 anesthesias in the analyzed period, with the related lethality from 48.3% to 30.8%. Also, the main causes of anesthesia-related cause of mortality changed from machine malfunction and drug overdose to hypovolemia and respiratory causes. Conclusions: There was a clear reduction in the incidence of intraoperative cardiac arrest in the last 25 years in Brazil. This reduction is seen worldwide and might be a result of multiple factors, including new laws regulating the medicine in Brazil, incorporation of technologies, better human development level of the country, and better patient care. Resumo: Justificativa: Nos últimos 25 anos ocorreram grandes mudanças na medicina em todo o mundo. Essas mudanças de tecnologias, riscos do paciente, perfil do paciente e leis que regulam medicamentos tiveram impacto na incid

  16. Electrophysiological Monitoring of Brain Injury and Recovery after Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxian Deng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable prognostic methods for cerebral functional outcome of post cardiac-arrest (CA patients are necessary, especially since therapeutic hypothermia (TH as a standard treatment. Traditional neurophysiological prognostic indicators, such as clinical examination and chemical biomarkers, may result in indecisive outcome predictions and do not directly reflect neuronal activity, though they have remained the mainstay of clinical prognosis. The most recent advances in electrophysiological methods—electroencephalography (EEG pattern, evoked potential (EP and cellular electrophysiological measurement—were developed to complement these deficiencies, and will be examined in this review article. EEG pattern (reactivity and continuity provides real-time and accurate information for early-stage (particularly in the first 24 h hypoxic-ischemic (HI brain injury patients with high sensitivity. However, the signal is easily affected by external stimuli, thus the measurements of EP should be combined with EEG background to validate the predicted neurologic functional result. Cellular electrophysiology, such as multi-unit activity (MUA and local field potentials (LFP, has strong potential for improving prognostication and therapy by offering additional neurophysiologic information to understand the underlying mechanisms of therapeutic methods. Electrophysiology provides reliable and precise prognostication on both global and cellular levels secondary to cerebral injury in cardiac arrest patients treated with TH.

  17. Archaeal RNA polymerase arrests transcription at DNA lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Alexandra M; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Transcription elongation is not uniform and transcription is often hindered by protein-bound factors or DNA lesions that limit translocation and impair catalysis. Despite the high degree of sequence and structural homology of the multi-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAP), substantial differences in response to DNA lesions have been reported. Archaea encode only a single RNAP with striking structural conservation with eukaryotic RNAP II (Pol II). Here, we demonstrate that the archaeal RNAP from Thermococcus kodakarensis is sensitive to a variety of DNA lesions that pause and arrest RNAP at or adjacent to the site of DNA damage. DNA damage only halts elongation when present in the template strand, and the damage often results in RNAP arresting such that the lesion would be encapsulated with the transcription elongation complex. The strand-specific halt to archaeal transcription elongation on modified templates is supportive of RNAP recognizing DNA damage and potentially initiating DNA repair through a process akin to the well-described transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) pathways in Bacteria and Eukarya.

  18. In-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Martha; Rodriguez, Roger; Callejas, Allison; Carranza, Douglas; Zeron, Hilda; Sánchez, Carlos; Del Castillo, Jimena; López-Herce, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristic and the prognostic factors of in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) in a public hospital Honduras. A prospective observational study was performed on pediatric in-hospital CA as a part of a multicenter international study. One hundred forty-six children were studied. The primary end point was survival at hospital discharge. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of each factor on mortality. Cardiac arrest occurred in the emergency department in 66.9%. Respiratory diseases and sepsis were predominant causes of CA. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 60% of patients, and 22.6% survived to hospital discharge. The factors related with mortality were nonrespiratory cause of CA (odds ratio [OR], 2.55; P = 0.045), adrenaline administration (OR, 4.96; P = 0.008), and a duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation more than 10 minutes (OR, 3.40; P = 0.012). In-hospital CA in children in a developing country has low survival. Patients with nonrespiratory causes and those who need adrenaline administration and prolonged resuscitation had worse prognosis.

  19. Usefulness of emergency ultrasound in nontraumatic cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpicelli, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Treatment of nontraumatic cardiac arrest in the hospital setting depends on the recognition of heart rhythm and differential diagnosis of the underlying condition while maintaining a constant oxygenated blood flow by ventilation and chest compression. Diagnostic process relies only on patient's history, physical findings, and active electrocardiography. Ultrasound is not currently scheduled in the resuscitation guidelines. Nevertheless, the use of real-time ultrasonography during resuscitation has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy and allows the physician a greater confidence in deciding aggressive life-saving therapeutic procedures. This article reviews the current opinions and literature about the use of emergency ultrasound during resuscitation of nontraumatic cardiac arrest. Cardiac and lung ultrasound have a great potential in identifying the reversible mechanical causes of pulseless electrical activity or asystole. Brief examination of the heart can even detect a real cardiac standstill regardless of electrical activity displayed on the monitor, which is a crucial prognostic indicator. Moreover, ultrasound can be useful to verify and monitor the tracheal tube placement. Limitation to the use of ultrasound is the need to minimize the no-flow intervals during mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, real-time ultrasound can be successfully applied during brief pausing of chest compression and first pulse-check. Finally, lung sonographic examination targeted to the detection of signs of pulmonary congestion has the potential to allow hemodynamic noninvasive monitoring before and after mechanical cardiopulmonary maneuvers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-equilibrium theory of arrested spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olais-Govea, José Manuel; López-Flores, Leticia; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)

    2015-11-07

    The non-equilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of irreversible relaxation [P. E. Ramŕez-González and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 82, 061503 (2010); 82, 061504 (2010)] is applied to the description of the non-equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermodynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, at lower temperature intersects the spinodal curve and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line, we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of various physical properties. We interpret these two domains as corresponding to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions and to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition. The resulting theoretical scenario is consistent with the corresponding experimental observations in a specific colloidal model system.

  1. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  2. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  3. Enzymatic degradation of aliphatic nitriles by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2, a versatile nitrile-degrading bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shumei; An, Xuejiao; Liu, Hongyuan; Cheng, Yi; Hou, Ning; Feng, Lu; Huang, Xinning; Li, Chunyan

    2015-06-01

    Nitriles are common environmental pollutants, and their removal has attracted increasing attention. Microbial degradation is considered to be the most acceptable method for removal. In this work, we investigated the biodegradation of three aliphatic nitriles (acetonitrile, acrylonitrile and crotononitrile) by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2 and the expression of their corresponding metabolic enzymes. This organism can utilize all three aliphatic nitriles as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, resulting in the complete degradation of these compounds. The degradation kinetics were described using a first-order model. The degradation efficiency was ranked according to t1/2 as follows: acetonitrile>trans-crotononitrile>acrylonitrile>cis-crotononitrile. Only ammonia accumulated following the three nitriles degradation, while amides and carboxylic acids were transient and disappeared by the end of the assay. mRNA expression and enzyme activity indicated that the tested aliphatic nitriles were degraded via both the inducible NHase/amidase and the constitutive nitrilase pathways, with the former most likely preferred. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cows are not mice: the role of cyclic AMP, phosphodiesterases, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in the maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Meiotic maturation in mammalian oocytes is initiated during fetal development, and is then arrested at the dictyate stage - possibly for several years. Oocyte meiosis resumes in preovulatory follicles in response to the lutenizing hormone (LH) surge or spontaneously when competent oocytes are removed from follicles and cultured. The mechanisms involved in meiotic arrest and resumption in bovine oocytes are not fully understood, and several studies point to important differences between oocytes from rodent and livestock species. This paper reviews earlier and contemporary studies on the effects of cAMP-elevating agents and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme inhibitors on the maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes in vitro. Contrary to results obtained with mouse oocytes, bovine oocyte meiosis is inhibited by activators of the energy sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, mammalian gene PRKA), which is activated by AMP, the degradation product of cAMP. It is not clear whether or not the effects were due to AMPK activation, and they may depend on culture conditions. Evidence suggests that other signaling pathways (for example, the cGMP/nitric oxide pathway) are involved in bovine oocyte meiotic arrest, but further studies are needed to understand the interactions between the signaling pathways that lead to maturation promoting factor (MPF) being inactive or active. An improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the control of bovine oocyte meiosis will facilitate better control of the process in vitro, resulting in increased developmental competence and increased efficiency of in vitro embryo production procedures. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The SecA2 pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exports effectors that work in concert to arrest phagosome and autophagosome maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulauf, Katelyn E; Sullivan, Jonathan Tabb; Braunstein, Miriam

    2018-04-30

    To subvert host defenses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) avoids being delivered to degradative phagolysosomes in macrophages by arresting the normal host process of phagosome maturation. Phagosome maturation arrest by Mtb involves multiple effectors and much remains unknown about this important aspect of Mtb pathogenesis. The SecA2 dependent protein export system is required for phagosome maturation arrest and consequently growth of Mtb in macrophages. To better understand the role of the SecA2 pathway in phagosome maturation arrest, we identified two effectors exported by SecA2 that contribute to this process: the phosphatase SapM and the kinase PknG. Then, utilizing the secA2 mutant of Mtb as a platform to study effector functions, we identified specific steps in phagosome maturation inhibited by SapM and/or PknG. By identifying a histidine residue that is essential for SapM phosphatase activity, we confirmed for the first time that the phosphatase activity of SapM is required for its effects on phagosome maturation in macrophages. We further demonstrated that SecA2 export of SapM and PknG contributes to the ability of Mtb to replicate in macrophages. Finally, we extended our understanding of the SecA2 pathway, SapM, and PknG by revealing that their contribution goes beyond preventing Mtb delivery to mature phagolysosomes and includes inhibiting Mtb delivery to autophagolysosomes. Together, our results revealed SapM and PknG to be two effectors exported by the SecA2 pathway of Mtb with distinct as well as cumulative effects on phagosome and autophagosome maturation. Our results further reveal that Mtb must have additional mechanisms of limiting acidification of the phagosome, beyond inhibiting recruitment of the V-ATPase proton pump to the phagosome, and they indicate differences between effects of Mtb on phagosome and autophagosome maturation.

  6. Prescription Monitoring Program Trends Among Individuals Arrested in Maine for Trafficking Prescription Drugs in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Kenneth; Nichols, Stephanie D; Holt, Christina; Ochs, Leslie; Cattabriga, Gary; Tu, Chunhao

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate controlled substance prescribing trends available in the Maine Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) among individuals arrested for prescription drug "trafficking." The demographic characteristics of the individuals who had matching prescription records in the PMP within 90 days of the arrest were identified. A population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) and the Maine PMP. The study population consisted of persons arrested for trafficking prescription drugs in Maine during the 2014 calendar year from January 1 to December 31. There were 594 trafficking arrests reported by the Maine DAP in 2014. The study population consisted of the 235 persons (40%) with arrests involving controlled prescription medications. The mean age of these persons was 33 years (range 18-77 yrs), and 156 (66%) were male. Arrests involved 154 prescription opioids (65%), seven stimulants (3%), seven benzodiazepines (3%), and 77 unspecified controlled prescription drugs (33%). A minority of individuals (n=57, 24%) had a prescription record in the PMP that matched the substance involved in the arrest. Only one person with matching PMP and arrest records utilized ≥ 5 prescribers, while none used ≥ 5 pharmacies within 90 days before the arrest. Payment methods for matching prescriptions were commercial insurance (n=28, 49%), Medicaid (n=19, 33%), Medicare (n=5, 9%), and cash (n=5, 9%). The majority (76%) of persons arrested for prescription drug trafficking did not have PMP records and did not directly obtain the diverted medication from a licensed pharmacy. Traditional red flags, like cash payment and using multiple prescribers or pharmacies, were uncommon. Therefore, arrest records for diversion and PMPs are distinct and complementary tools for identifying individuals at risk for substance misuse. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  7. Degradation of hydrocarbons in arctic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundahl Pedersen, M.; Grau-Hansen, B.; Watson Nielsen, T.; Jensen, L.

    1999-12-01

    The scope of this project is to examine the natural degradation of a hydrocarbon contamination by investigating a specific location. The investigated location is a former airfield at Marraq situated on the west coast of Greenland, approx. 90 km south of Nuuk. In Autumn 1942 the US Air force established a diversion airfield called 'Teague Airfield' - under the military code name Bluie West-4. However, the location was abandoned in 1948 and accordingly all facilities and equipment were left behind, among these were a large amount of oil barrels, which mainly contained gas oil. In relation to the present investigation a number of disposal sites were found each containing approx. 50-600 oil barrels of 200 litres each. Through the years these barrels have corroded causing a heavy gas oil contamination several places on the site. This contamination is estimated to have taken place for approx. 40-50 years ago. The contamination is of such a severe character that a heavy smell of oil can be determined on site. Furthermore, vegetation mortality was observed around the barrels in connection to disposal sites situated in places covered by plants. Marraq is a peninsula consisting of coarse fluviatile deposits. The geology is relatively homogeneous without permafrost, which combined with a range of local defined contaminations, provide a unique possibility to assess the controlling environmental factors of natural degradation of oil contamination in the Arctic. A conservative estimate of the complete amount of gas oil which has contaminated the location is estimated to approx. 120,000 litres or more. The investigation showed that the extent of the oil degradation was different at the individual deposit sites. Roughly estimated the contamination is degraded on the order of 15 to twice the original oil amount. Assumable the contamination has been degraded due to the weathering process (evaporation and wash-out) and microbial degradation. Complex processes are involved depending

  8. Mental health court outcomes: a comparison of re-arrest and re-arrest severity between mental health court and traditional court participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marlee E; Hiday, Virginia Aldigé

    2006-12-01

    Mental health courts have been proliferating across the country since their establishment in the late 1990's. Although numerous advocates have proclaimed their merit, only few empirical studies have evaluated their outcomes. This paper evaluates the effect of one mental health court on criminal justice outcomes by examining arrests and offense severity from one year before to one year after entry into the court, and by comparing mental health court participants to comparable traditional criminal court defendants on these measures. Multivariate models support the prediction that mental health courts reduce the number of new arrests and the severity of such re-arrests among mentally ill offenders. Similar analysis of mental health court completers and non-completers supports the prediction that a "full dose" of mental health treatment and court monitoring produce even fewer re-arrests.

  9. Corrosion of synthesized glasses and glazes as analogs for nuclear waste glass degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandiver, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    Synthesized glasses provide an opportunity to study natural corrosion processes which are intermediate in time span between geological examples of natural glasses, such as obsidians and tektites, and relatively short term laboratory tests lasting a few hours to several decades. In addition, synthesized glasses can usually be tracked to particular archaeological find sites with known dates of production and often burial. Environmental conditions are routinely measured at archaeological sites as a part of the excavation-process, such that information is available on the yearly cycling of temperature and relative humidity, sometimes at the depth at which the artifact was found. Whether the artifacts were excavated in an air enclosure, such as a tomb, or in the soil can also be reconstructed, such that one can determine whether aqueous or atmospheric corrosion was involved in the degradation process. For instance, so-called open-quotes Roman glassclose quotes may span a time period of production of 800 years and a geographical range from Germany to North Africa and from Britain to Afghanistan. One example is the storage during World War II of glass from the British Museum in underground metro stations. Some of these glasses have been in collections for over 100 years. Thus, populations of glasses can be chosen for experimentation which compare variations in bulk composition, dopants, microstructure, heat treatment, ground vs. fire polished surfaces, aqueous vs. atmospheric corrosion, geographic, geological as well as recent storage conditions. Glasses in museums are generally considered to have had their corrosion arrested and be stable because changes in visual appearance are not obvious. However, if we attempt to measure the range of surface water content in these glasses using Fourier transform infrared analysis, a considerable variability is found, as shown

  10. TALSPEAK Solvent Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh R. Martin; Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the radiolytic degradation behavior of organic molecules involved in new or existing schemes for the recycle of used nuclear fuels is of significant interest for sustaining a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Here we have conducted several lines of investigation to begin understanding the effects of radiolysis on the aqueous phase of the TALSPEAK process for the separation of the trivalent lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. Using the 60-Co irradiator at the INL, we have begun to quantify the effects of radiation on the aqueous phase complexants used in this separation technique, and how this will affect the actinide lanthanide separation factor. In addition we have started to develop methodologies for stable product identification, a key element in determining the degradation pathways. We have also introduced a methodology to investigate the effects of alpha radiolysis that has previously received limited attention.

  11. Environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulhaye, F.

    2005-01-01

    The environment is an intricate mixture of natural, built and social components. The natural environment includes air, water, land, climate, flora and fauna, while the built environment consists of the fabric of building infrastructure and open space. The social component of the environment embraces the aesthetics, amenity quality, architectural style, heritages, law behavior, values and traditions of the society. In ecological terms the environment is a distortion of natural ecosystems or an ecosystem in its own right. A characteristic of the urban area is their fast changing nature with respect to their size, form, density and activity. This dynamism stems out of the basic functions of economic, social and cultural developments. The complexity and multiplicity of urban activities gives rise to a variety of environmental problems. Given their different level of economic and social development and the geography, not all the cities have identical problems, yet they have much in common. While the large cities of developed countries have long suffered the problem of pollution, inner city decay and neighborhood collapse, those in the less developed countries face more varied complex problems due to their overpopulation, poverty, inadequacy and poor quality of urban services, infrastructure, transportation, and changing life style. However the increasing pollution is common to the most of the cities and is the major cause of environmental degradation. Given the very serious nature of this problem it is essential to tackle this issue by incorporating the environmental concerns in the education system of Pakistan. This paper would give a brief overview of the environmental problems, and a detailed analysis of the status environmental issues in Pakistan. (author)

  12. Radiation degradation of chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Maznah Mahmud; Norhashidah Talip; Kamarudin Bahari; Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain an oligo chitosan, degradation of chitosan s were carried out in solid state and liquid state. The effects of an irradiation on the molecular weight and viscosity of the chitosan were investigated using Ubbelohde Capillary Viscometer and Brookfield Viscometer respectively. The molecular weight and viscosity of the chitosan s were decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the molecular weight of chitosan can be further decreased. (author)

  13. Reliability of complex systems under dynamic conditions: A Bayesian multivariate degradation perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Weiwen; Li, Yan-Feng; Mi, Jinhua; Yu, Le; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Degradation analysis is critical to reliability assessment and operational management of complex systems. Two types of assumptions are often adopted for degradation analysis: (1) single degradation indicator and (2) constant external factors. However, modern complex systems are generally characterized as multiple functional and suffered from multiple failure modes due to dynamic operating conditions. In this paper, Bayesian degradation analysis of complex systems with multiple degradation indicators under dynamic conditions is investigated. Three practical engineering-driven issues are addressed: (1) to model various combinations of degradation indicators, a generalized multivariate hybrid degradation process model is proposed, which subsumes both monotonic and non-monotonic degradation processes models as special cases, (2) to study effects of external factors, two types of dynamic covariates are incorporated jointly, which include both environmental conditions and operating profiles, and (3) to facilitate degradation based reliability analysis, a serial of Bayesian strategy is constructed, which covers parameter estimation, factor-related degradation prediction, and unit-specific remaining useful life assessment. Finally, degradation analysis of a type of heavy machine tools is presented to demonstrate the application and performance of the proposed method. A comparison of the proposed model with a traditional model is studied as well in the example. - Highlights: • A generalized multivariate hybrid degradation process model is introduced. • Various types of dependent degradation processes can be modeled coherently. • The effects of environmental conditions and operating profiles are investigated. • Unit-specific RUL assessment is implemented through a two-step Bayesian method.

  14. Cell cycle age dependence for radiation-induced G2 arrest: evidence for time-dependent repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Exponentially growing eucaryotic cells, irradiated in interphase, are delayed in progression to mitosis chiefly by arrest in G 2 . The sensitivity of Chinese hamster ovary cells to G 2 arrest induction by X rays increases through the cell cycle, up to the X-ray transition point (TP) in G 2 . This age response can be explained by cell cycle age-dependent changes in susceptibility of the target(s) for G 2 arrest and/or by changes in capability for postirradiation recovery from G 2 arrest damage. Discrimination between sensitivity changes and repair phenomena is possible only if the level of G 2 arrest-causing damage sustained by a cell at the time of irradiation and the level ultimately expressed as arrest can be determined. The ability of caffeine to ameliorate radiation-induced G 2 arrest, while inhibiting repair of G 2 arrest-causing damage makes such an analysis possible. In the presence of caffeine, progression of irradiated cells was relatively unperturbed, but on caffeine removal, G 2 arrest was expressed. The duration of G 2 arrest was independent of the length of the prior caffeine exposure. This finding indicates that the target for G 2 arrest induction is present throughout the cell cycle and that the level of G 2 arrest damage incurred is initially constant for all cell cycle phases. The data are consistent with the existence of a time-dependent recovery mechanism to explain the age dependence for radiation induction of G 2 arrest

  15. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  16. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  17. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  18. EU Citizenship and European Arrest Warrant: The Same Rights for All?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marguery, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the case Wolzenburg, the principle of non-discrimination of European Union citizens is applied to the European arrest warrant. The implementation of the European arrest warrant by the Member States cannot escape a control of proportional- ity made by the Court. Member States may impose a period

  19. Return to Work in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragholm, Kristian; Wissenberg, Mads; Mortensen, Rikke Normark

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term function of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors are sparse. We examined return to work as a proxy of preserved function without major neurologic deficits in survivors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In Denmark, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests have been systematically repo...

  20. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508 Lightning... conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are adequately...

  1. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. 8 CFR 287.3 - Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant. 287.3 Section 287.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.3 Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant...

  3. The Tendency to Arrest Victims of Domestic Violence: A Preliminary Analysis of Officer Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel G.

    1995-01-01

    Studied 111 police officers. Predicted that those inclined to arrest victims of domestic violence would have more negative stereotypes and attitudes toward victims and women. Results showed that those with an inclination to arrest victims believed domestic violence is justified situationally and that women stay in violent relationships for…

  4. The Influence of Peer and Educational Variables on Arrest Status among At-Risk Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Walker, Hill M.; Stieber, Steve

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the predictive power of selected social and academic variables regarding the arrest frequency for 11th-grade boys who seven years earlier had been judged to be at risk of developing antisocial behavior patterns. Antisocial measures on which participants scored higher were associated with more frequent arrests. (Author/CR)

  5. Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, and Postrunaway Arrests among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and…

  6. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect o...

  7. 39 CFR 230.4 - Arrest and investigative powers of criminal investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrest and investigative powers of criminal... OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL General Policy and Authority § 230.4 Arrest and investigative powers of criminal investigators. (a) Under the authority of 18 U.S.C. 3061, criminal investigators employed by the...

  8. Mental Condition and Ventricular Size in Arrested Hydrocephalus: an Analysis of 29 Shunt‐independent Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLTZER, G.J.; de LANGE, S.A.; ORBAAN, I.J.C.; GELSEMA, R.

    1971-01-01

    textabstractMeasurement of the diameter of the ventricular system, in a series of 29 patients with arrested hydrocephalus who had become shunt‐independent, showed that enlargement of the ventricles does not necessarily play a part in the arrest of hydrocephalus, for in many of these cases the

  9. Outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest--why do physicians withhold resuscitation attempts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Tina I; Rasmussen, Lars S; Lippert, Freddy K

    2004-01-01

    To describe the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with a focus on why physicians withhold resuscitation attempts.......To describe the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with a focus on why physicians withhold resuscitation attempts....

  10. A Summary and Analysis of Warrantless Arrest Statutes for Domestic Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M.; Norris, Alexis; Brenner, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have enacted statutes that allow police officers to make warrantless arrests for domestic violence given probable cause; however, state laws differ from one another in multiple, important ways. Research on domestic violence warrantless arrest laws rarely describe them as anything…

  11. Comparison of analysis and experimental data for a unique crack arrest specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.J.; Fabi, R.J.; Schonenberg, R.Y.; Norris, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A new fracture test specimen has been developed to study crack extension and arrest in nuclear reactor vessel steels subject to stress-intensity factor and toughness gradients similar to those in postulated pressurized thermal shock situations. A summary of the results of all the tests performed is presented to illustrate the range of crack arrest and crack reinitiation conditions observed. One test of this specimen with the corresponding stress analysis is described in detail. During this test the crack initiated, extended, arrested, reinitiated, extended again, and reached a final arrest. Comparison of detailed dynamic elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and dynamic strain and displacement measurements of the crack extension, arrest, and reinitiation events, combined with topographic analysis of the future surfaces, has led to a new understanding of the crack extension and arrest process. The results of the tests demonstrate crack arrest in rising stress-intensity field at near-upper-shelf temperature conditions and show that the toughness required for arrest is lower than would be predicted by the analysis procedures usually employed for pressurized thermal shock evaluations

  12. Low cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest is not associated with anaerobic cerebral metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Ainslie, Philip N.; Hinssen, S.; Aries, M.J.; Bisschops, Laurens L.; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van der Hoeven, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study Estimation of cerebral anaerobic metabolism in survivors and non-survivors after cardiac arrest. Methods We performed an observational study in twenty comatose patients after cardiac arrest and 19 healthy control subjects. We measured mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery

  13. The effect of ultraviolet light on arrested human diploid cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, G.J.; Warner, C.; Hull, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the experiments to determine an effect of UV (254 nm) on human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) arrested with respect to division by using 0.5% fetal calf serum in the culture medium are reported. A fraction of cells from irradiated arrested populations, maintained in the arrested state post-irradiation, was lost from the populations. The extent of cell loss was fluence-dependent and cell strain specific. A Xeroderma pigmentosum cell strain was more sensitive to UV than were normal HDF. No difference in sensitivity were observed when arrested populations established from normal HDF populations of various in vitro ages were used. The length of the pre-irradiation arrested period affected the sensitivity of normal HDF, which appeared more resistant at longer arrested periods, but not the sensitivity of arrested Xeroderma populations. These results suggest that DNA repair processes play a role in maintaining irradiated cells in the arrested state. The suggestion is made that the lethal event caused by UV is an effect on transcription leading to an inhibition of required protein synthesis. (author)

  14. A seed treatment to prevent shoot apical meristem arrest in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Goffman, Fernando D.; Kodde, J.; Angenent, G.C.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Brassica oleracea plants can suffer from shoot apical meristem arrest, when sown at cold temperatures, giving rise to so-called blind seedlings that stop development and the formation of new leaves. We developed a seed treatment that strongly reduces the occurrence of this meristem arrest in

  15. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...

  16. DEGRADATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY WHITE ROT BASIDIOMYCETES

    OpenAIRE

    B.P. PARMAR, P.N. MERVANA B.R.M. VYAS*

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Dyes released by the textile industries pose a threat to environmental quality. Ligninolytic white-rot basidiomycetes can effectively degrade colored effluents and conventional dyes. White-rot fungi produce various isoforms of extracellular oxidases including laccase, Mn peroxidase and lignin peroxidase (LiP), which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates.  The textile industry, by far the most avid user of synthetic dyes, is in need...

  17. WEATHERABILITY OF ENHANCED DEGRADABLE PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this study was to assess the performance and the asociated variability of several selected enhanced degradable plastic materials under a variety of different exposure conditions. Other objectives were to identify the major products formed during degradation ...

  18. Treatment pf pig slurry in Spain to minimize soil degradation and environmental impact; Tratamiento de purines de ganado porcino en Espana para minimizar la contaminacion de suelos y su impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo Marin, C.; Garcia Marin, R.

    2009-07-01

    The pig farms in Spain have experimented on the last years a great development, giving place to a new productive, sanitary, economic and environmental reality. His intensification has generated the presence of farms of great capacity, which generate high quantities of excrements and residues. Due to the dynamism of the sector, the legislative existing frame until ends of the nineties of the past 20th century remains obsolete. For such motive, the Government of Spain established basic standards of management of pig farms (RD 324/2000); regulatory rules for awarding grants to projects that seek to improve environmental management of pig farms (RD 987/2008); and, in December 2008, is approved, in Ministers council, a plan of bio-digestion of excrements, which has as aim decrease the greenhouse gases and reduce the risk of pollution of soils, fluvial riverbeds and underground aquifers. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Human-Induced Vegetation Degradation in a Semi-Arid Rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hasan

    Current assessments of anthropogenic land degradation and its impact on vegetation at regional scales are prone to large uncertainties due to the lack of an objective, transferable, spatially and temporally explicit measure of land degradation. These uncertainties have resulted in contradictory estimates of degradation extent and severity and the role of human activities. The uncertainties limit the ability to assess the effects on the biophysical environment and effectiveness of past, current, and future policies of land use. The overall objective of the dissertation is to assess degradation in a semi-arid region at a regional scale where the process of anthropogenic land degradation is evident. Net primary productivity (NPP) is used as the primary indicator to measure degradation. It is hypothesized that land degradation resulting from human factors on the landscape irreversibly reduces NPP below the potential set by environmental conditions. It is also hypothesized that resulting reductions in NPP are distinguishable from natural, spatial and temporal, variability in NPP. The specific goals of the dissertation are to (1) identify the extent and severity of degradation using productivity as the primary surrogate, (2) compare the degradation of productivity to other known mechanisms of degradation, and (3) relate the expression of degradation to components of vegetation and varying environmental conditions. This dissertation employed the Local NPP Scaling (LNS) approach to identify patterns of anthropogenic degradation of NPP in the Burdekin Dry Tropics (BDT) region of Queensland (14 million hectares), Australia from 2000 to 2013. The method started with land classification based on the environmental factors presumed to control NPP to group pixels having similar potential NPP. Then, satellite remotely sensing data were used to compare actual NPP with its potential. The difference, in units of mass of carbon fixed in NPP per unit area per monitoring interval and

  20. The relevance of crack arrest phenomena for pressure vessel structural integrity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connors, D.C.; Dowling, A.R.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential role of a crack arrest argument for the structural integrity assessments of steel pressure vessels and the relationship between crack initiation and crack arrest philosophies are described. A typical structural integrity assessment using crack initiation fracture mechanics is illustrated by means of a case study based on assessment of the steel pressure vessels for Magnox power stations. Evidence of the occurrence of crack arrest in structures is presented and reviewed, and the applications to pressure vessels which are subjected to similar conditions are considered. An outline is given of the material characterisation that would be required to undertake a crack arrest integrity assessment. It is concluded that crack arrest arguments could be significant in the structural integrity assessment of PWR reactor pressure vessels under thermal shock conditions, whereas for Magnox steel pressure vessels it would be limited in its potential to supporting existing arguments. (author)