Sample records for arrestin content studied

  1. On the origins of arrestin and rhodopsin

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    Alvarez Carlos E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are the most numerous proteins in mammalian genomes, and the most common targets of clinical drugs. However, their evolution remains enigmatic. GPCRs are intimately associated with trimeric G proteins, G protein receptor kinases, and arrestins. We conducted phylogenetic studies to reconstruct the history of arrestins. Those findings, in turn, led us to investigate the origin of the photosensory GPCR rhodopsin. Results We found that the arrestin clan is comprised of the Spo0M protein family in archaea and bacteria, and the arrestin and Vps26 families in eukaryotes. The previously known animal arrestins are members of the visual/beta subfamily, which branched from the founding "alpha" arrestins relatively recently. Curiously, we identified both the oldest visual/beta arrestin and opsin genes in Cnidaria (but not in sponges. The arrestin clan has 14 human members: 6 alphas, 4 visual/betas, and 4 Vps26 genes. Others recently showed that the 3D structure of mammalian Vps26 and the biochemical function of the yeast alpha arrestin PalF are similar to those of beta arrestins. We note that only alpha arrestins have PY motifs (known to bind WW domains in their C-terminal tails, and only visual/betas have helix I in the Arrestin N domain. Conclusion We identified ciliary opsins in Cnidaria and propose this subfamily is ancestral to all previously known animal opsins. That finding is consistent with Darwin's theory that eyes evolved once, and lends some support to Parker's hypothesis that vision triggered the Cambrian explosion of life forms. Our arrestin findings have implications on the evolution of GPCR signaling, and on the biological roles of human alpha arrestins.

  2. Protocol to Study β-Arrestin Recruitment by CB1 and CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors. (United States)

    Soethoudt, Marjolein; van Gils, Noortje; van der Stelt, Mario; Heitman, Laura H


    Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that recruit β-arrestins upon activation by (partial) agonists. β-Arrestin recruitment is induced by phosphorylation of their C-terminal tails, and is associated with the termination of GPCR signaling; yet, it may also activate cellular signaling pathways independent of G-proteins. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to characterize the potency and efficacy of ligands to induce or inhibit β-arrestin recruitment to the human CB1 and CB2 receptors, by using the PathHunter(®) assay. The latter is a cellular assay that can be performed in plates with 384-wells. The PathHunter(®) assay makes use of β-galactosidase complementation, and has a chemiluminescent readout. We used this assay to characterize a set of reference ligands (both agonists and antagonists) on human CB1 and CB2 receptors.

  3. The effect of phosphorylation on arrestin-rhodopsin interaction in the squid visual system. (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly A; Ou, Wei-Lin; Guan, Xinyu; Sugamori, Kim S; Bandyopadhyay, Abhishek; Ernst, Oliver P; Mitchell, Jane


    Invertebrate visual opsins are G protein-coupled receptors coupled to retinoid chromophores that isomerize reversibly between inactive rhodopsin and active metarhodopsin upon absorption of photons of light. The squid visual system has an arrestin protein that binds to metarhodopsin to block signaling to Gq and activation of phospholipase C. Squid rhodopsin kinase (SQRK) can phosphorylate both metarhodopsin and arrestin, a dual role that is unique among the G protein-coupled receptor kinases. The sites and role of arrestin phosphorylation by SQRK were investigated here using recombinant proteins. Arrestin was phosphorylated on serine 392 and serine 397 in the C-terminus. Unphosphorylated arrestin bound to metarhodopsin and phosphorylated metarhodopsin with similar high affinities (Kd 33 and 21 nM respectively), while phosphorylation of arrestin reduced the affinity 3- to 5-fold (Kd 104 nM). Phosphorylation of metarhodopsin slightly increased the dissociation of arrestin observed during a 1 hour incubation. Together these studies suggest a unique role for SQRK in phosphorylating both receptor and arrestin and inhibiting the binding of these two proteins in the squid visual system. Invertebrate visual systems are inactivated by arrestin binding to metarhodopsin that does not require receptor phosphorylation. Here we show that squid rhodopsin kinase phosphorylates arrestin on two serines (S392,S397) in the C-terminus and phosphorylation decreases the affinity of arrestin for squid metarhodopsin. Metarhodopsin phosphorylation has very little effect on arrestin binding but does increase arrestin dissociation.

  4. FYVE-dependent endosomal targeting of an arrestin-related protein in amoeba.

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    Dorian Guetta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual and β-arrestins are scaffolding proteins involved in the regulation of receptor-dependent intracellular signaling and their trafficking. The arrestin superfamilly includes several arrestin domain-containing proteins and the structurally related protein Vps26. In Dictyostelium discoideum, the arrestin-domain containing proteins form a family of six members, namely AdcA to -F. In contrast to canonical arrestins, Dictyostelium Adc proteins show a more complex architecture, as they possess, in addition to the arrestin core, other domains, such as C2, FYVE, LIM, MIT and SAM, which potentially mediate selective interactions with either lipids or proteins. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A detailed analysis of AdcA has been performed. AdcA extends on both sides of the arrestin core, in particular by a FYVE domain which mediates selective interactions with PI(3P, as disclosed by intrinsic fluorescence measurements and lipid overlay assays. Localization studies showed an enrichment of tagged- and endogenous AdcA on the rim of early macropinosomes and phagosomes. This vesicular distribution relies on a functional FYVE domain. Our data also show that the arrestin core binds the ADP-ribosylation factor ArfA, the unique amoebal Arf member, in its GDP-bound conformation. SIGNIFICANCE: This work describes one of the 6 arrestin domain-containing proteins of Dictyostelium, a novel and atypical member of the arrestin clan. It provides the basis for a better understanding of arrestin-related protein involvement in trafficking processes and for further studies on the expanding roles of arrestins in eukaryotes.

  5. Ubiquitin-Related Roles of β-Arrestins in Endocytic Trafficking and Signal Transduction. (United States)

    Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Rajiv, Vishwaesh; Shenoy, Sudha K


    The non-visual arrestins, β-arrestin1, and β-arrestin2 were originally identified as proteins that bind to seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs, also called G protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs) and block heterotrimeric G protein activation, thus leading to desensitization of transmembrane signaling. However, as subsequent discoveries have continually demonstrated, their functionality is not constrained to desensitization. They are now recognized for their critical roles in mediating intracellular trafficking of 7TMRs, growth factor receptors, ion transporters, ion channels, nuclear receptors, and non-receptor proteins. Additionally, they function as crucial mediators of ubiquitination of 7TMRs as well as other receptors and non-receptor proteins. Recently, emerging studies suggest that a class of proteins with predicted structural features of β-arrestins regulate substrate ubiquitination in yeast and higher mammals, lending support to the idea that the adaptor role of β-arrestins in protein ubiquitination is evolutionarily conserved. β-arrestins also function as scaffolds for kinases and transduce signals from 7TMRs through pathways that do not require G protein activation. Remarkably, the endocytic and scaffolding functions of β-arrestin are intertwined with its ubiquitination status; the dynamic and site specific ubiquitination on β-arrestin plays a critical role in stabilizing β-arrestin-7TMR association and the formation of signalosomes. This review summarizes the current findings on ubiquitin-dependent regulation of 7TMRs as well as β-arrestins and the potential role of reversible ubiquitination as a "biological switch" in signal transduction. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2071-2080, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Interaction of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 with G Proteins and Beta-Arrestin 1 Studied by Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer

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    Mohammed Akli eAyoub


    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are well recognized as being able to activate several signaling pathways through the activation of different G proteins as well as other signaling proteins such as beta-arrestins. Therefore, understanding how such multiple GPCR-mediated signaling can be integrated constitute an important aspect. Here, we applied bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET to shed more light on the G protein coupling profile of trypsin receptor, or protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2, and its interaction with beta-arrestin1. Using YFP and Rluc fusion constructs expressed in COS-7 cells, BRET data revealed a pre-assembly of PAR2 with both Galphai1 and Galphao and a rapid and transient activation of these G proteins upon receptor activation. In contrast, no preassembly of PAR2 with Galpha12 could be detected and their physical association can be measured with a very slow and sustained kinetics similar to that of beta-arrestin1 recruitment. These data demonstrate the coupling of PAR2 with Galphai1, Galphao and Galpha12 in COS-7 cells with differences in the kinetics of GPCR-G protein coupling, a parameter that very likely influences the cellular response. Moreover, this further illustrates that preassembly or agonist-induced G protein interaction depends on receptor-G protein pairs indicating another level of complexity and regulation of the signaling of GPCR-G protein complexes and its multiplicity.

  7. ERK5 activation by Gq-coupled muscarinic receptors is independent of receptor internalization and β-arrestin recruitment.

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    Guzmán Sánchez-Fernández

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are known to activate both G protein- and β-arrestin-dependent signalling cascades. The initiation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways is a key downstream event in the control of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Both G proteins and β-arrestins have been reported to mediate context-specific activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPKs. Recently, the activation of ERK5 MAPK by Gq-coupled receptors has been described to involve a direct interaction between Gαq and two novel effectors, PKCζ and MEK5. However, the possible contribution of β-arrestin towards this pathway has not yet been addressed. In the present work we sought to investigate the role of receptor internalization processes and β-arrestin recruitment in the activation of ERK5 by Gq-coupled GPCRs. Our results show that ERK5 activation is independent of M1 or M3 muscarinic receptor internalization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that phosphorylation-deficient muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors are still able to fully activate the ERK5 pathway, despite their reported inability to recruit β-arrestins. Indeed, the overexpression of Gαq, but not that of β-arrestin1 or β-arrestin2, was found to potently enhance ERK5 activation by GPCRs, whereas silencing of β-arrestin2 expression did not affect the activation of this pathway. Finally, we show that a β-arrestin-biased mutant form of angiotensin II (SII; Sar1-Ile4-Ile8 AngII failed to promote ERK5 phosphorylation in primary cardiac fibroblasts, as compared to the natural ligand. Overall, this study shows that the activation of ERK5 MAPK by model Gq-coupled GPCRs does not depend on receptor internalization, β-arrestin recruitment or receptor phosphorylation but rather is dependent on Gαq-signalling.

  8. Progressive reduction of its expression in rods reveals two pools of arrestin-1 in the outer segment with different roles in photoresponse recovery.

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    Whitney M Cleghorn

    Full Text Available Light-induced rhodopsin signaling is turned off with sub-second kinetics by rhodopsin phosphorylation followed by arrestin-1 binding. To test the availability of the arrestin-1 pool in dark-adapted outer segment (OS for rhodopsin shutoff, we measured photoresponse recovery rates of mice with arrestin-1 content in the OS of 2.5%, 5%, 60%, and 100% of wild type (WT level by two-flash ERG with the first (desensitizing flash at 160, 400, 1000, and 2500 photons/rod. The time of half recovery (t(half in WT retinas increases with the intensity of the initial flash, becoming ∼2.5-fold longer upon activation of 2500 than after 160 rhodopsins/rod. Mice with 60% and even 5% of WT arrestin-1 level recovered at WT rates. In contrast, the mice with 2.5% of WT arrestin-1 had a dramatically slower recovery than the other three lines, with the t(half increasing ∼28 fold between 160 and 2500 rhodopsins/rod. Even after the dimmest flash, the rate of recovery of rods with 2.5% of normal arrestin-1 was two times slower than in other lines, indicating that arrestin-1 level in the OS between 100% and 5% of WT is sufficient for rapid recovery, whereas with lower arrestin-1 the rate of recovery dramatically decreases with increased light intensity. Thus, the OS has two distinct pools of arrestin-1: cytoplasmic and a separate pool comprising ∼2.5% that is not immediately available for rhodopsin quenching. The observed delay suggests that this pool is localized at the periphery, so that its diffusion across the OS rate-limits the recovery. The line with very low arrestin-1 expression is the first where rhodopsin inactivation was made rate-limiting by arrestin manipulation.

  9. Beta-arrestin biased agonism/antagonism at cardiovascular seven transmembrane-spanning receptors. (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios


    Heptahelical, G protein-coupled or seven transmembrane-spanning receptors, such as the β-adrenergic and the angiotensin II type 1 receptors, are the most diverse and therapeutically important family of receptors in the human genome, playing major roles in the physiology of various organs/tissues including the heart and blood vessels. Ligand binding activates heterotrimeric G proteins that transmit intracellular signals by regulating effector enzymes or ion channels. G protein signaling is terminated, in large part, by phosphorylation of the agonist-bound receptor by the G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), followed by βarrestin binding, which uncouples the phosphorylated receptor from the G protein and subsequently targets the receptor for internalization. As the receptor-βarrestin complex enters the cell, βarrestin-1 and -2, the two mammalian βarrestin isoforms, serve as ligand-regulated scaffolds that recruit a host of intracellular proteins and signal transducers, thus promoting their own wave of signal transduction independently of G-proteins. A constantly increasing number of studies over the past several years have begun to uncover specific roles played by these ubiquitously expressed receptor adapter proteins in signal transduction of several important heptahelical receptors regulating the physiology of various organs/ systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Thus, βarrestin-dependent signaling has increasingly been implicated in CV physiology and pathology, presenting several exciting opportunities for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of CV disorders. Additionally, the discovery of this novel mode of heptahelical receptor signaling via βarrestins has prompted a revision of classical pharmacological concepts such as receptor agonism/antagonism, as well as introduction of new terms such as "biased signaling", which refers to ligand-specific activation of selective signal transduction pathways by the very same receptor. The

  10. β-Arrestin1 regulates γ-secretase complex assembly and modulates amyloid-β pathology

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    Xiaosong Liu; Xiaohui Zhao; Xianglu Zeng; Koen Bossers; Dick F Swaab; Jian Zhao; Gang Pei


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and complex neurodegenerative disease in which the γ-secretasemediated amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology plays an important role.We found that a multifunctional protein,β-arrestin1,facilitated the formation of NCT/APH-1 (anterior pharynx-defective phenotype 1) precomplex and mature γ-secretase complex through its functional interaction with APH-1.Deficiency of β-arrestin1 or inhibition of binding of β-arrestin1 with APH-1 by small peptides reduced Aβ production without affecting Notch processing.Genetic ablation of β-arrestin1 diminished Aβ pathology and behavioral deficits in transgenic AD mice.Moreover,in brains of sporadic AD patients and transgenic AD mice,the expression of β-arrestin1 was upregulated and correlated well with neuropathological severity and senile Aβ plaques.Thus,our study identifies a regulatory mechanism underlying both γ-secretase assembly and AD pathogenesis,and indicates that specific reduction of Aβ pathology can be achieved by regulation of the γ-secretase assembly.

  11. Arrestin' insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

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    @@ A group of biologists at the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (SIBCB) under the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS) reported on 5 Jan, 2009 in Nature that deficiency or dysfunction of a protein called β-arrestin-2 might contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, hence inspiring research on potential new therapies for this notorious health threat.

  12. A method for biomarker measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from anxious and depressed mice: β-arrestin 1 protein levels in depression and treatment

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    Indira eMENDEZ-DAVID


    Full Text Available A limited number of biomarkers in the central and peripheral systems which are known may be useful for diagnosing major depressive disorders and predicting the effectiveness of antidepressant treatments. Since 60% of depressed patients do not respond adequately to medication or are resistant to antidepressants, it is imperative to delineate more accurate biomarkers. Recent clinical studies suggest that β-arrestin 1 levels in human mononuclear leukocytes may be an efficient biomarker. If potential biomarkers such as β-arrestin 1 could be assessed from a source such as peripheral blood cells, then they could be easily monitored and used to predict therapeutic responses. However, no previous studies have measured β-arrestin 1 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in anxious-depressive rodents.This study aimed to develop a method to detect β-arrestin protein levels through immunoblot analyses of mouse PBMCs isolated from whole blood. In order to validate the approach, β-arrestin levels were then compared in naïve, anxious/depressed mice, and anxious/depressed mice treated treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; fluoxetine, 18 mg/kg/day in the drinking water. The results demonstrated that mouse whole blood collected by submandibular bleeding permitted isolation of enough PBMCs to assess circulating proteins such as β-arrestin 1. β-arrestin 1 levels were successfully measured in healthy human subject and naïve mouse PBMCs. Interestingly, PBMCs from anxious/depressed mice showed significantly reduced β-arrestin 1 levels. These decreased β-arrestin 1 expression levels were restored to normal levels with chronic fluoxetine treatment. The results suggest that isolation of PBMCs from mice by submandibular bleeding is a useful technique to screen putative biomarkers of the pathophysiology of mood disorders and the response to antidepressants. In addition, these results confirm that β-arrestin 1 is a potential

  13. β-Arrestin-dependent deactivation of mouse melanopsin.

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    Evan G Cameron

    Full Text Available In mammals, the expression of the unusual visual pigment, melanopsin, is restricted to a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs, whose signaling regulate numerous non-visual functions including sleep, circadian photoentrainment and pupillary constriction. IpRGCs exhibit attenuated electrical responses following sequential and prolonged light exposures indicative of an adaptational response. The molecular mechanisms underlying deactivation and adaptation in ipRGCs however, have yet to be fully elucidated. The role of melanopsin phosphorylation and β-arrestin binding in this adaptive process is suggested by the phosphorylation-dependent reduction of melanopsin signaling in vitro and the ubiquitous expression of β-arrestin in the retina. These observations, along with the conspicuous absence of visual arrestin in ipRGCs, suggest that a β-arrestin terminates melanopsin signaling. Here, we describe a light- and phosphorylation- dependent reduction in melanopsin signaling mediated by both β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2. Using an in vitro calcium imaging assay, we demonstrate that increasing the cellular concentration of β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2 significantly increases the rate of deactivation of light-activated melanopsin in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, we show that this response is dependent on melanopsin carboxyl-tail phosphorylation. Crosslinking and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirm β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2 bind to melanopsin in a light- and phosphorylation- dependent manner. These data are further supported by proximity ligation assays (PLA, which demonstrate a melanopsin/β-arrestin interaction in HEK293 cells and ipRGCs. Together, these results suggest that melanopsin signaling is terminated in a light- and phosphorylation-dependent manner through the binding of a β-arrestin within the retina.

  14. β-Arrestin 1 and 2 and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expression in pituitary adenomas: role in the regulation of response to somatostatin analogue treatment in patients with acromegaly. (United States)

    Gatto, Federico; Feelders, Richard; van der Pas, Rob; Kros, Johan M; Dogan, Fadime; van Koetsveld, Peter M; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M; Minuto, Francesco; de Herder, Wouter; Lamberts, Steven W J; Ferone, Diego; Hofland, Leo J


    Recent in vitro studies highlighted G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)2 and β-arrestins as important players in driving somatostatin receptor (SSTR) desensitization and trafficking. Our aim was to characterize GRK2 and β-arrestins expression in different pituitary adenomas and to investigate their potential role in the response to somatostatin analog (SSA) treatment in GH-secreting adenomas (GHomas). We evaluated mRNA expression of multiple SSTRs, GRK2, β-arrestin 1, and β-arrestin 2 in 41 pituitary adenomas (31 GHomas, 6 nonfunctioning [NFPAs], and 4 prolactinomas [PRLomas]). Within the GHomas group, mRNA data were correlated with the in vivo response to an acute octreotide test and with the GH-lowering effect of SSA in cultured primary cells. β-Arrestin 1 expression was low in all 3 adenoma histotypes. However, its expression was significantly lower in GHomas and PRLomas, compared with NFPAs (P affect GRK2 and β-arrestin expression in GHomas or in cultured rat pituitary tumor GH3 cells. Noteworthy, β-arrestin 1 was significantly lower (P < .05) in tumors responsive to octreotide treatment in vitro, whereas GRK2 and SSTR subtype 2 were significantly higher (P < .05). Likewise, β-arrestin 1 levels were inversely correlated with the in vivo response to acute octreotide test (P = .001), whereas GRK2 and SSTR subtype 2 expression were positively correlated (P < .05). In conclusion, for the first time, we characterized GRK2, β-arrestin 1, and β-arrestin 2 expression in a representative number of pituitary adenomas. β-Arrestin 1 and GRK2 seem to have a role in modulating GH secretion during SSA treatment.

  15. Arrestin-mediated endocytosis of yeast plasma membrane transporters. (United States)

    Nikko, Elina; Pelham, Hugh R B


    Many plasma membrane transporters in yeast are endocytosed in response to excess substrate or certain stresses and degraded in the vacuole. Endocytosis invariably requires ubiquitination by the HECT domain ligase Rsp5. In the cases of the manganese transporter Smf1 and the amino acid transporters Can1, Lyp1 and Mup1 it has been shown that ubiquitination is mediated by arrestin-like adaptor proteins that bind to Rsp5 and recognize specific transporters. As yeast contains a large family of arrestins, this has been suggested as a general model for transporter regulation; however, analysis is complicated by redundancy amongst the arrestins. We have tested this model by removing all the arrestins and examining the requirements for endocytosis of four more transporters, Itr1 (inositol), Hxt6 (glucose), Fur4 (uracil) and Tat2 (tryptophan). This reveals functions for the arrestins Art5/Ygr068c and Art4/Rod1, and additional roles for Art1/Ldb19, Art2/Ecm21 and Art8/Csr2. It also reveals functional redundancy between arrestins and the arrestin-like adaptors Bul1 and Bul2. In addition, we show that delivery to the vacuole often requires multiple additional ubiquitin ligases or adaptors, including the RING domain ligase Pib1, and the adaptors Bsd2, Ear1 and Ssh4, some acting redundantly. We discuss the similarities and differences in the requirements for regulation of different transporters.

  16. Effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on β-arrestin-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells

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    Zhan, J. [Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Xiao, F. [Department of Osteology, Pu Ai Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhang, Z.Z.; Wang, Y.P.; Chen, K.; Wang, Y.L. [Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China)


    β-arrestins are expressed proteins that were first described, and are well-known, as negative regulators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) is a new anti-cholinergic drug that can inhibit biomembrane lipid peroxidation, and decrease cytokines and oxyradicals. However, to date, no reports on the effects of PHC on β-arrestin-1 in cells have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PHC on β-arrestin-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC). Cultured HPMEC were pretreated with PHC, followed by LPS treatment. Muscarinic receptor mRNAs were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR. Cell viability was assayed by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) conversion test. The dose and time effects of PHC on β-arrestin-1 expression in LPS-induced HPMEC were determined by Western blot analysis. Cell malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. It was found that the M{sub 3} receptor was the one most highly expressed, and was activated 5 min after LPS challenge. Furthermore, 2 μg/mL PHC significantly upregulated expression of β-arrestin-1 within 10 to 15 min. Compared with the control group, MDA levels in cells were remarkably increased and SOD activities were significantly decreased in LPS pretreated cells, while PHC markedly decreased MDA levels and increased SOD activities. We conclude that PHC attenuated ROS injury by upregulating β-arrestin-1 expression, thereby implicating a mechanism by which PHC may exert its protective effects against LPS-induced pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell injury.

  17. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation independently of beta-arrestin- and dynamin-mediated FSH receptor internalization

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    Crepieux Pascale


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R is a seven transmembrane spanning receptor (7TMR which plays a crucial role in male and female reproduction. Upon FSH stimulation, the FSH-R activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK. However, the mechanisms whereby the agonist-stimulated FSH-R activates ERK are poorly understood. In order to activate ERK, some 7 TMRs require beta-arrestin-and dynamin-dependent internalization to occur, whereas some others do not. In the present study, we examined the ability of the FSH-activated FSH-R to induce ERK phosphorylation, in conditions where its beta-arrestin- and dynamin-mediated internalization was impaired. Methods Human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells were transiently transfected with the rat FSH-R. Internalization of the FSH-R was manipulated by co-expression of either a beta-arrestin (319–418 dominant negative peptide, either an inactive dynamin K44A mutant or of wild-type beta-arrestin 1 or 2. The outcomes on the FSH-R internalization were assayed by measuring 125I-FSH binding at the cell surface when compared to internalized 125I-FSH binding. The resulting ERK phosphorylation level was visualized by Western blot analysis. Results In HEK 293 cells, FSH stimulated ERK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Co-transfection of the beta- arrestin (319–418 construct, or of the dynamin K44A mutant reduced FSH-R internalization in response to FSH, without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Likewise, overexpression of wild-type beta-arrestin 1 or 2 significantly increased the FSH-R internalization level in response to FSH, without altering FSH-induced ERK phosphorylation. Conclusion From these results, we conclude that the FSH-R does not require beta-arrestin- nor dynamin-mediated internalization to initiate ERK phosphorylation in response to FSH.

  18. GPR54 regulates ERK1/2 activity and hypothalamic gene expression in a Gα(q/11 and β-arrestin-dependent manner.

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    Jacob M Szereszewski

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54 is a G(q/11-coupled 7 transmembrane-spanning receptor (7TMR. Activation of GPR54 by kisspeptin (Kp stimulates PIP(2 hydrolysis, Ca(2+ mobilization and ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation. Kp and GPR54 are established regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis and loss-of-function mutations in GPR54 are associated with an absence of puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, thus defining an important role of the Kp/GPR54 signaling system in reproductive function. Given the tremendous physiological and clinical importance of the Kp/GPR54 signaling system, we explored the contributions of the GPR54-coupled G(q/11 and β-arrestin pathways on the activation of a major downstream signaling molecule, ERK, using G(q/11 and β-arrestin knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Our study revealed that GPR54 employs the G(q/11 and β-arrestin-2 pathways in a co-dependent and temporally overlapping manner to positively regulate ERK activity and pERK nuclear localization. We also show that while β-arrestin-2 potentiates GPR54 signaling to ERK, β-arrestin-1 inhibits it. Our data also revealed that diminished β-arrestin-1 and -2 expression in the GT1-7 GnRH hypothalamic neuronal cell line triggered distinct patterns of gene expression following Kp-10 treatment. Thus, β-arrestin-1 and -2 also regulate distinct downstream responses in gene expression. Finally, we showed that GPR54, when uncoupled from the G(q/11 pathway, as is the case for several naturally occurring GPR54 mutants associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, continues to regulate gene expression in a G protein-independent manner. These new and exciting findings add significantly to our mechanistic understanding of how this important receptor signals intracellularly in response to kisspeptin stimulation.

  19. Influence of arrestin on the photodecay of bovine rhodopsin** (United States)

    Chatterjee, Deep; Eckert, Carl Elias; Slavov, Chavdar; Saxena, Krishna; Fürtig, Boris; Sanders, Charles R.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Wachtveitl, Josef; Schwalbe, Harald


    Continued activation of the photocycle of the dim-light receptor rhodopsin leads to accumulation of all-trans-retinal in rod outer segments (ROS). This accumulation can damage the photoreceptor cell. For retinal homeostasis, deactivation processes are initiated in which the release of retinal is delayed. One of the processes involves binding of arrestin to rhodopsin. Here, we investigate the interaction of pre-activated truncated bovine visual arrestin (Tr) with rhodopsin in 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) micelles by solution NMR techniques and flash photolysis spectroscopy. Our results show that formation of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex markedly influences partitioning in the decay kinetics of rhodopsin that involves the simultaneous formation of meta II state and meta III state from the meta I state. Binding of Tr leads to an increase of meta III state population and consequently to a ~2-fold slower release of all-trans-retinal from rhodopsin. PMID:26383645

  20. Pharmacological Profile of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Receptors Interacting with G-Proteins and β-Arrestins 2.

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    D Malfacini

    Full Text Available Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ controls several biological functions by selectively activating an opioid like receptor named N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP. Biased agonism is emerging as an important and therapeutically relevant pharmacological concept in the field of G protein coupled receptors including opioids. To evaluate the relevance of this phenomenon in the NOP receptor, we used a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technology to measure the interactions of the NOP receptor with either G proteins or β-arrestin 2 in the absence and in presence of increasing concentration of ligands. A large panel of receptor ligands was investigated by comparing their ability to promote or block NOP/G protein and NOP/arrestin interactions. In this study we report a systematic analysis of the functional selectivity of NOP receptor ligands. NOP/G protein interactions (investigated in cell membranes allowed a precise estimation of both ligand potency and efficacy yielding data highly consistent with the known pharmacological profile of this receptor. The same panel of ligands displayed marked differences in the ability to promote NOP/β-arrestin 2 interactions (evaluated in whole cells. In particular, full agonists displayed a general lower potency and for some ligands an inverted rank order of potency was noted. Most partial agonists behaved as pure competitive antagonists of receptor/arrestin interaction. Antagonists displayed similar values of potency for NOP/Gβ1 or NOP/β-arrestin 2 interaction. Using N/OFQ as reference ligand we computed the bias factors of NOP ligands and a number of agonists with greater efficacy at G protein coupling were identified.

  1. Partially Deglycosylated Equine LH Preferentially Activates β-Arrestin-Dependent Signaling at the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (United States)

    Wehbi, Vanessa; Tranchant, Thibaud; Durand, Guillaume; Musnier, Astrid; Decourtye, Jérémy; Piketty, Vincent; Butnev, Vladimir Y.; Bousfield, George R.; Crépieux, Pascale; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Reiter, Eric


    Deglycosylated FSH is known to trigger poor Gαs coupling while efficiently binding its receptor. In the present study, we tested the possibility that a deglycosylated equine LH (eLHdg) might be able to selectively activate β-arrestin-dependent signaling. We compared native eLH to an eLH derivative [i.e. truncated eLHβ (Δ121-149) combined with asparagine56-deglycosylated eLHα (eLHdg)] previously reported as an antagonist of cAMP accumulation at the FSH receptor (FSH-R). We confirmed that, when used in conjunction with FSH, eLHdg acted as an antagonist for cAMP accumulation in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the FSH-R. Furthermore, when used alone at concentrations up to 1 nm, eLHdg had no detectable agonistic activity on cAMP accumulation, protein kinase A activity or cAMP-responsive element-dependent transcriptional activity. At higher concentrations, however, a weak agonistic action was observed with eLHdg, whereas eLH led to robust responses whatever the concentration. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered receptor internalization and led to β-arrestin recruitment. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered ERK and ribosomal protein (rp) S6 phosphorylation at 1 nm. The depletion of endogenous β-arrestins had only a partial effect on eLH-induced ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation was completely abolished at all time points in β-arrestin-depleted cells. Together, these results show that eLHdg has the ability to preferentially activate β-arrestin-dependent signaling at the FSH-R. This finding provides a new conceptual and experimental framework to revisit the physiological meaning of gonadotropin structural heterogeneity. Importantly, it also opens a field of possibilities for the development of selective modulators of gonadotropin receptors. PMID:20107152

  2. Partially deglycosylated equine LH preferentially activates beta-arrestin-dependent signaling at the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor. (United States)

    Wehbi, Vanessa; Tranchant, Thibaud; Durand, Guillaume; Musnier, Astrid; Decourtye, Jérémy; Piketty, Vincent; Butnev, Vladimir Y; Bousfield, George R; Crépieux, Pascale; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Reiter, Eric


    Deglycosylated FSH is known to trigger poor Galphas coupling while efficiently binding its receptor. In the present study, we tested the possibility that a deglycosylated equine LH (eLHdg) might be able to selectively activate beta-arrestin-dependent signaling. We compared native eLH to an eLH derivative [i.e. truncated eLHbeta (Delta121-149) combined with asparagine56-deglycosylated eLHalpha (eLHdg)] previously reported as an antagonist of cAMP accumulation at the FSH receptor (FSH-R). We confirmed that, when used in conjunction with FSH, eLHdg acted as an antagonist for cAMP accumulation in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the FSH-R. Furthermore, when used alone at concentrations up to 1 nM, eLHdg had no detectable agonistic activity on cAMP accumulation, protein kinase A activity or cAMP-responsive element-dependent transcriptional activity. At higher concentrations, however, a weak agonistic action was observed with eLHdg, whereas eLH led to robust responses whatever the concentration. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered receptor internalization and led to beta-arrestin recruitment. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered ERK and ribosomal protein (rp) S6 phosphorylation at 1 nM. The depletion of endogenous beta-arrestins had only a partial effect on eLH-induced ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation was completely abolished at all time points in beta-arrestin-depleted cells. Together, these results show that eLHdg has the ability to preferentially activate beta-arrestin-dependent signaling at the FSH-R. This finding provides a new conceptual and experimental framework to revisit the physiological meaning of gonadotropin structural heterogeneity. Importantly, it also opens a field of possibilities for the development of selective modulators of gonadotropin receptors.

  3. Activation of mu opioid receptors sensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 via β-arrestin-2-mediated cross-talk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Rowan

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential family V1 channel (TRPV1 is activated by multiple stimuli, including capsaicin, acid, endovanilloids, and heat (>42C. Post-translational modifications to TRPV1 result in dynamic changes to the sensitivity of receptor activation. We have previously demonstrated that β-arrestin2 actively participates in a scaffolding mechanism to inhibit TRPV1 phosphorylation, thereby reducing TRPV1 sensitivity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of β-arrestin2 sequestration by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs on thermal and chemical activation of TRPV1. Here we report that activation of mu opioid receptor by either morphine or DAMGO results in β-arrestin2 recruitment to mu opioid receptor in sensory neurons, while activation by herkinorin does not. Furthermore, treatment of sensory neurons with morphine or DAMGO stimulates β-arrestin2 dissociation from TRPV1 and increased sensitivity of the receptor. Conversely, herkinorin treatment has no effect on TRPV1 sensitivity. Additional behavioral studies indicate that GPCR-driven β-arrestin2 sequestration plays an important peripheral role in the development of thermal sensitivity. Taken together, the reported data identify a novel cross-talk mechanism between GPCRs and TRPV1 that may contribute to multiple clinical conditions.

  4. Ca sup 2+ binding capacity of cytoplasmic proteins from rod photoreceptors is mainly due to arrestin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppertz, B.; Weyand, I.; Bauer, P.J. (Institut fuer Biologische Informationsverarbeitung, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.))


    Arrestin (also called S-antigen or 48-kDa protein) binds to photoexcited and phosphorylated rhodopsin and, thereby, blocks competitively the activation of transducin. Using Ca{sup 2+} titration in the presence of the indicator arsenazo III and {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} autoradiography, we show that arrestin is a Ca2(+)-binding protein. The Ca{sup 2+} binding capacity of arresting-containing protein extracts from bovine rod outer segments is about twice as high as that of arrestin-depleted extracts. The difference in the Ca{sup 2+} binding of arrestin-containing and arrestin-depleted protein extracts was attributed to arrestin. Both, these difference-measurements of protein extracts and the measurements of purified arrestin yield dissociation constants for the Ca{sup 2+} binding of arrestin between 2 and 4 microM. The titration curves are consistent with a molar ratio of one Ca{sup 2+} binding site per arrestin. No Ca{sup 2+} binding in the micromolar range was found in extracts containing mainly transducin and cGMP-phosphodiesterase. Since arrestin is one of the most abundant proteins in rod photoreceptors occurring presumably up to millimolar concentrations in rod outer segments, we suggest that aside from its function to prevent the activation of transducin, arrestin acts probably as an intracellular Ca{sup 2+} buffer.

  5. Correlation of CCR5 expression with β-arrestin 2 expression in colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease%CCR5在炎症性肠病患者肠黏膜的表达及其与 β-arrestin 2表达的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小研; 刘思雪; 胡梅; 沈溪明; 黄花荣; 钟英强


    目的:通过分析CCR5在炎症性肠病(IBD)患者活检肠黏膜的表达及其与β-arrestin 2表达的相关性,探讨CCR5与β-arrestin 2在IBD发病中的作用.方法:IBD活动期组53例、IBD缓解期组26例和正常对照组30例纳入研究,用EnVision二步免疫组化方法检测活检肠黏膜CCR5和β-arrestin 2的表达.结果:IBD活动期组CCR5阳性表达率及免疫组化评分均高于正常对照组和IBD缓解期组(P<0.05),CCR5表达与IBD活动期组的临床严重程度、病变范围及内镜下分级无明显关联性;β-arrestin 2在IBD活动期组的阳性表达率均明显低于IBD缓解期组和正常对照组(P<0.05),并且在IBD活动期β-arrestin 2表达与CCR5表达呈负相关性(P<0.05).结论:在IBD活动期组肠黏膜CCR5呈高表达,β-arrestin 2呈明显低表达,CCR5与β-arrestin 2表达呈负相关性.%AIM:To analyze the expression of CCR5 and correlation with the expression ofβ-arrestin 2 in the intestinal mucosa of the patients with inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD) , so as to study the role of CCR5 andβ-arrestin 2 in the pathogenesis of IBD.METHODS:Paraffin sections of the colonic mucosa were prepared from 53 patients with active IBD, 26 patients with remissive IBD and 30 healthy people.Immunohistochemical EnVision two-step method was used to test the expression of CCR5 andβ-arrestin 2 in the biopsic intestinal mucosa.RESULTS:The positive rate, strongly posi-tive rate and immunohistochemical score of CCR5 expression in active IBD were significantly higher than those in normal controls or remissive IBD (P<0.05).No correlation of CCR5 expression with clinical severity, lesion distribution, and endoscopic grade in active IBD was observed.The expression ofβ-arrestin 2 was significantly lower in active IBD than that in the remissive IBD and normal controls, and there was a negative correlation ofβ-arrestin 2 expression with CCR5 expres-sion (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:The expression of CCR5 is higher, and expression ofβ-arrestin

  6. Co-purification of arrestin like proteins with alpha-enolase from bovine myocardial tissues and the possible role in heart diseases as an autoantigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirshahi, M., E-mail:; Le Marchand, S.


    Aim: Previously, we reported that visual arrestin co-purified with glycolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to analyze the co-purification of arrestin like proteins (ALP) in bovine cardiac tissues with enolases. Methods: The soluble extract of bovine myocardial tissues from different regions such as left and right atriums and ventricles of the bovine heart (n = 3) was analyzed by ACA-34 gel filtration, immuno-affinity column, SDS-PAGE, ELISA, western blot and a sandwich immune assay for quantification of ALP and sequence analysis. Results: We observed that; 1) The cardiac muscle contained a 50 kDa ALP at a concentration of 751 pg/mg of soluble protein extract, 2) ALP purified, by immunoaffinity, contained alpha-enolase of 48 kDa confirmed by protein sequence analysis; 3) Cardiomyocyte cells exposed to anti arrestin and anti enolase monoclonal antibodies showed decreased proliferation in vitro, 4) High level of autoantibodies were detected by ELISA (3.57% for arrestin and 9.12% for α-enolase) in serum of patients with infarcted heart disease. Conclusion: We suggest a possible interaction between ALP and alpha-enolases yielding a complex that may be involved in the induction of cardiac autoimmune diseases. - Highlights: • We examine a possible interaction between arrestin like protein and alpha-enolases in cardiomyocyte. • We demonstrated the effect of antibodies against arrestin and enolase on cardiomyocyte cell proliferation. • We suggest that this proteins complex may be involved in the induction of cardiac autoimmune diseases.

  7. Phosphorylation of β-arrestin2 at Thr383 by MEK underlies β-arrestin-dependent activation of Erk1/2 by GPCRs (United States)

    Cassier, Elisabeth; Gallay, Nathalie; Bourquard, Thomas; Claeysen, Sylvie; Bockaert, Joël; Crépieux, Pascale; Poupon, Anne; Reiter, Eric; Marin, Philippe; Vandermoere, Franck


    In addition to their role in desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), β-arrestins are essential scaffolds linking GPCRs to Erk1/2 signaling. However, their role in GPCR-operated Erk1/2 activation differs between GPCRs and the underlying mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors, which engage Erk1/2 pathway via a β-arrestin-dependent mechanism, promotes MEK-dependent β-arrestin2 phosphorylation at Thr383, a necessary step for Erk recruitment to the receptor/β-arrestin complex and Erk activation. Likewise, Thr383 phosphorylation is involved in β-arrestin-dependent Erk1/2 stimulation elicited by other GPCRs such as β2-adrenergic, FSH and CXCR4 receptors, but does not affect the β-arrestin-independent Erk1/2 activation by 5-HT4 receptor. Collectively, these data show that β-arrestin2 phosphorylation at Thr383 underlies β-arrestin-dependent Erk1/2 activation by GPCRs. DOI: PMID:28169830

  8. Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser



    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signaling to numerous G protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveal...

  9. Ubiquitin-Mediated Regulation of Endocytosis by Proteins of the Arrestin Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Becuwe


    Full Text Available In metazoans, proteins of the arrestin family are key players of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRS signaling and trafficking. Following stimulation, activated receptors are phosphorylated, thus allowing the binding of arrestins and hence an “arrest” of receptor signaling. Arrestins act by uncoupling receptors from G proteins and contribute to the recruitment of endocytic proteins, such as clathrin, to direct receptor trafficking into the endocytic pathway. Arrestins also serve as adaptor proteins by promoting the recruitment of ubiquitin ligases and participate in the agonist-induced ubiquitylation of receptors, known to have impact on their subcellular localization and stability. Recently, the arrestin family has expanded following the discovery of arrestin-related proteins in other eukaryotes such as yeasts or fungi. Surprisingly, most of these proteins are also involved in the ubiquitylation and endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins, thus suggesting that the role of arrestins as ubiquitin ligase adaptors is at the core of these proteins' functions. Importantly, arrestins are themselves ubiquitylated, and this modification is crucial for their function. In this paper, we discuss recent data on the intricate connections between arrestins and the ubiquitin pathway in the control of endocytosis.

  10. Differential β-arrestin2 requirements for constitutive and agonist-induced internalization of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. (United States)

    Gyombolai, Pál; Boros, Eszter; Hunyady, László; Turu, Gábor


    CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) undergoes both constitutive and agonist-induced internalization, but the underlying mechanisms of these processes and the role of β-arrestins in the regulation of CB1R function are not completely understood. In this study, we followed CB1R internalization using confocal microscopy and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer measurements in HeLa and Neuro-2a cells. We found that upon activation CB1R binds β-arrestin2 (β-arr2), but not β-arrestin1. Furthermore, both the expression of dominant-negative β-arr2 (β-arr2-V54D) and siRNA-mediated knock-down of β-arr2 impaired the agonist-induced internalization of CB1R. In contrast, neither β-arr2-V54D nor β-arr2-specific siRNA had a significant effect on the constitutive internalization of CB1R. However, both constitutive and agonist-induced internalization of CB1R were impaired by siRNA-mediated depletion of clathrin heavy chain. We conclude that although clathrin is required for both constitutive and agonist-stimulated internalization of CB1R, β-arr2 binding is only required for agonist-induced internalization of the receptor suggesting that the molecular mechanisms underlying constitutive and agonist-induced internalization of CB1R are different.

  11. Transition of arrestin into the active receptor-binding state requires an extended interdomain hinge. (United States)

    Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Hirsch, Joel A; Velez, Maria-Gabriela; Gurevich, Yulia V; Gurevich, Vsevolod V


    Arrestins selectively bind to the phosphorylated activated form of G protein-coupled receptors, thereby blocking further G protein activation. Structurally, arrestins consist of two domains topologically connected by a 12-residue long loop, which we term the "hinge" region. Both domains contain receptor-binding elements. The relative size and shape of arrestin and rhodopsin suggest that dramatic changes in arrestin conformation are required to bring all of its receptor-binding elements in contact with the cytoplasmic surface of the receptor. Here we use the visual arrestin/rhodopsin system to test the hypothesis that the transition of arrestin into its active receptor-binding state involves a movement of the two domains relative to each other that might be limited by the length of the hinge. We have introduced three insertions and 24 deletions in the hinge region and measured the binding of all of these mutants to light-activated phosphorylated (P-Rh*), dark phosphorylated (P-Rh), dark unphosphorylated (Rh), and light-activated unphosphorylated rhodopsin (Rh*). The addition of 1-3 extra residues to the hinge has no effect on arrestin function. In contrast, sequential elimination of 1-8 residues results in a progressive decrease in P-Rh* binding without changing arrestin selectivity for P-Rh*. These results suggest that there is a minimum length of the hinge region necessary for high affinity binding, consistent with the idea that the two domains move relative to each other in the process of arrestin transition into its active receptor-binding state. The same length of the hinge is also necessary for the binding of "constitutively active" arrestin mutants to P-Rh*, dark P-Rh, and Rh*, suggesting that the active (receptor-bound) arrestin conformation is essentially the same in both wild type and mutant forms.

  12. Comparative analyses of downstream signal transduction targets modulated after activation of the AT1 receptor by two β-arrestin-biased agonists. (United States)

    Santos, Geisa A; Duarte, Diego A; Parreiras-E-Silva, Lucas T; Teixeira, Felipe R; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Oliveira, Eduardo B; Bouvier, Michel; Costa-Neto, Claudio M


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in essentially all physiological processes in mammals. The classical GPCR signal transduction mechanism occurs by coupling to G protein, but it has recently been demonstrated that interaction with β-arrestins leads to activation of pathways that are independent of the G protein pathway. Also, it has been reported that some ligands can preferentially activate one of these signaling pathways; being therefore called biased agonists for G protein or β-arrestin pathways. The angiotensin II (AngII) AT1 receptor is a prototype GPCR in the study of biased agonism due to the existence of well-known β-arrestin-biased agonists, such as [Sar(1), Ile(4), Ile(8)]-AngII (SII), and [Sar(1), D-Ala(8)]-AngII (TRV027). The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze the two above mentioned β-arrestin-biased agonists on downstream phosphorylation events and gene expression profiles. Our data reveal that activation of AT1 receptor by each ligand led to a diversity of activation profiles that is far broader than that expected from a simple dichotomy between "G protein-dependent" and "β-arrestin-dependent" signaling. We observed clusters of activation profiles common to AngII, SII, and TRV027, as well as downstream effector activation that are unique to AngII, SII, or TRV027. Analyses of β-arrestin conformational changes after AT1 receptor stimulation with SII or TRV027 suggests that the observed differences could account, at least partially, for the diversity of modulated targets observed. Our data reveal that, although the categorization "G protein-dependent" vs. "β-arrestin-dependent" signaling can be of pharmacological relevance, broader analyses of signaling pathways and downstream targets are necessary to generate an accurate activation profile for a given ligand. This may bring relevant information for drug development, as it may allow more refined comparison of drugs with similar mechanism of action and effects, but with

  13. Comparative analyses of downstream signal transduction targets modulated after activation of the AT1 receptor by two β-arrestin biased agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisa A Santos


    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are involved in essentially all physiological processes in mammals. The classical GPCR signal transduction mechanism occurs by coupling to G protein, but it has recently been demonstrated that interaction with β-arrestins leads to activation of pathways that are independent of the G protein pathway. Also, it has been reported that some ligands can preferentially activate one of these signaling pathways; being therefore called biased agonists for G protein or β-arrestin pathways. The angiotensin II (AngII AT1 receptor is a prototype GPCR in the study of biased agonism due to the existence of well-known β-arrestin biased agonists, such as [Sar1,Ile4,Ile8]-AngII (SII, and [Sar1,D-Ala8]-AngII (TRV027. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze the two above mentioned β-arrestin biased agonists on downstream phosphorylation events and gene expression profiles. Our data reveal that activation of AT1 receptor by each ligand led to a diversity of activation profiles that is far broader than that expected from a simple dichotomy between G protein-dependent and β-arrestin-dependent signaling. We observed clusters of activation profiles common to AngII, SII and TRV027, as well as downstream effector activation that are unique to AngII, SII, or TRV027. Analyses of β-arrestin conformational changes after AT1 receptor stimulation with SII or TRV027 suggests that the observed differences could account, at least partially, for the diversity of modulated targets observed. Our data reveal that, although the categorization G protein-dependent vs. β-arrestin-dependent signaling can be of pharmacological relevance, broader analyses of signaling pathways and downstream targets are necessary to generate an accurate activation profile for a given ligand. This may bring relevant information for drug development, as it may allow more refined comparison of drugs with similar mechanism of action and effects, but with

  14. Biological role of β-arrestin1 in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the effects of β-arrestin1 on proliferation,migration,invasion and apoptosis of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cell line. Methods The expression of β-arrestin1 in human gastric epithelial cell line GES, human gastric cancer cell line BGC-823, MKN-28 and SGC-7901 was detected

  15. β-Arrestin-Dependent Dopaminergic Regulation of Calcium Channel Activity in the Axon Initial Segment. (United States)

    Yang, Sungchil; Ben-Shalom, Roy; Ahn, Misol; Liptak, Alayna T; van Rijn, Richard M; Whistler, Jennifer L; Bender, Kevin J


    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) initiate a variety of signaling cascades, depending on effector coupling. β-arrestins, which were initially characterized by their ability to "arrest" GPCR signaling by uncoupling receptor and G protein, have recently emerged as important signaling effectors for GPCRs. β-arrestins engage signaling pathways that are distinct from those mediated by G protein. As such, arrestin-dependent signaling can play a unique role in regulating cell function, but whether neuromodulatory GPCRs utilize β-arrestin-dependent signaling to regulate neuronal excitability remains unclear. Here, we find that D3 dopamine receptors (D3R) regulate axon initial segment (AIS) excitability through β-arrestin-dependent signaling, modifying CaV3 voltage dependence to suppress high-frequency action potential generation. This non-canonical D3R signaling thereby gates AIS excitability via pathways distinct from classical GPCR signaling pathways.

  16. β-Arrestin mediates the Frank-Starling mechanism of cardiac contractility. (United States)

    Abraham, Dennis M; Davis, Robert T; Warren, Chad M; Mao, Lan; Wolska, Beata M; Solaro, R John; Rockman, Howard A


    The Frank-Starling law of the heart is a physiological phenomenon that describes an intrinsic property of heart muscle in which increased cardiac filling leads to enhanced cardiac contractility. Identified more than a century ago, the Frank-Starling relationship is currently known to involve length-dependent enhancement of cardiac myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. However, the upstream molecular events that link cellular stretch to the length-dependent myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity are poorly understood. Because the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the multifunctional transducer protein β-arrestin have been shown to mediate mechanosensitive cellular signaling, we tested the hypothesis that these two proteins are involved in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. Using invasive hemodynamics, we found that mice lacking β-arrestin 1, β-arrestin 2, or AT1R were unable to generate a Frank-Starling force in response to changes in cardiac volume. Although wild-type mice pretreated with the conventional AT1R blocker losartan were unable to enhance cardiac contractility with volume loading, treatment with a β-arrestin-biased AT1R ligand to selectively activate β-arrestin signaling preserved the Frank-Starling relationship. Importantly, in skinned muscle fiber preparations, we found markedly impaired length-dependent myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in β-arrestin 1, β-arrestin 2, and AT1R knockout mice. Our data reveal β-arrestin 1, β-arrestin 2, and AT1R as key regulatory molecules in the Frank-Starling mechanism, which potentially can be targeted therapeutically with β-arrestin-biased AT1R ligands.

  17. Distinct cellular and subcellular distributions of G protein-coupled receptor kinase and arrestin isoforms in the striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Bychkov

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs and arrestins mediate desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Arrestins also mediate G protein-independent signaling via GPCRs. Since GRK and arrestins demonstrate no strict receptor specificity, their functions in the brain may depend on their cellular complement, expression level, and subcellular targeting. However, cellular expression and subcellular distribution of GRKs and arrestins in the brain is largely unknown. We show that GRK isoforms GRK2 and GRK5 are similarly expressed in direct and indirect pathway neurons in the rat striatum. Arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 are also expressed in neurons of both pathways. Cholinergic interneurons are enriched in GRK2, arrestin-3, and GRK5. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons express more of GRK2 and less of arrestin-2 than medium spiny neurons. The GRK5 subcellular distribution in the human striatal neurons is altered by its phosphorylation: unphosphorylated enzyme preferentially localizes to synaptic membranes, whereas phosphorylated GRK5 is found in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions. Both GRK isoforms are abundant in the nucleus of human striatal neurons, whereas the proportion of both arrestins in the nucleus was equally low. However, overall higher expression of arrestin-2 yields high enough concentration in the nucleus to mediate nuclear functions. These data suggest cell type- and subcellular compartment-dependent differences in GRK/arrestin-mediated desensitization and signaling.

  18. C-edge loops of arrestin function as a membrane anchor (United States)

    Lally, Ciara C M.; Bauer, Brian; Selent, Jana; Sommer, Martha E


    G-protein-coupled receptors are membrane proteins that are regulated by a small family of arrestin proteins. During formation of the arrestin–receptor complex, arrestin first interacts with the phosphorylated receptor C terminus in a pre-complex, which activates arrestin for tight receptor binding. Currently, little is known about the structure of the pre-complex and its transition to a high-affinity complex. Here we present molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed fluorescence experiments on arrestin-1 interactions with rhodopsin, showing that loops within the C-edge of arrestin function as a membrane anchor. Activation of arrestin by receptor-attached phosphates is necessary for C-edge engagement of the membrane, and we show that these interactions are distinct in the pre-complex and high-affinity complex in regard to their conformation and orientation. Our results expand current knowledge of C-edge structure and further illuminate the conformational transitions that occur in arrestin along the pathway to tight receptor binding. PMID:28220785

  19. The beta-arrestin pathway-selective type 1A angiotensin receptor (AT1A) agonist [Sar1,Ile4,Ile8]angiotensin II regulates a robust G protein-independent signaling network. (United States)

    Kendall, Ryan T; Strungs, Erik G; Rachidi, Saleh M; Lee, Mi-Hye; El-Shewy, Hesham M; Luttrell, Deirdre K; Janech, Michael G; Luttrell, Louis M


    The angiotensin II peptide analog [Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)]AngII (SII) is a biased AT(1A) receptor agonist that stimulates receptor phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, receptor internalization, and β-arrestin-dependent ERK1/2 activation without activating heterotrimeric G-proteins. To determine the scope of G-protein-independent AT(1A) receptor signaling, we performed a gel-based phosphoproteomic analysis of AngII and SII-induced signaling in HEK cells stably expressing AT(1A) receptors. A total of 34 differentially phosphorylated proteins were detected, of which 16 were unique to SII and eight to AngII stimulation. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass fingerprinting was employed to identify 24 SII-sensitive phosphoprotein spots, of which three (two peptide inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A (I1PP2A and I2PP2A) and prostaglandin E synthase 3 (PGES3)) were selected for validation and further study. We found that phosphorylation of I2PP2A was associated with rapid and transient inhibition of a β-arrestin 2-associated pool of protein phosphatase 2A, leading to activation of Akt and increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β in an arrestin signalsome complex. SII-stimulated PGES3 phosphorylation coincided with an increase in β-arrestin 1-associated PGES3 and an arrestin-dependent increase in cyclooxygenase 1-dependent prostaglandin E(2) synthesis. These findings suggest that AT(1A) receptors regulate a robust G protein-independent signaling network that affects protein phosphorylation and autocrine/paracrine prostaglandin production and that these pathways can be selectively modulated by biased ligands that antagonize G protein activation.

  20. Analytical Study of Physics Education Websites' Content (United States)

    Elayyan, Shaher R.


    The current study is compatible with the scientific mobility in dealing with the Internet as a source of knowledge. It aims to introduce the Physics Education Websites (PEWs) and guide their followers toward the most credibility of them by analyzing their content. The sample consisted of (36) websites which were selected according to specific…

  1. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: Possible involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120/β-arrestin2/TGF-β activated kinase-1 binding protein-1 signaling pathway. (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Li, Haiying; Meng, Chengjie; Chen, Dongdong; Chen, Zhouqing; Wang, Yibin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang


    Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to improve neuron functions during aging and in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment, and mediate potent anti-inflammatory via G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) signal pathway. Neuron dysfunction and inflammatory response also contributed to the progression of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). This study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on SAH-induced EBI. Two weeks before SAH, 30% Omega-3 fatty acids was administered by oral gavage at 1g/kg body weight once every 24h. Specific siRNA for GPR120 was exploited. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, fluoro-Jade B staining, and neurobehavioral scores and brain water content test showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced brain cell apoptosis and neuronal degradation, behavioral impairment, and brain edema. Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays results showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced elevation of inflammatory factors, including cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids could inhibit phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1), MEK4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase as well as activation of nuclear factor kappa B through regulating GPR120/β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1 pathway. Furthermore, siRNA-induced GPR120 silencing blocked the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Here, we show that stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 fatty acids pretreatment causes anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects via β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1/TAK1 pathway in the brains of SAH rats. Fish omega-3 fatty acids as part of a daily diet may reduce EBI in an experimental rat model of SAH.

  2. Heterologous activation of protein kinase C stimulates phosphorylation of delta-opioid receptor at serine 344, resulting in beta-arrestin- and clathrin-mediated receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, B; Yu, G H; Guo, J


    , and ionomycin resulted in DOR internalization that required phosphorylation of Ser-344. Expression of dominant negative beta-arrestin and hypertonic sucrose treatment blocked PMA-induced DOR internalization, suggesting that PKC mediates DOR internalization via a beta-arrestin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism......The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of opioid-independent, heterologous activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on the responsiveness of opioid receptor and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our result showed that removing the C terminus of delta opioid receptor (DOR...... phosphorylation could inhibit PKC-catalyzed heterologous DOR phosphorylation and subsequent internalization. These data demonstrate that the responsiveness of opioid receptor is regulated by both PKC and GRK through agonist-dependent and agonist-independent mechanisms and PKC-mediated receptor phosphorylation...

  3. Fanpage metrics analysis. "Study on content engagement" (United States)

    Rahman, Zoha; Suberamanian, Kumaran; Zanuddin, Hasmah Binti; Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam Bin Md


    Social Media is now determined as an excellent communicative tool to connect directly with consumers. One of the most significant ways to connect with the consumers through these Social Networking Sites (SNS) is to create a facebook fanpage with brand contents and to place different posts periodically on these fanpages. In measuring social networking sites' effectiveness, corporate houses are now analyzing metrics in terms of calculating engagement rate, number of comments/share and likings in fanpages. So now, it is very important for the marketers to know the effectiveness of different contents or posts of fanpages in order to increase the fan responsiveness and engagement rate in the fan pages. In the study the authors have analyzed total 1834 brand posts from 17 international brands of Electronics companies. Data of 9 months (From December 2014 to August 2015) have been collected for analyses, which were available online in the Brand' fan pages. An econometrics analysis is conducted using Eviews 9, to determine the impact of different contents on fanpage engagement. The study picked the four most frequently posted content to determine their impact on PTA (people Talking About) metrics and Fanpage engagement activities.

  4. Monitoring G protein-coupled receptor and β-arrestin trafficking in live cells using enhanced bystander BRET (United States)

    Namkung, Yoon; Le Gouill, Christian; Lukashova, Viktoria; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Hogue, Mireille; Khoury, Etienne; Song, Mideum; Bouvier, Michel; Laporte, Stéphane A.


    Endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of receptors are pivotal to maintain physiological functions and drug action; however, robust quantitative approaches are lacking to study such processes in live cells. Here we present new bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) sensors to quantitatively monitor G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and β-arrestin trafficking. These sensors are based on bystander BRET and use the naturally interacting chromophores luciferase (RLuc) and green fluorescent protein (rGFP) from Renilla. The versatility and robustness of this approach are exemplified by anchoring rGFP at the plasma membrane or in endosomes to generate high dynamic spectrometric BRET signals on ligand-promoted recruitment or sequestration of RLuc-tagged proteins to, or from, specific cell compartments, as well as sensitive subcellular BRET imaging for protein translocation visualization. These sensors are scalable to high-throughput formats and allow quantitative pharmacological studies of GPCR trafficking in real time, in live cells, revealing ligand-dependent biased trafficking of receptor/β-arrestin complexes. PMID:27397672

  5. The Viral G Protein-Coupled Receptor ORF74 Hijacks β-Arrestins for Endocytic Trafficking in Response to Human Chemokines. (United States)

    de Munnik, Sabrina M; Kooistra, Albert J; van Offenbeek, Jody; Nijmeijer, Saskia; de Graaf, Chris; Smit, Martine J; Leurs, Rob; Vischer, Henry F


    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-infected cells express the virally encoded G protein-coupled receptor ORF74. Although ORF74 is constitutively active, it binds human CXC chemokines that modulate this basal activity. ORF74-induced signaling has been demonstrated to underlie the development of the angioproliferative tumor Kaposi's sarcoma. Whereas G protein-dependent signaling of ORF74 has been the subject of several studies, the interaction of this viral GPCR with β-arrestins has hitherto not been investigated. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer experiments demonstrate that ORF74 recruits β-arrestins and subsequently internalizes in response to human CXCL1 and CXCL8, but not CXCL10. Internalized ORF74 traffics via early endosomes to recycling and late endosomes. Site-directed mutagenesis and homology modeling identified four serine and threonine residues at the distal end of the intracellular carboxyl-terminal of ORF74 that are required for β-arrestin recruitment and subsequent endocytic trafficking. Hijacking of the human endocytic trafficking machinery is a previously unrecognized action of ORF74.

  6. Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory cytokine production through β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yuan [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Xu, Ming; Zhang, You-Yi [Department of Institute of Vascular Medicine and Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Receptors Research, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); He, Bei, E-mail: [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)


    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved in regulating inflammation in several cell lines. We reported that fenoterol, a β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (β{sub 2}-AR) agonist, had anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line. Whether the fenoterol anti-inflammatory effect involves the AMPK pathway is unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanism of β{sub 2}-AR stimulation with fenoterol in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells. We studied whether fenoterol and β-arrestin-2 or AMPKα1 subunit knockdown could affect LPS-induced AMPK activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release were reduced with fenoterol pretreatment of THP-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of β-arrestin-2 abolished the fenoterol inhibition of LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release, thus β-arrestin-2 mediated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenoterol on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. In addition, siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β release, so AMPKα1 was a key signaling molecule involved in LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggested the β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol inhibited LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β release via β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cells. The exploration of these mechanisms may help optimize therapeutic agents targeting these pathways in inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol exerts its protective effect on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. • Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β production. • β-arrestin2 mediates fenoterol-inhibited AMPK activation and IL-1β release. • AMPKα1 is involved in LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β production.

  7. Studying Web Content Credibility by Social Simulation


    Wierzbicki, Adam; Adamska, Paulina; Abramczuk, Katarzyna; Papaioannou, Thanasis; Aberer, Karl; Rejmund, Emilia


    The Internet has become an important source of information that significantly affects social, economical and political life. The content available in the Web is the basis for the operation of the digital economy. Moreover, Web content has become essential for many Web users that have to make decisions. Meanwhile, more and more often we encounter Web content of low credibility due to incorrect opinions, lack of knowledge, and, even worse, manipulation attempts for the benefit of the authors or...

  8. PGE2 Inhibits IL-10 Production via EP2-Mediated β-Arrestin Signaling in Neuroinflammatory Condition. (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wang, Qingshan; Langenbach, Robert; Li, Hong; Zeldin, Darryl; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Wang, Shijun; Gao, Huiming; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong


    Regulatory mechanisms of the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in brain inflammatory conditions remain elusive. To address this issue, we used multiple primary brain cell cultures to study the expression of IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-elicited inflammatory conditions. In neuron-glia cultures, LPS triggered well-orchestrated expression of various immune factors in the following order: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and lastly IL-10, and these inflammatory mediators were mainly produced from microglia. While exogenous application of individual earlier-released pro-inflammatory factors (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1β, or PGE2) failed to induce IL-10 expression, removal of LPS from the cultures showed the requirement of continuing presence of LPS for IL-10 expression. Interestingly, genetic disruption of tnf-α, its receptors tnf-r1/r2, and cox-2 and pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 activity enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 production in microglia, which suggests negative regulation of IL-10 induction by the earlier-released TNF-α and PGE2. Further studies showed that negative regulation of IL-10 production by TNF-α is mediated by PGE2. Mechanistic studies indicated that PGE2-elicited suppression of IL-10 induction was eliminated by genetic disruption of the PGE2 receptor EP2 and was mimicked by the specific agonist for the EP2, butaprost, but not agonists for the other three EP receptors. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent signal transduction failed to affect PGE2-mediated inhibition of IL-10 production, suggesting that a G protein-independent pathway was involved. Indeed, deficiency in β-arrestin-1 or β-arrestin-2 abolished PGE2-elicited suppression of IL-10 production. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that COX-2-derived PGE2 inhibits IL-10 expression in brain microglia through a novel EP2- and β-arrestin-dependent signaling pathway.

  9. Distinct conformations of GPCR–β-arrestin complexes mediate desensitization, signaling, and endocytosis (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas J.; Thomsen, Alex R. B.; Tarrasch, Jeffrey T.; Plouffe, Bianca; Nguyen, Anthony H.; Yang, Fan; Huang, Li-Yin; Kahsai, Alem W.; Bassoni, Daniel L.; Gavino, Bryant J.; Lamerdin, Jane E.; Triest, Sarah; Shukla, Arun K.; Berger, Benjamin; Little, John; Antar, Albert; Blanc, Adi; Qu, Chang-Xiu; Chen, Xin; Kawakami, Kouki; Inoue, Asuka; Aoki, Junken; Steyaert, Jan; Sun, Jin-Peng; Bouvier, Michel; Skiniotis, Georgios; Lefkowitz, Robert J.


    β-Arrestins (βarrs) interact with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to desensitize G protein signaling, to initiate signaling on their own, and to mediate receptor endocytosis. Prior structural studies have revealed two unique conformations of GPCR–βarr complexes: the “tail” conformation, with βarr primarily coupled to the phosphorylated GPCR C-terminal tail, and the “core” conformation, where, in addition to the phosphorylated C-terminal tail, βarr is further engaged with the receptor transmembrane core. However, the relationship of these distinct conformations to the various functions of βarrs is unknown. Here, we created a mutant form of βarr lacking the “finger-loop” region, which is unable to form the core conformation but retains the ability to form the tail conformation. We find that the tail conformation preserves the ability to mediate receptor internalization and βarr signaling but not desensitization of G protein signaling. Thus, the two GPCR–βarr conformations can carry out distinct functions. PMID:28223524

  10. Role of receptor-attached phosphates in binding of visual and non-visual arrestins to G protein-coupled receptors. (United States)

    Gimenez, Luis E; Kook, Seunghyi; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Ahmed, M Rafiuddin; Gurevich, Eugenia V; Gurevich, Vsevolod V


    Arrestins are a small family of proteins that regulate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Arrestins specifically bind to phosphorylated active receptors, terminating G protein coupling, targeting receptors to endocytic vesicles, and initiating G protein-independent signaling. The interaction of rhodopsin-attached phosphates with Lys-14 and Lys-15 in β-strand I was shown to disrupt the interaction of α-helix I, β-strand I, and the C-tail of visual arrestin-1, facilitating its transition into an active receptor-binding state. Here we tested the role of conserved lysines in homologous positions of non-visual arrestins by generating K2A mutants in which both lysines were replaced with alanines. K2A mutations in arrestin-1, -2, and -3 significantly reduced their binding to active phosphorhodopsin in vitro. The interaction of arrestins with several GPCRs in intact cells was monitored by a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based assay. BRET data confirmed the role of Lys-14 and Lys-15 in arrestin-1 binding to non-cognate receptors. However, this was not the case for non-visual arrestins in which the K2A mutations had little effect on net BRET(max) values for the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine (M2R), β(2)-adrenergic (β(2)AR), or D2 dopamine receptors. Moreover, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of M2R interacted with wild type non-visual arrestins normally, whereas phosphorylation-deficient β(2)AR mutants bound arrestins at 20-50% of the level of wild type β(2)AR. Thus, the contribution of receptor-attached phosphates to arrestin binding varies depending on the receptor-arrestin pair. Although arrestin-1 always depends on receptor phosphorylation, its role in the recruitment of arrestin-2 and -3 is much greater in the case of β(2)AR than M2R and D2 dopamine receptor.

  11. Analysis of Arrestin Recruitment to Chemokine Receptors by Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer. (United States)

    Bonneterre, J; Montpas, N; Boularan, C; Galés, C; Heveker, N


    Chemokine receptors recruit the multifunctional scaffolding protein beta arrestin in response to binding of their chemokine ligands. Given that arrestin recruitment represents a signaling axis that is in part independent from G-protein signaling, it has become a hallmark of G protein-coupled receptor functional selectivity. Therefore, quantification of arrestin recruitment has become a requirement for the delineation of chemokine and drug candidate activity along different signaling axes. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) techniques provide methodology for such quantification that can reveal differences between nonredundant chemokines binding the same receptor, and that can be upscaled for high-throughput testing. We here provide protocols for the careful setup of BRET-based arrestin recruitment assays, and examples for the application of such systems in dose-response or time-course experiments. Suggestions are given for troubleshooting, optimizing test systems, and the interpretation of results obtained with BRET-based assays, which indeed yield an intricate blend of quantitative and qualitative information.

  12. Effects of the dopamine D2 allosteric modulator, PAOPA, on the expression of GRK2, arrestin-3, ERK1/2, and on receptor internalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipannita Basu

    Full Text Available The activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs is intricately regulated by a range of intracellular proteins, including G protein-coupled kinases (GRKs and arrestins. Understanding the effects of ligands on these signaling pathways could provide insights into disease pathophysiologies and treatment. The dopamine D2 receptor is a GPCR strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Previous studies from our lab have shown the preclinical efficacy of a novel allosteric drug, 3(R-[(2(S-pyrrolidinylcarbonylamino]-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide (PAOPA, in attenuating schizophrenia-like behavioural abnormalities in rodent models of the disease. As an allosteric modulator, PAOPA binds to a site on the D2 receptor, which is distinct from the endogenous ligand-binding site, in order to modulate the binding of the D2 receptor ligand, dopamine. The exact signaling pathways affected by this allosteric modulator are currently unknown. The objectives of this study were to decipher the in vivo effects, in rats, of chronic PAOPA administration on D2 receptor regulatory and downstream molecules, including GRK2, arrestin-3 and extracellular receptor kinase (ERK 1/2. Additionally, an in vitro cellular model was also used to study PAOPA's effects on D2 receptor internalization. Results from western immunoblots showed that chronic PAOPA treatment increased the striatal expression of GRK2 by 41%, arrestin-3 by 34%, phospho-ERK1 by 51% and phospho-ERK2 by 36%. Results also showed that the addition of PAOPA to agonist treatment in cells increased D2 receptor internalization by 33%. This study provides the foundational evidence of putative signaling pathways, and changes in receptor localization, affected by treatment with PAOPA. It improves our understanding on the diverse mechanisms of action of allosteric modulators, while advancing PAOPA's development into a novel drug for the

  13. Dopamine D2 receptor and β-arrestin 2 mediate Amyloid-β elevation induced by anti-parkinson’s disease drugs, levodopa and piribedil, in neuronal cells (United States)

    Wang, Qinying; Pei, Gang


    Although levodopa is the first-line medication for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) showing unsurpassable efficiency, its chronic use causes dyskinesia. Accordingly, dopamine agonists are increasingly employed as monotherapy or in combination with levodopa to reduce the risk of motor complications. It is well recognized that patients with PD often exhibit cognitive deficits. However, clinical and animal studies assessing the effects of dopaminergic medications on cognition are controversial. Amyloid-β (Aβ) is one of the major hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), leading to progressive memory loss and cognitive deficit. Interestingly, the abnormal accumulation of Aβ is also detected in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Evidence indicated that levodopa induced a mild increase of Aβ plaque number and size in the brain of AD mouse. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we present that both levodopa and piribedil enhance the generation of Aβ and the activity of γ-secretase in human neuronal cells and primary neurons isolated from AD mouse. This effect was reduced by either the antagonism or the knockdown of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). We further showed that in the cells expressing β-arrestin 2-biased D2R mutant, piribedil promoted cellular Aβ production to the extent comparable to the wild-type D2R whereas this activity was absent in those with G protein-biased D2R mutant. Moreover, the knockdown of β-arrestin 2 attenuated the increases of Aβ generation and γ-secretase activity mediated by levodopa or piribedil. Thus, our study suggests that targeting D2R-mediated β-arrestin function may have potential risk in the modulation of Aβ pathology. PMID:28253352

  14. EGFR trans-activation by urotensin II receptor is mediated by β-arrestin recruitment and confers cardioprotection in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. (United States)

    Esposito, Giovanni; Perrino, Cinzia; Cannavo, Alessandro; Schiattarella, Gabriele G; Borgia, Francesco; Sannino, Anna; Pironti, Gianluigi; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Di Serafino, Luigi; Franzone, Anna; Scudiero, Laura; Grieco, Paolo; Indolfi, Ciro; Chiariello, Massimo


    Urotensin II (UTII) and its seven trans-membrane receptor (UTR) are up-regulated in the heart under pathological conditions. Previous in vitro studies have shown that UTII trans-activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), however, the role of such novel signalling pathway stimulated by UTII is currently unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that EGFR trans-activation by UTII might exert a protective effect in the overloaded heart. To test this hypothesis, we induced cardiac hypertrophy by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in wild-type mice, and tested the effects of the UTII antagonist Urantide (UR) on cardiac function, structure, and EGFR trans-activation. After 7 days of pressure overload, UR treatment induced a rapid and significant impairment of cardiac function compared to vehicle. In UR-treated TAC mice, cardiac dysfunction was associated with reduced phosphorylation levels of the EGFR and extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), increased apoptotic cell death and fibrosis. In vitro UTR stimulation induced membrane translocation of β-arrestin 1/2, EGFR phosphorylation/internalization, and ERK activation in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, UTII administration lowered apoptotic cell death induced by serum deprivation, as shown by reduced TUNEL/Annexin V staining and caspase 3 activation. Interestingly, UTII-mediated EGFR trans-activation could be prevented by UR treatment or knockdown of β-arrestin 1/2. Our data show, for the first time in vivo, a new UTR signalling pathway which is mediated by EGFR trans-activation, dependent by β-arrestin 1/2, promoting cell survival and cardioprotection.

  15. The role of beta-arrestin2 in the severity of antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence induced by different opioid pain therapeutics. (United States)

    Raehal, Kirsten M; Bohn, Laura M


    Ligands acting at the same receptor can differentially activate distinct signal transduction pathways, which in turn, can have diverse functional consequences. Further, receptors expressed in different tissues may utilize intracellular signaling proteins in response to a ligand differently as well. The mu opioid receptor (MOR), which mediates many of the pharmacological actions of opiate therapeutics, is also subject to differential signaling in response to diverse agonists. To study the effect of diverse agonists on MOR signaling, we examined the effects of chronic opiate treatment on two distinct physiological endpoints, antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence, in mice lacking the intracellular regulatory molecule, βarrestin2. While βarrestin2 knockout (βarr2-KO) mice do not become tolerant to the antinociceptive effects of chronic morphine in a hot plate test, tolerance develops to the same degree in both wild type and βarr2-KO mice following chronic infusion with methadone, fentanyl, and oxycodone. Studies here also assess the severity of withdrawal signs precipitated by naloxone following chronic infusions at three different doses of each opiate agonist. While there are no differences in withdrawal responses between genotypes at the highest dose of morphine tested (48 mg/kg/day), the βarr2-KO mice display several less severe withdrawal responses when the infusion dose is lowered (12 or 24 mg/kg/day). Chronic infusion of methadone, fentanyl, and oxycodone all lead to equivalent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal responses in both genotypes at all doses tested. These results lend further evidence that distinct agonists can differentially impact on opioid-mediated responses in vivo in a βarrestin2-dependent manner.

  16. Differential requirements of arrestin-3 and clathrin for ligand-dependent and -independent internalization of human G protein-coupled receptor 40. (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Wu, Chun; Chen, Xiaopan; Li, Xiangmei; Ying, Guoyuan; Jin, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Li, Guo; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Guozheng; Zhou, Naiming


    G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is believed to be an attractive target to enhance insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. GPR40 has been found to couple to Gq protein, leading to the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) level. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate the internalization and desensitization of GPR40 remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a construct of GPR40 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at its C-terminus was constructed for direct imaging of the localization and internalization of GPR40 by confocal microscopy. In stably transfected HEK-293 cells, GPR40 receptors underwent rapid agonist-induced internalization and constitutive ligand-independent internalization. Our data demonstrated that the agonist-mediated internalization of GPR40 was significantly blocked by hypertonic sucrose treatment and by siRNA mediated depletion of the heavy chain of clathrin. In contrast, constitutive GPR40 internalization was not affected by hypertonic sucrose or by knock-down of clathrin expression, but it was affected by treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and nystatin. Furthermore, our results using an arrestin-3-EGFP redistribution assay and siRNA-mediated knock-down of arrestin-3 and GRK2 expression revealed that arrestin-3 and GRK2 play an essential role in the regulation of agonist-mediated GPR40 internalization, but are not involved in the regulation of constitutive GPR40 internalization. Additionally, our observation showed that upon activation by agonist, the internalized GPR40 receptors were rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane via Rab4/Rab5 positive endosomes, whereas the constitutively internalized GPR40 receptors were recycled back to the cell surface through Rab5 positive endosomes. Because FFA receptors exhibit a high level of homology, our observations could be applicable to other members of this family.

  17. Analgesic tone conferred by constitutively active mu opioid receptors in mice lacking β-arrestin 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hales Tim G


    Full Text Available Abstract Hedonic reward, dependence and addiction are unwanted effects of opioid analgesics, linked to the phasic cycle of μ opioid receptor activation, tolerance and withdrawal. In vitro studies of recombinant G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs over expressed in cell lines reveal an alternative tonic signaling mechanism that is independent of agonist. Such studies demonstrate that constitutive GPCR signaling can be inhibited by inverse agonists but not by neutral antagonists. However, ligand-independent activity has been difficult to examine in vivo, at the systems level, due to relatively low levels of constitutive activity of most GPCRs including μ receptors, often necessitating mutagenesis or pharmacological manipulation to enhance basal signaling. We previously demonstrated that the absence of β-arrestin 2 (β-arr2 augments the constitutive coupling of μ receptors to voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in primary afferent dorsal root ganglion neurons from β-arr2-/- mice. We used this in vitro approach to characterize neutral competitive antagonists and inverse agonists of the constitutively active wild type μ receptors in neurons. We administered these agents to β-arr2-/- mice to explore the role of constitutive μ receptor activity in nociception and hedonic tone. This study demonstrates that the induction of constitutive μ receptor activity in vivo in β-arr2-/- mice prolongs tail withdrawal from noxious heat, a phenomenon that was reversed by inverse agonists, but not by antagonists that lack negative efficacy. By contrast, the aversive effects of inverse agonists were similar in β-arr2-/- and β-arr2+/+ mice, suggesting that hedonic tone was unaffected.

  18. The prostaglandin receptor EP2 activates multiple signaling pathways and beta-arrestin1 complex formation during mouse skin papilloma development. (United States)

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Lao, Huei-Chen; Trempus, Carol S; Okada, Manabu; Langenbach, Robert


    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is elevated in many tumor types, but PGE(2)'s contributions to tumor growth are largely unknown. To investigate PGE(2)'s roles, the contributions of one of its receptors, EP2, were studied using the mouse skin initiation/promotion model. Initial studies indicated that protein kinase A (PKA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and several effectors-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), H-Ras, Src, protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-were activated in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted papillomas and that PKA and EGFR inhibition (H89 and AG1478, respectively) decreased papilloma formation. EP2's contributions to the activation of these pathways and papilloma development were determined by inhibiting endogenous TPA-induced PGE(2) production with indomethacin (Indo) and concomitantly treating with the EP2 agonist, CAY10399 (CAY). CAY treatment restored papilloma formation in TPA/Indo-treated mice and increased cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and PKA activation as measured by p-CREB formation. CAY treatment also increased EGFR and Src activation and their inhibition by AG1478 and PP2 indicated that Src was upstream of EGFR. CAY also increased H-Ras, ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and AG1478 decreased their activation indicating EGFR being upstream. Supporting EP2's contribution, EP2-/- mice exhibited 65% fewer papillomas and reduced Src, EGFR, H-Ras, AKT and ERK1/2 activation. G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation of EGFR has been reported to involve Src's activation via a GPCR-beta-arrestin-Src complex. Indeed, immunoprecipitation of beta-arrestin1 or p-Src indicated the presence of an EP2-beta-arrestin1-p-Src complex in papillomas. The data indicated that EP2 contributed to tumor formation via activation of PKA and EGFR and that EP2 formed a complex with beta-arrestin1 and Src that contributed to signaling and/or EP2 desensitization.

  19. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED


    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  20. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research


    Florian Kohlbacher


    This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Then, a basic introduction to (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation method for qualitative interviews and other data material is given. Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is ...

  1. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  2. The carboxy-terminal tail or the intracellular loop 3 is required for β-arrestin-dependent internalization of a mammalian type II GnRH receptor. (United States)

    Madziva, Michael T; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Flanagan, Colleen A; Katz, Arieh A


    The type II GnRH receptor (GnRH-R2) in contrast to mammalian type I GnRH receptor (GnRH-R1) has a cytosolic carboxy-terminal tail. We investigated the role of β-arrestin 1 in GnRH-R2-mediated signalling and mapped the regions in GnRH-R2 required for recruitment of β-arrestin, employing internalization assays. We show that GnRH-R2 activation of ERK is dependent on β-arrestin and protein kinase C. Appending the tail of GnRH-R2 to GnRH-R1 enabled GRK- and β-arrestin-dependent internalization of the chimaeric receptor. Surprisingly, carboxy-terminally truncated GnRH-R2 retained β-arrestin and GRK-dependent internalization, suggesting that β-arrestin interacts with additional elements of GnRH-R2. Mutating serine and threonine or basic residues of intracellular loop 3 did not abolish β-arrestin 1-dependent internalization but a receptor lacking these basic residues and the carboxy-terminus showed no β-arrestin 1-dependent internalization. Our results suggest that basic residues at the amino-terminal end of intracellular loop 3 or the carboxy-terminal tail are required for β-arrestin dependent internalization.

  3. Binding of rhodopsin and rhodopsin analogues to transducin, rhodopsin kinase and arrestin-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nelson; A; Araujo; Carlos; E; Sanz-Rodríguez; José; Bubis


    AIM: To investigate the interaction of reconstituted rhodopsin, 9-cis-retinal-rhodopsin and 13-cis-retinal-rhodopsin with transducin, rhodopsin kinase and arrestin-1. METHODS: Rod outer segments(ROS) were isolated from bovine retinas. Following bleaching of ROS membranes with hydroxylamine, rhodopsin and rhodopsin analogues were generated with the different retinal isomers and the concentration of the reconstituted pigments was calculated from their UV/visible absorption spectra. Transducin and arrestin-1 were purified to homogeneity by column chromatography, and an enriched-fraction of rhodopsin kinase was obtainedby extracting freshly prepared ROS in the dark. The guanine nucleotide binding activity of transducin was determined by Millipore filtration using β,γ-imido-(3H)-guanosine 5’-triphosphate. Recognition of the reconstituted pigments by rhodopsin kinase was determined by autoradiography following incubation of ROS membranes containing the various regenerated pigments with partially purified rhodopsin kinase in the presence of(γ-32P) ATP. Binding of arrestin-1 to the various pigments in ROS membranes was determined by a sedimentation assay analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: Reconstituted rhodopsin and rhodopsin analogues containing 9-cis-retinal and 13-cis-retinal rendered an absorption spectrum showing a maximum peak at 498 nm, 486 nm and about 467 nm, respectively, in the dark; which was shifted to 380 nm, 404 nm and about 425 nm, respectively, after illumination. The percentage of reconstitution of rhodopsin and the rhodopsin analogues containing 9-cis-retinal and 13-cis-retinal was estimated to be 88%, 81% and 24%, respectively. Although only residual activation of transducin was observed in the dark when reconstituted rhodopsin and 9-cis-retinal-rhodopsin was used, the rhodopsin analogue containing the 13-cis isomer of retinal was capable of activating transducin independently of light. Moreover, only a

  4. Importance of constitutive activity and arrestin-independent mechanisms for intracellular trafficking of the ghrelin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holliday, Nicholas D; Holst, Birgitte; Rodionova, Elena A


    . Furthermore the interaction between phosphorylated receptors and beta-arrestin adaptor proteins has been examined. Replacement of the FLAG-tagged GhrelinR C tail with the equivalent GPR39 domain (GhR-39 chimera) preserved G(q) signaling. However in contrast to the GhrelinR, GhR-39 receptors exhibited no basal...... and substantially decreased agonist-induced internalization in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Internalized GhrelinR and GhR-39 were predominantly localized to recycling compartments, identified with transferrin and the monomeric G proteins Rab5 and Rab11. Both the inverse agonist [d-Arg(1), d-Phe(5), d-Trp(7....... In contrast, agonist-stimulated GhrelinRs recruited the clathrin adaptor green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin2 to endosomes, coincident with increased receptor phosphorylation. Thus, GhrelinR internalization to recycling compartments depends on C-terminal motifs and constitutive activity...

  5. Autophagy-associated alpha-arrestin signaling is required for conidiogenous cell development in Magnaporthe oryzae (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Xu, Xiaojin; Chen, Guoqing; Zhang, Dandan; Tang, Mingzhi; Xu, Fei; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Bo


    Conidiation patterning is evolutionarily complex and mechanism concerning conidiogenous cell differentiation remains largely unknown. Magnaporthe oryzae conidiates in a sympodial way and uses its conidia to infect host and disseminate blast disease. Arrestins are multifunctional proteins that modulate receptor down-regulation and scaffold components of intracellular trafficking routes. We here report an alpha-arrestin that regulates patterns of conidiation and contributes to pathogenicity in M. oryzae. We show that disruption of ARRDC1 generates mutants which produce conidia in an acropetal array and ARRDC1 significantly affects expression profile of CCA1, a virulence-related transcription factor required for conidiogenous cell differentiation. Although germ tubes normally develop appressoria, penetration peg formation is dramatically impaired and Δarrdc1 mutants are mostly nonpathogenic. Fluorescent analysis indicates that EGFP-ARRDC1 puncta are well colocalized with DsRed2-Atg8, and this distribution profile could not be altered in Δatg9 mutants, suggesting ARRDC1 enters into autophagic flux before autophagosome maturation. We propose that M. oryzae employs ARRDC1 to regulate specific receptors in response to conidiation-related signals for conidiogenous cell differentiation and utilize autophagosomes for desensitization of conidiogenous receptor, which transmits extracellular signal to the downstream elements of transcription factors. Our investigation extends novel significance of autophagy-associated alpha-arrestin signaling to fungal parasites. PMID:27498554

  6. Not just signal shutoff: the protective role of arrestin-1 in rod cells. (United States)

    Sommer, Martha E; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Heck, Martin


    The retinal rod cell is an exquisitely sensitive single-photon detector that primarily functions in dim light (e.g., moonlight). However, rod cells must routinely survive light intensities more than a billion times greater (e.g., bright daylight). One serious challenge to rod cell survival in daylight is the massive amount of all-trans-retinal that is released by Meta II, the light-activated form of the photoreceptor rhodopsin. All-trans-retinal is toxic, and its condensation products have been implicated in disease. Our recent work has developed the concept that rod arrestin (arrestin-1), which terminates Meta II signaling, has an additional role in protecting rod cells from the consequences of bright light by limiting free all-trans-retinal. In this chapter we will elaborate upon the molecular mechanisms by which arrestin-1 serves as both a single-photon response quencher as well as an instrument of rod cell survival in bright light. This discussion will take place within the framework of three distinct functional modules of vision: signal transduction, the retinoid cycle, and protein translocation.

  7. A Study in Content Language Acquisition (United States)

    Broer, Kathleen


    This study examines how young second language learners acquire academic language. Among the main language groups represented were Punjabi, Hindi, Tamil, Estonian, Serbian, Arabic as well as 23 other language groups. I monitored over 75 students, in grades 1, 2 and 4. I was interested in exploring what strategies best promoted coherence in…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  9. The Clinical Significance of β-arrestin 2 Expression in the Serum of 
Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqing WU


    Full Text Available Background and objective Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC with high morbidity and mortality is the most common types of lung cancer. beta-arrestin 2 is a kind of soluble protein regulating signal transduction mediated by G protein coupling receptor. The aim of this research is to evaluate the clinical significance of β-arrestin 2 expression in the serum of NSCLC patients. Methods The clinical and follow-up data of 20 healthy candidates and 67 patients diagnosed with NSCLC in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from January 2005 to December 2006 was retrospectively analyzed. ELISA was applied to detect the expression of beta-arrestin 2. Results The serum level of β-arrestin 2 in NSCLC patients were all significally lower than those in healthy controls (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001. The serum level of β-arrestin 2 in stage I NSCLC patients were higher than those in stage III as well as in stage IV (P<0.001, P<0.001. No statistical difference of β-arrestin 2’ serum level was found between with stage III and stage IV patients (P=0.273. Univariate prognostic factor analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method indicated patients’ prognosis with high serum level of β-arrestin 2 was better than patients with low and middle (P<0.001, P<0.001. The serum level of β-arrestin 2 and the stage of NSCLC signally affected prognosis in COX regression model (P=0.003, P=0.004. Conclusion The serum level of β-arrestin 2 had significant difffrence between NSCLC patients and healthy controls, likewise between the early and advanced NSCLC patients. The serum level of β-arrestin 2 affected NSCLC patients’ prognosis.

  10. Direct visualisation of internalization of the adenosine A3 receptor and localization with arrestin3 using a fluorescent agonist. (United States)

    Stoddart, Leigh A; Vernall, Andrea J; Briddon, Stephen J; Kellam, Barrie; Hill, Stephen J


    Fluorescence based probes provide a novel way to study the dynamic internalization process of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recent advances in the rational design of fluorescent ligands for GPCRs have been used here to generate new fluorescent agonists containing tripeptide linkers for the adenosine A3 receptor. The fluorescent agonist BY630-X-(D)-A-(D)-A-G-ABEA was found to be a highly potent agonist at the adenosine A3 receptor in both reporter gene (pEC50 = 8.48 ± 0.09) and internalization assays (pEC50 = 7.47 ± 0.11). Confocal imaging studies showed that BY630-X-(D)-A-(D)-A-G-ABEA was internalized with A3 linked to yellow fluorescent protein, which was blocked by the competitive antagonist MRS1220. Internalization of untagged adenosine A3 could also be visualized with BY630-X-(D)-A-(D)-A-G-ABEA treatment. Further, BY630-X-(D)-A-(D)-A-G-ABEA stimulated the formation of receptor-arrestin3 complexes and was found to localize with these intracellular complexes. This highly potent agonist with excellent imaging properties should be a valuable tool to study receptor internalization. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Fluorescent Tools in Neuropharmacology'.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this article, the author presents his opinions on the extent of China ancient territory, viz. the territory administrated by integrated nation and separate states in China ancient history, which is based on his formal studies. The author also makes a comment on the new academic views since 1990s, and presents four new opinions on the development phases of China ancient territory.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Indigenization of Science : Introspection, Criticism and Limitation Yao Chuanming (School of Governance Management ,Beijing University, Beijing 100871, China) Abstract: Originated from the Western World, social science theory cannot (well enough) explain the local situation Thus it is not a sufficient condition of the indigenization study. The inconformity between the theory and the reality is not necessarily the falsification of the theory itself.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    (1) Choosing the Data Mining Represent Objects in China's Local Governments and Establish the Data Warehouses of the Objects: A Study in the Four municipal Governments in Jiangsu Province Shang Huping (Management School of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000) Abstract: In a tremendously large country llke China, there are substantial differences on natural geographic features, history background, and social realities among the varied regions. Because of the heterogeneity, the local government performance evalu- ation indicator designing is a systematical engineering which could be affected by various factors. In this paper, we use the "stan- dard proportion" to develop a new way to choose the study objects among the great many governments of varied level in China. As the study objects chosen, we take advantage of the DM tool of Microsoft SQL Server 2005 to establish a government performance evaluation indictor data warehouse of the four municipal governments in Jiangsu Province by pr6cessing the clata of National Sta- tistical Yearbook. Local Statistical Yearbook, Sector Statistics Yearbook, government departments' work plans & programs, etc. Key words: Standard proportion; DM; Local government performance evaluation indicators; Data warehouse

  14. Mathematical Modelling Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis Study (United States)

    Çelik, H. Coskun


    The aim of the present study was to examine the mathematical modelling studies done between 2004 and 2015 in Turkey and to reveal their tendencies. Forty-nine studies were selected using purposeful sampling based on the term, "mathematical modelling" with Higher Education Academic Search Engine. They were analyzed with content analysis.…

  15. Surfactant protein-A modulates LPS-induced TLR4 localization and signaling via β-arrestin 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Sender

    Full Text Available The soluble C-type lectin surfactant protein (SP-A mediates lung immune responses partially via its direct effects on alveolar macrophages (AM, the main resident leukocytes exposed to antigens. SP-A modulates the AM threshold of lipopolysaccharide (LPS activity towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype both in vitro and in vivo through various mechanisms. LPS responses are tightly regulated via distinct pathways including subcellular TLR4 localization and thus ligand sensing. The cytosolic scaffold and signaling protein β-arrestin 2 acts as negative regulator of LPS-induced TLR4 activation. Here we show that SP-A neither increases TLR4 abundancy nor co-localizes with TLR4 in primary AM. SP-A significantly reduces the LPS-induced co-localization of TLR4 with the early endosome antigen (EEA 1 by promoting the co-localization of TLR4 with the post-Golgi compartment marker Vti1b in freshly isolated AM from rats and wild-type (WT mice, but not in β-arrestin 2(-/- AM. Compared to WT mice pulmonary LPS-induced TNF-α release in β-arrestin 2(-/- mice is accelerated and enhanced and exogenous SP-A fails to inhibit both lung LPS-induced TNF-α release and TLR4/EEA1 positioning. SP-A, but not LPS, enhances β-arrestin 2 protein expression in a time-dependent manner in primary rat AM. The constitutive expression of β-arrestin 2 in AM from SP-A(-/- mice is significantly reduced compared to SP-A(+/+ mice and is rescued by SP-A. Prolonged endosome retention of LPS-induced TLR4 in AM from SP-A(-/- mice is restored by exogenous SP-A, and is antagonized by β-arrestin 2 blocking peptides. LPS induces β-arrestin 2/TLR4 association in primary AM which is further enhanced by SP-A. The data demonstrate that SP-A modulates LPS-induced TLR4 trafficking and signaling in vitro and in vivo engaging β-arrestin 2.

  16. Content and Epistemic Relations: A Developmental Study of Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Verbrugge


    Full Text Available The study investigates the types of coherence relations adults and children can recall after having read a text. We discerned content and epistemic relations (Dancygier, 1998; Sweetser, 1990. Content relations express relations between events in reality. Epistemic relations typically express relations between states of thinking (premise-conclusion relations. The relations between the two parts of a content or epistemic relation is often made explicit by means of connectives. The differences between these types of sentences have been shown in different areas (e.g., reasoning, clause integration, acquisition. However, no clear results could be reached as for recall of these relations and the interaction with connectives. We aim to clarify this debate by means of an experiment involving 539 participants. The experiment revealed that the difficulty associated with epistemic relations decreases as participants get older. Interestingly, connectives play a larger role in participants' ability to recall epistemic compared to content relations.

  17. Study on Reduction of Sulfur Content in FCC Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Dianguo


    Reduction of sulfur content in FCC gasoline was studied in a fixed fluid bed (FFB) unit by using metal-modified LV-23 FCC catalyst. The results showed that the sulfur content in FCC gasoline could be reduced with LV-23 catalyst modified with zinc, palladium, zinc-palladium, zinc-cobalt, and zinc-nickel. Among these metals or metal combinations, palladium-containing catalyst was the most effective. Desulfurization of the heavy fraction of FCC gasoline was more effective than full-range gasoline under the same conditions with palladium-containing catalysts. A high reaction temperature was favorable to desulfurization, but it would reduce the yield of liquid product. After desulfurization reaction, the olefin content of product gasoline decreased while the aromatic and iso-alkane contents increased. Removal of thiophene and benzothiophene is higher.

  18. The prostaglandin receptor EP2 activates multiple signaling pathways and β-arrestin1 complex formation during mouse skin papilloma development (United States)

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Lao, Huei-Chen; Trempus, Carol S.; Okada, Manabu; Langenbach, Robert


    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is elevated in many tumor types, but PGE2's contributions to tumor growth are largely unknown. To investigate PGE2's roles, the contributions of one of its receptors, EP2, were studied using the mouse skin initiation/promotion model. Initial studies indicated that protein kinase A (PKA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and several effectors—cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), H-Ras, Src, protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2—were activated in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted papillomas and that PKA and EGFR inhibition (H89 and AG1478, respectively) decreased papilloma formation. EP2's contributions to the activation of these pathways and papilloma development were determined by inhibiting endogenous TPA-induced PGE2 production with indomethacin (Indo) and concomitantly treating with the EP2 agonist, CAY10399 (CAY). CAY treatment restored papilloma formation in TPA/Indo-treated mice and increased cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate and PKA activation as measured by p-CREB formation. CAY treatment also increased EGFR and Src activation and their inhibition by AG1478 and PP2 indicated that Src was upstream of EGFR. CAY also increased H-Ras, ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and AG1478 decreased their activation indicating EGFR being upstream. Supporting EP2's contribution, EP2−/− mice exhibited 65% fewer papillomas and reduced Src, EGFR, H-Ras, AKT and ERK1/2 activation. G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation of EGFR has been reported to involve Src's activation via a GPCR–β-arrestin–Src complex. Indeed, immunoprecipitation of β-arrestin1 or p-Src indicated the presence of an EP2–β-arrestin1–p-Src complex in papillomas. The data indicated that EP2 contributed to tumor formation via activation of PKA and EGFR and that EP2 formed a complex with β-arrestin1 and Src that contributed to signaling and/or EP2

  19. Faculty Across the Disciplines Respond to Study Skills Content. (United States)

    Boucher, Ellizabeth F.; Haynes, Ada F.


    Describes a study of faculty at Tennessee Technological University regarding their teaching styles and perceptions of student deficiencies and necessary study skills content. Indicates that faculty cited critical thinking, personal responsibility, time management, and problem-solving skills as essential and reported that students lacked critical…

  20. 23 CFR 650.117 - Content of design studies. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content of design studies. 650.117 Section 650.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS...) Studies by highway agencies shall contain: (1) The hydrologic and hydraulic data and design...

  1. β-arrestin and β-adrenergic Receptor%β-arrestin与β-肾上腺素受体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨承志; 李子健


    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012 was awarded jointly to Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors". Robert J. Lefkowitz discovered β-arrestinl more than 20 years ago, when he studied the mechanism of β-AR (p-adrenergic receptor) desensitization, and proved that it involves in the desensitization, internalization and degradation of β-AR in his subsequent researches. More recently, new evidence has revealed the "biased agonism" of β-arrestin dependent signal pathway of β-AR, which is independent of G protein. Excitingly, this biased signaling was suggested to confer cardioprotection. In addition, β-AR blockers were discovered and widely used in the pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular diseases among many other β-AR targeted cardiovascular drugs, which was a breakthrough in the 20th century. However, most of these drugs take effect only by regulating the β-AR itself and block all of the signal pathways and functions, including both the pathological signaling and effect induced by the increased stimulation of β-AR and the normal physiological ones, which leads to some severe adverse reactions. Therefore, it will be a great progress in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases to develop the drug that can both selectively block the harmful signaling and effect and activate the beneficial physiological signaling (such as the β-arrestin signaling) of β-AR. The research and development of ligand drug for β-AR will focus on its highly selective downstream signal pathways. This article is to review the discovery of the β-arrestin and its interaction with β-AR, to offer a reference for the pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular diseases.%2012年度诺贝尔化学奖授予了美国科学家罗伯特·莱夫科维茨(Robert J.Lefkowitz)和布莱恩·克比尔卡(Brian K.Kobilka),以表彰他们在G蛋白偶联受体研究中的贡献.从Robert J.Lefkowitz最初研究β-肾上腺素受体(β-adrenergic receptor,β-AR)减敏机制时发现β-arrestin

  2. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestins are recruited to FSH receptor in stimulated rat primary Sertoli cells. (United States)

    Marion, Sébastien; Kara, Elodie; Crepieux, Pascale; Piketty, Vincent; Martinat, Nadine; Guillou, Florian; Reiter, Eric


    FSH-receptor (FSH-R) signaling is regulated by agonist-induced desensitization and internalization. It has been shown, in a variety of overexpression systems, that G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate the activated FSH-R, promote beta-arrestin recruitment and ultimately lead to internalization. The accuracy of this mechanism has not yet been demonstrated in cells expressing these different molecules at physiological levels. Using sucrose gradient fractionation, we show that FSH induces the recruitment of the endogenous GRK 2 and beta-arrestin 1/2 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane of rat primary Sertoli cells. As assessed by ligand binding, the FSH-R was found expressed in the fractions where GRK 2 and beta-arrestins were recruited upon FSH treatment. In addition, the endogenous beta-arrestin 1 was found dephosphorylated in an agonist-dependent manner. Finally, a significant FSH-binding activity was co-immunoprecipitated with the endogenous beta-arrestins from agonist-stimulated but not from untreated Sertoli cell extracts. This FSH-R interaction with beta-arrestins was sustained for up to 30 min. In conclusion, our data strongly suggest that the GRK/beta-arrestin machinery plays a physiologically relevant role in the regulation of the FSH signaling.

  3. Tango assay for ligand-induced GPCR-β-arrestin2 interaction: Application in drug discovery. (United States)

    Dogra, Shalini; Sona, Chandan; Kumar, Ajeet; Yadav, Prem N


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are widely known to modulate almost all physiological functions and have been demonstrated over the time as therapeutic targets for wide gamut of diseases. The design and implementation of high-throughput GPCR-based assays that permit the efficient screening of large compound libraries to discover novel drug candidates are essential for a successful drug discovery endeavor. Usually, GPCR-based functional assays depend primarily on the measurement of G protein-mediated second messenger generation. However, with advent of advanced molecular biology tools and increased understanding of GPCR signal transduction, many G protein-independent pathways such as β-arrestin translocation are being utilized to detect the activity of GPCRs. These assays provide additional information on functional selectivity (also known as biased agonism) of compounds that could be harnessed to develop pathway-selective drug candidates to reduce the adverse effects associated with given GPCR target. In this chapter, we describe the basic principle, detailed methodologies and assay setup, result analysis and data interpretations of the β-arrestin2 Tango assay, and its comparison with cell-based G protein-dependent GPCR assays, which could be employed in a simple academic setup to facilitate GPCR-based drug discovery.

  4. Competing G protein-coupled receptor kinases balance G protein and β-arrestin signaling. (United States)

    Heitzler, Domitille; Durand, Guillaume; Gallay, Nathalie; Rizk, Aurélien; Ahn, Seungkirl; Kim, Jihee; Violin, Jonathan D; Dupuy, Laurence; Gauthier, Christophe; Piketty, Vincent; Crépieux, Pascale; Poupon, Anne; Clément, Frédérique; Fages, François; Lefkowitz, Robert J; Reiter, Eric


    Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) are involved in nearly all aspects of chemical communications and represent major drug targets. 7TMRs transmit their signals not only via heterotrimeric G proteins but also through β-arrestins, whose recruitment to the activated receptor is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). In this paper, we combined experimental approaches with computational modeling to decipher the molecular mechanisms as well as the hidden dynamics governing extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation by the angiotensin II type 1A receptor (AT(1A)R) in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells. We built an abstracted ordinary differential equations (ODE)-based model that captured the available knowledge and experimental data. We inferred the unknown parameters by simultaneously fitting experimental data generated in both control and perturbed conditions. We demonstrate that, in addition to its well-established function in the desensitization of G-protein activation, GRK2 exerts a strong negative effect on β-arrestin-dependent signaling through its competition with GRK5 and 6 for receptor phosphorylation. Importantly, we experimentally confirmed the validity of this novel GRK2-dependent mechanism in both primary vascular smooth muscle cells naturally expressing the AT(1A)R, and HEK293 cells expressing other 7TMRs.

  5. β-arrestins: regulatory role and therapeutic potential in opioid and cannabinoid receptor-mediated analgesia. (United States)

    Raehal, Kirsten M; Bohn, Laura M


    Pain is a complex disorder with neurochemical and psychological components contributing to the severity, the persistence, and the difficulty in adequately treating the condition. Opioid and cannabinoids are two classes of analgesics that have been used to treat pain for centuries and are arguably the oldest of "pharmacological" interventions used by man. Unfortunately, they also produce several adverse side effects that can complicate pain management. Opioids and cannabinoids act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and much of their effects are mediated by the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), respectively. These receptors couple to intracellular second messengers and regulatory proteins to impart their biological effects. In this chapter, we review the role of the intracellular regulatory proteins, β-arrestins, in modulating MOR and CB1R and how they influence the analgesic and side-effect profiles of opioid and cannabinoid drugs in vivo. This review of the literature suggests that the development of opioid and cannabinoid agonists that bias MOR and CB1R toward G protein signaling cascades and away from β-arrestin interactions may provide a novel mechanism by which to produce analgesia with less severe adverse effects.

  6. Role of the Drosophila non-visual ß-arrestin kurtz in hedgehog signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Molnar


    Full Text Available The non-visual ß-arrestins are cytosolic proteins highly conserved across species that participate in a variety of signalling events, including plasma membrane receptor degradation, recycling, and signalling, and that can also act as scaffolding for kinases such as MAPK and Akt/PI3K. In Drosophila melanogaster, there is only a single non-visual ß-arrestin, encoded by kurtz, whose function is essential for neuronal activity. We have addressed the participation of Kurtz in signalling during the development of the imaginal discs, epithelial tissues requiring the activity of the Hedgehog, Wingless, EGFR, Notch, Insulin, and TGFβ pathways. Surprisingly, we found that the complete elimination of kurtz by genetic techniques has no major consequences in imaginal cells. In contrast, the over-expression of Kurtz in the wing disc causes a phenotype identical to the loss of Hedgehog signalling and prevents the expression of Hedgehog targets in the corresponding wing discs. The mechanism by which Kurtz antagonises Hedgehog signalling is to promote Smoothened internalization and degradation in a clathrin- and proteosomal-dependent manner. Intriguingly, the effects of Kurtz on Smoothened are independent of Gprk2 activity and of the activation state of the receptor. Our results suggest fundamental differences in the molecular mechanisms regulating receptor turnover and signalling in vertebrates and invertebrates, and they could provide important insights into divergent evolution of Hedgehog signalling in these organisms.

  7. Targeted Elimination of G Proteins and Arrestins Defines Their Specific Contributions to Both Intensity and Duration of G Protein-coupled Receptor Signaling. (United States)

    Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Inoue, Asuka; Jenkins, Laura; Raihan, Sheikh Zahir; Prihandoko, Rudi; Tobin, Andrew B; Milligan, Graeme


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can initiate intracellular signaling cascades by coupling to an array of heterotrimeric G proteins and arrestin adaptor proteins. Understanding the contribution of each of these coupling options to GPCR signaling has been hampered by a paucity of tools to selectively perturb receptor function. Here we employ CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to eliminate selected G proteins (Gαq and Gα11) or arrestin2 and arrestin3 from HEK293 cells together with the elimination of receptor phosphorylation sites to define the relative contribution of G proteins, arrestins, and receptor phosphorylation to the signaling outcomes of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4). A lack of FFA4-mediated elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) in Gαq/Gα11-null cells and agonist-mediated receptor internalization in arrestin2/3-null cells confirmed previously reported canonical signaling features of this receptor, thereby validating the genome-edited HEK293 cells. FFA4-mediated ERK1/2 activation was totally dependent on Gq/11 but intriguingly was substantially enhanced for FFA4 receptors lacking sites of regulated phosphorylation. This was not due to a simple lack of desensitization of Gq/11 signaling because the Gq/11-dependent calcium response was desensitized by both receptor phosphorylation and arrestin-dependent mechanisms, whereas a substantially enhanced ERK1/2 response was only observed for receptors lacking phosphorylation sites and not in arrestin2/3-null cells. In conclusion, we validate CRISPR/Cas9 engineered HEK293 cells lacking Gq/11 or arrestin2/3 as systems for GPCR signaling research and employ these cells to reveal a previously unappreciated interplay of signaling pathways where receptor phosphorylation can impact on ERK1/2 signaling through a mechanism that is likely independent of arrestins.

  8. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil]. (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming


    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  9. beta-Arrestin 1 and 2 stabilize the angiotensin II type I receptor in distinct high-affinity conformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanni, S J; Hansen, J T; Bonde, M M;


    The angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor belongs to family A of 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptors. The receptor has important roles in the cardiovascular system and is commonly used as a drug target in cardiovascular diseases. Interaction of 7TM receptors with G proteins or beta-arrestins often...

  10. Metarhodopsin control by arrestin, light-filtering screening pigments, and visual pigment turnover in invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Hardie, Roger C.


    The visual pigments of most invertebrate photoreceptors have two thermostable photo-interconvertible states, the ground state rhodopsin and photo-activated metarhodopsin, which triggers the phototransduction cascade until it binds arrestin. The ratio of the two states in photoequilibrium is determin

  11. Mathematics Education Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis Study (United States)

    Ciltas, Alper; Guler, Gursel; Sozbilir, Mustafa


    In this study, a content analysis of research is aimed in the field of mathematics education of Turkish researchers. To this aim, the investigation of 359 article were made which were accessed from web in full text between 1987 and 2009 years and which were published in the field of mathematics education from 32 different journals. 27 of these…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyan M. R.


    Full Text Available Brandy alcohols from the grades of Muscat Berkatu, Kakhet and mixes of white grades of grapes became objects of researches. The content of some aromatic components of wine alcohols was investigated using the device of a gas-liquid chromatography Clarus-400 (with the ardent and ionization detector, a capillary column, 60 m x 0,32 mm, Elite-WAX ETR, gas-carrier-helium. Muscat alcohol according to the general content of aromatic substances (919,35 mg / 100 ml a.a. was different from the other studied samples at the expense of the high content of ethyl acetate and izoamyl alcohol. As a result of the organoleptic analysis of a blend samples it was allocated a brandy blend with the following ratios of alcohol and wine - a blend alcohol – 74,37 %, liqueur wine – 25,63 % with strong muscat aroma and shades of taste

  13. Container-content compatibility studies: a pharmaceutical team's integrated approach. (United States)

    Laschi, Alda; Sehnal, Natacha; Alarcon, Antoine; Barcelo, Beatrice; Caire-Maurisier, François; Delaire, Myriam; Feuilloley, Marc; Genot, Stéphanie; Lacaze, Catherine; Pisarik, Luc; Smati, Christophe


    Container-content compatibility studies are required as part of the submission of a new product market authorization file or for a change relating to the primary product-contact packaging. Many regulatory publications and guidances are available in the USA, Europe, and Japan. However these publications and guidances are not sufficiently precise enough to allow for consistent interpretation and implementation of the technical requirements. A working group has been formed by the French Society of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (SFSTP) in order to propose guidance for container-content interaction studies that meet both European and US requirements, and allows consistent and standardized information to be presented by the industry to the regulators. When a pharmaceutical drug product remains in prolonged contact with a material, the two critical points to consider are the drug product's quality and safety. A pharmaceutical evaluation of the container-content relationship should be done based on the knowledge of the contact material (e.g., type, physicochemical properties), its manufacturing processes (e.g., the type of sterilization that could potentially alter the interactions), and the formulation components involved in contact with this material (e.g., physicochemical properties, pharmaceutical presentation, route of administration). Quality is evaluated using the stability study performed on the product. Safety is partially evaluated with the stability study and is analyzed in conjunction with toxicity testing, specifically with cytotoxicity testing. The toxicity aspect is the key point of the container-content compatibility study and of patient safety. Migration tests are conducted when an interaction is suspected, or found based on previous results, to identify the component responsible for this interaction and to help select a new material if needed. Therefore, such tests are perhaps not the best ones to use for the purpose of safety evaluation

  14. Ethics and Indian Television Content Portrayals: A Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bheemaiah Krishnan Ravi


    Full Text Available Ethics in communication approaches by the Indian electronic media, particularly television about its content on air are a heated debate in the country today. Why do channels adopt “devious” ways to lure the viewers? How fair are channels conducting media trials? Is judiciary in India unable to address that TV channels should take up head-on? Does political ownership of Channels affect ethical practices? Do artistes on programs pass-off comments that affect social order? Do channels air programs without prior permissions or copyrights from the artistes or organizers? What is the degree of professionalism and credibility among viewers? The theoretical framework of the study is based on the macroscopic theory of Political Economy. This critical study examines case studies of program content drawn from different pan-India channels, satellite or cable. This study focuses on media ethics and effects on society.

  15. Concomitant Action of Structural Elements and Receptor Phosphorylation Determines Arrestin-3 Interaction with the Free Fatty Acid Receptor FFA4* (United States)

    Butcher, Adrian J.; Hudson, Brian D.; Shimpukade, Bharat; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Prihandoko, Rudi; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme; Tobin, Andrew B.


    In addition to being nutrients, free fatty acids act as signaling molecules by activating a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Among these is FFA4, previously called GPR120, which responds to medium and long chain fatty acids, including health-promoting ω-3 fatty acids, which have been implicated in the regulation of metabolic and inflammatory responses. Here we show, using mass spectrometry, mutagenesis, and phosphospecific antibodies, that agonist-regulated phosphorylation of the human FFA4 receptor occurred primarily at five residues (Thr347, Thr349, Ser350, Ser357, and Ser360) in the C-terminal tail. Mutation of these residues reduced both the efficacy and potency of ligand-mediated arrestin-3 recruitment as well as affecting recruitment kinetics. Combined mutagenesis of all five of these residues was insufficient to fully abrogate interaction with arrestin-3, but further mutagenesis of negatively charged residues revealed additional structural components for the interaction with arrestin-3 within the C-terminal tail of the receptor. These elements consist of the acidic residues Glu341, Asp348, and Asp355 located close to the phosphorylation sites. Receptor phosphorylation thus operates in concert with structural elements within the C-terminal tail of FFA4 to allow for the recruitment of arrestin-3. Importantly, these mechanisms of arrestin-3 recruitment operate independently from Gq/11 coupling, thereby offering the possibility that ligands showing stimulus bias could be developed that exploit these differential coupling mechanisms. Furthermore, this provides a strategy for the design of biased receptors to probe physiologically relevant signaling. PMID:24817122

  16. Does GRK-β arrestin machinery work as a "switch on" for GPR17-mediated activation of intracellular signaling pathways? (United States)

    Daniele, Simona; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Fumagalli, Marta; Zappelli, Elisa; Lecca, Davide; Bonfanti, Elisabetta; Campiglia, Pietro; Abbracchio, Maria P; Martini, Claudia


    During oligodendrocyte-precursor cell (OPC) differentiation program, an impairment in the regulatory mechanisms controlling GPR17 spatio-temporal expression and functional activity has been suggested to contribute to defective OPC maturation, a crucial event in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. GRK-β arrestin machinery is the primary actor in the control of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) functional responses and changes in these regulatory protein activities have been demonstrated in several immune/inflammatory diseases. Herein, in order to shed light on the molecular mechanisms controlling GPR17 regulatory events during cell differentiation, the role of GRK/β-arrestin machinery in receptor desensitization and signal transduction was investigated, in transfected cells and primary OPC. Following cell treatment with the two classes of purinergic and cysteinyl-leukotriene (cysLT) ligands, different GRK isoforms were recruited to regulate GPR17 functional responses. CysLT-mediated receptor desensitization mainly involved GRK2; this kinase, via a G protein-dependent mechanism, promoted a transient binding of the receptor to β-arrestins, rapid ERK phosphorylation and sustained nuclear CREB activation. Furthermore, GRK2, whose expression parallels that of the receptor during differentiation process, appeared to be crucial to induce cysLT-mediated maturation of OPCs. On the other hand, purinergic ligand exclusively recruited the GRK5 subtype, and induced, via a G protein-independent/β-arrestin-dependent mechanism, a receptor/β-arrestin stable association, slower and sustained ERK stimulation and marginal CREB activation. These results show that purinergic and cysLT ligands, through the recruitment of specific GRK isoforms, address distinct intracellular pathways, most likely reinforcing the same final response. The identification of these mechanisms and players controlling GPR17 responses during OPC differentiation could be useful to identify new targets in

  17. Stress conditions promote yeast Gap1 permease ubiquitylation and down-regulation via the arrestin-like Bul and Aly proteins. (United States)

    Crapeau, Myriam; Merhi, Ahmad; André, Bruno


    Gap1, the yeast general amino acid permease, is a convenient model for studying how the intracellular traffic of membrane transporters is regulated. Present at the plasma membrane under poor nitrogen supply conditions, it undergoes ubiquitylation, endocytosis, and degradation upon activation of the TORC1 kinase complex in response to an increase in internal amino acids. This down-regulation is stimulated by TORC1-dependent phosphoinhibition of the Npr1 kinase, resulting in activation by dephosphorylation of the arrestin-like Bul1 and Bul2 adaptors recruiting the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase to Gap1. We report here that Gap1 is also down-regulated when cells are treated with the TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin or subjected to various stresses and that a lack of the Tco89 subunit of TORC1 causes constitutive Gap1 down-regulation. Both the Bul1 and Bul2 and the Aly1 and Aly2 arrestin-like adaptors of Rsp5 promote this down-regulation without undergoing dephosphorylation. Furthermore, they act via the C-terminal regions of Gap1 not involved in ubiquitylation in response to internal amino acids, whereas a Gap1 mutant altered in the N-terminal tail and resistant to ubiquitylation by internal amino acids is efficiently down-regulated under stress via the Bul and Aly adaptors. Although the Bul proteins mediate Gap1 ubiquitylation of two possible lysines, Lys-9 and Lys-16, the Aly proteins promote ubiquitylation of the Lys-16 residue only. This stress-induced pathway of Gap1 down-regulation targets other permeases as well, and it likely allows cells facing adverse conditions to retrieve amino acids from permease degradation.

  18. Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) to Characterize Agonist-Induced Arrestin Recruitment to Modified and Unmodified G Protein-Coupled Receptors. (United States)

    Donthamsetti, Prashant; Quejada, Jose Rafael; Javitch, Jonathan A; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Lambert, Nevin A


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent ∼25% of current drug targets. Ligand binding to these receptors activates G proteins and arrestins, which are involved in differential signaling pathways. Because functionally selective or biased ligands activate one of these two pathways, they may be superior medications for certain diseases states. The identification of such ligands requires robust drug screening assays for both G protein and arrestin activity. This unit describes protocols for two bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based assays used to monitor arrestin recruitment to GPCRs. One assay requires modification of GPCRs by fusion to a BRET donor or acceptor moiety, whereas the other can detect arrestin recruitment to unmodified GPCRs.

  19. Genetic association between G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6/β-arrestin 2 and dopamine supersensitivity psychosis in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oda Y


    Full Text Available Yasunori Oda,1 Nobuhisa Kanahara,2 Hiroshi Kimura,1 Hiroyuki Watanabe,2 Kenji Hashimoto,3 Masaomi Iyo1 1Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan; 2Division of Medical Treatment and Rehabilitation, 3Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan Background/aim: Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP, clinically characterized by unstable and severe psychosis or tardive dyskinesia and often categorized as treatment-resistant schizophrenia, is promoted by long-term antipsychotic treatment. An upregulation of the dopamine D2 receptor caused by antipsychotic(s is involved in the development of DSP. The present study explored the potential roles of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6 and β-arrestin 2 (ARRB2 that are involved in the trafficking of DRD2 in patients with DSP. Methods: We conducted a genetic association study of GRK6/ARRB2 between the patients with DSP episodes [DSP(+ group: N=108] and the patients without DSP(- episodes [DSP(- group: N=169] from the total group of patients (N=333. Based on the patients’ treatment history, a DSP episode was defined as withdrawal psychosis, developed tolerance to antipsychotic effect, and tardive dyskinesia (the remaining 56 patients were excluded due to insufficient information. Results: The results revealed that none of the allelic or genotyping distributions of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of GRK6 and three SNPs of ARRB2 showed any significant difference between the DSP(+ and DSP(- groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that the SNP analyses of these two molecules fail to classify patients into the potential clinical subtype of DSP(+ or DSP(- group. However, since GRK6 and ARRB2 are surely involved in dopamine D2 receptor metabolism, further studies based on prospective observations of the onset of DSP under specific antipsychotic treatments are needed. Keywords: antipsychotic

  20. Non-Hematopoietic β-Arrestin1 Confers Protection Against Experimental Colitis. (United States)

    Lee, Taehyung; Lee, Eunhee; Arrollo, David; Lucas, Peter C; Parameswaran, Narayanan


    β-Arrestins are multifunctional scaffolding proteins that modulate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-dependent and -independent cell signaling pathways in various types of cells. We recently demonstrated that β-arrestin1 (β-arr1) deficiency strikingly attenuates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Since DSS-induced colitis is in part dependent on gut epithelial injury, we examined the role of β-arr1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) using a colon epithelial cell line, SW480 cells. Surprisingly, we found that knockdown of β-arr1 in SW480 cells enhanced epithelial cell death via a caspase-3-dependent process. To understand the in vivo relevance and potential cell type-specific role of β-arr1 in colitis development, we generated bone marrow chimeras with β-arr1 deficiency in either the hematopoietic or non-hematopoietic compartment. Reconstituted chimeric mice were then subjected to DSS-induced colitis. Similar to our previous findings, β-arr1 deficiency in the hematopoietic compartment protected mice from DSS-induced colitis. However, consistent with the role of β-arr1 in epithelial apoptosis in vitro, non-hematopoietic β-arr1 deficiency led to an exacerbated colitis phenotype. To further understand signaling mechanisms, we examined the effect of β-arr1 on TNF-α-mediated NFκB and MAPK pathways. Our results demonstrate that β-arr1 has a critical role in modulating ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways mediated by TNF-α in IECs. Together, our results show that β-arr1-dependent signaling in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells differentially regulates colitis pathogenesis and further demonstrates that β-arr1 in epithelial cells inhibits TNF-α-induced cell death pathways.

  1. MRI study on spinal canal content in Western Maharashtrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanapurkar SV, Kulkarni DO, Bahetee BH, Vahane MI


    Full Text Available The morphology of the spinal canal content has been studied since the invention of myelography. However, most studies have measured the diameters of the spinal cord only, not the size of the subarachnoid space. The present study complements the current data on the morphology of the spinal contents, and in particular, the spinal subarachnoid space, by analyzing MRI images. Objective: To study morphology of the dural sac, spinal cord & subarachnoid space using MRI. To define the inner geometrical dimensions of spinal canal content that confine the maneuver of an endoscope inserted in cervical spine. 3. To have comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of cervical spinal canal. Method: Based on MRI images of the spine from 60 normal patients of age between 25-60 years, the dimensions of spinal cord, dural sac & subarachnoid space were measured at mid-vertebral & intervertebral level from C1-C7 vertebrae. The parameters measured were transverse, sagittal diameter of spinal cord & dural sac. The subarachnoid space was measured as anterior, posterior, right, left distance between spinal cord and dura mater. Results: It was found that at each selected transverse level, the subarachnoid space tends to be symmetrical on the right and left sides of the cord, and measures 3.38 mm on an average. However, the anterior and posterior segment, measured on the mid-sagittal plane are generally asymmetric & varies greatly in size ranging 1mm to 6mm with mean 2.57 of anterior & 2.59 of posterior. These measurements match those found in previous studies. The coefficient of variance for the dimensions of the subarachnoid space is as high as 36.16%, while that for the dimensions of the spinal cord (transverse & sagittal are11.08%&13.28%respectively. Conclusion: The findings presented here, expand our knowledge of morphology of spinal canal and show that a thecaloscope must be smaller than 3.38 mm in diameter.

  2. Rhodopsin kinase and arrestin binding control the decay of photoactivated rhodopsin and dark adaptation of mouse rods. (United States)

    Frederiksen, Rikard; Nymark, Soile; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Berry, Justin D; Adler, Leopold; Koutalos, Yiannis; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Cornwall, M Carter


    Photoactivation of vertebrate rhodopsin converts it to the physiologically active Meta II (R*) state, which triggers the rod light response. Meta II is rapidly inactivated by the phosphorylation of C-terminal serine and threonine residues by G-protein receptor kinase (Grk1) and subsequent binding of arrestin 1 (Arr1). Meta II exists in equilibrium with the more stable inactive form of rhodopsin, Meta III. Dark adaptation of rods requires the complete thermal decay of Meta II/Meta III into opsin and all-trans retinal and the subsequent regeneration of rhodopsin with 11-cis retinal chromophore. In this study, we examine the regulation of Meta III decay by Grk1 and Arr1 in intact mouse rods and their effect on rod dark adaptation. We measure the rates of Meta III decay in isolated retinas of wild-type (WT), Grk1-deficient (Grk1(-/-)), Arr1-deficient (Arr1(-/-)), and Arr1-overexpressing (Arr1(ox)) mice. We find that in WT mouse rods, Meta III peaks ∼6 min after rhodopsin activation and decays with a time constant (τ) of 17 min. Meta III decay slows in Arr1(-/-) rods (τ of ∼27 min), whereas it accelerates in Arr1(ox) rods (τ of ∼8 min) and Grk1(-/-) rods (τ of ∼13 min). In all cases, regeneration of rhodopsin with exogenous 11-cis retinal is rate limited by the decay of Meta III. Notably, the kinetics of rod dark adaptation in vivo is also modulated by the levels of Arr1 and Grk1. We conclude that, in addition to their well-established roles in Meta II inactivation, Grk1 and Arr1 can modulate the kinetics of Meta III decay and rod dark adaptation in vivo.

  3. The content of family practice: do we need more studies? (United States)

    Curry, L; Macintyre, K


    Having an accurate job description of family physicians is important to a number of audiences. There is a tendency to produce another content profile of family practice in response to every specific request for an accurate job description, rather than examining the existing profiles. We analyzed the amount of similarity and therefore redundancy in currently available profiles of family practice. Our findings indicate remarkable consistency across profile studies. We conclude that there is no need to continue producing profiles of family practice unless something significant occurs in the medical environment to suggest there might be a change in the profile.

  4. Weight and content uniformity of lorazepam half-tablets: A study of correlation of a low drug content product. (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Al-Ramahi, Rowa' J; Ghoush, Abeer Abu; Qaddumi, Aiman; Zaaror, Yara Abu


    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between the weight and the content of spilt-halves of lorazepam 2.5 mg tablets. Weight variation and drug content of lorazepam half-tablets were evaluated according to the European Pharmacopoeia tests. Only one individual mass of the 30 half tablets was outside the limits of 85-115% of the average mass, but since it was within 75-125% of the average mass, the product passed the test. Each individual content was between 85% and 115% of the average content (99.8% expressed as a percent to label claim) and within the limits of 75-125%, so the product passed the uniformity of content test. The correlation coefficient (r) between the weight and the content of split halves was found to be 0.994. The weights of split tablet halves appear to be directly correlated with their drug content even for a medication with a low drug content, thus it is recommended that pharmacists who split tablets into two halves, assure the weight uniformity of the resultant halves. Manufacturers should develop formulation and manufacturing procedures that ensure high degree of correlation between weight and content not only among the whole tablet but also among the obtained tablet halves.

  5. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Lessons Learned from Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Evens


    Full Text Available Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK is generally accepted as positively impacting teaching quality and student learning. Therefore, research on PCK development in (prospective teachers is highly relevant. Based on a search in three databases (ERIC, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, a systematic review is conducted on intervention studies aiming at PCK development. The research questions are threefold: (1 How are the studies designed? (2 How are the interventions designed? and (3 What elements of interventions contribute to PCK development? The results show that most intervention studies are conducted in math and science education and use a qualitative methodology. Reflection, PCK courses, contact with other teachers, and experiences in educational practice are typically part of effective interventions. The review enables the identification of clear guidelines that may strengthen future research on stimulating PCK.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Srivastava


    Full Text Available Objective of the study was focused on the formation of novel herbal product from wild herbs and various dry fruits. Herbs are of high medicinal value and dry fruits have antioxidant activities. The ingredients used in were Withania somnifera, Piper longum, Asparagus racemosus, Pueraria tuberose, Elettaria cardamomum, Pistacia vera, Citrullus vulagaris, Cucumis melo and Prunus dulcis. These ingredients were tested for proximate analysis for moisture, ash, fat, fiber, proteins and carbohydrates. Apart from these they were also tested individually for their antioxidant activity DPPH method and total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Phenolic contentwas found to be highest in Piper lognum and antioxidant activity in Citrullus vulgaris. These tests were also done on the final product from these compounds. The total fat content and moisture were found to be higher in the product. The final product can be effective as antioxidant, fertility enhancer, anticancer, providing immunityin children and control of cardiovascular problems. The product is of high and effective food value. However, physiochemical studies are required to establish the nature and type of compounds responsible for the bioactivity of the herbal product.

  7. Content and Workflow Management for Library Websites: Case Studies (United States)

    Yu, Holly, Ed.


    Using database-driven web pages or web content management (WCM) systems to manage increasingly diverse web content and to streamline workflows is a commonly practiced solution recognized in libraries today. However, limited library web content management models and funding constraints prevent many libraries from purchasing commercially available…

  8. Working experiences of Iranian retired nurses: a content analysis study. (United States)

    Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood


    Understanding the experiences of retired nurses can be useful in increasing self-confidence, motivation to work and work enthusiasm among nurses. The purpose of this study was to explore the work experiences of Iranian retired nurses. A qualitative design was conducted using a content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was used to choose the study participants. Semi-structured interviews were held to collect the perspectives of 20 retired nurses (10 female and 10 male). Two main themes emerged in the data analysis: 'work problems and unpleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'exhausting work', 'insufficient salary', 'inappropriate relation' and 'unsuitable social position'; and 'job satisfaction and pleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'divine satisfaction and religious belief', 'satisfaction of patients and their companions' and 'love of nursing profession and relaxation experience'. The findings indicate the challenges that nurses face after retirement. These experiences will help nurse managers to adopt appropriate measures to support nurses after retirement.

  9. β-Arrestin interacts with the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins and dishevelled in the Wnt/Ca(2+ pathway in xenopus gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Seitz

    Full Text Available β-Catenin independent, non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways play a major role in the regulation of morphogenetic movements in vertebrates. The term non-canonical Wnt signaling comprises multiple, intracellularly divergent, Wnt-activated and β-Catenin independent signaling cascades including the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and the Wnt/Ca(2+ cascades. Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and Wnt/Ca(2+ pathways share common effector proteins, including the Wnt ligand, Frizzled receptors and Dishevelled, with each other and with additional branches of Wnt signaling. Along with the aforementioned proteins, β-Arrestin has been identified as an essential effector protein in the Wnt/β-Catenin and the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity pathway. Our results demonstrate that β-Arrestin is required in the Wnt/Ca(2+ signaling cascade upstream of Protein Kinase C (PKC and Ca(2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II (CamKII. We have further characterized the role of β-Arrestin in this branch of non-canonical Wnt signaling by knock-down and rescue experiments in Xenopus embryo explants and analyzed protein-protein interactions in 293T cells. Functional interaction of β-Arrestin, the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled is required to induce PKC activation and membrane translocation. In Xenopus gastrulation, β-Arrestin function in Wnt/Ca(2+ signaling is essential for convergent extension movements. We further show that β-Arrestin physically interacts with the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled, and that the interaction between β-Arrestin and Dishevelled is promoted by the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins, indicating the formation of a multiprotein signaling complex.

  10. Arrestin-3 binds c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and JNK2 and facilitates the activation of these ubiquitous JNK isoforms in cells via scaffolding. (United States)

    Kook, Seunghyi; Zhan, Xuanzhi; Kaoud, Tamer S; Dalby, Kevin N; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Gurevich, Eugenia V


    Non-visual arrestins scaffold mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of MAPK family. Arrestin-3 has been shown to enhance the activation of JNK3, which is expressed mainly in neurons, heart, and testes, in contrast to ubiquitous JNK1 and JNK2. Although all JNKs are activated by MKK4 and MKK7, both of which bind arrestin-3, the ability of arrestin-3 to facilitate the activation of JNK1 and JNK2 has never been reported. Using purified proteins we found that arrestin-3 directly binds JNK1α1 and JNK2α2, interacting with the latter comparably to JNK3α2. Phosphorylation of purified JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 by MKK4 or MKK7 is increased by arrestin-3. Endogenous arrestin-3 interacted with endogenous JNK1/2 in different cell types. Arrestin-3 also enhanced phosphorylation of endogenous JNK1/2 in intact cells upon expression of upstream kinases ASK1, MKK4, or MKK7. We observed a biphasic effect of arrestin-3 concentrations on phosphorylation of JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, arrestin-3 acts as a scaffold, facilitating JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 phosphorylation by MKK4 and MKK7 via bringing JNKs and their activators together. The data suggest that arrestin-3 modulates the activity of ubiquitous JNK1 and JNK2 in non-neuronal cells, impacting the signaling pathway that regulates their proliferation and survival.

  11. A Study on the Flavone Content of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangYu; ZhaoGang


    The highest flavone content of buckwheat is in its flowers,the mean value is as high as 7.4%.After flowering,the value will decrease gradually.The flavone content of buckwheat leaves is lower,its mean value is 5.3%,its highest peak appears at the stage of flowering,then decreasing slowly.The flavone content of buckwheat stems is the lowest, its mean value is 1.0%,no obvious change in the whole growth of the plant.Among the buckwheat grains,tatary buckwheat grains contain the highest flavone content,the mean value is 2.02%.The mean flavone content value of common buckwheat is only 0.23%.Radiative treatment-s can increase the flavone content of buckwheat.The formation of flavonid compounds of buckwheat is mainly controlled by PAL activity.

  12. The content and design of Web sites : an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, EKRE


    To support the emergence of a solid knowledge base for analyzing Web activity, we have developed a framework to analyze and categorize the capabilities of Web sites. This distinguishes content from design. Content refers to the information, features, or services that are offered in the Web site, des

  13. Negative impact of β-arrestin-1 on post-myocardial infarction heart failure via cardiac and adrenal-dependent neurohormonal mechanisms. (United States)

    Bathgate-Siryk, Ashley; Dabul, Samalia; Pandya, Krunal; Walklett, Karlee; Rengo, Giuseppe; Cannavo, Alessandro; De Lucia, Claudio; Liccardo, Daniela; Gao, Erhe; Leosco, Dario; Koch, Walter J; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios


    β-Arrestin (βarr)-1 and β-arrestin-2 (βarrs) are universal G-protein-coupled receptor adapter proteins that negatively regulate cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) function via βAR desensitization and downregulation. In addition, they mediate G-protein-independent βAR signaling, which might be beneficial, for example, antiapoptotic, for the heart. However, the specific role(s) of each βarr isoform in cardiac βAR dysfunction, the molecular hallmark of chronic heart failure (HF), remains unknown. Furthermore, adrenal βarr1 exacerbates HF by chronically enhancing adrenal production and hence circulating levels of aldosterone and catecholamines. Herein, we sought to delineate specific roles of βarr1 in post-myocardial infarction (MI) HF by testing the effects of βarr1 genetic deletion on normal and post-MI cardiac function and morphology. We studied βarr1 knockout (βarr1KO) mice alongside wild-type controls under normal conditions and after surgical MI. Normal (sham-operated) βarr1KO mice display enhanced βAR-dependent contractility and post-MI βarr1KO mice enhanced overall cardiac function (and βAR-dependent contractility) compared with wild type. Post-MI βarr1KO mice also show increased survival and decreased cardiac infarct size, apoptosis, and adverse remodeling, as well as circulating catecholamines and aldosterone, compared with post-MI wild type. The underlying mechanisms, on one hand, improved cardiac βAR signaling and function, as evidenced by increased βAR density and procontractile signaling, via reduced cardiac βAR desensitization because of cardiac βarr1 absence, and, on the other hand, decreased production leading to lower circulating levels of catecholamines and aldosterone because of adrenal βarr1 absence. Thus, βarr1, via both cardiac and adrenal effects, is detrimental for cardiac structure and function and significantly exacerbates post-MI HF.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stanovič


    Full Text Available Fish meat is a perfect foodstuff which is up to standard of rational nourishment. It is source of healthy and good digestible material rich on proteins, minerals and vitamins. Fish muscles especially back and lateral muscles are the most important parts of fish organism consumed for escellent chemical composition. Proteins in fish meat are rich on high aminoacids content. The content of fish fat is usually low with the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Also minerals and B, A and D vitamins are very important components of this foodstuff. According to rational nourishment the fish meat should be consumed minimal 2 times weekly. Our research was focused on analysis of bottomn sediments in water reservoir Kolinany from the aspect of Cd, Hg and Pb contents, the determination of observed heavy metal contents in different parts of carp body and the evaluation of hygienic status and suitability of fish meat for the human consumption. Our results have confirmed the hygienic wholesomeness of bottom sediments in water reservoir Kolinany. The Cd, Pb and Hg contents in sediments represent no risk of their input into the fish organisms. The Cd content in fish meat was lower than maximal available amount given by legislative norms, but in selected parts of fish organism such as skin, gills and fins the Cd hygienic limit is 2.9 – 6.6 times exceeded. The Pb content in fish meat was under the hygienic limit, however in skin, gills and fins the content of this heavy metal was 1.31- 2.64 higher than maximal legislative given value. Fish skin, gills and fins belong to the non cosumed parts of fish body by people. The Hg content in fish meat was also lower than hygienc limit. The highest Hg content was observed in fish muscles (0.0544 and the lowest one in fish gonads (0.0058 The results of Cd, Pb and Hg content determination in carp body confirmed that fish muscles belong to suitable foodstuffs for the human consumption.

  15. Dependence of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content - a field study (United States)

    Strahser, M. H. P.; Matthey, P.-D.; Jouniaux, L.; Sailhac, P.


    In porous saturated media, seismic compressional waves can cause seismoelectric and seismoelectromagnetic signals through electrokinetic coupling. It has been observed that these measureable signals also occur in partially saturated media, but the theory is largely unknown for these circumstances. Seismoelectromagnetic tomography is expected to combine the sensitivity of electrical properties to water-content and permeability, to the high spatial resolution of seismic surveys. A better understanding of the physical processes and a reliable quantification of the conversion between seismic and electric energy are necessary and need to take into account the effect of water-content, especially for shallow subsurface investigations. In order to quantify seismoelectric signals with changing water content, we repeated seismoelectric and seismic measurements on the same profile in the Vosges Mountains during several months. The electrical resistivity was also monitored to take into account the water-content variations. We show that an exponential relation can be established between the seismoelectric amplitudes normalized with the seismic amplitudes and the resistivity which in turn is related to the saturation: Increasing resistivity (decreasing water content) leads to decreasing normalized seismoelectric amplitudes. These results imply that the electrokinetic coefficient should increase with water-saturation, as measured in laboratory, but not predicted by theory. This work was funded by CNRS and Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg.

  16. β-Arrestin 1’s Interaction with TC45 Attenuates Stat signaling by dephosphorylating Stat to inhibit antimicrobial peptide expression (United States)

    Sun, Jie-Jie; Yang, Hui-Ting; Niu, Guo-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Wu; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing


    Impaired phosphatase activity leads to the persistent activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat). In mammals, Stat family members are often phosphorylated or dephosphorylated by the same enzymes. To date, only one Stat similar to mammalian Stat5a/b has been found in crustaceans and there have been few studies in Stat signal regulation in crustaceans. Here, we report that β-arrestin1 interacts with TC45 (45-kDa form of T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase) in the nucleus to attenuate Stat signaling by promoting dephosphorylation of Stat. Initially, we showed that Stat translocates into the nucleus to induce antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression after bacterial infection. βArr1 enters the nucleus of hemocytes and recruits TC45 to form the βarr1-TC45-Stat complex, which dephosphorylates Stat efficiently. The interaction of TC45 with Stat decreased and Stat phosphorylation increased in βarr1-silenced shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) after challenge with Vibrio anguillarum. βArr1 directly interacts with Stat in nucleus and accelerates Stat dephosphorylation by recruiting TC45 after V. anguillarum challenge. Further study showed that βarr1 and TC45 also affect AMP expression, which is regulated by Stat. Therefore, βarr1 and TC45 are involved in the anti-V. anguillarum immune response by regulating Stat activity negatively to decrease AMP expression in shrimp. PMID:27782165

  17. Esporte Interativo and The Content Distribution Dilemma: A Case Study



    This teaching case describes the trajectory of the Brazilian media group Esporte Interativo (EI), a company started by three young entrepreneurs and dedicated to produce and distribute sports content across multiple platforms. The dilemma is centered on CEO and co-founder of the group, Edgar Diniz, who is facing a new phase in the company with the impending sale to Turner, television arm of Time Warner, in late 2014. The clash of business models may pose challenges to the company's management...

  18. A study of real-time content marketing : formulating real-time content marketing based on content, search and social media


    Nguyen, Thi Kim Duyen


    The primary objective of this research is to understand profoundly the new concept of content marketing – real-time content marketing on the aspect of the digital marketing experts. Particularly, the research will focus on the real-time content marketing theories and how to build real-time content marketing strategy based on content, search and social media. It also finds out how marketers measure and keep track of conversion rates of their real-time content marketing plan. Practically, th...

  19. Effect of Wumeiwan on the expression of β-arrestin1 in the spleen tissue of rats with TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis%乌梅丸对TNBS诱导的溃疡性结肠炎大鼠脾脏组织β-arrestin1表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯琴梅; 吴霁; 范恒


    目的 观察乌梅丸对2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸(TNBS)诱导的溃疡性结肠炎大鼠脾脏组织β-arrestin1表达的影响.方法 将56只SD大鼠随机分为空白对照组、模型组、美沙拉嗪组、乌梅丸组各14只,除空白对照组外,其余三组均应用TNBS灌肠;溃疡性结肠炎模型建成2d后,空白对照组和模型组以蒸馏水、美沙拉嗪组以美沙拉嗪混悬液(50 g/L)、乌梅丸组以乌梅丸液(0.51 g/L)灌胃,均为每只3 mL,连续灌胃15 d后取脾脏组织,采用RT-PCR法检测β-arrestin1 mRNA,Western blot法检测β-arrestin1蛋白.结果 与空白对照组比较,模型组β-arrestin1 mR-NA、蛋白表达均升高(P均<0.05);与模型组比较,乌梅丸组、美沙拉嗪组β-arrestin1 mRNA、蛋白表达均下降(P均<0.05).结论 乌梅丸可下调TNBS诱导的溃疡性结肠炎大鼠脾脏组织β-arrestin1 mRNA、蛋白表达.%Objective To observe the effect of Wumeiwan on the expression of β-arrestin1 in the spleen tissue of rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced ulcerative colitis.Methods Fifty-six SD rats were randomly divided into the control group,colitis model group,mesalazine group and Wumeiwan group (14 rats in each group).Apart from the control group,rats in the other three groups were induced to experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid.And 2 days later,rats in the control group and colitis model group were administered intragastrically with normal saline at a dose of 3 mL,while rats in the mesalazine group and Wumeiwan group were intragastrically given mesalazine (50 g/L) and Wumeiwan (0.51 g/L) at a dose of 3 mL,respectively.All rats were treated for 15 d.Spleen tissue samples were taken to detect the expression of mRNA of β-arrestin1 by RT-PCR and the expression of β-arrestin1 protein by Western blot.Results Compared with the control group,the expression of β-arrestin1 mRNA and β-arrestin1 protein was significantly increased in the colitis model group

  20. Evaluation of the Bilingual Curriculum Content (BCC) Pilot Project: A Three Year Study. Final Report. (United States)

    Rothfarb, Sylvia H.; And Others

    A three-year longitudinal study of bilingual curriculum content (BCC) was initiated in the 1983-84 school year to assess alternative strategies for teaching curriculum content to Limited English Proficient (LEP) students in Dade County (Florida) Public Schools. The BCC strategy (in which content subjects are taught bilingually) was contrasted with…

  1. Multi-Core Processor Memory Contention Benchmark Analysis Case Study (United States)

    Simon, Tyler; McGalliard, James


    Multi-core processors dominate current mainframe, server, and high performance computing (HPC) systems. This paper provides synthetic kernel and natural benchmark results from an HPC system at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that illustrate the performance impacts of multi-core (dual- and quad-core) vs. single core processor systems. Analysis of processor design, application source code, and synthetic and natural test results all indicate that multi-core processors can suffer from significant memory subsystem contention compared to similar single-core processors.

  2. Content Metadata Standards for Marine Science: A Case Study (United States)

    Riall, Rebecca L.; Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a content metadata standard to meet the demands of organizing electronic resources in the marine sciences for a broad, heterogeneous audience. These metadata standards are used by the Marine Realms Information Bank project, a Web-based public distributed library of marine science from academic institutions and government agencies. The development and deployment of this metadata standard serve as a model, complete with lessons about mistakes, for the creation of similarly specialized metadata standards for digital libraries.

  3. β-Arrestin1/miR-326 Transcription Unit Is Epigenetically Regulated in Neural Stem Cells Where It Controls Stemness and Growth Arrest (United States)

    Begalli, Federica; Abballe, Luana; Catanzaro, Giuseppina; Vacca, Alessandra; Napolitano, Maddalena; Tafani, Marco; Giangaspero, Felice; Locatelli, Franco


    Cell development is regulated by a complex network of mRNA-encoded proteins and microRNAs, all funnelling onto the modulation of self-renewal or differentiation genes. How intragenic microRNAs and their host genes are transcriptionally coregulated and their functional relationships for the control of neural stem cells (NSCs) are poorly understood. We propose here the intragenic miR-326 and its host gene β-arrestin1 as novel players whose epigenetic silencing maintains stemness in normal cerebellar stem cells. Such a regulation is mediated by CpG islands methylation of the common promoter. Epigenetic derepression of β-arrestin1/miR-326 by differentiation signals or demethylating agents leads to suppression of stemness features and cell growth and promotes cell differentiation. β-Arrestin1 inhibits cell proliferation by enhancing the nuclear expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. Therefore, we propose a new mechanism for the control of cerebellar NSCs where a coordinated epigenetic mechanism finely regulates β-arrestin1/miR-326 expression and consequently NSCs stemness and cell growth. PMID:28298929

  4. Recruitment of beta-arrestin2 to the dopamine D2 receptor: insights into anti-psychotic and anti-parkinsonian drug receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klewe, Ib V; Nielsen, Søren M; Tarpø, Louise


    of a Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) assay for measuring dopamine induced recruitment of human beta-arrestin2 to the human dopamine D2 receptor. Dopamine, as well as the dopamine receptor agonists pramipexole and quinpirole, acted as full agonists in the assay as reflected by their ability to elicit...

  5. β-Arrestin2 Couples Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 to Neuronal Protein Synthesis and Is a Potential Target to Treat Fragile X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Stoppel


    Full Text Available Synaptic protein synthesis is essential for modification of the brain by experience and is aberrant in several genetically defined disorders, notably fragile X (FX, a heritable cause of autism and intellectual disability. Neural activity directs local protein synthesis via activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5, yet how mGlu5 couples to the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate mRNA translation is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that β-arrestin2 mediates mGlu5-stimulated protein synthesis in the hippocampus and show that genetic reduction of β-arrestin2 corrects aberrant synaptic plasticity and cognition in the Fmr1−/y mouse model of FX. Importantly, reducing β-arrestin2 does not induce psychotomimetic activity associated with full mGlu5 inhibitors and does not affect Gq signaling. Thus, in addition to identifying a key requirement for mGlu5-stimulated protein synthesis, these data suggest that β-arrestin2-biased negative modulators of mGlu5 offer significant advantages over first-generation inhibitors for the treatment of FX and related disorders.

  6. 42 CFR 456.143 - Content of medical care evaluation studies. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of medical care evaluation studies. 456.143...: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.143 Content of medical care evaluation studies. Each medical care evaluation study must— (a) Identify and analyze medical or administrative factors related to the...

  7. 42 CFR 456.243 - Content of medical care evaluation studies. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of medical care evaluation studies. 456.243... Ur Plan: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.243 Content of medical care evaluation studies. Each medical care evaluation study must— (a) Identify and analyze medical or administrative factors related...

  8. Developing mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in lesson study: Case study findings


    Ní Shúilleabháin, Aoibhinn


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the development of mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) over successive cycles of lesson study. Utilising the framework of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) (Ball et al., 2008), this research classifies features of PCK as utilised by post-primary mathematics teachers in their planning and reflection conversations in lesson study. The development of these features of PCK is then traced over successive cycles. Des...

  9. Developing mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through iterative cycles of lesson study


    Ní Shúilleabháin, Aoibhinn


    This research presents features of knowledge of content and students (KCS) and knowledge of content and teaching (KCT) as empirical evidence of mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) utilised and enhanced through their participation in iterative cyclesof lesson study. Over the course of one academic year, twelve teachers in two secondary schools engaged in this research as a double case study of teacher learning within a lesson study community. Qualitative data was generate...

  10. Strategic and Organisational Considerations in Planning Content and Language Integrated Learning: A Study on the Coordination between Content and Language Teachers (United States)

    Pavón Vázquez, Víctor; Ávila López, Javier; Gallego Segador, Arturo; Espejo Mohedano, Roberto


    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is generally recognised as a fruitful example of bilingual education. However, success in CLIL may not be straightforward and may require the establishment of coordination between content and language teachers. The aim of this study is to investigate if content and language teachers are able to plan…

  11. I, Pronoun: A Study of Formality in Online Content (United States)

    Thayer, Alexander; Evans, Mary B.; McBride, Alicia A.; Queen, Matt; Spyridakis, Jan H.


    This article presents the results of a study that investigated readers' perceptions of tone formality in online text passages. The study found that readers perceived text passages to be less formal when they contained personal pronouns, active voice verbs, informal punctuation, or verb contractions. The study reveals that professional…

  12. Strategies For Integrating STEM Content: A Pilot Case Study


    Figliano, Fred Joseph


    The goal of this study was to identify strategies used by exemplar practitioners to develop integrated instruction. A pilot case study design was used and four sources of data were analyzed allowing for a convergence of data sets. These data sets included a questionnaire, an audio recording, lesson plans, and student artifacts. Data were analyzed through theme analysis producing 26 strategies. These strategies were then collapsed into a final list of 15 representing important areas of conside...

  13. Studying the information content of TMDs using Monte Carlo generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, H. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Matevosyan, H. [The Univ. of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Pasquini, B. [Univ. of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Schweitzer, P. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)


    Theoretical advances in studies of the nucleon structure have been spurred by recent measurements of spin and/or azimuthal asymmetries worldwide. One of the main challenges still remaining is the extraction of the parton distribution functions, generalized to describe transverse momentum and spatial distributions of partons from these observables with no or minimal model dependence. In this topical review we present the latest developments in the field with emphasis on requirements for Monte Carlo event generators, indispensable for studies of the complex 3D nucleon structure, and discuss examples of possible applications.

  14. A study on the deactivation of USY zeolites with different rare earth contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, C.A.; Santos, J.O.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Polato, C.M.S.; Valle, Murta; Aguiar, E.F.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Monteiro, J.L.F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Nucleo de Catalise


    The deactivation of USY zeolites different rare earth contents due to the coke formed n-heptane at 450 deg C was studied. The results show that the presence of rare earth elements decreases the cracking and coking activities, increasing catalytic stability. However, reaction selectivity was not significantly influenced. The greater the rare earth content, the lower the cocking rates and the coke contents. The TPO/DSC profiles suggested that the catalytic effect of the rare earth elements promoted coke oxidation. (author)

  15. Exploring Content Management Issues in Air Force On-Line Communities of Practice: A Multiple Case Study Approach (United States)


    CoPs will come with an automated content management system . The default setting on the content management system for content review on the... content management system , the APQC found “conducting a content audit was strongly correlated with every category of improved performance in content...the CoPs. Finally, a researcher could perform a more in-depth study to determine if a commercially available content management system would be

  16. The stem cell-expressed receptor Lgr5 possesses canonical and functionally active molecular determinants critical to β-arrestin-2 recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Snyder

    Full Text Available Lgr5 is a membrane protein related to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs whose expression identifies stem cells in multiple tissues and is strongly correlated with cancer. Despite the recent identification of endogenous ligands for Lgr5, its mode of signaling remains enigmatic. The ability to couple to G proteins and βarrestins are classical molecular behaviors of GPCRs that have yet to be observed for Lgr5. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if Lgr5 can engage a classical GPCR behavior and elucidate the molecular determinants of this process. Structural analysis of Lgr5 revealed several motifs consistent with its ability to recruit βarr2. Among them, a "SSS" serine cluster located at amino acid position 873-875 within the C-terminal tail (C-tail, is in a region consistent with other GPCRs that bind βarr2 with high-affinity. To test its functionality, a ligand-independent βarr2 translocation assay was implemented. We show that Lgr5 recruits βarr2 and that the "SSS" amino acids (873-875 are absolutely critical to this process. We also demonstrate that for full efficacy, this cluster requires other Lgr5 C-tail serines that were previously shown to be important for constitutive and βarr2 independent internalization of Lgr5. These data are proof of principle that a classical GPCR behavior can be manifested by Lgr5. The existence of alternative ligands or missing effectors of Lgr5 that scaffold this classical GPCR behavior and the downstream signaling pathways engaged should be considered. Characterizing Lgr5 signaling will be invaluable for assessing its role in tissue maintenance, repair, and disease.

  17. The Stem Cell-Expressed Receptor Lgr5 Possesses Canonical and Functionally Active Molecular Determinants Critical to β-arrestin-2 Recruitment (United States)

    Snyder, Joshua C.; Rochelle, Lauren K.; Barak, Larry S.; Caron, Marc G.


    Lgr5 is a membrane protein related to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR)s whose expression identifies stem cells in multiple tissues and is strongly correlated with cancer. Despite the recent identification of endogenous ligands for Lgr5, its mode of signaling remains enigmatic. The ability to couple to G proteins and βarrestins are classical molecular behaviors of GPCRs that have yet to be observed for Lgr5. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if Lgr5 can engage a classical GPCR behavior and elucidate the molecular determinants of this process. Structural analysis of Lgr5 revealed several motifs consistent with its ability to recruit βarr2. Among them, a “SSS” serine cluster located at amino acid position 873-875 within the C-terminal tail (C-tail), is in a region consistent with other GPCRs that bind βarr2 with high-affinity. To test its functionality, a ligand-independent βarr2 translocation assay was implemented. We show that Lgr5 recruits βarr2 and that the “SSS” amino acids (873-875) are absolutely critical to this process. We also demonstrate that for full efficacy, this cluster requires other Lgr5 C-tail serines that were previously shown to be important for constitutive and βarr2 independent internalization of Lgr5. These data are proof of principle that a classical GPCR behavior can be manifested by Lgr5. The existence of alternative ligands or missing effectors of Lgr5 that scaffold this classical GPCR behavior and the downstream signaling pathways engaged should be considered. Characterizing Lgr5 signaling will be invaluable for assessing its role in tissue maintenance, repair, and disease. PMID:24386388

  18. Exploring the shallow end; estimating information content in transcriptomics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kliebenstein


    Full Text Available Transcriptomics is a major platform to study organismal biology. The advent of new parallel sequencing technologies has opened up a new avenue of transcriptomics with ever deeper and deeper sequencing to identify and quantify each and every transcript in a sample. However, this may not be the best usage of the parallel sequencing technology for all transcriptomics experiments. I utilized the Shannon Entropy approach to estimate the information contained within a transcriptomics experiment and tested the ability of shallow RNAseq to capture the majority of this information. This analysis showed that it was possible to capture nearly all of the network or genomic information present in a variety of transcriptomics experiments using a subset of the most abundant 5000 transcripts or less within any given sample. Thus, it appears that it should be possible and affordable to conduct large scale factorial analysis with a high degree of replication using parallel sequencing technologies.

  19. Feasibility study for the quantification of total protein content by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toh, Y., E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Murakami, Y. [University of Fukui, Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui City, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Furutaka, K.; Kimura, A.; Koizumi, M.; Hara, K.; Kin, T.; Nakamura, S.; Harada, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    Protein is an important nutrient in foods. The classical nitrogen analysis method is the Kjeldahl technique, which is time-consuming and inconvenient. As a convenient method to quantify protein content in biological samples, the feasibility of application of multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA) to the quantification was studied. Results for protein content are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen contents were analyzed by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of neutron scattering was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein content can be calculated by nitrogen content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protein contents of standard materials agreed with the certified values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is a rapid, non-destructive, feasible method to quantify protein.

  20. Study on the Relationship between the Moisture Content of Brown Rice and Milling Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Shigang; JIA Fuguo; NAN Jingfu


    An experiment about rice milling was made to study on the relationship between the different moisture content of brown rice and the energy consumption, the broken rice rate, the crack rate and the head rice yield. It could be concluded that the head rice yield increased at first falls and then along with the raise of moisture content and it could reach the maximum 70.78% when moisture content was 15.5%; the energy consumption of rice milling decreased along with the increase of moisture contents; the broken rice rate fell at first and then increased along with the raise of moisture contents and it could reach the minimum 4.28% when the moisture content was 15.5%.

  1. Content-Based Instruction in Primary and Secondary School Settings. Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series (United States)

    Kaufman, Dorit, Ed.; Crandall, JoAnn, Ed.


    Content-based instruction (CBI) challenges English language educators to teach English using materials that learners encounter in their regular subject-area classes. This volume helps ESL and EFL teachers meet that challenge by providing them with creative ways to integrate English language learning with the content that students study at primary…

  2. A phosphorylation cluster of five serine and threonine residues in the C-terminus of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor is important for desensitization but not for beta-arrestin-mediated ERK activation. (United States)

    Kara, Elodie; Crépieux, Pascale; Gauthier, Christophe; Martinat, Nadine; Piketty, Vincent; Guillou, Florian; Reiter, Eric


    Classically, the FSH receptor (FSH-R) mediates its effects through coupling to guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha S subunit (Galpha(s)) and activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. beta-Arrestins are rapidly recruited to the FSH-activated receptor and play key roles in its desensitization and internalization. Here, we show that the FSH-R expressed in HEK 293 cells activated ERK by two temporally distinct pathways dependent, respectively, on Galpha(s)/PKA and beta-arrestins. Galpha(s)/PKA-dependent ERK activation was rapid, transient, and blocked by H89 (a PKA inhibitor), but it was insensitive to small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of beta-arrestins. beta-Arrestin-dependent ERK activation was slower but more sustained and was insensitive to H89. We identified five Ser/Thr residues in the C terminus of the receptor (638-644) as a major phosphorylation site. Mutation of these residues into Ala (5A FSH-R) significantly reduced the stability of FSH-induced beta-arrestin 1 and 2 interaction when compared with the wild-type receptor. As expected, the 5A FSH-R-mediated cAMP accumulation was enhanced, and its internalization was reduced. In striking contrast, the ability of the 5A FSH-R to activate ERK via the beta-arrestin-dependent pathway was increased. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) and GRK6 were required for beta-arrestin-dependent ERK activation by both the wild-type and 5A FSH-R. By contrast, GRK2 depletion enhanced ERK activation by the wild-type FSH-R but not by the 5A FSH-R. In conclusion, we demonstrate the existence of a beta-arrestin-dependent, GRK-regulated mechanism for ERK activation by the FSH-R. A phosphorylation cluster in the C terminus of the FSH-R, identified as a site of beta-arrestin recruitment, positively regulated both desensitization and internalization but negatively regulated beta-arrestin-dependent ERK activation.

  3. Enhanced BRET technology for the monitoring of agonist-induced and agonist-independent interactions between GPCRs and β-arrestins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKocan


    Full Text Available The bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET technique has become extremely valuable for the real-time monitoring of protein-protein interactions in live cells. This method is highly amenable to the detection of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR interactions with proteins critical for regulating their function, such as β-arrestins. Of particular interest to endocrinologists is the ability to monitor interactions involving endocrine receptors, such as orexin receptor 2 (OxR2 or vasopressin type II receptor (V2R. The BRET method utilizes heterologous co-expression of fusion proteins linking one protein of interest (GPCR to a bioluminescent donor enzyme, a variant of Renilla luciferase, and a second protein of interest (β-arrestin to an acceptor fluorophore. If in close proximity, energy resulting from oxidation of the coelenterazine substrate by the donor will transfer to the acceptor, which in turn fluoresces. Using novel luciferase constructs, we were able to monitor interactions not detectable using less sensitive BRET combinations in the same configuration. In particular, we were able to show receptor/β-arrestin interactions in an agonist-independent manner using Rluc8-tagged mutant receptors, in contrast to when using Rluc. Therefore, the enhanced BRET methodology has not only enabled live cell compound screening as we have recently published, it now provides a new level of sensitivity for monitoring specific transient, weak or hardly detectable protein-protein complexes, including agonist-independent GPCR/β-arrestin interactions. This has important implications for the use of BRET technologies in endocrine drug discovery programs as well as academic research.

  4. Experimental Study on the Softening Characteristics of Sandstone and Mudstone in Relation to Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-chen Li


    Full Text Available The kinetics of fluid-solid coupling during immersion is an important topic of investigation in rock engineering. Two rock types, sandstone and mudstone, are selected in this work to study the correlation between the softening characteristics of the rocks and moisture content. This is achieved through detailed studies using scanning electron microscopy, shear tests, and evaluation of rock index properties during exposure to different moisture contents. An underground roadway excavation is simulated by dynamic finite element modeling to analyze the effect of moisture content on the stability of the roadway. The results show that moisture content has a significant effect on shear properties reduction of both sandstone and mudstone, which must thus be considered in mining or excavation processes. Specifically, it is found that the number, area, and diameter of micropores, as well as surface porosity, increase with increasing moisture content. Additionally, stress concentration is negatively correlated with moisture content, while the influenced area and vertical displacement are positively correlated with moisture content. These findings may provide useful input for the design of underground roadways.

  5. 78 FR 42085 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Pediatric Study Plans: Content of and Process for Submitting... (United States)


    ...: Content of and Process for Submitting Initial Pediatric Study Plans and Amended Pediatric Study Plans... Plans: Content of and Process for Submitting Initial Pediatric Study Plans and Amended Pediatric Study... draft guidance for industry entitled ``Pediatric Study Plans: Content of and Process for...

  6. A study on the Deactivation of Usy Zeolites with Different Rare Earth Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriques C.A.


    Full Text Available The deactivation of USY zeolites with different rare earth contents due to the coke formed from n-heptane at 450oC was studied. The results show that the presence of rare earth elements decreases the cracking and coking activities, increasing catalytic stability. However, reaction selectivity was not significantly influenced. The greater the rare earth content, the lower the coking rates and the coke contents. The TPO/DSC profiles suggested that the catalytic effect of the rare earth elements promoted coke oxidation.

  7. The GIP receptor displays higher basal activity than the GLP-1 receptor but does not recruit GRK2 or arrestin3 effectively.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Al-Sabah

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP are important regulators of insulin secretion, and their functional loss is an early characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Pharmacological levels of GLP-1, but not GIP, can overcome this loss. GLP-1 and GIP exert their insulinotropic effects through their respective receptors expressed on pancreatic β-cells. Both the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R and the GIP receptor (GIPR are members of the secretin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and couple positively to adenylate cyclase. We compared the signalling properties of these two receptors to gain further insight into why GLP-1, but not GIP, remains insulinotropic in T2DM patients.GLP-1R and GIPR were transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells, and basal and ligand-induced cAMP production were investigated using a cAMP-responsive luciferase reporter gene assay. Arrestin3 (Arr3 recruitment to the two receptors was investigated using enzyme fragment complementation, confocal microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET.GIPR displayed significantly higher (P<0.05 ligand-independent activity than GLP-1R. Arr3 displayed a robust translocation to agonist-stimulated GLP-1R but not to GIPR. These observations were confirmed in FRET experiments, in which GLP-1 stimulated the recruitment of both GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2 and Arr3 to GLP-1R. These interactions were not reversed upon agonist washout. In contrast, GIP did not stimulate recruitment of either GRK2 or Arr3 to its receptor. Interestingly, arrestin remained at the plasma membrane even after prolonged (30 min stimulation with GLP-1. Although the GLP-1R/arrestin interaction could not be reversed by agonist washout, GLP-1R and arrestin did not co-internalise, suggesting that GLP-1R is a class A receptor with regard to arrestin binding.GIPR displays higher basal activity than GLP-1R but does not effectively recruit GRK2 or Arr3.

  8. Regulation of Constitutive GPR3 Signaling and Surface Localization by GRK2 and β-arrestin-2 Overexpression in HEK293 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M Lowther

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor 3 (GPR3 is a constitutively active receptor that maintains high 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels required for meiotic arrest in oocytes and CNS function. Ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs signal at the cell surface and are silenced by phosphorylation and β-arrestin recruitment upon endocytosis. Some GPCRs can also signal from endosomes following internalization. Little is known about the localization, signaling, and regulation of constitutively active GPCRs. We demonstrate herein that exogenously-expressed GPR3 localizes to the cell membrane and undergoes internalization in HEK293 cells. Inhibition of endocytosis increased cell surface-localized GPR3 and cAMP levels while overexpression of GPCR-Kinase 2 (GRK2 and β-arrestin-2 decreased cell surface-localized GPR3 and cAMP levels. GRK2 by itself is sufficient to decrease cAMP production but both GRK2 and β-arrestin-2 are required to decrease cell surface GPR3. GRK2 regulates GPR3 independently of its kinase activity since a kinase inactive GRK2-K220R mutant significantly decreased cAMP levels. However, GRK2-K220R and β-arrestin-2 do not diminish cell surface GPR3, suggesting that phosphorylation is required to induce GPR3 internalization. To understand which residues are targeted for desensitization, we mutated potential phosphorylation sites in the third intracellular loop and C-terminus and examined the effect on cAMP and receptor surface localization. Mutation of residues in the third intracellular loop dramatically increased cAMP levels whereas mutation of residues in the C-terminus produced cAMP levels comparable to GPR3 wild type. Interestingly, both mutations significantly reduced cell surface expression of GPR3. These results demonstrate that GPR3 signals at the plasma membrane and can be silenced by GRK2/β-arrestin overexpression. These results also strongly implicate the serine and/or threonine residues in the third

  9. β-Arrestin2 regulates lysophosphatidic acid-induced human breast tumor cell migration and invasion via Rap1 and IQGAP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistre Alemayehu

    Full Text Available β-Arrestins play critical roles in chemotaxis and cytoskeletal reorganization downstream of several receptor types, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, which are targets for greater than 50% of all pharmaceuticals. Among them, receptors for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, namely LPA(1 are overexpressed in breast cancer and promote metastatic spread. We have recently reported that β-arrestin2 regulates LPA(1-mediated breast cancer cell migration and invasion, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. We show here that LPA induces activity of the small G protein, Rap1 in breast cancer cells in a β-arrestin2-dependent manner, but fails to activate Rap1 in non-malignant mammary epithelial cells. We found that Rap1A mRNA levels are higher in human breast tumors compared to healthy patient samples and Rap1A is robustly expressed in human ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive tumors, in contrast to the normal mammary ducts. Rap1A protein expression is also higher in aggressive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578t relative to the weakly invasive MCF-7 cells or non-malignant MCF10A mammary cells. Depletion of Rap1A expression significantly impaired LPA-stimulated migration of breast cancer cells and invasiveness in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. Furthermore, we found that β-arrestin2 associates with the actin binding protein IQGAP1 in breast cancer cells, and is necessary for the recruitment of IQGAP1 to the leading edge of migratory cells. Depletion of IQGAP1 blocked LPA-stimulated breast cancer cell invasion. Finally, we have identified that LPA enhances the binding of endogenous Rap1A to β-arrestin2, and also stimulates Rap1A and IQGAP1 to associate with LPA(1. Thus our data establish novel roles for Rap1A and IQGAP1 as critical regulators of LPA-induced breast cancer cell migration and invasion.

  10. A Study on Immersion of Hand Interaction for Mobile Platform Virtual Reality Contents


    Seunghun Han; Jinmo Kim


    This study proposes gaze-based hand interaction, which is helpful for improving the user’s immersion in the production process of virtual reality content for the mobile platform, and analyzes efficiency through an experiment using a questionnaire. First, three-dimensional interactive content is produced for use in the proposed interaction experiment while presenting an experiential environment that gives users a high sense of immersion in the mobile virtual reality environment. This is design...

  11. Feasibility study for the quantification of total protein content by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis. (United States)

    Toh, Y; Murakami, Y; Furutaka, K; Kimura, A; Koizumi, M; Hara, K; Kin, T; Nakamura, S; Harada, H


    Protein is an important nutrient in foods. The classical nitrogen analysis method is the Kjeldahl technique, which is time-consuming and inconvenient. As a convenient method to quantify protein content in biological samples, the feasibility of application of multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA) to the quantification was studied. Results for protein content are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable.

  12. β-arrestin 1在小鼠非酒精性脂肪性肝病至肝癌自然病程中的作用%Role of β-arrestin 1 in the course of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progressing to hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云蔚; 缪惠标; 林显艺; 郑丰平


    ObjectiveTo investigate the changes and role of β-arrestin 1 in the course of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progressing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MethodsEighty healthy male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into the vegetarian diet group and the high fat diet group according to the random number table with 40 mice in each group. Mice in the vegetarian diet group were fed with vegetarian diet (13% calories in fat) and mice in the high fat diet group were fed with high fat diet (58% calories in fat). Eight mice in each group were decapitated at the end of 9 and 24 weeks. The rest mice in each group were decapitated at the end of 48 weeks. The incidence of HCC of two groups was observed. The expression of proteinβ-arrestin 1 in the liver tissues of mice was detected by Western blot and the mRNA level was examined using TaqMan real time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The incidence of HCC in two groups was compared using Fisher's exact test, and the protein β-arrestin 1 expression and mRNA level of two groups were compared usingt test. Spearman correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between protein β-arrestin 1 expression, mRNA level and the feeding duration of high fat diet in high fat diet group.ResultsThe incidence of HCC in the high fat diet group was 18% (4/22), which was significantly higher than 0 (0/23) in the vegetarian diet group (P=0.034). The expression level of protein β-arrestin 1 in liver tissues of mice in the high fat diet group was 2.4±0.5 in the 9th week, which was significantly higher than 1.5±0.4 in the vegetarian diet group (t=2.779,P<0.05). The β-arrestin 1 mRNA level in liver tissues of mice in the high fat diet group in the 9th, 24th and 48th week were 4.1±0.8, 7.8±2.1 and 12.5±1.2 respectively, which were all significantly higher than 2.6±0.7, 3.6±0.6 and 6.9±1.2 in the vegetarian diet group (t=4.029, 5.522, 9.487;P<0.05) . The protein β-arrestin 1 and mRNA level in HCC tissues of mice in

  13. Supporting User Generated Content for Mobile News Services: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos K. Georgiadis


    Full Text Available Web 2.0 applications encourage users to contribute to the production of richer content. In this context, our work mainly focuses on providing mobile users the ability to share content and to support user generated content production. Specifically, in our case study, features both for a mobile Web and for a mobile native application are implemented, capable of providing news services enriched with indicative social networking elements. The results of our work are largely related to the understanding of the required proper solutions, based on the investigation of serious technical challenges: the XML‐RPC library for the Android platform is exploited, as well as a specific Backend Joomla! component is built (Rsstoa to handle consistently external content sources, such as feeds and multipart emails.

  14. Influence of compressive stress on the water content of perfluorosulphonated membranes: a {mu}-Raman study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutor, A.K.; Huguet, P.; Le, T.S.; Deabate, S. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR 5635, ENSCM, UM2, CNRS, Universite de Montpellier II, CC047, Montpellier (France); Morin, A. [Laboratoire des Composants pour Pile a Combustible, Electrolyseur et Modelisation, CEA Grenoble/DRT/Liten/DEHT/LCPEM, Grenoble (France); Gebel, G. [SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble (France)


    The effect of compressive stress on the local water content of Nafion NRE 212 and Aquivion E79 membranes is studied by confocal {mu}-Raman spectroscopy using a specific tightening device. This device aims to mimic the geometry of the bipolar plate flow field of actual fuel cells, i.e. the sequence of channels and ribs. The membrane water content decreases with increasing stress, under the ribs as well as in the channel. The higher the initial water content, the larger the water content decreases with mechanical stress. The extent of water loss depends on the position of the membrane in the device, the applied stress and the hydration history of the membrane. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Teaching cause-effect text structure through social studies content to at-risk second graders. (United States)

    Williams, Joanna P; Nubla-Kung, Abigail M; Pollini, Simonne; Stafford, K Brooke; Garcia, Amaya; Snyder, Anne E


    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a comprehension program integrated with social studies instruction designed for at-risk second graders. The program included instruction in cause-effect text structure, emphasizing clue words, generic questions, graphic organizers, and the close analysis of specially constructed cause-effect target paragraphs. This program was compared (a) to a content-only program that focused only on social studies and did not include text structure instruction and (b) to a no-instruction control. Fifteen classroom teachers, randomly assigned to treatment, provided the instruction. The program improved the comprehension of instructional cause-effect texts, and there were transfer effects on some comprehension measures. The performance of the 2 instructed groups did not differ on any of the content measures, indicating that such integrated instruction can be accomplished without a loss in the amount of content acquired. This study supports our previous findings on the effectiveness of explicit instruction at the primary-grade level.

  16. The retromer subunit Vps26 has an arrestin fold and binds Vps35 through its C-terminal domain (United States)

    Shi, Hang; Rojas, Raul; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hurley, James H.


    The mammalian retromer complex consists of SNX1, SNX2, Vps26, Vps29, and Vps35, and retrieves lysosomal enzyme receptors from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. The structure of human Vps26A at 2.1Å resolution reveals two curvedβ -sandwich domains connected by a polar core and a flexible linker. Vps26 has an unexpected structural relationship to arrestins. The Vps35-binding site on Vps26 maps to a mobile loop spanning residues 235–246, near the tip of the C-terminal domain. The loop is phylogenetically conserved and provides a mechanism for Vps26 integration into the complex that leaves the rest of the structure free for engagements with membranes and for conformational changes. Hydrophobic residues and a Gly in this loop are required for integration into the retromer complex and endosomal localization of human Vps26, and for the function of yeast Vps26 in carboxypeptidase Y sorting. PMID:16732284

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate genes for starch content regulation in maize kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu


    Full Text Available Kernel starch content is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L. as it accounts for 65% to 75% of the dry kernel weight and positively correlates with seed yield. A number of starch synthesis-related genes have been identified in maize in recent years. However, many loci underlying variation in starch content among maize inbred lines still remain to be identified. The current study is a genome-wide association study that used a set of 263 maize inbred lines. In this panel, the average kernel starch content was 66.99%, ranging from 60.60% to 71.58% over the three study years. These inbred lines were genotyped with the SNP50 BeadChip maize array, which is comprised of 56,110 evenly spaced, random SNPs. Population structure was controlled by a mixed linear model (MLM as implemented in the software package TASSEL. After the statistical analyses, four SNPs were identified as significantly associated with starch content (P ≤ 0.0001, among which one each are located on chromosomes 1 and 5 and two are on chromosome 2. Furthermore, 77 candidate genes associated with starch synthesis were found within the 100-kb intervals containing these four QTLs, and four highly associated genes were within 20-kb intervals of the associated SNPs. Among the four genes, Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (APS1; Gene ID GRMZM2G163437 is known as an important regulator of kernel starch content. The identified SNPs, QTLs, and candidate genes may not only be readily used for germplasm improvement by marker-assisted selection in breeding, but can also elucidate the genetic basis of starch content. Further studies on these identified candidate genes may help determine the molecular mechanisms regulating kernel starch content in maize and other important cereal crops.

  18. Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content through Text in High School Social Studies Classes (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Kent, Shawn C.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text intervention implemented with 11th-grade students enrolled in U.S. History classes. Using a within-teacher randomized design, the study was conducted in 41 classes (23 treatment classes) with 14 teachers providing the…

  19. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin


    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  20. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin


    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers (years 1-9(10)) in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in...

  1. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin


    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand...

  2. Effect of bread gluten content on gastrointestinal function: a crossover MRI study on healthy humans. (United States)

    Coletta, Marina; Gates, Fred K; Marciani, Luca; Shiwani, Henna; Major, Giles; Hoad, Caroline L; Chaddock, Gemma; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C


    Gluten is a crucial functional component of bread, but the effect of increasing gluten content on gastrointestinal (GI) function remains uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the effect of increasing gluten content on GI function and symptoms in healthy participants using the unique capabilities of MRI. A total of twelve healthy participants completed this randomised, mechanistic, open-label, three-way crossover study. On days 1 and 2 they consumed either gluten-free bread (GFB), or normal gluten content bread (NGCB) or added gluten content bread (AGCB). The same bread was consumed on day 3, and MRI scans were performed every 60 min from fasting baseline up to 360 min after eating. The appearance of the gastric chime in the images was assessed using a visual heterogeneity score. Gastric volumes, the small bowel water content (SBWC), colonic volumes and colonic gas content and GI symptoms were measured. Fasting transverse colonic volume after the 2-d preload was significantly higher after GFB compared with NGCB and AGCB with a dose-dependent response (289 (SEM 96) v. 212 (SEM 74) v. 179 (SEM 87) ml, respectively; P=0·02). The intragastric chyme heterogeneity score was higher for the bread with increased gluten (AGCB 6 (interquartile range (IQR) 0·5) compared with GFB 3 (IQR 0·5); P=0·003). However, gastric half-emptying time was not different between breads nor were study day GI symptoms, postprandial SBWC, colonic volume and gas content. This MRI study showed novel mechanistic insights in the GI responses to different breads, which are poorly understood notwithstanding the importance of this staple food.

  3. [Comparative study on selenium and amino acids content in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis]. (United States)

    Sheng, Ji-Ping; Chen, Hai-Rong; Shen, Lin


    Scutellaria baicalensis is one of the most important Chinese herbs. It is widely used in Asian medicine to improve impaired brain function and to treat headaches, and used to treat prostate cancer. It is also known to be anti-inflammatory and antifungal, and also seems to have antiviral properties, including possible effectiveness against HIV. Scutellaria baicalensis tea and other products are in development. In the present study, the content of selenium (Se) in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis was determined by fluorescence photometer. The contents of 18 kinds of amino acids in the leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis were determined with amino acids instruments. The results showed that the two kinds of leaves were rich in Se content, and the content of Se in planted Scutellaria baicalensis (0.051 microg x g(-1)) was not significantly different from that in wild one (0.051 microg x g(-1), alpha = 0.05). The amino acids, of which the total content was up to 14.62% and 10.25% separately, were rich in both planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis. Among the 18 kinds of amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and leucine were comparatively high in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis. There are 8 kinds of amino acids essential to human body, which were higher in leaves of planted Scutellaria baicalensis than those of wild one. This study, for the first time, determined Se and amino acids content in Scutellaria baicalensis and concluded that the leaves of planted type have Se and amino acids content not lower or higher than that of wild type, and the planted type could be a good substitute of wild type in the development of Scutellaria baicalensis products. This study also provided useful data for explaining the multifunction of Scutellaria baicalensis and theological basis for developing its medical and edible value.

  4. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study (United States)

    Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W


    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  5. Implementation of a Text-Based Content Intervention in Secondary Social Studies Classes. (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon


    We describe teacher fidelity (adherence to the components of the treatment as specified by the research team) based on a series of studies of a multicomponent intervention, Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text (PACT), with middle and high school social studies teachers and their students. Findings reveal that even with highly specified materials and implementing practices that are aligned with effective reading comprehension and content instruction, teachers' fidelity was consistently low for some components and high for others. Teachers demonstrated consistently high implementation fidelity and quality for the instructional components of building background knowledge (comprehension canopy) and teaching key content vocabulary (essential words), whereas we recorded consistently lower fidelity and quality of implementation for the instructional components of critical reading and knowledge application.

  6. A comparative study of six decades of general science textbooks: Evaluating the evolution of science content (United States)

    Lewis, Anna

    This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the science content expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within which areas and in what way does the science content change? (3) Are new scientific findings reflected in 8th and 9th grade U.S. general science textbooks? Twenty-six themes were identified which reflect five areas in science: Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Biology, and Process of Science. Trends in science content in U.S. 8th and 9th grade general science textbooks, as revealed by this data sample, indicated no statistically significant change in depth of coverage in Physics and Process of Science over the past 60 years, no significant change in depth of coverage in Earth Science and Biology in the last 40 years, and no significant change in coverage in Chemistry over the last 30 years. Additionally, a total of sixteen new discoveries were found in the textbook sample. For classroom teachers this information may alert them to the necessity of going beyond the textbook in preparing students for life in a global society. In educational practice, this research supports and reinforces the need for inquiry learning and socioscientific curricula. It may also influence educators to challenge assumptions regarding the value and selection of the traditional classic science content.

  7. Systematic Study of the Content of Phytochemicals in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Alarcón-Flores


    Full Text Available Vegetables and fruits have beneficial properties for human health, because of the presence of phytochemicals, but their concentration can fluctuate throughout the year. A systematic study of the phytochemical content in tomato, eggplant, carrot, broccoli and grape (fresh and fresh-cut has been performed at different seasons, using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. It was observed that phenolic acids (the predominant group in carrot, eggplant and tomato were found at higher concentrations in fresh carrot than in fresh-cut carrot. However, in the case of eggplant, they were detected at a higher content in fresh-cut than in fresh samples. Regarding tomato, the differences in the content of phenolic acids between fresh and fresh-cut were lower than in other matrices, except in winter sampling, where this family was detected at the highest concentration in fresh tomato. In grape, the flavonols content (predominant group was higher in fresh grape than in fresh-cut during all samplings. The content of glucosinolates was lower in fresh-cut broccoli than in fresh samples in winter and spring sampling, although this trend changes in summer and autumn. In summary, phytochemical concentration did show significant differences during one-year monitoring, and the families of phytochemicals presented different behaviors depending on the matrix studied.

  8. Socialization Content in Schools and Education for Sustainable Development--I. A Study of Teachers' Selective Traditions (United States)

    Sund, Per; Wickman, Per-Olof


    This article studies content issues by examining teachers' communicated socialization content. The value-laden socialization content constitutes the educational context for the teaching of integrated subject matter and has not yet been thoroughly studied empirically in environmental education research. The implications of the results can be…

  9. Analysis of Pedagogical Content Knowledge Studies in the Context of Mathematics Education in Turkey: A Meta-Synthesis Study (United States)

    Simsek, Nurullah; Boz, Nihat


    Studies that explore pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in the field of mathematics education date back to the turn of the century in Turkey. In recent years, studies on PCK have gained momentum. Master's theses and doctoral dissertations have been written on PCK. In this context, there is a need to analyze the studies on PCK in Turkey to…

  10. Developing Fair Tests for Mathematics Curriculum Comparison Studies: The Role of Content Analyses (United States)

    Chavez, Oscar; Papick, Ira; Ross, Daniel J.; Grouws, Douglas A.


    This article describes the process of development of assessment instruments for a three-year longitudinal comparative study that focused on evaluating American high school students' mathematics learning from two distinct approaches to content organization: curriculum built around a sequence of three full-year courses (Algebra 1, Geometry, and…

  11. Technology-Based Content through Virtual and Physical Modeling: A National Research Study (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.


    Visualization is becoming more prevalent as an application in science, engineering, and technology related professions. The analysis of static and dynamic graphical visualization provides data solutions and understandings that go beyond traditional forms of communication. The study of technology-based content and the application of conceptual…

  12. A Content and Methodological Review of Self-Advocacy Intervention Studies (United States)

    Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.; Brewer, Denise M.; Wood, Wendy M.


    A content and methodological review of the literature of 25 self-advocacy intervention studies was conducted. First, each article was analyzed in terms of purpose, participants, design, dependent variable(s), independent variable(s), and results. Second, each manuscript was reviewed in terms of the quality indicators for single subject (n = 11),…

  13. Developing Pedagogical Technology Integration Content Knowledge in Preservice Teachers: A Case Study Approach (United States)

    Brantley-Dias, Laurie; Kinuthia, Wanjira; Shoffner, Mary B.; de Castro, Christopher; Rigole, Neil J.


    This research examined the effects of case-based instructional strategies on the development of Pedagogical Technology Integration Content Knowledge (PTICK) in alternative teacher preparation students. The study was part of the Crossroads Project funded by the Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers for Using Technology (PT3) grant from the United States…

  14. A Content Validity Study of the Children's Version of The Family Environment Scale. (United States)

    Pino, Christopher J.


    Investigated the structural pictorial properties of a children's version of The Family Environment Scale as a content validity study of the scale. Age differences in results between third- and seventh-grade children were confirmed, and social comprehension levels increased with age. Implications for present use and future research are discussed.…

  15. The Structure of Mixed Method Studies in Educational Research: A Content Analysis (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren H.


    Educational researchers are beginning to use mixed methods designs to answer complex research questions. This content analysis investigates the structure and use of mixed methods in educational research in order to work toward a more standardized presentation. I used a concurrent mixed methods approach to analyze 30 studies from three prominent…

  16. Content Analysis of Meta-Analytic Studies from I/O Psychology. (United States)

    Cornwell, John M.

    The use of meta-analysis in industrial and organizational psychology has become quite common. Unfortunately, the understanding and research necessary to ensure appropriate application of the technique have not been as widespread. As part of a larger study, a content analysis of meta-analyses from the industrial and organizational psychological…

  17. Studies on the Correlations Between Isoflavone Contents in Soybean Seed and the Eco-Physiological Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-dong; LIANG Hui-zhen; LU Wei-guo; WANG Shu-feng; YANG Qing-chun; YANG Cai-yun; LIU Ya-fei


    The soybean cultivar Yudou25 was sown at 5 locations of Henan Province on 13 different dates in 2001 and 2002. The data of isoflavone contents for the 109 samples of soybean seed and 33 eco-physiological factors including meteorological factors, soil nutrition and altitudes were received and used for statistical analysis. The step-wise regression was used to screen the correlated factors, which significantly effected isoflavone contents. Results showed that 9 eco-physiological factors were highly correlated with isoflavones. Low mean temperature, high diurnal temperature range at seed filling and maturity, more sunlight hours and low mean temperature at emergence were favorable to isoflavone accumulation. The rainfall at emergence showed a nonlinear relationship with isoflavone content and its optimum value was 75 mm for isoflavone formation. Low diurnal temperature range at branching, high organic matter and low sulfur content in soil were suitable for the formation of isoflavones. The isoflavone contents would not be affected by other eco-physiological factors in this study.

  18. Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae Root Bark Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Betu Kasangana


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc and hexane (Hex. The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin®, but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin® by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r < 0.6 was found between different classes of polyphenols and the results of the phosphomolybdenum method, ORACFl as well as ORACPRG, except for the DPPH assay, for which a negative correlation was indicated (r < 0.62. Interestingly, it seems that the content in hydroxycinnamic acids played a big role in all assays with r < 0.9. According to the present study, EAc fraction and EtOH extract should be further studied for the potential use in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  19. Troglitazone stimulates {beta}-arrestin-dependent cardiomyocyte contractility via the angiotensin II type 1{sub A} receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Douglas G., E-mail: [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jefferson School of Pharmacy, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Nguyen, Anny D. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jefferson School of Pharmacy, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Rockman, Howard A. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center (United States)


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists are commonly used to treat cardiovascular diseases, and are reported to have several effects on cardiovascular function that may be due to PPAR{gamma}-independent signaling events. Select angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) interact with and modulate PPAR{gamma} activity, thus we hypothesized that a PPAR{gamma} agonist may exert physiologic effects via the angiotensin II type 1{sub A} receptor (AT1{sub A}R). In AT1{sub A}R-overexpressing HEK 293 cells, both angiotensin II (Ang II) and the PPAR{gamma} agonist troglitazone (Trog) enhanced AT1{sub A}R internalization and recruitment of endogenous {beta}-arrestin1/2 ({beta}arr1/2) to the AT1{sub A}R. A fluorescence assay to measure diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation showed that although Ang II induced AT1{sub A}R-G{sub q} protein-mediated DAG accumulation, Trog had no impact on DAG generation. Trog-mediated recruitment of {beta}arr1/2 was selective to AT1{sub A}R as the response was prevented by an ARB- and Trog-mediated {beta}arr1/2 recruitment to {beta}1-adrenergic receptor ({beta}1AR) was not observed. In isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, Trog increased both % and rate of cell shortening to a similar extent as Ang II, effects which were blocked with an ARB. Additionally, these effects were found to be {beta}arr2-dependent, as cardiomyocytes isolated from {beta}arr2-KO mice showed blunted contractile responses to Trog. These findings show for the first time that the PPAR{gamma} agonist Trog acts at the AT1{sub A}R to simultaneously block G{sub q} protein activation and induce the recruitment of {beta}arr1/2, which leads to an increase in cardiomyocyte contractility.

  20. An Empirical Study on Content Bundling in BitTorrent Swarming System

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jinyoung; Kim, Seungbae; Kim, Hyun-chul; Kwon, Ted "Taekyoung"; Choi, Yanghee


    Despite the tremendous success of BitTorrent, its swarming system suffers from a fundamental limitation: lower or no availability of unpopular contents. Recently, Menasche et al. has shown that bundling is a promising solution to mitigate this availability problem; it improves the availability and reduces download times for unpopular contents by combining multiple files into a single swarm. There also have been studies on bundling strategies and performance issues in bundled swarms. In spite of the recent surge of interest in the benefits of and strategies for bundling, there are still little empirical grounding for understanding, describing, and modeling it. This is the first empirical study that measures and analyzes how prevalent contents bundling is in BitTorrent and how peers access the bundled contents, in comparison to the other non-bundled (i.e., single-filed) ones. To our surprise, we found that around 70% of BitTorrent swarms contain multiple files, which indicate that bundling has become widespread...

  1. 骨癌痛大鼠DRG神经元GRK2和β-arrestin2表达以及NGF调节作用的研究%Expression of GRK2 and β-arrestin2 in the dorsal root ganglion neurons and the regulated effect by nerve growth factor in rats with bone cancer pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹏; 王志彬; 蒋晶晶; 张锦; 孟凌新


    目的:观察大鼠骨癌痛时脊髓背根神经节(DRG)G蛋白偶联受体激酶2(GRK2)和β-arrestin2的变化,探讨鞘内注射抗神经生长因子抗体(anti-NGF)对其表达及疼痛行为学的影响.方法:60只雌性SD大鼠随机分为假手术组、骨癌痛组及骨癌痛+anti-NGF组,13 d后鞘内置管,16 d开始鞘内注入生理盐水或anti-NGF不同时点观察疼痛行为学变化;21 d取同侧L4、L5 DRG,检测β-arrestin2、GRK2蛋白及mRNA表达变化.结果:与假手术组比较,骨癌痛组大鼠体质量减轻[(219±4.8)vs(243±8.1)],自发缩足次数增多[(24.1±3.6)vs(2.9±0.4)],热辐射潜伏期(PWL)缩短[(3.8±0.5)vs(10.9±1.3)],机械痛阈(PWT)降低[(3.2±1.1)vs(12.3±1.3)];与骨癌痛组比较,骨癌痛+anti-NGF组大鼠缩足次数减少(6.7±1.2),PWL延长(9.7±1.2),PWT增高(9.7±1.5).骨癌痛组大鼠β-arrestin2、GRK2表达均高于假手术组,而骨癌痛+anti-NGF组则明显低于骨癌痛组.骨癌痛组大鼠DRG神经元β-arrestin2与GRK2 mRNA的表达均高于假手术组,而骨癌痛+anti-NGF组则均低于骨癌痛组.结论:大鼠骨癌痛时DRG神经元GRK2和β-arrestin2的表达增加,anti-NGF可明显缓解骨癌痛,并对GRK2和β-arrestin2具有调制作用.%OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of β-arrestin2 and G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 (GRK2) in the dorsal root ganglion(DRG) neurons, and further investigate the regulated effects by intrathecal application of anti-NGF on the expression and pain-related behavior in rats with bone cancer pain.METHODS: Sixty female rats were divided into sham, cancer and cancer+ anti-NGF group.Bone cancer pain rats were induced by implantation of Walker 256 breast carcinosarcoma cells into the tibia.Each rat was surgically fitted with an intrathecal catheter at days 13, Sodium chloride (groups sham and cancer) or anti-NGF(group eancer+anti-NGF) 10 μL was injected by intrathecal catheter from 16 to 21 days, pain-related behavior were assessed.Western blotting

  2. Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Turunen, Hannele; Bondas, Terese


    Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis are two commonly used approaches in data analysis of nursing research, but boundaries between the two have not been clearly specified. In other words, they are being used interchangeably and it seems difficult for the researcher to choose between them. In this respect, this paper describes and discusses the boundaries between qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis and presents implications to improve the consistency between the purpose of related studies and the method of data analyses. This is a discussion paper, comprising an analytical overview and discussion of the definitions, aims, philosophical background, data gathering, and analysis of content analysis and thematic analysis, and addressing their methodological subtleties. It is concluded that in spite of many similarities between the approaches, including cutting across data and searching for patterns and themes, their main difference lies in the opportunity for quantification of data. It means that measuring the frequency of different categories and themes is possible in content analysis with caution as a proxy for significance.

  3. Content-based versus semantic-based retrieval: an LIDC case study (United States)

    Jabon, Sarah A.; Raicu, Daniela S.; Furst, Jacob D.


    Content based image retrieval is an active area of medical imaging research. One use of content based image retrieval (CBIR) is presentation of known, reference images similar to an unknown case. These comparison images may reduce the radiologist's uncertainty in interpreting that case. It is, therefore, important to present radiologists with systems whose computed-similarity results correspond to human perceived-similarity. In our previous work, we developed an open-source CBIR system that inputs a computed tomography (CT) image of a lung nodule as a query and retrieves similar lung nodule images based on content-based image features. In this paper, we extend our previous work by studying the relationships between the two types of retrieval, content-based and semantic-based, with the final goal of integrating them into a system that will take advantage of both retrieval approaches. Our preliminary results on the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset using four types of image features, seven radiologists' rated semantic characteristics and two simple similarity measures show that a substantial number of nodules identified as similar based on image features are also identified as similar based on semantic characteristics. Furthermore, by integrating the two types of features, the similarity retrieval improves with respect to certain nodule characteristics.

  4. High Water Contents in the Siberian Cratonic Mantle: An FTIR Study of Udachnaya Peridotite Xenoliths (United States)

    Doucet, Luc S.; Peslier, Anne H.; Ionov, Dimitri A.; Brandon, Alan D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ashchepkov, Igor V.


    Water is believed to be a key factor controlling the long-term stability of cratonic lithosphere, but mechanisms responsible for the water content distribution in the mantle remain poorly constrained. Water contents were obtained by FTIR in olivine, pyroxene and garnet for 20 well-characterized peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite (central Siberian craton) and equilibrated at 2-7 GPa. Water contents in minerals do not appear to be related to interaction with the host kimberlite. Diffusion modeling indicates that the core of olivines preserved their original water contents. The Udachnaya peridotites show a broad range of water contents in olivine (6.5 +/- 1.1 to 323 +- 65 ppm H2O (2 sigma)), and garnet (0 - 23 +/- 6 ppm H2O). The water contents of olivine and garnet are positively correlated with modal clinopyroxene, garnet and FeO in olivine. Water-rich garnets are also rich in middle rare earth elements. This is interpreted as the result of interaction between residual peridotites and water rich-melts, consistent with modal and cryptic metasomatism evidenced in the Siberian cratonic mantle. The most water-rich Udachnaya minerals contain 2 to 3 times more water than those from the Kaapvaal craton, the only craton with an intact mantle root for which water data is available. The highest water contents in olivine and orthopyroxene in this study (>= 300 ppm) are found at the bottom of the lithosphere (> 6.5 GPa). This is in contrast with the Kaapvaal craton where the olivines of peridotites equilibrated at > 6.4 GPa have 6 GPa is lower or similar (8.4× 10(exp 16) to 8.0× 10(exp 18) Pa./s) to that of the asthenosphere (<= 3.7x10(exp 18) Pa./s ). Such lithologies would not be able to resist delamination by the convecting asthenosphere. However, seismology studies as well as the high equilibration pressures of our samples indicate that the Udachnaya cratonic lithosphere is 220-250 km thick. Consequently, the water-rich peridotites are likely not

  5. When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method (United States)


    Background The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Objective Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. Methods A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Results Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant

  6. [Study of cytokines content and gangliosides metabolism at experimental brain edema]. (United States)

    Zakarian, A V; Kazarian, G S; Zakarian, G V; Melkonian, M M; Ovsesian, L M


    The content of cytokines, and gangliosides metabolism, and the quantity of lipid peroxidation products were studied at experimental brain edema. Data obtained show increase the level of proinflammatory cytokins and decrease the level of antiinflammatory cytokines during development of brain edema. Along with this we reveal the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, hydroperoxides, and malonic dialdehyde). Each fraction of gangliosides decreased, but the product of their hydrolytic dissociation sphingosine increased at experimental brain edema.

  7. Methodology of image analysis for study of the vertisols moisture content


    Cumbrera Gonzalez, Ramiro Alberto; Milán Vega, Humberto; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria


    The main problem to study vertical drainage from the moisture distribution, on a vertisol profile, is searching for suitable methods using these procedures. Our aim was to design a digital image processing methodology and its analysis to characterize the moisture content distribution of a vertisol profile. In this research, twelve soil pits were excavated on a ba re Mazic Pellic Vertisols ix of them in May 13/2011 and the rest in May 19 /2011 after a moderate rainfall event. Digi...

  8. Preliminary Study on Reducing Olefin Content of FCC Gasoline over Cracking Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁咏梅; 杨海峰; 刘耀芳; 徐春明


    Using fixed bed micro-reactor and cracking catalyst, re-cracking of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline at lower temperature than conventional cracking condition has been studied. The results reveal that at lower temperature from 350℃-450℃ and catalyst to feed ratio of 3, the olefin content is reduced from 49% to 27%(by mass) over the catalyst whose micro-reacting activation index is 53, and the octane number is kept on high level.

  9. Fission yeast arrestin-related trafficking adaptor, Arn1/Any1, is ubiquitinated by Pub1 E3 ligase and regulates endocytosis of Cat1 amino acid transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Nakashima


    Full Text Available The Tsc1–Tsc2 complex homologous to human tuberous sclerosis complex proteins governs amino acid uptake by regulating the expression and intracellular distribution of amino acid transporters in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we performed a genetic screening for molecules that are involved in amino acid uptake and found Arn1 (also known as Any1. Arn1 is homologous to ART1, an arrestin-related trafficking adaptor (ART in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and contains a conserved arrestin motif, a ubiquitination site, and two PY motifs. Overexpression of arn1+ confers canavanine resistance on cells, whereas its disruption causes hypersensitivity to canavanine. We also show that Arn1 regulates endocytosis of the Cat1 amino acid transporter. Furthermore, deletion of arn1+ suppresses a defect of amino acid uptake and the aberrant Cat1 localization in tsc2Δ. Arn1 interacts with and is ubiquitinated by the Pub1 ubiquitin ligase, which is necessary to regulate Cat1 endocytosis. Cat1 undergoes ubiquitinations on lysine residues within the N-terminus, which are mediated, in part, by Arn1 to determine Cat1 localization. Correctively, Arn1 is an ART in S. pombe and contributes to amino acid uptake through regulating Cat1 endocytosis in which Tsc2 is involved.

  10. Content-related interactions and methods of reasoning within self-initiated organic chemistry study groups (United States)

    Christian, Karen Jeanne


    Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of content processing, and types of reasoning processes used by students within their groups. Our analysis showed that groups engaged in predominantly three types of interactions when discussing chemistry content: co-construction, teaching, and tutoring. Although each group engaged in each of these types of interactions at some point, their prevalence varied between groups and group members. Our analysis suggests that the types of interactions that were most common depended on the relative content knowledge of the group members as well as on the difficulty of the tasks in which they were engaged. Additionally, we were interested in characterizing the reasoning methods used by students within their study groups. We found that students used a combination of three content-relevant methods of reasoning: model-based reasoning, case-based reasoning, or rule-based reasoning, in conjunction with one chemically-irrelevant method of reasoning: symbol-based reasoning. The most common way for groups to reason was to use rules, whereas the least common way was for students to work from a model. In general, student reasoning correlated strongly to the subject matter to which students were paying attention, and was only weakly related to student interactions. Overall, results from this study may help instructors to construct appropriate tasks to guide what and how students study outside of the classroom. We found that students had a decidedly strategic approach in their study groups, relying heavily on material provided by their instructors, and using the reasoning strategies that resulted in the lowest levels of content processing. We suggest

  11. Marker-trait association study for protein content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. A. Jadhav; S. J. Rayate; L. B. Mhase; M. Thudi; A. Chitikineni; P. N. Harer; A. S. Jadhav; R. K. Varshney; P. L. Kulwal


    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important cool season food legume cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world. The objective of the present study was to study variation for protein content in chickpea germplasm, and to find markers associated with it. A set of 187 genotypes comprising both international and exotic collections, and representing both desi and kabuli types with protein content ranging from 13.25% to 26.77% was used. Twenty-three SSR markers representing all eight linkage groups (LG) amplifying 153 loci were used for the analysis. Population structure analysis identified three subpopulations, and corresponding $Q$ values of principal components were used to take care of population structure in the analysis which was performed using general linear and mixed linear models. Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis identified nine significant associations representing four QTLs in the entire population. Subpopulation analyses identified ten significant MTAs representing five QTLs, four of which were common with that of the entire population. Two most significant QTLs linked with markers TR26.205 and CaM1068.195 were present on LG3 and LG5. Gene ontology search identified 29 candidate genes in the region of significant MTAs on LG3. The present study will be helpful in concentrating on LG3 and LG5 for identification of closely linked markers for protein content in chickpea and for their use in molecular breeding programme for nutritional quality improvement.

  12. A mHealth cardiac rehabilitation exercise intervention: findings from content development studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaeffli Leila


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involving stakeholders and consumers throughout the content and study design ensures interventions are engaging and relevant for end-users. The aim of this paper is to present the content development process for a mHealth (mobile phone and internet-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR exercise intervention. Methods An innovative mHealth intervention was developed with patient input using the following steps: conceptualization, formative research, pre-testing, and pilot testing. Conceptualization, including theoretical and technical aspects, was undertaken by experts. For the formative component, focus groups and interviews with cardiac patients were conducted to discuss their perceptions of a mHealth CR program. A general inductive thematic approach identified common themes. A preliminary library of text and video messages were then developed. Participants were recruited from CR education sessions to pre-test and provide feedback on the content using an online survey. Common responses were extracted and compiled. An iterative process was used to refine content prior to pilot testing and conduct of a randomized controlled trial. Results 38 CR patients and 3 CR nurses participated in the formative research and 20 CR patients participated in the content pre-testing. Participants perceived the mHealth program as an effective approach to inform and motivate patients to exercise. For the qualitative study, 100% (n = 41 of participants thought it to be a good idea, and 11% of participants felt it might not be useful for them, but would be for others. Of the 20 participants who completed the online survey, 17 out of 20 (85% stated they would sign up to a program where they could receive information by video messages on a website, and 12 out of 20 (60% showed interest in a texting program. Some older CR patients viewed technology as a potential barrier as they were unfamiliar with text messaging or did not have mobile phones. Steps to

  13. Alterations of Myelin Content in Parkinson’s Disease: A Cross-Sectional Neuroimaging Study (United States)

    Sojkova, Jitka; Hurley, Samuel; Kecskemeti, Steven; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Theisen, Frances; Johnson, Sterling C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Gallagher, Catherine L.


    Alterations to myelin may be a core pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases. Although white matter microstructural differences have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD), it is unknown whether such differences include alterations of the brain’s myelin content. Thus, the objective of the current study is to measure and compare brain myelin content between PD patients and age-matched controls. In this cross-sectional study, 63 participants from the Longitudinal MRI in Parkinson's Disease study underwent brain MRI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scoring, and cognitive asessments. Subjects were imaged with the mcDEPSOT (multi-component driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2), a multicomponent relaxometry technique that quantifies longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates (R1 and R2, respectively) and the myelin water fraction (VFM), a surrogate for myelin content. A voxel-wise approach was used to compare R1, R2, and VFM measures between PD and control groups, and to evaluate relationships with age as well as disease duration, UPDRS scores, and daily levodopa equivalent dose. PD subjects had higher VFM than controls in frontal and temporal white matter and bilateral thalamus. Greater age was strongly associated with lower VFM in both groups, while an age-by-group interaction suggested a slower rate of VFM decline in the left putamen with aging in PD. Within the PD group, measures of disease severity, including UPDRS, daily levodopa equivalent dose, and disease duration, were observed to be related with myelin content in diffuse brain regions. The age-by-group interaction suggests that either PD or dopaminergic therapies allay observed age-related myelin changes. The relationships between VFM and disease severity measures suggests that VFM may provide a surrogate marker for microstructural changes related to Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27706215

  14. Injection Drug User Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL: Findings from a content validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palepu Anita


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life studies among injection drug users have primarily focused on health-related measures. The chaotic life-style of many injection drug users (IDUs, however, extends far beyond their health, and impacts upon social relationships, employment opportunities, housing, and day to day survival. Most current quality of life instruments do not capture the realities of people living with addictions. The Injection Drug Users' Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL was developed to reflect the life areas of relevance to IDUs. The present study examined the content validity of the IDUQOL using judgmental methods based on subject matter experts' (SMEs ratings of various elements of this measure (e.g., appropriateness of life areas or items, names and descriptions of life areas, instructions for administration and scoring. Methods Six SMEs were provided with a copy of the IDUQOL and its administration and scoring manual and a detailed content validation questionnaire. Two commonly used judgmental measures of inter-rater agreement, the Content Validity Index (CVI and the Average Deviation Mean Index (ADM, were used to evaluate SMEs' agreement on ratings of IDUQOL elements. Results A total of 75 elements of the IDUQOL were examined. The CVI results showed that all elements were endorsed by the required number of SMEs or more. The ADM results showed that acceptable agreement (i.e., practical significance was obtained for all elements but statistically significant agreement was missed for nine elements. For these elements, SMEs' feedback was examined for ways to improve the elements. Open-ended feedback also provided suggestions for other revisions to the IDUQOL. Conclusion The results of the study provided strong evidence in support of the content validity of the IDUQOL and direction for the revision of some IDUQOL elements.

  15. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract. Chotimah HENC, Kresnatita S, Miranda Y. 2013. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 14: 106-111. People in Central Kalimantan consume vegetables that collected from the wild or traditionally cultivated. Documentation effort of them is very important because of the diversity of local vegetable are threatened with extinction due to the conversion of peat land and forest fires. This study aims to determine the diversity of indigenous vegetables in Central Kalimantan, its use as a vegetable and nutrient content some vegetables. The method used was the exploration and interviews. Exploration carried out in three districts namely Palangkaraya, Pulang Pisau, and Seruyan. Sampling of plants was randomly and selectively. Data analysis was performed descriptively. The results showed that we recorded 42 plant species belonging to 30 families. There were many vegetables processing: stir-fry, clear soup, a light coconut milk soup, acidic soup, or just consumed as fresh vegetables. The result of nutritional value analyzed, Helminthostachys zeylanica (L. Hook had a potential to further develop whether as vegetables or medicinal plant. It had the highest protein, carbohydrate and mineral P, Fe, Na and K content among the vegetables analyzed.

  16. The Study on the Attenuation of X-ray and Imaging Quality by Contents in Stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kyung Rae; Ji, Youn Sang; Kim, Chang Bok; Choi, Seong Kwan; Moon, Sang In [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dieter, Kevin [Dept. of Physical Therapy, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    This study examined the change in the attenuation of X-rays with the ROI (Region of Interest) in DR (Digital Radiography) according to the stomach contents by manufacturing a tissue equivalent material phantom to simulate real stomach tissue based on the assumption that there is some attenuation of X-rays and a difference in imaging quality according to the stomach contents. The transit dosage by the attenuation of X-rays decreased with increasing protein thickness, which altered the average ROI values in the film and DR images. A comparison of the change in average ROI values of the film and DR image showed that the image in film caused larger density changes with varying thickness of protein than the image by DR. The results indicate that NPO (nothing by mouth) is more important in film system than in DR system.

  17. Qualitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Medina-Gutiérrez, C.; Sato-Berrú, R.; Sahagún, L. R.


    Using Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation radiation source of 514.5 nm, and principal component analysis (PCA) was elaborated a method to study qualitatively the ethanol content in tequila samples. This method is based in the OH region profile (water) of the Raman spectra. Also, this method, using the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra, can be used to distinguish silver tequila from aged tequilas. The first three PCs of the Raman spectra, that provide the 99% of the total variance of the data set, were used for the samples classification. The PCA1 and PCA2 are related with the water (or ethanol) content of the sample, whereas the PCA3 is related with the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nadim


    Full Text Available In this investigation, the mercury content of different samples of Persian Gulf shrimp and fish, Caspian sea fish and the samples of fish from Bandar Pahlavi lagoon, Zarjoub river near Rasht, Zayandehroud river near Esfahan, and Karadj river near Tehran were measured by flameless atomic absorption, cold vapor-technique, using standard addition method. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence and the extent of mercury contamination of fish and sea foods, either due to the natural geological existence of mercury compounds in the area of investigation or due to industrial pollution. The result of this study showed that the mean value of mercury content of 100 different samples of Persian Gulf shrimp was 0.24 mg/kg and the average amount of mercury in the samples of different species of Persian Gulf fish was 0.14-0.19 mg/kg and in canned tuna fish was 0.30 mg/kg. The mercury content of the samples of different species of Caspian Sea fish was between 0.07-0.51 mg/kg, the highest value was 0.51 and 0.36 mg/kg which was found in Rutilus-frisikutum and Esox lucius respectively, and the lowest amount of mercury was found in Mugliauratus (0.07 mg/kg. This study was also made on the different species of fish caught from Bandar Pahlaei lagoon which collects the water from some rives in the northern part of the country and therefore any kind of pollution in these rivers would be brought into this lagoon. The mercury content of different species of fish of Bandar Pahlavi lagoon was found to be 0.04-0.51 mg/kg. The mercury content of fish from Zarjoub river near Rasht, Zayandehroud river near Esfahan and Karadj river near Tehran was 0.07-0.23, 0.19, 0.05 mg/kg respectively. Considering the results of this investigation and the acceptable limit of mercury in fish which is 0.5 mg/kg in most countries it seems that at the present time, mercury contamination of fish and sea food is not a hygienic problem in Iran.

  19. A Study on Immersion of Hand Interaction for Mobile Platform Virtual Reality Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghun Han


    Full Text Available This study proposes gaze-based hand interaction, which is helpful for improving the user’s immersion in the production process of virtual reality content for the mobile platform, and analyzes efficiency through an experiment using a questionnaire. First, three-dimensional interactive content is produced for use in the proposed interaction experiment while presenting an experiential environment that gives users a high sense of immersion in the mobile virtual reality environment. This is designed to induce the tension and concentration of users in line with the immersive virtual reality environment. Additionally, a hand interaction method based on gaze—which is mainly used for the entry of mobile virtual reality content—is proposed as a design method for immersive mobile virtual reality environment. The user satisfaction level of the immersive environment provided by the proposed gaze-based hand interaction is analyzed through experiments in comparison with the general method that uses gaze only. Furthermore, detailed analysis is conducted by dividing the effects of the proposed interaction method on user’s psychology into positive factors such as immersion and interest and negative factors such as virtual reality (VR sickness and dizziness. In this process, a new direction is proposed for improving the immersion of users in the production of mobile platform virtual reality content.

  20. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance for the in vivo study of water content in trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, Jacob, E-mail: [Inorganic, Isotope and Actinide Chemistry, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Malone, Michael W.; Espy, Michelle A. [Applied Modern Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sevanto, Sanna [Earth Systems Observations, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging have long been used to study water content in plants. Approaches have been primarily based on systems using large magnetic fields (∼1 T) to obtain NMR signals with good signal-to-noise. This is because the NMR signal scales approximately with the magnetic field strength squared. However, there are also limits to this approach in terms of realistic physiological configuration or those imposed by the size and cost of the magnet. Here we have taken a different approach – keeping the magnetic field low to produce a very light and inexpensive system, suitable for bulk water measurements on trees less than 5 cm in diameter, which could easily be duplicated to measure on many trees or from multiple parts of the same tree. Using this system we have shown sensitivity to water content in trees and their cuttings and observed a diurnal signal variation in tree water content in a greenhouse. We also demonstrate that, with calibration and modeling of the thermal polarization, the system is reliable under significant temperature variation.

  1. Luminescence studies in InxGa1-xN epitaxial layers with different indium contents (United States)

    Wu, T. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Tiong, K. K.; Lee, Y. C.; Hu, S. Y.; Lin, L. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Feng, Z. C.


    The optical properties of InxGa1-xN epitaxial layers (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.11, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.33) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated by temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurement. The surface morphologies of InGaN samples are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The PL feature at 12 K has shown an increase in full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with increasing In content. An anomalous S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy exhibited by InGaN films with higher In content enabled the evaluation of the exciton localization energy. The broadened FWHM and S-shaped emission shift are attributed to larger compositional fluctuation due to compositional inhomogeneity of In. Additionally, the luminescence mechanism relating to the phase separation has to be considered for the much larger FWHM value and the pronounced S-shaped behavior for the InGaN samples with In content of 0.30 and 0.33.

  2. Tolerance of the carotid-sheath contents to brachytherapy: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werber, J.L.; Sood, B.; Alfieri, A.; McCormick, S.A.; Vikram, B. (Department of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, New York Medical College, Beth Israel (USA))


    Tumor invasion of the carotid artery is a potential indication for brachytherapy, which delivers a high dose of irradiation to residual tumor while limiting the dose to adjacent healthy tissues. The tolerance of carotid-sheath contents to varying doses of brachytherapy, however, has not been clearly established. In order to evaluate brachytherapy effects on carotid-sheath contents, after-loading catheters were implanted bilaterally in 3 groups of 6 rabbits each (18 rabbits). Iridium 192 brachytherapy doses of either 5000 cGy (rad), 9000 cGy, or 13,000 cGy were delivered unilaterally, with the contralateral neck serving as a nonirradiated control in each animal. There were no carotid ruptures and wound healing was normal. Two animals from each group were killed at 6, 20, and 48 weeks. Even at the highest dose (13,000 cGy), nerve conduction studies performed on the vagus nerve prior to sacrifice revealed no increased latency, histologic changes were minimal, and carotid arteries were patent. These observations suggest that the carotid-sheath contents in healthy rabbits could tolerate high doses (up to 13,000 cGy) of low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy without complications.

  3. Content of Bachelors’ in Tourism Informative Training in Ukrainian and Polish Experience: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubekhina Tetiana


    Full Text Available This article provides a comparative analysis of the content of Bachelors’ in Tourism informative training in Ukrainian and Polish experience. The content of Bachelors’ in Tourism informative training in Ukraine and Poland has been analyzed. The content of subjects, namely, “Information Technologies in Tourism” and “The Foundations of Bachelors’ in Tourism Information Culture” being the basis of Bachelors’ in Tourism informative training in Ukraine has been justified. It has been concluded that the study of foreign experience in specialists’ professional training, in particular, specialists’ in tourism, that requires critical analysis of achievements in education systems abroad and outlining of positive aspects of such experience, is extremely necessary for the development of higher education in Ukraine as the implementation of new information technologies into educational process creates optimal conditions for the forming of students’ information culture that is not limited to knowledge and skills in the field of information processing and implies the development of the personality, his/her preparation for professional careers in the information society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hassan Kawsar et al.


    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of methanol extract of whole plant of Synedrella nodiflora as well as its petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, dichloro-methane and aqueous soluble partitionates were evaluated by DPPH of (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and phosphomolybdenum total antioxidant assay and compared with standard antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and ascorbic acid (ASA. The total phenolic content was also determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent (mg of GAE/g of sample. A great variance was observed for polyphenol content as well as antioxidant activity (1.574-9.4136 mg GAE/g and DPPH IC50 10.52-31.25 μg/ml depending on the nature of solvent used to fractionate the crude extract. The result demonstrated that dichloromethane soluble fraction revealed the highest amount of phenolic compounds (9.4136 mg GAE/g and also had significant free radical scavenging activity (IC50 10.52 μg/ml. A positive correlation was observed between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity of S. nodiflora having correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.9270. The general toxicity of the extractive was studied by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and from the results (LC50 0.023-0.122 μg/ml, it can be well predicted that the crude extract and the partitionate fractions contain cytotoxic principles and have considerable toxic potencies which supported the insecticidal uses of plant by the indigenous people.

  5. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus

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    Steffi eFritsche


    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q and relative kinship (K as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM+Q and the PK mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93 % of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48 % for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the 2nd panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  6. Accuracy of a self-collection kit for the microbiological study of the vaginal content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Romero L. Passos


    Full Text Available Diagnosis of vaginal discharge is frequently performed in an empirical way, leading to inadequate treatment. This study tested the accuracy of a self-collection kit for microbiological study of the vaginal content. One hundred and forty-two women of Family Health Program units in Niterói and Piraí cities were enrolled in order to have their vaginal content studied. A brief explanation and a self-collection kit were provided in order to sample the vaginal content. The self-collection kit was composed of one empty plastic tube, two glass slides, a long handle cytobrush, an identification card and guideline notes. The vaginal sample was applied on the glass slides by the women and stained by Gram technique. A second sampling was done by the medical personnel. The microbiological diagnosis in a blinded analysis was made under optical microscopy. A validation diagnosis test was done taking the medical collection results as a gold standard. A total of 106 women had followed the protocol and were included in the study. Microbiological analysis was unsatisfactory in 12 cases (6 cases of self-collection material and 6 cases of medical collection. The microbiological analyses in the self-collection and in the medical collection material were respectively: bacterial vaginosis in 21.7% and 17.9%, non bacillar flora in 10.3% and 11.3%, vaginal trichomoniasis in 5.66% and 5.6%, candidiasis in 3.78% and 2.8% and a normal microbiota in 52.8% and 56.6%. The Kappa coefficient suggested a "very good correlation" of the microbiological results between the two methods of collection (K=0.7945. The self-collection kit provides samples for microbiological analysis of the vaginal microbiota as good as medical collection.

  7. Textbooks Content Analysis of Social Studies and Natural Sciences of Secondary School Based on Emotional Intelligence Components (United States)

    Babaei, Bahare; Abdi, Ali


    The aim of this study is to analyze the content of social studies and natural sciences textbooks of the secondary school on the basis of the emotional intelligence components. In order to determine and inspect the emotional intelligence components all of the textbooks content (including texts, exercises, and illustrations) was examined based on…

  8. A case study of alternatively trained science teachers: Attainment of pedagogical content knowledge (United States)

    Duncan, Benjamin R.

    Elements essential to effective teaching are closely aligned with the domains of a teacher's pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (Park & Oliver, 2008). Often, alternatively trained teachers enter the teaching profession lacking exposure to pedagogical events that allow these educators opportunities to reflect on their practice and construction of their PCK (Friedrichsen et al., 2007); yet little is known about the knowledge of experienced alternatively trained educators and the complexities associated with their PCK development. The purpose of this study was to describe the nature and sources of alternatively trained secondary school science teachers' PCK after gaining classroom experience. The Park and Oliver (2008) hexagon PCK model was used as the theoretical framework. A case study of two experienced secondary science teachers at a school in the southeastern region of the United States was conducted. Data were collected from multiple sources, such as interviews, classroom observations, participant field journals, lesson plans, classroom assignments, classroom assessments, and researcher's field notes. Data analysis was conducted using the constant comparative method, qualitative deductive analysis, and a content representation. The results showed that experienced alternatively trained science teachers' PCK development was heavily influenced by each teacher's orientation to science teaching. Alternatively trained science teachers compensated for their lack of pedagogical training by relying heavily upon their content knowledge, their knowledge of students, and past experiences. Even after gaining years of experience in a school setting, alternatively trained teachers still lacked familiarity with traditional educational terminology and practices, rather relying upon instructional approaches and techniques independently acquired while each teacher was in "survival" mode. This study provides several implications for teacher preparation, research, and policy.

  9. DNA content in reactive hyperplasia, precancerosis, and carcinomas of the oral cavity. A cytophotometric study. (United States)

    Doseva, D; Christov, K; Kristeva, K


    Cytophotometry has been used to study DNA content in oral epithelial cells of Feulgen-stained specimens from a total of 43 patients: 3 with erythema exudativum multiforme (EEM), 5 with pemphigus, 3 with stomatitis aphtosa, 5 with lichen ruber planus, 8 with leukoplakia, and 19 with carcinomas. In contrast to reactive hyperplasia (EEM, pemphigus, stomatitis aphthosa) leukoplakia has histograms closest to those of carcinoma, with a high percentage of cells in the polyploid regions. This emphasizes the significance of cytophotometry for diagnosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity.

  10. Multi-technique study of a ceramic archaeological artifact and its content (United States)

    Legnaioli, S.; Garcia, F. Anabitarte; Andreotti, A.; Bramanti, E.; Pace, D. Díaz; Formola, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Martini, M.; Pardini, L.; Ribechini, E.; Sibilia, E.; Spiniello, R.; Palleschi, V.

    In this paper we report the results of a study performed with different physical and chemical methods on a ceramic vase originally attributed to the I century CE. The joint use of infrared spectroscopic analysis and laser techniques, as well as pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and thermoluminescence, allowed us to characterize the vase material and its content. The chemical data were combined with morphological and stylistic examinations of the object and helped in defining its actual geographical and chronological pertinence.

  11. Incorporating formative assessment and science content into elementary science methods---A case study (United States)

    Brower, Derek John

    Just as elementary students enter the science classroom with prior knowledge and experiences, so do preservice elementary teachers who enter the science methods classroom. Elementary science methods instructors recognize the challenges associated with preparing teachers for the science classroom. Two of these challenges include overcoming limited science content understanding and a low science teaching efficacy. Based upon research in science misconceptions, conceptual change theory, formative assessment, and science teaching efficacy, this design experiment explored the use of formative assessment in an authentic learning environment to address some of these challenges. As a case study, the goal was to identify two specific topics in science which the preservice teachers did not understand and to model consistent use of formative assessment to guide instruction in those science topics for six weeks. The research questions for this study sought to explore the design of the class while also exploring students' understanding of the science content and their understanding of formative assessment. One specific question was whether the formative data could differentiate between deeply held student misconceptions in science and incomplete science understanding. In addition, data was collected to measure changes in science teaching efficacy as well as preservice teachers' desire to use formative assessment in their own future classrooms. Based upon student interviews and a final content quiz, the participants in this study did show improved science content understanding in the areas of plant food/energy and plate tectonics. The course design implemented a variety of formative assessment tools including formative assessment probes, student science notebooks, student concept maps, a non-graded quiz, and more. The STEBI-B survey identified improved science teaching efficacy among the participants. Student final essays indicated improved understanding of formative assessment

  12. A Study of the Residual 39Ar Content in Argon from Underground Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, J; Galbiati, C; Goretti, A; Guray, G; Hohman, T; Holtz, D; Ianni, A; Laubenstein, M; Loer, B; Love, C; Martoff, C J; Montanari, D; Mukhopadhyay, S; Nelson, A; Rountree, S D; Vogelaar, R B; Wright, A


    The discovery of argon from underground sources with significantly less 39Ar than atmospheric argon was an important step in the development of direct-detection dark matter experiments using argon as the active target. We report on the design and operation of a low background detector with a single phase liquid argon target that was built to study the 39Ar content of the underground argon. Underground argon from the Kinder Morgan CO2 plant in Cortez, Colorado was determined to have less than 0.65% of the 39Ar activity in atmospheric argon.

  13. Is the press release a genre? a study of form and content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger


    ; Eggins, 1994). Genre analysts who have studied press releases in particular (e.g. Frandsen et al., 1997; Jcobs, 1999) tend to share this view, but nevertheless categorize communicative events conveyed through the press release as belonging to one genre despite variation in rhetorical objectives....... This article argues that although the press release may be seen as a genre on the basis of textual form, it does not qualify for the genre label if analysed in terms of content and rhetorical objective. To substantiate my claim, I shall discuss a small corpus of press releases, all focusing on a specific...

  14. The Use of Lesson Study Combined with Content Representation in the Planning of Physics Lessons During Field Practice to Develop Pedagogical Content Knowledge (United States)

    Juhler, Martin Vogt


    Recent research, both internationally and in Norway, has clearly expressed concerns about missing connections between subject-matter knowledge, pedagogical competence and real-life practice in schools. This study addresses this problem within the domain of field practice in teacher education, studying pre-service teachers' planning of a Physics lesson. Two means of intervention were introduced. The first was lesson study, which is a method for planning, carrying out and reflecting on a research lesson in detail with a learner and content-centered focus. This was used in combination with a second means, content representations, which is a systematic tool that connects overall teaching aims with pedagogical prompts. Changes in teaching were assessed through the construct of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). A deductive coding analysis was carried out for this purpose. Transcripts of pre-service teachers' planning of a Physics lesson were coded into four main PCK categories, which were thereafter divided into 16 PCK sub-categories. The results showed that the intervention affected the pre-service teachers' potential to start developing PCK. First, they focused much more on categories concerning the learners. Second, they focused far more uniformly in all of the four main categories comprising PCK. Consequently, these differences could affect their potential to start developing PCK.

  15. [Study on estimation of deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity]. (United States)

    Hou, Yan-jun; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Zhang, Fei; Sawut, Mamat; Nurmemet, Ilyas


    Soil phosphorus provides nutrient elements for plants, is one of important parameters for evaluating soil quality. The traditional method for soil total phosphorus content (STPC) measurement is not effective and time-consuming. However, remote sensing (RS) enables us to determine STPC in a fast and efficient way. Studies on the estimation of STPC in near-infrared spectroscopy have been developed by scholars, but model accuracy is still poor due to the low absorption coefficient and unclear absorption peak of soil phosphorus in near-infrared. In order to solve the deficiency which thermal-infrared emissivity estimate desert soil total phosphorus content, and could improve precision of estimation deserts soil total phosphorus. In this paper, characteristics of soil thermal-infrared emissivity are analyzed on the basis of laboratory processing and spectral measurement of deserts soil samples from the eastern Junggar Basin. Furthermore, thermal-infrared emissivity based RS models for STPC estimation are established and accuracy assessed. Results show that: when STPC is higher than 0.200 g x kg(-1), the thermal-infrared emissivity increases with the increase of STPC on the wavelength between 8.00 microm and 13 microm, and the emissivity is more sensitive to STPC on the wavelength between 9.00 and 9.6 microm; the estimate mode based on multiple stepwise regression was could not to estimate deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity because the estimation effects of them were poor. The estimation accuracy of model based on partial least squares regression is higher than the model based on multiple stepwise regression. However, the accuracy of second-order differential estimation model based on partial least square regression is higher than based on multiple stepwise regression; The first differential of continuous remove estimation model based on partial least squares regression is the best model with R2 of correction and verification are up to

  16. [Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag]. (United States)

    Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian


    Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The

  17. Inhibitory signaling by CB1 receptors in smooth muscle mediated by GRK5/β-arrestin activation of ERK1/2 and Src kinase. (United States)

    Mahavadi, Sunila; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Huang, Jiean; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S


    We examined whether CB1 receptors in smooth muscle conform to the signaling pattern observed with other Gi-coupled receptors that stimulate contraction via two Gβγ-dependent pathways (PLC-β3 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/integrin-linked kinase). Here we show that the anticipated Gβγ-dependent signaling was abrogated. Except for inhibition of adenylyl cyclase via Gαi, signaling resulted from Gβγ-independent phosphorylation of CB1 receptors by GRK5, recruitment of β-arrestin1/2, and activation of ERK1/2 and Src kinase. Neither uncoupling of CB1 receptors from Gi by pertussis toxin (PTx) or Gi minigene nor expression of a Gβγ-scavenging peptide had any effect on ERK1/2 activity. The latter was abolished in muscle cells expressing β-arrestin1/2 siRNA. CB1 receptor internalization and both ERK1/2 and Src kinase activities were abolished in cells expressing kinase-deficient GRK5(K215R). Activation of ERK1/2 and Src kinase endowed CB1 receptors with the ability to inhibit concurrent contractile activity. We identified a consensus sequence (102KSPSKLSP109) for phosphorylation of RGS4 by ERK1/2 and showed that expression of a RGS4 mutant lacking Ser103/Ser108 blocked the ability of anandamide to inhibit acetylcholine-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis or enhance Gαq:RGS4 association and inactivation of Gαq. Activation of Src kinase by anandamide enhanced both myosin phosphatase RhoA-interacting protein (M-RIP):RhoA and M-RIP:MYPT1 association and inhibited Rho kinase activity, leading to increase of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase activity and inhibition of sustained muscle contraction. Thus, unlike other Gi-coupled receptors in smooth muscle, CB1 receptors did not engage Gβγ but signaled via GRK5/β-arrestin activation of ERK1/2 and Src kinase: ERK1/2 accelerated inactivation of Gαq by RGS4, and Src kinase enhanced MLC phosphatase activity, leading to inhibition of ACh-stimulated contraction.

  18. Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality: a qualitative content analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnama Mozhgan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirituality is a subjective and multi-dimensional concept. The ambiguity in its meaning can create barriers in its application in both education and medicine. The present study aimed to explore the Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality. Methods A qualitative study, using the content analysis approach, was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were held with 11 cancer patients and six members of their families in one of Tehran’s hospitals and a charity institute. The data generated were transcribed verbatim and content analysis approach was used for data reduction, naming data, obtaining analytical code and determining categories and themes. Results Three themes (and seven sub-themes emerged from the data analysis: 1 God as the spiritual truth (relationship with God and trust in God, 2 Moralities as a spiritual sign (considering personal and social moral codes and 3 Spiritual resources as the source of hope (religious, personal and social resources. Conclusions Overall, in the view of cancer patients, spirituality can be defined in a religious context. However, some of them believe in morality beside religiosity, so health care staff must pay due attention to these aspects, to provide them with the opportunity to use spiritual resources.

  19. The effects of CLIL on mathematical content learning: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Surmont


    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that content and language integrated learning (CLIL, an educational approach that offers content courses through more than one educational language, increases metalinguistic awareness. This improved insight into language structures is supposed to extend beyond the linguistic domain. In the present study, the question whether pupils who learn in a CLIL environment outperform their traditionally schooled peers in mathematics is investigated. In total, 107 pupils entered the study. All participants were in the first year of secondary education at a school in Ostend, in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. Thirty-five pupils followed CLIL education in a foreign language (French and 72 followed traditional education that was given in the native language (Dutch. All participants were tested using a mathematical test at the beginning of the year, after three months, and after ten months. The first measurement of the mathematical scores showed that the two groups did not differ. In accordance with our hypothesis, the CLIL group scored higher than the non-CLIL group after ten months. Surprisingly, an effect was also found after three months. To conclude, CLIL appears to have a positive impact on the mathematical performance of pupils even after a short period of time.

  20. Study of the mechanical properties of low carbon content HSLA steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illescas, S.


    Full Text Available Two high strength low alloy steels (HSLA with the same bulk composition and slight microalloying content differences were studied. The main purpose of the study was to determine the effect of different heat treatments and the influence of vanadium (V on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the bainite present in each steel. For that purpose, standard tests were conducted to determine the hardness, toughness, tensile and yield stress of the different bainite-acicular ferrite structures found in both steels. The results show how the V content promoted the formation of acicular ferrite, resulting in a decrease in hardness and tensile strength while improving toughness.

    Se han estudiado dos aceros HSLA (high strength low alloy que presentan composiciones similares, a excepción del contenido en elementos microaleantes. El propósito del estudio es determinar el efecto del tratamiento térmico y la influencia del contenido en vanadio (V sobre la microestructura y las propiedades mecánicas de la bainita en cada uno de los aceros. Para ello, se han realizado ensayos de dureza, de impacto y de tracción para cada una de las estructuras bainíticas-ferrita acicular obtenidas por medio de los diferentes tratamientos térmicos realizados. Los resultados muestran como el contenido en V promueve la formación de ferrita acicular, presentando valores bajos de dureza y resistencia mecánica pero mejorando la tenacidad.

  1. XML content warehousing: Improving sociological studies of mailing lists and web data

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Benjamin; Dudouet, François-Xavier; Colazzo, Dario; Manolescu, Ioana; Senellart, Pierre


    In this paper, we present the guidelines for an XML-based approach for the sociological study of Web data such as the analysis of mailing lists or databases available online. The use of an XML warehouse is a flexible solution for storing and processing this kind of data. We propose an implemented solution and show possible applications with our case study of profiles of experts involved in W3C standard-setting activity. We illustrate the sociological use of semi-structured databases by presenting our XML Schema for mailing-list warehousing. An XML Schema allows many adjunctions or crossings of data sources, without modifying existing data sets, while allowing possible structural evolution. We also show that the existence of hidden data implies increased complexity for traditional SQL users. XML content warehousing allows altogether exhaustive warehousing and recursive queries through contents, with far less dependence on the initial storage. We finally present the possibility of exporting the data stored in t...

  2. A candidate-gene association study for berry colour and anthocyanin content in Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cardoso

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST. Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, MYC(A, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHS(A. Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYC(B, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies.

  3. Outcome Reporting Bias in Government-Sponsored Policy Evaluations: A Qualitative Content Analysis of 13 Studies. (United States)

    Vaganay, Arnaud

    The reporting of evaluation outcomes can be a point of contention between evaluators and policy-makers when a given reform fails to fulfil its promises. Whereas evaluators are required to report outcomes in full, policy-makers have a vested interest in framing these outcomes in a positive light-especially when they previously expressed a commitment to the reform. The current evidence base is limited to a survey of policy evaluators, a study on reporting bias in education research and several studies investigating the influence of industry sponsorship on the reporting of clinical trials. The objective of this study was twofold. Firstly, it aimed to assess the risk of outcome reporting bias (ORB or 'spin') in pilot evaluation reports, using seven indicators developed by clinicians. Secondly, it sought to examine how the government's commitment to a given reform may affect the level of ORB found in the corresponding evaluation report. To answer these questions, 13 evaluation reports were content-analysed, all of which found a non-significant effect of the intervention on its stated primary outcome. These reports were systematically selected from a dataset of 233 pilot and experimental evaluations spanning three policy areas and 13 years of government-commissioned research in the UK. The results show that the risk of ORB is real. Indeed, all studies reviewed here resorted to at least one of the presentational strategies associated with a risk of spin. This study also found a small, negative association between the seniority of the reform's champion and the risk of ORB in the evaluation of that reform. The publication of protocols and the use of reporting guidelines are recommended.

  4. An Analysis of Social Studies Teachers' Perception Levels Regarding Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge (United States)

    Yesiltas, Erkan


    Web pedagogical content knowledge generally takes pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge, and Web knowledge as basis. It is a structure emerging through the interaction of these three components. Content knowledge refers to knowledge of subjects to be taught. Pedagogical knowledge involves knowledge of process, implementation, learning methods,…

  5. Content of Bachelors' in Tourism Informative Training in Ukrainian and Polish Experience: Comparative Study (United States)

    Zubekhina, Tetiana


    This article provides a comparative analysis of the content of Bachelors' in Tourism informative training in Ukrainian and Polish experience. The content of Bachelors' in Tourism informative training in Ukraine and Poland has been analyzed. The content of subjects, namely, "Information Technologies in Tourism" and "The Foundations…

  6. Managing the uncontrollable: Empirical studies of user-generated content online

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, H.H.


    Addressing "uncontrollability' of online buzz, this thesis examines unstructured user-generated content in response to corporate social responsibility communications in the blogosphere and explores the content of company-administered co-creation communities. Analyzing text-based content online, the

  7. Effects of sponsorship disclosure timing on the processing of sponsored content: a study on the effectiveness of European disclosure regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.


    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure affects viewers’ processing of sponsored content, and whether a disclosure influences the persuasive effect of the sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure enhances the recognition of sponsored televis

  8. Conductivity studies of lithium zinc silicate glasses with varying lithium contents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Deshpande; V K Shrikhande; M S Jogad; P S Goyal; G P Kothiyal


    The electrical conductivity of lithium zinc silicate (LZS) glasses with composition, (SiO2)0.527 (Na2O)0.054(B2O3)0.05(P2O5)0.029(ZnO)0.34–(Li2O) ( = 0.05, 0.08, 0.11, 0.18, 0.21, 0.24 and 0.27), was studied as a function of frequency in the range 100 Hz–15 MHz, over a temperature range from 546–637 K. The a.c. conductivity is found to obey Jonscher’s relation. The d.c. conductivity ($\\sigma_{d.c.}$) and the hopping frequency($\\omega_{h}$), inferred from the a.c. conductivity data, exhibit Arrhenius-type behaviour with temperature. The electrical modulus spectra show a single peak, indicating a single electrical relaxation time, , which also exhibits Arrhenius-type behaviour. Values of activation energy derived from $\\sigma_{d.c.}, \\omega_{h}$ and are almost equal within the experimental error. It is seen that $\\sigma_{d.c.}$ and $\\omega_{h}$ increase systematically with Li2O content up to 21 mol% and then decrease for higher Li2O content, indicating a mixed alkali effect caused by mobile Li+ and Na+ ions. The scaling behaviour of the modulus suggests that the relaxation process is independent of temperature but depends upon Li+ concentration.

  9. Flavin adenine dinucleotide content of quinone reductase 2: analysis and optimization for structure-function studies. (United States)

    Leung, Kevin Ka Ki; Litchfield, David W; Shilton, Brian H


    Quinone reductase 2 (NQO2) is a broadly expressed enzyme implicated in responses to a number of compounds, including protein kinase inhibitors, resveratrol, and antimalarial drugs. NQO2 includes a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, but X-ray crystallographic analysis of human NQO2 expressed in Escherichia coli showed that electron density for the isoalloxazine ring of FAD was weak and there was no electron density for the adenine mononucleotide moiety. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the NQO2 preparation indicated that FAD was not present and only 38% of the protomers contained flavin mononucleotide (FMN), explaining the weak electron density for FAD in the crystallographic analysis. A method for purifying NQO2 and reconstituting with FAD such that the final content approaches 100% occupancy with FAD is presented here. The enzyme prepared in this manner has a high specific activity, and there is strong electron density for the FAD cofactor in the crystal structure. Analysis of NQO2 crystal structures present in the Protein Data Bank indicates that many may have sub-stoichiometric cofactor content and/or contain FMN rather than FAD. This method of purification and reconstitution will help to optimize structural and functional studies of NQO2 and possibly other flavoproteins.

  10. Ludic content in multisensory stimulation environments: an exploratory study about practice in Portugal. (United States)

    Castelhano, Nuno; Silva, Fabiana; Rezende, Márcia; Roque, Licínio; Magalhães, Lívia


    This article aims to document the use of multisensory stimulation environments and its related perceptions, concerning ludic content, play and the computer-mediated ludic activity, from the perspective of professionals organizing and delivering therapeutic activities in these spaces with children with developmental disabilities, in Portugal. Face-to-face open interviews with 12 professionals working in multisensory stimulation environments, selected by convenience criteria, were individually recorded, transcribed and submitted to content analysis. Three main themes emerged from the data: multisensory stimulation environments offer multiple possibilities for intervention, play is part of the intervention in multisensory environments and the computer-mediated ludic experience is perceived as useful for intervention. Data suggest that multisensory stimulation environments are used as versatile spaces, both considered and explored by the interviewed professionals in its ludic potential. This fact can renew the interest in multisensory environments, in particular for the area of play in Occupational Therapy, in which the use of the computer-mediated ludic experience is a recognized possibility. Limitations of this study are associated to the level of representativeness of the interviews in relation to the diverse universe of professionals using multisensory environments. The method for collecting data is also highly sensitive to the influence of the interviewer.

  11. Opsin1-2, G(q)α and arrestin levels at Limulus rhabdoms are controlled by diurnal light and a circadian clock. (United States)

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Kempler, Karen E; Parker, Alexander K; Gaddie, Cristina D


    Dark and light adaptation in photoreceptors involve multiple processes including those that change protein concentrations at photosensitive membranes. Light- and dark-adaptive changes in protein levels at rhabdoms have been described in detail in white-eyed Drosophila maintained under artificial light. Here we tested whether protein levels at rhabdoms change significantly in the highly pigmented lateral eyes of wild-caught Limulus polyphemus maintained in natural diurnal illumination and whether these changes are under circadian control. We found that rhabdomeral levels of opsins (Ops1-2), the G protein activated by rhodopsin (G(q)α) and arrestin change significantly from day to night and that nighttime levels of each protein at rhabdoms are significantly influenced by signals from the animal's central circadian clock. Clock input at night increases Ops1-2 and G(q)α and decreases arrestin levels at rhabdoms. Clock input is also required for a rapid decrease in rhabdomeral Ops1-2 beginning at sunrise. We found further that dark adaptation during the day and the night are not equivalent. During daytime dark adaptation, when clock input is silent, the increase of Ops1-2 at rhabdoms is small and G(q)α levels do not increase. However, increases in Ops1-2 and G(q)α at rhabdoms are enhanced during daytime dark adaptation by treatments that elevate cAMP in photoreceptors, suggesting that the clock influences dark-adaptive increases in Ops1-2 and G(q)α at Limulus rhabdoms by activating cAMP-dependent processes. The circadian regulation of Ops1-2 and G(q)α levels at rhabdoms probably has a dual role: to increase retinal sensitivity at night and to protect photoreceptors from light damage during the day.

  12. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.


    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  13. How have researchers studied multiracial populations? A content and methodological review of 20 years of research. (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda; Woo, Meghan; Quach, Ashley; Erkut, Sumru


    The U.S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic makeup of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population, resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied, both to recognize emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990 to 2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals, primarily from the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, and socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; and (c) implications and recommendations for future studies.

  14. The revised Osterlind index: a comparative analysis in content validity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sanduvete-Chaves


    Full Text Available A procedure commonly used to obtain empirical evidence in content validity studies is the calculation of the Osterlind index after gathering the expert opinions about the adequacy of the items to measure a particular dimension of the tool. The aim of this work is to compare the results obtained when experts score the degree of suitability item-dimension on the traditional 3-point rating scales with the results obtained using, alternatively, 5-point ones. 105 participants valued, on 5-point rating scales, the fitness item-dimension of 31 items to 7 dimensions that composed a questionnaire to measure satisfaction with the training received. These marks were also transformed into 3-point rating scales. Comparison between Osterlind indexes calculated using scores from 5 and 3-point rating scales shows that the new propose is more conservative than the classic procedure; i.e., items considered adequate using 3-point rating scales were removed using 5-point rating scales.

  15. Prospective Study for Semantic Inter-Media Fusion in Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Roxana; Leow, Wee-Kheng; Cretu, Vladimir


    One important challenge in modern Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval (CBMIR) approaches is represented by the semantic gap, related to the complexity of the medical knowledge. Among the methods that are able to close this gap in CBMIR, the use of medical thesauri/ontologies has interesting perspectives due to the possibility of accessing on-line updated relevant webservices and to extract real-time medical semantic structured information. The CBMIR approach proposed in this paper uses the Unified Medical Language System's (UMLS) Metathesaurus to perform a semantic indexing and fusion of medical media. This fusion operates before the query processing (retrieval) and works at an UMLS-compliant conceptual indexing level. Our purpose is to study various techniques related to semantic data alignment, preprocessing, fusion, clustering and retrieval, by evaluating the various techniques and highlighting future research directions. The alignment and the preprocessing are based on partial text/image retrieval feedb...

  16. Studies of Genetic Variation of Essential Oil and Alkaloid Content in Boldo (Peumus boldus). (United States)

    Vogel, H; Razmilic, I; Muñoz, M; Doll, U; Martin, J S


    Boldo is a tree or shrub with medicinal properties native to Chile. The leaves contain alkaloids and essential oils. Variation of total alkaloid concentration, of the alkaloid boldine, and essential oil components were studied in different populations from northern, central, and southern parts of its geographic range and in their progenies (half-sib families). Total alkaloid concentration showed genetic variation between progenies of the central population but not between populations. Boldine content found in concentrations of 0.007 to 0.009% did not differ significantly between populations. Principal components of the essential oil were determined genetically, with highest values for ascaridole in the population of the north and for P-cymene in the south. Between half-sib families genetic variation was found in the central and northern populations for these components. The high heritability coefficients found indicate considerable potential for successful selection of individuals for these characters.

  17. Determination of nitrogen content in milk by the Kjeldahl method using copper sulfate: interlaboratory study. (United States)

    Grappin, R; Horwitz, W


    Copper sulfate was substituted for mercury as the catalyst in the International Dairy Federation (IDF) Standard 20A:1986 method for the determination of nitrogen content in milk. The substitution was supported by results obtained in an interlaboratory study by 24 laboratories in 12 countries. Each laboratory analyzed 12 test samples of milk as blind duplicates in a double split level design with high, medium, and low nitrogen concentrations. The method protocol requires the concurrent analyses of an ammonium salt solution and a tryptophan solution as internal quality control standards with a minimum nitrogen recovery between 99 and 100% for the former and at least 98% for the latter. The repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations are 0.5 and 1%, respectively, for the range 0.35-0.70 g N/100 g. The performance of the laboratories that did not meet the required quality control specifications was clearly poorer than that of those that did meet the specifications.

  18. Content management systems and E-commerce: a comparative case study (United States)

    Al Rasheed, Amal A.; El-Masri, Samir D.


    The need for CMS's to create and edit e-commerce websites has increased with the growing importance of e-commerce. In this paper, the various features essential for e-commerce CMS's are explored. The aim of the paper was to find the best CMS solution for e-commerce which includes the best of both CMS and store management. Accordingly, we conducted a study on three popular open source CMS's for e-commerce: VirtueMart from Joomla!, Ubercart from Drupal, and Magento. We took into account features like hosting and installation, performance, support/community, content management, add on modules and functional features. We concluded with improvements that could be made in order to alleviate problems.

  19. Collagen content as a risk factor in breast cancer? A pilot clinical study (United States)

    Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola


    A retrospective pilot clinical study on time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was exploited to assess collagen as a breast-cancer risk factor on a total of 109 subjects (53 healthy and 56 with malignant lesions). An increased cancer occurrence is observed on the 15% subset of patients with higher age-matched collagen content. Further, a similar clustering based on the percentage breast density leads to a different set of patients, possibly indicating collagen as a new independent breast cancer risk factor. If confirmed statistically and on larger numbers, these results could have huge impact on personalized diagnostics, health care systems, as well as on basic research.

  20. β-arrestin1 mediates the effect of MK-801 on levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson ', s disease%β-arrestin1参与MK-801治疗帕金森病异动症的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜; 宋璐; 杨新新; 刘振国


    目的 探讨MK-801缓解帕金森病(PD)异动症的治疗机制。方法 建立PD运动并发症大鼠模型,25只大鼠随机分为3组:异动症(LID)组10只、MK-801处理组10只、PD组5只,另设假手术组5只为对照组。观察MK-801治疗左旋多巴诱导的异动症大鼠模型的行为学变化,并采用免疫组织化学方法和Western blot印迹法检测大鼠纹状体区β-arrestin1的表达情况。结果 MK-801处理后,LID大鼠模型异常不自主运动评分降低和剂峰旋转行为减弱。免疫组织化学结果显示LID组损伤侧β-arrestin1阳性细胞指数[(2.95±0.44) ×104]明显较未损伤侧[(3.78 ±0.37)×104]降低,差异有统计学意义(t =5.415,P<0.05)。Western blot结果显示,PD模型组损毁侧与未损毁侧纹状体区β-arrestin1含量比值为81.02% ±2.23%;LID组(64.88%±3.10%)蛋白表达量进一步减少,与PD组比较,差异有统计学意义(t=9.47,P<0.01);而MK-801组蛋白表达量增高至89.26%±1.90%,与LID组相比,差异有统计学意义(t=14.82,P<0.01)。结论 MK-801能缓解LID大鼠的行为学变化,其机制可能与β-arrestin1表达增多抑制了谷氨酸受体的过度活化有关。%Objective To investigate the effect of MK-801 on levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID)in Parkinson' s disease (PD). Methods Rat models ( n = 25) of Parkinsonism related motor complications were established and were randomly divided into levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) group (n = 10), MK801 treatment group (n = 10) and PD group (n =5). Another 5 rats were served as control group. The behaviors of LID rats treated with MK-801 were observed. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to determine the expression of β-arrestin1 in the striate of rats. Results After MK-801 treatment, abnormal involuntary movement scores and peak turning were decreased in LID rats.Immunohistochemistry showed that β-arrestin1-positive cells of the lesioned side ((2

  1. Structure and content of radiology reports, a quantitative and qualitative study in eight medical centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, Jan M.L. [Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium); Faculty of Medicine, Antwerp University (Belgium)], E-mail:; Weyler, Joost J. [Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Antwerp University (Belgium); Parizel, Paul M. [Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium); Faculty of Medicine, Antwerp University (Belgium)


    Rationale and objectives: In order to determine how the quality of the radiology report can be improved, the variation in content, form and length of the report needs to be examined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare the length and structure of radiology reports (reports of abdominal CT examinations) in eight hospitals in the Netherlands and Flanders, the Dutch speaking part of Belgium. Materials and methods: Eight hundred reports - 100 from each collaborating center - were collected. After exclusion of the reports that did not fulfill the criteria for a standard CT examination of the abdomen, 525 were retained for further study. The structure of each report was analyzed and the constituting parts (technical information, description of the findings, conclusion, advice, remark, note) were determined. The character and word count of the report and its constituting parts were measured and the results were grouped according to the country (Netherlands vs. Belgium/Flanders), the qualification of the radiologist (staff members vs. residents.) and the nature of the hospital (university medical centers vs. community hospitals). Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the Netherlands and Flanders, and between staff members and residents. The authors also found a wide variety in the lay-out and the overall content of the radiology report. Conclusion: While most of the differences we found are probably rooted in local tradition, a standard model for the radiology report in centers sharing the same language may be a means to avoid interpretation mistakes by referring physicians, and to promote better care.

  2. Study on the Heat Insulation Property of Down Jackets in Relation to Down Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WANG Yun-yi; ZHANG Wei-yuan


    Based on the heat transferring theory in the humanclothing-environment system, the heat insulation property and changing pattern of down jackets in relation to its down content is mainly dealt with.By the heatedmanikin testing and the mathematical analysis to the testing data the existence of the optimum down content is found.Furthermore the reason and mechanism of the relation between down content and clothing's heat insulation property are explained.

  3. Study of possibilities of pyrite content reduction in black coals from the Mecsek Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petho, S.; Bokanyi, L.


    Certain parts of the pyrite content of coals can be removed by physical methods in inorganic form. The pyrite content of the Hungarian black coals as well as the pyrite distribution, as a function of density and grain size, are discussed. Based on literature data and laboratory experiments the pyrite content reduction by means of flotation, magnetic and gravitation enrichment is dealt with. Conclusions are drawn on how to apply these different procedures in black coal processing in Hungary.

  4. Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Guided Lesson Study: Effects on Teacher Competence and Students’ Achievement in Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lou S. Lucenario


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Guided Lesson Study (PCKLS as an intervention to develop PCK competencies among teachers and consequently enhance student achievement in terms of conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Using quasi-experimental design, teacher competencies and student achievement in the PCKLS group and the conventional group were compared. In the PCKLS group, the intervention involved planning the lesson by the research team, teaching the planned lesson while PCK observations were made by the researcher and another teacher from the group, including a feedback meeting, implementing the improvements in the reteach stage of the lesson study cycle by another teacher from the research team, and, finally, revising lesson plans based on the consolidated suggestions for improvement. Analyses of data showed that there was a significant difference in the science teacher competencies of the PCKLS group teacher respondents compared to those of the conventional group. Also, student respondents showed a significant increase on mean scores in terms of conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Therefore, it was concluded that PCKLS was an effective method to develop the teachers’ PCK competencies and student achievement in terms of conceptual understanding and problem solving. This study recommends that this intervention be used across chemistry topics and in other science classes such as Biology, Earth and Environmental Science, Physics, and Mathematics.

  5. Socialization Content in Schools and Education for Sustainable Development--II. A Study of Students' Apprehension of Teachers' Companion Meanings in ESD (United States)

    Sund, Per; Wickman, Per-Olof


    Subject content is always studied within an educational context. This context is constituted by the socialization content, which can be regarded as an educational content beyond the subject content. This is the third article of three studies (this article; Sund and Wickman 2011; Sund 2008) that together form a triangulation of possible…

  6. Using measured soil water contents to estimate evapotranspiration and root water uptake profiles - a comparative study (United States)

    Guderle, M.; Hildebrandt, A.


    Understanding the role of plants in soil water relations, and thus ecosystem functioning, requires information about root water uptake. We evaluated four different complex water balance methods to estimate sink term patterns and evapotranspiration directly from soil moisture measurements. We tested four methods. The first two take the difference between two measurement intervals as evapotranspiration, thus neglecting vertical flow. The third uses regression on the soil water content time series and differences between day and night to account for vertical flow. The fourth accounts for vertical flow using a numerical model and iteratively solves for the sink term. None of these methods requires any a priori information of root distribution parameters or evapotranspiration, which is an advantage compared to common root water uptake models. To test the methods, a synthetic experiment with numerical simulations for a grassland ecosystem was conducted. Additionally, the time series were perturbed to simulate common sensor errors, like those due to measurement precision and inaccurate sensor calibration. We tested each method for a range of measurement frequencies and applied performance criteria to evaluate the suitability of each method. In general, we show that methods accounting for vertical flow predict evapotranspiration and the sink term distribution more accurately than the simpler approaches. Under consideration of possible measurement uncertainties, the method based on regression and differentiating between day and night cycles leads to the best and most robust estimation of sink term patterns. It is thus an alternative to more complex inverse numerical methods. This study demonstrates that highly resolved (temporally and spatially) soil water content measurements may be used to estimate the sink term profiles when the appropriate approach is used.

  7. Informing Estimates of Program Effects for Studies of Mathematics Professional Development Using Teacher Content Knowledge Outcomes. (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey; Kelcey, Benjamin; Jones, Nathan; Liu, Shuangshuang


    Mathematics professional development is widely offered, typically with the goal of improving teachers' content knowledge, the quality of teaching, and ultimately students' achievement. Recently, new assessments focused on mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) have been developed to assist in the evaluation and improvement of mathematics professional development. This study presents empirical estimates of average program change in MKT and its variation with the goal of supporting the design of experimental trials that are adequately powered to detect a specified program effect. The study drew on a large database representing five different assessments of MKT and collectively 326 professional development programs and 9,365 teachers. Results from cross-classified hierarchical growth models found that standardized average change estimates across the five assessments ranged from a low of 0.16 standard deviations (SDs) to a high of 0.26 SDs. Power analyses using the estimated pre- and posttest change estimates indicated that hundreds of teachers are needed to detect changes in knowledge at the lower end of the distribution. Even studies powered to detect effects at the higher end of the distribution will require substantial resources to conduct rigorous experimental trials. Empirical benchmarks that describe average program change and its variation provide a useful preliminary resource for interpreting the relative magnitude of effect sizes associated with professional development programs and for designing adequately powered trials.

  8. A Learning Content Authoring Approach Based on Semantic Technologies and Social Networking: An Empirical Study (United States)

    Nesic, Sasa; Gasevic, Dragan; Jazayeri, Mehdi; Landoni, Monica


    Semantic web technologies have been applied to many aspects of learning content authoring including semantic annotation, semantic search, dynamic assembly, and personalization of learning content. At the same time, social networking services have started to play an important role in the authoring process by supporting authors' collaborative…

  9. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and the Gas Laws: A Multiple Case Study (United States)

    Sande, Mary Elizabeth


    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been described as an assemblage of the most powerful analogies, demonstrations, examples and illustrations that make content knowledge understandable to students, together with an understanding of the preconceptions and alternate conceptions that students bring with them to the classroom (Shulman, 1986). In…

  10. Study of nuclear reaction method for the determination of protein content in wheat seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiao-Bing; ZHANG Ruan-Yu; CHEN Shi-Guo; LI Tai-Hua; AN Zhu; CAO Yang-Shu; HE Fu-Qing; PENG Xiu-Feng; PAN Shi-Biao


    A 13.4 MeV deuteron beam from the 1.2 meter cyclotron of Sichuan University was used to determine the protein content in wheat seeds on the basis of (d,p) reactions. The influence of the variation of the water content in seeds has been investigated.

  11. Sharing Time in Kindergarten: A Study of the Relationship between Structure and Content. (United States)

    Lazarus, Peggy; Homer, Susan L.

    Two sessions of a kindergarten show and tell (spaced 18 days apart) were observed to compare the participant structure and the content of this shared time. Participant structure was examined in terms of turn taking, spatial arrangement, and teacher management of the event. Content was analyzed in terms of topic and cognitive level. The changes in…

  12. Technical Communications in OSS Content Management Systems: An Academic Institutional Case Study (United States)

    Cripps, Michael J.


    Single sourcing through a content management system (CMS) is altering technical communication practices in many organizations, including institutions of higher education. Open source software (OSS) solutions are currently among the most popular content management platforms adopted by colleges and universities in the United States and abroad. The…

  13. Study of elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil with high organic content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huie; WANG Qing; CAI Keyi


    On the basis of elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil, the authors took organic contents into reasonable damage variable evolution equation in order to seek relation between the organic contents and parameters in the equation, and established the elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil considering organic contents. The results show that the parameters change correspondingly with difference of the organic contents. The higher the organic contents are, the less the valves of the parameters such as elastic modulus (E), material parameters (K, n) and damage evolution parameter (ε) become, but the larger strain damage threshold value (εd) of the sample is. Meanwhile, the calculation results obtained from established model are compared with the test data in the condition of common indoors test, which is testified with reliability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzeloo Moghadam et al


    Full Text Available Antioxidants have important role in prevention and treatment of disorders and plants are considered as rich sources of radical scavenging compounds. Nowadays, many herbs are used in dried form which is possible to affect their antioxidant activity. In the present investigation, the effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content of some culinary plant species have been studied. Leaves of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolense were dried in sun, shade, oven and microwave and extracted with methanol. Antioxidant activity of each extract was determined by DPPH free radicals and total phenolics content was measured by folin cio-calteus reagent. The results revealed that drying process reduced the antioxidant activity of Anethum graveolense whereas sun-drying and shade-drying increased the antioxidant activity of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae. During sun-drying and shade-drying, total phenolics content increased for the three plants of Lamiaceae while oven- and microwave-drying reduced the phenolics content. Drying also declined the phenolics content of Anethum graveolense which gives the conclusion that some kind of correlation could be established between total phenolics content and antioxidant behavior for the three Lamiaceae and Anethum graveolense. Our study brought the view that diversity in the methods of drying could lead to different phenolics content and antioxidant behavior, suggesting that each plant needs a special drying method.

  15. Study on the Correlations between Mineral Contents in Musculus Longissimus Dorsi and Meat Quality for Five Breeds of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REN Guang-zhi


    Full Text Available The correlations between mineral contents in musculus longissimus dorsi and meat quality for five breeds of pigs were studied in this experiment. Two imported breeds (Duroc and Yorkshires and three local breeds (Huainan pig, Nanyang black pig, Queshan black pig from Henan province of China were chosen in this trial. Ten 90 kg finishing pigs were selected randomly to slaughter from each breed. Mineral contents of K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in musculus longissimus dorsi were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and their correlations with meat quality were also analyzed. The results showed : (1 Mn and protein contents had no significant difference among all the breeds (p>0.05, (2 K content in Duroc was higher than that in the other four breeds significantly (p<0.01, (3 Mineral contents of Na, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in local breeds were higher than that in the imported breeds significantly (p<0.01, (4 Marble stripes and meat colour in local breeds were superior to the imported ones, (5 Intramuscular fat content of local breeds was higher than that of the imported ones (p<0.01, (6 There was a significant positive correlation between Zn and the other mineral contents in the muscle (p<0.01 or p<0.05, (7 Both Cu and Fe contents had a significant positive correlation with meat color (p<0.05, but negative correlation with drip loss (p<0.05, (8 There was a positive correlation between Zn and intramuscular fat content (p<0.01, but negative correlation between Zn and drip loss (p<0.01. In conclusion, Minerals in muscle had significant correlations with meat quality elements, but no significant correlations with meat protein and fat contents.

  16. Study of optical properties and proteoglycan content of tendons by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Wimpenny, Ian; Weightman, Alan


    The highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons play a critical role for transferring tensile stress, and they demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans (PGs) have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. PGs are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; the changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathies. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between PG content/location and birefringence properties of tendons. Fresh chicken tendons were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarization light microscopy during the extraction of PGs, using guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). Complementary time-lapsed images taken from the two modalities mutually demonstrated that the extraction of PGs disturbed the local organization of collagen bundles. This corresponded with a decrease in birefringence and associated banding pattern observed by PS-OCT. Furthermore, this study revealed there was a higher concentration of PGs in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles, and therefore the change in birefringence was reduced when extraction was performed on unsheathed tendons. The results provide new insights of tendon structure and the role of PGs on the structural stability of tendons, which also demonstrates the great potential for using PS-OCT as a diagnostic tool to examine tendon pathology.

  17. Content and Vulnerability of Fossil Organic Matter in Ice-Rich Siberian Permafrost - a Case Study (United States)

    Strauss, Jens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Wetterich, Sebastian


    During the late Pleistocene, a large pool of organic matter (OM) accumulated in ice-rich deposits of the arctic permafrost zone. Because of the potential re-introduction of this stored carbon into the global cycle from degrading permafrost (i.e. decomposed OM) as climate-relevant gases, the OM inventory of ice-rich permafrost deposits is important to current concerns about global warming. The objective of this presentation is to deduce the quality of OM stored in the studied permafrost sediments. The approach to estimate the OM quality is to use degradation parameters (e.g. C/N, δ13C) based on the assumption that low degraded OM is more labile and has higher vulnerability for decomposition. Standard sedimentological and a molecular marker (biomarker) approach are applied. The study site is located on the west coast of the Buor Khaya Peninsula (N 71.6°, E 132.2°), Laptev Sea (Russia). Stratigraphically, two sediment units are distinguished. The first unit is composed of late Pleistocene ice-rich permafrost (Yedoma). The second unit consists of Holocene thermokarst (Alas) deposits. The mean bulk density of sediments from both units is ca. 1 g/cm³. The average total organic carbon (TOC) content is 2.4 wt% for Yedoma, 2.8 wt% for thermokarst deposits. The volumetric organic carbon contents of the Yedoma and thermokarst deposits are 13 ± 11 kg/m³ and 22 ± 11 kg/m³, respectively. The degree of OM degradation from both units is low (mean C/N 10, mean δ13C -26.5 ‰) because the deposits accumulated at relatively fast rates and the OM underwent only a short time of decomposition before it was incorporated into permafrost. Originating from microorganisms, archaeal lipids like archaeol can be used as a marker for methanogenic microbial communities or as a proxy for past microorganism activity. The archaeol concentrations reveal higher microbial activity in thermokarst deposits than in Yedoma deposits. The n-alkane and n-fatty acid parameters (carbon preference index

  18. Quantitative analysis of Internet television and video (WebTV: A study of formats, content, and source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Borja ARJONA MARTÍN


    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the last five years of audiovisual content distribution over the web, this paper is focused on a study aimed at the description and classification of a wide sample of audiovisual initiatives whose access is carried out by means of the World Wide Web. The purpose of this study is to promote the debate concerning the different names of these incipient media, as well as their categorization and description so that an organised universe of the WebTV phenomenon could be provided. An analysis of formats and content is carried out on the basis of quantitative techniques in order to propose a categorization typology. These formats and content will be studied under three key variables: "Content", "Origin" and "Domain .tv". "Content" will help us define the programmatic lines of our study sample; “Source” refers to the source of a particular item of study (“Native WebTV or WebTV representative of a conventional media and "" will specify the proportion of case studies hosted with domain .tv. The results obtained in this study will offer the researchers and the professionals a comprehensive description of the models currently adopted in the field of video and television on the net.

  19. Experimental study on the relation between the water content of surface soil and the acoustic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to investigate the relation between the water content changing of surface soil and micro-quake recorded before earthquakes, we carried out a simulation experiment in laboratory. Its purpose is to explore whether the acoustic wave generated by micro-fracturing before earthquake are able to change water content of surface soil, so as to understand the relation between thermal anomaly in the remote sensing image got from the seismogenic area and the coming earthquake. The result of the experiment shows that when the acoustic wave enters into the surface soil the water content here increases on the background of decreasing due to natural evaporation. In the meantime, temperature here decreases.

  20. Trends in Studies on Virtual Learning Environments in Turkey between 1996-2014 Years: A Content Analysis (United States)

    Demirer, Veysel; Erbas, Cagdas


    This study aims to review studies on virtual learning environments in Turkey through the content analysis method. 63 studies consisting of thesis, articles and proceedings published in Turkish and English between 1996-2014 years were analyzed. It was observed that "Second Life" was mostly preferred as the virtual learning environment.…

  1. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study (United States)

    Hoad, C. L.; Marciani, L.; Foley, S.; Totman, J. J.; Wright, J.; Bush, D.; Cox, E. F.; Campbell, E.; Spiller, R. C.; Gowland, P. A.


    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention.

  2. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoad, C L [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Marciani, L [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Foley, S [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Totman, J J [Brain and Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Wright, J [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Bush, D [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cox, E F [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Campbell, E [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Spiller, R C [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Gowland, P A [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)


    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug interventio000.

  3. Laser-based single-axon transection for high-content axon injury and regeneration studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Kunik

    Full Text Available The investigation of the regenerative response of the neurons to axonal injury is essential to the development of new axoprotective therapies. Here we study the retinal neuronal RGC-5 cell line after laser transection, demonstrating that the ability of these cells to initiate a regenerative response correlates with axon length and cell motility after injury. We show that low energy picosecond laser pulses can achieve transection of unlabeled single axons in vitro and precisely induce damage with micron precision. We established the conditions to achieve axon transection, and characterized RGC-5 axon regeneration and cell body response using time-lapse microscopy. We developed an algorithm to analyze cell trajectories and established correlations between cell motility after injury, axon length, and the initiation of the regeneration response. The characterization of the motile response of axotomized RGC-5 cells showed that cells that were capable of repair or regrowth of damaged axons migrated more slowly than cells that could not. Moreover, we established that RGC-5 cells with long axons could not recover their injured axons, and such cells were much more motile. The platform we describe allows highly controlled axonal damage with subcellular resolution and the performance of high-content screening in cell cultures.

  4. A Study in Blue: The Baryon Content of Isolated Low Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bradford, Jeremy D; Blanton, Michael R


    We study the baryon content of low mass galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR8), focusing on galaxies in isolated environments where the complicating physics of galaxy-galaxy interactions are minimized. We measure neutral hydrogen (HI) gas masses and line-widths for 148 isolated galaxies with stellar mass between $10^7$ and $10^{9.5} M_{\\odot}$. We compare isolated low mass galaxies to more massive galaxies and galaxies in denser environments by remeasuring HI emission lines from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey 40% data release. All isolated low mass galaxies either have large atomic gas fractions or large atomic gas fractions cannot be ruled out via their upper limits. We measure a median atomic gas fraction of $f_{\\rm gas} = 0.82 \\pm 0.13$ for our isolated low mass sample with no systems below 0.30. At all stellar masses, the correlations between galaxy radius, baryonic mass and velocity width are not significantly affected by environment. Finally, we estimate a median b...

  5. Studies on Total Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts from Selected Salvia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viorica Pop Cuceu


    Full Text Available Salvia is one of the largest genera in the family of Labiatae, comprising about 900 species distributed widely throughout the world. Many species of Salvia are commonly used as herbal tea and for food flavoring, as well as in cosmetics, perfumery and in the pharmaceutical industry. The present study compares the antioxidant properties of four methanolic extracts, obtained by two extraction methods, from Salvia elegans, Salvia officinalis Purpurascens, Salvia officinalis Tricolor and Salvia lavandulifolia. The amount of total phenolics was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the antioxidant activity of selected herbs was determined with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total amount of phenolics was between 1122.50 and 3672.16 mg GAE/100g dry plant for the first methanolic extract, while for the second extract was between 767.66 and 2725.04mg GAE/100g dry plant. A positive linear correlation was observed between total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results suggested that the extracts of Salvia species, notably Salvia officinalis Tricolor with the highest antioxidant activity, can be used as natural antioxidants in the food industry.

  6. Synthesis and magnetic properties study of a Nickel Cobalt Zinc Ferrite with low Zn O content

    CERN Document Server

    Hoor, M


    Attempt is made, in this work, to prepare and study the microstructure and magnetic properties of a Ni CO Zn ferrite compound with very low Zn O content of Ni sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 6 sub 7 Zn sub 0 sub . sub 0 7 Co sub 0.015 Fe sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 1 sub 1 O sub 4 composition. All of the samples were prepared by conventional ceramic route and the samples were sintered at 1150, 1200, 1250 and 1300 sup d eg sup C for 2 hr s. It was shown that, the higher the sintering temperature, the higher was saturation magnetisation, the measured relative permeability and the lower was H sub c of the samples. These were related to the increased sintered densities and grain size observed. Further, the highest quality factor (Q-factor) was obtained for the sample sintered at 1250 sup d eg sup C. The observed magnetic properties are assessed in relation with microstructure.

  7. A prospective study of the clinical content of palliative medicine interdisciplinary team meetings. (United States)

    Powazki, Ruth D; Walsh, Declan; Shrotriya, Shiva


    Structured interprofessional communication should improve the structure and clarity of the plan of care. The interdisciplinary team meeting (IDTM) is an opportunity for shared information on patients' and family care needs. We report a prospective observations study of palliative medicine IDTM, which recorded the clinical issues discussed. One hundred and forty-five disparate clinical items were identified for 59 patients and were discussed by the IDTM in about 240 minutes. By content analysis and research meeting consensus, they were grouped into 9 agreed interdisciplinary themes. The 9 themes were then subjected to biostatistical analysis and 3 communication clusters identified. Themes consisted of 3 major communication clusters: (1) clinical services, (2) psychosocial, and (3) care plan. Two themes (information exchange and clinical transitions) did not cluster. The IDTM identified patient care need, reported concerns, and supported collaboration in proactive patient care plans. Future research projects with more patients and a large number of meetings can confirm our findings. This should also examine specific contributions by professional discipline.

  8. DSC study of phase transition of anhydrous phospholipid DHPC and influence of water content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王邦宁; 谈夫


    The phase transition behavior of 1,2-di-n-heptadecanoyl phosphatidylcholme (DHPC)with and without water has been studied by use of differential scanning calorimetry It was found by experiment that the glass transition occurred at first during the first heating of a sample of DHPC without water and then the sample underwent melting as an ordinary crystal.Therefore the sample of DHPC without water was a glassy crystal However,the DHPC sample crystallizing from melt was an ordinary crystal From the relationship between the total melting enthalpy Qf of freezable water and the water content h,it was concluded that the water contained in the DHPC samples might exist in three states recognizable thermodynamically.The water in the first state was an unfreezable water It was the water bound directly with the head groups of the phospholipid,i.e.the primary hydration water Every head group might bind seven such molecules of water.The water in the second state was the secondary hydration water,us melt ing point was

  9. Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorio Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Methods Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Results Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. Conclusion To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status.

  10. Study of the Total Electron Content in Mars ionosphere from MARSIS data set (United States)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Witasse, Olivier; Kofman, Wlodek; Grima, Cyril; Mouginot, Jeremie; Peter, Kerstin; Pätzold, Martin; Dehant, Véronique


    Centimeter level accuracy on the signal delay will be required on X-band radio link for future Mars landers such as InSIGHT, aiming at better determining the interior structure of Mars. One of the main error sources in the estimated signal delay is directly linked to the Total Electron Content (TEC) values at Earth and Mars ionosphere level. While the Earth ionosphere is now well modeled and monitored at regional and global scales, this is not the case concerning the Mars' upper atmosphere. The present paper aims at establishing the basis to model the climatological behavior of the TEC on a global scale in the Mars' ionosphere. For that we analyzed ˜8.5 years of data (mid-2005 to 2014) of the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) expressed in TEC units (1 TECu = 1016e-.m-2) from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) radar. Our study takes advantage of the double data set of EUV solar index and Mars vTEC data to develop an empirical Model of Mars Ionosphere (MoMo). The finality of this model is to predict the vTEC at a given latitude, solar zenith angle and season taking only F10.7P solar index as input. To minimize the differences during the least-square adjustment between the modeled and observed vTEC, we considered (1) a 4th-order polynomial function to describe the vTEC diurnal behavior (2) a discretization with respect to Mars seasons (depending on Ls) and (3) two latitudinal sectors (North and South hemispheres). The mean of the differences between the model and the observations is 0.00±0.07 TECu with an error of the model around 0.1 TECu depending on the Solar Zenith Angle (SZA), season and hemisphere of interest (e.g. rms 0.12 TECu for SZA equal to 50°±5° in the Northern hemisphere during the spring season). Additionally, comparison with 250 Mars Express radio occultation data shows differences with MoMo predictions of 0.02±0.06 TECu for solar zenith angles below 50 degrees. Using the model we (1) highlighted

  11. Microscopy studies on pronton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes with different ionomer contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Shuang; Solterbeck, Claus Henning; Odgaard, Madeleine;


    content in the catalyst layer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out on selective electrodes to provide additional information and confirmed with the AFM results. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed that the electrode containing 30 wt.% ionomer has maximum catalyst utilization....

  12. Studies on the effect of dietary protein and fat content upon DDT metabolism in rat liver. (United States)

    Ando, M


    Rats were supplied with 25 kinds of food, which were divided into 5 classes of protein and 5 classes of fat content, to examine the effect of dietary protein and fat on the metabolism and retention of DDT in the liver. The results suggested that dietary protein and fat changed DDT and its metabolites concentration in liver. The concentration of DDT decreases according to the increase of dietary protein content. The concentration of DDT and its metabolites in liver increases when the dietary fat content increases. Polynomial and multiple regression analyses were carried out to confirm the effect of dietary protein and fat on DDT metabolism. The results suggest that the residual concentration of DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) is a function of dietary protein and fat content, and can be represented in equation form. The estimation of the concentration of DDT and its metabolites from the equation agrees well with the measured concentration in liver.

  13. A Study on Educational Contents for Improving College Students’ Awareness of Food and Their Cooking Skills


    長屋, 郁子; 水田, 千尋; 大場, 君枝


    A questionnaire survey was conducted on contents of cooking exercises for improving college students’ awareness of food and their cooking skills. Students who are active in kitchen knife exercise at home take breakfast every morning and their breakfasts are complete with staple food, main dish, and side dishes. Therefore, the educational contents to encourage students to increase the frequency of positive and continuous home cooking may possibly lead to improvement of students’ awareness of f...

  14. A kinetic study on pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of oil cakes:Effect of cellulose and lignin content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramakrishna Gottipati; Susmita Mishra


    Pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of three different oil cakes such as Pongamia ( Pongamia Pinnata), Madhuca (Madhuca Indica), and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) were investigated in this study.The cellulose and lignin contents of oil cakes play very important role in pyrolysis and combustion processes.A kinetic investigation of three oil cakes was carried out and major part of the samples decomposed between 210 ℃ and 500 ℃.Pyrolysis and combustion were carried out with the mixtures of cellulose and lignin chemicals in different ratios and compared with the oil cakes.The biomass with higher cellulose content showed faster rate of pyrolysis than the biomass with higher lignin content.However at higher temperatures ( >600 ℃ ) all the oil cakes exhibited similar conversion at low heating rate in N2 atmosphere.Apparent activation energies increased for Madhuca and Pongamia oil cakes indicating the presence of more cellulose whereas, low activation energy of Jatropha confirms more lignin content.

  15. Study on Model of Correlation Between Chemical Element Contents in Tree Rings and Soils near Tree Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The chemical element contents in tree rings are correlated with those in the soils near the tree roots,The results in the present study showed that the correlation between them could be described using the following logarithmic linear correlation model:lgC'(Z)=a(Z)+b(Z)lgC(Z).Therefor,by determining the chrono-sequence C(Z,t),where Z is the atomic number and t the year,of elemental contents in the annual growth rings of trees,we could get the chrono-sequence C'(Z,t) of elemental contents in the soil,thus inferring the dynaminc variations of relevant elemental contents in the soil.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savu Cristian Florian


    Full Text Available STUDY ON THE CONTENT OF PHYSICAL TRAINING IN JUNIOR I BASKETBALL PLAYERS24 october 2015 back Current archive Domain:Sport de performanta Tags:sport training physical training physiological indicators Savu Cristian Florian Abstract Sports training must benefit from scientific progress of fundamental research, which he conducted on it considerably influence through concrete answers in getting sports performance. Sports training must be subjected to rational application of principles and objectives to ensure a successful and analysing progress in training. Research objectives: To assess the level of general and specific physical training of junior basketball players I in dependent on the objectives of the team and the game. Determine the program for general and specific physical training and operational resources necessary in the framework of the annual training and incorporation of periods of junior basketball players I. Experimental verification of the rationale and effectiveness of sports training methodology based on global and differentiated treatment of General and specific physical training of junior basketball players I. Studies and research will demonstrate that the level of physical preparation has baschetbalistilor is characterized by a rather large difference in age, the dependence of the athletes and team performance goals to which they belong. Contributing research: Investigation will show that the physical training of basketball is characterized by a pretty big difference, depending on the age of the athletes playing position and team performance objectives they belong. Today, basketball is trying to universalise game stations, where each athlete can perform tasks, skills and abilities of every post game in different situations. Our research is based on the scientific-methodical argument preparation and differentiated global players primarily in terms of physical preparation. Hypothesis paper: General and specific physical

  17. Studies on Medicago lupulina saponins. 4. Variation in the saponin content of M. lupulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górski


    Full Text Available The saponin content in the tops of black medic trefoil cv. Renata as well as in some botanical and breeding lines of M. lupulina was analysed. It was found that the concentration of biologically active (hemolytically active saponins in the tops of M. lupulina cv. Renata was 2.5% of dry matter. Total saponin content was 3.5% of dry matter. Among 500 individually analysed plants of the Renata variety, the saponin contents ranged from 0.07 to 0.5% in the leaf sap. No saponin-free plant was found. The saponin content was additionally analysed in 300 breeding and 11 botanical lines of M. lupulina. Great differences in that material were found but no saponin-free line was present. The saponin content in the particular plant parts as well as in the whole tops of M. lupulina throughout the vegetation season was also measured. The possibility and necessity of the selection for a low saponin population of M. lupulina is discussed.

  18. Singapore Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge: Findings from an International Comparative Study (United States)

    Toh, Tin Lam; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Koay, Phong Lee


    In this article, we explore the mathematical content knowledge of one entire cohort of pre-service teachers (N = 107) through analysing their performance in a Secondary Mathematics Audit that was developed for the International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Teacher Training that was initiated by the University of Plymouth. We study how their…

  19. Adipose tissue omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid content and breast cancer in the euramic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsen, N.; Veer, P. van 't; Strain, J.J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Huttunen, J.K.; Navajas, J.F.-C.; Martin, B.C.; Thamm, M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kohlmeier, L.


    The fatty acid content of adipose tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer cases and controls from five European countries in the European Community Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer (EURAMIC) breast cancer study (1991-1992) was used to explore the hypothesis that fa

  20. Content Analysis of 1998-2012 Empirical Studies in Science Reading Using a Self-Regulated Learning Lens (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Yen, Miao-Hsuan; Chang, Wen-Hua; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Sufen


    There is an increasing interest in conducting reading-related studies in science education using a self-regulated learning (SRL) lens. This exploration involved a content analysis of 34 articles (38 studies in total) in highly regarded journals from 1998 to 2012 using an SRL interpretative framework to reveal critical features and relationships in…

  1. Content Peculiarities of Master's Professional Foreign Language Training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the Universities of Slovakia (United States)

    Shumeiko, Natalia


    The article is devoted to the content analysis of peculiarities of Master's professional foreign language training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the universities of Slovakia. In the context of globalization and integration processes the study of European countries' experience, in particular, of the Slovak Republic has been…

  2. Seismic studies of coal bed methane content in the west coal mining area of Qinshui Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Guangui⇑; Peng Suping; Yin Caiyun; Xu Yanyong; Chen Fengying; Liu Jinkai


    The coal bed methane content (CBMC) in the west mining area of Jincheng coalfield, southeastern Qinshui Basin, is studied based on seismic data and well-logs together with laboratory measurements. The results show that the Shuey approximation has better adaptability according to the Zoeppritz equation result;the designed fold number for an ordinary seismic data is sufficient for post-stack data but insufficient for pre-stack data regarding the signal to noise ratio (SNR). Therefore a larger grid analysis was created in order to improve the SNR. The velocity field created by logging is better than that created by stack velocity in both accuracy and effectiveness. A reasonable distribution of the amplitude versus offset (AVO) attributes can be facilitated by taking the AVO response from logging as a standard for calibrating the amplitude distribution. Some AVO attributes have a close relationship with CBMC. The worst attri-bute is polarization magnitude, for which the correlation coefficient is 0.308; and the best attribute is the polarization product from intercept, of which the correlation coefficient is ?0.8136. CBMC predicted by AVO attributes is better overall than that predicted by direct interpolation of CBMC; the validation error of the former is 14.47%, which is lower than that of the latter 23.30%. CBMC of this area ranges from 2.5 m3/t to 22 m3/t. Most CBMC in the syncline is over 10 m3/t, but it is below 10 m3/t in the anticline;on the whole, CBMC in the syncline is higher than that in anticline.

  3. The study of optical properties and proteoglycan content of tendons by PS-OCT (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Weightman, Alan; Wimpenny, Ian; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Ahearne, Mark


    Tendons are load-bearing collagenous tissues consisting mainly of type I collagen and various proteoglycans (PGs) including decorin and versican. It is widely accepted that highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons a play critical role for transferring tensile stress and demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. Tendinopathy (defined as a syndrome of tendon pain, tenderness and swelling that affects the normal function of the tissue) is a common disease associated with sporting injuries or degeneration. PG's are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathy. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between proteoglycan content/location and birefringent properties of tendons. Tendons dissected from freshly slaughtered chickens were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarizing light microscope during the extraction of PGs or glycosaminoglycans using established protocols (guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) or proteinase K solution). The macroscopic and microscopic time lapsed images are complimentary; mutually demonstrating that there was a higher concentration of PG's in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles; and the integrity of the sheath affected extraction process and the OCT birefringence bands. Extraction of PGs using GuHCl disturbed the organization of local collagen bundles, which corresponded to a reduction in the frequency of birefringence bands and the band width by PS-OCT. The feature of OCT penetration depth helped us to define the heterogeneous distribution of PG's in tendon, which was complimented by polarizing light microscopy. The results provide new insight of tendon structure and also demonstrate a great potential for using PS-OCT as a

  4. Study of the Impact of Initial Moisture Content in Oil Impregnated Insulation Paper on Thermal Aging Rate of Condenser Bushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyuan Wang


    Full Text Available This paper studied the impact of moisture on the correlated characteristics of the condenser bushings oil-paper insulation system. The oil-impregnated paper samples underwent accelerated thermal aging at 130 °C after preparation at different initial moisture contents (1%, 3%, 5% and 7%. All the samples were extracted periodically for the measurement of the moisture content, the degree of polymerization (DP and frequency domain dielectric spectroscopy (FDS. Next, the measurement results of samples were compared to the related research results of transformer oil-paper insulation, offering a theoretical basis of the parameter analysis. The obtained results show that the moisture fluctuation amplitude can reflect the different initial moisture contents of insulating paper and the mass ratio of oil and paper has little impact on the moisture content fluctuation pattern in oil-paper but has a great impact on moisture fluctuation amplitude; reduction of DP presents an accelerating trend with the increase of initial moisture content, and the aging rate of test samples is higher under low moisture content but lower under high moisture content compared to the insulation paper in transformers. Two obvious “deceleration zones” appeared in the dielectric spectrum with the decrease of frequency, and not only does the integral value of dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ reflect the aging degree, but it reflects the moisture content in solid insulation. These types of research in this paper can be applied to evaluate the condition of humidified insulation and the aging state of solid insulation for condenser bushings.

  5. Investigation of Polyhenolic Content of Rose Hip (Rosa canina L. Tea Extracts: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep İlbay


    Full Text Available Three different brands of Rose hip (Rosa canina L. tea were extracted with water, ethanol (EtOH, methanol (MeOH, and aqueous mixtures (50%, v/v by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and Soxhlet methods. Total phenolic content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were presented by means of the extract yields and total phenolic contents, expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g of dried matter (DM. The greatest amount of extract observed in tea samples was obtained by UAE through water with the value of 619.37 ± 0.58 mg/g DM. Regarding the phenolic content, the best result was achieved by the Soxhlet method through 50% MeOH mixture (59.69 ± 0.89 mg GAE/g DM, followed by the UAE method with water (48.59 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DM.

  6. A study of quantitative content analysis of health messages in U.S. media from 1985 to 2005. (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer; Blake, Nancy


    Content analysis is a research method that was traditionally utilized by communication scholars, but as the study of media messages has grown, scholars in other fields have increasingly relied on the methodology. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies using quantitative content analysis methods to examine health messages in the mass media, excluding the Internet, from 1985 to 2005. We searched for health-related content analysis studies published in peer-reviewed journals, identifying 441 articles meeting inclusion criteria. We examined article attributes including theories used, topics, media type, and intercoder reliability measures, and looked at differences over time. Our findings show that studies focusing on health-related messages increased from 1985 to 2005. During this time, studies primarily examined magazines, television, and newspapers, with an emphasis on topics related to substance use, violence, sex, and obesity and body image. Results suggest that studies published in communication journals are significantly more likely to include intercoder reliability data and theory discussion. We recommend that all publications, regardless of discipline or impact factor, request the inclusion of intercoder reliability data reported for individual variables, and suggest that authors address theoretical concepts when appropriate. We also encourage authors to include the term "content analysis," as well as media type and health topic studied, as keywords to make it easier to locate articles of interest when conducting literature searches.

  7. The Study of Low Surface Energy Fluorocarbon Coatings with Fluor Content Being Lower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wan-zhen; LIU Xiu-sheng; ZHONG Ping


    A kind of low surface energy fluorocarbon coatings from the synthesized fluoro-acrylic resin was developed.The molecule orientation principle of nonpolar and polar functional groups in the coatings was analyzed. The contact angles of pure water drops on the surfaces of various fluoro-monomer homopolymers and interpolymers were measured. The relation of coatings' fluoro-content with the surface energy was determined. The distribution of fluoric functional groups in the coatings was investigated. The test results show that though the total content of fluor of the fluorocarbon coatings is relative few, their surface energy is really low due to the enrichment of fluoro-chains on the surfaces.

  8. Preliminary Study on the Standard of Selenium Content in Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-yuan; YOU Yong; GUO Qing-quan; WANG Yong-hong; DENG Shi-lin


    With the improvement of living standards, people pay more attention to the agricultural products with health protection function, and the selenium-rich agricultural products attract more and more consumers. The main biological role of selenium is to resist oxidation and inflammatory response, mainly focusing on resisting aging, preventing cardiovascular disease, protecting eyesight, counteracting or destroying the toxic properties, preventing cancer and thyroid disease. In most areas of China, there is a widespread shortage of selenium, thus producing selenium-rich agricultural products to provide natural selenium-rich health food to the areas in need of selenium, has gradually become a new hot spot of China’s health food industry, but high content of selenium in food is detrimental to human body, even leads to selenium intoxication, and artificially adding inorganic selenium is difficult to guarantee that the selenium content of agricultural products is not exceeded. According to human body’s daily demand for selenium in dietetics and the content of selenium in agricultural products in the Chinese food composition table, we put forward the recommendations on the standard of selenium in agricultural products, in order to provide the basis for China to formulate the health standard of selenium content in selenium-rich agricultural products.

  9. A Long Term Study of the Water Content Changes in Three Types of Hydrogel Contact Lenses. (United States)


    Linder 4 0 described the procedures of wet end dry state weight measurement method. In 1983 Snyder nd Koers discussed that same method and included...arid. Koers , D.M. Water Content Measurement of Hydroel Lenses--Does Technique Make a Difference? Intern Contact Lens Clin ,’ 1963;10(6):344-346

  10. A Comparative Study on Properties of Malaysian Porous Asphalt Mixes with Different Bitumen Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Yusri Aman


    Full Text Available Inadequate bitumen content in porous pavement construction may result in incomplete coating of aggregates which a thin bitumen film can oxidize rapidly resulting in premature failure of the pavement. This and presents the effects of porous asphalt prepared with 4.0% and up to 6.0% binder content with 0.5% increments binder. Bitumen penetration grade 60/70 and crushed granite were used in preparing the porous asphalt specimen. The porous asphalt mixes were compacted by applying 50 blows on each face using a Marshall Impact compactor. The specimens were tested for air voids, indirect tensile strength and water permeability and abrasion loss. The moisture sensitivity was assessed according to the AASHTO T283 procedures. The result shows that the increasing of bitumen content has decreased the, bulk density air voids, coefficient of permeability and abrasion loss values However, the Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS has significantly increased and this is a good indication to resistance against moisture sensitivity. It can be concluded that the increasing of bitumen content in porous asphalt has increased the thickness of binder coating around the aggregates. This results reduction in air voids and water permeability, on the other hands it increases resistance to disintegration and ITS value which give better resistance to moisture sensitivity of porous specimens.

  11. Nutrient Content of Consumed Elementary School Lunches: A Pilot Study from Sweden (United States)

    Rosander, Ulla; Rumpunen, Kimmo; Lindmark-Mansson, Helena; Gullberg, Bo; Paulsson, Marie; Holm, Ingvar


    Purpose/Objectives: Purpose was to investigate the nutrient content of Swedish school meals consumed by students in the context of national recommendations regarding food composition and intake. Methods: Composite samples of lunch meals consumed by six students during a five-day period were collected using the double portion method and analyzed…

  12. Study on lycopene and antioxidant contents variations in tomatoes under air-drying process. (United States)

    Chang, C-H; Liu, Y-C


    Effects of factors such as tomato cultivars, drying temperatures (40, 80, and 120 degrees C), and drying time (0 to 240 min) on tomato lycopene and the major antioxidant contents (MACs, herein as the sum of total phenolics and total flavonoids) during an air-drying process were investigated. The results showed that lycopene contents increased under all the drying temperatures during the first 60 min. However, the red tomato cultivars, that is, HR, SN, and TTL, exhibited a significant decrease in lycopene contents under 120 degrees C after drying for 75 min. According to the experimental data, an MAC threshold value of 500 mg/100 g dry matter of tomato is proposed. When the MAC is lower than this value during air-drying, lycopene contents in all tomato cultivars would drop rapidly. In addition, the tomatoes in yellow color group, containing more MACs initially and retaining more MACs under air-drying at 40 to 80 degrees C, are proposed to be the proper tomato cultivars for thermal processing.

  13. Curriculum Mapping in Higher Education: A Case Study and Proposed Content Scope and Sequence Mapping Tool (United States)

    Arafeh, Sousan


    Best practice in curriculum development and implementation requires that discipline-based standards or requirements embody both curricular and programme scopes and sequences. Ensuring these are present and aligned in course/programme content, activities and assessments to support student success requires formalised and systematised review and…

  14. Interconnecting Content and Community: A Qualitative Study of Secondary Mathematics Teachers. (United States)

    Lachance, Andrea; Confrey, Jere


    Discusses professional development intervention that attempted to start a professional community of secondary mathematics teachers through in-service work on mathematical problem solving and technology. Suggests that use of mathematical content explorations in professional development settings help mathematics teachers build professional…

  15. Reasoning on the Basis of Fantasy Content: Two Studies with High-Functioning Autistic Adolescents (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Handley, Simon J.


    Reasoning about problems with empirically false content can be hard, as the inferences that people draw are heavily influenced by their background knowledge. However, presenting empirically false premises in a fantasy context helps children and adolescents to disregard their beliefs, and to reason on the basis of the premises. The aim of the…

  16. Podcasting in Engineering Education: A Preliminary Study of Content, Student Attitudes, and Impact (United States)

    Berger, Edward


    Edward Berger describes a pilot project implemented in an undergraduate engineering mechanics course, entitled Strength of Materials to investigate whether and how students would perceive a benefit from podcasting as a pedagogical tool. Three types of podcasting content were produced: (a) video problem solutions, (b) roundtable discussions, and…

  17. Content Analysis of Introductory Interior Design College Textbooks: A Study Revisited (United States)

    Temple, Julie A.; Potthoff, Joy K.


    Introductory interior design texts adopted by design educators present information relevant to both historical and contemporary issues in interior design. According to one author, they provide a "survey of the field of interior design as it now exists" (Pile, 2007). A comparison of the content of contemporary texts with those of more…

  18. Exploring elementary school teachers' perception of their role in teaching content literacy in the elementary science and social studies classrooms: A mixed methods study (United States)

    Jones-Moore, Lisa Michelle


    This mixed-methods study explored third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers' perceptions of their role in teaching content literacy in the elementary science and social studies classroom. The rationale for this study was the growing number of studies questioning the reliance on the inoculation theory for content area literacy comprehension. The study was a mixed methods study so as to provide insight into the participants' thought processes in decision making and instructional planning. Data sources included timed instructional observations, tiered checklist to identify strategy instruction, and prompted critical reflections. The three-tiered observation instrument categorized strategies used by teachers in tiers according to the focus of the strategy. Tier I strategies were those identified as strategies good readers use, typically taught with narrative text. The inoculation theory posits these skills transfer to reading informational and expository text. Tier II strategies were those identified as strategies appropriate for informational or expository text. Use of these strategies acknowledged that narrative and informational/expository text require different strategies, but does not differentiate between expository text drawn from particular content area. Tier III strategies were those identified as strategies particularly suited to informational or expository text drawn from specific content areas. These strategies embody cognitive processes used to comprehend text drawn from specific content areas. The findings showed the participating teachers used a preferential Tier of strategy instruction. Some participants felt that reading comprehension was more important than content. They viewed reading as a subject instead of an integral part of science and social studies instruction.

  19. An ergonomic study on the navigation structure and information units of websites with multimedia content. A case study of the Xbox 360 promotional website. (United States)

    Ariel, Eduardo; de Moraes, Anamaria


    This paper presents an ergonomic study on the navigation structures and information units of entertainment sites with multimedia content. This research is a case study on the XBOX 360 promotional website. It analyzes the presentation of the content on a grid that simulates the spatial displacement of the screen's elements and evaluates the interaction that the page allows for, from the users' point of view.

  20. Chronic loss of noradrenergic tone produces β-arrestin2-mediated cocaine hypersensitivity and alters cellular D2 responses in the nucleus accumbens. (United States)

    Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Goertz, Richard B; Puttick, Daniel J; Bowles, Dawn E; Meyer, Rebecca C; Hall, Randy A; Ko, Daijin; Paladini, Carlos A; Weinshenker, David


    Cocaine blocks plasma membrane monoamine transporters and increases extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT). The addictive properties of cocaine are mediated primarily by DA, while NE and 5-HT play modulatory roles. Chronic inhibition of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), which converts DA to NE, increases the aversive effects of cocaine and reduces cocaine use in humans, and produces behavioral hypersensitivity to cocaine and D2 agonism in rodents, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We found a decrease in β-arrestin2 (βArr2) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition, and overexpression of βArr2 in the NAc normalized cocaine-induced locomotion in DBH knockout (Dbh -/-) mice. The D2/3 agonist quinpirole decreased excitability in NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from control, but not Dbh -/- animals, where instead there was a trend for an excitatory effect. The Gαi inhibitor NF023 abolished the quinpirole-induced decrease in excitability in control MSNs, but had no effect in Dbh -/- MSNs, whereas the Gαs inhibitor NF449 restored the ability of quinpirole to decrease excitability in Dbh -/- MSNs, but had no effect in control MSNs. These results suggest that chronic loss of noradrenergic tone alters behavioral responses to cocaine via decreases in βArr2 and cellular responses to D2/D3 activation, potentially via changes in D2-like receptor G-protein coupling in NAc MSNs.

  1. Content Analysis of Essays from a Cross-National Survey: Implications for Teaching Strategies in Holocaust Studies. (United States)

    McRoy, James J.

    The content of essays written by randomly selected samples of 1500 U.S. and 500 British secondary students on the topic "What have I learned about Adolf Hitler?" were partitioned into theme-related assertions and analyzed. An experimental group of 150 9th- and 11th-grade male students who had studied the Holocaust also contributed papers…

  2. Evaluation of the Bilingual Curriculum Content (BCC) Pilot Project: A Three-Year Study. First Interim Report. (United States)

    Rothfarb, Sylvia H.; And Others

    Bilingual Curriculum Content (BCC) is an instructional component of the Transitional Bilingual Basic Skills program offered to students with limited English proficiency (LEP) in the Dade County Public Schools, Florida. In BCC instruction, students learn mathematics and combined instruction (science, social studies, and health/safety) in their…

  3. The Convergence of Content, Pedagogy, and Technology in Online Professional Development for Teachers of German: An Intrinsic Case Study (United States)

    Bustamante, Carolina; Moeller, Aleidine J.


    This qualitative case study describes a unique online professional development program utilizing Web 2.0 technologies for teachers of German using the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) model as a theoretical framework to promote technology literacy, expand German language proficiency and cultural knowledge, and integrate…

  4. The Effects of Topic Familiarity, Author Expertise, and Content Relevance on Norwegian Students' Document Selection: A Mixed Methods Study (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Stenseth, Tonje; Bråten, Ivar; Strømsø, Helge I.


    This mixed methods study investigated the extent to which author expertise and content relevance were salient to secondary Norwegian students (N = 153) when they selected documents that pertained to more familiar and less familiar topics. Quantitative results indicated that author expertise was more salient for the less familiar topic (nuclear…

  5. Delivering Educational Multimedia Contents through an Augmented Reality Application: A Case Study on Its Impact on Knowledge Acquisition and Retention (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, David; Contero, Manuel


    This paper presents a study to analyze the use of augmented reality (AR) for delivering multimedia content to support the teaching and learning process of the digestive and circulatory systems at the primary school level, and its impact on knowledge retention. Our AR application combines oral explanations and 3D models and animations of anatomical…

  6. Analyzing the User-Generated Content on Disintermediation Effect: A Latent Segmentation Study of Bookers and Lookers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Chiappa, Del Giacomo; Constantinides, Efthymios; Nah, Fiona Fui-Hoon


    This study analyzes the perceptions of different groups of consumers for and against the disintermediation of travel agencies also considering the relative power in influencing the tourist’s choices exerted by user generated-content (UGC). A web-based survey is carried out in Spain and 961complete q

  7. Content Analysis of Essays from a Cross-National Survey: Implications for Teaching Strategies in Holocaust Studies. (United States)

    McRoy, James J.

    The content of essays written by randomly selected samples of 1500 U.S. and 500 British secondary students on the topic "What have I learned about Adolf Hitler?" were partitioned into theme-related assertions and analyzed. An experimental group of 150 9th- and 11th-grade male students who had studied the Holocaust also contributed papers that were…

  8. Text-Selection for Teaching Reading to ESL Tertiary Students: A Study on Genre and Content Preferences (United States)

    Nordin, Razanawati; Eng, Lin Siew


    Most learners studying English language feel that their educators use irrelevant, uninteresting, and culturally unfamiliar reading materials for teaching reading. As a result, most of them struggle to comprehend the English language texts used by the teachers. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the genre and content preferences…

  9. Integrating Science and Technology: Using Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge as a Framework to Study the Practices of Science Teachers (United States)

    Pringle, Rose M.; Dawson, Kara; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.


    In this study, we examined how teachers involved in a yearlong technology integration initiative planned to enact technological, pedagogical, and content practices in science lessons. These science teachers, engaged in an initiative to integrate educational technology in inquiry-based science lessons, provided a total of 525 lesson plans for this…

  10. Origins and Expertise in the Musical Improvisations of Adults and Children: A Phenomenological Study of Content and Process (United States)

    Custodero, Lori A.


    This study explores the musical content and human processes of improvisations of children and adults using the phenomenological lenses of time, space and responsivity. Paired improvisational performances of two late-career adult composers and two 7-year-old children were analysed considering a lifespan-related perspective involving the origins of…

  11. Analysis of High School Newspaper Editorials Before and After "Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier:" A Content Analysis Case Study. (United States)

    Lomicky, Carol S.


    In "Hazelwood" the U.S. Supreme Court said public school officials can censor school-sponsored expression for legitimate educational purposes. A content-analysis case study of student-written newspaper editorials found that more than three times as many editorials of criticism were published prior to the Court's decision. Argues that since the…

  12. Individual Differences in Navigation between Sharable Content Objects--An Evaluation Study of a Learning Module Prototype. (United States)

    Gauss, Boris; Urbas, Leon


    Reports the design and evaluation of a prototype for learning modules compliant to the SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard for use with hypermedia systems in Web-based instruction. Discusses a study of undergraduates that considered relations between individual differences in learner characteristics, including intrinsic…

  13. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Goltz, J.P. [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine


    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1{sup st} cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2{sup nd} cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3{sup rd} cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4{sup th} cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered {sup 1}H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1{sup st} cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2{sup nd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3{sup rd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4{sup th} cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired {sup 1}H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  14. Study on Lysine and Methionine Content Promotion of Soybean Meal by Probiotic Fermentation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhi-yong; Gao Xue-jun; Huang Jian-guo; Liu Rong; Liu Ying; Qiao Bin; Qiu You-wen


    Soybean meal (SBM) is commonly used for livestock feeds, but its application in diets for livestock is limited due to some antinutritional factors. The contents of methionine and lysine of soybean meal were promoted by Bacillus natto and Leuconostoc mesenteroides fermentation, benefial for the livestock feeds. It was crude protein (CP) 56.8%, methionine 43.56 mg · g^-1, and lysine 74.87 mg · g^-1, cows fed a diet with FSBM milk yield raised 14.2%, the change in the milk protein, the lactose and the dry matter content had also obvious increase. This convenient technique offers helpful exploration for industrialization of soybean meal fermentation.

  15. Experimental Study of High Moisture Content Gas Flow Across a Cylinder at Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. M. Christopher; GUO Liang(郭亮)


    The Nusselt number for cross flow of a mixture of air and vapor over a cylinder was measured at moderate Reynolds numbers (3000-7000) for temperatures from 300℃ to 700℃ and for vapor mass fractions of 0.18-0.35. Results are also presented for a set of three cylinders aligned perpendicular to the flow for the same range of conditions. The effect of the vapor concentration and temperature on the convection coefficients was investigated to develop a modified Zhukauskas correlation. The results show that the Nusselt number increases as the moisture content increases and that the increase is more than could be accounted for by typical models for the property variations of mixtures. The exponent of the vapor concentration term in the modified correlation is 0.145 for the entire data set indicating the importance of the property variation due to the moisture content.

  16. Study on Oxygen Content, Inclusions and Fatigue Properties of Bearing Steels Produced by Different Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The metallurgical properties and fatigue life of bearing steel processed by electric furnace (EAF), ladle refining (LF-VD), continuous casting (CC) and electroslag remelting (ESR) have been investigated. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) Due to low oxygen content and dispersion inclusions in steel, the fatigue life of LF-VD-IC or CC is three times as high as that of EAF steel; (2) The oxygen content in steel produced by CC process is about 9.0, the carbon segregation (C/C0) is from 0.92 to 1.10 and the fatigue life of CC steel is equal to that of ladle refining ingot casting steel; (3) Although the amount of inclusion and oxygen in ESR steel is higher than that of LF-VD-IC or CC steel, the fatigue life of ESR steel is higher than that of the latter because of its fine and well dispersed inclusions.

  17. Digital Content Strategies


    Daniel Halbheer; Florian Stahl; Oded Koenigsberg; Lehmann, Donald R


    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  18. [Application study of the thermal infrared emissivity spectra in the estimation of salt content of saline soil]. (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Mamat, Sawut; Zhang, Fei; Han, Gui-Hong


    Studying of soil salinization is of great significance for agricultural production in arid area oasis, thermal infrared remote sensing technology provides a new technology and method in this field. Authors used Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure the oasis saline soil in field, employed iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation algorithm (ISSTES) to separate temperature and emissivity, and acquired the thermal infrared emissivity data of the saline soil. Through researching the emissivity spectral feature of saline soil, and concluded that soil emissivity will reduce with the increasing of salt content from 8 to 13 microm, so emissivity spectra is more sensitive to salt factor from 8 to 9.5 microm. Then, analyzed the correlation between original emissivity spectra and its first derivative, second derivative and normalized ratio with salt content, the result showed that they have a negative correlation relationship between soil emissivity and salt content, and the correlation between emissivity first derivative and salt content is highest, reach to 0.724 2, the corresponding bands are from 8.370 745-8.390 880 microm. Finally, established the quadratic function regression model, its determination coefficient is 0.741 4, and root mean square error is 0.235 5, the result explained that the approach of using thermal infrared emissivity to retrieve the salt content of saline soil is feasible.

  19. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study. (United States)

    Tribl, Gotthard G; Trindade, Mateus C; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto R


    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD.

  20. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Khulood Ahmed Salim AL-Raqmi; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami


    Objective: To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. Methods:The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Results: Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. Conclusions:The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Vasile


    Full Text Available The present work presents the results obtained during investigation of the zinc content of the water and river sediments in an area polluted by mining activities, to provide information on the mobility and availability of this element. Sediment and water samples have been collected from significant sites in a former mining area in which with some sterile pits, which represent a major environmental hazard.

  2. Sensitivity of global ocean heat content from reanalyses to the atmospheric reanalysis forcing: A comparative study (United States)

    Storto, Andrea; Yang, Chunxue; Masina, Simona


    The global ocean heat content evolution is a key component of the Earth's energy budget and can be consistently determined by ocean reanalyses that assimilate hydrographic profiles. This work investigates the impact of the atmospheric reanalysis forcing through a multiforcing ensemble ocean reanalysis, where the ensemble members are forced by five state-of-the-art atmospheric reanalyses during the meteorological satellite era (1979-2013). Data assimilation leads the ensemble to converge toward robust estimates of ocean warming rates and significantly reduces the spread (1.48 ± 0.18 W/m2, per unit area of the World Ocean); hence, the impact of the atmospheric forcing appears only marginal for the global heat content estimates in both upper and deeper oceans. A sensitivity assessment performed through realistic perturbation of the main sources of uncertainty in ocean reanalyses highlights that bias correction and preprocessing of in situ observations represent the most crucial component of the reanalysis, whose perturbation accounts for up to 60% of the ocean heat content anomaly variability in the pre-Argo period. Although these results may depend on the single reanalysis system used, they reveal useful information for the ocean observation community and for the optimal generation of perturbations in ocean ensemble systems.

  3. LCA case study on lawn establishment and maintenance with various peat and compost contents in substrates. (United States)

    Silvenius, Frans; Niemeläinen, Oiva; Kurppa, Sirpa


    The environmental impacts of the establishment and maintenance of lawn, including the production and use of various substrates, were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA). The project focused on comparing substrates with different peat and compost contents using pilot substrates and developed a calculation tool to optimize landscaping from an ecological perspective. The impact categories were climate change, aquatic eutrophication, acidification, and use of primary energy. Life cycle assessment methodology and ISO standards 14040 and 14044 were used. Two thousand tons of substrates per hectare of lawn area were assumed to be needed; this large amount explains the importance of the substrate properties for all of the impact categories. Degradation of peat was the most significant factor of the influence of climate; thus, the most effective means of reducing the impact of landscaping on climate is to replace peat with compost. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were related to the use of compost, but most of these emissions will occur regardless of how the sludge or biowaste is treated. Ammonia emissions from composting were the most important factor for acidification. The significance of fuel consumption by machinery in lawn establishment and mowing was low. The high contents of N and P in compost-based substrates may lead to high nutrient emissions into water systems, which can have significant local impact. The tool helps optimize substrate contents to minimize the environmental effects. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:459-464. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Information content and cross-talk in biological signal transduction: An information theory study (United States)

    Prasad, Ashok; Lyons, Samanthe


    Biological cells respond to chemical cues provided by extra-cellular chemical signals, but many of these chemical signals and the pathways they activate interfere and overlap with one another. How well cells can distinguish between interfering extra-cellular signals is thus an important question in cellular signal transduction. Here we use information theory with stochastic simulations of networks to address the question of what happens to total information content when signals interfere. We find that both total information transmitted by the biological pathway, as well as its theoretical capacity to discriminate between overlapping signals, are relatively insensitive to cross-talk between the extracellular signals, until significantly high levels of cross-talk have been reached. This robustness of information content against cross-talk requires that the average amplitude of the signals are large. We predict that smaller systems, as exemplified by simple phosphorylation relays (two-component systems) in bacteria, should be significantly much less robust against cross-talk. Our results suggest that mammalian signal transduction can tolerate a high amount of cross-talk without degrading information content, while smaller bacterial systems cannot.

  5. Study of Nd-Fe-B alloys with nonstoichiometric Nd content in optimal magnetic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović V.


    Full Text Available Characterization of two rapid-quenched Nd-Fe-B alloys with nonstoichiometric Nd content in the optimized magnetic state was carried out using the X-ray diffractometry (XRD, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic phase analysis (MS, electron microscopy (TEM, high resolution TEM (HREM and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID magnetometer. The experimental results demonstrate the fundamental difference in the structure and magnetic properties of the two investigated alloys in the optimized magnetic state. The Nd-Fe-B alloy with the reduced Nd content (Nd4.5Fe77B18.5 was found to have the nanocomposite structure of Fe3B/Nd2Fe14B and partly α-Fe/Nd2Fe14B, with mean grain size below 30 nm. On the other side, the overstoichiometric Nd14Fe79B7 alloy has almost a monophase structure with the dominant content of the hard magnetic phase Nd2Fe14B (up to 95 wt. % and a mean crystallite size about 60 nm, as determined by XRD and TEM analysis. The results of magnetic measurements on SQUID magnetometer also suggest the nanocomposite structure of the Nd-low alloy and nanocrystalline decoupled structure of the Nd-rich alloy after the optimal heat treatment.

  6. Health promotion at local level: a case study of content, organization and development in four Swedish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Elisabeth VG


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several health determinants are related to local conditions and prerequisites at community level. For this reason, strengthening community action has been one of five strategies implemented in health promotion since the end of the 1980s. Such action includes setting priorities, making decisions, planning strategies, and implementing them to achieve better health. The aim of this paper is to obtain a deeper understanding of content, organization and processes in the development of local health promotion. Methods A qualitative multiple case study of four Swedish municipalities. The cases were analyzed in accordance with the principles of cross-case study analysis, and a content analysis of documents and interviews was conducted in two steps. First, a manifest content analysis was performed to identify present and former actors and measures. Thereafter, a latent content analysis was performed to investigate structures and processes in local contexts. Results The results of the inductive content analysis showed development of local health promotion in three phases: initiation, action, and achievement. Strengthening factors were local actors, health statistics and events. Hindering factors were lack of resources and vague objectives. External factors, e.g. national policies, were not perceived as prominent influencing factors. Media reports were regarded as having had an influence, but only to some extent. The content of local health promotion has developed from ad-hoc lifestyle and behaviour-related actions into structural, intersectoral actions related to determinants of health. Conclusions The municipalities have organized and developed their health promotion targets, actions and priorities on the basis of local needs and prerequisites. The three phases in the identified health promotion processes were experienced and documented as being subject to greater influence from internal rather than external strengthening and hindering

  7. Whole Grain Consumption Increases Gastrointestinal Content of Sulfate-Conjugated Oxylipins in Pigs − A Multicompartmental Metabolomics Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Anne Krog; Karaman, İbrahim; Bağcıoğlu, Murat;


    The effects of increased intake of dietary fiber as either arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) compared to a typical low dietary fiber Western-style diet (WSD) on the metabolomics responses was studied in gastrointestinal content and tissue, peripheral plasma and urine using a multicompart......The effects of increased intake of dietary fiber as either arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) compared to a typical low dietary fiber Western-style diet (WSD) on the metabolomics responses was studied in gastrointestinal content and tissue, peripheral plasma and urine using...... a multicompartmental non-targeted LC-MS approach in pigs. Both unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses were used to study differences between the intervention groups, revealing significant effects of the dietary intervention on gastrointestinal contents and urine metabolites. Consumption of an AX rich diet...... composed of whole grain and enzyme treated wheat bran increased gastrointestinal content of novel sulfate- and acetic acid conjugated oxylipins, and urinary secretion of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, potential gastrointestinal and urinary biomarkers for consumption of resistant starch, whole grain rye...

  8. Study of variation of tocochromanol and phytosterol contents in black and yellow seeds of Brassica napus L. doubled haploid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cegielska-Taras


    Full Text Available Background. In the study, an analysis of tocopherols, plastochomanol-8 and phytosterols was conducted using DH lines obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between yellow- and black-seeded lines. Material and methods. The biological material for the study consisted of two DH populations of winter oilseed rape obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between two DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded. Seed color was determined using a ColorFlex spectrophotometer. Fat content was determined via pulsed NMR. The levels of tocopherols, and plastochromanol-8 are analyzed using HPLC. Phytosterol contents and composition were determined by the GC method. Results. The fat content of the black-seeded parental line was 49% and this was higher than that of the yellow-seeded parental line (44%. The fat content of DH line populations ranged from 44 to 51%. Total tocopherol content ranged from 460 to 602 mg/kg and the α-T/γ-T ratio was from 0.66 to 1.09. In parental lines H2-26 and Z-114 the total tocopherol content was 534 and 525 mg/kg, but the α-T/γ-T ratios were 0.81 and 1.21, respectively. The yellow-seeded parental line (Z-114 was characterized by a higher PC-8 content (81 mg/kg than the H2-26 black-seeded parental line (58 mg/kg. The largest part of the total phytosterol content in seeds of both populations was β-sitosterol from 976 to 2148 mg/kg, followed by campasterol, from 636 to 1364 mg/kg, and brassicasterol from 375 to 678 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged from 462 to 595 mg/kg (population HxZ and from 460 to 602 mg/kg (population ZxH. Signifi cantly positive correlations were observed between the seed color with α-T (r = 0.38, p < 0.01, γ-T (r = –0,34, p < 0.01 and PC-8 content (r = 0.29, p < 0.01. Correlations between the seed color with total tocopherol and total phytosterol content were not noted. Conclusion. Considering the range of genetic variation among doubled haploids of two populations, selected DH lines may

  9. Enterprise Content Management und E-Kollaboration als Cloud-Dienste : Potenziale, Herausforderungen und Erfolgsfaktoren : Ergebnisse einer qualitativen Studie



    Studie Zahlreiche Cloud-basierte Angebote für Enterprise Content Management und E-Kollaboration drängen auf den Unternehmensmarkt. Organisation aller Grössen und Branchen setzen sich mit den Chancen und Risiken dieser Angebote auseinander und sammeln erste Erfahrungen bei der Evaluation, Konzeption, Einführung sowie beim Betrieb. Die vorliegende Studie präsentiert auf der Grundlage von Experteninterviews ein breites Spektrum von qualitativen Einschätzungen aus der Perspektive von Anwender-...

  10. Evaluation of the content regarding nutrition education on catering services websites: pilot study in the educational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rico-Sapena


    Full Text Available Introduction: To analyze websites quality of catering companies for schools as well as their content in nutrition food education, and to have a first experience with the assessment tool EDALCAT.Material and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population are the websites of catering companies entrusted with the management of school canteens. The sample was obtained using Google search engine and a ranking of major catering companies financial, choosing those that had websites. Ten websites were selected for a pilot test according to geographic proximity to the city of Alicante and their total revenue. A homemade questionnaire (EDALCAT was designed in order to evaluate the websites. This questionnaire is composed of a block of predictors of quality with 19 variables for reliability, design and navigation; and a second block of specific contents about food education with 19 variables for content and educational activities.Results: Positive results have been obtained in 31 out of 38 questionnaire variables, except for the items: “Search engine”, “Language” (40% and “Help” (10% in the predictors of the quality block; and in the items: “Workshops”, “Recipe book”, “Web nutrition-food” (40% and “Examples” (30% in the specific contents of the food education block. All the evaluated websites exceed 50% of compliance with the quality criteria and with the minimum contents in food education, and only one of them, fails the minimum level of activity established.Conclusions: The predictors of quality and the specific content in food education were successful in all evaluated websites. Most of them got a high score in their assessment, and in their analysis of individual blocks. After the pilot study, EDALCAT questionnaire has been amended and the final EDALCAT has been obtained. Generally speaking, EDALCAT seems appropriate for evaluating the quality of catering companies websites and their content

  11. Comparative study of the pollen protein contents in two major varieties of Cupressus arizonica planted in Tehran. (United States)

    Shahali, Youcef; Majd, Ahmad; Pourpak, Zahra; Tajadod, Golnaz; Haftlang, Maryam; Moin, Mostafa


    During past few years, the Cupressus arizonica has been abundantly planted in Tehran, causing a significant increase of allergic diseases from the middle of winter to the beginning of spring. The aim of this study was the comparison of pollen protein content in two major varieties of C. arizonica planted in Tehran, including C. arizonica var. arizonica and C. arizonica var. glabra, in order to determine pollen's specificity of each variety and also to find out whether environmental conditions can influence pollen protein contents and its allergenic components. Pollen grains were directly collected from mature male cones of trees planted in different areas of the city. Pollen's proteins were extracted, and were analyzed by SDS PAGE. Total protein content of pollen extracts was measured by Bradford assay. Our investigations revealed noticeable differences in protein content of each variety. Bradford protein assay showed a higher total protein content in C. arizonica var. arizonica pollen extracts. A new major protein, with an approximate molecular weight of about 35 kDa was detected in both varieties. Immunoblotting using the serum of a cypress allergic subject showed that the protein with 35 kDa was also the major allergen of both varieties in pollen extracts. These results showed that there are some intraspecie specificities in Arizona cypress pollens. The major allergen of Cupresuss arizonica pollen, Cup a 1 (45 kDa), has been reported as the most representative protein in pollen extracts of Mediterranean countries, but in our autochthon extracts of both varieties, a protein band at 35 kDa was more representative. These observations seem to indicate that C. arizonica pollen protein content may be influenced by environmental conditions. Moreover, Immunoblot results provided a reliable indication on the allergenic activity of this new major protein band at 35 kDa. The confirmation of these aspects would facilitate the preparation of an effective extract, improving

  12. Developing a Conceptual Framework for Evaluation of E-Content of Virtual Courses: E-Learning Center of an Iranian University Case Study (United States)

    Akhavan, Peyman; Arefi, Majid Feyz


    The purpose of this study is to obtain suitable quality criteria for evaluation of electronic content for virtual courses. We attempt to find the aspects which are important in developing e-content for virtual courses and to determine the criteria we need to judge for the quality and efficiency of learning objects and e-content. So we can classify…

  13. A city scale study on the effects of intensive groundwater heat pump systems on heavy metal contents in groundwater. (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Garrido, Eduardo; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Lázaro, Jesús Mateo; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; Huggenberger, P; Calvo, Miguel Ángel Marazuela


    As a result of the increasing use of shallow geothermal resources, hydraulic, thermal and chemical impacts affecting groundwater quality can be observed with ever increasing frequency (Possemiers et al., 2014). To overcome the uncertainty associated with chemical impacts, a city scale study on the effects of intensive geothermal resource use by groundwater heat pump systems on groundwater quality, with special emphasis on heavy metal contents was performed. Statistical analysis of geochemical data obtained from several field campaigns has allowed studying the spatiotemporal relationship between temperature anomalies in the aquifer and trace element composition of groundwater. The relationship between temperature and the concentrations of trace elements resulted in weak correlations, indicating that temperature changes are not the driving factor in enhancing heavy metal contaminations. Regression models established for these correlations showed a very low reactivity or response of heavy metal contents to temperature changes. The change rates of heavy metal contents with respect to temperature changes obtained indicate a low risk of exceeding quality threshold values by means of the exploitation regimes used, neither producing nor enhancing contamination significantly. However, modification of pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity correlated with the concentrations of heavy metals. In this case, the change rates of heavy metal contents are higher, with a greater risk of exceeding threshold values.

  14. FT-IR study of the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle of Labeo rohita (United States)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Renju, V. B.


    Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem in the modern world due to increasing human activities. Zinc is an essential element involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. However, it becomes toxic when elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of zinc exposure on the biochemical contents of the muscle tissues of freshwater species Labeo rohita using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Since the muscle constitutes the greatest mass of the fish that is consumed, the present study has paid particular attention to muscle component. The result reveals that the zinc exposure causes significant changes in the biochemical contents of the L. rohita muscle tissues. In addition, it causes an alteration in the protein secondary structures by decreasing the α-helix and increasing the β-sheet contents of muscle tissues. Further, it has been observed that the administration of chelating agent D-penicillamine improves the protein and lipid contents in the muscle tissues compared to zinc exposed tissues. This result shows that D-penicillamine is the effective chelator of zinc in reducing the body burden of L. rohita fingerlings.

  15. Learning science content through socio-scientific issues-based instruction: a multi-level assessment study (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Sami Topçu, Mustafa


    Science educators have presented numerous conceptual and theoretical arguments in favor of teaching science through the exploration of socio-scientific issues (SSI). However, the empirical knowledge base regarding the extent to which SSI-based instruction supports student learning of science content is limited both in terms of the number of studies that have been conducted in this area and the quality of research. This research sought to answer two questions: (1) To what extent does SSI-based instruction support student learning of science content? and (2) How do assessments at variable distances from the curriculum reveal patterns of learning associated with SSI-based instruction? Sixty-nine secondary students taught by three teachers participated in the study. Three teachers implemented an SSI intervention focused on the use of biotechnology for identifying and treating sexually transmitted diseases. We found that students demonstrated statistically and practically significant gains in content knowledge as measured by both proximal and distal assessments. These findings support the claim that SSI-based teaching can foster content learning and improved performance on high-stakes tests.

  16. The neural time course of art perception: an ERP study on the processing of style versus content in art. (United States)

    Augustin, M Dorothee; Defranceschi, Birgit; Fuchs, Helene K; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hutzler, Florian


    A central prerequisite to understand the phenomenon of art in psychological terms is to investigate the nature of the underlying perceptual and cognitive processes. Building on a study by Augustin, Leder, Hutzler, and Carbon (2008) the current ERP study examined the neural time course of two central aspects of representational art, one of which is closely related to object- and scene perception, the other of which is art-specific: content and style. We adapted a paradigm that has repeatedly been employed in psycholinguistics and that allows one to examine the neural time course of two processes in terms of when sufficient information is available to allow successful classification. Twenty-two participants viewed pictures that systematically varied in style and content and conducted a combined go/nogo dual choice task. The dependent variables of interest were the Lateralised Readiness Potential (LRP) and the N200 effect. Analyses of both measures support the notion that in the processing of art style follows content, with style-related information being available at around 224 ms or between 40 and 94 ms later than content-related information. The paradigm used here offers a promising approach to further explore the time course of art perception, thus helping to unravel the perceptual and cognitive processes that underlie the phenomenon of art and the fascination it exerts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Tiago Peixoto Gonçalves


    Full Text Available This theoretical essay aims to reflect on three models of text interpretation used in qualitative research, which is often confused in its concepts and methodologies (Content Analysis, Discourse Analysis, and Conversation Analysis. After the presentation of the concepts, the essay proposes a preliminary discussion on conceptual and theoretical methodological differences perceived between them. A review of the literature was performed to support the conceptual and theoretical methodological discussion. It could be verified that the models have differences related to the type of strategy used in the treatment of texts, the type of approach, and the appropriate theoretical position.

  18. Investigation, Installation and Implementation of an Open Source Content Management System : Joomla as a case study


    Obatolu, Adekunle


    The objective of this thesis was to investigate, install and implement the open source content management system Joomla for Vaasa Centre of Open Source Solutions. They are actually looking for a universal CMS that can be used as web portal or web shop or web bookings. The initial CMS being used by the centre lacks some of their required features. The Linux Apache MySQL and PHP, LAMP server was installed in order to run the Joomla CMS on it. I was able to implements the required features t...

  19. The purpose and content of vocational curriculum for entrepreneurship education: a case study in Iran

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    Abdolrasoul Jamshidian


    Full Text Available Purpose: Since in technical and vocational secondary education, much of the general and special talents related to students’ vocation and life will flourish, and it provides the background to acquire the abilities such as entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behavior, the purpose of this article is the evaluation of Technical and Vocational Education for Teaching Entrepreneurship. The main purpose of this research is the evaluation of the role of vocational education regarding the goal and content of the curriculum for entrepreneurship education. Materials and Methods: According to statistics, the number of trainers in the educational year 89-90 in Isfahan is 501 and the number of technical vocational trainees at the third grade level is 1439.The method of sampling utilized, is a two-stage cluster. A sample size of 210 people was estimated for trainer community, and one of 303 members for trainees. To collect data from two designed questionnaires, one was used for the trainer community and the other was used for the trainee community. For the validity of questionnaires, the views of teachers, students, and experts in the field of entrepreneurship curriculum were used. A reliability coefficient of 0.91 for trainers and of 0.89 for trainees was calculated. The Analysis of data obtained from research was performed in descriptive and inferential statistic levels. For Descriptive statistics, the indices of abundance, percent of the mean and standard deviation and for inferential statistics, the single-sample t-test, independent T, two-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used. Finding: The results obtained from the research is a proof that that the concepts of entrepreneurship in the curriculum has been developed and compiled. Between the views of the two groups (trainers and trainees regarding the goal and content, there is no difference. The difference between the views of the two groups in the area of content depends on demographic variables of sex

  20. Preliminary Study on Aluminum Content of Foods and Aluminum Intake of Residents in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUGe-Sheng; JINRng-Pei; 等


    Aluminum contents of 64 kinds of foods in Tianjin were detrmined.The results showed that the aluminum levels in diffeent kinds of foods varied greatly,and most foodstuffs from natural sources(including contamination from food processing)contained less than 10mg/kg,Aluminum contents were higher in foodstuffs of plant origin,especiallydry beans containing large amounts of aluminum naturally.Lower concentration of aluminum seemed to be present in foodstuffs of animal origin.It was estimated that the potential daily intake of aluminum per person from natural dietary sources in Tianjin was about 3.79 mg.This estimated figure of dietary aluminum intake was very close to the measured data from 24 daily diets of college students.which was 4.86±1.72mg.Considering all the potential sources of natural aluminum in foods.water and the individual habitual food,it would apear that most residents in Tianjin would consume 3-10mg aluminum daily from natural dietary sources.

  1. A study on Heavy Metal Contents in Cultivated Wild Ginseng from Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objectives : Heavy metal contents in cultivated wild ginseng from Korea and China were evaluated for the safety purpose. Methods : Arsenic(As, cadmium(Cd, lead(Pb, mercury(Hg, copper(Cu, chromium(Cr, and selenium(Se from the root, stem, and leaves of the Korean cultivated wild ginseng and the root of the Chinese cultivated wild ginseng were analyzed for the existence of heavy metal contents. Results : Most of heavy metals weren't detected in all the samples. Copper and lead were found in very minute volume and didn't reach the toxic concentration level of 10mg/kg. Samples used in the test were grown in non-contaminated areas, free from heavy metal contamination. Conclusions : Based on above results, cultivated wild ginseng from Korea and China are relatively safe from the heavy metal exposure. But for more rigorous quality control, an epidemiological survey using the samples from more diverse areas should be conducted.

  2. Indirect and direct determination of the casein content of milk by Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis: collaborative study. (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Barbano, D M; Fleming, J R


    The classic method for determination of milk casein is based on precipitation of casein at pH 4.6. Precipitated milk casein is removed by filtration and the nitrogen content of either the precipitate (direct casein method) or filtrate (noncasein nitrogen; NCN) is determined by Kjeldahl analysis. For the indirect casein method, milk total nitrogen (TN; Method 991.20) is also determined and casein is calculated as TN minus NCN. Ten laboratories tested 9 pairs of blind duplicate raw milk materials with a casein range of 2.42-3.05% by both the direct and indirect casein methods. Statistical performance expressed in protein equivalents (nitrogen x 6.38) with invalid and outlier data removed was as follows: NCN method (wt%), mean = 0.762, sr = 0.010, sR = 0.016, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 1.287%, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 2.146%; indirect casein method (wt%), mean = 2.585, repeatability = 0.015, reproducibility = 0.022, RSDr = 0.560%, RSDR = 0.841; direct casein method (wt%), mean = 2.575, sr = 0.015, sR = 0.025, RSDr = 0.597%, RSDR = 0.988%. Method performance was acceptable and comparable to similar Kjeldahl methods for determining nitrogen content of milk (Methods 991.20, 991.21, 991.22, 991.23). The direct casein, indirect casein, and noncasein nitrogen methods have been adopted by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  3. Preliminary study on optimization of pH, oxidant and catalyst dose for high COD content: solar parabolic trough collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Chandan


    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, solar photocatalytic oxidation has been investigated through laboratory experiments as an alternative to conventional secondary treatment for the organic content reduction of high COD wastewater. Experiments have been performed on synthetic high COD wastewater for solar photocatalytic oxidation using a parabolic trough reactor. Parameters affecting the oxidation of organics have been investigated. The experimental design followed the sequence of dark adsorption studies of organics, followed by photolytic studies (in absence of catalyst and finally photocatalytic studies in presence and absence of additional oxidant (H2O2. All the experimental studies have been performed at pH values of 2, 4, 6,8,10 and the initial pH value of the wastewater (normal pH. For photocatalytic studies, TiO2 has been used as a photocatalyst. Optimization of catalyst dose, pH and H2O2 concentration has been done. Maximum reduction of organic content was observed at the normal pH value of the wastewater (pH = 6.8. The reaction rate was significantly enhanced in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH other than the Normal was in the alkaline range. Acidic pH was not found to be favourable for organic content reduction. pH was found to be a dominant factor affecting reaction rate even in presence of H2O2 as an additional oxidant. Also, the solar detoxification process was effective in treating a waste with a COD level of more than 7500 mg/L, which is a otherwise a difficult waste to treat. It can therefore be used as a treatment step in the high organic wastewater treatment during the primary stage also as it effectively reduces the COD content by 86%.

  4. Preliminary Study on Optimization of pH, Oxidant and Catalyst Dose for High COD Content: Solar Parabolic Trough Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Singh


    Full Text Available In the present study, solar photocatalytic oxidation has been investigated through laboratory experiments as an alternative to conventional secondary treatment for the organic content reduction of high COD wastewater.Experiments have been performed on synthetic high COD wastewater for solar photocatalytic oxidation using aparabolic trough reactor. Parameters affecting the oxidation of organics have been investigated.The experimental design followed the sequence of dark adsorption studies of organics, followed by photolytic studies (in absence of catalyst and finally photocatalytic studies in presence and absence of additional oxidant(H2O2. All the experimental studies have been performed at pH values of 2, 4, 6,8,10 and the initial pH value of the wastewater (normal pH. For photocatalytic studies, TiO2 has been used as a photocatalyst. Optimization of catalyst dose, pH and H2O2 concentration has been done. Maximum reduction of organic content was observed at the normal pH value of the wastewater (pH = 6.8. The reaction rate was significantly enhanced in presence ofhydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH other than the Normal was in the alkaline range. Acidic pH was not found to be favourable for organic content reduction. pH was found to be a dominant factor affecting reaction rate even in presence of H2O2 as an additional oxidant. Also, the solar detoxification process was effective in treating a waste with a COD level of more than 7500 mg/L, which is a otherwise a difficult waste to treat. It can therefore be used as a treatment step in the high organic wastewater treatment during the primary stage also as it effectively reduces the COD content by 86%.

  5. Identification of Distinct Conformations of the Angiotensin-II Type 1 Receptor Associated with the Gq/11 Protein Pathway and the β-Arrestin Pathway Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations* (United States)

    Cabana, Jérôme; Holleran, Brian; Leduc, Richard; Escher, Emanuel; Guillemette, Gaétan; Lavigne, Pierre


    Biased signaling represents the ability of G protein-coupled receptors to engage distinct pathways with various efficacies depending on the ligand used or on mutations in the receptor. The angiotensin-II type 1 (AT1) receptor, a prototypical class A G protein-coupled receptor, can activate various effectors upon stimulation with the endogenous ligand angiotensin-II (AngII), including the Gq/11 protein and β-arrestins. It is believed that the activation of those two pathways can be associated with distinct conformations of the AT1 receptor. To verify this hypothesis, microseconds of molecular dynamics simulations were computed to explore the conformational landscape sampled by the WT-AT1 receptor, the N111G-AT1 receptor (constitutively active and biased for the Gq/11 pathway), and the D74N-AT1 receptor (biased for the β-arrestin1 and -2 pathways) in their apo-forms and in complex with AngII. The molecular dynamics simulations of the AngII-WT-AT1, N111G-AT1, and AngII-N111G-AT1 receptors revealed specific structural rearrangements compared with the initial and ground state of the receptor. Simulations of the D74N-AT1 receptor revealed that the mutation stabilizes the receptor in the initial ground state. The presence of AngII further stabilized the ground state of the D74N-AT1 receptor. The biased agonist [Sar1,Ile8]AngII also showed a preference for the ground state of the WT-AT1 receptor compared with AngII. These results suggest that activation of the Gq/11 pathway is associated with a specific conformational transition stabilized by the agonist, whereas the activation of the β-arrestin pathway is linked to the stabilization of the ground state of the receptor. PMID:25934394

  6. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibao Lu


    Full Text Available Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the soil-crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of reclaimed water for irrigation varies. Reclaimed water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the national standard, which indicates that the vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. The heavy metals brought into the soil by reclaimed water are less than that taken away by the crops. The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the soil. This paper provides a reference for the evaluation and safety control of irrigation with reclaimed water.

  7. The effect of arsenic exposure on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones: An FT-IR study (United States)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.


    Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in α-helical and random coil structures and an increase in β-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.

  8. Effect of sucrose polyesters on crystallization rate of vegetable ghee: solid fat content study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasir, Mohammad


    Full Text Available Crystallization rate of partial hydrogenated blend of soybean oil and cottonseed oil used for making vegetable ghee (vanaspati was investigated, by solid fat content (SFC using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR. The effects of adding sucrose fatty acid esters or sucrose polyesters (SPE on the crystallization rate of the blend fat were studied. Sucrose tetrastearate DK ester F-10 (stearate 70% - palmitate 30% was added to the fat at different concentration, namely 0.5% and 1.0%. Blank sample and sample containing 0.5% and 1.0% DK ester F-10 / (DK F-10 were chosen to measure the change in SFC at constant temperature of 15ºC for a period of 25 hr. Five determinations of SFC were taken to the fat samples during the 25 hr i.e. 2,5,9,13 and 25th hr. SFC vs. time of crystallization of the three samples showed continuous increasing in SFC in all samples during the 25 hr, with sharp increasing at the first two hours. Samples containing 0.0% and 0.5% DK F-10, showed no significant difference in SFC during the first thirteen hours, while sample containing 1.0% DK F-10, showed higher SFC than the other two samples, through out the period. The amount of SFC for 1.0% DK F-10 sample at the 13th hour is equal to the SFC of the blank (0.0% sample at the 25th hour. Melting point of the same samples increased with the increasing DK F-10 concentration in the fat samples. The results of SFC make it sure that the addition of 1.0% DK F- 10 will shorten the time required for the crystallization of vegetable ghee while the addition of 0.5% will not have significant effect.Se ha investigado, mediante el contenido en grasa sólida (SFC por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (p-NMR, la velocidad de cristalización de mezcla de aceite de la soja y aceite de semilla del algodón parcialmente hidrogenada utilizada en la elaboración de ghee vegetal (vanaspati. Se han estudiado los efectos de añadir ésteres de sacarosa de ácidos grasos o poliésteres de

  9. Studies on the content of heavy metals in Aries River using ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voica, Cezara, E-mail:; Kovacs, Melinda, E-mail:; Feher, Ioana, E-mail: [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)


    Among the industrial branches, the mining industry has always been an important source of environmental pollution, both aesthetically and chemically. Through this paper results of ICP-MS characterization of Aries River Basin are reported. Mining activities from this area has resulted in contamination of environment and its surrounding biota. This is clearly evidenced in analyzed water samples, especially from Baia de Aries site where increased amount of trace elements as Cr, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Pb and U were founded. Also in this site greater amount of rare earth elements was evidenced also. Through monitoring of Aries River from other non-mining area it was observed that the quantitative content of heavy metals was below the maximum permissible levels which made us to conclude that the water table wasn't seriously affected (which possibly might be attributed to the cessation of mining activities in this area from a few years ago)

  10. A multicenter study of the influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hla, M M; Davis, J W; Ross, P D


    We examined the relative influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content (BMC) among 1600 early postmenopausal women aged 45-59 y from four geographical locations (Nottingham, United Kingdom; Portland, OR; Honolulu; and Copenhagen). Bone sites investigated included the major fracture sites......: hip, spine, and radius. Body weight had strong associations at all skeletal sites examined [BMC differences of 4-6% per interquartile range (IQR) of weight]. Associations with the fat and lean components of weight were more variable. The BMC differences per IQR of lean mass were 5-7% at the hip sites......, 3% at the spine, and 2% at the radial sites. The greater differences for lean mass at the hip may reflect the high physical mobility and muscular activity of this site. The BMC differences per IQR of fat mass were 4-6% at the hip sites, 4% at the spine, and 5% at the ultradistal radius...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sasikala


    Full Text Available Efficient and effective retrieval techniques of images are desired because of the explosive growth of digital images. Content-based image retrieval is a promising approach because of its automatic indexing and retrieval based on their semantic features and visual appearance. This paper discusses the method for dimensionality reduction called Maximum Margin Projection (MMP. MMP aims at maximizing the margin between positive and negative sample at each neighborhood. It is designed for discovering the local manifold structure. Therefore, MMP is likely to be more suitable for image retrieval systems, where nearest neighbor search is usually involved. The performance of these approaches is measured by a user evaluation. It is found that the MMP based technique provides more functionalities and capabilities to support the features of information seeking behavior and produces better performance in searching images.

  12. Phytochemical Content and Pharma-Nutrition Study on Eleutherococcus senticosus Fruits Intractum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Załuski


    Full Text Available In the past two decades public interest in herbal products has increased significantly in Europe, especially in the plant-based products from non-European traditions. Eleutherococcus senticosus has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, anemia, and rheumatoid arthritis. The Eleutherococcus senticosus fruits intractum was examined for the content of phenolic acids (LC-ESI-MS/MS, minerals (AAS, TPC, and TFC (spectrophotometric assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using free radical scavenging assay and TLC-DB-DPPH∗ dot-blot test. An anti-Hyal activity was evaluated by the spectrophotometric assay method. Cytotoxicity towards HL-60, HL-60/MX1, HL-60/MX2, CEM/C1, and CCRF/CEM leukemic cell lines was done using trypan blue test. Among eight phenolic acids, trans-caffeic acid was found in the largest amount (41.2 mg/g DE. The intractum presented a high amount of macroelements (Ca, Mg, K; 1750, 1300, and 21000 mg/kg and microelements (Fe, Mn; 32.7, 54.3 mg/kg, respectively. The content of TPC and TFC was 130 and 92 mg/g DE, respectively. The intractum showed anti-Hyal activity (2.16–60% and an antioxidant capacity (EC50; 52 μg/mL. The intractum most strongly inhibited the growth of HL-60, HL-60/MX1, and CCRF/CEM. A better understanding of the intractum health benefits is important in order to increase its utility and enrich dietary sources of health promoting compounds.

  13. Simulation study of the aerosol information content in OMI spectral reflectance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Veihelmann


    Full Text Available The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI is an imaging UV-VIS solar backscatter spectrometer and is designed and used primarily to retrieve trace gases like O3 and NO2 from the measured Earth reflectance spectrum in the UV-visible (270–500 nm. However, also aerosols are an important science target of OMI. The multi-wavelength algorithm is used to retrieve aerosol parameters from OMI spectral reflectance measurements in up to 20 wavelength bands. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA is performed to quantify the information content of OMI reflectance measurements on aerosols and to assess the capability of the multi-wavelength algorithm to discern various aerosol types. This analysis is applied to synthetic reflectance measurements for desert dust, biomass burning aerosols, and weakly absorbing anthropogenic aerosol with a variety of aerosol optical thicknesses, aerosol layer altitudes, refractive indices and size distributions. The range of aerosol parameters considered covers the natural variability of tropospheric aerosols. This theoretical analysis is performed for a large number of scenarios with various geometries and surface albedo spectra for ocean, soil and vegetation. When the surface albedo spectrum is accurately known and clouds are absent, OMI reflectance measurements have 2 to 4 degrees of freedom that can be attributed to aerosol parameters. This information content depends on the observation geometry and the surface albedo spectrum. An additional wavelength band is evaluated, that comprises the O2-O2 absorption band at a wavelength of 477 nm. It is found that this wavelength band adds significantly more information than any other individual band.

  14. Genetic Diversity and Genome Wide Association Study of β-Glucan Content in Tetraploid Wheat Grains. (United States)

    Marcotuli, Ilaria; Houston, Kelly; Schwerdt, Julian G; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata


    Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) have many health benefits, including immunomodulatory activity, lowering serum cholesterol, a faecal bulking effect, enhanced absorption of certain minerals, prebiotic effects and the amelioration of type II diabetes. The principal components of the NSP in cereal grains are (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and arabinoxylans. Although (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (hereafter called β-glucan) is not the most representative component of wheat cell walls, it is one of the most important types of soluble fibre in terms of its proven beneficial effects on human health. In the present work we explored the genetic variability of β-glucan content in grains from a tetraploid wheat collection that had been genotyped with a 90k-iSelect array, and combined this data to carry out an association analysis. The β-glucan content, expressed as a percentage w/w of grain dry weight, ranged from 0.18% to 0.89% across the collection. Our analysis identified seven genomic regions associated with β-glucan, located on chromosomes 1A, 2A (two), 2B, 5B and 7A (two), confirming the quantitative nature of this trait. Analysis of marker trait associations (MTAs) in syntenic regions of several grass species revealed putative candidate genes that might influence β-glucan levels in the endosperm, possibly via their participation in carbon partitioning. These include the glycosyl hydrolases endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase (cellulase), β-amylase, (1,4)-β-xylan endohydrolase, xylanase inhibitor protein I, isoamylase and the glycosyl transferase starch synthase II.

  15. Loss of retinoschisin (RS1) cell surface protein in maturing mouse rod photoreceptors elevates the luminance threshold for light-driven translocation of transducin but not arrestin. (United States)

    Ziccardi, Lucia; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Bush, Ronald A; Sieving, Paul A


    Loss of retinoschisin (RS1) in Rs1 knock-out (Rs1-KO) retina produces a post-photoreceptor phenotype similar to X-linked retinoschisis in young males. However, Rs1 is expressed strongly in photoreceptors, and Rs1-KO mice have early reduction in the electroretinogram a-wave. We examined light-activated transducin and arrestin translocation in young Rs1-KO mice as a marker for functional abnormalities in maturing rod photoreceptors. We found a progressive reduction in luminance threshold for transducin translocation in wild-type (WT) retinas between postnatal days P18 and P60. At P21, the threshold in Rs1-KO retinas was 10-fold higher than WT, but it decreased to translocation and re-translocation of transducin in the dark were not affected. Rs1-KO rod outer segment (ROS) length was significantly shorter than WT at P21 but was comparable with WT at P60. These findings suggested a delay in the structural and functional maturation of Rs1-KO ROS. Consistent with this, transcription factors CRX and NRL, which are fundamental to maturation of rod protein expression, were reduced in ROS of Rs1-KO mice at P21 but not at P60. Expression of transducin was 15-30% lower in P21 Rs1-KO ROS and transducin GTPase hydrolysis was nearly twofold faster, reflecting a 1.7- to 2.5-fold increase in RGS9 (regulator of G-protein signaling) level. Transduction protein expression and activity levels were similar to WT at P60. Transducin translocation threshold elevation indicates photoreceptor functional abnormalities in young Rs1-KO mice. Rapid reduction in threshold coupled with age-related changes in transduction protein levels and transcription factor expression are consistent with delayed maturation of Rs1-KO photoreceptors.

  16. A Case Study on the Effect of the Consecutive Trial Teachings : Use of Soft Volley Ball as Teaching Contents


    村井, 潤; 松田, 泰定; 木原, 成一郎


    This study aims to consider following two points through the trial teachings in "Teaching Contents of Elementary Physical Education" in Hiroshima University of Elementary School Teacher Education Program. One is to consider effect of planning and practicing consecutive trial teachings. The other is to consider students' understanding of motor skills and teaching technique through the consecutive trial teachings. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Students realized that their practicing...

  17. Comparative Study of the Pollen Protein Contents in Two Major Varieties of Cupressus arizonica Planted in Tehran


    Youcef Shahali; Ahmad Majd; Zahra Pourpak; Golnaz Tajadod; Maryam Haftlang; Mostafa Moin


    During past few years, the Cupressus arizonica has been abundantly planted in Tehran, causing a significant increase of allergic diseases from the middle of winter to the beginning of spring. The aim of this study was the comparison of pollen protein content in two major varieties of C. arizonica planted in Tehran, including C. arizonica var. arizonica and C. arizonica var. glabra, in order to determine pollen's specificity of each variety and also to find out whether environmental conditions...

  18. Participants' Accounts on Their Decision to Join a Cohort Study With an Attached Biobank: A Qualitative Content Analysis Study Within Two German Studies. (United States)

    Nobile, Hélène; Bergmann, Manuela M; Moldenhauer, Jennifer; Borry, Pascal


    Reliable participation and sustained retention rates are crucial in longitudinal studies involving human subjects and biomaterials. Understanding the decision to enroll is an essential step to develop adequate strategies promoting long-term participation. Semi-structured interviews were implemented with newly recruited and long-term participants randomly drawn from two ongoing longitudinal studies with a biobank component in Germany. Iterative qualitative content analysis was applied to the transcribed interviews. Participants (n = 31) expressed their decision to enroll or remain in the study as the result of the complex interplay of individual factors, institutional cues, study-related features, and societal dynamics. Different forms of trust were identified as central within the elements used to explain participation and could be compared to Dibben, Morris, and Lean's dynamic model of interpersonal trust. Given these high levels of trust, an investigation of the morality of the trustful relationship at stake between participants and research(ers) is warranted.

  19. Women Studies in Engineering Education: Content Analysis in Three Referred Journals (United States)

    Chou, Pao-Nan


    Little is known about the research characteristics of past women studies in engineering education. In order to add knowledge base about the advanced development of women studies in current engineering education research, the purpose of the study is to investigate research characteristics of past women studies published in three referred…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangGuangliang; HaoGuangjie; 等


    In this article,AHPS(3-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate salt) was synthesized to use in emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of BA/BMA/MMA system for high solid content latexes.Storage stability,flow behavior of the latexes,morphology of the obtained latex particles,dynamic viscoelastic behavior,tensile strength and water resistance properties of the resulted copolymers were investigated.The experimental results show that with the addition of AHPS,stability of the emulsion is greatly improved that there appears no apparent precipitation during the polymerization and storage at room temperature for 6 months and at -10℃ for four months.Flow of the latexes follows the Bingham body laws,diameter of the latex particles is about 0.6μm,of which is larger than that of by conventional emulsion polymerization(0.12μm).In addition,not only water resistance of the copolymers obtained by emulsifier-free emulstion polymerization is greatly improved,but also tensile strength is obviously enhanced.

  1. A Study of Sentiment and Trend Analysis Techniques for Social Media Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Mehmood


    Full Text Available The social media networks have evolved rapidly and people frequently use these services to communicate with others and express themselves by sharing opinions, views, ideas etc. on different topics. The social media trend analysis is generally carried out by sifting the corresponding or interlinked events discussed on social media websites such as Twitter, Facebook etc. The fundamental objective behind such analyses is to determine the level of criticality with respect to criticism or appreciation described in the comments, tweets or blogs. The trend analysis techniques can also be systematically exploited for opinion making among the masses at large. The results of such analyses show how people think, assess, orate and opine about different issues. This paper primarily focuses on the trend detection and sentiment analysis techniques and their efficacy in the contextual information. We further discuss these techniques which are used to analyze the sentiments expressed within a particular sentence, paragraph or document etc. The analysis based on sentiments can pave way for automatic trend analysis, topic recognition and opinion mining etc. Furthermore, we can fairly estimate the degree of positivity and negativity of the opinions and sentiments based on the content obtained from a particular social media.

  2. Optimization of {sup 18}O measurement using NRA for studies of isotopic content in fossil meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiuk, M., E-mail: [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Kristiansson, P.; Arteaga-Marrero, N.; Elfman, M.; Golubev, P.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Salim, N. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)


    In this work, we discuss the possibility of a new approach to measuring oxygen isotope ratios in fossil meteorite samples, specifically one based on nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Variations of oxygen ratios within meteoritic chromite grains can help to determine the type of meteorite to which the grains originally belonged. In this work, we have evaluated the possibility to use the reaction {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N just above the 846 keV resonance to estimate the relative oxygen-18 content in a number of test samples. Another technique has to be employed for oxygen-16 measurements. A large area segmented silicon detector is used to detect the produced {alpha} particles. Results of the experimental {sup 18}O measurements for a number of samples including four extraterrestrial chromite grains are presented and compared with SIMNRA simulations. The advantage of a segmented silicon detector in the form of inherent pile-up suppression can be clearly seen in the current work.

  3. 苦荞的膳食纤维含量研究%Study on Dietary Fiber Content of Taratry Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 宋毓雪; 韩承华; 黄凯丰; 陈庆富


    The author used 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat as experimental material to determine the total dietary fiber content, insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber content. The results showed that, total dietary fiber of 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat was change between 4.61%-40.95%, with an average of 17.18%.The insoluble dietary fiber content of 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat changed between 3.36%-31.08%, with an average of 9.65%. The soluble dietary fiber content of 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat was change between 0.92%-17.51%, with an average of 7.53%. The dietary fiber content was higher, mainly with insoluble dietary fiber. There was difference among different origin of tartary buckwheat. This study had important significance for further study on the genetic and variation law of dietary fiber content between different tartary buckwheat resources.%以不同产地的30份苦荞资源为试验材料,测定其籽粒中的总膳食纤维、不可溶性膳食纤维及可溶性膳食纤维的含量.结果表明:30份苦荞资源的总膳食纤维含量变化的幅度为4.61%~40.95%,平均.值为17.18%;不可溶性膳食纤维含量的变异幅度为3.36%~31.08%,平均值为9.65%;可溶性膳食纤维含量的变异幅度为0.92%~17.51%,平均值为7.53%.苦荞中膳食纤维含量较高,以不可溶性膳食纤维为主.不同产地的苦荞种子中总膳食纤维、不可溶性膳食纤维、可溶性膳食纤维含量存在差异.此研究结果对进一步研究膳食纤维含量在不同苦荞资源间的遗传变异规律具有重要意义.

  4. Study on Plantago major L. dan Phaseolus vulgaris L. chlorophyll and carotenoid content using as bioincator for air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study using chlorophyll and carotenoid as bioindicator air quality. This research used completely randomized design 2 x 4 factorial with 5 replicates. The first factor was distance from source of exhaust automobile emissions, consists of 4 levels: 0,50, 100, and 200 m. The second factor was plant spesies, consist 2 level: Plantago major and Phaseolus vulgaris. Data collected were analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test in 5% confidence level. The result indicated that increasing distance from source exhaust automobile emission, increased growth and chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll content in Phaseolus is more sensitive as bioindicator for air pollution.

  5. A pilot study of phytoestrogen content of soy foods and traditional Chinese medicines for women's health in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Li, Martin; Poon, Peter; Woo, Jean


    In view of the possible health benefits of phytoestrogens, a pilot study was carried out to quantitate the phytoestrogen content of soy foods and tea commonly consumed in Hong Kong, and also of traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) products that are prescribed for menopausal symptoms and diseases relating to the menopause. Assays of daidzein and genistein were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography, after extraction procedures. The TCM products were found to contain phytoestrogen in quantities comparable with soy products. Moreover, certain types of Chinese tea contained large quantities of phytoestrogens in the leaves, but also yielded comparable quantities in the infusion for drinking. The phytoestrogen content of these TCM may provide a scientific basis for their actions. However, clinical efficacy can only be determined by clinical trials.

  6. Teacher- or Learner-Centred? Science Teacher Beliefs Related to Topic Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A South African Case Study (United States)

    Mavhunga, Elizabeth; Rollnick, Marissa


    In science education, learner-centred classroom practices are widely accepted as desirable and are associated with responsive and reformed kinds of teacher beliefs. They are further associated with high-quality Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Topic-Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TSPCK), a version of PCK defined at topic level, is known to enable the transformation of topic content into a form accessible to learners. However, little is known about teacher science beliefs in relation to TSPCK and therefore the nature of likely associated classroom practices. In this study, we investigated the relationship between TSPCK and underlying science teacher beliefs following an intervention targeting the improvement of TSPCK in the topic chemical equilibrium. Sixteen final year pre-service chemistry teachers were exposed to an intervention that explicitly focussed on knowledge for transforming the content of chemical equilibrium using the five knowledge components of TSPCK. A specially designed TSPCK instrument in chemical equilibrium and the Teacher Belief Instrument (TBI) were used to capture written responses in pre- and post-tests. Additional qualitative data was collected from audio-recorded discussions and written responses from an open-ended question asked before and after the intervention. Two key findings emerged from the study. Firstly, the development of TSPCK was linked to shifts in underlying science teacher beliefs in the direction of learner-centred teaching for the majority of pre-service teachers. Secondly, this shift was not evident for all, as for some there was development of TSPCK without a shift from teacher-centred beliefs about science teaching.

  7. Using MultiMedia Content to Present Business Ethics: An Empirical Study (United States)

    Stanwick, Peter A.


    The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…

  8. Content-Related Interactions and Methods of Reasoning within Self-Initiated Organic Chemistry Study Groups (United States)

    Christian, Karen Jeanne


    Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of…

  9. Parametric studies on iron-carbon composite nanoparticles synthesized by laser pyrolysis for increased passivation and high iron content (United States)

    Dumitrache, F.; Morjan, I.; Fleaca, C.; Birjega, R.; Vasile, E.; Kuncser, V.; Alexandrescu, R.


    Iron/iron carbide core and carbon shell nanoparticles with improved magnetic properties were successfully synthesized by laser pyrolysis. As iron and carbon precursors, iron pentacarbonyl and pure or argon-diluted acetylene/ethylene mixtures, respectively, were used. The aim of the present optimization is the improvement of the magnetic properties of the nanomaterials by the increase of the iron percent in powders simultaneously to the maintaining of the protective character of the carbon coverage of nanoparticles. The chemical content and the crystalline structure were monitored by EDX, XRD and TEM techniques. In the first study, the content of acetylene as carbon source was diminished from 75% to 0%. Consequently the percent iron increased from 10 at.% to 28 at.% while oxygen remained relatively constant (around 5 at.%). In the second step, only diluted ethylene was used (maximum 87.5 vol.% Ar). In this case, an increase of iron to 46 at.% is observed. An optimum 50% carbon source dilution was found. Above this value, the carbon content increases and below it, superficial oxidation increases through the diminishing of the carbon shell. The magnetic properties and the Fe phase composition of the Fe-C samples were analyzed by temperature dependent Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  10. Sources of variability and comparability between salmonid stomach contents and isotopic analyses: study design lessons and recommendations (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Budy, P.


    We compared sources of variability and cost in paired stomach content and stable isotope samples from three salmonid species collected in September 2001–2005 and describe the relative information provided by each method in terms of measuring diet overlap and food web study design. Based on diet analyses, diet overlap among brown trout, rainbow trout, and mountain whitefish was high, and we observed little variation in diets among years. In contrast, for sample sizes n ≥ 25, 95% confidence interval (CI) around mean δ15Ν and δ13C for the three target species did not overlap, and species, year, and fish size effects were significantly different, implying that these species likely consumed similar prey but in different proportions. Stable isotope processing costs were US$12 per sample, while stomach content analysis costs averaged US$25.49 ± $2.91 (95% CI) and ranged from US$1.50 for an empty stomach to US$291.50 for a sample with 2330 items. Precision in both δ15Ν and δ13C and mean diet overlap values based on stomach contents increased considerably up to a sample size of n = 10 and plateaued around n = 25, with little further increase in precision.

  11. A Qualitative Study on the Content Validity of the Social Capital Scales in the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Berthelsen


    Full Text Available The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II includes scales for measuring 'workplace social capital'. The overall aim of this article is to evaluate the content validity of the following scales: horizontal trust, vertical trust and justice based on data from cognitive interviews using a think-aloud procedure. Informants were selected to achieve variation in gender, age, region of residence, and occupation. A predetermined coding scheme was used to identify: 1 Perspective (reflection on behalf of oneself only or abstraction to a broader perspective, 2 Use of response options, 3 Contexts challenging the process of answering, and 4 Overall reflections included in the retrieval and judgement processes leading to an answer for each item. The results showed that 1 the intended shift from individual to a broader perspective worked for eight out of eleven items. 2 The response option balancing in the middle covered different meanings. Retrieval of information needed to answer constituted a problem in four out of eleven items. 3 Three contextually challenging situations were identified. 4 For most items the reflections corresponded well with the intention of the scales, though the items asking about withheld information caused more problems in answering and lower content validity compared to the other items of the scales. In general, the findings supported the content validity of the COPSOQ II measurement of workplace social capital as a group construct. The study opens for new insight into how concepts and questions are understood and answered among people coming from different occupations and organizational settings.

  12. In "Step" with HIV Vaccines? A Content Analysis of Local Recruitment Campaigns for an International HIV Vaccine Study. (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Macias, Wendy; Chan, Kayshin; Harding, Ashley C


    During the past two decades of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, several recruitment campaigns were designed to generate community involvement in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials. These efforts utilized a blend of advertising and marketing strategies mixed with public relations and community education approaches to attract potential study participants to clinical trials (integrated marketing communications). Although more than 30,000 persons worldwide have participated in preventive HIV vaccine studies, no systematic analysis of recruitment campaigns exists. This content analysis study was conducted to examine several United States and Canadian recruitment campaigns for one of the largest-scale HIV vaccine trials to date (the "Step Study"). This study examined persuasive features consistent with the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) including message content, personal relevance of HIV/AIDS and vaccine research, intended audiences, information sources, and other contextual features. The results indicated variation in messages and communication approaches with gay men more exclusively targeted in these regions. Racial/ethnic representations also differed by campaign. Most of the materials promote affective evaluation of the information through heuristic cueing. Implications for subsequent campaigns and research directions are discussed.

  13. A Content Literacy Collaborative Study Group: High School Teachers Take Charge of Their Professional Learning (United States)

    Thibodeau, Gail M.


    The progress and effects of a collaborative study group as a method of job-embedded professional development were studied. Eight high school teachers representing a variety of disciplines and the author (a literacy specialist) met monthly as a collaborative group for one school year to investigate materials and methods for literacy strategy…

  14. Influence of Motivational Design on Completion Rates in Online Self-Study Pharmacy-Content Courses (United States)

    Pittenger, Amy; Doering, Aaron


    Student retention rates are a constant concern in higher education, but this concern has become especially challenging as online courses become more common and there are widespread reports of low completion rates for online, self-study courses. We evaluated four self-study online pharmacy courses with a history of very high completion rates for…

  15. Content Analysis of Jordanian Elementary Textbooks during 1970-2013 as Case Study (United States)

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa


    This study aims to determine types of mathematic disciplines (in term of topics) in Jordanian Elementary textbooks. This study evaluates mathematics text books especially in the period between 1970 and 2013 and identifies types and quantities of mathematics. To examine the relative quantity of mathematics, branches of mathematics, presentation…

  16. Content Analysis of the Studies in Turkey on the Ability of Critical Thinking (United States)

    Polat, Seyat


    Critical thinking, along with other skills, is included as a basic skill in the constructive education program that has been in use in Turkey since 2005. Therefore, a large increase has been observed in studies on critical thinking skills since 2005. In this frame, the present study was conducted in order to systematically examine research papers…

  17. Ready Contents or Future Skills? A Comparative Study of Teacher Education in Thailand and Finland (United States)

    Vibulphol, Jutarat; Loima, Jyrki; Areesophonpichet, Sornnate; Rukspollmuang, Chanita


    This study aimed to analyze the recently updated teacher education programmes in two universities in Finland and Thailand. The article reports the characteristics of the elementary and secondary school teacher education studies in the selected universities, and discusses the roles and significance of 21st century skills and their modifications in…

  18. Design vs. Content: A Study of Adolescent Girls' Website Design Preferences (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.


    This study considered the utility of gender schema theory in examining girls' website design preferences. It built on a previous study which identified eight website evaluation criteria related to biological sex: collaboration, social connectivity, flexibility, motility, contextuality, personal identification, inclusion, and graphic/multimedia…

  19. A Study on Gendered Portrayals in Children's Picture Books with Mathematical Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Ladd


    Full Text Available This study analyzes sexism in children's picture books that incorporate mathematical problems and problem-solving into the plot to determine if children's earliest reading material is affecting the achievement gap between males and females in this subject area. The study focused not just on overall totals of male and female characters, but also analyzed which genders most often portrayed gender stereotyped behaviors and personality traits and which characters were most often shown with mathematical skills. The findings of the study show that there were twice as many male as female characters, and the math problem-solving was generally done by males in the majority of titles.

  20. Exploring Cultural Content of Three Prominent EFL Textbooks in Iran (A Case Study of American English Files, Top Notch and Four Corners) (United States)

    Dehbozorgi, Mehrnoosh; Amalsaleh, Ehya; Kafipour, Reza


    Cultural content has become an important issue after the advent of intercultural communicative approach (ICC) in language teaching field. The current study analyzed cultural content of three mainstream intermediate level EFL textbooks. This study was carried out using Chen's (2004) and Lee's (2009) suggested themes for detecting big "C"…

  1. Digital immigrants teaching digital natives: A phenomenological study of higher education faculty perspectives on technology integration with English core content (United States)

    Corey, Robert C.

    In the last two decades, technology use has escalated and educators grapple with its advances and integration into the classroom. Issues surrounding what constitutes a literate society, the clarion calls for educational reform emanating from US presidents to parent teacher organizations, and educators' ability to cope with advances in technology in the classroom demand attention. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand the professional and educational experiences of six English faculty members teaching undergraduate courses at Midwest universities. Using the framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge -- TPACK (Koehler and Mishra 2008), the major focus of the study was to determine how faculty members understood what characterized the nature of teaching with technology in undergraduate classrooms. Results of this study revealed five themes showing how the participants were introduced to technology, how they assimilated it into their pedagogy, and how they integrated it into teaching practice. This study has the potential to impact the nature of illustrating the methods and techniques used by the six participants as they merge technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge and set in motion classroom practices that assist faculty at all levels to develop and teach technology skills necessary for the 21st century and to better prepare students for thinking critically about how to use digital advances.

  2. Study of the muon content of very high-energy EAS measured with the KASCADE-Grande observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Curcio, C; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschlaeger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, D; Wochele, J


    The KASCADE-Grande detector is an air-shower array devoted to the study of primary cosmic rays with very high-energies (E = 10^{16} - 10^{18} eV). The instrument is composed of different particle detector systems suitable for the detailed study of the properties of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) developed by cosmic rays in the atmosphere. Among the EAS observables studied with the detector, the charged number of particles, the muon content (at different energy thresholds), and the number of electrons are found. By comparing the measurements of these air-shower parameters with the expectations from MC simulations, different hadronic interaction models can be tested at the high-energy regime with the KASCADE-Grande experiment. In this work, the results of a study on the evolution of the muon content of EAS with zenith angle, performed with the KASCADE-Grande instrument, is presented. Measurements are compared with predictions from MC simulations based on the QGSJET II, QGSJET II-04, SIBYLL 2.1 and EPOS 1.99 hadron...

  3. A Study on Gendered Portrayals in Children's Informational Books with Scientific Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Ladd


    Full Text Available This study analyzes gender bias in children's informational books about science and science careers to determine how these early resources are affecting the disparity between males and females in science and engineering fields. The study focused on the number of male and female scientists both in pictures and text, and how much space was devoted to discussion of scientists of each gender. Overall, the findings of the study show that only 18% of the pictured scientists were female as well as only 16% of the scientists discussed in the text. These numbers are below current industry data that puts the number of females working in science and engineering fields at 26%.

  4. Trends in Studies on Virtual Learning Environments in Turkey between 1996-2014 Years: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel DEMIRER


    Full Text Available This study aims to review studies on virtual learning environments in Turkey through the content analysis method. 63 studies consisting of thesis, articles and proceedings published in Turkish and English between 1996-2014 years were analyzed. It was observed that "Second Life" was mostly preferred as the virtual learning environment. Literature review and quantitative research methods were mostly preferred in the studies respectively. Most of these studies used surveys to collect the data and sample size in most studies was between 31-100 participants. Mostly, participants were undergraduate students, and purposive and convenience sampling method were preferred in the studies. The data was mostly analyzed using quantitative descriptive analysis method. The most studied variable was academic achievement and the least one was the cognitive load. The studies yielded varying results owning to their study purposes and showed that virtual learning environments fostered student academic success, diminished the cognitive load by concretizing the concepts and ensured social and collaborative learning. The findings of this study might guide researchers aiming to employ virtual learning environments in their educational studies.

  5. Review of simulation studies in anaesthesia journals, 2001-2010: mapping and content analysis. (United States)

    Ross, A J; Kodate, N; Anderson, J E; Thomas, L; Jaye, P


    Despite widespread adoption of simulation-based training in medical education, there remains scepticism about its cost-effectiveness and long-term impact on patient outcomes. Medical simulation is well established in anaesthesia where it is considered an important educational tool. This review of key clinical anaesthesia literature is used as a case study of clinician uptake within a specialty and to investigate evidence for translational impact using both qualitative and quantitative data. We examined high-impact journal publications from 2001 to 2010 and extracted data covering authors, institutions, simulation modality, purposes of simulation, and various aspects of study design/methodology used. A total of 320 papers containing primary data were included. We found broad acceptance and uptake in anaesthesia with an increase in publications over the time period, mainly attributable to a steady increase in manikin studies. Studies using manikin technology (130/320; 41%) are distinguished as skills/performance studies (76; 58%) and studies focused on the use, testing, and validation of equipment (52; 40%). A total of 110 papers (34%) assessed the performance of technical and non-technical skills (68% and 32%, respectively). Growth in the use of structured checklists/validated tools to assess performance is mainly observed in the non-technical domain. Only 10% of these papers include follow-up data from the clinical environment. There is a lack of research examining performance transfer, sustainability, and direct patient outcomes and experiences. These publication patterns are instructive for those involved in medical educational and for other clinical specialties developing simulation.

  6. The Study on the Conductivity Performance and Shielding Effectiveness of Electro-magnetic Radiation of Polyethylene Film with Different Content of Carbon Black Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Run-jun; LAI Kan; ZHANG Jian-chun; HUO Yan


    With the help of the testing apparatus made by ourselves for shielding electromagnetic radiation, the electric conductivity and shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic radiation of polyethylene film contained different content of carbon particles was systematically studied in this paper. The results indicate that the electric conductivity and shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic radiation of polyethylene /carbon film have closely relations with content of carbon black particles, which exists a critical content value as 14%~30% and its properties will have a tremendous change.

  7. Content-Specific Strategies to Advocate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Watson, Laurel B.


    Researchers suggest that supportive school personnel may decrease some of the challenges encountered by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools (Russell, Seif, & Truong, 2001); however, little is known about the approaches used by school-based advocates for LGBT youth. This exploratory study investigated the strategies used…

  8. The Structure and Content of Social Attitude Referents: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Kerlinger, Fred N.


    Purpose of this study was to explore the measurement of social attitudes by using attitude referents as stimuli; to assess the psychometric properties of an attitude scale constructed with referents; and to test aspects of a structural theory of attitudes. (Author/MB)

  9. Exposure to sexualized media content and selective attention for sexual cues: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan; van den Eijnden, Regina; Johnson, Adam; ter Bogt, Tom


    This study examined whether exposure to sexualized media influences the subconscious process of attention allocation to subsequently encountered stimuli. One hundred twenty-three participants (61 females) between 18-23 years (M age = 19.99 years) watched a 3-minute video clip containing either neutr

  10. Content Analysis of Memory and Memory-Related Research Studies on Children with Hearing Loss (United States)

    Dogan, Murat; Hasanoglu, Gülcihan


    Memory plays a profound role in explaining language development, academic learning, and learning disabilities. Even though there is a large body of research on language development, literacy skills, other academic skills, and intellectual characteristics of children with hearing loss, there is no holistic study on their memory processes.…

  11. Effects of the content and language integrated learning approach to EFL teaching: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, J.A.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.


    This study investigates the effects of English-medium CLIL on EFL proficiency in three European countries. Seven mainstream grammar schools spread across The Netherlands, Germany, and Italy participated with a total of 263 pupils aged 12 to 16. Several language skills were measured by means of writt

  12. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation (United States)

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith


    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  13. Determination of the total nitrogen content of hard, semihard, and processed cheese by the Kjeldahl method: collaborative study. (United States)

    Lynch, Joanna M; Barbano, David M; Fleming, J Richard


    The objective of this collaborative study was to determine interlaboratory performance statistics for a modified and optimized version of AOAC Method 920.123 for the determination of the total nitrogen content of hard, semihard, and processed cheese by Kjeldahl analysis. Details included addressing the issues of material homogeneity, test portion size (1 g), quantitative transfer (weighing on to filter paper), ensuring system suitability (nitrogen recoveries), and using AOAC Method 991.20 as the basis for nitrogen analysis. Fifteen laboratories tested 18 pairs of blind duplicate cheese materials with a crude protein content between 18 and 36%. Materials represented hard, semihard, and processed commercial cheeses with a wide range of composition. Statistical performance parameters expressed as crude protein (nitrogen x 6.38), g/100 g, with invalid and outlier data removed were mean = 26.461, repeatability standard deviation (Sr) 0.111, reproducibility standard deviation (S(R)) = 0.153, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 0.42%, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) = 0.58%, repeatability (r) = 0.312, and reproducibility (R) = 0.428. The interlaboratory study results were acceptable and comparable to those for the milk Kjeldahl nitrogen method on a relative nitrogen basis. The Study Directors recommend that this modified method for the determination of total nitrogen in hard, semihard, and processed cheese by Kjeldahl analysis be adopted First Action as an improved method to replace Method 920.123.

  14. Phenomenological study of decline of personal health records: Empirical evidence from thematic analyses of blogs’ content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Chinta


    Full Text Available This study examines the current state of personal health records (PHRs in electronic health care. Surveys report that the PHR usage is generally increasing, and yet, even an influential organization such as the Google decided to end its “Google Health” venture. If the potential for use and future growth is high, why are there so many obstacles to the adoption of PHRs? We analyze comments to articles and blogs related to PHRs in order to identify the current status, barriers to adoption, and future potential of PHRs. This study identifies issues of PHRs clustering mainly around certain key ideas: trust, communication, markets, standards, usability, politics, usefulness, and data ownership. It appears that disparity among the multiple stakeholders as to the expected benefits is the main barrier to its adoption.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sirbu


    Full Text Available It is well known that, among the marine organisms, mollusks are highly appreciated in many European, Asian and North American countries. In the Romanian area of the Black Sea, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis can be found in deep areas which form a belt around the sea on the continental platform. There are significant variations of the main environmental factors which directly influence the physiological behavior of the organisms and the accumulation of the biochemical components with nutritional value. This paper correlates the study of the dynamics of the main biochemical compounds with the environmental factors and the annual ontogenetic phases of the organisms. There are also presented comparative studies concerning the rock mollusks and mollusks of deep from the Black Sea. It was found variations in quantitative results for biochemical composition. Cases are due to seasonal variations of physical-chemical conditions of seawater.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of ISP Reactions to Australian Internet Content Regulation Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigi Goode


    Full Text Available This paper discusses a longitudinal study which surveys a targeted selection of Australian ISPs to determine both initial and subsequent effects of and attitudes towards the legislation. The paper observes that, initially, ISPs were generally opposed to the legislation, offering stiff opposition to its introduction. The initial results suggested dissatisfaction with the legislation on the part of ISPs, and foreshadowed adverse effects on the online industry. Concerns were also raised that the legislation would not be effective. Two years later, however, ISPs had generally observed little change in operations, arguing that the legislation had had little overall effect. The study also raises a number of interesting issues that are outside the scope of this paper. These issues merit further research.

  17. Studies on Total Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts from Selected Salvia Species


    Ana Viorica Pop Cuceu; Maria Tofană; Sonia A. Socaci; Melinda Nagy; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Liana Salanţă; Romina Vlaic


    Salvia is one of the largest genera in the family of Labiatae, comprising about 900 species distributed widely throughout the world. Many species of Salvia are commonly used as herbal tea and for food flavoring, as well as in cosmetics, perfumery and in the pharmaceutical industry. The present study compares the antioxidant properties of four methanolic extracts, obtained by two extraction methods, from Salvia elegans, Salvia officinalis Purpurascens, Salvia officinalis Tricolor and Salvia la...

  18. Atorvastatin effects on liver enzymes, antioxidant content and paraoxonase 1: An animal trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Barzegar,


    Full Text Available Background: Liver cirrhosis (LC is end-stage and irreversible phase of some chronic liver diseases. Treatment of cirrhosis is varied. Statins are one of them for prophylactic use, and several studies have shown their usefulness and effectiveness in control of LC but according to some other studies the use of Atorvastatin is now matter of discuss. Many studies reported the role of statins in increased activity of PON1 in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. This study aims to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on PON1 activities on development of liver cirrhosis in animal models of mice with ligated bile duct. Material and methods:The 32 rats were haphazardly partitioned On two groups: sham group and Bile duct ligated (BDL group. Each group was also divided in two subgroups in order to treat with either atorvastatin 15 mg/kg suspended in 5%CMC (Sigma Chemicals Co., USA or the same volume/weight of the 5% CMC vehicle for 28 days. At the end of the 4-week period, blood samples were collected by puncturing the heart under deep anesthesia and laboratory test for blood was operated. All statistical analyses were carried out using Prism statistical software .These differences were considered significant when probability was less than 0.05. Results: BDL decreased paraoxonase activities and increase MDA and liver enzymes while atorvastatin treatment increase PON1 activity and decreased MDA levels and liver enzymes. Conclusion: These data confirm activity of atorvastatin in cirrhosis probably by its ability of prevention reducing paraoxonase 1 activity. Conclusion: These data confirm the antioxidant activity of atorvastatin in cirrhosis probably by its ability of prevention reducing paraoxonase 1 activity and expression

  19. Study on the influence factors for chlorogenic acid content in Shuanghuanglian oral liquid



    This paper aims to find the reason of the decrease of chlorogenic acid in Shuanghuanglian oral liquid, and to enhance the stability of chlorogenic acid by improving the preparation process. The extraction method of Lonicerae japonicae flos, concomitance ingredients and excipients such as buffer, antioxidant, solubilizer and complexing agent which may affect the stability of chlorogenic acid were studied by HPLC method. Result shows that the mixed extraction, single extraction and extraction t...

  20. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content. (United States)

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine


    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control.

  1. Meta-Study as Diagnostic: Toward Content Over Form in Qualitative Synthesis. (United States)

    Frost, Julia; Garside, Ruth; Cooper, Chris; Britten, Nicky


    Having previously conducted qualitative syntheses of the diabetes literature, we wanted to explore the changes in theoretical approaches, methodological practices, and the construction of substantive knowledge which have recently been presented in the qualitative diabetes literature. The aim of this research was to explore the feasibility of synthesizing existing qualitative syntheses of patient perspectives of diabetes using meta-study methodology. A systematic review of qualitative literature, published between 2000 and 2013, was conducted. Six articles were identified as qualitative syntheses. The meta-study methodology was used to compare the theoretical, methodological, analytic, and synthetic processes across the six studies, exploring the potential for an overarching synthesis. We identified that while research questions have increasingly concentrated on specific aspects of diabetes, the focus on systematic review processes has led to the neglect of qualitative theory and methods. This can inhibit the production of compelling results with meaningful clinical applications. Although unable to produce a synthesis of syntheses, we recommend that researchers who conduct qualitative syntheses pay equal attention to qualitative traditions and systematic review processes, to produce research products that are both credible and applicable.

  2. FOXO1 Content Is Reduced in Cystic Fibrosis and Increases with IGF-I Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Smerieri


    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is to date the most frequent complication in cystic fibrosis (CF. The mechanisms underlying this condition are not well understood, and a possible role of insulin resistance is debated. We investigated insulin signal transduction in CF. Total insulin receptor, IRS1, p85 PI3K, and AKT contents were substantially normal in CF cells (CFBE41o-, whereas winged helix forkhead (FOXO1 contents were reduced both in baseline conditions and after insulin stimulation. In addition, CF cells showed increased ERK1/2, and reduced β2 arrestin contents. No significant change in SOCS2 was observed. By using a CFTR inhibitor and siRNA, changes in FOXO1 were related to CFTR loss of function. In a CF-affected mouse model, FOXO1 content was reduced in the muscle while no significant difference was observed in liver and adipose tissue compared with wild-type. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I increased FOXO1 content in vitro and in vivo in muscle and adipose tissue. In conclusion; we present the first description of reduced FOXO1 content in CF, which is compatible with reduced gluconeogenesis and increased adipogenesis, both features of insulin insensitivity. IGF-I treatment was effective in increasing FOXO1, thereby suggesting that it could be considered as a potential treatment in CF patients possibly to prevent and treat cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

  3. The nucleation of aerosols in flue gases with a high content of alkali - a laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Joakim Reimer; Schultz-Møller, Christina; Wedel, Stig;


    The formation of particles during cooling of a synthetic flue gas with vapors of sodium and potassium species is studied in a laboratory tubular reactor with laminar flow. It is shown to agree well with a theoretical model for the process. The kinetics of homogeneous nucleation of the pure chloride...... are determined from the measurements. The homogeneous nucleation of the pure chlorides is suppressed by even relatively small concentrations of foreign seed particles and is therefore unlikely to contribute to the creation of new particles in real flue gases. The addition of SO2 to the chloride vapor feed...

  4. Carotenoid content and root color of cultivated carrot: a candidate-gene association study using an original broad unstructured population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jourdan

    Full Text Available Accumulated in large amounts in carrot, carotenoids are an important product quality attribute and therefore a major breeding trait. However, the knowledge of carotenoid accumulation genetic control in this root vegetable is still limited. In order to identify the genetic variants linked to this character, we performed an association mapping study with a candidate gene approach. We developed an original unstructured population with a broad genetic basis to avoid the pitfall of false positive detection due to population stratification. We genotyped 109 SNPs located in 17 candidate genes – mostly carotenoid biosynthesis genes – on 380 individuals, and tested the association with carotenoid contents and color components. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents were significantly associated with genes zeaxanthin epoxydase (ZEP, phytoene desaturase (PDS and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO while α-carotene was associated with CRTISO and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX genes. Color components were associated most significantly with ZEP. Our results suggest the involvement of the couple PDS/PTOX and ZEP in carotenoid accumulation, as the result of the metabolic and catabolic activities respectively. This study brings new insights in the understanding of the carotenoid pathway in non-photosynthetic organs.

  5. Bibliometric study of pedagogical sciences’ contents in the corpus of Transformación journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Maylin


    Full Text Available The paper describes the findings of a biblio-metric research of Transformación corpus aimed at the knowledge of the main sources consulted by the authors and its correspondence to the main contribution of the scientific community to the development of pedagogical sciences in Cuba. The total number of issues and articles published between 2011 and 2013 were selected as sample. 933 consulted works were studied and the references were grouped into belonging and not-belonging to campus’ authors. Likewise, the papers refers to the number of Ph. D. and master dissertations, research reports and pedagogical journal articles used as references. Finally, the findings were correlated to the selection of books suggested by Chávez, Deler y Suárez in “La actualidad de la pedagogía y la didáctica en Cuba” (2009. Key words: Biliometry, biblio-metric indicators, bibliography refences.

  6. Study of Trace and Heavy Metals Content of Soft Drinks in the State of Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Alzaid


    Full Text Available The levels of 25 trace and heavy metals were determined in 29 brands of soft drinks collected from supermarkets and grand stores in Kuwait using an Agilent ICP/MS. Comparison of the elemental concentrations in the soft drinks samples with the international maximum allowable limits showed that the mean values as well as the ranges of all the investigated elements in all the samples analyzed were below both US-EPA and WHO regulatedlimits of drinking water. It was found that there is no significant effect on the material of the containers on the levels of the studied metals. In addition, these levels were found much lower than those found in other countries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereena V. B


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study of two linear dimension reduction methods namely PCA (Principal Component Analysis and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis. The main idea of PCA is to transform the high dimensional input space onto the feature space where the maximal variance is displayed. The feature selection in traditional LDA is obtained by maximizing the difference between classes and minimizing the distance within classes. PCA finds the axes with maximum variance for the whole data set where LDA tries to find the axes for best class seperability. The proposed method is experimented over a general image database using Matlab. The performance of these systems has been evaluated by Precision and Recall measures. Experimental results show that PCA based dimension reduction method gives the better performance in terms of higher precision and recall values with lesser computational complexity than the LDA based method.

  8. Mental disorders stigma in the media: review of studies on production, content, and influences. (United States)

    Klin, Anat; Lemish, Dafna


    This article analyzes two decades of research regarding the mass media's role in shaping, perpetuating, and reducing the stigma of mental illness. It concentrates on three broad areas common in media inquiry: production, representation, and audiences. The analysis reveals that descriptions of mental illness and the mentally ill are distorted due to inaccuracies, exaggerations, or misinformation. The ill are presented not only as peculiar and different, but also as dangerous. Thus, the media perpetuate misconceptions and stigma. Especially prominent is the absence of agreed-upon definitions of "mental illness," as well as the lack of research on the inter-relationships in audience studies between portrayals in the media and social perceptions. The analysis concludes with suggestions for further research on mass media's inter-relationships with mental illness.

  9. Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker James


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable research has been directed towards the roles of metal ions in nutrition with metal ion toxicity attracting particular attention. The aim of this study is to measure the levels of metal ions found in selected beverages (red wine, stout and apple juice and to determine their potential detrimental effects via calculation of the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ for 250 mL daily consumption. Results The levels (mean ± SEM and diversity of metals determined by ICP-MS were highest for red wine samples (30 metals totalling 5620.54 ± 123.86 ppb followed by apple juice (15 metals totalling 1339.87 ± 10.84 ppb and stout (14 metals totalling 464.85 ± 46.74 ppb. The combined THQ values were determined based upon levels of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb which gave red wine samples the highest value (5100.96 ± 118.93 ppb followed by apple juice (666.44 ± 7.67 ppb and stout (328.41 ± 42.36 ppb. The THQ values were as follows: apple juice (male 3.11, female 3.87, stout (male 1.84, female 2.19, red wine (male 126.52, female 157.22 and ultra-filtered red wine (male 110.48, female 137.29. Conclusion This study reports relatively high levels of metal ions in red wine, which give a very high THQ value suggesting potential hazardous exposure over a lifetime for those who consume at least 250 mL daily. In addition to the known hazardous metals (e.g. Pb, many metals (e.g. Rb have not had their biological effects systematically investigated and hence the impact of sustained ingestion is not known.

  10. An experimental study of temperature and moisture content of wet porous materials under short-pulsed laser heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renxi Jin; Xiulan Huai


    The measurements of temperature and moisture content of a wet porous material were accomplished on the micro-seconds scale. The temperature wave was observed when the wet porous material was heated by short-pulsed laser with high power. It firstly revealed that the moisture content of wet porous material rapidly rises twice in one laser irradiation. The influences of laser parameters, the thickness and initial moisture content of the wet porous material on its temperature and moisture content were investigated.

  11. Numerical and Experimental Study of Mixing Processes Associated with Hydrogen and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, Vincent; Hill, Scott; Akbari, Amin; McDonell, Vincent


    As simulation capability improves exponentially with increasingly more cost effective CPUs and hardware, it can be used ?routinely? for engineering applications. Many commercial products are available and they are marketed as increasingly powerful and easy to use. The question remains as to the overall accuracy of results obtained. To support the validation of the CFD, a hierarchical experiment was established in which the type of fuel injection (radial, axial) as well as level of swirl (non-swirling, swirling) could be systematically varied. The effort was limited to time efficient approaches (i.e., generally RANS approaches) although limited assessment of time resolved methods (i.e., unsteady RANS and LES) were considered. Careful measurements of the flowfield velocity and fuel concentration were made using both intrusive and non-intrusive methods. This database was then used as the basis for the assessment of the CFD approach. The numerical studies were carried out with a statistically based matrix. As a result, the effect of turbulence model, fuel type, axial plane, turbulent Schmidt number, and injection type could be studied using analysis of variance. The results for the non-swirling cases could be analyzed as planned, and demonstrate that turbulence model selection, turbulence Schmidt number, and the type of injection will strongly influence the agreement with measured values. Interestingly, the type of fuel used (either hydrogen or methane) has no influence on the accuracy of the simulations. For axial injection, the selection of proper turbulence Schmidt number is important, whereas for radial injection, the results are relatively insensitive to this parameter. In general, it was found that the nature of the flowfield influences the performance of the predictions. This result implies that it is difficult to establish a priori the ?best? simulation approach to use. However, the insights from the relative orientation of the jet and flow do offer some

  12. Cloud Retrieval Information Content Studies with the Pre-Aerosol, Cloud and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Ocean Color Imager (OCI) (United States)

    Coddington, Odele; Platnick, Steven; Pilewskie, Peter; Schmidt, Sebastian


    The NASA Pre-Aerosol, Cloud and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Science Definition Team (SDT) report released in 2012 defined imager stability requirements for the Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) at the sub-percent level. While the instrument suite and measurement requirements are currently being determined, the PACE SDT report provided details on imager options and spectral specifications. The options for a threshold instrument included a hyperspectral imager from 350-800 nm, two near-infrared (NIR) channels, and three short wave infrared (SWIR) channels at 1240, 1640, and 2130 nm. Other instrument options include a variation of the threshold instrument with 3 additional spectral channels at 940, 1378, and 2250 nm and the inclusion of a spectral polarimeter. In this work, we present cloud retrieval information content studies of optical thickness, droplet effective radius, and thermodynamic phase to quantify the potential for continuing the low cloud climate data record established by the MOderate Resolution and Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) missions with the PACE OCI instrument (i.e., non-polarized cloud reflectances and in the absence of midwave and longwave infrared channels). The information content analysis is performed using the GEneralized Nonlinear Retrieval Analysis (GENRA) methodology and the Collection 6 simulated cloud reflectance data for the common MODIS/VIIRS algorithm (MODAWG) for Cloud Mask, Cloud-Top, and Optical Properties. We show that using both channels near 2 microns improves the probability of cloud phase discrimination with shortwave-only cloud reflectance retrievals. Ongoing work will extend the information content analysis, currently performed for dark ocean surfaces, to different land surface types.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Violeta Cazalbașu


    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of the modern era is the air pollution. This phenomenon, highly complex, has become the focus of several international organizations since the consequences of air pollution are felt outside the country borders. By and large wecan speak of a regional pollution, which consists of atmospheric contamination by waste or by products liquids, solids gas, threatening the health of people, plants and animals or which can attack materials, reduce visibility and cause unpleasant odors. On a planetary scale, the elimination or accumulation in the atmosphere of certain products, leads to irreparable consequences on the planet's natural balance: ozone depletion and global warming of the atmosphere. This paper presents the study on the sedimentparticles in the air in Tg-Jiu. Determination of particulate matter from the air was done according to Standard no. 10195 / 75.Air purity.Determination of settled particles. In 2014 no exceeding of the maximum allowable concentration of sediment particles has been found in the four sampling points and in2015, out of a total of 60 measurements in four sampling points only one was above the maximum permissible concentration

  14. Spatially-resolved photoluminescence study of high indium content InGaN LED structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G.; Mickevicius, J.; Dobrovolskas, D.; Kuokstis, E. [Semiconductor Physics Department and Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Shur, M. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, and Center of Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Shatalov, M.; Yang, J.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc., 1195 Atlas Rd., Columbia, SC (United States)


    Spatially and spectrally resolved photoluminescence (PL) of green light-emitting diode (LED) structure with InGaN multiple quantum wells was studied using confocal and scanning near field optical microscopy techniques. Inhomogeneous distribution of PL intensity on the scale of 200 nm has been observed. The PL bands peaked at approximately 492 nm and 502 nm in bright and dark areas, respectively. The spot-to-spot variation of the peak position of the main PL band was in the range of {proportional_to}30 nm for the bright and {proportional_to}50 nm for the dark areas. The highest PL intensity in the bright areas was observed in the spots with PL band peaked at {proportional_to}492 nm, while emission intensity in dark areas had no correlation with the PL band spectral position. The inhomogeneous PL intensity distribution is explained by inhomogeneous distribution of nonradiative recombination centers, in contrast to a fairly constant tail states density (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. The Spitzer Data Fusion : Contents, Construction and Applications to Galaxy Evolution Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccari, Mattia


    We present the Spitzer Data Fusion, a database incorporating far-ultraviolet to far-infrared flux measurements as well as photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for 4.4 million IRAC-selected sources detected over 8 extragalactic fields covering 65 deg$^2$ observed by Spitzer in all IRAC and MIPS bands during its cryogenic mission. Deeper Spitzer observations carried out during its warm mission over 5 sub-fields as part of the SERVS project are also presented and analysed in a similar fashion, detecting 2.8 million IRAC-selected sources over 18 deg$^2$ and merging them with multi-wavelength catalogues within the SERVS Data Fusion. When combined with Herschel SPIRE surveys and radio continuum observations over the same fields, the Spitzer Data Fusion and the SERVS Data Fusion provide an invaluable resource for multi-wavelength galaxy formation and evolution studies at infrared/millimetre/radio wavelengths. The catalogues and their future updates will be released at \\url{} and on...

  16. Folate network genetic variation, plasma homocysteine, and global genomic methylation content: a genetic association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernimont Susan M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence variants in genes functioning in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism are hypothesized to lead to changes in levels of homocysteine and DNA methylation, which, in turn, are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods 330 SNPs in 52 genes were studied in relation to plasma homocysteine and global genomic DNA methylation. SNPs were selected based on functional effects and gene coverage, and assays were completed on the Illumina Goldengate platform. Age-, smoking-, and nutrient-adjusted genotype--phenotype associations were estimated in regression models. Results Using a nominal P ≤ 0.005 threshold for statistical significance, 20 SNPs were associated with plasma homocysteine, 8 with Alu methylation, and 1 with LINE-1 methylation. Using a more stringent false discovery rate threshold, SNPs in FTCD, SLC19A1, and SLC19A3 genes remained associated with plasma homocysteine. Gene by vitamin B-6 interactions were identified for both Alu and LINE-1 methylation, and epistatic interactions with the MTHFR rs1801133 SNP were identified for the plasma homocysteine phenotype. Pleiotropy involving the MTHFD1L and SARDH genes for both plasma homocysteine and Alu methylation phenotypes was identified. Conclusions No single gene was associated with all three phenotypes, and the set of the most statistically significant SNPs predictive of homocysteine or Alu or LINE-1 methylation was unique to each phenotype. Genetic variation in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism, other than the well-known effects of the MTHFR c.665C>T (known as c.677 C>T, rs1801133, p.Ala222Val, is predictive of cardiovascular disease biomarkers.

  17. Quantitative study of stratum corneum ceramides contents in patients with sensitive skin. (United States)

    Cho, Hee Jin; Chung, Bo Young; Lee, Hee Bong; Kim, Hye One; Park, Chun Wook; Lee, Cheol Heon


    People with sensitive skin (SS) are those who state their skin is more sensitive than that of average persons. The stratum corneum is responsible for maintaining skin barrier function. Ceramides, major constituents of stratum corneum lipids, have been shown to predominantly contribute to the role. It has been suggested that barrier function in SS is decreased. However, we could find very few reports about stratum corneum ceramides in SS. This study was done to find out differences in stratum corneum ceramides between SS and non-SS groups. Fifty individuals (20 with SS and 30 with non-SS) were recruited. Lactic acid sting test (LAST) was performed on the left cheek. On six sites including the right cheek, arm, thigh, leg, back and palm, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema index (EI) were measured. On the above six sites, stratum corneum sheets were obtained by stripping with cyanoacrylate resin and stratum corneum lipids were extracted, then, analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. LAST scores were higher in the SS group, but not statistically significant. There were no differences in TEWL and EI values between the two groups. The mean value of the quantity of stratum corneum ceramides on the face was significantly lower in the SS group. On other sites, mean values were also lower in the SS group, but not statistically significant. The quantity of ceramides was significantly decreased in the face of the SS group compared to that of the non-SS group. These results suggest that the decrease in stratum corneum ceramides on facial skin could be related to SS development.

  18. Urbanization impact on sulfur content of groundwater revealed by the study of urban speleothem-like deposits: Case study in Paris, France. (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, E; Roy-Barman, M; Jean-Soro, L; Guillerme, A; Branchu, P; Fernandez, M; Dumont, E; Douville, E; Michelot, J L; Phillips, A M


    Speleothem-like deposits that develop underground in urban areas are an archive of the environmental impact of anthropic activities that has been little studied so far. In this paper, the sulfate content in shallow groundwater from northern Paris (France) is compared with the sulfur content in two 300-year-old urban carbonate deposits that grew in a historical underground aqueduct. The present-day waters of the aqueduct have very high sulfur and calcium contents, suggesting pollution from gypsum dissolution. However, geological gypsum levels are located below the water table. Sulfur content was measured by micro-X-ray fluorescence in these very S-rich carbonate deposits (0.5 to 1% of S). A twofold S increase during the second half of the 1800s was found in both samples. These dates correspond to two major periods of urbanization above the site. We discus three possible S sources: anthropic sources (industries, fertilizers…), volcanic eruptions and input within the water through gypsum brought for urbanization above the studied site (backfill with quarry waste) since the middle of the 19th century. For the younger second half of the studied section, S input from gypsum brought during urbanization was confirmed by the study of isotopic sulfur composition (δ(34)S=+15.2‰ at the top). For the oldest part, several sulfur peaks could be related to early industrial activity in Paris, that caused high local air pollution, as reported in historical archives but also to historical gypsum extraction. This study provides information on the origin and timing of the very high SO4(2-) levels measured nowadays within the shallow groundwater, thus demonstrating the interest in using carbonate deposits in urban areas as a proxy for the history of urbanization or human activities and their impact on water bodies.

  19. Content Marketing


    LE, DUC


    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging spatial and time study of lung water content in newborn lamb: methods and preliminary results. (United States)

    Viard, Romain; Tourneux, Pierre; Storme, Laurent; Girard, Julie-Marie; Betrouni, Nacim; Rousseau, Jean


    To study the lung liquid clearance in vivo at the time of birth, magnetic resonance experiments were conducted on newborn lambs immediately after uterine incision deliverance. Images obtained with a fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence enable to quantify lung liquid each 5 minutes for 30 minutes, then each 10 minutes for 1.5 hours. After manually determining lung contours, pulmonary volume, pulmonary water, and spatial gradient of pulmonary water were studied. At 2 hours of life, the total pulmonary water content was still high and the liquid clearance was slower in the lower part of the lung. Air inflation increased the size of the distal airways and shifted liquid from the lung lumen towards the pulmonary interstitial tissue. The lung liquid washout was belated, and the passage to the aerial life was performed by progressive liberation of the superior pulmonary spaces, water flowing out by gravity toward the lower spaces.

  1. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México. (United States)

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen


    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.

  2. Studies on the Aluminium Content in Chinese Foods and the Maximum Permitted Levels of Aluminum in Wheat Flour Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Four hundred and six food samples of 64 food items,as well as 19 samples of aluminum(Al) containing food additives,were collected from Guangdong,Hunan,Shanghai and Beijing,and their Al contents were determined.he migration of Al from cooking aluminium-utensils into foods was also studied.The results show that the average daily dietary intake of Al in Chinese population was 9-12mg.The dietary intake of migrated Al from Al-containing cooking utensils was approximately 4 mg per person per day.However,the use of Al containing food additives in the preparation of certain wheat flour products(e.g.steamed bread,deep-fried dough sticks)caused significant increase of dietary Al intake(>1mg/kg/day,the ADI proposed by WHO.)It is suggested that the content of Al in wheat folur products should not exceed 100mg/kg,in order to meet the WHO ADI.

  3. Rapid Ethical Assessment on Informed Consent Content and Procedure in Hintalo-Wajirat, Northern Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebe Abay

    Full Text Available Informed consent is a key component of bio-medical research involving human participants. However, obtaining informed consent is challenging in low literacy and resource limited settings. Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA can be used to contextualize and simplify consent information within a given study community. The current study aimed to explore the effects of social, cultural, and religious factors during informed consent process on a proposed HPV-serotype prevalence study.A qualitative community-based REA was conducted in Adigudom and Mynebri Kebeles, Northern Ethiopia, from July to August 2013. Data were collected by a multi-disciplinary team using open ended questions concerning informed consent components in relation to the parent study. The team conducted one-to-one In-Depth Interviews (IDI and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs with key informants and community members to collect data based on the themes of the study. Tape recorded data were transcribed in Tigrigna and then translated into English. Data were categorized and thematically analyzed using open coding and content analysis based on pre-defined themes.The REA study revealed a number of socio-cultural issues relevant to the proposed study. Low community awareness about health research, participant rights and cervical cancer were documented. Giving a vaginal sample for testing was considered to be highly embarrassing, whereas giving a blood sample made participants worry that they might be given a result without the possibility of treatment. Verbal consent was preferred to written consent for the proposed study.This rapid ethical assessment disclosed important socio-cultural issues which might act as barriers to informed decision making. The findings were important for contextual modification of the Information Sheet, and to guide the best consent process for the proposed study. Both are likely to have enabled participants to understand the informed consent better and consequently to

  4. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad


    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  5. Three-year comparative study of polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars grown under organic and conventional conditions. (United States)

    Anton, Dea; Matt, Darja; Pedastsaar, Priit; Bender, Ingrid; Kazimierczak, Renata; Roasto, Mati; Kaart, Tanel; Luik, Anne; Püssa, Tõnu


    In the present study, four tomato cultivars were grown under organic and conventional conditions in separate unheated greenhouses in three consecutive years. The objective was to assess the influence of the cultivation system on the content of individual polyphenols, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes. The fruits were analyzed for total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant capacity by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Individual phenolic compounds were analyzed using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Among 30 identified and quantified polyphenols, significantly higher contents of apigenin acetylhexoside, caffeic acid hexoside I, and phloretin dihexoside were found in all organic samples. The content of polyphenols was more dependent on year and cultivar than on cultivation conditions. Generally, the cultivation system had minor impact on polyphenols content, and only a few compounds were influenced by the mode of cultivation in all tested cultivars during all three years.

  6. Content Marketing Practices in Finland


    Suuronen, Toni


    The purpose of this study is to draw attention to increasingly important business phenomenon of content marketing. This paper defines content marketing, identifies its key elements and phases, and explores content marketing practices. The theorethical part is based on Pam Didner's 4P model that describes the stages of content marketing cycle: plan, produce, promote and perfect. The empirical part of the study is based on semi-structured interviews of seasoned content marketing professionals t...

  7. A case study of cross-curricular dialogue as a part of teacher education in the CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) approach


    Horrillo Godino, Zoraida


    This study is part of a large project on teacher education in the CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) approach to teaching in Spanish secondary-education schools. The study departs from the assumptions that the professionals working on interdisciplinary environments such as CLIL education require an informed appreciation of the perspective of a complementary discipline — either a linguistic or content one (Newell in Chettiparamb 2007: 45) and that cross-curricular dialogue is a to...

  8. Using measured soil water contents to estimate evapotranspiration and root water uptake profiles – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guderle


    Full Text Available Understanding the role of plants for soil water relations, and thus for ecosystem functioning, requires information about root water uptake. We evaluated four different complex water balance methods to estimate sink term patterns and evapotranspiration directly from soil moisture measurements. We tested four methods: the first two take the difference between two measurement intervals as evapotranspiration, thus neglecting vertical flow. The third uses regression on the soil water content time series and differences between day and night to account for vertical flow. The fourth accounts for vertical flow using a numerical model and iteratively solves for the sink term. Neither of those methods requires any a priori information of root distribution parameters or evapotranspiration, which is the advantage, compared to common root water uptake models. To test the methods, a synthetic experiment with numerical simulations for a grassland ecosystem was conducted. Additionally, the time series were perturbed to simulate common sensor errors, like those due to measurement precision and inaccurate sensor calibration. We tested each method for a range of measurement frequencies and applied performance criteria to evaluate the suitability of each method. In general, we show that methods accounting for vertical flow predict evapotranspiration and the sink term distribution more accurately than the simpler approaches. Under consideration of possible measurement uncertainties, the method based on regression and differentiating between day and night cycles leads to the best and most robust estimation of sink term patterns. It is thus an alternative to more complex inverse numerical methods. This study demonstrates that highly resolved (temporal and spatial soil water content measurements may be used to estimate the sink term profiles when the appropriate approach is used.

  9. Studies of Total Electron Content variations at low-latitude stations within the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly zone (United States)

    Lilian, Olatunbosun


    The total electron content (TEC) is an important parameter to monitor for possible space weather impacts. The radio waves that pass through the earth's ionosphere travel more slowly than their free space velocity due to group path delay of the ionosphere. This group path delay is directly proportional to the TEC of the ionosphere. Using dual frequency GPS receiver at low latitude stations of Ile-Ife (7.52oN, 4.28oE), Addis Ababa (9.04oN, 38.77oE) and Bangalore (13.03oE, 77.57oE), all located within 0 - 15oN of the equatorial anomaly region, the measurement of ionospheric TEC for 2012 has been carried out. The data from the three stations were used to study the diurnal, monthly and seasonal variations of TEC. The diurnal variations maximize between 10:00 - 16:00UT, 08:00 - 14:00UT and 06:00 - 12:00UT for Ile-Ife, Addis Ababa and Bangalore stations respectively. The diurnal variations showed wave-like pertubation during disturbed and quiet periods at Bangalore and Addis Ababa stations. The monthly average TEC variations showed that the month of March recorded the highest TEC value of ~59TECu at about 16:00UT in Ile-Ife station, while TEC at Addis Ababa and Bangalore maximize in October with ~72TECu and 65TECu at about 11:00UT and 09:00UT respectively. Seasonal variations showed that TEC maximizes during the equinoctial months and least in summer, over the three stations. Keywords: Total Electron Content, Equatorial Ionization Anomaly, Global Positioning System co-author:E.A. Ariyibi(Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria)

  10. Changes of collagen, elastin, and tryptophan contents in laser welded porcine aorta tissues studied using fluorescence spectroscopy (United States)

    Liu, C.-H.; Wang, W. B.; Kartazaev, V.; Savage, H.; Alfano, R. R.


    The emission spectra from welded and un-welded (normal) porcine aorta tissues were measured on both sides of intima and adventitia layers. A tunable Forsterite laser and a Cr4+: YAG laser with wavelengths of 1250nm, 1455nm and 1460nm were used to weld porcine aorta tissues. Three emission bands emitted from three key fluorophores were studied under different welding and excitation conditions. With excitation wavelength of 340nm, the 395nm band is associated with the emission from the structural proteins of collagen type III and type I. The 445nm band obtained is associated with the emission of the structural protein of elastin. The 350nm band recorded with excitation wavelength of 300nm is associated with the amino acid of tryptophan. The relative emission intensities of collagen, elastin and tryptophan at their fluorescence peaks changes with laser tissue welding wavelengths indicate the change of contents of those tissue molecules. The ratio of emission peak intensities of collagen to elastin with welding laser wavelength of 1250nm increases by 0.13 as compared to the normal aorta tissue at the intimal side. For the adventitial side of aorta tissue, this ratio decreases by 0.38 in comparison with the normal tissue. These results indicate that content of collagen changes relative to elastin due to laser tissue welding. The peak fluorescence intensity of tryptophan for both sides of welded tunica intima and adventitia increases significantly in comparison with the normal tissue when the optimum laser welding wavelength of 1455 nm was used.

  11. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Feng


    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. Objective: Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. Design: Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30–188 days postpartum from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen×6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids. Results: Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD] ranged from 1,133 (125.5 to 1,366 (341.4 mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD was 1,192 (200.9 mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation. Conclusions: Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support

  12. Study of the catalytic layer in polybenzimidazole-based high temperature PEMFC: effect of platinum content on the carbon support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, J.; Canizares, P.; Rodrigo, M.A.; Linares, J.J.; Ubeda, D.; Pinar, F.J. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)


    In this work, the effect of platinum percentage on the carbon support of commercial catalyst for electrodes to be used in a Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based PEMFC has been studied. Three percentages were studied (20, 40 and 60%). In all cases, the same quantity of PBI in the catalyst layer was added, which is required as a 'binder'. From Hg porosimetry analyses, pore size distribution, porosity, mean pore size and tortuosity of all electrodes were obtained. The amount of mesopores gets larger as the platinum percentage in the catalytic layer decreases, which reduces the overall porosity and the mean pore size and increases the tortuosity. The electrochemical characterisation was performed by voltamperometric studies, assessing the effective electrochemical surface area (ESA) of the electrodes, by impedance spectroscopy (IS), determining the polarisation resistance, and by the corresponding fuel cell measurements. The best results were obtained for the electrodes with a content of 40% Pt on carbon, as a result of an adequate combination of catalytic activity and mass transfer characteristics of the electrode. It has been demonstrated that the temperature favours the fuel cell performance, and the humidification does not have remarkable effects on the performance of a PBI-based polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Pedagogical content knowledge development in teaching science: A case study of an elementary school teacher in an urban classroom (United States)

    Suh, Yewon

    This study aims to explore an elementary school teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) development in teaching science to racial minorities and economically disadvantaged students in New York City. By taking into account the sociocultural issues of teaching science in urban areas, this study focuses on 'contextual knowledge' as a key component of PCK. In this study, PCK is conceptualized as transformed knowledge of subject matter, pedagogy, and context, which makes subject learning suitable for students in particular settings. In order to investigate the teacher's PCK development, this study first examines her existing knowledge base of PCK in terms of three knowledge domains, and then observes her PCK development through the relationship between contextual knowledge and other two knowledge domains during classroom practices. A case study method was used to obtain a holistic and in-depth understanding of the teacher's PCK development. Data were collected in the form of teacher interview, participant observation, documentation, and physical artifacts, to enrich the case, and was analyzed in an inductive process. Findings illustrate the ways that the three knowledge domains are related and developed as PCK through the whole teaching process. Specifically, the findings indicate that the teacher's contextual knowledge plays a critical role in shaping and developing PCK. The teacher's contextual knowledge about the administrative policies and school test system in the district facilitated her to make a decision and plan to teach science before the instruction. During the classroom teaching, her knowledge about students' sociocultural backgrounds and living conditions in an urban setting helped her to identify specific teaching strategies and resources suitable to students' needs and interests. These findings imply that science teaching can be meaningful in coping with the demands of diverse learning populations if teachers make an effort to become knowledgeable

  14. The Effect of Acupuncture on Plasma Endothelin Content in Cerebral Infarction Patients——A Clinical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on content of plasma endothelin in cerebral infarction patients. Methods: The plasma endothelin content in cerebral infarction patients was observed before and after acupuncture, which was compared with that of the medication group and the healthy subjects. Results: Before treatment, the content of plasma endothelin in cerebral infarction patients was significantly higher than that of the healthy subjects (P<0.01); after acupuncture treatment, the content greatly decreased (P<0.01), and there was a statistically significant difference between the acupuncture group and the medication group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture may decrease the content of plasma endothelin in the cerebral infarction patients, improve the vascular elasticity, and improve the cerebral circulation of blood.

  15. Studying of Salinity Stress Effect on Germination, Proline, Sugar, Protein, Lipid and Chlorophyll Content in Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Rahdari


    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of country regions are under influence of salt and one of the main important methods for increasing of hectare performance in salt soils, using of resistant plant against with salt such as medicinal annual plant of Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L..Studying of the salt stress effect on germination and some physiological parameters in Purslane was carried out in completely random framework and with three replications and under controlled conditions. In this study, salinity was imposed by sodium chloride (NaCl and in five levels of framework included of Control (distilled water, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Mmol from NaCl. Studied physiological parameters included of proline, sugar, protein, lipid and chlorophyll in Purslane leaves.In relation with observed germination that increasing of salt level, germination rate was reduced that the least germination rate in 200 Mmol and the highest germination was observed in control which in statistical level 0.01 showed meaningful difference. Also, results showed an increasing of leaf proline and sugar that was synchronize with increasing of sodium chloride, this increasing in statistical level of P<0.01 was meaningful, while blank had the least rate and salt level 200 Mmol was observed. Synchronize with increasing of salinity level, lipid and protein concentration decreasing that was meaningful (P<0.01 which highest of leaf lipid and protein content in control level and least concentration was observed in 200 Mmol of salinity level. Also, salinity stress due to increasing of chlorophyll a and b levels in Purslane leaves which this increasing in leaf chlorophyll b concentrations in 0.01 statistical level was meaningful and the least level chlorophyll a and b in blank and the highest level of chlorophyll a and b by order in 150 and 200 Mmol of NaCl was observed. The results showed that plant for resistance against salinity increasing of proline, sugar and chlorophyll content in leaves are useful for

  16. Study on microstructures and work hardening behavior of ferrite-martensite dual-phase steels with high-content martensite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiurong Zuo


    Full Text Available A kind of medium-carbon low-alloy dual-phase steels with high-content martensite produced by intercritical annealing at 785-830 ºC for 10-50 minutes were studied in aspect of microstructures and work hardening behavior using SEM and tensile testing machine. The experimental results showed that the work hardening of the studied steels obeyed the two-stage work hardening mechanism, whose work hardening exponent of the first stage was higher than that of the second stage. The work hardening exponent increased with increasing the intercritical annealing temperature and time. For series A steel intercritically annealed at 785 ºC with starting microstructure of ferrite plus pearlite, austenite nucleated at the pearlite colonies, so the holding time of only 50 minutes can increase the work hardening exponent obviously. For series B steel with starting microstructure of martensite, austenite nucleated at lath interfaces, lath colony boundaries of primary martensite and carbides, accelerating the formation of austenite, so holding time for 30 minutes made the work hardening exponent increase obviously. High work hardening rate during initial plastic deformation (<0.5% strain was observed.

  17. An empirical method that separates irreversible stem radial growth from bark water content changes in trees: theory and case studies. (United States)

    Mencuccini, Maurizio; Salmon, Yann; Mitchell, Patrick; Hölttä, Teemu; Choat, Brendan; Meir, Patrick; O'Grady, Anthony; Tissue, David; Zweifel, Roman; Sevanto, Sanna; Pfautsch, Sebastian


    Substantial uncertainty surrounds our knowledge of tree stem growth, with some of the most basic questions, such as when stem radial growth occurs through the daily cycle, still unanswered. We employed high-resolution point dendrometers, sap flow sensors, and developed theory and statistical approaches, to devise a novel method separating irreversible radial growth from elastic tension-driven and elastic osmotically driven changes in bark water content. We tested this method using data from five case study species. Experimental manipulations, namely a field irrigation experiment on Scots pine and a stem girdling experiment on red forest gum trees, were used to validate the theory. Time courses of stem radial growth following irrigation and stem girdling were consistent with a-priori predictions. Patterns of stem radial growth varied across case studies, with growth occurring during the day and/or night, consistent with the available literature. Importantly, our approach provides a valuable alternative to existing methods, as it can be approximated by a simple empirical interpolation routine that derives irreversible radial growth using standard regression techniques. Our novel method provides an improved understanding of the relative source-sink carbon dynamics of tree stems at a sub-daily time scale.

  18. Elemental content changes in hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus due to mercury contamination: a study using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, A.; Oliveira, A.P.; Barroso, R.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, A.P.; Braz, D.; Cardoso, S.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Figueiredo, M.B.; Azambuja, P. [Fundacao Instituto Osvaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gonzalez, M.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)


    Full text: In recent years, the effects of pollution on the health of humans and other vertebrates have been extensively studied. However, the effects on some invertebrates are comparatively unknown. Research has demonstrated that toxic metals interfere with the reproduction, development and immune defenses of some terrestrial and marine invertebrates. Depending on environmental conditions, pollution produces chronic and acute effects on different systems and organs of animals. In general, some more toxic elements like arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and nickel in contact with organisms change cellular structures, enzyme activities, and in some cases destroy the physiological integrities of the tissues. In insects, the effects of pollutants depend upon the species studied. In this work, we investigated the changes in elemental contents in the hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus on 2 and 5 days after feeding on blood containing mercury chloride. R. Prolixus is an obligated hematophagous Hemiptera and one of the most important insect vectors of trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The SR-TXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) beamline facility in Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory LNLS/Brazil. The major elements Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, K were found in all hemolymph samples analysed. Insects treated with HgCl2 had reduced Cl and Ca levels, whereas the same treatment had enhanced Br levels in comparison with non- treated control insects. (author)

  19. Fiber content of diet affects exhaled breath volatiles in fasting and postprandial state in a pilot crossover study. (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa J; Lappi, Jenni E; Mukkala, Maria L; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Raatikainen, Olavi J


    Our pilot study examined the potential of exhaled breath analysis in studying the metabolic effects of dietary fiber (DF). We hypothesized that a high-fiber diet (HFD) containing whole grain rye changes volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in exhaled breath and that consuming a single meal affects these levels. Seven healthy men followed a week-long low-fiber diet (17 g/d) and HFD (44 g/d) in a randomized crossover design. A test meal containing 50 g of the available carbohydrates from wheat bread was served as breakfast after each week. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analyzed at fasting state and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after this meal parallel to plasma glucose, insulin, and serum lipids. We used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for detecting changes in 15 VOCs. These VOCs were acetone, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, hexanoic acid, acetoin, diacetyl, and phenol. Exhaled breath 2-methylbutyric acid in the fasting state and 1-propanol at 120 minutes decreased (P = .091 for both) after an HFD. Ingestion of the test meal increased ethanol, 1-propanol, acetoin, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels while reducing acetone, 1-butanol, diacetyl, and phenol levels. Both DF diet content and having a single meal affected breathVOCs. Exploring exhaled breath further could help to develop tools for monitoring the metabolic effects of DF.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viorica POP


    Full Text Available In the last years, through the emerging technologies for food processing, new ways are proposed for replacing the synthetic antioxidants with natural occurring compounds extracted from plants and which exert a high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the addition of Salvia officinalis essential oil and its impact on the physicochemical characteristics of homemade mayonnaise. The product was monitored for four months in order to highlight the possible physicochemical changes, by determining the peroxide, the free fatty acids and the pH values. During storage, the pH of all investigated samples, except mayonnaise sample containing 2 μl/g of sage essential oil, slightly increased. The peroxid values for all samples increased during storage period and were higher than the one obtained for the control sample. Also, an increase in the free fatty acids content was noticed for all studied samples. Following the results obtained it can be stated that Salvia officinalis essential oil could be useful to control the development of rancidity and to maintain the quality and extend the shelf life of mayonnaise.

  1. Impact of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral content in young and adult rats: a comparative study. (United States)

    Farag, Mahmoud M; Selima, Eman A; Salama, Mona A


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral homeostasis in rapidly growing young rats in comparison to effects in adult male rats. Two doses of nicotine (3 and 4.5mg/kg/day, as nicotine hydrogen tartrate) were used and rat treatment was continued for 6 months. In this study, all nicotine-treated rats weighed less than control rats and the effect was dose-dependent. Also, rats treated with nicotine had lower femoral wet weight and showed a significant reduction in femoral mid-shaft cortical width and femoral and lumbar vertebral ash weights. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of ash calcium and phosphorus contents of the femora and lumbar vertebrae. The bone mineral-lowering effects of nicotine were more severe in the lumbar vertebral spongy bone than in the femoral compact bone and these changes were more marked in adult rats than in young rats. An additional interesting observation was that the femora of young rats treated with nicotine were significantly shorter than those of control young rats. Also, the values of the femoral ash weight per unit length were significantly decreased in nicotine-treated adult rats but not in nicotine-treated young rats. Thus, these results show that nicotine-induced changes in bone vary with age. The clinical relevance of this study is that it may provide justification to insist that all people in general and the risky young group in particular should be warned against the hazards of the negative effects of nicotine on bone.

  2. A study of cathodoluminescence and trace element compositional zoning in natural quartz from volcanic rocks: mapping titanium content in quartz. (United States)

    Leeman, William P; MacRae, Colin M; Wilson, Nick C; Torpy, Aaron; Lee, Cin-Ty A; Student, James J; Thomas, Jay B; Vicenzi, Edward P


    This article concerns application of cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy to volcanic quartz and its utility in assessing variation in trace quantities of Ti within individual crystals. CL spectroscopy provides useful details of intragrain compositional variability and structure but generally limited quantitative information on element abundances. Microbeam analysis can provide such information but is time-consuming and costly, particularly if large numbers of analyses are required. To maximize advantages of both approaches, natural and synthetic quartz crystals were studied using high-resolution hyperspectral CL imaging (1.2-5.0 eV range) combined with analysis via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Spectral intensities can be deconvolved into three principal contributions (1.93, 2.19, and 2.72 eV), for which intensity of the latter peak was found to correlate directly with Ti concentration. Quantitative maps of Ti variation can be produced by calibration of the CL spectral data against relatively few analytical points. Such maps provide useful information concerning intragrain zoning or heterogeneity of Ti contents with the sensitivity of LA-ICPMS analysis and spatial resolution of electron microprobe analysis.

  3. Intracellular magnesium content changes during mitochondria-mediated apoptosis: in depth study of early events on mitochondrial membrane potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Merolle


    Full Text Available A recent study showed the antitumor activity of a new indole-derivative – MM-67 – inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and a decrease of intracellular magnesium (Mg concentration in HT29 colon cancer cells. Aim of this work was to assess cellular Mg levels throughout MM-67-induced apoptosis from the early to the final stage of the process and to evaluate the correlation with mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm variations. All analysis were performed by flow cytometry: ΔΨm was assessed by using mitochondrial potential sensitive dye DiOC6, while free and total intracellular cation concentrations were assessed by using the commercial probe MagFluo4-AM (Kd=4.7 mM, and the new synthesized DCHQ5 (Kd=8.3 mM, respectively. Our results evidenced that the MM67 induced apoptosis is characterized by a direct correlation between ΔΨ and free intracellular Mg content variations.

  4. Effects of geomagnetic storm on low latitude ionospheric total electron content: A case study from Indian sector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monti Chakraborty; Sanjay Kumar; Barin Kumar De; Anirban Guha


    The effect of geomagnetic storms on low latitude ionosphere has been investigated with the help of Global Positioning System Total Electron Content (GPS-TEC) data. The investigation has been done with the aid of TEC data from the Indian equatorial region, Port Blair (PBR) and equatorial ionization anomaly region, Agartala (AGR). During the geomagnetic storms on 24th April and 15th July 2012, significant enhancement up to 150% and depression up to 72% in VTEC is observed in comparison to the normal day variation. The variations in VTEC observed from equatorial to EIA latitudes during the storm period have been explained with the help of electro-dynamic effects (prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) and disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF)) as well as mechanical effects (storm-induced equatorward neutral wind effect and thermospheric composition changes). The current study points to the fact that the electro-dynamic effect of geomagnetic storms around EIA region is more effective than at the lower latitude region. Drastic difference has been observed over equatorial region (positive storm impact) and EIA region (negative storm impact) around same longitude sector, during storm period on 24th April. This drastic change as observed in GPS-TEC on 24th April has been further confirmed by using the O/N2 ratio data from GUVI (Global Ultraviolet Imager) as well as VTEC map constructed from IGS data. The results presented in the paper are important for the application of satellite-based communication and navigational system.

  5. Study of the moisture content gradient in a cementitious material by measuring its impedance and gamma-densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilbaud, J. P.


    Full Text Available The local water content in cementitious material depends on the equilibrium between its atmospheric environment and its bulk properties. So, the moisture profile in material can vary with time. The object of this study is to follow the change of this profile by measuring the electrical impedance of the material with pairs of small wires embedded at different depths. This method was applied to young cement paste specimens. The results obtained show that this method is quite satisfactory. The best frequency to be applied, is about 50 or 100 Hz. These results were compared with those obtained with gamma-densitometry.

    El agua contenida en los materiales en base cemento depende del equilibrio entre la atmósfera que le rodea y las propiedades de la matriz sólida. Por lo tanto el perfil de humedad en los materiales puede variar con el tiempo. La finalidad de este estudio es seguir los cambios en dicho perfil, a través de la medición de la impedancia eléctrica del material con varios pares de pequeños conductores situados a diferentes profundidadades. Este sistema se aplicó a diversas muestras de pasta de cemento Jóvenes. Los resultados obtenidos nos hacen ver que el método es satisfactorio, debiendo aplicarse a una frecuencia de 50 a 100 Hz. Dichos resultados se compararon con los obtenidos a través de la gammadensitometría.

  6. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin


    Objectives To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. Samples 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Main outcome measures Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA’s “traffic light” system for labelling food. Results No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% P<0.01). The recipes were more likely to comply with the recommended sodium density (36% v 4%, P<0.01), although salt used for seasoning was not assessed. The distributions of traffic light colours under the FSA’s food labelling recommendations differed: the modal traffic light was red for the recipes (47%) and green for ready meals (42%). Overall, the recipes contained significantly more energy (2530 kJ v 2067 kJ), protein (37.5 g v 27.9 g), fat (27.1 g v 17.2 g), and saturated fat (9.2 g v 6.8 g; P<0.01 for all) and significantly less fibre (3.3 g v 6.5 g, P<0.01) per portion than the ready meals. Conclusions Neither recipes created by television chefs nor ready meals sold by three of the leading UK supermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals. PMID:23247976

  7. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil


    Lu, Shibao; Wang, Jianhua; Pei, Liang


    Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the so...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  9. Study on Amylum Content of Different Tartary Buckwheat Genotypes%苦荞种子中淀粉含量的基因型差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 韩承华; 黄凯丰


    Thirty five portions of tartary buckwheat resource from different origin were used as experimental material to determine the total amylum content,amylose and amylopectin content. The amylum content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied from 40. 70% to 86. 41% with an average of 62. 80% ; The amylose content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied between 12. 24%-32. 18% with an average of 19. 32% ;The amylopectin content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied between 13. 31% -68 78% with an average of 43. 48%. The amylum content is higher,amylopectin content is the highest. There was difference among different origin of tartary buckwheat. The results of this study had important significance for further study on the genetic variation law of amylum content between different tartary buckwheat resources.%以不同原产地的35份苦养资源为试验材料,测定了其籽粒中的总淀粉、直链淀粉、支链淀粉的含量.结果表明,35份苦养资源的总淀粉含量变化幅度为40.70%~86.41%,平均值为62.80%;直链淀粉含量的变异幅度为12.24%~32.18%,平均值为19.32%;支链淀粉含量的变异幅度为13.31%~68.78%,平均值为43.48%.苦荞中淀粉含量较高,以支链淀粉为主.不同产地的苦荞种子中总淀粉、直链淀粉、支链淀粉含量存在差异.

  10. Temperature-dependent studies on the total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, and sugar content in six onion varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Sharma


    Full Text Available Heating effect on total phenol, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and sugar content of six onion varieties has been quantitatively investigated to explore the effect of different temperatures. The onion varieties comprised one red-skinned variety, two white-skinned varieties, and three yellow-skinned varieties. The heating temperature was scanned at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C, and 150°C for 30 minutes each, and quantitative analysis was performed relative to the powdered onion at ambient temperature. Quercetin, glucosides and sugar content were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic and antioxidant content increased in all six varieties. The total flavonoid levels showed a considerable change. On heating the onion samples at 120°C for 30 minutes, the red-skinned variety showed the highest level of total phenolic content [13712.67 ± 1034.85 μg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight (μg GAE/g DW] and total flavonoids [3456.00 ± 185.82 μg of quercetin equivalents/g dry weight (μg Q/g DW], whereas the content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were 13611.83 ± 341.61 μg GAE/g DW and 3482.87 ± 117.17 μg Q/g DW, respectively, for the yellow-skinned (Sunpower variety. Quercetin and its glucoside contents increased up to 120°C and then decreased at 150°C, whereas the sugar content continuously decreased with heating. All cultivars showed the same pattern in the heating effect, and the predominant flavonoids were destroyed at higher temperatures. Therefore, it is improper to expose onion powder to a temperature higher than 120°C.

  11. Chemical studies of H chondrites-10 : contents of thermally labile trace elements are unaffected by late heating.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.-S.; Wolf, S. F.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Chemical Engineering; Purdue Univ.


    We have used radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) to determine 15 trace elements, including 10 moderately and highly volatile ones - Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, In (in increasing volatility order) - in 6 H chondrite falls with low 3He contents. These plus prior RNAA data provide a compositional database of 92 H4-6 chondrite falls. Three suites of samples can be identified from their noble gas contents: 44 with 'normal' contents, and, therefore, 'normal' orbits and cosmic ray exposure histories; 8 that lost radiogenic gases, presumably by shock late in their histories; and 17 that lost cosmogenic gases by heating during close solar approach. We used the standard multivariate statistical techniques of linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression to compare contents of the 10 moderately and highly volatile trace elements, listed above, in these 3 suites. We found no significant differences. This contrasts sharply with similar comparisons involving random falls and H4-6 chondrites that landed on Earth at specific time intervals. Apparently, contents of volatile trace elements in H4-6 chondrites were established early in their histories and they are so retentively sited that loss during later heating episodes did not occur.

  12. [Estimating nonstructural carbon content of tree crown considering its spatial variability: A case study on Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica]. (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-yan; Wang, Chuan-kuan


    Using Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica as test materials, we examined the variability in nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) concentrations in the branches with different basal diameters with a branch analysis method and explored potential errors in estimating the crown-scale NSC content introduced from various sampling protocols. The results showed that organs significantly influenced the crown NSC concentrations for both species. The mean concentrations of the sum of soluble sugars and starch (TNC) of the leaves, new twigs, old branches, and dead branches were 17.6%, 12.6%, 5.7% and 2.9%, respectively. Most of the NSC concentrations in leaves and new twigs varied insignificantly with basal diameter, age, length and height of the branch. However, the NSC concentration in old branches increased significantly with decreasing the basal diameter, age and length of the branch, and with increasing the relative height of the branch. Among the branch traits, basal diameter was the best predictor for the NSC concentration of the old branch (the R2 between 0.87 and 0.95). The mean TNC contents of leaves, new branches, and old branches for the two species accounted for 28%, 2% and 70% of the crown TNC content, respectively. Considering the effect of the spatial variability in the estimation of NSC content, we recommend the sampling protocol that applies the NSC concentration of new twigs and old branches with a diameter of 3 cm to up-scale the crown NSC content as a simple and practical method.

  13. Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test- Level 2(English)of CATTI%Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test-Level 2(English)of CATTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏扬舫; 万璐


    The launch of the China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI)is a professional qualification test for would-be translators.This paper is to do the research on the content validity of vocabulary and grammar of the translator test- Level 2(English)of CATTI from 2011 to 2012.

  14. Improving Content Assessment for English Language Learners: Studies of the Linguistic Modification of Test Items. Research Report. ETS RR-14-23 (United States)

    Young, John W.; King, Teresa C.; Hauck, Maurice Cogan; Ginsburgh, Mitchell; Kotloff, Lauren; Cabrera, Julio; Cavalie, Carlos


    This article describes two research studies conducted on the linguistic modification of test items from K-12 content assessments. In the first study, 120 linguistically modified test items in mathematics and science taken by fourth and sixth graders were found to have a wide range of outcomes for English language learners (ELLs) and non-ELLs, with…

  15. Does Content Matter? Analyzing the Change in Global Awareness between Business- and Nonbusiness-Focused Short-Term Study Abroad Courses (United States)

    DeLoach, Stephen B.; Kurt, Mark; Olitsky, Neal H.


    Business schools have long sought to increase students' global awareness. Short-term study abroad (STSA) experiences are becoming increasingly popular ways of generating awareness. While a handful of studies have found evidence of efficacy, none have specifically tested how courses with business content differ from other STSAs. Using a…

  16. Perivenous and perisinusoidal collagen content in the acinar zone 3 in the "normal" liver. A light microscopical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Vyberg, M; Horn, T;


    The thickness of the terminal hepatic vein wall (TTHV) and the content of perisinusoidal collagen in 989 zone 3 areas in Picro-Sirius-stained sections from 117 liver biopsies with normal morphology or slight non-specific changes were analyzed. TTHV varied from 0.4 micron to 21.3 microns (median 3.......8 microns). A positive correlation was found between TTHV and the diameter of the terminal hepatic vein. The average TTHV of the individual biopsies was not correlated to age, sex or liver morphology. The average zone 3 collagen content did not exceed that of zones 2 and 1, with the exception of biopsies...... with slight steatosis, where a minimal increase in zone 3 collagen was found. The normal variability of TTHV and the correlation to the diameter of THV must be considered in the evaluation of perivenular fibrosis. Even a slight increase in perisinusoidal collagen content may be suggestive of a pathological...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Kazimierowicz


    Full Text Available Sediment samples were taken in 11 measuring points of the Biebrza River and determined the contents of six metals (Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Zn. Arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation were calculated. The sources of heavy metals in bottom sediments are: pollutants of fieldsand meadows (admixtures of plant protection products and fertilizers, discharges of domestic sewage and municipal from local wastewater treatment plants, wastewater di-scharges from rural buildings and pollutions of anthropogenic origin. Research of pollution of bottom sediments with heavy metals are needed tool for monitoring the aquatic environ-ment. Continuous monitoring metal content of the sediments will counteract the effects of the threat of biological life in the water reservoir, which may occur in the case of notorious exceeded permissible content of harmful substances.

  18. [Pilot study of thermal treatment/thermophilic anaerobic digestion process treating waste activated sludge of high solid content]. (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Guang-qi; Cao, Zhi-ping; Li, Zhong-hua; Hu, Yu-ying; Wang, Kai-jun; Zu, Jian-e


    A pilot-scale experiment about the process of "thermal pretreatment at 70°C/thermophilic anaerobic digestion" of waste activated sludge of high solid content (8% -9% ) was conducted. The process employed thermal treatment of 3 days to accelerate the hydrolysis and thermophilic digestion to enhance anaerobic reaction. Thus it was good at organic removal and stabilization. When the solid retention time (SRT) was longer than 20 days, the VSS removal rate was greater than 42. 22% and it was linearly correlated to the SRT of the aerobic digestion with the R2 of 0. 915 3. It was suggested that SRT of anaerobic digestion was 25 days in practice. VSS removal rate and biogas production rate of the pilot experiment were similar to those of the run-well traditional full-scale sludge anaerobic digestion plants (solid content 3% -5% ) and the plant of high solid content using German technique.

  19. Study on nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films with various Si contents deposited by cathodic vacuum arc ion plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J. [State Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Siegen, Paul-Bonatz-Strasse 9-11, Siegen 57076 (Germany); Muders, C.M.; Kumar, A. [Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Siegen, Paul-Bonatz-Strasse 9-11, Siegen 57076 (Germany); Jiang, X., E-mail: [Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Siegen, Paul-Bonatz-Strasse 9-11, Siegen 57076 (Germany); Pei, Z.L.; Gong, J. [State Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, C., E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRD peaks show a tendency of decreasing intensity with increasing Si content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films present different microstructure with increasing Si content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films with 6 at.% Si content obtain the highest hardness, elastic modulus and H{sup 3}/E{sup 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wear rate decreases with an increase in hardness. - Abstract: In this study, nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films were deposited on high speed steel substrates by the vacuum cathode arc ion plating (AIP) technique. By virtue of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the influence of silicon content on the film microstructure and characteristics was investigated systematically, including the chemical composition, crystalline structure as well as cross-section morphologies. With increasing the silicon content, a deterioration of the preferred orientation and a dense globular structure were detected. In the meanwhile, atomic force microscopy (AFM), nano-indentation, Rockwell indenter and reciprocating test were also utilized to analyze the hardness, elastic modulus, H{sup 3}/E{sup 2}, friction coefficient, adhesive strength and wear rate of the Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films. The results showed that an optimal silicon content correlated with the best mechanical and tribological properties of the presented Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films existed. With increasing the silicon content, the hardness, elastic modulus and the ratio H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} first were improved gradually, and then were impaired sharply again. When the silicon content reached to 6 at.%, the film possessed the highest hardness, elastic modulus and ratio H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} of approximately 24 GPa, 218 GPa and 0.31, respectively. Besides, films containing both 6 at.% and 10 at.% Si contents obtained a relatively low friction coefficient and a good adhesive

  20. Perivenous and perisinusoidal collagen content in the acinar zone 3 in the "normal" liver. A light microscopical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Vyberg, M; Horn, T;


    The thickness of the terminal hepatic vein wall (TTHV) and the content of perisinusoidal collagen in 989 zone 3 areas in Picro-Sirius-stained sections from 117 liver biopsies with normal morphology or slight non-specific changes were analyzed. TTHV varied from 0.4 micron to 21.3 microns (median 3.......8 microns). A positive correlation was found between TTHV and the diameter of the terminal hepatic vein. The average TTHV of the individual biopsies was not correlated to age, sex or liver morphology. The average zone 3 collagen content did not exceed that of zones 2 and 1, with the exception of biopsies...

  1. RIBER/DIBER: a software suite for crystal content analysis in the studies of protein-nucleic acid complexes. (United States)

    Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Bochtler, Matthias


    Co-crystallization experiments of proteins with nucleic acids do not guarantee that both components are present in the crystal. We have previously developed DIBER to predict crystal content when protein and DNA are present in the crystallization mix. Here, we present RIBER, which should be used when protein and RNA are in the crystallization drop. The combined RIBER/DIBER suite builds on machine learning techniques to make reliable, quantitative predictions of crystal content for non-expert users and high-throughput crystallography.

  2. Study on Filling Cross-Roadway in Fully-Mechanized Coal Faces with High Water-Content Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华强; 王光伟; 雷文成; 曲庆贺; 李峰


    A new method using high water-content material to mechanically fill cross-roadways to form artificial bottom for coal faces was introduced. The reasonable determination of filling range, the optimization of the compounding ratio of high water-content material, and the filling technique were discussed in detail. This new method has been spread after industrial testing in Baodian Colliery. Compared with the traditional method, the manual wooden chock method, the new one decreases about 40% of the filling range and cost in dealing every one set of cross-roadway in the testing condition.

  3. Living Within Limits: Unpleasant Experiences From the Perspective of Patients After Cardiac Surgery, a Content Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Cardio vascular diseases (CVDs are the main cause of death around the world and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG has proven to be the most effective treatment for ischemic coronary heart diseases when other treatments are ineffective. Despite the perceived improvement in the health of patients undergoing CABG, there are problems that result from operations after they are discharged from hospital. Provision of information is an integral part of most psychological interventions. Having a clearer understanding of patients’ experiences will be helpful to healthcare workers with respect to patients’ care and education planning. Caring science places more attention on the patient's everyday life from his/her perspective. Most of the studies conducted in Iran used a quantitative method or measured care needs according to pre-defined criteria. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of patients who have undergone cardiac surgery, in order to obtain a deeper understanding of what they experienced and what those who provide care for these patients experienced. Patients and Methods A qualitative design, using a content analysis approach, was adapted to collect the data and analyze the experiences of 18 patients after cardiac surgery through a purposive sampling strategy. After the selection of the participants, semi structured interviews were held in order to collect the data. Scientific accuracy, and rigor of the data and research ethics were respected. Results The data analysis revealed three main themes and 11 subthemes, categorized as conceptual and abstract, based on their nature: concern of going out therapeutic framework (Fear of the recurrence of heart attack, Fear of performing more activities than permitted, Fear of taking journeys, Fear of mass communication/Tired of living within the confines of the therapeutic framework (Need to take various medications, Dietary restrictions, Limitations in

  4. Study of total column atmospheric aerosol optical depth, ozone and precipitable water content over Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-99

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Dani; R S Maheskumar; P C S Devara


    The spatial and temporal variations in aerosols and precursor gases over oceanic regions have special importance in the estimation of radiative forcing parameters and thereby in the refinement of general circulation models. Extensive observations of the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD), total column ozone (TCO) and precipitable water content (PWC) have been carried out using the on-line, multi-band solar radiometers onboard ORV Sagar Kanya (Cruise#SK 147B) over Bay of Bengal during 11th-28th August 1999. Aerosol optical and physical properties (optical depth and angstrom parameter) have been estimated at six wavelengths covering from UV to NIR (380-1020 nm) while TCO and PWC have been determined using the UV band around 300nm and NIR band around 940 nm, respectively. Added, concurrent meteorological and satellite observations during this field phase of BOBMEX-99 have been utilized to investigate spectral-temporal variations of AOD, TCO and PWC in marine environment. The results indicate lower AODs (around 0.4 at characteristic wavelength of 500 nm) and size distributions with abundance of coarse-mode particles as compared to those aerosols of typical land origin. An interesting result that is found in the present study is the significant reduction in AOD at all wavelengths from initial to later part of observation period due to cloud-scavenging and rain-washout effects as well as signature of coastal aerosol loading. The clear-sky daytime diurnal variation of TCO shows gradual increase during post-sunrise hours, broad maximum during afternoon hours and gradual decrease during pre-sunset hours, which is considered to be due to photochemical reactions. The diurnal variation curve of PWC showed maximum (∼4cm) during morning hours and gradual decrease (∼3.5cm) towards evening hours, which are found to be greater as compared to typical values over land. Another interesting feature observed is that although the PWC values are very high, there was no proportionate

  5. Content validity study on The Vocabulary and Grammar of the Translator Test- Level 2(English)of CATTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏扬舫; 万璐


    The launch of the China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters(CATTI)is a professional qualification test for would-be translators.This paper is to do the research on the content validity of vocabulary and grammar of the translator test-Level 2(English)of CATTI from 2011 to 2012.

  6. Identification of the thermal transitions in potato starch at a low water content as studied by preparative DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.


    The aim of this work was to identify the transitions in the complex DSC profiles of potato starch at a low water content. Preparative DSC involves the thermal processing of samples in stainless steel DSC pans in a way that allows their subsequent structural characterization. The low temperature (LT)

  7. Cross-cultural perspectives on framing social reality: A comparative study of Brazilian and Spanish TV news contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paz, A.


    The current essay draws upon the problem of visibility of social reality generated by Brazilian and Spanish TV news broadcasts through the selection and production of the same news contents that represent the social space of both countries. Given this scenario, we aim both to develop a methodology t

  8. Employers' Demands for Personal Transferable Skills in Graduates: A Content Analysis of 1000 Job Advertisements and an Associated Empirical Study. (United States)

    Bennett, Roger


    Content analysis of 1,000 job ads in marketing, management, finance, and human resource management showed that ads were significantly more likely to ask for specific personal skills relevant to the job category. A survey of 170 companies that placed the ads indicated their motives for stipulating personal skills; two-thirds conducted formal job…

  9. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [INSERM, Gif sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, NeuroSpin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Pallier, C. [Univ. Paris 11, Orsay (France); Oppenheim, C. [Univ Paris 05, Ctr Hosp St Anne, Paris (France); Rizzi, L. [Univ Siena, CISCL, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Dehaene, S. [Coll France, F-75231 Paris (France)


    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycho-linguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a sentence's content or syntax. Participants read or listened to sentences organized in series which could or not share similar syntactic constructions and/or lexico-semantic content. The repetition of lexico-semantic content yielded adaptation in most of the temporal and frontal sentence processing network, both in the visual and the auditory modalities, even when the same lexico-semantic content was expressed using variable syntactic constructions. No fMRI adaptation effect was observed when the same syntactic construction was repeated. Yet behavioral priming was observed at both syntactic and semantic levels in a separate experiment where participants detected sentence endings. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the absence of syntactic priming in the fMRI experiments, including the possibility that the conglomerate of syntactic properties defining 'a construction' is not an actual object assembled during parsing. (authors)

  10. Polarimetric remote sensing in oxygen A and B bands: sensitivity study and information content analysis for vertical profile of aerosols (United States)

    Ding, Shouguo; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang


    Theoretical analysis is conducted to reveal the information content of aerosol vertical profile in space-borne measurements of the backscattered radiance and degree of linear polarization (DOLP) in oxygen (O2) A and B bands. Assuming a quasi-Gaussian shape for aerosol vertical profile characterized by peak height H and half width γ (at half maximum), the Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNL-VRTM) is used to simulate the Stokes four-vector elements of upwelling radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and their Jacobians with respect to H and γ. Calculations for different aerosol types and different combinations of H and γ values show that the wide range of gas absorption optical depth in O2 A and B band enables the sensitivity of backscattered DOLP and radiance at TOA to the aerosol layer at different altitudes. Quantitatively, DOLP in O2 A and B bands is found to be more sensitive to H and γ than radiance, especially over the bright surfaces (with large visible reflectance). In many O2 absorption wavelengths, the degree of freedom of signal (DFS) for retrieving H (or γ) generally increases with H (and γ) and can be close to unity in many cases, assuming that the composite uncertainty from surface and aerosol scattering properties as well as measurements is less than 5 %. Further analysis demonstrates that DFS needed for simultaneous retrieval of H and γ can be obtained from a combined use of DOLP measurements at ˜ 10-100 O2 A and B absorption wavelengths (or channels), depending on the specific values of H. The higher the aerosol layer, the fewer number of channels for DOLP measurements in O2 A and B bands are needed for characterizing H and γ. Future hyperspectral measurements of DOLP in O2 A and B bands are needed to continue studying their potential and their combination with radiance and DOLP in atmospheric window channels for retrieving the vertical profiles of aerosols, especially highly scattering aerosols, over land.

  11. Applying Content Analysis to Web-based Content


    Kim, Inhwa; Kuljis, Jasna


    Using Content Analysis onWeb-based content, in particular the content available onWeb 2.0 sites, is investigated. The relative strengths and limitations of the method are described. To illustrate how content analysis may be used, we provide a brief overview of a case study that investigates cultural impacts on the use of design features with regard to self-disclosure on the blogs of South Korean and United Kingdom’s users. In this study we took a standard approach to conducting the content an...

  12. Studies on Single Cell Culture in vitro in Wheat--The variation of grain protein content and its fractions from regenerated plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On the basis of previous studies dealing with the variation of major agronomic and yield characteristics of regenerated plants derived from single cell culture in vitro of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.Cultivar NE 7742), the grain protein content and its fractions from regenerated plants with stable agronomic characteristics were studied from 1992 to 1995. The results showed that the variation of grain protein content and its fractions in somaclones from single cell culture in vitro were very significant and the range was very wide (11.53~17.70%). Several types of variation were found in the studies, especially the type with higher protein content than that of cultivar NE 7742 (non-culture parent). Among them, -20.69% of lines the grain protein content was significantly higher than that of NE 7742 and combined with high yielding potential. The tendency of variation of the four protein fractions showed that the variation of albumin was not obvious and maintained the same level as NE7742, the content of gliadin increased in some somaclones and decreased in others. However, the percentages both globulin and glutenin tended to increase. The variation of total amount of structural protein and the ratio between globulin and glutenin tended to increase. The variation of total amount of structural protein and the ratio between globulin and albumm was mainly influenced by globulin under the condition of culture in vitro. The variation of total amount of storage protein and the ratio between gliadin and glutenin was mainly affected by glutenin. The results mentioned above demonstrated that the induction and screening of somaclonal variation could be an effective way in wheat improvement in combining high protein content with high yield.

  13. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  14. Research and Trends in the Field of E-Learning from 2001 to 2005: A Content Analysis of Cognitive Studies in Selected Journals (United States)

    Shih, M.; Feng, J.; Tsai, C. C.


    This paper provided a content analysis of studies in the field of cognition in e-learning that were published in five Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) journals (i.e. Computers and Education, British Journal of Educational Technology, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, Educational Technology Research & Development, and…

  15. A Content Area Reading Course Re-Imagined: A Situated Case Study of Disciplinary Literacies Pedagogy in Secondary English Teacher Education (United States)

    Rodriguez, Terri L.


    This study investigates the experiences of one secondary preservice English teacher facilitating an out-of-school e-book club with urban youth while enrolled in a required course entitled Content Area Reading. Data were generated through field notes, interviews, course assignments, and book club artifacts and narratively analyzed using holistic…

  16. Assessing the Moral Relevance of Peace Education Contents in the Basic Education Social Studies Curricula for Effective Citizenship Participation in Nigeria (United States)

    Nwaubani, Okechukwu O,; Okafor, Ogochukwu Stella


    Social studies is a core subject at the basic education level in Nigeria which has the potentials of inculcating functional knowledge and desirable morals into pupils for effective citizenship participation through peaceful coexistence. However, despite this positive trend, the moral significance of peace education contents of the subject seem not…

  17. Insight into Evaluation Practice: A Content Analysis of Designs and Methods Used in Evaluation Studies Published in North American Evaluation-Focused Journals (United States)

    Christie, Christina A.; Fleischer, Dreolin Nesbitt


    To describe the recent practice of evaluation, specifically method and design choices, the authors performed a content analysis on 117 evaluation studies published in eight North American evaluation-focused journals for a 3-year period (2004-2006). The authors chose this time span because it follows the scientifically based research (SBR)…

  18. Content Analysis of Science Books for Upper Primary Stage in Jordan and Intermediate Stage in Saudi Arabia from an Islamic Perspective: Analytical Comparative Study (United States)

    Aldossari, Ali Tarad; Al Khaldi, Jamal Khalil; Altarawneh, Mohammad Hasan


    This study aims to identify the current situation of science books in Jordan and Saudi Arabia from an Islamic perspective. For this end, the content analysis approach has been used through the analysis of the unit concept in the science books for the seventh, eighth and ninth grades in the academic year (2015/2016) in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The…

  19. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo


    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  20. Teaching about Modern Germany: Instructional Materials for the Social Studies Classroom. Correlation Charts Indicating Content and Skills Addressed by Each Lesson. (United States)

    Goethe House, New York, NY.

    This instructional booklet for the social studies classroom is a companion to a series about modern day Germany. The materials describe the documents in the series and present correlation charts for content and skills: (1) "A Kid Like Me across the Sea"; (2) "Communities and Regions"; (3) "Overview of Germany"; (4)…

  1. Capillary and sorbed water content in wood as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance; Badanie zawartosci wody wolnej i zwiazanej w drewnie metoda magnetycznego rezonansu jadrowego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olek, W.; Baranowska, H.M.; Guzenda, R.; Olszewski, K.J. [Akademia Rolnicza, Poznan (Poland)


    Water content in wood has been studied by NMR technique. The spin-spin relaxation time has been measured for distinguish the capillary and sorbed water. The qualitative and quantitative determination have been possible by means of proposed method. 8 refs, 6 figs.

  2. Increasing Donation Opportunities for Vascularized Composite Allografts: An Analysis of Worldwide Donor Registries and Procurement Organization Web Content (VOLAR Study). (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A


    There are 40 vascularized composite allotransplant programs across 5 continents served by 31 organ procurement organizations (or equivalent). The organizations' websites inform about organ and tissue donation. This research explored worldwide educational efforts on vascularized composite allograft (VCAG) donation via their corporate websites as well as options within donor registries and donor card systems to indicate a VCAG donation preference. Of these, 13 (41.9%) of 31 had VCAG content and 7 (22.6%) of 31 offered a mechanism for individuals to voice a preference about VCAG donation through an opt in donor registry or card or an opt out registry. In North America, the only donor registration/card system that facilitated VCAG donation is in Mexico. The resistance to consent for VACG donation is likely due to poor public education and the personal nature of face, hand, uterus, and penile allografts. Efforts to reduce this resistance can begin with the assistance of website content, registries, and donor cards.

  3. Assessment studies on the inversion of satellite to satellite electron content to obtain electron density profiles in the ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hochegger, G P


    The electron content data, obtained by satellite-to-satellite occultations of radio signals can lead to height profiles of electron density by discrete inversion. Since there is no possibility to verify such profiles by means of other measurements (practically never measurements at the same time and same location) it was necessary to simulate occultation scenarios by means of an ionosphere model to obtain a large number of comparisons sufficient for investigations on a statistical basis. The obtained electron contents were inverted and compared with electron density height profiles, obtained with the same ionospheric model for the occultation point. The differences between these profiles were investigated (difference between the F2-peak maxima, the height of the maxima, the shape of the topside and bottom side ionosphere). Since simulations were done for chosen locations (250 randomly spread on the globe) for every month and every second hour and for two solar activity levels (HSA and LSA), a whole year was '...

  4. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson’s Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotthard G. Tribl


    Full Text Available Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD. This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson’s disease (WD and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD.

  5. Study on transfers of uranium, thorium and decay products from grain, water and soil to chicken meat and egg contents. (United States)

    Jeambrun, M; Pourcelot, L; Mercat, C; Boulet, B; Loyen, J; Cagnat, X; Gauthier-Lafaye, F


    Activity concentrations of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides were determined in chicken meat and eggs as well as in soil, water and other dietary intakes of poultry at five sites of the French territory. These data allow the calculation of transfer coefficients which enrich the database given by the technical report series no. 472 of the IAEA. In egg contents, the highest activity concentrations (in mBq kg(-1) fresh weight) are for (226)Ra, ranging between 136 and 190 and are much lower for uranium (between 0.51 and 1.30 for (238)U). In chicken meat, (238)U activity concentration is higher than in egg contents and ranges between 1.7 and 9.7. Concerning (232)Th, its activity concentration is lower than uranium and ranges between 0.5 and 4.9. Daily ingested activity concentration by the animals was assessed taking into account the activity concentrations measured in the grains, in the soil and in the drinking water. The activity concentration in grains and the daily intakes allow the calculation of concentration ratios and transfer coefficients for chicken meat and egg contents. In chicken meat the transfer coefficients (d kg(-1)) range between 0.0018 and 0.0073 for (238)U and between 0.0008 and 0.0028 for (232)Th. In egg contents they range from 0.00018 to 0.0018 for (238)U and are much higher for radium isotopes (0.10-0.23 for (226)Ra and 0.07-0.11 for (228)Ra).

  6. Study on Individual PAHs Content in Ultrafine Particles from Solid Fractions of Diesel and Biodiesel Exhaust Fumes


    Małgorzata Szewczyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak; Elżbieta Dobrzyńska


    In order to characterize PAHs emissions of diesel engine fuelled with diesel and its blend (B20, B40). In the particle phase, PAHs in engine exhausts were collected by fiberglass filters using Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and then determined by a high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorimetric detector (HPLC-FL). The main content in exhaust gases from diesel engine, regardless the type of applied fuel, is constituted by the particles fraction of diameter

  7. MAS-NMR study of lithium zinc silicate glasses and glass-ceramics with various ZnO content (United States)

    Goswami, Madhumita; Kothiyal, Govind P.; Montagne, Lionel; Delevoye, Laurent


    Lithium zinc silicate glasses of composition (mol%): 17.5Li 2O-(72- x)SiO 2- xZnO-5.1Na 2O-1.3P 2O 5-4.1B 2O 3, 5.5⩽ x⩽17.7, were prepared by conventional melt-quenched technique and converted to glass-ceramic by controlled crystallization process. 29Si and 31P MAS-NMR was used to characterize the structure of both glass and glass-ceramic samples. Despite the complex glass composition, Q2, Q3 and Q4 sites are identified from 29Si MAS-NMR, which relative intensities are found to vary with the ZnO content, indicating a network depolymerization by ZnO. Moreover, well separated Q3 and Q4 resonances for low ZnO content indicates the occurrence of phase separation. From 31P MAS-NMR, it is seen that phosphorus is mainly present in the form of ortho-( Q0) and pyro-phosphate ( Q1) structural units and variation of ZnO content did not have much effect on these resonances, which provides an additional evidence for phase separation in the glass. On conversion to glass-ceramics, lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5), lithium zinc ortho-silicate (Li 3Zn 0.5SiO 4), tridymite (SiO 2) and cristobalite (SiO 2) were identified as major silicate crystalline phases. Using 29Si MAS-NMR, quantification of these silicate crystalline phases is carried out and correlated with the ZnO content in the glass-ceramics samples. In addition, 31P spectra unambiguously revealed the presence of crystalline Li 3PO 4 and (Na,Li) 3PO 4 in the glass-ceramics.

  8. Quantitative determination of the saponin content and GC-MS study of the medicinal plant Cassytha filiformis (linn.) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor; Stephen Olugbemiga Owa; Adeola Opeyemi Ologan; FranklinAkinfemi


    Objective: To determine the phytochemicals, total saponin content and types of saponin present in leaf extracts of Cassytha filiformis. Methods: The leaves were extracted with n-hexane and methanol. The methanol extract was fractionated. The total saponin content of the butanol fraction was determined by colorimetry via a UV spectrophotometer and ginsenoside was used as the standard. Measurements were carried out at 550 nm. The butanol fraction was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Results: All screened phytochemicals were absent in the n-hexane extract while saponins, steroids, tannins and glycosides were present in the methanol extract. Flavonoids and alkaloids were absent. The total saponin content of the methanol extract is 73.47 μg ginsenoside Rb1 equivalent/g extract. The chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis gave eicosanoic acid, methyl ester as the most abundant compound and the steroidal saponin, cholestan-7-one and cyclic 1,2-ethanedienyl acetal as the most abundant saponin in the butanol fraction. Conclusions: The leaves of Cassytha filiformis are rich in steroidal saponins.

  9. Feasibility study of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-240 content determination in an irradiated fuel by neutron transmission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naguib, K.; Michaiel, M.L.; Morcos, H.N


    A proposed nondestructive method and its feasibility for the determination of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-240 contents in an irradiated fuel is described. The method is based on the use of shape fit analysis of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) neutron transmission data of the irradiated fuel for neutron energies below 3 eV. The neutron transmission experiment of the irradiated fuel is planned to carry out using one of the TOF spectrometers installed at ET-RR-1 reactor. The computer code SHAPE is adapted taking into account the known parameters of resonances of certain fissile and fission product nuclei to provide the fit analysis. The content of the gross-fissile and fission product isotopes are determined from the burn-up calculations of the fuel assembly of the ET-RR-1 reactor with defined history. The effect of both uncertainties in resonance parameters on the deduced contents of fissile nuclei and statistical accuracy of the TOF measurements are estimated.

  10. Box-Behnken design to study the bergenin content and antioxidant activity of Endopleura uchi bark extracts obtained by dynamic maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Tacon


    Full Text Available Brazil has one of the world's largest biodiversity in flora and a plant that has attracted attention is the Endopleura uchi (Huber Cuatrec., Humiriaceae, which is native of the Brazilian Amazon. Among the many popular uses, this species is utilized in the treatment of woman's genito urinary tract affections and also as anti-inflammatory. It is believed that their actions derive from the major constituent, bergenin. The objective of this work was to study the Endopleura uchi barks extraction using the dynamic maceration method and the effects of the extraction time, drug to solvent ratio and temperature. A Box-Behnken design was applied to study the influence of these factors and the respective response surfaces. The extract characterization was made by determination of its antioxidant activity by DPPH; total polyphenol content and bergenin content. In general, the extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with the IC50 ranging from 4.02 to 5.87 µg/mL. The polyphenol content ranged from 31.89 to 47.82%. High levels of chemical markers are observed in all extracts, with average bergenin content of 35.58%. The result showed that the multivariate study of extraction is key step in the development and standardization of extracts Endopleura uchi.

  11. Box-Behnken design to study the bergenin content and antioxidant activity of Endopleura uchi bark extracts obtained by dynamic maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Tacon


    Full Text Available Brazil has one of the world's largest biodiversity in flora and a plant that has attracted attention is the Endopleura uchi (Huber Cuatrec., Humiriaceae, which is native of the Brazilian Amazon. Among the many popular uses, this species is utilized in the treatment of woman's genito urinary tract affections and also as anti-inflammatory. It is believed that their actions derive from the major constituent, bergenin. The objective of this work was to study the Endopleura uchi barks extraction using the dynamic maceration method and the effects of the extraction time, drug to solvent ratio and temperature. A Box-Behnken design was applied to study the influence of these factors and the respective response surfaces. The extract characterization was made by determination of its antioxidant activity by DPPH; total polyphenol content and bergenin content. In general, the extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with the IC50 ranging from 4.02 to 5.87 µg/mL. The polyphenol content ranged from 31.89 to 47.82%. High levels of chemical markers are observed in all extracts, with average bergenin content of 35.58%. The result showed that the multivariate study of extraction is key step in the development and standardization of extracts Endopleura uchi.

  12. Endocytosis of the Aspartic Acid/Glutamic Acid Transporter Dip5 Is Triggered by Substrate-Dependent Recruitment of the Rsp5 Ubiquitin Ligase via the Arrestin-Like Protein Aly2 ▿ (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Riko; Kamiya, Masao; Takahara, Terunao; Maeda, Tatsuya


    Endocytosis of nutrient transporters is stimulated under various conditions, such as elevated nutrient availability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, endocytosis is triggered by ubiquitination of transporters catalyzed by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5. However, how the ubiquitination is accelerated under certain conditions remains obscure. Here we demonstrate that closely related proteins Aly2/Art3 and Aly1/Art6, which are poorly characterized members of the arrestin-like protein family, mediate endocytosis of the aspartic acid/glutamic acid transporter Dip5. In aly2Δ cells, Dip5 is stabilized at the plasma membrane and is not endocytosed efficiently. Efficient ubiquitination of Dip5 is dependent on Aly2. aly1Δ cells also show deficiency in Dip5 endocytosis, although less remarkably than aly2Δ cells. Aly2 physically interacts in vivo with Rsp5 at its PY motif and also with Dip5, thus serving as an adaptor linking Rsp5 with Dip5 to achieve Dip5 ubiquitination. Importantly, the interaction between Aly2 and Dip5 is accelerated in response to elevated aspartic acid availability. This result indicates that the regulation of Dip5 endocytosis is accomplished by dynamic recruitment of Rsp5 via Aly2. PMID:20956561

  13. SECM Study of Effect of Chromium Content on the Localized Corrosion Behavior of Low-Alloy Steels in Chloride Environment (United States)

    Indira, K.; Nishimura, T.


    This paper investigates the effect of chromium (Cr) content (0, 1, 3 and 5% Cr) in epoxy-coated alloy steel against corrosion using in situ electrochemical techniques such as EIS and SECM in a 3% NaCl solution. The EIS results revealed that the epoxy-coated Cr steel exhibited higher impedance values than carbon steel, which is attributed to the greater resistance of Cr steel toward corrosion. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results, the tip potentials were set at -0.7, 0.04 and 0.60 V for determining the concentration of dissolved oxygen at cathodic region, and oxidation of Cr2+ and Fe2+ at anodic region, respectively. The SECM measurements showed that, the tip current in the anodic region has decreased with increase in Cr content of the sample, which indicates that the oxidation of Fe2+ and Cr2+ decreases (corrosion is reduced) with the increase in Cr content of the steel. Besides, 5% Cr steel can maintain the highest corrosion resistance, and 1 and 3% Cr steels have higher corrosion resistance than the 0% Cr steel. This higher corrosion resistance of Cr steel samples could be due to the formation of Cr-rich hydro-oxide layers [Cr(OH)3 as a corrosion product] on the surface of the samples. Thus, the epoxy-coated Cr alloy steel has greater corrosion resistance in a chloride-containing environment than the carbon steel. Hence, epoxy-coated Cr alloy steel can be successfully used as a construction material in structures.

  14. Similar metabolic responses in pigs and humans to breads with different contents and compositions of dietary fibers: a metabolomics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hartvigsen, Merete; Hedemann, Mette Skou


    crossover design with 4 breads: white-wheat bread low in dietary fiber, rye bread with whole-rye kernels, and 2 whitewheat breads supplemented with either wheat arabinoxylan or oat b-glucan. Blood samples drawn 215, 30, and 120 min postprandially were analyzed by untargeted liquid chromatography...... different basal metabolome concentrations in the plasma of pigs and humans. Humans had higher contents of phosphatidylcholines, oleic acid, and carnitine in plasma, possibly reflecting a higher intake of meats and fats. In pigs, betaine, choline, creatinine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine were higher...

  15. 超绿水稻色素含量及其光合特性研究%Study on Pigment Content and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Supergreen Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单提波; 赵明辉; 陈温福


    [目的] 研究超绿水稻叶片叶绿素含量及其光合特性.[方法] 以超绿水稻沈农19-6为研究对象,以叶色淡绿的沈农12-5、沈农07-015和叶色正常的丰锦、沈农265水稻品种作为对照,测定各品种水稻的叶绿素含量,分析其光合特性.[结果]结果表明,在不同生育时期,超绿水稻叶片的叶绿素含量都极显著高于其他品种.类胡萝卜素含量的变化规律与叶绿素含量的变化规律基本一致,即具有较高叶绿素含量的同时也具有较高的类胡萝卜素含量.整个生育期,超绿水稻叶片均保持较高的叶绿素a、叶绿素b含量,而其比值则较小;超绿水稻叶片的净光合速率没有因叶绿素含量较高而显著提高,但气孔导度和蒸腾速率始终维持在较高的水平,且在成熟期显著高于其他品种.[结论]该研究结果为进一步研究和推广应用超绿水稻奠定基础.%[Objective] The research aimed to study the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic characteristics of super-green rice.[Method] With the super green-rice Shennong 19-6 as material, Shennong 12-5, Shennong 07-015, Fengjin and Shennong 265 as CK, the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic characteristics of all varities rice were studied.[Result] The results showed that the chlorophyll content of super green-rice was significantly higher than other varieties at different stages of growth.After heading stage, as the leaves were aging, the chlorophyll content decreased.But the decrease rate was significantly lower than CK, the chlorophyll content was also higher in ripening stage.Carotenoid content and chlorophyll content were consistent with variation.The chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were both higher.Further analysis of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and its ratio showed that the super green-rice kept higher chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content in all stages of growth, which caused its ratio to be low.In the whole

  16. On the gas content of transitional disks: a VLT/X-Shooter study of accretion and winds

    CERN Document Server

    Manara, C F; Natta, A; Rosotti, G; Benisty, M; Ercolano, B; Ricci, L


    Transitional disks (TDs) are thought to be a late evolutionary stage of protoplanetary disks with dust depleted inner regions. The mechanism responsible for this depletion is still under debate. To constrain the models it is mandatory to have a good understanding of the properties of the gas content of the inner disk. Using X-Shooter broad band -UV to NIR- medium resolution spectroscopy we derive the stellar, accretion, and wind properties of a sample of 22 TDs. The analysis of these properties allows us to put strong constraints on the gas content in a region very close to the star (<0.2 AU) which is not accessible with any other observational technique. We fit the spectra with a self-consistent procedure to derive simultaneously SpT,Av,and mass accretion rates (Macc) of the targets. From forbidden emission lines we derive the wind properties of the targets. Comparing our findings to values for cTTs, we find that Macc and wind properties of 80% of the TDs in our sample, which is strongly biased towards st...

  17. 关于信息系统审计内容的研究%Information system Audit Content Study Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧林; 王增辉; 关宁


    Information Systems Audit and Control in China despite the late start,but its importance is increasingly apparent. Clear that the Auditor General Liu Jiayi,information systems audit to seize three key points,namely, safety, effectiveness (reliability)and the economy.Therefore,the content of information systems audit has become a concern of auditors,this paper wiU analyze the information systems auditing concepts and objectives,summed up the information systems audit institutions to audit the main content.%信息系统审计在我国尽管起步较晚,但其重要性日渐明显。刘家义审计长明确指出,信息系统审计要抓住三个关键点,即安全性、有效性(可靠性)和经济性。因此信息系统审计的内容也成为审计人员关注的问题,本文将通过分析信息系统审计的概念及目标,总结出审计机关进行信息系统审计的主要内容。

  18. A Qualitative Study to Inform the Design, Content and Structure of an Interactive SMS Messaging Service in Chikwawa, Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Laidlaw


    Five themes were identified encapsulating the opinions and beliefs of the residents in Chimoto and Sikenala; Current Health Education Practices, Message Content, Mobile Phone Access, Trust in the SCHI and Sustainability. Current Health Education Practices refers to the current availability of health education, the access to such information and self-reported need for further information in more accessible means. Message Content depicts participants’ need for practical application of the messages they receive and adequate information for the participant to make an informed choice about their own health. In terms of the SMS Messaging Service, participants had no preference as to frequency or volume of messages but stated they would prefer to receive messages out with school hours. Mobile Phone Access represents the participants’ fears around accessibility of the service to those without mobile devices. The sharing of messages and mobile phones with friends and family was discussed as a potential method to overcome this barrier. Trust in the SCHI depicts the residents’ positive views of the project and that they would believe the content of the messages because they trust the SCHI as the source, especially if they recognised a designated project mobile number. This was affirmed by their declaration to share messages with those without phone access. Weariness of the service was identified only in terms of cost because of negative experiences with other subscription services. Finally Sustainability encapsulates the participants’ views on the long term aims of the messaging service and their request for the project to follow up with visits and services in addition to the messages. They particularly emphasising a need for face-to-face communication. Conclusions From this analysis it appears that the sampled participants are on board with the messaging service, and have provided in depth detailed examples of the type of information they require, specifically

  19. Study on the change of HPV DNA virus content, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of patients with cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Qiong Luo; LiangTang; Ping Xie; Yan-Mei Hu


    Objective:To study and observe the change status of HPV DNA virus content, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of patients with cervical cancer.Methods:A total of 72 patients with cervical cancer in our hospital from February 2014 to September 2015 were selected as the observation group, 72 healthy women at the same period were selected as the control group, then the HPV DNA virus content and constitution, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of two groups were analyzed and compared, and the detection results of observation group with stageⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ andⅣ of cervical cancer were compared.Results:The rates of HPV DNA virus content and>500 in the observation group were all higher than those of control group, the circulating blood and tissue miR-21 were all higher than those of control group, while the circulating blood and tissue miR-126, miR-143 and miR-145 were all lower than those of control group, and the detection results of observation group with stageⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ andⅣ of cervical cancer all had obvious differences, the differences were all significant.Conclusion:The changes of the status of HPV DNA virus content, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of patients with cervical cancer are great, and the influence of cervical cancer stage for the detection results are great, so it has active guiding significance for the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  20. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an exploratory...... by destination management organizations exhibit some crucial weaknesses. However, a strategy based on analytics brings new opportunities for destination branding. Originality/value – The study provides an innovative analysis of tourist-created content and its impact on destination branding and presents...