WorldWideScience

Sample records for arrester wires

  1. 30 CFR 77.508-1 - Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508-1 Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings. Lightning arresters protecting exposed telephone wires entering buildings shall be provided...

  2. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  3. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and... leads underground shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters of approved type within 100...

  4. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2014. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Approach to cardiac arrest and life-threatening ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 63. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Cardiac arrest and audden aardiac death. In: ...

  5. Daily Arrests

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset provides the public with arrest information from the Montgomery County Central Processing Unit (CPU) systems. The data presented is derived from every...

  6. [Heart arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarella, F; Giovannini, E; Bozzano, A; Caristo, G; Delise, P; Fedele, F; Fera, M S; Lavalle, C; Roghi, A; Valagussa, F

    2001-03-01

    Cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of mortality in industrialized countries and is mainly due to ischemic heart disease. According to ISTAT estimates, approximately 45,000 sudden deaths occur annually in Italy whereas according to the World Health Organization, its incidence is 1 per 1000 persons. The most common cause of cardiac arrest is ventricular fibrillation due to an acute ischemic episode. During acute ischemia the onset of a ventricular tachyarrhythmia is sudden, unpredictable and often irreversible and lethal. Each minute that passes, the probability that the patient survives decreases by 10%. For this reason, the first 10 min are considered to be priceless for an efficacious first aid. The possibility of survival depends on the presence of witnesses, on the heart rhythm and on the resolution of the arrhythmia. In the majority of cases, the latter is possible by means of electrical defibrillation followed by the reestablishment of systolic function. An increase in equipment alone does not suffice for efficacious handling of cardiac arrest occurring outside the hospital premises. Above all, an adequate intervention strategy is required. Ambulance personnel must be well trained and capable of intervening rapidly, possibly within the first 5 min. The key to success lies in the diffusion and proper use of defibrillators. The availability of new generation instruments, the external automatic defibrillators, encourages their widespread use. On the territory, these emergencies are the responsibility of the 118 organization based, according to the characteristics specific to each country, on the regulated coordination between the operative command, the crews and the first-aid means. Strategies for the handling of these emergencies within hospitals have been proposed by the Conference of Bethesda and tend to guarantee an efficacious resuscitation with a maximum latency of 2 min between cardiac arrest and the first electric shock. The diffusion of external

  7. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  9. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) SCA: Who's At Risk? Prevention of SCA What Causes SCA? SCA Awareness Atrial Flutter Heart Block Heart Failure Sick Sinus Syndrome Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  11. Pittsburgh Police Arrest Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...

  12. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  13. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  14. Wire harness twisting aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  15. Laser Wire Stripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  16. Cardiac arrest – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Lenjani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care the rate of survival is higher.

  17. Reduction of the visual impact of overhead transmission line systems through utilisation of line surge arresters as lightning protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    with the Technical University of Denmark, on how to lessen the visual impact of 400 kV overhead line transmission systems. In this paper omission of shield wires combined with installation of a suitable number of line surge arresters is investigated as a possible alternative to transmission lines equipped...... with shielding wires thereby reducing tower height, allowing more compact designs of towers thus minimizing the visual environment impact of the lines. Omission of shield wires in the system and instead utilizing a larger number of surge arresters in the (upper) phases of an overhead line without reduction...... in line performance and lightning protection of the nearest substations requires thorough modelling of the new line including all electrical parameters necessary for performance evaluation under all conditions. In this paper, explicit use of line surge arresters as lightning protection on the line...

  18. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  19. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  20. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  1. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  2. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  3. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  4. Automating wiring formboard design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Increase in aircraft wiring complexity call for manufacturing design improvements to reduce cost and lead-time. To achieve such improvements, a joint research project was performed by the Flight Performance and Propulsion (FPP) group and Fokker Elmo BV, the second largest aircraft wiring harness man

  5. 2016 MOST WIRED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Paul; Butcher, Lola; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2016-07-01

    This year's IT survey shows that hospitals are aggressively fighting cyber crime and looking for ways to use data to help in the transition to value-based care. Find out who made the 2016 lists of Most Wired, Most Advanced, Most Improved and Most Wired-Small and Rural. PMID:27526506

  6. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  7. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  8. 33 CFR 154.822 - Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. 154.822 Section 154.822 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.822 Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. (a)...

  9. Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; GE Shi-rong; ZHANG De-kun

    2008-01-01

    Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6x19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the other end, we established the boundary conditions for solving the model. In addition, we numerically simulated the stress and deformation of the wire, obtaining the deformation distribution of each wire within the wire rope under different laying directions.At the end, a tensile test of the 6x19 IWS wire rope was carried out and the results of simulation and experiment compared.

  10. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  11. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  12. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  13. One hundred angstrom niobium wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, H. E.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1968-01-01

    Composite of fine niobium wires in copper is used to study the size and proximity effects of a superconductor in a normal matrix. The niobium rod was drawn to a 100 angstrom diameter wire on a copper tubing.

  14. Gaseous wire detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations

  15. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  16. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  17. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  18. Arrester installations for improving the lightning performance of double circuits distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanasaksiri, T. [ChiangMai Univ., ChianMai (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) of Thailand serves 99 per cent of the the country's power customers. The main power distribution lines used by PEA consist of 22 and 33 kV high voltage distribution systems and a 400/230 V low voltage system. In order to supply more energy and for economic reasons, distribution lines for industrial and commercial loads consist of double circuits. Lightning strikes on either circuit can affect the other. There are different methods that can be used to reduce the number of flashovers on lines and improve the lightning performance of lines. This paper presented a method for improving the lightning performance of 22 kV double circuit overhead distribution lines by means of arrester installations. The study focused both on partial and full arrester installations and considered arrester energy discharge. The paper discussed the electromagnetic transients program (EMTP) model of systems studied, including a pole and footing impedance model; a line model; an arrester model; an insulator model; a flashover model; and a lightning source model. The studied configurations included pole structure types; phase and ground wire conductors; lightning arresters; insulators; and ground rods. It was concluded that full installation provides better lightning performance compared to partial installation. 7 refs., 8 tabs.

  19. Cognitive and Functional Consequence of Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Claudia A; Samudra, Niyatee; Aiyagari, Venkatesh

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac arrest is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Better-quality bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, cardiocerebral resuscitation principles, and intensive post-resuscitation hospital care have improved survival. However, cognitive and functional impairment after cardiac arrest remain areas of concern. Research focus has shifted beyond prognostication in the immediate post-arrest period to identification of mechanisms for long-term brain injury and implementation of promising protocols to reduce neuronal injury. These include therapeutic temperature management (TTM), as well as pharmacologic and psychological interventions which also improve overall neurological function. Comprehensive assessment of cognitive function post-arrest is hampered by heterogeneous measures among studies. However, the domains of attention, long-term memory, spatial memory, and executive function appear to be affected. As more patients survive cardiac arrest for longer periods of time, there needs to be a greater focus on interventions that can enhance cognitive and psychosocial function post-arrest. PMID:27311306

  20. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta; Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear Implantation is now regarded as the most successful medical technology. It carries promises to provide deaf/hearing impaired individuals with a technological sense of hearing and an access to participate on a more equal level in social life. In this article, we explore the adoption...... dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  1. From Wires to Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Mustafa A

    2015-01-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  2. Randomly Wired Multistage Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Maggs, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    Randomly wired multistage networks have recently been shown to outperform traditional multistage networks in three respects. First, they have fast deterministic packet-switching and circuit-switching algorithms for routing permutations. Second, they are nonblocking, and there are on-line algorithms for establishing new connections in them, even if many requests for connections are made simultaneously. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, they are highly fault tolerant.

  3. Twisting wire scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  4. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  5. [Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkunen, Ilkka; Hoppu, Sanna; Kämäräinen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac arrest as the first symptom of coronary artery disease is not uncommon. Some of previously healthy people with sudden cardiac arrest may be saved by effective resuscitation and post-resuscitative therapy. The majority of cardiac arrest patients experience the cardiac arrest outside of the hospital, in which case early recognition of lifelessness, commencement of basic life support and entry to professional care without delay are the prerequisites for recovery. After the heart has started beating again, the clinical picture of post-resuscitation syndrome must be recognized and appropriate treatment utilized. PMID:22204143

  6. Magnetoconductance of quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gerson J.; Sammarco, Filipe; Egues, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    At low temperatures the conductance of a quantum wires exhibit characteristic plate-aus due to the quantization of the transverse modes [1]. In the presence of high in-plane magnetic fields these spin-split transverse modes cross. Recently, these crossings were observed experimentally [2] via measurements of the differential conductance as a function of the gate voltage and the in-plane magnetic-field. These show structures described as either anti-crossings or magnetic phase transitions. Motivated by our previous works on magnetotransport in 2DEGs via the Spin Density Functional Theory (SDFT) [3], here we propose a similar model to investigate the magnetoconductance of quantum wires. We use (i) the SDFT via the Kohn-Sham self-consistent scheme within the local spin density approximation to obtain the electronic structure and (ii) the Landauer-Buettiker formalism to calculate the conductance of a quantum wire. Our results show qualitative agreement with the data of Ref. [2]. [1] B. J. van Wees et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 848 (1988). [2] A. C. Graham et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 226804 (2008). [3] H. J. P. Freire, and J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026801 (2007); G. J. Ferreira, and J. Carlos Egues, J. Supercond. Nov. Mag., in press; G. J. Ferreira, H. J. P. Freire, J. Carlos Egues, submitted.

  7. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  8. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Arresting Gear System with Multibody Dynamic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhou Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The arresting dynamics of the aircraft on the aircraft carrier involves both a transient wave propagation process in rope and a smooth decelerating of aircraft. This brings great challenge on simulating the whole process since the former one needs small time-step to guarantee the stability, while the later needs large time-step to reduce calculation time. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a full-scale multibody dynamics model of arresting gear system making use of variable time-step integration scheme. Especially, a kind of new cable element that is capable of describing the arbitrary large displacement and rotation in three-dimensional space is adopted to mesh the wire cables, and damping force is used to model the effect of hydraulic system. Then, the stress of the wire ropes during the landing process is studied. Results show that propagation, reflection, and superposition of the stress wave between the deck sheaves contribute mainly to the peak value of stress. And the maximum stress in the case of landing deviate from the centerline is a little bit smaller than the case of landing along centerline. The multibody approach and arresting gear system model proposed here also provide an efficient way to design and optimize the whole mechanism.

  10. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  11. The course of circulatory and cerebral recovery after circulatory arrest: influence of pre-arrest, arrest and post-arrest factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, E O; Holm, S

    1999-11-01

    We evaluated the influence of pre-arrest, arrest and post-arrest factors on circulatory and neurological recovery for up to 1 year following circulatory arrest of cardio-pulmonary aetiology in 231 patients. Initially, all patients were unconscious and 106 had some cortical activity recorded in the immediate post-resuscitation EEG (Group I), while 125 had no such activity initially (Group II). The following variables were explored: age, sex, medical history, cause and location of arrest, initial cardiac dysrhythmia, duration of life support, metabolic acidosis, pulse-pressure product and heart pump function capacity early after resuscitation. Outcome measures were duration and quality of circulatory survival, cause of death, neurological recovery and ultimate outcome. First year survival was 33% in Group I and 16% in Group II. Severe heart failure and brain death occurred mainly in Group II. Circulatory recovery was negatively influenced by out-of-hospital arrest, metabolic acidosis and pulse-pressure products below 150. Neurological recovery was negatively influenced by initial dysrhythmias other than ventricular fibrillation, pulse-pressure products below 150, post-arrest heart failure and/or pulmonary complications. It seems that circulatory and cerebral outcomes are mainly determined by the global ischaemic insults sustained during the circulatory arrest period. PMID:10625157

  12. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALLIC WIRES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU XIANG; GU JI-HUA; CHU JUN-HAO

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radial thickness on the thermal conductivity of a free standing wire is investigated. The thermal conductivity is evaluated using the Boltzmann equation. A simple expression for the reduction in conductivity due to the increase of boundary scattering is presented. A comparison is made between the experimental results of indium wires and the theoretical calculations. It is shown that this decrease of conductivity in wires is smaller than that in film where heat flux is perpendicular to the surface.

  13. Shot noise in parallel wires

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerqvist, Johan; Chen, Yu-Chang; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2004-01-01

    We report first-principles calculations of shot noise properties of parallel carbon wires in the regime in which the interwire distance is much smaller than the inelastic mean free path. We find that, with increasing interwire distance, the current approaches rapidly a value close to twice the current of each wire, while the Fano factor, for the same distances, is still larger than the Fano factor of a single wire. This enhanced Fano factor is the signature of the correlation between electron...

  14. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  15. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  16. New ground switches for metal oxide arresters; Nuevos desconectadores de tierra para pararrayos de oxidos metalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Hevia, D.

    2011-07-01

    Metal oxide arrester (PCM) for distribution lines disconnect devices used ground wire (DCT's) to disconnect power system failure. Often, these DCT are the least reliable of the arrester, and despite its crucial role to ensure continuity, quality and ability of supply. Surprising that standards bodies have not been worked to establish criteria and tests to ensure the reliability and proper functionality of this component. In this paper we analyze the most common designs of DCT's and the problems they present. It also introduces a new generation of DCT's that solves these problems and an improvement in the guarantees of reliability and functionality of these devices. (Author) 5 refs.

  17. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maurer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. Materials and Methods: This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Results: Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Conclusion: Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting.

  18. The Current in a Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  19. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances.

  20. Nano-storage wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-08-27

    We report the development of "nano-storage wires" (NSWs), which can store chemical species and release them at a desired moment via external electrical stimuli. Here, using the electrodeposition process through an anodized aluminum oxide template, we fabricated multisegmented nanowires composed of a polypyrrole segment containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, a ferromagnetic nickel segment, and a conductive gold segment. Upon the application of a negative bias voltage, the NSWs released ATP molecules for the control of motor protein activities. Furthermore, NSWs can be printed onto various substrates including flexible or three-dimensional structured substrates by direct writing or magnetic manipulation strategies to build versatile chemical storage devices. Since our strategy provides a means to store and release chemical species in a controlled manner, it should open up various applications such as drug delivery systems and biochips for the controlled release of chemicals.

  1. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  2. Sonic Hedgehog Opposes Epithelial Cell Cycle Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Hongran; Khavari, Paul A

    1999-01-01

    Stratified epithelium displays an equilibrium between proliferation and cell cycle arrest, a balance that is disrupted in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation appears sufficient to induce BCC, however, the way it does so is unknown. Shh-induced epidermal hyperplasia is accompanied by continued cell proliferation in normally growth arrested suprabasal cells in vivo. Shh-expressing cells fail to exit S and G2/M phases in response to calcium-induced differentiation...

  3. Paclitaxel Arrests Growth of Intracellular Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, Randee; Vogel, Nicolas; Mack, Douglas; McLeod, Rima

    1998-01-01

    Addition of paclitaxel (Taxol) at a concentration of 1 μM to Toxoplasma gondii-infected human foreskin fibroblasts arrested parasite multiplication. Division of the T. gondii tachyzoite nucleus was inhibited, leading to syncytium-like parasite structures within the fibroblasts by 24 h after infection and treatment of the cultures. By 4 days after infection and treatment of the cultures with paclitaxel, this inhibition was irreversible, since the arrested intracellular form was incapable of le...

  4. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  5. Surface Electrocardiogram Predictors of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghani, Samy A.; Rosenthal, Todd M.; Morin, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart disease is a major cause of death in industrialized nations, with approximately 50% of these deaths attributable to sudden cardiac arrest. If patients at high risk for sudden cardiac arrest can be identified, their odds of surviving fatal arrhythmias can be significantly improved through prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. This review summarizes the current knowledge pertaining to surface electrocardiogram (ECG) predictors of sudden cardiac arrest. Methods: We conducted a literature review focused on methods of predicting sudden cardiac arrest through noninvasive electrocardiographic testing. Results: Several electrocardiographic-based methods of risk stratification of sudden cardiac arrest have been studied, including QT prolongation, QRS duration, fragmented QRS complexes, early repolarization, Holter monitoring, heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, signal-averaged ECG, T wave alternans, and T-peak to T-end. These ECG findings have shown variable effectiveness as screening tools. Conclusion: At this time, no individual ECG finding has been found to be able to adequately stratify patients with regard to risk for sudden cardiac arrest. However, one or more of these candidate surface ECG parameters may become useful components of future multifactorial risk stratification calculators. PMID:27660578

  6. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  7. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  8. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  9. Wire ropes tension, endurance, reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Feyrer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to present the methods used to calculate the most important parameters for ropes, and to explain how they are applied on the basis of numerous sample calculations. The book, based on the most important chapters of the German book DRAHTSEILE, has been updated to reflect the latest developments, with the new edition especially focusing on computational methods for wire ropes. Many new calculations and examples have also been added to facilitate the dimensioning and calculation of mechanical characteristics of wire ropes. This book offers a valuable resource for all those working with wire ropes, including construction engineers, operators and supervisors of machines and installations involving wire ropes.

  10. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  11. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  12. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  13. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall...

  14. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  15. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  16. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  17. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  18. The Organizational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.

    2006-01-01

    A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…

  19. Predictors for outcome among cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibrandt-Johansen, Ida Maria; Norsted, Kristine; Schmidt, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundIn the past decade, early treatment of cardiac arrest (CA) victims has been improved in several ways, leading to more optimistic over all prognoses. However, the global survival rate after out-of-hospital CA (OHCA) is still not more than 5-10%. With a better knowledge of the predictors...

  20. Growth arrest specific protein (GAS) 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, T N; Rasmussen, Morten; Jaksch, C A M;

    2013-01-01

    using RNA microarray and quantitative PCR. The role of a differentially expressed gene, growth arrest specific protein 6 (GAS6), was evaluated in vitro using neonatal rat islets. Results The mRNA level of Gas6, known to be mitogenic in other tissues, was reduced in LP offspring. The mRNA content of Mafa...

  1. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  2. A wired - impressa e digital

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, Sara Raquel Machado

    2015-01-01

    O tema abordado neste relatório de estágio é a revista Wired impressa vs. digital. Tendo em conta, que uma das primeiras revistas a ser publicadas para Ipad foi a Wired, um periódico icónico que aborda assuntos referentes à tecnologia, decidi realizar uma análise exaustiva desta revista de forma a relacionar estes dois mundos tão díspares. Para tal, dividi este trabalho em duas partes distintas, sendo a primeira delas divididas em dois capítulos. No primeiro capítulo faz-se uma breve contextu...

  3. Maternal Cardiac Arrest: A Practical and Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida M. Jeejeebhoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest during pregnancy is a dedicated chapter in the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care; however, a robust maternal cardiac arrest knowledge translation strategy and emergency response plan is not usually the focus of institutional emergency preparedness programs. Although maternal cardiac arrest is rare, the emergency department is a high-risk area for receiving pregnant women in either prearrest or full cardiac arrest. It is imperative that institutions review and update emergency response plans for a maternal arrest. This review highlights the most recent science, guidelines, and recommended implementation strategies related to a maternal arrest. The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the important physiological differences of, and management strategies for, a maternal cardiac arrest, as well as provide institutions with the most up-to-date literature on which they can build emergency preparedness programs for a maternal arrest.

  4. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the... “Safety Rules for the Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication Lines”...

  5. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  6. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and presents critiques of a utopian…

  7. Death Due to Intra-aortic Migration of Kirschner Wire From the Clavicle: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Sun, Da-Hui; Yu, Tiecheng; Wang, Linxiang; Zhu, Dong; Li, Yan-Hui

    2016-05-01

    Migration of orthopedic fixation wires into the ascending aorta though a rare occurrence can have devastating consequences. Therefore, prompt recognition, with immediate and cautious retrieval of the implant is paramount in averting these complications.We present a case of a 5-year-old boy with the intra-aortic migration of a K-wire used for the treatment of a right clavicle fracture. He was transferred to us with a history of syncope, chest pain, and shortness of breath 7 days after K-wire placement, which was performed at another hospital. On CT scan, the wire was found to be partially inside the ascending aorta, which was associated with massive hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade. The patient was taken up for emergency surgery for the removal K-wire and for the management of cardiac temponade. However, the patient developed cardiac arrest during the induction of intravenous anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. The K-wire was retrieved from the thorax via thoracotomy. However, the patient died 10 days after the surgery.As the migration of wires and pins during orthopedic surgery can cause potentially fatal complications, these should be used very cautiously, especially for percutaneous treatment of shoulder girdle fractures. The patients with such implants should be followed frequently, both clinically and radiographically. If migration occurs, the patient should be closely monitored for emergent complications and the K-wire should be extracted immediately. PMID:27227938

  8. Transport through multiply connected quantum wires

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sourin; Rao, Sumathi

    2003-01-01

    We study transport through multiply coupled carbon nano-tubes (quantum wires) and compute the conductances through the two wires as a function of the two gate voltages $g_1$ and $g_2$ controlling the chemical potential of the electrons in the two wires. We find that there is an {\\it equilibrium} cross-conductance, and we obtain its dependence on the temperature and length of the wires. The effective action of the model for the wires in the strong coupling (equivalently Coulomb interaction) li...

  9. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  10. Nuclear reactor melt arrest and coolability device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, Theo G.; Dinh, Nam Truc; Wachowiak, Richard M.

    2016-06-14

    Example embodiments provide a Basemat-Internal Melt Arrest and Coolability device (BiMAC) that offers improved spatial and mechanical characteristics for use in damage prevention and risk mitigation in accident scenarios. Example embodiments may include a BiMAC having an inclination of less than 10-degrees from the basemat floor and/or coolant channels of less than 4 inches in diameter, while maintaining minimum safety margins required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  11. Aerodynamically generated noise by lightning arrester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Váchová J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the general solution of aerodynamically generated noise by lightning arrester. Governing equations are presented in form of Lighthill acoustic analogy, as embodied in the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H equation. This equation is based on conservation laws of fluid mechanics rather than on the wave equation. Thus, the FW-H equation is valid even if the integration surface is in nonlinear region. That’s why the FWH method is superior in aeroacoustics. The FW-H method is implemented in program Fluent and the numerical solution is acquired by Fluent code.The general solution of acoustic signal generated by lightning arrester is shown and the results in form of acoustic pressure and frequency spectrum are presented. The verification of accuracy was made by evaluation of Strouhal number. A comparison of Strouhal number for circumfluence of a cylinder and the lightning arrester was done, because the experimental data for cylinder case are known and these solids are supposed to be respectively in shape relation.

  12. Arrest scenarios in concentrated protein solutions - from hard sphere glasses to arrested spinodal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradner, Anna; Bucciarelli, Saskia; Casal, Lucia; Foffi, Giuseppe; Thurston, George; Farago, Bela; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence of an arrest transition in concentrated colloid suspensions and its dependence on the interaction potential is a hot topic in soft matter. Such arrest transitions can also occur in concentrated protein solutions, as they exist e.g. in biological cells or are increasingly used in pharmaceutical formulations. Here we demonstrate the applicability of concepts from colloid science to understand the dynamics of concentrated protein solutions. In this presentation we report a combination of 3D light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering and neutron spin echo measurements to study the structural properties as well as the collective and self diffusion of proteins in highly concentrated solutions on the relevant length and time scales. We demonstrate that various arrest scenarios indeed exist for different globular proteins. The proteins chosen are different bovine lens crystallins. We report examples of hard and attractive glass transitions and arrested spinodal decomposition directly linked to the effective pair potentials determined in static scattering experiments for the different proteins. We discuss these different arrest scenarios in view of possible applications of dense protein solutions as well as in view of their possible relevance for living systems.

  13. Hypothermia improves outcome from cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S A

    2005-12-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is common and patients who are initially resuscitated by ambulance officers and transported to hospital are usually admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). In the past, the treatment in the ICU consisted of supportive care only, and most patients remained unconscious due to the severe anoxic neurological injury. It was this neurological injury rather than cardiac complications that caused the high rate of morbidity and mortality. However, in the early 1990's, a series of animal experiments demonstrated convincingly that mild hypothermia induced after return of spontaneous circulation and maintained for several hours dramatically reduced the severity of the anoxic neurological injury. In the mid-1990's, preliminary human studies suggested that mild hypothermia could be induced and maintained in post-cardiac arrest patients without an increase in the rate of cardiac or other complications. In the late 1990's, two prospective, randomised, controlled trials were conducted and the results confirmed the animal data that mild hypothermia induced after resuscitation and maintained for 12 - 24 hours dramatically improved neurological and overall outcomes. On the basis of these studies, mild hypothermia was endorsed in 2003 by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation as a recommended treatment for comatose patients with an initial cardiac rhythm of ventricular fibrillation. However, the application of this therapy into routine clinical critical care practice has been slow. The reasons for this are uncertain, but may relate to the relative complexity of the treatment, unfamiliarity with the pathophysiology of hypothermia, lack of clear protocols and/or uncertainty of benefit in particular patients. Therefore, recent research in this area has focused on the development of feasible, inexpensive techniques for the early, rapid induction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Currently, the most promising strategy is a rapid

  14. Practical circuits with Physarum Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, James G. H.; Mayne, Richard; Moody, Nadine; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Protoplasmic tubes of Physarum polycephalum, also know as Physarum Wires (PW), have been previously suggested as novel bio- electronic components. Until recently, practical examples of electronic circuits using PWs have been limited. These PWs have been shown to be self repairing, offering significant advantage over traditional electronic components. This article documents work performed to produce practical circuits using PWs. Method: We have demonstrated through manufacture and tes...

  15. The transmaxillary K-wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverton, J. S.; Bostwick, J.; Jurkiewicz, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The transmaxillary K-wire is a simple, fast, safe, and effective technique for the fixation of unstable tractured malar bones. Combined with other techniques such as interdental fixation it simplifies and provides the fixation of the Le Fort II fracture or osteotomy and certain osteotomies used for facial advancement. The technique of insertion is described and illustrated. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:666241

  16. EFFECTS OF WIRE LAG IN WIRE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. SINHA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available WEDM is very useful wherever complex geometry with tight tolerances needs to be generated on hard materials. In view of modern and sophisticated technology readily available these days, the expectation of accuracy in WEDM is ever-increasing, and therefore, techniques for the improvement in WEDM must be developed. The main cause of inaccuracy is wire-lag, the cause and effect of which is described in the present work, along with a technique to obviate the problem in straight cutting. In a subsequent paper, a software approach (since the problem gets too complicated for improvement of accuracy in contour cutting is described.

  17. "Cut wires grating – single longitudinal wire" planar metastructure to achieve microwave magnetic resonance in a single wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kraftmakher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we present metastructures containing cut-wire grating and a single longitudinal cut-wire orthogonal to grating’s wires. Experimental investigations at microwaves show these structures can provide strong magnetic resonant response of a single nonmagnetic cut-wire in dependence on configuration and sizes in the case when metastructures are oriented along the direction of wave propagation and cut-wires of grating are parallel to the electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave. It is suggested a concept of magnetic response based on antiparallel resonant currents excited by magnetic field of surface polaritons in many spatial LC-circuits created from cut-wire pairs of a grating and section of longitudinal cut-wire. Three separately observed resonant effects connected with grating, LC-circuits and with longitudinal cut-wire have been identified applying measurements in waveguides, cutoff waveguides and free space. To tune and mark resonance split cut-wires are loaded with varactor diodes.

  18. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  19. Global arrest of translation during invertebrate quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, G E; Hand, S C

    1994-08-30

    Comparing the translational capacities of cell-free systems from aerobically developing embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana vs. quiescent embryos has revealed a global arrest of protein synthesis. Incorporation rates of [3H]leucine by lysates from 4-h anoxic embryos were 8% of those from aerobic (control) embryos, when assayed at the respective pH values measured for each treatment in vivo. Exposure of embryos to 4 h of aerobic acidosis (elevated CO2 in the presence of oxygen) suppressed protein synthesis to 3% of control values. These latter two experimental treatments promote developmental arrest of Artemia embryos and, concomitantly, cause acute declines in intracellular pH. When lysates from each treatment were assayed over a range of physiologically relevant pH values (pH 6.4-8.0), amino acid incorporation rates in lysates from quiescent embryos were consistently lower than values for the aerobic controls. Acute reversal of pH to alkaline values during the 6-min assays was not sufficient to return the incorporation rates of quiescent lysates to control values. Thus, a stable alteration in translational capacity of quiescent lysates is indicated. Addition of exogenous mRNA did not rescue the suppressed protein synthesis in quiescent lysates, which suggests that the acute blockage of amino acid incorporation is apparently not due to limitation in message. Thus, the results support a role for intracellular pH as an initial signaling event in translational control during quiescence yet, at the same time, indicate that a direct proton effect on the translational machinery is not the sole proximal agent for biosynthetic arrest in this primitive crustacean. PMID:8078909

  20. Hydroxylated PBDEs induce developmental arrest in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenko, Crystal Y., E-mail: Crystal_usenko@baylor.edu; Hopkins, David C.; Trumble, Stephen J., E-mail: Stephen_trumble@baylor.edu; Bruce, Erica D., E-mail: Erica_bruce@baylor.edu

    2012-07-01

    The ubiquitous spread of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has led to concerns regarding the metabolites of these congeners, in particular hydroxylated PBDEs. There are limited studies regarding the biological interactions of these chemicals, yet there is some concern they may be more toxic than their parent compounds. In this study three hydroxylated PBDEs were assessed for toxicity in embryonic zebrafish: 3-OH-BDE 47, 5-OH-BDE 47, and 6-OH-BDE 47. All three congeners induced developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner; however, 6-OH-BDE 47 induced adverse effects at lower concentrations than the other congeners. Furthermore, all three induced cell death; however apoptosis was not observed. In short-term exposures (24–28 hours post fertilization), all hydroxylated PBDEs generated oxidative stress in the region corresponding to the cell death at 5 and 10 ppm. To further investigate the short-term effects that may be responsible for the developmental arrest observed in this study, gene regulation was assessed for embryos exposed to 0.625 ppm 6-OH-BDE 47 from 24 to 28 hpf. Genes involved in stress response, thyroid hormone regulation, and neurodevelopment were significantly upregulated compared to controls; however, genes related to oxidative stress were either unaffected or downregulated. This study suggests that hydroxylated PBDEs disrupt development, and may induce oxidative stress and potentially disrupt the cholinergic system and thyroid hormone homeostasis. -- Highlights: ► OH-PBDEs induce developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. ► Hydroxyl group location influences biological interaction. ► OH-PBDEs induce oxidative stress. ► Thyroid hormone gene regulation was disrupted following exposure. ► To our knowledge, this is the first whole organism study of OH-PBDE toxicity.

  1. Abulia following an episode of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vismay Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    The word 'abulia' means a lack of will, initiative or drive. The symptoms of abulia include lack of spontaneous action and speech, reduced emotional responsiveness and social interaction, poor attention and easy distractibility. These symptoms are independent of reduced levels of consciousness or cognitive impairment. We describe a case of a socially active 72-year-old female patient who presented with symptoms of abulia which may have occurred due to damage of the frontosubcortical circuits following an episode of cardiac arrest. The patient's symptoms improved dramatically following treatment with bromocriptine. PMID:26135487

  2. Global arrest of translation during invertebrate quiescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, G E; Hand, S C

    1994-01-01

    Comparing the translational capacities of cell-free systems from aerobically developing embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana vs. quiescent embryos has revealed a global arrest of protein synthesis. Incorporation rates of [3H]leucine by lysates from 4-h anoxic embryos were 8% of those from aerobic (control) embryos, when assayed at the respective pH values measured for each treatment in vivo. Exposure of embryos to 4 h of aerobic acidosis (elevated CO2 in the presence of oxygen) sup...

  3. A case of thyroid storm with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest

  4. Vibrating Wire for Beam Profile Scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Mailian, M R; Sinenko, I G; Vasiniuk, I E

    1999-01-01

    The method for measurement of transverse profile (emittance) of the bunch by detecting of radiation arising scattering at of the bunch on the scanning wire is wide-spread. In this work the information about scattering bunch is proposed to measure using the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such way the system of radiation (or secondary particles) extraction and measurement can be removed. Dependence of oscillations frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam, influence of beam self field. Preliminary calculations show that influence caused by wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, niobium zirconium alloys). A scheme of self oscillations generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. Special method of wire fixation and elimination of trans...

  5. Electrothermal model for complete metal-oxide surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, E. Guedes da; Naidu, S.R. [UFPB, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Lima, A. Guedes de [CEFET-PB, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2001-01-01

    A computational, electrothermal model for a complete metal-oxide surge arrester based on the implicit form of the finite-differences method is presented. The model is used to calculate the cooling curve after the application of overvoltages and the temperature variations during standard test. The model has been checked against experiments carried out on a test section and a complete surge arrester and the behaviour of a hypothetical surge arrester during standard tests simulated. (Author)

  6. Anomalous Thermal Transport in Quantum Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Fazio, Rosario; Hekking, F. W. J.; Khmelnitskii, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    We study thermal transport in a one-dimensional quantum wire, connected to reservoirs. Despite of the absence of electron backscattering, interactions in the wire strongly influence thermal transport. Electrons propagate with unitary transmission through the wire and electric conductance is not affected. Energy, however, is carried by bosonic excitations (plasmons) which suffer from scattering even on scales much larger than the Fermi wavelength. If the electron density varies randomly, plasm...

  7. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  8. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  9. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  10. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  11. Wired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Every American grade school and library ought to have free access to the Internet, and universities and institutions ought to have better access, according to the Clinton Administration.In an October 10 speech in Knoxville, Tennessee, President Clinton proposed that all of the nation's 100,000 public schools and 9,000 libraries receive a two-tiered E-rate (education rate) for access to Internet services. All schools and libraries should receive basic connections for free, as well as deep discounts on video conferencing and highspeed connections (with prices influenced by how much the school can afford to pay). The basic connections (and part of the cost of the more sophisticated connections) would be paid from a special federal fund that currently provides below-cost phone service to households in poor and rural areas. That fund is currently drawn from fees assessed on local and long-distance telephone providers; the Clinton Administration would have cable operators and cellular service providers contribute as well. Companies that provide Internet services would be paid at the best available commercial rate.

  12. Wired

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    迄今为止,已有45000个项目借助在线捐赠成功完成众筹,金额总计达5亿美元以上。其中绝大部分(据估计为80%)来自Kickstarter网站,这家网站如今几乎成了“众筹”这一术语的代名词。

  13. Uniform wire segmentation algorithm of distributed interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Guoli; Lin Zhenghui

    2007-01-01

    A uniform wire segmentation algorithm for performance optimization of distributed RLC interconnects was proposed in this paper. The optimal wire length for identical segments and buffer size for buffer insertion are obtained through computation and derivation, based on a 2-pole approximation model of distributed RLC interconnect. For typical inductance value and long wires under 180nm technology, experiments show that the uniform wire segmentation technique proposed in the paper can reduce delay by about 27% ~ 56% , while requires 34%~69% less total buffer usage and thus 29% to 58% less power consumption. It is suitable for long RLC interconnect performance optimization.

  14. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  15. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  16. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  17. REMEDY OF WIRE LAG IN WIRE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. SINHA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available WEDM is extensively used these days for generating complex geometries with tight tolerances on difficult-tomachine materials. Therefore, demand for improvement in precision has been ever increasing. The main source of inaccuracy is wire-lag, the cause and effect of which is well-known. Research has been going on to overcome this drawback. So far, the techniques suggested for improvement in accuracy are, in general, based on monitoring the machining process at hardware-level, which is not only tedious but involves extra expenditure also. In the present paper, a software approach for improvement in accuracy is described, which does not require any additional investment on the machine, and still gives very good results.

  18. Effect of heat treatment on the transformation behavior and temperature memory effect in TiNiCu wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huajun; XIANG Xia

    2009-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the phase transformation behavior of TiNiCu shape memory alloy wires and the temperature memory effect in this alloy were investigated by the resistance method. These results showed that with increasing annealing temperature and annealing time, the phase transformation temperatures of TiNiCu wires were shifted to higher temperatures in the heating and cooling process. It was also found that incomplete thermal cycles, upon heating the TiNiCu wires, which were arrested at a temperature between the start and finish tem-peratures of the reverse martensite transformation, could induce a kinetic stop in the next complete thermal cycle. The kinetic stop tempera-ture was closely related to the previous arrested temperature. This phenomenon was defined as the temperature memory effect. The result of this study was consistent with the previous report on the phenomenon obtained using the differential scanning calorimetry method, indicating that temperature memory effect was a common phenomenon in shape memory alloys.

  19. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  20. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  1. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  2. Topological transition in coated wire medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlach, Maxim A; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Bogdanov, Andrey A; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory of nonlocal homogenization for metamaterial consisting of parallel metallic wires with dielectric coating. It is demonstrated that manipulation of dielectric contrast between wire dielectric shell and host material results in switching of metamaterial dispersion regime from elliptic to the hyperbolic one, i.e. the topological transition takes place. We confirm our theoretical predictions by full-wave numerical simulations.

  3. Resuscitation, prolonged cardiac arrest, and an automated chest compression device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Martin; Jørgensen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Lars S;

    2010-01-01

    The European Resuscitation Council's 2005 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasize the delivery of uninterrupted chest compressions of adequate depth during cardiac arrest.......The European Resuscitation Council's 2005 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasize the delivery of uninterrupted chest compressions of adequate depth during cardiac arrest....

  4. Evolution of the dragonfly head-arresting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    The arrester or fixation system of the head in adult Odonata is unique among arthropods. This system involves the organs of two body segments: the head and the neck. It consists of a skeleton–muscle apparatus that sets the arrester parts in motion. The parts comprise formations covered with complicated microstructures: fields of microtrichia on the rear surface of the head and post-cervical sclerites of the neck. The arrester immobilizes the head during feeding or when the dragonfly is in tandem flight. Thus, it may serve as an adaptation to save the head from violent mechanical disturbance and to stabilize gaze in a variety of behavioural situations. This study shows the evolutionary trend of the arrester in the order Odonata by using scanning electron microscopy and measurements of arrester structures in 227 species from 26 odonate families. The arrester design occurring in the Epiophlebiidae, Gomphidae, Neopetaliidae, Petaluridae and Chlorogomphinae is suggested to be the basic one. Two convergent pathways of head-arrester evolution among Zygoptera and Anisoptera are proposed. The possible functional significance of the arrester system is discussed.

  5. Realization of a Strained Atomic Wire Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inkyung; Goh, Jung Suk; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Sung Won; Shin, Jin Sung; Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Yeom, Han Woong

    2015-11-24

    A superlattice of strained Au-Si atomic wires is successfully fabricated on a Si surface. Au atoms are known to incorporate into the stepped Si(111) surface to form a Au-Si atomic wire array with both one-dimensional (1D) metallic and antiferromagnetic atomic chains. At a reduced density of Au, we find a regular array of Au-Si wires in alternation with pristine Si nanoterraces. Pristine Si nanoterraces impose a strain on the neighboring Au-Si wires, which modifies both the band structure of metallic chains and the magnetic property of spin chains. This is an ultimate 1D version of a strained-layer superlattice of semiconductors, defining a direction toward the fine engineering of self-assembled atomic-scale wires. PMID:26446292

  6. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  7. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg Jørgensen, Mads

    challenges, due to the victim’s physical location, which brings an inherent risk of delay (or altogether absence) of recognition and treatment of cardiac arrest. A low frequency of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and low 30-day survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were identified nearly ten......BACK COVER TEXT Cardiac arrest is an emergency medical condition characterized by the cessation of cardiac mechanical activity; without immediate and decisive treatment, a victim’s chances of survival are minimal. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a particular arrest subgroup that poses additional...... years ago in Denmark. These findings led to several national initiatives to strengthen bystander resuscitation attempts and advance care. Despite these nationwide efforts, it was unknown prior to this project whether these efforts resulted in changes in resuscitation attempts by bystanders and changes...

  8. Sublingual Microcirculation is Impaired in Post-cardiac Arrest Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Omar, Yasser; Massey, Michael; Wiuff Andersen, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: We hypothesized that microcirculatory dysfunction, similar to that seen in sepsis, occurs in post-cardiac arrest patients and that better microcirculatory flow will be associated with improved outcome. We also assessed the association between microcirculatory dysfunction and inflammatory...... markers in the post-cardiac arrest state. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the sublingual microcirculation in post-cardiac arrest patients, severe sepsis/septic shock patients, and healthy control patients using Sidestream Darkfield microscopy. Microcirculatory flow was assessed using...... the microcirculation flow index (MFI) at 6 and 24h in the cardiac arrest patients, and within 6h of emergency department admission in the sepsis and control patients. RESULTS: We evaluated 30 post-cardiac arrest patients, 16 severe sepsis/septic shock patients, and 9 healthy control patients. Sublingual...

  9. Witnessed arrest, but not delayed bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves prehospital cardiac arrest survivial

    OpenAIRE

    Vukmir, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: This prospective, randomised, double blinded clinical intervention trial enrolled 874 prehospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients encountered in a prehospital urban, suburban, and rural regional emergency medical service (EMS) area. This group underwent conventional advanced cardiac life support intervention followed by empiric early administration of sodium bicarbonate (1 mEq/l), monitoring conventional resuscitation parameters. Survival was measured as presence of vital signs on em...

  10. Performance of metal oxide gapless surge arresters for HVDC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diseko, N.L.

    1990-09-01

    An examination of the electrical stresses which may be imposed upon metal oxide surge arresters in a dc converter station is undertaken by means of simulation of the dc system and associated ac systems in the time domain using a digital computer program. Detailed models of a dc link are developed for temporary overvoltage stresses and steep front stresses. The most critical stresses for each type of dc station arrester due to converter faults and converter malfunctions are identified. The energy stresses were generally determined to be dependent on the converter control and protection strategies adopted during the faults. The arrester energy stresses for faults on both the line side and valve side busses of the converter transformer were determined to be sensitive to the instant of fault application and the duration of the fault. The arrester stresses for ac bus faults were analyzed in detail to determine their statistical distribution relative to the point on wave at which the fault occurred in each affected phase, and to the instant of fault clearance in each phase. Generally, the highest stresses occur for sequential fault occurrence in the phases compared with simultaneous faults. The studies indicate that the stresses in the arresters in a dc pile experiencing the worst duty depend on the number of arresters represented. Modelling only one arrester of a series-connected group does not provide correct results when the fault condition imposes duty on more than one of the arresters in the group. The study also indicates that the highest stresses do not necessarily occur in the single arrester connected across the valve with the highest prospective overvoltage. Hence the capability to represent all valve arresters within one pole is necessary when determining the most onerous stresses. 11 refs., 79 figs., 28 tabs.

  11. In Situ Electrochemical Deposition of Microscopic Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minhee; Myung, Nosang; Vasquez, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabrication of wires having micron and submicron dimensions is built around electrochemical deposition of the wires in their final positions between electrodes in integrated circuits or other devices in which the wires are to be used. Heretofore, nanowires have been fabricated by a variety of techniques characterized by low degrees of controllability and low throughput rates, and it has been necessary to align and electrically connect the wires in their final positions by use of sophisticated equipment in expensive and tedious post-growth assembly processes. The present method is more economical, offers higher yields, enables control of wire widths, and eliminates the need for post-growth assembly. The wires fabricated by this method could be used as simple electrical conductors or as transducers in sensors. Depending upon electrodeposition conditions and the compositions of the electroplating solutions in specific applications, the wires could be made of metals, alloys, metal oxides, semiconductors, or electrically conductive polymers. In this method, one uses fabrication processes that are standard in the semiconductor industry. These include cleaning, dry etching, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, lithography, dielectric deposition, electron-beam lithography, and metallization processes as well as the electrochemical deposition process used to form the wires. In a typical case of fabrication of a circuit that includes electrodes between which microscopic wires are to be formed on a silicon substrate, the fabrication processes follow a standard sequence until just before the fabrication of the microscopic wires. Then, by use of a thermal SiO-deposition technique, the electrodes and the substrate surface areas in the gaps between them are covered with SiO. Next, the SiO is electron-beam patterned, then reactive-ion etched to form channels having specified widths (typically about 1 m or less) that define the widths of the wires to be formed. Drops

  12. Experimental study of free abrasive wire sawing by using multi-strands wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Chunyan; Wang Jinsheng; Peng Wei; Jin Xin; Chen Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Grains in the slurry can be brought into cutting zone by steel wire with a certain speed to achieve the purpose of removing the workpiece material in the free abrasive wire sawing machining. Because its own of multi-strands characteristics,we use it to replace the steel wire to do slicing experiment. In this paper,multi-strands wire is made by seven metal wires and has many grooves on its surface. Compared with steel wire,it can carry more grains into cutting zone which is conducive to improving the slicing efficiency. We do some comparative slic-ing experiments by applying multi-strands wire (ϕ0.25 mm) and steel wire (ϕ0.25 mm) to cut optical glass (K9). The results show that slicing efficiency and the surface roughness of the workpiece sliced by using multi-strands wire are better than that by using steel wire,but the kerf width of the former is wider than that of the latter in the same experimental conditions.

  13. Relationship between Intrauterine Bacterial Infection and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Fei Yan; Xin-Yan Liu; Yun-Fei Cheng; Zhi-Yi Li; Jie Ou; Wei Wang; Feng-Qin Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:Early embryonic developmental arrest is the most commonly understudied adverse outcome of pregnancy.The relevance of intrauterine infection to spontaneous embryonic death is rarely studied and remains unclear.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between intrauterine bacterial infection and early embryonic developmental arrest.Methods:Embryonic chorion tissue and uterine swabs for bacterial detection were obtained from 33 patients who underwent artificial abortion (control group) and from 45 patients who displayed early embryonic developmental arrest (trial group).Results:Intrauterine bacterial infection was discovered in both groups.The infection rate was 24.44% (11/45) in the early embryonic developmental arrest group and 9.09% (3/33) in the artificial abortion group.Classification analysis revealed that the highest detection rate for Micrococcus luteus in the early embryonic developmental arrest group was 13.33% (6/45),and none was detected in the artificial abortion group.M.luteus infection was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.05 as shown by Fisher's exact test).In addition,no correlation was found between intrauterine bacterial infection and history of early embryonic developmental arrest.Conclusions:M.luteus infection is related to early embryonic developmental arrest and might be one of its causative factors.

  14. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights

  15. Detectors Ensure Function, Safety of Aircraft Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pedro Medelius waited patiently in his lab at Kennedy Space Center. He had just received word that a colleague was bringing over a cable from a Space Shuttle solid rocket booster to test Medelius new invention. Medelius was calm until his colleague arrived, with about 30 other people. "Talk about testing under pressure," says Medelius. "There were people there from the Navy, the Air Force, and the Federal Aviation Administration." After the group s arrival, Medelius took a deep breath and connected his Standing Wave Reflectometer (SWR) to the cable. He wiggled the cable around, and the display showed a fault (a short or open circuit in wire) about an inch and a half inside the connector on the cable. His colleague questioned the results, because he had already checked that area on the cable. Medelius used the SWR to check again but got the same result. "That is when we took the cable apart and looked inside," Medelius says. "Lo and behold, that was exactly where the fault was." The impetus for Medelius new wire inspection technology came about in 1999 when one of the space shuttles lost power due to a fault somewhere in its more than 200 miles of electrical wiring. "The backup circuit was activated and prevented a major dysfunction, but nevertheless, there was a problem with the wiring," Medelius describes. Even though technicians used a device called a multimeter to measure the electrical current to find which wire had a fault, it could not pinpoint exactly where on the wire the fault was located. For that, technicians had to visually inspect the wire. "Sometimes they would have to remove the whole wire assembly and visually inspect every single wire. It was a very tedious operation because the wires are behind cabinets. They go all over the place in the shuttle," says Medelius. "NASA needed an instrument capable of telling them exactly where the faults were occurring." To meet NASA s needs for a highly precise device to inspect electrical power bundles, wires

  16. Copper Wire Bonding Concerns and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Preeti; Zhong, Z. W.; Pecht, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Copper wire bonding of microelectronic parts has developed as a means to cut the costs of using the more mature technology of gold wire bonding. However, with this new technology, changes in the bonding processes as well as bonding metallurgy can affect product reliability. This paper discusses the challenges associated with copper wire bonding and the solutions that the industry has been implementing. The paper also provides information to enable customers to conduct qualification and reliability tests on microelectronic packages to facilitate adoption in their target applications.

  17. Pollution performance of 110 kV metal oxide arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzan, K.; Pohl, Z. [Technical Univ. of Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Grzybowski, S. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koehler, W. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    Pollution test results of single unit 110 kV metal oxide surge arresters with porcelain housing according to the solid layer and salt fog methods are presented. During 6 hours of testing, the internal and external charge and maximum temperature along the varistor column were measured. The formation of single stable dry bands on the housing was often observed, especially during salt fog tests. In such cases, the varistor temperature can reach about 70 C. The simple electrical model of the arrester enabling calculations of voltages and currents as a function of arrester and pollution parameters is shown.

  18. Resuscitation of a Pediatric Drowning in Hypothermic Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragann, Brendan N; Melnychuk, Eric M; Wilson, Christopher J; Lambert, Richard L; Maffei, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of pediatric patients who require prolonged resuscitation after ice water drowning and hypothermic cardiac arrest remains guarded. We report a case of successful prolonged resuscitation of a pediatric patient in hypothermic cardiac arrest who showed severe metabolic derangements and went on to make a rapid and full neurologic recovery without the use of extracoproreal rewarming or mechanical cardiac support. Many ground and air medical emergency medical service programs have policies against interfacility transfer of patients in hypothermic cardiac arrest, calling into question the need to revise current protocols. PMID:27021675

  19. Electronic registration of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Dahl, Michael; Gade, John;

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The reported incidences of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in western countries vary considerably. According to the latest report from Danish Cardiac Arrest Database (DCAD) the incidence rate in Denmark in 2004 was 51/100,000/year. The report states however that this number...... of cardiac arrest. 83 of those (28 %) received first aid. The first aid was provided by layman (68 %), physicians (11 %), nurses (11 %) and first-aiders (4 %). In 6 % the identity of the first aid provider was unknown. The majority of the patients (n = 177 (58 %)) had asystole upon ambulance arrival. 37 (12...

  20. Evolution of the dragonfly head-arresting system

    OpenAIRE

    Gorb, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    The arrester or fixation system of the head in adult Odonata is unique among arthropods. This system involves the organs of two body segments: the head and the neck. It consists of a skeleton–muscle apparatus that sets the arrester parts in motion. The parts comprise formations covered with complicated microstructures: fields of microtrichia on the rear surface of the head and post-cervical sclerites of the neck. The arrester immobilizes the head during feeding or when the dragonfly is in tan...

  1. MRI in the assessment of growth arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohman, Martina; Kivisaari, Arto; Kivisaari, Leena [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Vehmas, Tapio [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Kallio, Pentti; Puntila, Juha [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare MRI with X-ray tomography in the assessment of bone bridges across the growth plate. Materials and methods: The investigation consisted of two parts. (1) Eleven children with 13 epiphyses suspected of physeal growth arrests were examined with conventional X-ray tomography and MRI. The bar was post-traumatic in eight children, postinfectious in two and due to a congenital, operated pes equinovarus in one. Three blinded radiologists separately evaluated the examinations retrospectively. (2) The images of four children with known physeal bars in the ankle were mixed with 36 normal examinations obtained 1-year after trauma and evaluated blindly by three radiologists. Results: In 5 of 13 epiphysis, the bony bridge was considered smaller on MRI than on X-ray tomography, in 7 of 13 it was considered equal, while it was larger only in one. The interobserver agreement (weighted kappa) was 0.8 (very good) for MRI, 0.76 (good) for X-ray tomography and 0.60 (moderate) for radiographs. The four bony bridges were easily detected on MRI. Conclusions: Compared to MRI, the size of bridges was estimated larger by tomography in about half of the patients. (orig.)

  2. Power and Energy of Exploding Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valancius, Cole

    2015-06-01

    Exploding wires are used in many high-energy applications, such as initiating explosives. Analysis of gold wire burst in detonator applications has shown Burst Current and Action metrics to be incapable of explaining burst phenomenon as the inductance of a firing circuit is changed. Energy Density better captures the correlation between different wire geometries, different electrical inputs, and explosive initiation. This idea has been expanded upon, to analyze the burst properties in Power-Energy space. Further inconsistencies in the understanding of wire burst and its relation to peak voltage have been found. An argument will be made for redefining the definition of burst. The result is a more broad understanding of rapid metal phase transition and the physical applications of the released shock wave.

  3. Beam Profiling through Wire Chambing Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, W

    2013-01-01

    This note describes the calibration of the Delay Wire Chambers (DWCs) used during test runs of CALICE’s Tungsten Digital Hadron Calorimeter (W-DHCAL) prototype in CERN’s SPS beam line (10 – 300 GeV).

  4. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the requirements for grounding or... Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication Lines” (also referred to as National...

  5. Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaughan, Michael D. [JLAB; Tiefenback, Michael G. [JLAB; Turner, Dennis L. [JLAB

    2013-06-01

    This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

  6. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joshua, E-mail: joshuk7@uci.edu; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Chu, Michael [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Pegan, Jonathan D. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Khine, Michelle, E-mail: mkhine@uci.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  7. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, T. R., E-mail: phystrzhan@gmail.com; Chui, S. T., E-mail: chui@bartol.udel.edu [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

  8. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is...

  9. Modelling aluminium wire bond reliability in high power OMP devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, R.; Yuan, C.A.; Xiao, A.; Bruijn, F. de

    2011-01-01

    In a RF power application such as the OMP, the wires are subjected to high current (because of the high power) and high temperature (because of the heat from IC and joule-heating from the wire itself). Moreover, the wire shape is essential to the RF performance. Hence, the aluminium wire is preferre

  10. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  11. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  12. Tracking with wire chambers at high luminosities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, G.G. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation damage and rate limitations impose severe constraints on wire chambers at the SSC. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems that satisfy these constraints are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  14. 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

  15. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  16. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    OpenAIRE

    Piyas Palit; Souvik Das; Jitendra Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The f...

  17. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.

    1992-08-01

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF{sub 4}-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF{sub 4}, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl{sub 3}F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds.

  18. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    A needleless electrospinning setup named ‘Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning’ was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm2 and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h-1 and 1.40 g h-1 were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning.

  19. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  20. Adsorption of iodine on silver wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is an important process in which iodine is adsorbed on silver wire during the preparation of 125I seed sources. In this paper, a technique of adsorption of iodine on silver wire was studied. The influence of several factors, such as the type of reagent for halogenation, the time for halogenation, the time for adsorption, pH value, ion concentration, carrier iodine and so on, on the utilization rate of 131I was investigated, and the effectiveness of our proposed technique for adsorption of iodine on silver wire was confirmed. The procedure is summarized as follows: silver wire acidification: using 4 mol/L HNO3 as halogenation agent, stirring acidified for 20 min; silver wire halogenation: used 2 mol/L NaClO3 as halogenated agent, halogenation for 3 h; adsorption of iodine on silver wire: room temperature, pH value for the reaction is about 3, the time for adsorption is 30 min, carrier iodine is 27.5 μg. Original radioactivity of reaction solution was determined based on radioactivity of source-core that user required. (authors)

  1. Wire-bond inspection in IC assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, Mandava; Rodd, Mike G.

    1996-02-01

    Wire-bonding in IC assembly process involves making a physical connection between the IC 'die' and the 'lead' by bonding wires between the two. Inspection of wire-bond quality is a' highly labor-intensive process and currently efforts are being made to automate it. This paper presents the results of a research conducted into developing a comprehensive automated wire- bond visual inspection system that is capable of performing final accept/reject inspection, providing on-line process feedback, and assisting in process validation. The proposed inspection system consists of the inspection of the bond on a bond pad, the bond on a lead and the inter-connecting wire between a bond pad and its corresponding lead. The algorithms are based on simple and easily extractable features that ensure achieving the desired accuracy and speed. A novel but simple illumination system is proposed to obtain the images of the inter- connecting wires. The proposed system is validated using several state-of-the-art IC samples. This work is sponsored by the Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Malaysia and Intel Technology Pvt. Ltd., Malaysia.

  2. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF4/iC4H10 gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF4-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF4, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF4/iC4H10 gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C2H6. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl3F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds

  3. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Resuscitation Following Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenberger, Jon C; Friess, Stuart; Polderman, Kees H

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac arrest is the most common cause of death in North America. Neurocritical care interventions, including targeted temperature management (TTM), have significantly improved neurological outcomes in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Therefore, resuscitation following cardiac arrest was chosen as an emergency neurological life support protocol. Patients remaining comatose following resuscitation from cardiac arrest should be considered for TTM. This protocol will review induction, maintenance, and re-warming phases of TTM, along with management of TTM side effects. Aggressive shivering suppression is necessary with this treatment to ensure the maintenance of a target temperature. Ancillary testing, including electrocardiography, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, continuous electroencephalography monitoring, and correction of electrolyte, blood gas, and hematocrit changes, are also necessary to optimize outcomes. PMID:26438463

  4. [Effect of phenibut on the respiratory arrest caused by serotonin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakanov, I A; Tarasova, N N; Belova, E A; Safonov, V A

    2006-01-01

    The role of the GABAergic system in mechanisms of the respiratory arrest caused by serotonin administration was studied in anaesthetized rats. Under normal conditions, the systemic administration of serotonin (20-60 mg/kg, i.v.) resulted in drastic changes of the respiratory pattern, whereby the initial phase of increased respiratory rate was followed by the respiratory arrest. The preliminary injection of phenibut (400 mg/kg, i.p.) abolished or sharply reduced the duration of the respiratory arrest phase induced by serotonin. Bilateral vagotomy following the phenibut injection potentiated the anti-apnoesic effect of phenibut, which was evidence of the additive action of vagotomy and phenibut administration. The mechanism of apnea caused by serotonin administration is suggested to include a central GABAergic element, which is activated by phenibut so as to counteract the respiratory arrest. PMID:16579056

  5. Hybrid simulation of metal oxide surge-arrester thermal behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, L.; Raghuveer, M.R. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-01-01

    A finite-difference-based technique for simulating the thermal behaviour of a metal oxide surge arrester (MOSA) was described. The improved hybrid thermal modelling technique was claimed to accurately represent heat-transfer modes. Fin theory was used to represent arrester sheds. The proposed model, which relies on simple measurements at the arrester terminals, yields the temporal variation of temperature in a MOSA in both the axial and radial direction. The thermal behaviour of a MOSA under steady-state and transient conditions can be simulated using such a model under different environmental conditions. The accuracy of the modelling technique was demonstrated experimentally by measurements conducted on an arrester. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  6. The psychosocial outcome of anoxic brain injury following cardiac arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The psychosocial outcome of anoxic brain injury following cardiac arrest is a relatively under researched, but clinically important area. The aim of the current study was to add to the limited existing literature exploring the psychosocial outcome for cardiac arrest survivors, but specifically explore if there is a greater impact on psychosocial outcome in individuals experiencing anoxic brain injury as a result. Methods A range of self report measures were used to c...

  7. Usage of Lightning Arrester Line to Feed Light Electrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani B. Odeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In remote areas, light loads (tens of kilowatts are scattered and situated in the field of high voltage lines (66KV and above. These loads are very far from the main feeders/sub-stations (33KV-0.380KV. Feeding such loads in the traditional ways like provision of Diesel-Powered Stations, installation of new distribution lines from the Feeding Centers, or building new Sub-Stations are not practical ways from the economical point of view, because it requires huge additional expenses and will increase electrical power losses. These expenses are not worthy for such loads and therefore, it is necessary to search for other methods to supply them. One of these methods is to use the lightning arrester line as capacitive divider to supply the light loads. In this research, the induced voltage of the lightning arrester line was calculated when it is isolated from the earth. We found the capacitance between lightning arrester line versus the phases and lightning arrester. It was also found the selective power out of the lightning arrester line and the required length which is to be isolated from the earth keeping the main function of the lightning arrester line. When economically comparing between supplying the light electrical loads by traditional ways and the method of lightning arrester, it was found the advantage of using lightning arresters to supply such loads. Also, by using the traditional methods, it was noted that there is a power loss in the power transmission lines by a percentage of 1.8%.

  8. Crack arrest saturation model under combined electrical and mechanical loadings

    OpenAIRE

    R.R. Bhargava; A. Setia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The investigation aims at proposing a model for cracked piezoelectric strip which is capable to arrest the crack.Design/methodology/approach: Under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings applied at the edges of the strip, the developed saturation zone is produced at each tip of the crack. To arrest further opening of the crack, the rims of the developed saturation zones are subjected to in-plane cohesive, normal uniform constant saturation point electrical displace...

  9. Al-Qaeda arrest casts shadow over the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Dacey, James

    2010-01-01

    "Cern remains on course for the imminent switch-on of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) despite the media frenzy following the recent arrest of a physicist who had been working at the facility. The researcher in question is a 32-year-old man of Algerian descent who is expected to face trail in France - the country in which he was arrested" (0.5 page)

  10. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  11. Situational ambiguity and gendered patterns of arrest for intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Alesha

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the 2005 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this analysis focuses on the impacts that domestic violence mandatory arrest policies have on arrest outcomes in "situationally ambiguous" cases: cases where both the female and male partners have been identified by police as both a victim and an offender. Results indicate that although officers arrest male partners more frequently than female partners, after controlling for incident and individual factors, mandatory arrest policies disproportionately affect women. Furthermore, correlates of arrest differ for male-only arrests versus female-only arrests. These findings are discussed in the context of changing legal responses to domestic violence. PMID:22411299

  12. The usefulness of wire-loop technique for percutaneous angioplasty of insufficient hemodialysis fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin; Moon, Chul [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the wire-loop technique, used to perform percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in occluded arteriovenous fistula when standard methods fail to pass the balloon catheter across the stenotic segment. In 30 patients (M:F = 14:16; aged 27-77 (mean, 51.3) years), the Wire-Loop technique was used to perform percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of insufficiently hemodialysed arteriovenous fistula where a balloon catheter had failed to pass through the stenotic lesion after a guide wire had successfully passed. Native and Gore-tex fistula were used in 22 and eight cases, respectively.Sixteen stenoses were located in the central vein, and fourteen in the peripheral. The puncture sites used in order to perform the technique were the femoral vein in all cases of central stenosis; three basilic, four cephalic, and five femoral veins in cases of peripheral stenosis and one femoral and one radial artery in cases of anastomotic stenosis. The guide wire was passed through the stenotic lesion, pulled out using the snare technique, and then stretched in order to tighten it. The balloon catheter was then passed through the lesion and traditional balloon angioplasty was performed. The technical success rate and complications of the technique, and the patency rate of recanalized arteriovenous fistula, were evaluated. In 26 of the thirty patients, (86.7%), the procedure was technically successful. In the remaining four cases, failure was due to venous dissection (n=1), marked residual stenosis (n=2), or cardiac arrest (n=1) during the procedure. The average procedure time was 105 (range, 40-210) minutes, and in three cases rupture of the vein occurred. The patency rate of PTA was 80% (24/30) at four months, 63% (19/30) at six months, and 30% (9/30) at twelve months. The expected technical success rate of traditional PTA, without the Wire-Loop technique, would have been 79.3%, but using the technique, the rate increased to 86.7%. The Wire

  13. Assembly for activity distribution measurement of wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation method is used as a basic method for the neutron fluence measurement in the LVR-15 research reactor. Activation foils have usually been used as the monitors. At present an assembly for the measurement of linear specific activity distribution of wires has been developed. The assembly allows the activation wires to be used for neutron fluence measurement mainly in the reactor core. More detailed results of linear distribution and simpler handling with radioactive material are the advantages of activation wires compared with foils. More difficult calibration and processing of measured data are disadvantages on the other hand. The assembly consists of a spectrometer with HPGe detector for gamma activity measurement, a Pb shielding collimator around the detector, an outer Pb shielding, a transporting equipment and a controlling PC. The diameter of the collimator is 20 mm. The wire from Cu, Fe, Ni or Co material with diameter of 0.3 mm to 1.0 mm is placed on a support Al stick with diameter of 6 mm. After irradiation the stick with the wire is placed in the transporting equipment above the Pb shielding collimator and measured. Response function for the point radiation source on the line, where the wire is placed during the measurement, is the main characteristic of the assembly. The response function also depends on the energy of gamma radiation. The design of the Pb shielding collimator is described and the measured response functions for a few point radiation sources are given in the paper. During the measurement the stick with the wire moves above the collimator aperture and the peak count rates depending on position of wire with step of 10 mm to 50 mm are measured. As the response function for point source has not the ideal rectangular distribution (i.e. constant positive value above the collimator aperture and zero value for points out of the aperture) the evaluation of activities is not so simple as for measurement of individual samples. In the paper the

  14. Vibration measurements of a wire scanner - Experimental setup and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Juan; Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new performance demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 m s-1 and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire have been identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations has been given high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This article presents a new strategy to measure the wire vibrations based on the piezoresistive effect of the wire itself. An electronic readout system based on a Wheatstone bridge is used to measure the variation of the carbon wire resistance, which is directly proportional to the wire elongation caused by the oscillations.

  15. Changing the guard: Polymer replaces porcelain for surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, T.; Gleimar, H. E. G.

    2002-07-01

    Surge arresters are safety devices which quickly and effectively limit the over voltages that can arise in transmission networks following lightning, switching and other transient events. The earliest forms of overvoltage protection, a simple air gap between electrodes, have long since been replaced by a new generation of gapless arresters with series-connected, non-linear zinc oxide varistors contained in a porcelain housing. Now these porcelain type surge arresters are being replaced by a new type, called PEXLIM (Polymeric EXcellent LIMiter), which uses the same block of zinc oxide as the porcelain type, but its housing is made of silicon rubber, a polymer. The new lightweight insulation material shows a number of properties superior to the porcelain, such as enhanced product safety and ease of handling. It is also more durable, resilient, yet solid and compact, water-repellent, lightweight, resistant to aging or light or ultra-violet radiation, as well as fire, has good electrical properties, and is environmentally friendly since it does not contain any substances harmful to the environment. These properties make this new type of surge arrester highly suitable for use in earthquake-prone areas; it can also replace more expensive and maintenance-intensive equipment. Having successfully broken into the lower voltage systems, these new type of surge arresters are now rapidly gaining ground at the higher voltage levels. ABB, the developer of PEXLIM, has already supplied these arresters to North America for use in an 800-kV grid. As further proof of its growing popularity, last year PEXLIM made up over half of the surge arrester production for applications up to and including 245 kV. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  16. Nursing students’ knowledge about arrest rhythms and their treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Kyrgianidou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Knowledge of health professionals for the arrest rhythms, is considered particularly important for the early recognition and proper treatment. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to assess the knowledge of nursing students on arrest rhythms and how to treat them. Material and Methods: The sample studied included 151 students from the Department of Nursing A' (n = 60, 40% and B' (n = 91, 60%, TEI of Athens, of whom 83% (n=125 were women and 17% (n=26 were men with a mean age of 23 years. Data collection was performed with specially designed questionnaire, that apart from demographics and students’ education level, it included ten questions about arrest rhythms’ knowledge and also self-assessment questions of their level of knowledge. The data were analyzed with the SPSS package v.19, using the criteria t-Test and χ2. Results: Of all the participants in the research, 95% (n = 144 did not answer correctly more than 6 questions from a total of 10. The students of the Department of Nursing A’ recognized with greater accuracy the arrest rhythms (p = 0.003. Those studying in lower semester acknowledged best the arrest rhythms (p = 0.002. Students who had recently attended course in basic or advanced resuscitation recognized best the arrest rhythms (p = 0.006. Older students knew better right treatment of the arrest rhythms (p = 0.037. Also, students who had attended the course of cardiac nursing in the last year, knew better the right treatment (p <0.001. Finally, the level of self-assessment was in line with the actual level of knowledge of students (p = 0.05. Conclusions: Continuous attendance of courses, education on certified programs and refresh courses help to maintain a good level of knowledge for longer periods.

  17. The stringent response and cell cycle arrest in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ferullo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial stringent response, triggered by nutritional deprivation, causes an accumulation of the signaling nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp. We characterize the replication arrest that occurs during the stringent response in Escherichia coli. Wild type cells undergo a RelA-dependent arrest after treatment with serine hydroxamate to contain an integer number of chromosomes and a replication origin-to-terminus ratio of 1. The growth rate prior to starvation determines the number of chromosomes upon arrest. Nucleoids of these cells are decondensed; in the absence of the ability to synthesize ppGpp, nucleoids become highly condensed, similar to that seen after treatment with the translational inhibitor chloramphenicol. After induction of the stringent response, while regions corresponding to the origins of replication segregate, the termini remain colocalized in wild-type cells. In contrast, cells arrested by rifampicin and cephalexin do not show colocalized termini, suggesting that the stringent response arrests chromosome segregation at a specific point. Release from starvation causes rapid nucleoid reorganization, chromosome segregation, and resumption of replication. Arrest of replication and inhibition of colony formation by ppGpp accumulation is relieved in seqA and dam mutants, although other aspects of the stringent response appear to be intact. We propose that DNA methylation and SeqA binding to non-origin loci is necessary to enforce a full stringent arrest, affecting both initiation of replication and chromosome segregation. This is the first indication that bacterial chromosome segregation, whose mechanism is not understood, is a step that may be regulated in response to environmental conditions.

  18. The PS Booster Fast Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Priestnall, K; Raich, U

    2003-01-01

    The very tight emittance budget for LHC type beams makes precise emittance measurements in the injector complex a necessity. The PS machine uses 2 fast wire scanners per transverse plane for emittance measurement of the circulating beams. In order to ease comparison the same type of wire scanners have been newly installed in the upstream machine, the PS Booster, where each of the 4 rings is equipped with 2 wire scanners measuring the horizontal and vertical profiles. Those wire scanners use new and more modern control and readout electronics featuring dedicated intelligent motor movement controllers, which relieves the very stringent real time constraints due to the very high speed of 20m/s. In order to be able to measure primary beams at the very low injection energy of the Booster (50MeV) secondary emission currents from the wire can be measured as well as secondary particle flows at higher primary particle energies during and after acceleration. The solution adopted for the control of the devices is descri...

  19. Forgotten Kirschner Wire Causing Severe Hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire (K-wire is commonly used in the treatment of hip fracture and its migration into pelvis leading to bladder injury is a very rare complication. Nonremoval of these devices either because of lack of followup or because of prolonged requirement due to disease process is associated with this complication. We report a case of a patient who presented with acute onset severe hematuria with clot retention secondary to perforation of bladder by a migrated K-wire placed earlier, for the treatment of hip fracture. Initial imaging showed its presence in the soft tissues of the pelvis away from the major vascular structures. Patient was taken for emergency laparotomy and wire was removed after cystotomy. Postoperative period was uneventful and patient was discharged in satisfactory condition. K-wires are commonly used in the management of fracture bones and their migration has been reported in the literature although such migration in the intrapelvic region involving bladder is very rare. Early diagnosis and prompt removal of such foreign bodies are required to avert potentially fatal involvement of major structures.

  20. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  1. Optimal welding of beta titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K R; Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1987-09-01

    Today the orthodontist is confronted by an array of new orthodontic wire materials that, when applied to appliance design, can vastly increase the flexibility and versatility of therapy. Welded joints, especially for the newer titanium alloy wires, provide a means to extend the useful applications of these materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum settings for electrical resistance welding of various configurations of titanium-molybdenum (TMA) wires. Specimens were of a t-joint configuration and were mechanically tested in torsion to simulate the failure mode most often observed in clinical practice. Variables included wire size, wire orientation, and welding voltage. Results indicated that excellent welds can be obtained with very little loss of strength and ductility in the area of the weld joint. Torsional loads at failure were at least 90% of the unwelded base material. Although a wide range of voltage settings resulted in high-strength welds, typically a narrow range of voltages yielded optimal ductility.

  2. Optimizing resistance of round hollow wire at high frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yong-jian; ZHANG Tao

    2003-01-01

    The results and methods of calculation of resistance of hollow wire in gigahertz range by Bessel function are given. According to the results of computation, it is found that the resistor of conductor can be optimized using hollow wire with specific wall thickness. At high frequency the current distribution across a circular hollow wire is at surface of wire, which is called skin depth. We found that optimum wall thickness is proportional to skin depth and the phase abrupt change point of H field. Theoretical analysis and mechanism optimized round hollow wire will be presented in this paper. The calculation indicates that cylindrical hollow wire can be optimized to decrease resistance above 8%.

  3. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Arsana I Made; Susianto; Budhikarjono Kusno; Altway Ali

    2016-01-01

    Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Opti...

  4. Rapid Real-Time SpaceWire Emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Stephen; Parkes, Steve; Dunstan, Martin

    2015-09-01

    The SpaceWire Electronic Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) test and development unit from STAR-Dundee can be used to very rapidly emulate real-time behaviour of SpaceWire equipment. The behaviour of the equipment to emulate is described in a script using a SpaceWire specific scripting language. Once configured the SpaceWire EGSE unit operates independent of software. This paper describes three camera emulation scripts to demonstrate the rapid real-time SpaceWire emulation possible using the SpaceWire EGSE.

  5. Visualizing Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Murakami

    Full Text Available Vpr is an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with multiple functions. The induction of G2 arrest by Vpr plays a particularly important role in efficient viral replication because the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat is most active in G2 phase. The regulation of apoptosis by Vpr is also important for immune suppression and pathogenesis during HIV infection. However, it is not known whether Vpr-induced apoptosis depends on the ability of Vpr to induce G2 arrest, and the dynamics of Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis have not been visualized. We performed time-lapse imaging to examine the temporal relationship between Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis using HeLa cells containing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator2 (Fucci2. The dynamics of G2 arrest and subsequent long-term mitotic cell rounding in cells transfected with the Vpr-expression vector were visualized. These cells underwent nuclear mis-segregation after prolonged mitotic processes and then entered G1 phase. Some cells subsequently displayed evidence of apoptosis after prolonged mitotic processes and nuclear mis-segregation. Interestingly, Vpr-induced apoptosis was seldom observed in S or G2 phase. Likewise, visualization of synchronized HeLa/Fucci2 cells infected with an adenoviral vector expressing Vpr clearly showed that Vpr arrests the cell cycle at G2 phase, but does not induce apoptosis at S or G2 phase. Furthermore, time-lapse imaging of HeLa/Fucci2 cells expressing SCAT3.1, a caspase-3-sensitive fusion protein, clearly demonstrated that Vpr induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Finally, to examine whether the effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and apoptosis were reversible, we performed live-cell imaging of a destabilizing domain fusion Vpr, which enabled rapid stabilization and destabilization by Shield1. The effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and subsequent apoptosis were reversible. This study is the first to

  6. Emulating Wired Backhaul with Wireless Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address the need for wireless network densification. We propose a solution wherein the wired backhaul employed in heterogeneous cellular networks is replaced with wireless links, while maintaining the rate requirements of the uplink and downlink traffic of each user. The first...... component of our solution consists of a two-way, two-phase communication between the macro base station and a user in a small cell through the small cell base station. The second component consists of an optimized adjustment of the transmit power from the macro base station during the multiple access phase......, the uplink traffic to the user, remains identical to the one performed in a wired system. In the broadcast phase, the decoding of the downlink traffic can also be guaranteed to remain identical. Hence, our solution claims an emulation of a wired backhaul with wireless network coding with same performance. We...

  7. Induced voltage in an open wire

    CERN Document Server

    Morawetz, K; Trupp, A

    2015-01-01

    A puzzle arising from Faraday's law is considered and solved concerning the question which voltage is induced in an open wire feeling a time-varying homogeneous magnetic field. The longitudinal electric field contributes 1/3 and the transverse field 2/3 to the induced voltage. The representation of a homogeneous and time-varying magnetic field implies unavoidably a certain symmetry point or line dependent on the geometry of the source. As a consequence the induced voltage of an open wire is found to be the area covered with respect to the symmetry line or point perpendicular to the magnetic field. This in turn allows to find the symmetry points of a magnetic field source by measuring the voltage of an open wire. We present two exactly solvable models for a symmetry point and for a symmetry line. The results are applicable to open circuit problems and for astrophysical applications.

  8. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  9. Ultrasonic Welding of Wires and Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Stefan; Wagner, Guntram; Eifler, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    In the automobile industry, ultrasonic metal welding is an established method. At the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering (WKK) at the University of Kaiserslautern, Germany, systematic investigations of the weldability of Al-wires and flat flexible copper cables were carried out. In the case of Al-wires, joints with cross-sectional area of up to 80 mm2 and tensile shear load of about 3500 N were finally realized. Furthermore, methods to reduce unintentional adherence between the sonotrode coupling face and the Al-wires were developed. To realize FFC joints, ultrasonic spot welding systems and ultrasonic torsion welding systems were used. A central purpose of these investigations is the development of a system to enable welding through the insulation of the FFC without weakening the base material.

  10. Current Pharmacological Advances in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Papastylianou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is defined as the sudden cessation of spontaneous ventilation and circulation. Within 15 seconds of cardiac arrest, the patient loses consciousness, electroencephalogram becomes flat after 30 seconds, pupils dilate fully after 60 seconds, and cerebral damage takes place within 90–300 seconds. It is essential to act immediately as irreversible damage can occur in a short time. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation through a broad range of interventions which are early defibrillation, high-quality and uninterrupted chest compressions, advanced airway interventions, and pharmacological interventions. Drugs should be considered only after initial shocks have been delivered (when indicated and chest compressions and ventilation have been started. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, no specific drug therapy has been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest, and only few drugs have a proven benefit for short-term survival. This paper reviews current pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrest. There are three groups of drugs relevant to the management of cardiac arrest: vasopressors, antiarrhythmics, and other drugs such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, atropine, fibrinolytic drugs, and corticosteroids.

  11. Sculpting Pickering Emulsion Droplets by Arrest and Jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher; Wei, Zengyi; Caggioni, Marco; Spicer, Patrick; Atherton, Tim

    Pickering emulsion droplets can be arrested into non-spherical shapes--useful for applications such as active delivery--through a general mechanism of deformation followed by absorption of additional colloidal particles onto the interface, relaxation of the droplet caused by surface tension and arrest at some point due to crowding of the particles. We perform simulations of the arrest process to clarify the relative importance of diffusive rearrangement of particles and collective forcing due to surface evolution. Experiment and theory are compared, giving insight into the stability of the resulting capsules and the robustness of the production process for higher-throughput production in, for example, microfluidic systems. We adapt theoretical tools from the jamming literature to better understand the arrested configurations and long timescale evolution of the system: using linear programming and a penalty function approach, we identify unjamming motions in kinetically arrested states. We propose a paradigm of ``metric jamming'' to describe the limiting behavior of this class of system: a structure is metric-jammed if it is stable with respect to collective motion of the particles as well as evolution of the hypersurface on which the packing is embedded. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  12. Temperature effect on DNA molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Christopher Minh

    The demand of technology and information today has further pushed the fabrication process of nanotechnology, yet there are limits and obstacles set by the primary laws of physics. Therefore, researchers are pursuing alternative technologies. Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) molecular wire is one advantageous option due to its unique characteristics including self-assembly and naturally small; size. This thesis reports the temperature effect on the electrical properties of a double-stranded ?-DNA molecular wire. The data will help expand the DNA wire application and functionality. Thus, the data supports the charge hopping theory on DNA electrical conductivity. Diverse amount of literatures has demonstrated that DNA experiences a biochemical alteration when exposed under different temperature conditions. This change will also cause a change in the electrical properties. In this research, DNA will hang between two gold covered microelectrodes with a distance of 10 to 12 microns. The microelectrodes are fabricated through negative lithography techniques. Then, the samples were exposed to a numerous range of temperature from 25°C to 180°C and went through varying cycles of heating and cooling. The experimental results revealed that the DNA experienced a hysteresis like behavior where the impedance differed between the heating and cooling phase. The impedance of the DNA molecular wire increased when exposed to higher temperature. Furthermore, the impedance stops increasing after a certain amount of heat cycles before the DNA structure failed. The biology and thermodynamics of the DNA wire was analyzed due to the temperature hysteresis effect. The melting temperature and the bond dissociation temperature were evaluated to determine the cause of the impedance trends. The studies and analysis of the temperature effect provided certain insights towards the charge hopping transport mechanism. The thesis concludes with possible applications relating to the temperature effect of

  13. Physarum wires: Self-growing self-repairing smart wires made from slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental laboratory studies on developing conductive pathways, or wires, using protoplasmic tubes of plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Given two pins to be connected by a wire, we place a piece of slime mould on one pin and an attractant on another pin. Physarum propagates towards the attract and thus connects the pins with a protoplasmic tube. A protoplasmic tube is conductive, can survive substantial over-voltage and can be used to transfer electrical current to lightning and actuating devices. In experiments we show how to route Physarum wires with chemoattractants and electrical fields. We demonstrate that Physarum wire can be grown on almost bare breadboards and on top of electronic circuits. The Physarum wires can be insulated with a silicon oil without loss of functionality. We show that a Physarum wire self-heals: end of a cut wire merge together and restore the conductive pathway in several hours after being cut. Results presented will be used in future designs ...

  14. Development of the Axial Instability in Low Wire Number Wire Array Z-Pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, P. F.; Bell, K. S.; Blesener, I. C.; Chalenski, D. A.; Greenly, J. B.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2008-11-01

    We are investigating the development of the axial instability that occurs on wires in wire-array Z-pinches, which manifests itself as a modulation of the size of the coronal plasma. The modulation is evidently a result of non-uniform ablation of material from the wire core. It is known that the wavelength of this modulation reaches a constant as the pinch develops that is a strong function of the material and little else, thus it is known as the fundamental mode. In these experiments we have been imaging individual wires with laser shadowgraphy primarily in low wire number, large wire diameter arrays made with Al, Cu, Ag and other wires. We document the development of this modulation from the beginning of plasma formation and show the wavelength and amplitude growth as a function of time. The magnetic field is also measured using B-dot probes inside the array. The change from a closed to an open field topology and its relation to the instability growth will be discussed.This research was supported by the Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances program of the National Nuclear Security Administration under DOE Cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057 and by Sandia National Laboratories contract AO258.

  15. Percutaneous K-wire fixation of distal radius fractures: Our results of leaving the wire outside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Madhukar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distal radius fracture is one of the common injuries seen in casualty often managed by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Aim: The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the incidence of infection following percutaneous wire fixation of distal radius fractures and it′s bearing on the outcome in the management of distal radius fractures. Materials and Methods: We studied eighty-eight cases of closed distal end radius fractures managed with closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wires (K-wires fixation with splinting for pintract infection. Results: Out of the 88 cases included in the study, 14 cases had pintract infections that were mild to moderate in nature. In 6 cases of early K-wire removal due to pintract infection, shortening of radius, malunion, reduced finger grip and poor functional outcome was noticed. Pintract infections resulted in extended hospital stay, early pin removal, decreased functional outcome, malunion of distal radius and requirement of second surgery to correct the deformity and to improve functional outcome. However, percutaneous K-wire fixation with keeping the wire outside has been advocated and routinely performed, though incidence of pintract infection and complications arising from early removal of K-wires cannot be ignored. Conclusion: Therefore, our study proposes to bury the pin ends under the skin to reduce complications and to achieve better functional outcomes.

  16. Results from some anode wire aging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using twin setups to test anode wire aging in small gas avalanche tubes, a variety of different gas mixtures were tried and other parameters were varied to study their effects upon the gain drop, nomalized to charge transfer: - 1/Q dI/I. This was found to be quite sensitive to the purity of the gases, and also sensitive to the nominal gain and the gas flow rate. The wire surface material can also significantly affect the aging, as can additives, such as ethanol or water vapor. Certain gas mixtures have been found to be consistent with zero aging at the sensitivity level of this technique

  17. FRICTION COEFFICIENT OF DIAMOND WIRE SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Dunda

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the diamond wire saw upon quarrying of dimension stone, it is necessary to know the value of a friction coefficient on the driving pulley of the saw. Therefore the numerical value of the friction coefficient between diamond wire and coating of a driving pulley was determined in experimental way. The experiments were conducted under different working conditions. The resulting average value of the friction coefficient upon working in wet and muddy conditions amounted to µ = 0,32.

  18. A FLYING WIRE SYSTEM IN THE AGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG,H.; BUXTON,W.; MAHLER,G.; MARUSIC,A.; ROSER,T.; SMITH,G.; SYPHERS,M.; WILLIAMS,N.; WITKOVER,R.

    1999-03-29

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less depend on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system.

  19. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  20. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shame M.; Godley, Richard Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis, simulation, and test data is shown to be very good.

  1. Alphaherpesvirus Subversion of Stress-Induced Translational Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée L. Finnen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we provide an overview of translational arrest in eukaryotic cells in response to stress and the tactics used specifically by alphaherpesviruses to overcome translational arrest. One consequence of translational arrest is the formation of cytoplasmic compartments called stress granules (SGs. Many viruses target SGs for disruption and/or modification, including the alphaherpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. Recently, it was discovered that HSV-2 disrupts SG formation early after infection via virion host shutoff protein (vhs, an endoribonuclease that is packaged within the HSV-2 virion. We review this discovery and discuss the insights it has provided into SG biology as well as its potential significance in HSV-2 infection. A model for vhs-mediated disruption of SG formation is presented.

  2. Alphaherpesvirus Subversion of Stress-Induced Translational Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnen, Renée L.; Banfield, Bruce W.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of translational arrest in eukaryotic cells in response to stress and the tactics used specifically by alphaherpesviruses to overcome translational arrest. One consequence of translational arrest is the formation of cytoplasmic compartments called stress granules (SGs). Many viruses target SGs for disruption and/or modification, including the alphaherpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Recently, it was discovered that HSV-2 disrupts SG formation early after infection via virion host shutoff protein (vhs), an endoribonuclease that is packaged within the HSV-2 virion. We review this discovery and discuss the insights it has provided into SG biology as well as its potential significance in HSV-2 infection. A model for vhs-mediated disruption of SG formation is presented. PMID:26999187

  3. Investigating Different ZnO Arresters Models against Transient Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Babaee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide surge arresters have dynamic characteristics that are significant for over voltage coordination studies involving fast front surges. Several models with acceptable accuracy have been proposed to simulate this frequency-dependent behavior. In this paper, various electrical models are presented for surge arrester performance simulation against lightning impulse. The desirable model is obtained by using simulation results of the existing models and experimental tests. The IEEE proposed model is a proportional model can give satisfactory results for discharge currents within a range of time to crest for 0.5 to 45 :s but due to no existing residual voltage resulting switching current on the manufacture's datasheets decrease its performance generally. In this study the maximum residual voltage due to current impulse is analyzed too. In additional, the amount of discharged energy by surge arrester is focused.

  4. Fatigue crack arrest in a self-healing polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E. N. (Eric N.); White, S. R. (Scott R.); Sottos, Nancy R.

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental program is performed to assess the in situ fatigue behavior of a self-healing polymer. A fatigue-life-extension protocol is established for characterizing healing efficiency of the self-healing epoxy under cyclic loading. At moderate {Delta}K{sub I} and at high {Delta}K{sub I}, when a rest period is employed, in situ healing extends fatigue life though temporary crack arrest and retardation. In situ self-healing permanently arrests crack growth at low {delta}K{sub I} and at moderate {Delta}K{sub I}, when a rest period is employed. Fatigue crack retardation and arrest result from two primary crack-tip shielding mechanisms: hydrodynamic pressure in the viscous healing agent and artificial crack closure. Application of self-healing functionality to fatigue slows the crack growth rate and increases the fatigue threshold.

  5. Drug therapy in cardiac arrest: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Djärv, Therese; Engdahl, Johan; Hollenberg, Jacob; Nordberg, Per; Ravn-Fischer, Annika; Ringh, Mattias; Rysz, Susanne; Svensson, Leif; Herlitz, Johan; Lundgren, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the literature on human studies of drug therapy in cardiac arrest during the last 25 years. In May 2015, a systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and CRD databases. Prospective interventional and observational studies evaluating a specified drug therapy in human cardiac arrest reporting a clinical endpoint [i.e. return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or survival] and published in English 1990 or later were included, whereas animal studies, case series and reports, studies of drug administration, drug pharmacology, non-specified drug therapies, preventive drug therapy, drug administration after ROSC, studies with primarily physiological endpoints, and studies of traumatic cardiac arrest were excluded. The literature search identified a total of 8936 articles. Eighty-eight articles met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. We identified no human study in which drug therapy, compared with placebo, improved long-term survival. Regarding adrenaline and amiodarone, the drugs currently recommended in cardiac arrest, two prospective randomized placebo-controlled trials, were identified for adrenaline, and one for amiodarone, but they were all underpowered to detect differences in survival to hospital discharge. Of all reviewed studies, only one recent prospective study demonstrated improved neurological outcome with one therapy over another using a combination of vasopressin, steroids, and adrenaline as the intervention compared with standard adrenaline administration. The evidence base for drug therapy in cardiac arrest is scarce. However, many human studies on drug therapy in cardiac arrest have not been powered to identify differences in important clinical outcomes such as survival to hospital discharge and favourable neurological outcome. Efforts are needed to initiate large multicentre prospective randomized clinical trials to evaluate both currently recommended and

  6. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  7. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  8. A REVIEW ON INNOVATION OF WIRE STRAIGHTENING CUTTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHVIN S. PATEL,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Now days, there are wide verity of wire products like welding electrode, weld mesh, heat treated kitchen baskets, automobile spark plugs and exhaust valves etc. For manufacturing all aboveproducts, wire is used as primary element and is to be straighten from coil form. Now straighten wire is to be cut into wire rod as per required length. For these sequential operations, wire straighteningcutting machine is used. Now days, conventional type wire straightening cutting machine are being used in which wire is cut by stopper cutter head which is limited by its length as well as feeding speed. This paper surveys straightening and cutting process used in such machines. Although this review cannot be collectively exhaustive, it may be considered as a valuable guide for researchers who are interested to develop next generation of wire straightening cutting machines.

  9. Radiation of relativistic electrons in a periodic wire structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, V.V., E-mail: sobolevaveronica@mail.ru; Naumenko, G.A.; Bleko, V.V.

    2015-07-15

    We present in this work the experimental investigation of the interaction of relativistic electron field with periodic wire structures. We used two types of the targets in experiments: flat wire target and sandwich wire target that represent the right triangular prism. The measurements were done in millimeter wavelength region (10–40 mm) on the relativistic electron beam with energy of 6.2 MeV in far-field zone. We showed that bunched electron beam passing near wire metamaterial prism generates coherent Cherenkov radiation. The experiments with flat wire target were carried out in two geometries. In the first geometry the electron beam passed close to the flat wire target surface. In the second case the electron beam passed through the flat wire structure with generation of a coherent backward transition radiation (CBTR). The comparison of the Cherenkov radiation intensity and BTR intensity from the flat wire target and from the flat conductive target (conventional BTR) was made.

  10. Modular Wiring Offers Cost Savings and Future Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Mike; Ewald, Ann O'Connor

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular wiring, a prefabricated wiring system that replaces branch circuits in buildings. Advantages include on-site and day-to-day labor savings, and future technology cost advantages. Includes questions to ask manufacturers. (EV)

  11. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser;

    2013-01-01

    . METHODS: A community-based case-control study was performed, with 1310 cases of SCA of the ARREST study and 5793 age, sex and SCA-date matched non-SCA controls from the PHARMO database. Only incident SCA cases, age older than 40 years, that resulted from unequivocal cardiac causes......BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use...

  12. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westhall, Erik; Rossetti, Andrea O; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. METHODS: In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists...... patients. EEGs were recorded in 103 patients at a median 77 hours after cardiac arrest; 37% had a highly malignant EEG and all had a poor outcome (specificity 100%, sensitivity 50%). Any malignant EEG feature had a low specificity to predict poor prognosis (48%) but if 2 malignant EEG features were present...

  13. Cdc20 control of cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The fate of cells arrested in mitosis by antimitotic compounds is complex but is influenced by competition between pathways promoting cell death and pathways promoting mitotic exit. As components of both of these pathways are regulated by Cdc20-dependent degradation, I hypothesize that variations...... in Cdc20 protein levels, rather than mutations in checkpoint genes, could affect cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest. This hypothesis is supported by experiments where manipulation of Cdc20 levels affects the response to antimitotic compounds. The observed differences in Cdc20 levels between cell...

  14. Image beam from a wire laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlova, E.E.; Hovenier, J.N.; De Visser, P.J.; Gao, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the formation of a narrow beam from a long (L≫λ) laser with subwavelength transverse dimensions (wire laser) as an image of the subwavelength laser waveguide formed by a spherical lens. The beam is linearly diverging with the angle determined by the ratio of the wavelength to the lens

  15. Technological improvements in wire rod mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestani, M.

    1996-07-01

    The paper deals with the latest rolling technologies and hi-tech equipment developed by Danieli-mogardshammar to ensure top performance of modern wire rod mills. In particular, a high reduction sizing mill, a twin module fast finishing block and a high speed cropping shear are presented. (authors)

  16. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  17. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November..., 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to the Commission, including... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  18. Lorentz Contraction and Current-Carrying Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The force between two parallel current-carrying wires is investigated in the rest frames of the ions and the electrons. A straightforward Lorentz transformation shows that what appears as a purely magnetostatic force in the ion frame appears as a combined magnetostatic and electrostatic force in the electron frame. The derivation makes use of a…

  19. 3D Wire 2015 Gamification Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias;

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha...

  20. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps,...

  1. Tunable permeability of magnetic wires at microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panina, L.V., E-mail: lpanina@plymouth.ac.uk [National University of Science and Technology, MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Design Problems in Microelectronics, RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Makhnovskiy, D.P. [School of Computing and Mathematics, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom); Morchenko, A.T.; Kostishin, V.G. [National University of Science and Technology, MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis into microwave magnetic properties of magnetic microwires and their composites in the context of applications in wireless sensors and tunable microwave materials. It is demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of wires has a wide frequency dispersion with relatively large values in the GHz band. In the case of a specific magnetic anisotropy this results in a tunable microwave impedance which could be used for distributed wireless sensing networks in functional composites. The other range of applications is related with developing the artificial magnetic dielectrics with large and tunable permeability. The composites with magnetic wires with a circumferential anisotropy have the effective permeability which differs substantially from unity for a relatively low concentration (less than 10%). This can make it possible to design the wire media with a negative and tunable index of refraction utilising natural magnetic properties of wires. - Highlights: • Applications of magnetic microwires for functional composites and distributed sensor networks are proposed. • Diluted composites with magnetic microwires can demonstrate tunable left-handed properties. • Large microwave permeability combined with a specific magnetic structure lead to a large and sensitive microwave magnetoimpedance. • Microwave magnetoimpedance highly sensitive to temperature is demonstrated.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...

  3. Ultra-Wideband Design of the Wire Conical Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; HE Qing-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Using the wire construction technique, a conical monopole antenna is fabricated. With the method of moments, the dependences of the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) on the number of the trapezoid wire elements, conical angles, wire radius, etc. are investigated. The calculation and the experiment show that the designed wire conical antenna has the ultra-wideband property and can be used for the engineering.

  4. Modelling wire-to-wire corona discharge action on aerodynamics and comparison with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Velez, J-C [ONERA, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Degond, P [Institut de Mathematiques, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Rogier, F [ONERA, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Seraudie, A [ONERA, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Thivet, F [ONERA, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2008-02-07

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple model for plasma generation and effect on fluids at atmospheric pressure. Experiments are conducted using a wire-to-wire corona discharge actuator in a subsonic boundary layer flow. Velocity gains of several metres per second are observed. A quasi-2D numerical model of the discharge is proposed and explains the creation of two corona discharges around the electrodes. A one-way approach of the plasma aerodynamics coupling gives access to the ionic wind. It is confirmed that the actuator accelerates the flow from the anode to the cathode. Order of magnitudes of the ionic wind and flow velocity profiles are close to experiments. A first attempt to perform a 2D simulation of the wire-to-wire discharge is presented as the starting point of future works.

  5. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a circuit... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  6. Low-Inductance Wiring For Parallel Switching Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, M. S.; Landis, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Simple configuration for wiring of multiple parallel-connected switching transistors minimizes stray wiring inductance while providing for use of balancing transformers, which equalize currents in transistors. Currents balanced on twisted pairs of wires. Because twisted pairs carry both "hot-side" and return currents, this configuration has relatively low inductance.

  7. 30 CFR 75.510 - Energized trolley wires; repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energized trolley wires; repair. 75.510 Section 75.510 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... Energized trolley wires; repair. Energized trolley wires may be repaired only by a person trained to...

  8. Quantum stability and magic lengths of metal atom wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lan, Haiping; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Niu, Qian; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-06-01

    Metal atom wires represent an important class of nanomaterials in the development of future electronic devices and other functional applications. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we carry out a systematic study of the quantum stability of freestanding atom wires consisting of prototypical metal elements with s -, s p -, and s d -valence electrons. We explore how the quantum mechanically confined motion and local bonding of the valence electrons in these different wire systems can dictate their overall structural stability and find that the formation energy of essentially all the wires oscillates with respect to their length measured by the number n of atoms contained in the wires, establishing the existence of highly preferred (or magic) lengths. Furthermore, different wire classes exhibit distinctively different oscillatory characteristics and quantum stabilities. Alkali metal wires possessing an unpaired s valence electron per atom exhibit simple damped even-odd oscillations. In contrast, Al and Ga wires containing three s2p1 valence electrons per atom generally display much larger and undamped even-odd energy oscillations due to stronger local bonding of the p orbitals. Among the noble metals, the s -dominant Ag wires behave similarly to the linear alkali metal wires, while Au and Pt wires distinctly prefer to be structurally zigzagged due to strong relativistic effects. These findings are discussed in connection with existing experiments and should also be instrumental in future experimental realization of different metal atom wires in freestanding or supported environments with desirable functionalities.

  9. Plasmon assisted transport through disordered array of quantum wires

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Phononless plasmon assisted thermally activated transport through a long disordered array of finite length quantum wires is investigated analytically. Generically strong electron plasmon interaction in quantum wires results in a qualitative change of the temperature dependence of thermally activated resistance in comparison to phonon assisted transport. At high temperatures, the thermally activated resistance is determined by the Luttinger liquid interaction parameter of the wires.

  10. A Laser-Wire System for the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.; Qurshi, M.; Blair, G.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; Driouichi, C.; Deacon, L.; Aryshev, A.; Karataev, P.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Brachmann, A.; Frisch, J.; Ross, M.; /Oxford U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC

    2009-04-30

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  11. Thermal Aware Floorplanning Incorporating Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, AndreasThor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto;

    2015-01-01

    Temperature has a negative impact on metal resistance and thus wire delay. In state-of-the-art VLSI circuits, large thermal gradients usually exist due to the uneven distribution of heat sources. The difference in wire temperature can lead to performance mismatch because wires of the same length ...

  12. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nicolas Delerue; Sudhir Dixit; Fred Gannaway; David Howell; Myriam Qurshi; Grahame Blair; Stewart Boogert; Gary Boorman; Chafik Driouichi; Lawerence Deacon; Alexander Aryshev; Pavel Karataev; Nobuhiro Terunnuma; Junji urakawa; Axel Brachmann; Joe Frisch; Marc Ross

    2007-12-01

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  13. Communication and Wiring in the Cortical Connectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian eBudd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimise communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction and temporal (routing costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fibre tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for

  14. Feasibility studies on the direct wire readout on wire scanners in electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bachelor thesis deals essentially with the signal processing of a so-called wire scanner, a special monitor, which comes to application in the beam diagnostics of particle accelerators. In this direct wire readout the voltage signal, which is induced by the particle beam in the measurement wire of the wire scanner, shall be directly read out. The aim of this thesis is to show fundamental considerations and perform studies, which study, whether and how in the future by means of a suited data transmission as well as readout electronics conclusion on the most important parameters of the beam, like position and profile, are possible. The measurement system presented here is divided in three main components: Signal measurement, signal preparation, and signal stretching. A suited test facility was developed and is presented in detail, in which then all components, like for instance the transmission cables, the wire-scanner fork, and the developed measurement circuit, are studied, which are of importance for a faultless signal transmission and presentation. Extensive measurements on the single components, as well as calculations for the signal transmission on and in the wire scanner were performed, whereby a good agreement could be found. Thereafter a comparison and a selection of the component used in this project were made. Furthermore improvement proposals, new constructions, and outlooks are presented, which could be of importance in further works.

  15. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  16. Forecasting of Corrosion Properties of Steel Wires for Production of Guide Wires for Cardiological Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przondziono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents evaluation of the influence of strain in drawing process and of surface modification on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires made of stainless steel for production of guide wires used in invasive cardiology. The results of static tensile test enabled us to determine the course of flow curve of wires made of X10CrNi 18-8 steel as well as mathematical form of flow stress function. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method. The tests were performed in solution simulating human blood on samples that were electrolytically polished and samples that were polished and then chemically passivated. Exemplary anodic polarisation curves were given. It was proved that with the applied strain, corrosion properties decrease. It was found that chemical passivation improves wire corrosion characteristics. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant dependence between corrosion properties (polarisation resistance Rp and strain ε applied in drawing process. Functions that present the change Rp=f(ε were selected. The issue is of importance to guide wire manufacturers because application of the suggested methodology will enable us to forecast corrosion characteristics of wire with the required strength drawn with the applied strain.

  17. An interconnecting bus power optimization method combining interconnect wire spacing with wire ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Hao Bao-Tian; En Yun-Fei; Yang Yin-Tang; Li Yue-Jin

    2011-01-01

    On-chip interconnect buses consume tens of percents of dynamic power in a nanometer scale integrated circuit and they will consume more power with the rapid scaling down of technology size and continuously rising clock frequency,therefore it is meaningful to lower the interconnecting bus power in design. In this paper, a simple yet accurate interconnect parasitic capacitance model is presented first and then, based on this model, a novel interconnecting bus optimization method is proposed. Wire spacing is a process for spacing wires for minimum dynamic power, while wire ordering is a process that searches for wire orders that maximally enhance it. The method, i.e., combining wire spacing with wire ordering, focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with a consideration of bus performance requirements.The optimization method is verified based on various nanometer technology parameters, showing that with 50% slack of routing space, 25.71% and 32.65% of power can be saved on average by the proposed optimization method for a globalbus and an intermediate bus, respectively, under a 65-nm technology node, compared with 21.78% and 27.68% of power saved on average by uniform spacing technology. The proposed method is especially suitable for computer-aided designof nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  18. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  19. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald;

    2013-01-01

    intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance...

  20. Design of Lightning Arresters for Electrical Power Systems Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab Abdulwadood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of how the lightning strikes and their effects on power distribution systems can be modeled, where the results give a clear picture of how to eliminate the devastating impact, caused by lightning, by using lightning arresters. The program ATP-Draw (Alternative Transient Program was used to simulate the problem and was applied on a part of a power network.The simulation was done once when the lightning strikes a transmission line and a substation with no lightning arresters in use and once more with their use. The source of the lightning was represented by the ATP models (Type-15 surge function and Type-13 ramp function and the surge arrester was represented by the MOV-Type 92 component. The voltage was recorded at the substation 110/22 kV and at all loads in the electric network, and was drawn by the PlotXWin program. The results obtained indicate that the voltages induced by the lightning can reach values of the order of millions over insulation flashover levels for 22 kV equipment, where is clearly seen in Fig. 12 to 16 and Tab.10, which requires the installation of lightning arresters.

  1. Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Heart360 Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • Heart Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  2. Ventilation and gas exchange management after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherasan, Yuda; Raimondo, Pasquale; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    For several decades, physicians had integrated several interventions aiming to improve the outcomes in post-cardiac arrest patients. However, the mortality rate after cardiac arrest is still as high as 50%. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to not only poor neurological outcome and cardiovascular failure but also respiratory dysfunction. To minimize ventilator-associated lung injury, protective mechanical ventilation by using low tidal volume ventilation and driving pressure may decrease pulmonary complications and improve survival. Low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be initiated and titrated with careful cardiac output and respiratory mechanics monitoring. Furthermore, optimizing gas exchange by avoiding hypoxia and hyperoxia as well as maintaining normocarbia may improve neurological and survival outcome. Early multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation intervention is recommended. Minimally invasive monitoring techniques, that is, echocardiography, transpulmonary thermodilution method measuring extravascular lung water, as well as transcranial Doppler ultrasound, might be useful to improve appropriate management of post-cardiac arrest patients. PMID:26670813

  3. Bad Behavior : Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Shannon; Williams, J.; van Ours, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of delinquency and arrest on school leaving using information on males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We use a multivariate mixed proportional hazard framework in order to account for common unobserved confounders and reverse causality.

  4. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous quintic nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1999-01-01

    Collapse of (1 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous one-dimensional quintic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed both numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams in which the homogeneous medium would blow ...... may be delayed and even arrested. [S1063-651X(99)03610-7]....

  5. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the very young. OBJECTIVES: This nationwide study sought to examine age-stratified OHCA characteristics and the role of parental socioeconomic differences and its contribution to mortality in the young...

  6. Chemical Society Reinstates Iranian Chemists; Iranian-American Scholar Arrested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollag, Burton

    2007-01-01

    The frosty relationship between the United States and Iran has created a chill in many areas of scholarly endeavor. One resulting battle, over whether Iranian scholars can belong to the American Chemical Society, has been largely resolved. But a new imbroglio looms with the arrest of a prominent U.S.-Iranian scholar who was visiting Tehran. The…

  7. Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

  8. Mechanisms of immunosuppression by organotins : apoptosis vs. proliferative arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennari, Alessandra

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of immunosuppression by organotins-apoptosis vs. proliferative arrest. The organotin compounds di-n-butyltin dichloride (DBTC) and trin-butyltin chloride (TBTC), used as stabilizers and biocides respectively, induce thymus atrophy inhibiting immature thymocyte proliferation. The aim of

  9. Development of rolling mill for rectangular orthodontic wires production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Totten

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In orthodontic treatments, wires of different metallic alloys are used for alignment, leveling, correction of the molar position, space closing, finish and retention. The purpose of the paper is the characteristics of austenitic stainless steel wires, with a square traverse section, which were produced using a rolling mill built for this purpose, are presented hereDesign/methodology/approach: With respect to finish and retention, these wires are responsible for adequate positioning of the upper teeth on the lower teeth. Wires that are subjected to incisor torque require high resistance and stiffness. For this, wires of rectangular austenitic stainless steel are used due to high modulus of elasticity and good corrosion resistance in the oral environment. Because of the rectangular geometry, wire production requires process development suitable for industrial scale manufacture with geometric characteristics and mechanical properties better adapted to the use conditions.Findings: To obtain wires with such characteristics, a rolling mill was developed for the production of rectangular wires by a rolling process with the objective of reducing cost of the cold drawing process that is currently used which utilize complex and expensive wire-drawing dies. In addition to the rolling process itself, wire deformation, microhardness, tension and bend tests were also performed.Research limitations/implications: A rolling-mill was built that successfully produced dental wires within acceptable tolerances and physical/mechanical properties.These wires exhibited excellent hardness and tensile strength, although slightly less than analogous commercial wires. It is expected that this problem are corrected by using initial wires with a higher hardness, since this property is directly related with the tensile strength.Originality/value: In these tests, wire geometry, surface finish and mechanical properties were successfully adapted for use in orthodontic

  10. Torsional Deformations in Subnanometer MoS Interconnecting Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ai Leen; Wang, Shanshan; Ataca, Can; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Sinclair, Robert; Warner, Jamie H

    2016-02-10

    We use aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to track the real time atomic level torsional dynamics of subnanometer wires of MoS interconnecting monolayer regions of MoS2. An in situ heating holder is used inside the transmission electron microscope to raise the temperature of the sample to 400 °C to increase crystallization rates of the wires and reduce contamination effects. Frequent rotational twisting of the MoS wire is captured, demonstrating elastic torsional deformation of the MoS wires. We show that torsional rotations of the crystal structure of the MoS wires depend upon the specific atomic structure of the anchored sections of the suspended wire and the number of unit cells that make up the wire length. Elastic torsional flexibility of the MoS wires is revealed to help their self-adapting connectivity during the structural changes. Plastic torsional deformation is also seen for MoS wires that contain defects in their crystal structure, which produce small scale rotational disorder within the wires. Upon removal of the defects, the wire returns back to pristine form. These results provide detailed insights into how the atomic structure of the anchoring site significantly influences the nanowire configurations relative to the monolayered MoS2. PMID:26785319

  11. Growth and FMR Characterization of Ni-Nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in magnetic nano wires is excited by the fact that data storage devices, magneto-electronic devices, magnetic random access memories, field emission sources, etc. are real technological issues of the nano tecnology. The growth of Ni nano wire arrays(NWS) by electrodeposition technique and their magnetic properties are studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The Ni nano wire arrays posses hexagonal symmetry in lateral dimensions and are perpendicular to the film plane. Samples with the same wire diameter but different wire lengths have been characterized. The FMR measurements have been performed using X-band (∼9.8GHZ) commercial Bruker EMX spectrometer at room temperature. Anisotropic spectra have been observed at different angles of out-of plane geometry (OPG, the applied field is rotating from the wire axis to the perpendicular to the wire axis). The line width, amplitude and resonance field of the OPG spectra strongly depended on the applied field direction

  12. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Cryogenically Treated Music Wire

    CERN Document Server

    Heptonstall, A; Robertson, N A

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO - the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For th...

  13. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  14. 8 CFR 287.3 - Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... satisfied that there is prima facie evidence that the arrested alien was entering, attempting to enter, or... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.3 Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant... unnecessary delay, the arresting officer, if the conduct of such examination is a part of the duties...

  15. Mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation in in-hospital cardiac arrest : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameijer, Heleen; Immink, Rosa S.; Broekema, Josien J.; Ter Maaten, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing rates of in-hospital cardiac arrest, improving resuscitation outcomes is essential. Mechanical chest compressors seem to be related to improved outcome in out-of hospital cardiac arrest; however, the literature on its use in in-hospital cardiac arrest is scarce. We used the Medline p

  16. Gender and Relational-Distance Effects in Arrests for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, William; DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black's relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger's leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for…

  17. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest authority—Use of non-deadly force. (a) When a Protective Force Officer is authorized to make an arrest...

  18. 10 CFR 1049.7 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of deadly force. 1049.7 Section 1049.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.7 Exercise of arrest...

  19. Superconducting wire turns to electrical power

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, P

    2003-01-01

    Two years after the discovery that magnesium diboride is a superconductor, engineers and entrepreneurs are keen to transform its properties into profit. The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in the metallic compound magnesium diboride two years ago created quite a stir. Since then, physicists and chemists have come a long way in understanding the curious set of circumstances that lead to such a high critical temperature in this widely available material. At the same time, metallurgists, engineers and entrepreneurs have been focusing on the commercial potential of magnesium diboride as superconducting wire, which was the subject of a one-day meeting in Cambridge, UK, in April. Superconducting wire made from magnesium diboride could make 'second- generation' electrical machines commercially viable. (U.K.)

  20. Radiotherapy simulators and independent field wire movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique which has evolved in Glasgow using the existing features of the Varian simulator (Ximatron CX series) to determine boundaries and centre of a symmetrical field is outlined: 1. With field wires in the symmetrical mode, an approximate field size and centre is selected. 2. With the asymmetrical mode selected, the field wires are then moved independently to indicate the desired field edges. 3. The field size is noted and the field edges are marked on the patient's skin surface. 4. The field is then set up in symmetrical mode and the treatment couch shifted until field edges match with patient marks, enabling correct simulation of the treatment beam and the marking of the field centre. (author)

  1. Hot wire in low Reynolds number flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, M. A.; Covert, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    Progress reports were issued on the following experiments: (1) low Reynolds number flow phenomenon of periodic vortex shedding in the wake behind a cylinder as studied by applying the hot wire anemometer technique of flow measurement. The downstream diffusion of these shed vortices was of prime concern. An evaluation of the performance of the hot wire at low Reynolds number is also considered. (2) A brief examination of the back sections of the Wright Brothers wind tunnel circuits were conducted to establish whether or not gross flow deviations were present at corners, or turning vane regions. A calibration of the test sections was done. (3) The attractiveness of using rembedded grids for airfoil calculations modeled by the Euler equations was explored. These calculations were extended to C-type grids and then to Navier-Stokes calculations,

  2. Fluorescent silver nanoparticles via exploding wire technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alqudami Abdullah; S Annapoorni

    2005-11-01

    Aqueous solution containing spherical silver nanoparticles of 20–80 nm size have been generated using a newly developed novel electro-exploding wire (EEW) technique where thin silver wires have been exploded in double distilled water. Structural properties of the resulted nanoparticles have been studied by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The absorption spectrum of the aqueous solution of silver nanoparticles showed the appearance of a broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak centered at a wavelength of 390 nm. The theoretically generated SPR peak seems to be in good agreement with the experimental one. Strong green fluorescence emission was observed from the water-suspended silver nanoparticles excited with light of wavelengths 340, 360 and 390 nm. The fluorescence of silver nanoparticles could be due to the excitation of the surface plasmon coherent electronic motion with the small size effect and the surface effect considerations.

  3. Thin Magnetically Soft Wires for Magnetic Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady Zhukov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in technology involving magnetic materials require development of novel advanced magnetic materials with improved magnetic and magneto-transport properties and with reduced dimensionality. Therefore magnetic materials with outstanding magnetic characteristics and reduced dimensionality have recently gained much attention. Among these magnetic materials a family of thin wires with reduced geometrical dimensions (of order of 1–30 μm in diameter have gained importance within the last few years. These thin wires combine excellent soft magnetic properties (with coercivities up to 4 A/m with attractive magneto-transport properties (Giant Magneto-impedance effect, GMI, Giant Magneto-resistance effect, GMR and an unusual re-magnetization process in positive magnetostriction compositions exhibiting quite fast domain wall propagation. In this paper we overview the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of these microwires that make them suitable for microsensor applications.

  4. Photonic band gap in thin wire metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Kai Meng

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the band structure of a class of photonic crystals made from only thin wires. Using a different method, we demonstrate that a complete photonic band gap is possible for such materials. Band gap materials normally consist of space filling dielectric or metal, whereas thin wires occupy a very small fraction of the volume. We show that this is related to the large increase in scattering at the Brillouin zone boundary. The method we developed brings together the calculation techniques in three different fields. The first is the calculation of scattering from periodic, tilted antennas, which we improve upon. The second is the standard technique for frequency selective surface design. The third is obtained directly from low energy electron diffraction theory. Good agreements with experiments for left handed materials, negative materials, and frequency selective surfaces are demonstrated.

  5. Optical wire trap for cold neutral atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Schneeweiss, Philipp; Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2014-01-01

    We propose a trap for cold neutral atoms using a fictitious magnetic field induced by a nanofiber-guided light field. In close analogy to magnetic side-guide wire traps realized with current-carrying wires, a trapping potential can be formed when applying a homogeneous magnetic bias field perpendicular to the fiber axis. We discuss this scheme in detail for laser-cooled cesium atoms and find trap depths and trap frequencies comparable to the two-color nanofiber-based trapping scheme but with one order of magnitude lower powers of the trapping laser field. Moreover, the proposed scheme allows one to bring the atoms closer to the nanofiber surface, thereby enabling efficient optical interfacing of the atoms with additional light fields. Specifically, optical depths per atom, $\\sigma_0/A_{\\rm eff}$, of more than 0.4 are predicted, making this system eligible for nanofiber-based nonlinear and quantum optics experiments.

  6. Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Lippert, Freddy K.; Folke, Fredrik;

    2013-01-01

    resuscitation was attempted were identified between 2001 and 2010 in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Of 29 111 patients with cardiac arrest, we excluded those with presumed noncardiac cause of arrest (n = 7390) and those with cardiac arrests witnessed by emergency medical services personnel (n......IMPORTANCE Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major health problem associated with poor outcomes. Early recognition and intervention are critical for patient survival. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one factor among many associated with improved survival. OBJECTIVE To examine...... temporal changes in bystander resuscitation attempts and survival during a 10-year period in which several national initiatives were taken to increase rates of bystander resuscitation and improve advanced care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for which...

  7. Continuous Wire Reinforcement for Jammed Granular Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Fauconneau, Matthias; Wittel, Falk K.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of continuous fiber reinforced granular columns is simulated by means of a Discrete Element Model. Spherical particles are randomly deposited simultaneously with a wire, that is deployed following different patterns inside of a flexible cylinder for triaxial compression testing. We quantify the effect of three different fiber deployment patterns on the failure envelope, represented by Mohr-Coulomb cones, and derive suggestions for improved deployment strategies.

  8. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  9. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  10. NA48: Wiring up for Change

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The NA48 Collaboration is rebuilding its drift chambers ready for the experiment to start up again this coming July. An intricate task involving the soldering of over 24,000 wires! The future of the NA48 experiment is coming right down to the wire, that is, the wires which the Collaboration is installing in the clean room of Hall 887 on the Prévessin site. Six days a week, technicians are working in shifts to rebuild the experiment's drift chambers. The original chambers were damaged when a section of a vacuum tube imploded at the end of 1999. A year ago, CERN gave the green light for this essential part of the spectrometer to be rebuilt, so the NA48 experiment, which studies CP violation (see box), still has a bright future ahead of it. Three years of data-taking ahead The NA48 experiment aims to penetrate the secrets of CP (Charge Parity) violation. Charge and parity are two parameters which distinguish a particle from an antiparticle. In other words, an electron possesses a negative electric ...

  11. Delayed migration of K-wire into popliteal fossa used for tension band wiring of patellar fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjay Meena; Hira Lal Nag; Senthil Kumar; Nilesh Barwar; Samarth Mittal; Amit Singla

    2013-01-01

    Breakage of K-wires and stainless steel wires which are used for fracture fixation is not uncommon,but migration is rare.We report a case of migration of broken K-wire used for patella tension band wiring to the popliteal fossa.The broken hardware was removed surgically.We would like to suggest that K-wire and wire fixation used for treatment ofpatellar fractures can migrate into the posterior compartment of the knee and cause clinical symptoms.Close clinical and radiological follow-up after internal fixation to identify the presence of hardware breakage or movement and removal of wires once fracture has united can avert such complications.

  12. Laser Wire Deposition (WireFeed) for Fully Dense Shapes LDRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.; ENSZ,MARK T.; GREENE,DONALD L.; RECKAWAY,DARYL E.; MORIN,JACOB A.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; LAVAN,DAVID A.; CRENSHAW,THOMAS B.; TIKARE,VEENA; ROMERO,JOSEPH A.

    1999-11-01

    Direct metal deposition technologies produce complex, near net shape components from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. Most of these techniques fabricate a component by melting powder in a laser weld pool, rastering the weld bead to form a layer, and additively constructing subsequent layers. This report will describe anew direct metal deposition process, known as WireFeed, whereby a small diameter wire is used instead of powder as the feed material to fabricate components. Currently, parts are being fabricated from stainless steel alloys. Microscopy studies show the WireFeed parts to be filly dense with fine microstructural features. Mechanical tests show stainless steel parts to have high strength values with retained ductility. A model was developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and coarsening during the WireFeed process. Simulations demonstrate the importance of knowing the temperature distribution during fabrication of a WireFeed part. The temperature distribution influences microstructural evolution and, therefore, must be controlled to tailor the microstructure for optimal performance.

  13. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaodan [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Godfrey, Andrew, E-mail: awgodfrey@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu [Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions, Materials Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Liu Wei [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 (China); Liu Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm ({epsilon} = 0) to 2 nm ({epsilon} = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} or {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  14. Ensuring Wire Alignment for the New COMPASS Drift Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromis, Megan; Compass Dc5 Team

    2014-09-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN investigating the internal structure of the proton. Polarized Drell-Yan measurements at COMPASS will explore how the quark orbital angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. To enable this measurement, several straw tube chambers need to be replaced due to long term wear. One of the replacement chambers, drift chamber DC5, is being built at Old Dominion University based on a prototype from UIUC and existing COMPASS drift chambers. DC5 consists of 4 wire planes with 513 wires (256 [20 μm] sense wires and 257 [100 μm] field wires alternating) and 4 wire planes at a 10 degree offset with 641 wires each. Each of these 4616 wires need to be aligned within either 100 μm (sense wire) or 200 μm (field wire) of the center of the solder pad to ensure the accuracy of the drift chamber. Problems that arose during stringing include initial alignment of the wire and efficient soldering techniques. Also, because the field wires charged at -1750 volts will be 4 mm from the sense wires, there should be no gaps or points in the solder to prevent arcing. This poster will discuss the alignment techniques, soldering methods, testing, and repair process for the wires. COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN investigating the internal structure of the proton. Polarized Drell-Yan measurements at COMPASS will explore how the quark orbital angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. To enable this measurement, several straw tube chambers need to be replaced due to long term wear. One of the replacement chambers, drift chamber DC5, is being built at Old Dominion University based on a prototype from UIUC and existing COMPASS drift chambers. DC5 consists of 4 wire planes with 513 wires (256 [20 μm] sense wires and 257 [100 μm] field wires alternating) and 4 wire planes at a 10 degree offset with 641 wires each. Each of these 4616 wires need to be aligned within either 100 μm (sense wire) or 200 μm (field wire

  15. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  16. Thermal analysis for wire scanners in the CSNS Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Fu, Shinian; Xu, Taoguang; Xu, Zhihong; Meng, Ming; Qiu, Ruiyang; Tian, Jianmin; Zeng, Lei; Li, Peng; Li, Fang; Wang, Biao

    2014-10-01

    3 MeV H- beam from the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) will be accelerated to 80 MeV in the CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source) linear accelerator (Linac). The wire scanner is used to measure the transverse beam profile and the emittance, and the carbon or tungsten wire is considered to use. Thermal analysis of the wire scanners in the Linac is presented in this paper. The maximum temperature (Tm) of the wire decreases as the beam energy increases, and we also calculate the influence of all possible parameters on Tm. Tm of carbon wire is significantly lower than tungsten wire if both the beam parameters and wire geometric parameters are set to the same, which can be attributed to its higher heat capacity and radiant emissivity. In addition, we present the results of sublimation rate of the wire, which show that tungsten wire has a much lower evaporation rate than carbon wire in the same temperature, which can be attributed to the different vapor pressures of the two materials. To limit the thermionic emission, the maximum beam frequency approximately has an exponential relationship with beam rms size at a certain beam pulse width.

  17. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  18. Thermal Arrest Memory Effect in Ni-Mn-Ga Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rudajevova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilatation characteristics were measured to investigate the thermal arrest memory effect in Ni53.6Mn27.1Ga19.3 and Ni54.2Mn29.4Ga16.4 alloys. Interruption of the martensite-austenite phase transformation is connected with the reduction of the sample length after thermal cycle. If a total phase transformation took place in the complete thermal cycle following the interruption, then the sample length would return to its original length. Analysis of these results has shown that the thermal arrest memory effect is a consequence of a stress-focusing effect and shape memory effect. The stress-focusing effect occurs when the phase transformation propagates radially in a cylindrical sample from the surface, inward to the center. Evolution and release of the thermoelastic deformations in both alloys during heating and cooling are analyzed.

  19. Arrest of rapid crack propagation in polymer pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueler, P.; Farshad, M. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    The design of rapid crack arresters for polymer pipes was studied. Mechanisms that would inhibit a running crack and strengthen existing pipes against dynamic fracture and to enhance their degree of safety were examined. The crack arresters examined were based on the principle that rapid crack propagation (RCP) could not occur in pipe walls that were less than a `critical thickness`. Sections of pipe whose walls were thinned were reinforced with a reinforcing ring. Another variation was to produce a pipe with partially adhered multilayer walls. A third variation tried was a multi-layer pipe segment with a damping element and reinforcing rings. Experiments were successful in reducing RCP, but these preliminary results were considered exploratory and would require further confirmation. 2 figs., 8 refs.

  20. Cell cycle control after DNA damage: arrest, recovery and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA damage triggers surveillance mechanisms, the DNA checkpoints, that control the genome integrity. The DNA checkpoints induce several responses, either cellular or transcriptional, that favor DNA repair. In particular, activation of the DNA checkpoints inhibits cell cycle progression in all phases, depending on the stage when lesions occur. These arrests are generally transient and cells ultimately reenter the cell division cycle whether lesions have been repaired (this process is termed 'recovery') or have proved un-repairable (this option is called 'adaptation'). The mechanisms controlling cell cycle arrests, recovery and adaptation are largely conserved among eukaryotes, and much information is now available for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that is used as a model organism in these studies. (author)

  1. Arresting Strategy Based on Dynamic Criminal Networks Changing over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.

  2. Comments on metal oxide surge arresters surges energy absorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.L.B. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Zanetta, L.C. Jr. [E. Politecnica Univ. de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an approach to determine the energy absorption capacity of metal oxide surge arrester resistors. The proposed approach deals with the discharge current peak versus discharge current time relation. A testing method and a statistical evaluation are proposed. After determining the discharge current withstanding limit of the tested metal oxide resistors, the prospective energy absorption capacity limit is computed. Finally, comments on the obtained results are presented.

  3. Hyperoxia toxicity after cardiac arrest: What is the evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Llitjos, Jean-François; Mira, Jean-Paul; Duranteau, Jacques; Cariou, Alain

    2016-01-01

    This review gives an overview of current knowledge on hyperoxia pathophysiology and examines experimental and human evidence of hyperoxia effects after cardiac arrest. Oxygen plays a pivotal role in critical care management as a lifesaving therapy through the compensation of the imbalance between oxygen requirements and supply. However, growing evidence sustains the hypothesis of reactive oxygen species overproduction-mediated toxicity during hyperoxia, thus exacerbating organ failure by vari...

  4. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have successful embryo arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Baoli; Hao, Haoying; Wei, Duo; Song, Xiaobing; Xie, Juanke; Zhang, Cuilian

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we investigate the relationship between embryo arrest and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). In this study, 667 subjects were enrolled, including 330 patients with PCOS and 337 subjects without PCOS. The subjects underwent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) cycles at the Reproductive Medical Centre of Henan Provincial Hospital from January 2009 to December ...

  5. ADULTHOOD ANIMAL ABUSE AMONG MEN ARRESTED FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling fo...

  6. Nontrapping arrest of Langmuir wave damping near the threshold amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, A.V.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2005-01-01

    Evolution of a Langmuir wave is studied numerically for finite amplitudes slightly above the threshold which separates damping from nondamping cases. Arrest of linear damping is found to be a second-order effect due to ballistic evolution of perturbations, resonant power transfer between field and particles, and organization of phase space into a positive slope for the average distribution function $f_{av}$ around the resonant wave phase speed $v_\\phi$. Near the threshold trapping in the wave...

  7. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral thiamine has a very high safety profile. The most common adverse effect is local irritation; however, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions may occur, mostly related to intravenous administration. We describe a 44-year-old man, a chronic alcoholic, who was admitted with alcohol intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations....

  8. Luminescence from Tube-Arrest Bubbles in Pure Glycerin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岐岱; 王龙

    2004-01-01

    Single transient cavitation bubble with luminescence has been generated in pure glycerin by using the ‘tube arrest'method. The analyses of high-speed photograph and light emission data suggest that the light emission would be a single bubble sonoluminescence. The luminescence pulse width is observed to wry from sub-nanosecond to about 30 ns. The width and intensity of luminescence pulses increases with the height of the liquid column height and decreases with the liquid temperature.

  9. Characteristics of in-hospital cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ivić

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim We have studied epidemiology of in-hospital cardiac arrest, characteristics of organizing a reanimationand its,procedures as well as its documenting.Methods We analyzed all resuscitation procedure data where anesthesiology reanimation teams (RT providedcardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR during one-year period. We included resuscitation attemptsthat were initiated outside the Department of Anesthesiology, excluding incidents in operation rooms andIntensive Care Unit (ICU. Data on every cardiac arrest and CPR were entered in a special form.Results During one-year period 87 CPR were performed. Victims of cardiac arrest were principallyelderly patients (age 60 – 80, mostly male (60%. Most frequent victims were neurological patients(42%, surgical patients (21% and neurosurgical patients (10%. The leading cause of cardiac arrestwas primary heart disease, following neurological diseases and respiration disorders of severe etiology.In over 90% cases CPR was initiated by medical personnel in their respective departments, RT arrivedwithin 5 minutes in 73,56% cases. Initially survival was 32%, but full recovery was accomplished in 4patients out of 87 (4,6%.Conclusion Victims of cardiac arrest are patients whose primary disease contributes to occurrence ofcardiorespiratory complications. High mortality and low percentage of full recovery can be explainedby characteristics of patients (old age, nature and seriousness of primary disease which significantly affectthe outcome of CPR. In some cases a question is raised whether to initiate the CPR at all. We wouldlike to point out that continous monitoring of potentially critical patients may prevent cardiorespiratoryincidents whereas the quality and success of CPR may be improved by training of staff and better technicalequipment on the relevant locations in the in the hospital where such incidents usually occur.

  10. Crack arrest saturation model under combined electrical and mechanical loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Bhargava

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The investigation aims at proposing a model for cracked piezoelectric strip which is capable to arrest the crack.Design/methodology/approach: Under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings applied at the edges of the strip, the developed saturation zone is produced at each tip of the crack. To arrest further opening of the crack, the rims of the developed saturation zones are subjected to in-plane cohesive, normal uniform constant saturation point electrical displacement. The problem is solved using Fourier integral transform method which reduces the problem to the solution of Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. This integral equation in turn is solved numerically.Findings: The expressions are derived for different intensity factors and energy release rate. A qualitative analysis of the parameters affecting the arrest of opening of the crack and fatigue crack growth with respect to strip thickness and material constants are presented graphically.Research limitations/implications: The investigations are carried out by considering the material electrical brittle. Consequently, the zones protrude along the straight lines ahead of the crack tips. And further, the small scale electrical yielding conditions are used.Practical implications: Piezoelectric materials are widely getting used nowadays, even in day to day life like piezoelectric cigarette lighter, children toys etc. And, its advance used in technology like transducers, actuators has been already in progress. So, the aspect of cracking of piezoelectric materials are of great practical importance.Originality/value: The piezoelectric material under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings gives the assessment of electrical displacement which is required to arrest the crack. The various useful interpretations are also drawn from the graphs.

  11. Advances in crack-arrest technology for reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is continuing to improve the understanding of conditions that govern the initiation, rapid propagation, arrest, and ductile tearing of cracks in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This paper describes recent advances in a coordinated effort being conducted under the HSST Program by ORNL and several subcontracting groups to develop the crack-arrest data base and the analytical tools required to construct inelastic dynamic fracture models for RPV steels. Large-scale tests are being carried out to generate crack-arrest toughness data at temperatures approaching and above the onset of Charpy upper-shelf behavior. Small- and intermediate-size specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading are being developed and tested to provide additional fracture data for RPV steels. Viscoplastic effects are being included in dynamic fracture models and computer programs and their utility validated through analyses of data from carefully controlled experiments. Recent studies are described that examine convergence problems associated with energy-based fracture parameters in viscoplastic-dynamic fracture applications. Alternative techniques that have potential for achieving convergent solutions for fracture parameters in the context of viscoplastic-dynamic models are discussed. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Hyperoxia toxicity after cardiac arrest: What is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llitjos, Jean-François; Mira, Jean-Paul; Duranteau, Jacques; Cariou, Alain

    2016-12-01

    This review gives an overview of current knowledge on hyperoxia pathophysiology and examines experimental and human evidence of hyperoxia effects after cardiac arrest. Oxygen plays a pivotal role in critical care management as a lifesaving therapy through the compensation of the imbalance between oxygen requirements and supply. However, growing evidence sustains the hypothesis of reactive oxygen species overproduction-mediated toxicity during hyperoxia, thus exacerbating organ failure by various oxidative cellular injuries. In the cardiac arrest context, evidence of hyperoxia effects on outcome is fairly conflicting. Although prospective data are lacking, retrospective studies and meta-analysis suggest that hyperoxia could be associated with an increased mortality. However, data originate from retrospective, heterogeneous and inconsistent studies presenting various biases that are detailed in this review. Therefore, after an original and detailed analysis of all experimental and clinical studies, we herein provide new ideas and concepts that could participate to improve knowledge on oxygen toxicity and help in developing further prospective controlled randomized trials on this topic. Up to now, the strategy recommended by international guidelines on cardiac arrest (i.e., targeting an oxyhemoglobin saturation of 94-98 %) should be applied in order to avoid deleterious hypoxia and potent hyperoxia. PMID:27003426

  13. Isolation Syndrome after Cardiac Arrest and Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgacs, Peter B; Fridman, Esteban A; Goldfine, Andrew M; Schiff, Nicholas D

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the first description of an isolation syndrome in a patient who suffered prolonged cardiac arrest and underwent a standard therapeutic hypothermia protocol. Two years after the arrest, the patient demonstrated no motor responses to commands, communication capabilities, or visual tracking at the bedside. However, resting neuronal metabolism and electrical activity across the entire anterior forebrain was found to be normal despite severe structural injuries to primary motor, parietal, and occipital cortices. In addition, using quantitative electroencephalography, the patient showed evidence for willful modulation of brain activity in response to auditory commands revealing covert conscious awareness. A possible explanation for this striking dissociation in this patient is that altered neuronal recovery patterns following therapeutic hypothermia may lead to a disproportionate preservation of anterior forebrain cortico-thalamic circuits even in the setting of severe hypoxic injury to other brain areas. Compared to recent reports of other severely brain-injured subjects with such dissociation of clinically observable (overt) and covert behaviors, we propose that this case represents a potentially generalizable mechanism producing an isolation syndrome of blindness, motor paralysis, and retained cognition as a sequela of cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Our findings further support that highly-preserved anterior cortico-thalamic integrity is associated with the presence of conscious awareness independent from the degree of injury to other brain areas. PMID:27375420

  14. Successful removal of an intravesical electrical wire cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Son, Hwancheol

    2014-08-01

    A few previous reports have described cases wherein electrical wire cables were inserted into the male urethra and bladder. Electrical wire cables are available at home and are easy to insert. However, after they coil in the patient's bladder, they are difficult to remove. In February 2013, a 30-year-old man presented to the emergency room of SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center with a urethral foreign body. He had inserted an electrical wire cable into his urethra for the purpose of masturbation, despite having a regular sex partner and no underlying disease. A kidney-ureter-bladder radiography showed a tangled wire in his bladder and urethra. On the next day, we tried to remove the wire cystoscopically, but this proved to be impossible because of complex coiling and the slippery surface of the wire. A Pfannenstiel incision was made to remove the foreign body. No postoperative complications were noted. PMID:25237664

  15. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  16. COLD ROLLING ORTHODONTIC WIRES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL AISI 304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Messner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels wires are widely used in the final stages of orthodontic treatment. The objective of this paper is to study the process of conformation of rectangular wires from round wires commercial austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 by the process of cold rolling. The wire quality is evaluated by means of dimensional analysis, microhardness measurements, tensile strength and fractographic analysis of the wires subjected to tensile tests. Also a study on the application of finite element method to simulate the process, comparing the force and rolling stress obtained in the rolling is done. The simulation results are consistent with those obtained in the actual process and the rolled wires show ductile fracture, tensile strength and dimensional variations appropriate to orthodontic standards. The fracture morphology shows the model cup-cone type besides the high deformation and hardness inherent in the cold rolling process.

  17. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  18. Resonant bond wire vibrations in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, T J; Murray, W; Villani, G; Warren, M; Weidberg, A R

    2005-01-01

    Dangerous mechanical resonances exist which can lead to the breaking of bond wires if time varying currents are passed through them in a magnetic field. The results of analytic calculations and an FEA analysis are described. The results of experimental investigations using wire bonds on test circuits are given. The possible effects within the ATLAS SCT were investigated and a fixed frequency trigger veto algorithm, designed to minimise the dangers of breaking wire bonds, was developed.

  19. Study of superconducting wire motion in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out to study the motion of superconducting wire under the influence of electromagnetic force. Different insulating material such as Zylon cloth, Dyneema cloth and Polyimide film are used as a base insulating material at the interface of superconducting wire and base material. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying applied tension to test superconducting wire. The experimental method and the test results are reported in this paper. (author)

  20. Tungsten quasispherical wire loads with a profiled mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V., E-mail: jvv88@triniti.ru; Oleinik, G. M.; Rodionov, R. N. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Wire arrays made from micrometer tungsten wires with linear mass profiled along their height are developed for experiments on the generation of X-ray radiation upon pinch compression with a current of ∼3 MA at a pulse duration of ∼100 ns. Wires are imaged with a scanning electron microscope, and their diameter is determined. It is shown that the arrays have such a profile of height distribution of linear mass that allows for compact spherical compression upon current implosion.

  1. Descriptive Analysis of Medication Administration During Inpatient Cardiopulmonary Arrest Resuscitation (from the Mayo Registry for Telemetry Efficacy in Arrest Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipelisky, David; Ray, Jordan; Matcha, Gautam; Roy, Archana; Dumitrascu, Adrian; Harris, Dana; Bosworth, Veronica; Clark, Brooke; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler; Kusumoto, Fred; Burton, M Caroline

    2016-05-15

    Advanced cardiovascular life support guidelines exist, yet there are variations in clinical practice. Our study aims to describe the utilization of medications during resuscitation from in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. A retrospective review of patients who suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest from May 2008 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical and resuscitation data, including timing and dose of medications used, were extracted from the electronic medical record and comparisons made. A total of 94 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into different groups based on the medication combination used during resuscitation: (1) epinephrine; (2) epinephrine and bicarbonate; (3) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and calcium; (4) epinephrine, bicarbonate, and epinephrine drip; and (5) epinephrine, bicarbonate, calcium, and epinephrine drip. No difference in baseline demographics or clinical data was present, apart from history of dementia and the use of calcium channel blockers. The number of medications given was correlated with resuscitation duration (Spearman's rank correlation = 0.50, p <0.001). The proportion of patients who died during the arrest was 12.5% in those who received epinephrine alone, 30.0% in those who received only epinephrine and bicarbonate, and 46.7% to 57.9% in the remaining groups. Patients receiving only epinephrine had shorter resuscitation durations compared to that of the other groups (p <0.001) and improved survival (p = 0.003). In conclusion, providers frequently use nonguideline medications in resuscitation efforts for in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests. Increased duration and mortality rates were found in those resuscitations compared with epinephrine alone, likely due to the longer resuscitation duration in the former groups. PMID:27015887

  2. Arrest of Avalanche Propagation by Discontinuities on Snow Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo, B.; Chiaia, B.

    2009-04-01

    Considering the spatial variability of the snow cover, the paper analyses, in the framework of Fracture Mechanics, the Mode II fracture propagation on snow cover that leads to large dry slab avalanches. Under the hypothesis of a perfectly brittle phenomenon, avalanche triggering is usually investigated numerically by means of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (McClung, 1979; Chiaia et al., 2008). Since, however, the real phenomenon is intrinsically dynamical, another aspect to investigate is represented by dynamic fracture propagation. In this paper, we model dynamic crack propagation into a dry snow slab, to assess the possibility of crack arrest due to the presence of weak zones distributed along the snow slope. As a consequence of the first triggering mechanism (the Mode II fracture propagation on the weak plane), the secondary Mode I crack propagation in the crown is studied by means of numerical simulations based on Dynamic Elastic Fracture Mechanics and on the theory of crack arresters. By taking into account kinetic energy and using the FEM software FRANC 2D (Wawrzynek and Ingraffea, 1993), several paths of crown fracture propagation and their stability have been investigated. The snowpack is considered as a linear-elastic plate (2D problem), whose physical and mechanical parameters are chosen according to classical literature values. To investigate the possible arrest of crown fracture, we apply the theory of crack arresters, usually adopted for pipelines and perforated steel sheets fracture problems. To study crack arrest, different crack paths are simulated, in discontinuous (equipped with different shapes and geometries of artificial voids) snowpacks. The simulations show the effectiveness of these weak zones, to reduce substantially the crack driving force of the propagating fracture. This means that, increasing spatial variability tends to stabilize the snow slope, eventually splitting a major avalanche event into smaller, independent avalanches. Our

  3. Oscillations in Arcturus from WIRE photometry

    OpenAIRE

    Retter, A.; Bedding, T.; Buzasi, D. L.; Kjeldsen, H.; Kiss, L. L.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the red giant Arcturus (Alpha Boo) obtained with the star tracker on the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) satellite during a baseline of 19 successive days in 2000 July-August are analysed. The amplitude spectrum has a significant excess of power at low-frequencies. The highest peak is at about 4.1 micro-Hz (2.8 d), which is in agreement with previous ground-based radial velocity studies. The variability of Arcturus can be explained by sound waves, but it is not clear wheth...

  4. Oscillations in Arcturus from WIRE photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Retter, A; Buzasi, D L; Kjeldsen, H; Kiss, L L

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the red giant Arcturus (Alpha Boo) obtained with the star tracker on the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) satellite during a baseline of 19 successive days in 2000 July-August are analysed. The amplitude spectrum has a significant excess of power at low-frequencies. The highest peak is at about 4.1 micro-Hz (2.8 d), which is in agreement with previous ground-based radial velocity studies. The variability of Arcturus can be explained by sound waves, but it is not clear whether these are coherent p-mode oscillations or a single mode with a short life-time.

  5. Sistema prototipo Fly-by-Wire

    OpenAIRE

    García Abián, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Este proyecto está destinado a ofrecer una herramienta a la carrera de aeronáutica para realizar experimentos de navegación y seguimiento de aviones, de la forma más real posible. Con este prototipo lo que se pretende es introducir practicas reales a esta carrera. En este documento se presenta un prototipo para guiado de aviones Radio control (RC). Se ha diseñado la implementación de un sistema FLY by WIRE (FbW) reducido, para incorporarlo en un modelo de RC, capaz de recoge...

  6. Electrical properties analysis of wire mesh for mesh reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuanjie; Su, Jinguo

    2011-07-01

    The knitted wire mesh is often used as a reflecting surface of large deployable antennas. Different weaves have different electrical properties and it is very important and necessary to research the method of analyzing the electrical properties of wire mesh. This paper has developed an effective method to address the problem. First, a periodic unit of wire model in actual complex mesh structure is converted into an equivalent strip model according to the correlation between strip width and wire diameter. The equivalent regular wire-grid unit of the strip model is derived from the equivalences between the wire-grid unit and the strip model in near and far fields. Then the regular wire-grid units are arranged to form an equivalent mesh surface with the corresponding weave pattern, so the electrical properties of the mesh surface are equivalent to those of the actual mesh structure. Through analyzing electrical properties of the mesh surface including amplitude difference, phase difference and reflecting loss, we can find out the electrical properties of the actual knitted wire mesh. The single satin mesh and a two-bar tricot mesh are used as examples to illustrate the method of electrical properties analysis of wire mesh.

  7. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates for Nano wires Array Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the process developed to fabricate anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates suitable for the fabrication of nano wire arrays. Anodization process has been used to fabricate the AAO templates with pore diameters ranging from 15 nm to 30 nm. Electrodeposition of parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were demonstrated using these fabricated AAO templates. The nano wires produced were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the orientations of the electrodeposited nickel nano wires were governed by the deposition current and electrolyte conditions. (author)

  8. Seal Wire Integrity Verification Instrument: Evaluation of Laboratory Prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamper indicating devices (TIDs) provide evidence that sensitive items, to which they have been applied, have been tampered with or not. Passive wire-loop seals, a class of TIDs, are generally comprised of a multi-strand seal wire that is threaded through or around key features and a unique seal body that captures and restrains the seal wire. Seal integrity resides with unique identification of the seal and the integrity of the seal body and the seal wire. Upon inspection, the seal wire may be cut and the full length inspected. A new seal may be applied in the field as a replacement, if desired. Seal wire inspection typically requires visual and tactile examinations, which are both subjective. A need therefore exists to develop seal wire inspection technology that is easy to use in the field, is objective, provides an auditable data trail, and has low error rates. Expected benefits, if successfully implemented, are improved on-site inspection reliability and security. The work scope for this effort was restricted to integrity of seal wire used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and resulted in development of a wire integrity verification instrument (WIVI) laboratory prototype. Work included a performance evaluation of a laboratory-bench-top system, and design and delivery of two WIVI laboratory prototypes. The paper describes the basic physics of the eddy current measurement, a description of the WIVI laboratory prototype, and an initial evaluation performed by IAEA personnel.

  9. Ultrahigh-strength submicron-sized metallic glass wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ deformation experiments were performed in a transmission electron microscope to investigate the mechanical properties of submicron-sized Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 metallic glass (MG) wires. Results show that the submicron-sized MG wires exhibit intrinsic ultrahigh tensile strength of ∼2.8 GPa, which is nearly twice as high as that in their bulk counterpart, and ∼5% elastic strain approaching the elastic limits. The tensile strength, engineering strain at failure and deformation mode of the submicron-sized MG wires depend on the diameter of the wires

  10. Framtidslayout för Motala Wire Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tonring, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis was conducted at Motala Wire Works Ltd (MWW) in Motala during the autumn and winter of 2007-2008. The thesis named “Future layout of Motala Wire Works” focuses on making a better planed layout for the factory, which also take in to consideration future changes. Motala Wire Work produces wire mesh products of varying sorts for the white goods industry. The factory was started by Electrolux during the 1950’s. The factory was bought by Motalaverken and got it’s present form in...

  11. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  12. Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Aging Wire Insulation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2001-01-01

    Environmentally aged wire insulation can become brittle and crack and thus expose the underlying conductive wire to the potential for short circuits and fire. The feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to measure insulation condition was examined. First a simple model to study guided wave propagation in a bare and thin plastic coated wire was examined and then some aviation grade wire samples that had been heat-damaged. Initial measurements indicate that ultrasonic guided wave velocity can be used to monitor insulation stiffness.

  13. Analyzing a Vibrating Wire Transducer using Coupled Resonator Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POP, S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to be an approach on the vibrating wire transducer from the perspective of the necessary rules used for a correct measurement procedure. There are several studies which analyze the vibrating wire transducer as a mechanical system. However, a comparative time-domain analysis between the mechanical and the electrical model is lacking. The transducer analysis is based on a theoretical analysis of the equivalent circuit, on both excitation and response time intervals. The electrical model consists of two magnetic coupled resonating circuits. When connected to an excitation source, there will be an energy transfer from the coil to the wire. The maximum energy transfer will occur at the vibrating wire's frequency of resonance. Using the transient regime analysis, it has been proven that, in the response time interval - when the wire vibrates freely, the current through the circuit that models the wire describes the oscillating movement of the wire. A complex signal is obtained, that contains both coil's and wire's frequencies of resonance, strongly dependent with theirs parasitic elements. The mathematical analysis highlights the similarity between mechanical and electrical model and the procedures in order to determine the wire frequency of resonance from the output signal.

  14. Elastic anisotropy in multifilament Nb$_3$Sn superconducting wires

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Alknes, P; Arnau, G; Bjoerstad, R; Bordini, B

    2015-01-01

    The elastic anisotropy caused by the texture in the Nb3Sn filaments of PIT and RRP wires has been calculated by averaging the estimates of Voigt and Reuss, using published Nb3Sn single crystal elastic constants and the Nb3Sn grain orientation distribution determined in both wire types by Electron Backscatter Diffraction. At ambient temperature the calculated Nb3Sn E-moduli in axial direction in the PIT and the RRP wire are 130 GPa and 140 GPa, respectively. The calculated E-moduli are compared with tensile test results obtained for the corresponding wires and extracted filament bundles.

  15. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire fixation for humerus shaft fractures in children: A treatment concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be treated surgically. In the present study, Kirschner wires (K-wire were used to achieve a closed intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary K-wires for the treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from June 2005 to June 2010. Sixty-eight children with a mean age of 7.7 years (range, 2-14 years were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of humerus shaft. All patients were operated under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed for 12 months. Results: Out of 68 patients, 64 patients underwent union in 42-70 days with a mean of 56 days. Complications found in four patients who had insignificant delayed union which were united next 3 weeks. Intramedullary K-wires were removed after an average of 5 months without any complications. The results were excellent in 94.11% and good in 5% children. Conclusion: This technique is simple, quick to perform, safe and reliable and avoids prolonged hospitalization with good results and is economical.

  16. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF PLASTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WIRE OF STEEL 70 AT HIGH-SPEED WIRE DRAWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Bobarikin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The carried out numerical experiments subject to initial and boundary conditions indicate that mathematical model of elastic-plastic characteristics of steel 90 can be used for numerical calculations of wire drawing routes for this grade of steel.

  17. Fabrication of Wire Mesh Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery Using Wire-Arc Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaey, R.; Salavati, S.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2014-04-01

    Waste heat can be recovered from hot combustion gases using water-cooled heat exchangers. Adding fins to the external surfaces of the water pipes inserted into the hot gases increases their surface area and enhances heat transfer, increasing the efficiency of heat recovery. A method of increasing the heat transfer surface area has been developed using a twin wire-arc thermal spray system to generate a dense, high-strength coating that bonds wire mesh to the outside surfaces of stainless steel pipes through which water passes. At the optimum spray distance of 150 mm, the oxide content, coating porosity, and the adhesion strength of the coating were measured to be 7%, 2%, and 24 MPa, respectively. Experiments were done in which heat exchangers were placed inside a high-temperature oven with temperature varying from 300 to 900 °C. Several different heat exchanger designs were tested to estimate the total heat transfer in each case. The efficiency of heat transfer was found to depend strongly on the quality of the bond between the wire meshes and pipes and the size of openings in the wire mesh.

  18. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here

  19. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.

    2000-05-23

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  20. Formation of highly structured dense cores from exploding wires with 1--5 kAper wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of the current-induced explosion of fine (7.5--40 microm diameter) metal wires has been studied experimentally for times up to 12 micros at 1--5 kA/wire. The main diagnostic technique is direct x-ray backlighting imaging of the exploding wires with 1 microm scale spatial resolution, obtained by using very short-time ( 30 kA per wire), exploding wires typically show fast evaporation and ionization of the wire surface forming an unstable coronal plasma around a dense core. However, in the low-current regime (17/cm2 areal density). During the foam formation, the wire remnant typically expands ten times in diameter, keeping the cylindrical form of the original wire. In the final stage (4) of the discharge (>5 micros), when the current through the wire remnant is negligible, the slow cooling of the sponge leads to a tree-like structure with gradual condensation of the remaining liquid phase material into separate drops. No typical plasma phenomena such as pinching and collapse of the plasma column are observed in these low current experiments. This behavior is typical for metals with high melting and boiling temperatures, W, Mo, NiCr and Ti, which also have relatively high resistivity, but not for Au, which vaporizes rapidly and with little structure

  1. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  2. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wire chamber radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced

  3. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2015-11-01

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists and biologists alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, though. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross-section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, hierarchic structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition. Our findings demonstrate the dramatic impact of friction and confinement elasticity on filamentous packing and might drive future research on such systems in physics, biology and even medical technology toward including these mutually interacting effects.

  4. A New Superconducting Wire for Future Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CARE/NED project has developed a new superconducting wire that can achieve very high currents (1400 amps) at high magnetic fields (12 teslas). Cross-section of the CARE/NED wire produced by SMI. As we prepare to enter a new phase of particle physics with the LHC, technological development is a continuous process to ensure the demands of future research are met. The next generation of colliders and upgrades of the present ones will require significantly larger magnetic fields for bending and focusing the particle beams. NED (Next European Dipole) is one of the projects taking on this challenge to push technology beyond the present limit (see: More about NED). The magnets in the LHC rely on niobium titanium (NbTi) as the superconducting material, with a maximum magnetic field of 8 to 10T (tesla). In order to exceed this limitation, a different material together with the corresponding technology needs to be developed. NED is assessing the suitability of niobium tin (Nb3Sn), which has the potential to at le...

  5. [Ethics of organ retrieval after controlled cardiac arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaert, P

    2011-01-01

    The article tells the evolution of the terminology concerning non heart beating donors during the two last decades and describes summarily the procedure of organ retrieval after controlled cardiac arrest. We then consider the various ethical problems created by this practice. We discuss in detail therapeutic withdrawal, the treatment of the donor during the agonal period, death certification, the doctor's conflict of interests, the presence of the family at the time of death, the quality of the organs and organ retrieval after euthanasia. PMID:22279852

  6. Axial crack propagation and arrest in pressurized fuselage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, M.; Shimamoto, A.; Yu, C.-T.; Walker, S. I.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Tan, P.

    1994-01-01

    The crack arrest capability of a tear strap in a pressurized precracked fuselage was studied through instrumented axial rupture tests of small scale models of an idealized fuselage. Upon pressurization, rapid crack propagation initiated at an axial through crack along the stringer and immediately kinked due to the mixed modes 1 and 2 state caused by the one-sided opening of the crack flap. The diagonally running crack further turned at the tear straps. Dynamic finite element analysis of the rupturing cylinder showed that the crack kinked and also ran straight in the presence of a mixed mode state according to a modified two-parameter crack kinking criterion.

  7. Cardiac arrest caused by multiple recurrent pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannig, Kjartan Eskjaer; Husted, Steen Elkjaer; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common condition with a high mortality. We describe a previously healthy 68-year-old male who suffered three pulmonary embolisms during a short period of time, including two embolisms while on anticoagulant treatment. This paper illustrates three important points. (1) The ...... and may be life-saving in patients with cardiac arrest suspected to be caused by pulmonary embolism.......) The importance of optimal anticoagulant treatment in the prevention of pulmonary embolism reoccurrence. (2) The benefit of immediate accessibility to echocardiography in the handling of haemodynamically unstable patients with an unknown underlying cause. (3) Thrombolytic treatment should always be considered...

  8. The inflammatory marker suPAR after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rundgren, Malin; Lyngbaek, Stig; Fisker, Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is released in response to inflammatory stimuli, and plasma levels are associated with long-term outcomes. The ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation triggers an inflammatory response...... analysis shoved an AUC of 0.76 at 6 hours. In the subgroup of CA of cardiac cause, the AUC was 0.84. CONCLUSION: suPAR levels at 6 and 36 hours after CA were significantly higher in nonsurviving patients compared with survivors; however, the overlap in suPAR levels between the outcome groups...

  9. Case study: flame arresters and exploding gasoline containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbring, Lori C

    2006-03-17

    This paper describes the case study of a portable plastic gasoline container explosion and fire. While working at home on a science project to determine the burn rates of different types of wood fuel, a 14-year-old boy was severely burned after flames traveled back up into the portable gasoline container and exploded. A witness heard the explosion and reports that the flames went perhaps 10 ft in the air. It is shown by experimentation that a flame arrester installed in the pour opening of the portable gasoline container would have prevented an explosion inside the gasoline container.

  10. Bleeding following deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Emad B; Machado, Sandra; Apostolakis, John

    2007-03-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a technique of extracorporeal circulation commonly used in children with complex congenital heart defects undergoing surgical repairs. The use of profound cooling (20 degrees C) and complete cessation of circulation allow adequate exposure and correction of these complex lesions, with enhanced cerebral protection. However, the profound physiologic state of DHCA results in significant derangement of the coagulation system and a high incidence of postoperative bleeding. This review examines the impact of DHCA on bleeding and transfusion requirements in children and the pathophysiology of DHCA-induced platelet dysfunction. It also focuses on possible pharmacologic interventions to decrease bleeding following DHCA in children. PMID:17484172

  11. Effectiveness of installing two pairs of distribution surge arresters in parallel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Asakawa, Akira; Yokoyama, Shigeru [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Nakada, Kazuo [Hokurika Electric Power Co. (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Lightning strokes with a large amount of energy sometimes occur on the Sea of Japan coast in winter. Winter lightning often damages overhead power distribution lines, in particular, those supplying power to high structures located in mountainous areas. We have investigated that the ratio of surge arrester outages with respect to all damaged installations on such power distribution lines is largest at approximately 50%. We have examined the effectiveness of installing two pairs of surge arresters in parallel on a single pole as a method for preventing distribution surge arrester outages experimentally. We have clarified that to install surge arresters in parallel is effective in reducing the energy absorbed by surge arresters if these surge arresters have almost the same discharge voltage and voltage-current characteristics. (author)

  12. Representations of Education in HBO's "The Wire", Season 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2010-01-01

    "The Wire" is a crime drama that aired for five seasons on the Home Box Office (HBO) cable channel from 2002-2008. The entire series is set in Baltimore, Maryland, and as Kinder (2008) points out, "Each season "The Wire" shifts focus to a different segment of society: the drug wars, the docks, city politics, education, and the media" (p. 52). In…

  13. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting...

  14. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from...

  15. Transmission channels through Na and Al atom wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, N.; Brandbyge, Mads; Tsukada, M.

    1999-01-01

    First-principles calculations of the transmission channels of single-atom-width Na and Al atom wires bridged between metallic jellium electrodes are presented. For the Na wire, a single channel contributes to the conduction with an almost full quantization value, 2e(2)/h. The conductance...

  16. Electronic transport in Si:P δ-doped wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, J. S.; Drumm, D. W.; Budi, Akin;

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of Si:P δ-doped wires for modern nanoelectronics, there are currently no computational models of electron transport in these devices. In this paper we present a nonequilibrium Green’s function model for electronic transport in a δ-doped wire, which is described by a tight...

  17. Variations in the Magnetic Torque Acting on a Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonati, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The relation M = [mu] x B is presented in all elementary courses on electromagnetism, but it is usually given just for the simple case of a rectangular wire. We will present a completely general but elementary proof of this relation together with two more advanced proof methods. We will then provide some extensions: non-closed wires and…

  18. Behaviour of Nb3Sn multifilamentary wire with H additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports the effect of the addition of hydrogen on the superconducting performance of a Nb3Sn multifilamentary wire. Thermodynamic properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat) are also determined in order to investigate the effect of the doping on the stability of the wire. (author)

  19. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... notice in the Federal Register of April 7, 2011 (76 FR 19382). The conference was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in...

  20. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... notice in the Federal Register on November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72721). The hearing was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings...

  1. Transport properties of bismuth nano-wire systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Ying, J. Y.; Heremans, J.

    1998-03-01

    Ultra-fine Bi nano-wires (10--120 nm diameter) with packing density as high as 7×10^10/cm^2 were fabricated by pressure injecting molten Bi into the evacuated channels of an anodic alumina template. The resulting Bi nano-wires are shown to be single crystals (with the same structure as bulk Bi) and all the nano-wires are similarly oriented. The small effective mass of Bi, high anisotropy of its Fermi surface, and the high aspect ratio (length/diameter) of Bi nano-wires make this an excellent system for studying quantum confinement effects in a one-dimensional (1D) electron gas. Transport properties, such as electrical conductivity, magnetoresistance and thermoelectric power, are investigated for both Bi nano-wire arrays and free-standing Bi nano-wires with various wire diameters (10-120 nm) and Te doping concentrations (0.025-0.5 at.%), and at various temperatures and magnetic fields. A theoretical model based on the basic band structure of bulk Bi, suitably modified for the 1D situation, explains the many unusual effects that are observed. Strong evidence is provided for an interesting quantum confinement-induced semimetal to semiconductor transition in such Bi nano-wires.

  2. 26 CFR 49.4252-7 - Wire and equipment service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Wire and equipment service. 49.4252-7 Section 49.4252-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... service or any service furnished by any means other than wire communication. Tax is imposed on the...

  3. A KBE Application for Automatic Aircraft Wire Harness Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; La Rocca, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wire harness design is an increasingly complex task. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) and optimization techniques can be used to support designers in handling this complexity. The wire harness design process can be divided in three main parts, namely electrical design, configuration design and geom

  4. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of...

  5. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not exceed 150 volts; (B) If the system is nominally rated three-phase, four-wire wye connected in which the neutral is used as a circuit conductor; (C) If the system is nominally rated three-phase, four... single-phase, three-wire system shall be grounded; (iii) The common conductor of a multiphase...

  7. Control of flow past a circular cylinder via a spanwise surface wire: effect of the wire scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekmekci, Alis [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rockwell, Donald [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Flow phenomena induced by a single spanwise wire on the surface of a circular cylinder are investigated via a cinema technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The primary aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of the wire scale. To this end, consideration is given to wires with different diameters that are 0.5, 1.2, and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter. The Reynolds number has a subcritical value of 10,000. Compared to the thickness of the unperturbed boundary layer developing around the cylinder between 5 and 75 from the forward stagnation point, the former two wires have smaller scales and the latter has a larger scale. Two angular locations of the wire, defined with respect to the forward stagnation point of the cylinder, are found to be critical. When the wire is located at these critical angles, either the most significant extension or the contraction of the time-mean separation bubble occurs in the near wake. These critical angles depend on the wire scale: the smaller the wire, the larger the critical angle. The small-scale and large-scale wires that have diameters of 1.2 and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter induce bistable shear-layer oscillations between different separation modes when placed at their respective critical angles corresponding to maximum extension of the near-wake bubble. These oscillations have irregular time intervals that are much longer than the time scale associated with the classical Karman instability. Moreover, the large-scale wire can either significantly attenuate or intensify the Karman mode of vortex shedding at the critical states; in contrast, the small-scale wires do not notably alter the strength of the Karman instability. (orig.)

  8. Brazilian production development of class 2 polymeric surge arresters for transmission line application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellallibera, Adriano A. [Industria Eletromecanica Balestro, Mogi Mirim, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: adrianoad@balestro.com; Andrade, Antonio Donizetti de; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Guara; Duarte, Jose Vicente Pereira; Gois, Paulo Marcio Batista; Markiewicz, Rubens Leopoldo [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], Emails: andonize@cemig.com.br, anacris@cemig.com.br, vicente@cemig.com.br, pgois@cemig.com.br, rlmark@cemig.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper shows the steeps of Brazilian class 2 ZnO lightning surge arrester development and production, aiming to attend the goal of CEMIG transmission lines performance improvement against lightning discharges action. The description of CEMIG transmission lines performance, before and after the ZnO lightning arresters installation, the necessity of use of ZnO lightning surge arrester, the prototypes manufacture, tests, problems and solutions are presented. (author)

  9. Application and Analysis for Surge Arrester on Lightning Protection of Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively reduce lightning stroke outage rate, effect of lightning protection with surge arrester on transmission line has been generally acknowledged relative to other lightning protection measures. This article introduces in such aspects as the working principle of line surge arrester and effect of lightning protection, and also explores application for lightning arrester of distribution network to achieve difference lightning protection and improve the lightning protection performance of distribution network.

  10. Application and Analysis for Surge Arrester on Lightning Protection of Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daxing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively reduce lightning stroke outage rate, effect of lightning protection with surge arrester on transmission line has been generally acknowledged relative to other lightning protection measures. This article introduces in such aspects as the working principle of line surge arrester and effect of lightning protection, and also explores application for lightning arrester of distribution network to achieve difference lightning protection and improve the lightning protection performance of distribution network.

  11. Crack propagation and arrest in CFRP materials with strain softening regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilligan, Matthew Anthony

    Understanding the growth and arrest of cracks in composite materials is critical for their effective utilization in fatigue-sensitive and damage susceptible applications such as primary aircraft structures. Local tailoring of the laminate stack to provide crack arrest capacity intermediate to major structural components has been investigated and demonstrated since some of the earliest efforts in composite aerostructural design, but to date no rigorous model of the crack arrest mechanism has been developed to allow effective sizing of these features. To address this shortcoming, the previous work in the field is reviewed, with particular attention to the analysis methodologies proposed for similar arrest features. The damage and arrest processes active in such features are investigated, and various models of these processes are discussed and evaluated. Governing equations are derived based on a proposed mechanistic model of the crack arrest process. The derived governing equations are implemented in a numerical model, and a series of simulations are performed to ascertain the general characteristics of the proposed model and allow qualitative comparison to existing experimental results. The sensitivity of the model and the arrest process to various parameters is investigated, and preliminary conclusions regarding the optimal feature configuration are developed. To address deficiencies in the available material and experimental data, a series of coupon tests are developed and conducted covering a range of arrest zone configurations. Test results are discussed and analyzed, with a particular focus on identification of the proposed failure and arrest mechanisms. Utilizing the experimentally derived material properties, the tests are reproduced with both the developed numerical tool as well as a FEA-based implementation of the arrest model. Correlation between the simulated and experimental results is analyzed, and future avenues of investigation are identified

  12. UCSF Protocol for Caries Arrest Using Silver Diamine Fluoride: Rationale, Indications and Consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jeremy A; Ellenikiotis, Hellene; Milgrom, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently cleared silver diamine fluoride for reducing tooth sensitivity. Clinical trials document arrest and prevention of dental caries by silver diamine fluoride. This off-label use is now permissible and appropriate under U.S. law. A CDT code was approved for caries arresting medicaments for 2016 to facilitate documentation and billing. We present a systematic review, clinical indications, clinical protocol and consent procedure to guide application for caries arrest treatment. PMID:26897901

  13. Developmentally arrested structures preceding cerebellar tumors in von Hippel–Lindau disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shively, Sharon B; Falke, Eric A; Li, Jie; Tran, Maxine G B; Thompson, Eli R; Maxwell, Patrick H; Roessler, Erich; Oldfield, Edward H; Lonser, Russell R.; Vortmeyer, Alexander O

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that suggests that knockout of tumor-suppressor gene function causes developmental arrest and protraction of cellular differentiation. In the peripheral nervous system of patients with the tumor-suppressor gene disorder, von Hippel–Lindau disease, we have demonstrated developmentally arrested structural elements composed of hemangioblast progenitor cells. Some developmentally arrested structural elements progress to a frank tumor, hemangioblastoma. However, in von...

  14. Metal oxide surge arrester research at the University of South Australia: An evaluation of polymer housed arresters and a new device for condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghurst, A.H. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia); Buratto, F. [Powercor Australia Ltd., Southbank, VIC (Australia); Krieg, T.W. [ETSA Transmission, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The use of polymer housed surge arresters within Australia has dramatically increased over the last 2-3 years. Unfortunately, the development of standards for testing polymer housed arresters has not kept pace with the development of these components. This paper describes on-going research at the Australian Electrical Testing Centre, University of South Australia, aimed at furthering knowledge about the performance of metal oxide surge arresters in the field. One project seeks to evaluate a range of polymer-housed arresters from different manufacturers with respect to seal integrity and accelerated ageing under a variety of environmental conditions. Test equipment being developed to perform the tests is described, and those parts of the new draft Australia standard relating to the performance of polymer-housed arresters critically reviewed. A second project involves the development of a new hand-held device for the measurement of that component of arrester leakage current which is in phase with the applied voltage. This parameter is widely accepted as a key indicator of the condition of a metal oxide arrester. The new device should be an order of magnitude cheaper than comparable commercial equipment currently available, and employs a micro controller to perform the required signal processing. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 11 refs.

  15. Radiofrequency heating effects around resonant lengths of wire in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pictet, Jacqueline; Klink, Jacques J. van der [Faculte des Sciences de Base, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jacques.vanderklink@epfl.ch; Meuli, Reto; Wicky, Stephan [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department, CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-08-21

    Several recent reports agree that the potentially dangerous heating around extended wires or coaxial cables inside the bodycoil of a magnetic resonance imager is related to resonant effects. No quantitative description of this idea has been given so far. We analyse a simplified situation, where a straight metallic wire is completely surrounded by a large volume of homogeneous dielectric with a small conductivity. If it has the correct length, the wire acts as a receiving-and-retransmission antenna, changing the axial symmetry of the incoming electric field into a radially outgoing electric field near the wire ends. The latter field points into the conducting surroundings, causing dissipation. Some simple experiments on geometries related to this theoretical model provide support to the main conclusions. These suggest that under actual imaging conditions resonant effects might be avoided by choosing a wire length of about 2 m. However, more experimental work remains to be done to validate this suggestion. (author)

  16. Deformation Analysis of Surface Crack in Rolling and Wire Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Kazunari

    The surface flaw of a drawn wire has a significant influence on the quality of a product. High-surface-quality drawn wires and rods have been required for the manufacture of automobiles and machines. Wire breaks due to large surface defects are common problems in wire drawing. The authors carried out rolling and multi-pass drawing of a stainless-steel wire with an artificial scratch, and investigated the growth and disappearance of a scratch from both sides by experiments and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). When the scratch angle is small, the scratch side surfaces are pushed toward each other and the scratch becomes an overlap defect. In contrast, when the scratch angle is large, the bottom of the scratch rises, and the scratch is recovered satisfactorily. Furthermore, the scratch shape and the drawing conditions were varied, and the deformation state of a scratch was clarified.

  17. Development of Rotary Axis For Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parthiban, C. Manigandan, G. Muthu Venkadesh, M. Ranjith Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of setting up a rotary axis to the existing WEDM machine to investigate the machining parameters in WEDG of harder materials. There are a number of hybrid machining processes (HMPs seeking the combined advantage of EDM and other machining techniques. One such combination is wire electrical discharge grinding (WEDG, which is commonly used for micro-machining of fine and hard rods. WEDG employs a single wire guide to confine the wire tension within the discharge area between the rod and the front edge of the wire and also to minimize the wire vibration. Other advantages of WEDG include the ability to machine hard- to- machine materials with large aspect ratio.

  18. Towards slide enhancement with the titanium-molybdenum wire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Pol; Barthélémi, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to improve the tribological properties of titanium-molybdenum wire. Following an analysis of the wire/bracket/ligation friction parameters and an overview of the technological research into means of reducing such friction,we set up several types of surface treatment in the laboratory by physical deposition in the vapor phase and using cold plasma technology. The specimens obtained underwent two types of tribological tests and were then subjected to traction and bending tests in order to determine the variations in their mechanical properties induced by the different types of treatment. For purposes of comparison, all the tests were conducted on untreated wire, TMA® Low-friction® wire and stainless steel wire and with two types of elastomeric ties. We were able to demonstrate some remarkable slide performances obtained using cold plasma nitriding while preserving the mechanical properties. A significant difference was observed relative to the other surface treatments.

  19. Generation and Analysis of Wire Rope Digital Radiographic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhlov, S.; Anpilogov, P.; Batranin, A.; Osipov, S.; Zhumabekova, Sh; Yadrenkin, I.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealt with different structures of the digital radiographic system intended for wire rope radiography. The scanning geometry of the wire rope is presented and the main stages of its digital radiographic image generation are identified herein. Correction algorithms are suggested for X-ray beam hardening. A complex internal structure of the wire rope is illustrated by its 25 mm diameter image obtained from X-ray computed tomography. The paper considers the approach to the analysis of digital radiographic image algorithms based on the closeness of certain parameters (invariants) of all unit cross-sections of the reference wire rope or its sections with the length equaling to the lay. The main invariants of wire rope radiographic images are identified and compared with its typical defects.

  20. Intermetallic alloy welding wires and method for fabricating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-11

    Welding wires for welding together intermetallic alloys of nickel aluminides, nickel-iron aluminides, iron aluminides, or titanium aluminides, and preferably including additional alloying constituents are fabricated as two-component, clad structures in which one component contains the primary alloying constituent(s) except for aluminum and the other component contains the aluminum constituent. This two-component approach for fabricating the welding wire overcomes the difficulties associated with mechanically forming welding wires from intermetallic alloys which possess high strength and limited ductilities at elevated temperatures normally employed in conventional metal working processes. The composition of the clad welding wires is readily tailored so that the welding wire composition when melted will form an alloy defined by the weld deposit which substantially corresponds to the composition of the intermetallic alloy being joined. 4 figs.

  1. Proposal of thermal neutron flux monitors based on vibrating wire

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Chung, M; Harutyunyan, G S; Lazareva, E G

    2015-01-01

    Two types of neutron monitors with fine spatial resolution are proposed based on vibrating wire. In the first type, neutrons interact with the vibrating wire, heat it, and lead to the change of natural frequency, which can be precisely measured. To increase the heat deposition during the neutron scattering, use of gadolinium layer which has the highest thermal neutron capture cross section among all elements is proposed. The second type of the monitor uses vibrating wire as a resonant target. Besides the measurement of beam profile according to the average signal, the differential signal synchronized with the wire oscillations defines the gradient of beam profile. Spatial resolution of the monitor is defined by the diameter of the wire.

  2. Recent developments on superconducting magnesium diboride wires and tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soltanian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available  MgB2 wire and tape were prepared using the powder in tube and reaction in-situ technique. All samples were characterized using the XRD, SEM, TEM, as well as transport and magnetic measurements. High transport and magnetic critical current density values have been obtained for metal-clad wires and tapes. Different sheath materials have been examined, but Fe appears to be the best sheath for MgB2 superconductors. In addition to wires and tapes we also attempt to prepare superconducting coils. Results on transport Jc of solenoid coils up to 100 turns fabricated with Cu-sheathed MgB2 wires using a wind-reaction in-situ technique are reported. The results indicate that the MgB2 wires have potential for large scale applications.

  3. The Researches on Performance and Technology of Strengthened Pure Platinum Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Buying; WU Baoan; PAN Xiong; YANG Hao; WANG Yunchun; CHEN Xiaojun; WANG Jianshen; LI Guogang; XUE Liqian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses about the purity of strengthened pure platinum wire and the development method of platinum micro wire,in order to solve the difficulties of low tensile strength,easy to break,and low rate of micro wire.And it contrasts some performance of strengthened pure platinum wire and sponge Pt wire.The researches draw a conclusion that the thermoelectric properties of strengthened pure platinum micro wire was in accordance with national standards and satisfied users' requirements.

  4. Dynamic crack propagation and arrest in orthotropic DCB fiber composite specimens. [Double Cantilever Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.; Kousiounelos, P. N.

    1981-01-01

    An orthotropic double cantilever beam (DCB) model is used to study dynamic crack propagation and arrest in 90 deg unidirectional Hercules AS/3501-6 graphite fiber epoxy composites. The dynamic fracture toughness of the composite is determined from tests performed on the long-strip specimen and DCB crack arrest experiments are conducted. By using the dynamic fracture toughness in a finite-difference solution of the DCB governing partial differential equations, a numerical solution of the crack propagation and arrest events is computed. Excellent agreement between the experimental and numerical crack arrest results are obtained.

  5. Controlling electromagnetic scattering with wire metamaterial resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Filonov, Dmitry S; Iorsh, Ivan; Belov, Pavel A; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of radiation is required for enabling a span of electromagnetic applications. Since properties of antennas and scatterers are very sensitive to a surrounding environment, macroscopic artificially created materials are good candidates for shaping their characteristics. In particular, metamaterials enable controlling both dispersion and density of electromagnetic states, available for scattering from an object. As the result, properly designed electromagnetic environment could govern waves' phenomena. Here electromagnetic properties of scattering dipoles, situated inside a wire medium (metamaterial) are analyzed both numerically and experimentally. Impact of the metamaterial geometry, dipole arrangement inside the medium, and frequency of the incident radiation on scattering phenomena was studied. It was shown that the resonance of the dipole hybridizes with Fabry-Perot modes of the metamaterial, giving rise to a complete reshaping of electromagnetic properties. Regimes of controlled scattering sup...

  6. Microstructures of 2219 twin wire welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenli; Li Qingfen; Meng Qingguo; Gao Na; Fang Hongyuan

    2005-01-01

    With thick plates of 2219 high-strength alloy, the microstructures of welded joints with twin wire MIG welding were analyzed. Experimental results show that no hot crack was found in the weld due to discontinuous distribution of cocrystallization with low melting temperature, but porosity is serious in the first weld seam that is mainly composed of equiaxial grains with uneven sizes. As the poor position of the whole welded joint, fusion zone has big and coarse grains,uneven microstructures ; In quenching zone, there exist a lot of soaked microstructures that cocrystallization with low melting temperature solute into matrix, thus strengthening the metal in this zone; In excessive aging zone, much more phases that distribute evenly will be separated from the matrix; Outside this zone, properties and microstructures of the metal are basically similar to matrix due to the relatively low temperature or unaffected heat in the zone during welding.

  7. Frame-mounted wire management device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grushkowitz, Tyler; Fischer, Kevin; Danning, Matthew

    2016-09-20

    A wire management device is disclosed. The device comprises a clip comprising an upper planar member and a lower planar member, each planar member having an inner and outer surface, wherein the inner surface of the upper planar member includes a post extending toward the inner surface of the lower planar member, a stem extending from the outer surface of the lower planar member, the stem including two outwardly-extending flanges, each of the first and second outwardly-extending flanges including an edge portion extending toward the outer surface of the lower planar member, and a transverse passage extending along the outer surface of the lower planar member, the transverse passage extending across the stem, wherein the stem has a recessed portion along the transverse passage.

  8. A Compressed Sensing Wire-Tap Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Galen; Milosavljevic, Nebojsa; Gastpar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A multiplicative Gaussian wire-tap channel inspired by compressed sensing is studied. Lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived, and shown to be relatively tight in the large system limit for a large class of compressed sensing matrices. Surprisingly, it is shown that the secrecy capacity of this channel is nearly equal to the capacity without any secrecy constraint provided that the channel of the eavesdropper is strictly worse than the channel of the intended receiver. In other words, the eavesdropper can see almost everything and yet learn almost nothing. This behavior, which contrasts sharply with that of many commonly studied wiretap channels, is made possible by the fact that a small number of linear projections can make a crucial difference in the ability to estimate sparse vectors.

  9. Design of Full-coverage Lightning Arrester for Windpower Generator%风力发电机全覆盖避雷器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺吉顺; 包文育; 刘东华

    2015-01-01

    为解决风力发电机可靠性较差、风阻大的问题 ,研制了一种不改变叶片的形状且覆盖面较大、安全可靠的避雷装置.此风力发电机全覆盖避雷器安装在叶片里面且在叶片尖端伸出避雷导线 ,而各叶片的尖部之间拉有避雷拉线 ,且避雷拉线与安装在叶片里的避雷导线相连 ,进而使避雷器的覆盖面增大 ,安全性显著提升 ,大幅度提高了风轮的捕风效率 ,产生良好的效果.%In order to solve the problem of low reliability and strong ventilative resistance of wind-driven generator ,a new lightning arrester is designed to improve the coverage and reliability by installing wires inside every vane which will stretch out to the tips of the vanes .On top of each vane ,there is a stayguy .The wires and the stayguys are connected .Consequently ,wider coverage ,higher safety and more efficient wind-catching power will produce a better effect all together .

  10. In-hospital Cardiac Arrest at Cork University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E; Deasy, C

    2016-01-01

    We describe the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at Cork University Hospital over a one year time period (2011), prior to the implementation of national early warning scoring (NEWS) systems. There were 43 217 coded CUH admissions, in 2011, to 518 in-patient beds. The Hospital In-Patient Enquiry Database was used to identify adults (>/= 18 years) who sustained IHCA. Available Utstein variables were collected. Fifty-two patients were found to be incorrectly coded IHCA. 17 of 63 (27.0%) IHCA survived to discharge. IHCA with shockable rhythm had significantly higher survival. IHCA survival was significantly lower on wards versus any other hospital location. Median days of stay prior to arrest were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. All survivors (n = 17) had intact neurological outcome post-event. Our outcomes from IHCA are poorest on hospital wards when compared to other areas of the hospital. Those that survive have excellent function and one-year survival.

  11. Experience with bretylium tosylate by a hospital cardiac arrest team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, D A; Sniderman, A D; Fraser, G; Fallen, E L

    1977-03-01

    The effect of bretylium tosylate (BT) was determined in 27 consecutive cases of resistant ventricular fibrillation (VF) encountered by a hospital cardiac arrest team. The VF was sustained and completely resistant to multiple injections of lidocaine, sequential DC shocks at 400 watt-sec and one or a combination of intravenous propranolol, diphenylhydantoin or procainamide. Following 30 min of sustained cardiac massage, BT (5 mg/kg i.v.) was administered. In 20 patients, VF was terminated within 9-12 min after DC shock. Eight of these patients failed to recover while 12 (44%) of all patients resuscitated survived to be discharged from hospital. Eleven out of 20 (55%) of all patients who had a cardiac arrest outside the CCU were survivors; only one out of seven in the CCU were successfully resuscitated. While receiving maintanance BT post-resuscitation (5 mg/kg i.m. q 8-12 hrs x 48 hrs), half the patients developed hypotension and three required vasopressors and/or fluid replacement. The data indicate that BT is a useful agent in patients with sustained VF refractory to repeated lidocaine injections, some other antiarrhythmic agents, and multiple DC shocks. PMID:837490

  12. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Andrea O.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Wesenberg Kjaer, Troels; Horn, Janneke; Ullén, Susann; Friberg, Hans; Nielsen, Niklas; Rosén, Ingmar; Åneman, Anders; Erlinge, David; Gasche, Yvan; Hassager, Christian; Hovdenes, Jan; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Pellis, Tommaso; Stammet, Pascal; Wanscher, Michael; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wise, Matt P.; Cronberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Methods: In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists, blinded to outcome, evaluated prospectively recorded EEGs in the Target Temperature Management trial (TTM trial) that randomized patients to 33°C vs 36°C. Routine EEG was performed in patients still comatose after rewarming. EEGs were classified into highly malignant (suppression, suppression with periodic discharges, burst-suppression), malignant (periodic or rhythmic patterns, pathological or nonreactive background), and benign EEG (absence of malignant features). Poor outcome was defined as best Cerebral Performance Category score 3–5 until 180 days. Results: Eight TTM sites randomized 202 patients. EEGs were recorded in 103 patients at a median 77 hours after cardiac arrest; 37% had a highly malignant EEG and all had a poor outcome (specificity 100%, sensitivity 50%). Any malignant EEG feature had a low specificity to predict poor prognosis (48%) but if 2 malignant EEG features were present specificity increased to 96% (p EEG was found in 1% of the patients with a poor outcome. Conclusions: Highly malignant EEG after rewarming reliably predicted poor outcome in half of patients without false predictions. An isolated finding of a single malignant feature did not predict poor outcome whereas a benign EEG was highly predictive of a good outcome. PMID:26865516

  13. Altered brain energetics induces mitochondrial fission arrest in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Trushin, Sergey; Christensen, Trace A; Bachmeier, Benjamin V; Gateno, Benjamin; Schroeder, Andreas; Yao, Jia; Itoh, Kie; Sesaki, Hiromi; Poon, Wayne W; Gylys, Karen H; Patterson, Emily R; Parisi, Joseph E; Diaz Brinton, Roberta; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Trushina, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Altered brain metabolism is associated with progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Mitochondria respond to bioenergetic changes by continuous fission and fusion. To account for three dimensional architecture of the brain tissue and organelles, we applied 3-dimensional electron microscopy (3D EM) reconstruction to visualize mitochondrial structure in the brain tissue from patients and mouse models of AD. We identified a previously unknown mitochondrial fission arrest phenotype that results in elongated interconnected organelles, "mitochondria-on-a-string" (MOAS). Our data suggest that MOAS formation may occur at the final stages of fission process and was not associated with altered translocation of activated dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria but with reduced GTPase activity. Since MOAS formation was also observed in the brain tissue of wild-type mice in response to hypoxia or during chronological aging, fission arrest may represent fundamental compensatory adaptation to bioenergetic stress providing protection against mitophagy that may preserve residual mitochondrial function. The discovery of novel mitochondrial phenotype that occurs in the brain tissue in response to energetic stress accurately detected only using 3D EM reconstruction argues for a major role of mitochondrial dynamics in regulating neuronal survival. PMID:26729583

  14. Student perceptions of sudden cardiac arrest: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Annette; Callan, Krista; Egizio, Katelyn; Kenney, Kaye; Gray, Gillian; Mundry, Gillian; Re, Gillian

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the number one cause of death in young athletes in high school and university settings. Survival and outcomes of SCA is dependent on appropriate recognition of symptoms and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), along with a shock from an automatic external defibrillator (AED). The three aims of the authors' study presented in this article were: to describe university students' perceptions and beliefs about sudden cardiac arrest, to describe university students' understanding of an AED and their level of preparedness to recognize and respond to a life threatening emergency event, and to identify university students' experiences of responding to handling life-threatening emergency events. Qualitative methodology was employed using semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. Three major themes emerged from data analysis: confusion, uncertainty, and fear/uncomfortableness. These themes characterised participant's perceptions about SCA. The authors concluded that a lack of understanding of what SCA is and participants' inability to respond to an emergency event was evident. PMID:22585265

  15. An unusual cause of cardiac arrest in a hospitalized patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ranjan Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of 24 year old male who was hospitalized for dental procedure and developed cardiac arrest 2 days after the procedure. The patient presented with swelling of buccal cavity for which a biopsy was taken. Two days after the procedure, apparently normal patient suddenly presented at mid night with VT and VF, which were intractable requiring multiple DC shocks. During this period arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe acidosis. The circumstances led us to suspect poisoning as one of the cause for his medical condition. We looked for commonly available toxins. One of the commonly available toxins is hand sanitizer which contains Isopropyl alcohol, glycerin and perfume. Due to prolonged cardiac arrest and intractable arrhythmia patient had sustained hypoxic brain injury. Patient remained hemodynamically stable for next 9 days although his CNS status did not improve. Patient succumbed to sepsis on 9 th day. Healthcare professionals should be aware of such possibilities and treat the patients at the earliest and put a check on the easy availability of IPA based hand sanitizers.

  16. Variation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate variation in airway management strategies in one suburban emergency medical services system treating patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. Method. Retrospective chart review of all adult OHCA resuscitation during a 13-month period, specifically comparing airway management decisions. Results. Paramedics demonstrated considerable variation in their approaches to airway management. Approximately half of all OHCA patients received more than one airway management attempt (38/77 [49%], and one-quarter underwent three or more attempts (25/77 [25%]. One-third of patients arrived at the emergency department with a different airway device than initially selected (25/77 [32%]. Conclusion. This study confirmed our hypothesis that paramedics’ selection of ventilation strategies in cardiac arrest varies considerably. This observation raises concern because airway management diverts time and energy from interventions known to improve outcomes in OHCA management, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation. More research is needed to identify more focused airway management strategies for prehospital care providers.

  17. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Søholm, Helle;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopres......AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level......-score of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). The population was stratified by use of dopamine as first line intervention (D-group) or use of dopamine+norepinephrine/epinephrine (DA-group). Primary endpoint was 30-day mortality and secondary endpoint was in-hospital cause of death. RESULTS: Patients in the DA......-group carried a 49% all-cause 30-day mortality rate compared to 23% in the D-group, plog-rankCause of death...

  18. Non-equilibrium theory of arrested spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olais-Govea, José Manuel; López-Flores, Leticia; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)

    2015-11-07

    The non-equilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of irreversible relaxation [P. E. Ramŕez-González and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 82, 061503 (2010); 82, 061504 (2010)] is applied to the description of the non-equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermodynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, at lower temperature intersects the spinodal curve and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line, we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of various physical properties. We interpret these two domains as corresponding to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions and to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition. The resulting theoretical scenario is consistent with the corresponding experimental observations in a specific colloidal model system.

  19. Testing of long-flashover arresters designed for distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Filho, Orsino; Mello, Darcy Ramalho de; Oliveira, Gloria Suzana Gomes de [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: orsino@cepel.br, darcy@cepel.br, gloria@cepel.br; Podporkin, Georgij; Wey, Acacio [Streamer Electric Company (Russian Federation)], E-mails: georgij.podporkin@streamer.ru, acacio.wey@bighost.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Outages of overhead power lines due to lightning strokes are one of the main causes of shortages of electric supplies and economic losses of power utilities. Pole-top metal oxide arresters can protect distribution lines against induced over-voltages, but they can be destroyed in case of direct lightning stroke. Long Flashover Arresters (LFAs) have been developed and used successfully for this purpose and have no possibility of being destroyed because the current flows externally along its surface. Since field experience with 10 kV LFAs has been very successful, it was decided to work on developing 13.8 kV LFAs, considering that it is the predominant voltage level of overhead distribution lines in Brazil and other countries. The performance of LFA for quenching and dielectric tests has been investigated through laboratory tests under conditions that typically represent electrical energy distribution systems. Details about these tests and their results are presented in this paper. Information about their design and applications are also shortly presented (author)

  20. On the behavior of a wire of the Wire Scanner in the IPHI diagnosis line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton beam of 3 MeV energy and 100 mA intensity during 200 μs and a period T a second crosses an 150 mm x 33 μm carbon wire. The particles in the packet are distributed according to a di-Gaussian law with σX = 2 mm and σY = 6 mm. In these conditions the wire of the X plane centered in the beam acquires a peak temperature of about 1800 deg. C. The intensity of the secondary electron current recovered on the wire amounts about 306 μA. The thermo-electronic current for a time t = 200 μs (at the period T) has an intensity of 45 μA, i.e. 15% of the nominal signal. These figures for current are orders of magnitude, particularly for the thermo-electronic current where an intervening parameter is affected by a high uncertainty. The calculation method gives the spatial and time distribution of the temperatures by taking into account the radiative and conductive thermic transfers as well as the linearity of the materials characteristics as functions depending on temperature

  1. 屏蔽法测量金属氧化物避雷器的泄漏电流%Research on Leakage Current Measurement for Metal Oxide Surge Arrester with Shielding Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦锟

    2015-01-01

    Leakage current is an important parameter of characterization of its performance, as the growth of the running time , ex-perimental value will be critical in specification, so that it can not make an accurate judgment. This paper based on the 500 kV pre-ventive test of metal oxide surge arrester as an example, analyzes the influencing factors of leakage current in arrester test and the reason for great error in the conventional test method, proposed in the test with the shielding wire method that is commonly known as shielding arrest test experiment, in order to reduce the measurement error and the workload.%泄漏电流是表征其性能的重要参数,随着运行时间的增长,试验值临界于规程值,不能作出准确的判断。以500 kV金属氧化物避雷器的预防性试验为例,分析了避雷器试验中影响泄漏电流的因素及常规试验方法测量误差大的原因,提出了在试验时用屏蔽线进行避雷器试验的俗称屏蔽法的试验方法,以减小测量误差及工作量。

  2. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Heath A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shurter, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  3. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptonstall, A.; Waller, M.; Robertson, N. A.

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors.

  4. Crosslinking of wire and cables with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first electron beam accelerator was established in a wire and cable manufacturer in Japan, about 25 years have elapsed. First, the wires for electronic appliances insulated with cross-linked polyvinyl chloride, cross-linked polyethylene and cross-linked flame retardant polyethylene were produced with electron beam machines. Nowadays, large quantities of electron beam cross-linked materials such a PVC, PE, FRPE and flame retardant polyolefine are used for the insulation and jacket of electronic wires and cables. In this paper, the reason why the electron beam cross-linking production in wire and cable industry has increased year by year is discussed. 38 electron beam accelerator machines are used by 13 wire and cable manufacturers. The market share and the sales of wire and cable manufacturers are shown. The advantageous properties brought about by cross-linking are solder resistance, heat resistance and good mechanical properties. The results of main tests are reported. Electron beam cross-linked products are listed, most of which were approved by UL and CSA. The electron beam processing system for wires and cables, the technical and economical comparison of electron beam process with other competitive processes and radiation control are reported. (K.I.)

  5. The development of piano-wire probability screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, Q. (China University of Mining and Technology (China). Department of Coal Preparation and Utilization)

    1991-12-01

    Piano-wire Probability Screen is a newly developed screen for separating moist, fine raw coal. This high efficiency screening equipment has all the advantages of Probability Sizing Screen (PSS), but in addition, it uses piano-wire decks, which have a new structure, great open area, and great self-cleaning capacity. Therefore the screen is suitable for separating fine particles from sticky and moist materials. This paper describes the results of fundamental studies on the Piano-wire Probability Screen and discusses the data obtained from pilot plant studies. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  7. Aircraft wire system laboratory development : phase I progress report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Lopez, Christopher D.

    2003-08-01

    An aircraft wire systems laboratory has been developed to support technical maturation of diagnostic technologies being used in the aviation community for detection of faulty attributes of wiring systems. The design and development rationale of the laboratory is based in part on documented findings published by the aviation community. The main resource at the laboratory is a test bed enclosure that is populated with aged and newly assembled wire harnesses that have known defects. This report provides the test bed design and harness selection rationale, harness assembly and defect fabrication procedures, and descriptions of the laboratory for usage by the aviation community.

  8. The anomalous behaviour of fermions in a thin wire

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    1998-01-01

    Motivated by the recent development of insulated nano-tubes and the attempts to develop conducting nano wires in such tubes, we examine the Fermionic behaviour in extremely thin wires. Although the one- dimensional problem has been studied in detail over the years, it is an extreme idealization: We consider the more realistic scenario of thin wires which are nevertheless three dimensional. We show that the assembly of Fermions behaves as if it is below the Fermi temperature, and in the limit of one dimension, in the ground state as well. Thus there are indeed Bosonization features. These conclusions are checked from an independent stand point.

  9. Band Structure Modifications in Deformed InP Quantum Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kuryliuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The work describes the features of the band structure of deformed InP nanowires with different diameters. It is shown that the bending of quantum wires is capable of creating local minima in the conduction and valence bands which are separated from the surface of the cylindrical wire. This result opens up new possibilities for controlling both the lifetime of photoexcited carriers by keeping them at these minima and the magnitude of the photovoltage in solar energy conversion devices based on quantum wires. The work lies within a common goal aiming to develop new methods of functionalization of nanostructured surfaces using mechanical deformations.

  10. Design of automotive X-by-Wire systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wilwert, Cédric; Navet, Nicolas; Song, Ye-Qiong; Simonot-Lion, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    http://www.taylorandfrancis.com/ X-by-Wire is a generic term referring to the replacement of mechanical or hydraulic systems, such as braking or steering, by electronic ones. In this chapter, we analyze the real-time and dependability constraints of X-by-Wire systems, review the fault-tolerant services that are needed and the communication protocols (TTP/C, FlexRay and TTCAN) considered for use in such systems. Using a Steer-by-Wire case-study, we detail the design principles and verificat...

  11. Entanglement due to Delayed Removal of a Buddy Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vorpahl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A buddy wire is often used to aid in the delivery of balloons and stents when negotiating tortuous or calcified vessels. We present a planned two-stent mini-crush intervention complicated by entanglement of the buddy wire with the second stent and subsequent distortion of the stent within the guiding catheter. Based on this case, we suggest removing the buddy wire immediately after successful positioning of the first stent, because entrapment with a second stent is possible and may lead to challenging situations in a simultaneous two-stent strategy.

  12. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  13. Finding the magnetic center of sextupole using vibrating wire technique

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lei; Li, Chun-hua; Qu, Hua-min

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain stable and high-quality synchrotron radiation photon, the magnets in the storage ring of High Energy Photon Source(HEPS) need to have a stable support and precise positioning. The vibrating wire technique can be used to pre-align the quadrupoles and sextupoles on one girder with high precision to meet the extremely low emittance requirement of HEPS. This thesis introduces the measurement of magnetic center of sextupole using vibrating wire. According to the measurement results, the magnetic field distribution is consistent with theoretical expectation. And vibrating wire has achieved the purpose of measuring the magnetic center and has reached a certain precision.

  14. The Modeling of Vibration Damping in SMA Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D R; Kloucek, P; Seidman, T I

    2003-09-16

    Through a mathematical and computational model of the physical behavior of shape memory alloy wires, this study shows that localized heating and cooling of such materials provides an effective means of damping vibrational energy. The thermally induced pseudo-elastic behavior of a shape memory wire is modeled using a continuum thermodynamic model and solved computationally as described by the authors in [23]. Computational experiments confirm that up to 80% of an initial shock of vibrational energy can be eliminated at the onset of a thermally-induced phase transformation through the use of spatially-distributed transformation regions along the length of a shape memory alloy wire.

  15. A Summary and Analysis of Warrantless Arrest Statutes for Domestic Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M.; Norris, Alexis; Brenner, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have enacted statutes that allow police officers to make warrantless arrests for domestic violence given probable cause; however, state laws differ from one another in multiple, important ways. Research on domestic violence warrantless arrest laws rarely describe them as anything…

  16. Mental Condition and Ventricular Size in Arrested Hydrocephalus: an Analysis of 29 Shunt‐independent Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLTZER, G.J.; de LANGE, S.A.; ORBAAN, I.J.C.; GELSEMA, R.

    1971-01-01

    textabstractMeasurement of the diameter of the ventricular system, in a series of 29 patients with arrested hydrocephalus who had become shunt‐independent, showed that enlargement of the ventricles does not necessarily play a part in the arrest of hydrocephalus, for in many of these cases the ventri

  17. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect...

  18. Program Completion and Re-Arrest in a Batterer Intervention System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Larry W.; Stoops, Charles; Call, Christine; Flett, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the effects of batterer intervention program (BIP) completion on domestic violence re-arrest in an urban system of 30 BIPs with a common set of state standards, common program completion criteria, and centralized criminal justice supervision. Method: 899 men arrested for domestic violence were assessed and completed…

  19. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence...

  20. Recent Trends of Technology of Zinc-Oxide Surge Arrester for Electric Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.S.; Kim, K.U.; Cho, H.G. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Park, T.G. [Changwon National University (Korea); Park, S.H. [KEPCO (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    Metal-oxide surge arresters were developed in the late 1970s, and were immediately recognized as significant breakthrough in over-voltage protection of power system. Work was continued throughout the world on the design, development and application of metal-oxide surge arresters. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  1. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  2. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. PMID:25416040

  3. Return to Work in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragholm, Kristian; Wissenberg, Mads; Mortensen, Rikke Normark;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term function of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors are sparse. We examined return to work as a proxy of preserved function without major neurologic deficits in survivors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In Denmark, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests have been systematically repo...

  4. Programmed cell cycle arrest is required for infection of corn plants by the fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Sónia; Mielnichuk, Natalia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    Ustilago maydis is a plant pathogen that requires a specific structure called infective filament to penetrate the plant tissue. Although able to grow, this filament is cell cycle arrested on the plant surface. This cell cycle arrest is released once the filament penetrates the plant tissue. The reasons and mechanisms for this cell cycle arrest are unknown. Here, we have tried to address these questions. We reached three conclusions from our studies. First, the observed cell cycle arrest is the result of the cooperation of at least two distinct mechanisms: one involving the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) cascade; and the other relying on the transcriptional downregulation of Hsl1, a kinase that modulates the G2/M transition. Second, a sustained cell cycle arrest during the infective filament step is necessary for the virulence in U. maydis, as a strain unable to arrest the cell cycle was severely impaired in its ability to infect corn plants. Third, production of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, is incompatible with an active cell cycle. The inability to infect plants by strains defective in cell cycle arrest seems to be caused by their failure to induce the appressorium formation process. In summary, our findings uncover genetic circuits to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on the plant surface, thus allowing the penetration into plant tissue.

  5. Complement activation and its prognostic role in post-cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenei, Z M; Zima, E; Csuka, D;

    2014-01-01

    of therapeutic hypothermia predicted 30-day mortality regardless of age, sex and the APACHE II score. Complement activation occurs in post-cardiac arrest patients, and its extent correlates with 30-day survival. The C3a/C3 ratio might prove useful for estimating the prognosis of comatose post-cardiac arrest...

  6. 46 CFR 32.20-10 - Flame arresters-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flame arresters-TB/ALL. 32.20-10 Section 32.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-10 Flame arresters—TB/ALL. Flame arresters must be of a type...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-63 - Spark arrester-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spark arrester-TB/ALL. 30.10-63 Section 30.10-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-63 Spark arrester—TB/ALL. The term spark arrester means any device, assembly, or method of...

  8. Temporal Differences in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagai, Akshay; McNally, Bryan F; Al-Khatib, Sana M;

    2013-01-01

    Understanding temporal differences in the incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has important implications for developing preventative strategies and optimizing systems for OHCA care.......Understanding temporal differences in the incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has important implications for developing preventative strategies and optimizing systems for OHCA care....

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-23 - Flame arrester-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flame arrester-TB/ALL. 30.10-23 Section 30.10-23 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-23 Flame arrester—TB/ALL. The term flame arrester means any device or assembly of a cellular,...

  10. Radiographic verification of pedicle screw pilot hole placement in thoracic spine using Kirschner wires versus spiral wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi 刘一; ZHANG Shao-kun 张绍昆; MIAO Wei-wei 苗巍巍; SHAN Yu-xing 单玉兴; SUN Da-hui 孙大辉; WANG Bai 王柏; LI Yin-liang 李印良; HUANG Xiao-gang 黄晓刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the pedicle screw pilot holes placement in thoracic spine using the spiral wires as the guide pin.Methods: The pedicle screw pilot holes were drilled within the center of the pedicle and the lateral and medial pedicle walls were violated in 9 human dried thoracic vertebrae.Kirschner wires or spiral wires were separately placed in the holes, and then the posteroanterior and lateral radiographs were taken.The radiographs were evaluated by 3 experienced spine surgeons and 3 young orthopedists.After radiographs were shown to these observers, they combined the posteroanterior and lateral radiographs in each place and determined whether the pedicle screw pilot hole violated the pedicle cortex or not.The results were analyzed by a statistical software.Results: Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the method using spiral wires to detect pedicle pilot hole placement were significantly higher than those of using Kirschner wires.With a true posteroanterior radiograph, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the method using spiral wires approximated or attained 100%.Conclusions: The method of intrapedicular pilot hole placement verification using spiral wires is effective for guiding the accurate placement of pedicle screws.

  11. Wire number dependence of the implosion dynamics, stagnation, and radiation output of tungsten wire arrays at Z driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report results of the experimental campaign, which studied the initiation, implosion dynamics, and radiation yield of tungsten wire arrays as a function of the wire number. The wire array dimensions and mass were those of interest for the Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. An optimization study of the x-ray emitted peak power, rise time, and full width at half maximum was effectuated by varying the wire number while keeping the total array mass constant and equal to ∼5.8 mg. The driver utilized was the ∼20-MA Z accelerator before refurbishment in its usual short pulse mode of 100 ns. We studied single arrays of 20-mm diameter and 1-cm height. The smaller wire number studied was 30 and the largest 600. It appears that 600 is the highest achievable wire number with present day's technology. Radial and axial diagnostics were utilized including crystal monochromatic x-ray backlighter. An optimum wire number of ∼375 was observed which was very close to the routinely utilized 300 for the ICF program in Sandia.

  12. Wire number dependence of the implosion dynamics, stagnation, and radiation output of tungsten wire arrays at Z driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Stygar, William A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Nash, Thomas J.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Keith Matzen, M.; Porter, John L.; Struve, Kenneth W.; McDaniel, Dillon H. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Deeney, Christopher E. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, D.C. 20585 (United States); Douglas, Melissa R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Chittenden, Jerry [Imperial College, London, SW and 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    We report results of the experimental campaign, which studied the initiation, implosion dynamics, and radiation yield of tungsten wire arrays as a function of the wire number. The wire array dimensions and mass were those of interest for the Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. An optimization study of the x-ray emitted peak power, rise time, and full width at half maximum was effectuated by varying the wire number while keeping the total array mass constant and equal to {approx}5.8 mg. The driver utilized was the {approx}20-MA Z accelerator before refurbishment in its usual short pulse mode of 100 ns. We studied single arrays of 20-mm diameter and 1-cm height. The smaller wire number studied was 30 and the largest 600. It appears that 600 is the highest achievable wire number with present day's technology. Radial and axial diagnostics were utilized including crystal monochromatic x-ray backlighter. An optimum wire number of {approx}375 was observed which was very close to the routinely utilized 300 for the ICF program in Sandia.

  13. Dynamical Arrest, Structural Disorder, and Optimization of Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Ian; Dmitry, Matyushov

    2014-09-11

    This project describes fundamental experimental and theoretical work that relates to charge separation and migration in the solid, heterogeneous or aggregated state. Marcus theory assumes a system in equilibrium with all possible solvent (dipolar) configurations, with rapid interconversion among these on the ET timescale. This project has addressed the more general situation where the medium is at least partially frozen on the ET timescale, i.e. under conditions of dynamical arrest. The approach combined theory and experiment and includes: (1) Computer simulations of model systems, (2) Development of analytical procedures consistent with computer experiment and (3) Experimental studies and testing of the formal theories on this data. Electron transfer processes are unique as a consequence of the close connection between kinetics, spectroscopy and theory, which is an essential component of this work.

  14. First permanent molar root development arrest associated with compound odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Sachin A; Patil, Anil; Varekar, Aniruddha

    2013-07-04

    Trauma or infection to the primary tooth may have deleterious effects on the underlying developing tooth buds. Anatomically the root apices of primary teeth are in close proximity to the developing permanent tooth buds; hence spread of infection originating from pulp necrosis of primary tooth may not only affect the underlying tooth bud but may also affect the adjacent tooth buds. The extent of malformation depends on the developmental stage of tooth or the age of patient. Presented here is a rare case of complete arrest of maxillary first permanent molar root growth due to spread of periapical infection originating from second primary molar leading to failure of its eruption and finally extraction. Histopathlogical analysis revealed compound odontoma associated with maxillary first permanent molar.

  15. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral thiamine has a very high safety profile. The most common adverse effect is local irritation; however, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions may occur, mostly related to intravenous administration. We describe a 44-year-old man, a chronic alcoholic, who was admitted with alcohol intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance of recognising the symptoms of anaphylaxis and the fact that facilities for treating anaphylaxis and cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be available when thiamine or for that matter, any drug is given in-hospital. PMID:23853017

  16. Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by anaphylactoid reaction with contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Iwao; Hori, Shingo; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Aoki, Katsunori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aikawa, Naoki

    2002-05-01

    Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media can cause life-threatening events and even death. A 44-year-old woman presented with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) immediately following the administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media for an intravenous pyelography. Her cardiac rhythm during CPA was asystole. She was successfully resuscitated by the radiologists supported by paged emergency physicians using the prompt intravenous administration of 1 mg of epinephrine. Neither laryngeal edema nor bronchial spasm was observed during the course of treatment, and she was discharged on the 4th day without any complications. The patient did not have a history of allergy, but had experienced a myocardial infarction and aortitis. She had undergone 11 angiographies and had been taking a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Planned emergency medical backup is advisable to ensure resuscitation in the event of an anaphylactoid reaction to the use of contrast media in-hospital settings. PMID:12009227

  17. Opiate Withdrawal Complicated by Tetany and Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfanali R. Kugasia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status.

  18. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: real-life suspended animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Katherine H; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2013-01-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a cerebral protection technique that was developed in the 1950s and popularized in the 1970s. It has become one of the three most common cerebral protection techniques currently used in aortic arch surgeries, with the other two being antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). At our institution, DHCA has been the cerebral protection technique of choice for over a quarter century. Our clinical experience with DHCA has been very positive, and our clinical studies have shown DHCA to have outcomes equal to (and sometimes better than) those of ACP and RCP, and DHCA to be very effective at preserving neurocognitive function. Other institutions, however, prefer ACP or RCP to DHCA. Each technique has its own set of pros and cons, and the question regarding which technique is the superior method for cerebral protection is hotly debated.

  19. A Unique Case of Cardiac Arrest following K2 Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD accounts for up to 450,000 deaths every year in the United States (Zipes et al. (2006. Most cases of sudden cardiac death occur in subjects with no prior history of heart disease (Myerburg et al. (1998. The incidence of sudden death in a general population has been shown to increase contemporaneously with substance abuse (Phillips et al. (1999. The causative association of sudden death with cocaine, methadone, and volatile agents is well established (Adgey et al. (1995 and Isner et al. (1986. We describe a case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest temporally related to abuse of the synthetic cannabinoid street drug known as K2. To our knowledge, there are no previously documented cases of sudden cardiac death associated with synthetic cannabinoids although they have been linked to myocardial infarction in teenagers despite normal coronary angiography (Mir et al. (2011.

  20. Arrest as a General Property of the Supercooled Liquid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyters, Jan H; Sluyters-Rehbach, Margaretha

    2016-04-21

    Owing to the universal presence of intermolecular interactions, it has to be expected that at some well-defined lower temperature a liquid loses its dynamic properties like fluidity and self-diffusion. As a sequel to two earlier papers on the discovery of such an arrest temperature T0 for supercooled water at 243 K, where also the coexisting vapor pressure was found to become zero, in this paper a further study is undertaken of the behavior of a selection of other liquids. At first, two simple equations of state (van der Waals and virial) are shown in principle to predict a zero vapor pressure at a finite temperature. The interaction parameters B (second virial coefficient) and μJT (Joule-Thomson coefficient) of the vapor are found to become virtually infinite at a temperature T0,B, with a value equal or close to the T0 derived from the liquid properties. Just as earlier found for water, the latter is obtained by extrapolation of several available dynamic and equilibrium data, which should produce an intersection with the temperature axis at the same T0 value. With the exception of molten salts and liquid pure metals, this condition appears to be fulfilled quite accurately. Thus, the temperature of arrest is a general phenomenon for supercooled liquids. As an illustration, it is shown how the PVT diagram of carbon dioxide can be extended into the supercooled temperature region. It is argued that T0 is the temperature below which the Boltzmann energy, kT, is lower than the minimal energy needed for a molecule to break the interactions with its surrounding molecules. We propose to name this minimal energy, kT0, the multimolecular potential of the liquid object. The relationship of the liquid multimolecular potential with the pair potential, ε, of the molecular species is established for various examples and appears to be a proportionality with ε ≈ 2kT0. PMID:27070201

  1. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Andrea O.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Wesenberg Kjaer, Troels; Horn, Janneke; Ullén, Susann; Friberg, Hans; Nielsen, Niklas; Rosén, Ingmar; Åneman, Anders; Erlinge, David; Gasche, Yvan; Hassager, Christian; Hovdenes, Jan; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Pellis, Tommaso; Stammet, Pascal; Wanscher, Michael; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wise, Matt P.; Cronberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Methods: In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists, blinded to outcome, evaluated prospectively recorded EEGs in the Target Temperature Management trial (TTM trial) that randomized patients to 33°C vs 36°C. Routine EEG was performed in patients still comatose after rewarming. EEGs were classified into highly malignant (suppression, suppression with periodic discharges, burst-suppression), malignant (periodic or rhythmic patterns, pathological or nonreactive background), and benign EEG (absence of malignant features). Poor outcome was defined as best Cerebral Performance Category score 3–5 until 180 days. Results: Eight TTM sites randomized 202 patients. EEGs were recorded in 103 patients at a median 77 hours after cardiac arrest; 37% had a highly malignant EEG and all had a poor outcome (specificity 100%, sensitivity 50%). Any malignant EEG feature had a low specificity to predict poor prognosis (48%) but if 2 malignant EEG features were present specificity increased to 96% (p < 0.001). Specificity and sensitivity were not significantly affected by targeted temperature or sedation. A benign EEG was found in 1% of the patients with a poor outcome. Conclusions: Highly malignant EEG after rewarming reliably predicted poor outcome in half of patients without false predictions. An isolated finding of a single malignant feature did not predict poor outcome whereas a benign EEG was highly predictive of a good outcome. PMID:26865516

  2. Development of an Electro–Thermal Model for ZnO Surge Arrester Under Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Melgoza–Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An electro–thermal model for a Zinc Oxide (ZnO surge arrester under contamination tests is presented. The model is based in three sub–models: electrical, thermal and contamination, which interact in order to obtain the surge arrester performance under contamination tests. The electrical model is obtained from measurements and is based on a capacitance and a non–linear resistor. The thermal model takes into account the heat generated and dissipated by the column of varistors and its surroundings. The contamination is represented by a dynamic impedance obtained from measurements in the arrester column during contamination tests. The full model is validated by calculating the temperature increase during contamination tests carried out in a two units ZnO surge arrester, class 190 kV. Finally, the results of the effect of several design and construction parameters in the voltage and temperature distribution in the arrester columns during contamination tests are presented.

  3. Near death experiences, cognitive function and psychological outcomes of surviving cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnia, S; Spearpoint, K; Fenwick, P B

    2007-08-01

    Cardiac arrest is associated with a number of cognitive processes as well as long term psychological outcomes. Recent studies have indicated that approximately 10-20% of cardiac arrest survivors report cognitive processes, including the ability to recall specific details of their resuscitation from the period of cardiac arrest. In addition it has been demonstrated that these cognitive processes are consistent with the previously described near death experience and that those who have these experiences are left with long term positive life enhancing effects. There have also been numerous studies that have indicated that although the quality of life for cardiac arrest survivors is generally good, some are left with long term cognitive impairments as well as psychological sequelae such as post-traumatic stress disorder. This paper will review near death experiences, cognitive function and psychological outcomes in survivors of cardiac arrest.

  4. Application of Powell's optimization method to surge arrester circuit models' parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Stathopulos, I.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Vita, V.; Ekonomou, L.; Chatzarakis, G.E. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2010-08-15

    Powell's optimization method has been used for the evaluation of the surge arrester models parameters. The proper modelling of metal-oxide surge arresters and the right selection of equivalent circuit parameters are very significant issues, since quality and reliability of lightning performance studies can be improved with the more efficient representation of the arresters' dynamic behavior. The proposed approach selects optimum arrester model equivalent circuit parameter values, minimizing the error between the simulated peak residual voltage value and this given by the manufacturer. Application of the method in performed on a 120 kV metal oxide arrester. The use of the obtained optimum parameter values reduces significantly the relative error between the simulated and manufacturer's peak residual voltage value, presenting the effectiveness of the method. (author)

  5. Arrest functions of the MIF ligand/receptor axes in atherogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eTillmann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has been defined as an important chemokine-like function (CLF chemokine with an essential role in monocyte recruitment and arrest. Adhesion of monocytes to the vessel wall and their transendothelial migration are critical in atherogenesis and many other inflammatory diseases. Chemokines carefully control all steps of the monocyte recruitment process. Those chemokines specialized in controlling arrest are typically immobilized on the endothelial surface, mediating the arrest of rolling monocytes by chemokine receptor-triggered pathways. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 functions as an important arrest receptor on monocytes. An arrest function has been revealed for the bona fide CXCR2 ligands CXCL1 and CXCL8, but genetic studies also suggested that additional arrest chemokines are likely to be involved in atherogenic leukocyte recruitment. While CXCR2 is known to interact with numerous CXC chemokine ligands, the CLF-chemokine MIF, which structurally does not belong to the CXC chemokine sub-family, was surprisingly identified as a non-cognate ligand of CXCR2, responsible for critical arrest functions during the atherogenic process. MIF was originally identified as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, but is now known as a potent inflammatory cytokine with chemokine-like functions including chemotaxis and leukocyte arrest. This review will cover the mechanisms underlying these functions, including MIF’s effects on LFA1 integrin activity and signal transduction, and will discuss the structural similarities between MIF and the bona fide CXCR2 ligand CXCL8 while emphasizing the structural differences. As MIF also interacts with CXCR4, a chemokine receptor implicated in CXCL12-elicited lymphocyte arrest, the arrest potential of the MIF/CXCR4 axis will also be scrutinized as well as the recently identified role of pericyte MIF in attracting leukocytes exiting through venules as part of the pericyte 'motility

  6. Cardiac arrest during gamete release in chum salmon regulated by the parasympathetic nerve system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Makiguchi

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.

  7. Microglia Modulate Wiring of the Embryonic Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Squarzoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of microglia, the tissue macrophages of the brain, has been associated with the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistently, microglia have been shown to regulate neurogenesis and synaptic maturation at perinatal and postnatal stages. However, microglia invade the brain during mid-embryogenesis and thus could play an earlier prenatal role. Here, we show that embryonic microglia, which display a transiently uneven distribution, regulate the wiring of forebrain circuits. Using multiple mouse models, including cell-depletion approaches and cx3cr1−/−, CR3−/−, and DAP12−/− mutants, we find that perturbing microglial activity affects the outgrowth of dopaminergic axons in the forebrain and the laminar positioning of subsets of neocortical interneurons. Since defects in both dopamine innervation and cortical networks have been linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, our study provides insights into how microglial dysfunction can impact forebrain connectivity and reveals roles for immune cells during normal assembly of brain circuits.

  8. Polarization dynamics in optical ground wire network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Jesse; Bao, Xiaoyi; Côté, Alain

    2009-04-20

    We report the polarization dynamics in an optical ground wire (OPGW) network for a summer period and a fall period for what is believed to be the first time. To better observe the surrounding magnetic fields contribution to modulating the state of polarization (SOP) we installed a Faraday rotating mirror to correct reciprocal birefringence from quasi-static changes. We also monitored the OPGW while no electrical current was present in the towers' electrical conductors. The spectral analysis, the arc length mapped out over a given time interval on a Poincaré sphere, histograms of the arc length, and the SOP autocorrelation function are calculated to analyze the SOP changes. Ambient temperature changes, wind, Sun-induced temperature gradients, and electrical current all have a significant impact on the SOP drift in an OPGW network. Wind-generated cable oscillations and Sun-induced temperature gradients are shown to be the dominant slow SOP modulations, while Aeolian vibrations and electrical current are shown to be the dominant fast SOP modulations. The spectral analysis revealed that the electrical current gives the fastest SOP modulation to be 300 Hz for the sampling frequency of 1 KHz. This has set the upper speed limit for real-time polarization mode dispersion compensation devices. PMID:19381169

  9. From Metal String Complexes to Metal Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; SheMing

    2001-01-01

    Our efforts to extend the metal number from dinuclear metal complexes to linear oligonuclear metal complexes with all-syn form of oligo-( α-pyridyl)amido ligands are successful. The oligonuclear complexes are divided into two systems according their MM bond strength, one is the oligonickel( Ⅱ ) complexes without M-M bond, the other is the oligochromium(Ⅱ) and cobalt(H) complexes with a strong M-M bond. Their structures and magnetic behaviors for various metal complexes with specific metal numbers are summarized. The potential application of these metal complexes as a molecular metal wire is discussed by the band structures of hypothetical onedinensional metal strings based on the polynuclear Cr, Co and Ni complexes. Moreover, self-assembled monolayers of n-alkanethiols are employed as a two-dinensional matrix to isolate the metal string complexes, which exhibit protrusions under the measurements of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging. The topographic STM images reveal that the protruding features for tricobalt and trichromium complexes are, respectively, 0.3 nm and 0.6 nm higher than that of trinickel complex. The increasing trend in conductivity is consistent with their bond orders, obtained from qualitative EHMO calculations.  ……

  10. From Metal String Complexes to Metal Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG SheMing

    2001-01-01

    @@ Our efforts to extend the metal number from dinuclear metal complexes to linear oligonuclear metal complexes with all-syn form of oligo-( α-pyridyl)amido ligands are successful. The oligonuclear complexes are divided into two systems according their MM bond strength, one is the oligonickel( Ⅱ ) complexes without M-M bond, the other is the oligochromium(Ⅱ) and cobalt(H) complexes with a strong M-M bond. Their structures and magnetic behaviors for various metal complexes with specific metal numbers are summarized. The potential application of these metal complexes as a molecular metal wire is discussed by the band structures of hypothetical onedinensional metal strings based on the polynuclear Cr, Co and Ni complexes. Moreover, self-assembled monolayers of n-alkanethiols are employed as a two-dinensional matrix to isolate the metal string complexes, which exhibit protrusions under the measurements of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging. The topographic STM images reveal that the protruding features for tricobalt and trichromium complexes are, respectively, 0.3 nm and 0.6 nm higher than that of trinickel complex. The increasing trend in conductivity is consistent with their bond orders, obtained from qualitative EHMO calculations.

  11. Nonequilibrium functional bosonization of quantum wire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Dinh, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.ngodinh@kit.edu [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bagrets, Dmitry A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Mirlin, Alexander D. [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    We develop a general approach to nonequilibrium nanostructures formed by one-dimensional channels coupled by tunnel junctions and/or by impurity scattering. The formalism is based on nonequilibrium version of functional bosonization. A central role in this approach is played by the Keldysh action that has a form reminiscent of the theory of full counting statistics. To proceed with evaluation of physical observables, we assume the weak-tunneling regime and develop a real-time instanton method. A detailed exposition of the formalism is supplemented by two important applications: (i) tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity, and (ii) quantum Hall Fabry-Perot interferometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonequilibrium functional bosonization framework for quantum wire networks is developed Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the study of observables in the weak tunneling regime a real-time instanton method is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer quantum Hall regime.

  12. Laser Wire and Beam Position Monitor tests

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, S T; Lyapin, A; Nevay, L; Snuverink, J

    2013-01-01

    This subtask involved two main activities; Firstly the development and subsequent usage of high resolution beam position monitors (BPM) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider projects (CLIC); and secondly the development of a laser-wire (LW) transverse beam size measurement systems. This report describes the technical progress achieved at a large-scale test ILC compatible BPM system installed at the Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2). The ATF2 is an energy-scaled demonstration system for the final focus systems required to deliver the particle beams to collision at the ILC and CLIC. The ATF2 cavity beam position monitor system is one of the largest of its kind and rivals systems used at free electron lasers. The ATF2 cavity beam position system has achieved a position resolutionof 250 nm (with signal attuenation) and 27 nm (without attenuation). The BPM system has been used routinely for lattice diagnostics, beam based alignment and wakefield measurements. Extensive experience...

  13. Controlling electromagnetic scattering with wire metamaterial resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonov, Dmitry S.; Shalin, Alexander S.; Iorsh, Ivan; Belov, Pavel A.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    Manipulation of radiation is required for enabling a span of electromagnetic applications. Since properties of antennas and scatterers are very sensitive to a surrounding environment, macroscopic artificially created materials are good candidates for shaping their characteristics. In particular, metamaterials enable controlling both dispersion and density of electromagnetic states, available for scattering from an object. As the result, properly designed electromagnetic environment could govern waves' phenomena. Here electromagnetic properties of scattering dipoles, situated inside a wire medium (metamaterial) are analyzed both numerically and experimentally. Impact of the metamaterial geometry, dipole arrangement inside the medium, and frequency of the incident radiation on scattering phenomena was studied. It was shown that the resonance of the dipole hybridizes with Fabry-Perot modes of the metamaterial, giving rise to a complete reshaping of electromagnetic properties. Regimes of controlled scattering suppression and super-scattering were observed. Numerical analysis is in an agreement with experiments, performed at the GHz spectral range. The reported approach to scattering control with metamaterials could be directly mapped into optical and infrared spectral ranges by employing scalability properties of Maxwell's equations.

  14. Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kanglin; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2004-11-18

    Sources and systems for far-infrared or terahertz (1 THz = 10(12) Hz) radiation have received extensive attention in recent years, with applications in sensing, imaging and spectroscopy. Terahertz radiation bridges the gap between the microwave and optical regimes, and offers significant scientific and technological potential in many fields. However, waveguiding in this intermediate spectral region still remains a challenge. Neither conventional metal waveguides for microwave radiation, nor dielectric fibres for visible and near-infrared radiation can be used to guide terahertz waves over a long distance, owing to the high loss from the finite conductivity of metals or the high absorption coefficient of dielectric materials in this spectral range. Furthermore, the extensive use of broadband pulses in the terahertz regime imposes an additional constraint of low dispersion, which is necessary for compatibility with spectroscopic applications. Here we show how a simple waveguide, namely a bare metal wire, can be used to transport terahertz pulses with virtually no dispersion, low attenuation, and with remarkable structural simplicity. As an example of this new waveguiding structure, we demonstrate an endoscope for terahertz pulses.

  15. A parallel wire robot for epicardial interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Adam D; Wood, Nathan A; Passineau, Michael J; Moraca, Robert J; Bailey, Stephen H; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Riviere, Cameron N

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a planar parallel wire robot that adheres to the surface of the beating heart and provides a stable platform for minimally invasive epicardial therapies. The device is deployed through a small subxiphoid skin incision and attaches to the heart using suction. This methodology obviates mechanical stabilization and lung deflation, which are typically required during minimally invasive beating-heart surgery. The prototype design involves three vacuum chambers connected by two flexible arms. The chambers adhere to the epicardium, forming the vertices of a triangular base structure. Three cables connect a movable end-effector head to the three bases; the cables then pass out of the body to external actuators. The surgical tool moves within the triangular workspace to perform injections, ablation, or other tasks on the beating heart. Tests in vitro and in vivo were conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. Tests in vivo successfully demonstrated the ability to deploy through a subxiphoid incision, adhere to the surface of the beating heart, move the surgical tool head within the robot's workspace, and perform injections into the myocardium. PMID:25571402

  16. Wire Insulation Incorporating Self-Healing Polymers (WIISP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen and Virginia Tech are developing a self-healing material for wire insulation using a class of ionomeric polymers. These ionomers exhibit self-healing...

  17. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...

  18. Inorganic Nanostructured High-Temperature Magnet Wires Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a high-temperature tolerant electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires. The Phase I program will result in a flexible, inorganic...

  19. Detection System Design of Electric Vehicle Wiring Harness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-Xin; LI Xiao-Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of harness testing system for electric vehicle wiring harness wiring .The system has implemented some commonly used electric wiring harness state detection using the way of the upper machine and lower machine communicate with each other, Such as normal, open circuit, short circuit, fault, etc. And then the lower machine send the wiring harness status to the upper machine, and then the upper machine parses the line state, and at the same time shows the test results, And then stores the test results in the database. After all, we can call at any time to check the date and the results of detection. It changes the traditional manual test mode of operation and Implements the detection process of automation and intellectualization.

  20. Coherent radiation of relativistic electrons in wire metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, V.; Naumenko, G.; Bleko, V.

    2016-07-01

    We present in this work the experimental investigation of the interaction of relativistic electron field with wire metamaterial. The measurements of the spectral-angular characteristics of coherent radiation were done in millimeter wavelength region in far-field zone at the relativistic electron beam with energy of 6 MeV. Used target represent the right triangular prism that consist of periodic placed copper wires. We showed that bunched electron beam passing near wire metamaterial prism generates coherent Cherenkov radiation. Spectral angular characteristics of radiation from the wire target were compared with the characteristics of Cherenkov radiation generated in similar experimental conditions in a dielectric target (Teflon prism) that has the same form and sizes.

  1. Electrical wire for use in nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical wire and cable suitable for use in nuclear generating stations, having at least one electrical conductor, a micaceous insulating layer surrounding the conductor and a layer of fluoropolymer insulation surrounding the micaceous layer are described

  2. Hopping mixed hybrid excitations in multiple composite quantum wire structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A structure consisting of N pairs of inorganic semiconductor and organic quantum wires is considered theoretically. In such an isolated pair of wires, while the intrawire coupling forms Wannier-Mott exciton in an inorganic semiconductor quantum wire and Frenkel exciton in an organic one, the interwire coupling gives rise to hybrid excitons residing within the pair. When N pairs of wires are packed together 2N new mixed hybrid modes appear that are the true elementary excitations and can hop throughout the whole structure. Energies and wave functions of such hopping mixed hybrid excitations are derived analytically in detail accounting for the global interwire coupling and the different polarization configurations. (author). 19 refs

  3. EFFICIENT TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS of ARBITRARILY SHAPED CONDUCTING WIRE STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI-Majdi Kadhum; Ming Qi

    2007-01-01

    We developed an efficient analysis the current induced in the wire structure. The analysis based on the time-Domain Integral Equation, in which a thin wire approximation is used. The time-domain electric field integral equation is used with the moment method to develop a numerical procedure for treating problems of scattering by arbitrary shaped bodies. We present an efficient numerical method for calculating the electromagnetic scattering from arbitrary shaped conducting bodies in the time domain with a comprehensive treatment of a single, straight thin wire.A time domain electric field integral equation is formulated for the problem of an arbitrary shape. The solution method is based on the moment method to solve the straight thin-wire problem.

  4. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    , the thermal behaviour is of interest. This has been studied by annealing the wires for 1h at temperatures from ambient temperature to 300 ℃ (573 K). It is expected that a raising temperature may lead to structural changes and a reduction in strength. The change in strength is however not expected to be large....... For this reason we have applied a very precise technique to measure the tensile properties of the wires from a strain of 10-4 to the maximum strain of about 1-2%. The structural changes have also been followed to estimate and relate strength changes to changes in structural parameters and morphology.......Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires...

  5. Wire system aging assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report contains some test results of a method for wire system condition monitoring, developed at the Halden Reactor Project, called LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis), which can be used on-line to detect any local or global changes in the cable electrical parameters as a consequence of insulation faults or degradation. (au)

  6. Bound States of a Ferromagnetic Wire in a Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Jay D; Brydon, P M R

    2015-09-18

    We consider the problem of bound states in strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic impurities in a superconductor, motivated by recent experiments that claim to observe Majorana modes at the ends of ferromagnetic wires on a superconducting substrate [S. Nadj-Perge et al., Science 346, 602 (2014)]. Generalizing the successful theory of bound states of spherically symmetric impurities, we consider a wirelike potential using both analytical and numerical approaches. We find that away from the ends of the wire the bound states form bands with pronounced van Hove singularities, giving rise to subgap peaks in the local density of states. For sufficiently strong magnetization of the wire, we show that this process generically produces a sharp peak at zero energy in the local density of states near the ends of the wire. This zero-energy peak has qualitative similarities to the claimed signature of a Majorana mode observed in the aforementioned experiment.

  7. Preparation of copper nano-wires by template synthesis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国渠; 倪似愚; 郑华钧; 干学宏; 张九渊

    2004-01-01

    Highly ordered and porous anodic aluminum oxide templates were prepared. The ordered copper nanowires arrays were assembled in nano-holes of the template by alternating current electrodeposition at lower voltage.The morphologies of template and copper nano-wires arrays were characterized by means of field emission scanning electron microscope(FESEM) and the crystal structure of copper nano-wires was determined by means of X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that copper nano-wires hold the preferred crystalline orientation along (111), (200),(220) and (331) crystal faces during growth, and the growth of copper nano-wires in the nano-holes of the template is homogenous and continuous.

  8. Bound States of a Ferromagnetic Wire in a Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Jay D.; Brydon, P. M. R.

    2015-09-01

    We consider the problem of bound states in strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic impurities in a superconductor, motivated by recent experiments that claim to observe Majorana modes at the ends of ferromagnetic wires on a superconducting substrate [S. Nadj-Perge et al., Science 346, 602 (2014)]. Generalizing the successful theory of bound states of spherically symmetric impurities, we consider a wirelike potential using both analytical and numerical approaches. We find that away from the ends of the wire the bound states form bands with pronounced van Hove singularities, giving rise to subgap peaks in the local density of states. For sufficiently strong magnetization of the wire, we show that this process generically produces a sharp peak at zero energy in the local density of states near the ends of the wire. This zero-energy peak has qualitative similarities to the claimed signature of a Majorana mode observed in the aforementioned experiment.

  9. Study Suggests Brain Is Hard-Wired for Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Release Tuesday, September 17, 2013 NIH-funded study suggests brain is hard-wired for chronic pain ... Apkarian, Ph.D., a senior author of the study and professor of physiology at Northwestern University Feinberg ...

  10. Thermal hydraulic evaluation of advanced wire-wrapped assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal-hydraulic analyses presented in this report are based on application of the subchannel concept in association with the use of bulk parameters for coolant velocity and coolant temperature within a subchannel. The interactions between subchannels are due to turbulent interchange, pressure-induced diversion crossflow, directed sweeping crossflow induced by the helical wire wrap, and transverse thermal conduction. The FULMIX-II computer program was successfully developed to perform the steady-state temperature predictions for LMFBR fuel assemblies with the reference straight-start design and the advanced wire-wrap designs. Predicted steady-state temperature profiles are presented for a typical CRBRP 217-rod wire-wrapped assembly with the selected wire-wrap designs

  11. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change in...

  12. Domestic Copper Wire Companies Perform Strongly between June-August

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>According to a recent survey of China’s major largescale continuous casting and rolling copper rod manufacturers, overall operating rates of 14 largescale copper wire rod manufactur-ers were excellent between June and August.

  13. On topological phases in disordered p-wave superconducting wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Maria-Theresa

    2015-07-10

    Topological phases of matter have been the subject of intense experimental and theoretical research during the last years. Prominent examples are the Quantum Hall Effect, Topological Insulators or Topological Superconductors. The latter host special excitations, the Majorana states, at their boundaries, which can be thought of as the halves of an electron that can exist separately in this special case. These Majorana states have attracted great interest as they exhibit so-called non-Abelian braiding statistics, which could make them useful tools in the search for fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this context topologically superconducting wires are particularly useful as the Majorana states are located unambiguously at the wire's end, where they form localized end states. Topologically superconducting wires are not known to exist in nature but they can be engineered from commonly available ingredients: semiconductor or ferromagnet nano- wires and conventional superconductors. The nano-wires can inherit superconductivity by the proximity effect and can then exhibit a topologically nontrivial phase. By now, several experiments have been performed on such hybrid structures, reporting measurements that are consistent with the existence of a topologically superconducting phase in the nanowire. Most theoretical investigations on these systems, so far, have been restricted to a one-dimensional effective model: The one-dimensional p-wave superconductor, which is the prototype of a topologically superconducting wire. A nanowire, however, is in general in a quasi-one dimensional regime, with a continuous longitudinal but a quantized transverse degree of freedom. In this Thesis we study the multichannel generalization of a topologically superconducting wire by means of a two-dimensional p + ip-superconductor that is restricted to a narrow-strip geometry. Such systems can be in a topological phase, characterized by the existence of a zero-energy excitation at the

  14. Development of Rotary Axis for Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parthiban, C. Manigandan, G. Muthu Venkadesh, M. Ranjith Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of setting up a rotary axis to the existing WEDM machine to investigate the machining parameters in WEDG of harder materials. There are a number of hybrid machining processes (HMPs) seeking the combined advantage of EDM and other machining techniques. One such combination is wire electrical discharge grinding (WEDG), which is commonly used for micro-machining of fine and hard rods. WEDG employs a single wire guide to confine the wir...

  15. Development of Nb-Ti multifilamentar superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni-Ti superconducting wires with multifilamentar configuration were produced, using the grouping technique. Some basic concepts on superconductivity and its main critical parameters are presented. The criteria for stabilizing superconductors in terms of the geometry are studied. The main critical parameters, Hc, Jc, Tc in function of the composition and the metallurgical structure of Ni-Ti alloy are analysed. The development of Ni-Ti superconducting wires is described. (M.C.K.)

  16. Textured YBCO films grown on wires: application to superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to fabricate superconducting wires made of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) on La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffered and biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W (NiW) are described. Wires were manually shaped from LZO buffered NiW tapes. Different diameters were produced: 1.5, 2 and 3 mm. The wires were further covered with YBCO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We developed an original device in which the round substrate undergoes an alternated rotation of 180° around its axis in addition to a reel-to-reel translation. This new approach allows covering the whole circumference of the wire with a YBCO layer. This was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For all wire diameters, the YBCO layer thickness varied from 300 to 450 nm, and the cationic composition was respected. Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed directly on an as-deposited wire without surface preparation allowing the investigation of the crystalline quality of the film surface. Combining EBSD with XRD results we show that YBCO grows epitaxially on the LZO buffered NiW wires. For the first time, superconductive behaviors have been detected on round substrates in both the rolling and circular direction. Jc reached 0.3 MA cm−2 as measured at 77 K by transport and third-harmonic detection. Those preliminary results confirm the effectiveness of the MOCVD for complex geometries, especially for YBCO deposition on small diameter wires. This approach opens huge perspectives for the elaboration of a new generation of YBCO-based round conductors. (paper)

  17. Slowing polar molecules using a wire Stark decelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Marian, Adela; Geng, Peter; Meijer, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a new Stark decelerator based on wire electrodes, which is suitable for ultrahigh vacuum applications. The 100 deceleration stages are fashioned out of 0.6 mm diameter tantalum and the array's total length is 110 mm, approximately 10 times smaller than a conventional Stark decelerator with the same number of electrode pairs. Using the wire decelerator, we have removed more than 90% of the kinetic energy from metastable CO molecules in a beam.

  18. Time-Domain Simulation of Three Dimensional Quantum Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Dennis M; Mossman, Sean; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions of quantum wires. This is a true three-dimensional method based on a direct implementation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It makes no approximations to the Schrödinger equation other than the finite-difference approximation of the space and time derivatives. The accuracy of our method is tested by comparing it to analytical results in a cylindrical wire. PMID:27124603

  19. A KBE Application for Automatic Aircraft Wire Harness Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Z.; van Tooren, M. J. L.; La Rocca, G

    2012-01-01

    Wire harness design is an increasingly complex task. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) and optimization techniques can be used to support designers in handling this complexity. The wire harness design process can be divided in three main parts, namely electrical design, configuration design and geometrical routing. This paper describes the latest progress in the development of a KBE application aiming at the automation of the routing phase. Discrete optimization techniques are used to design ...

  20. Wiring of interpolation unit of mass spectrometer oscilloscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combinatory logic circuit block is wired across the input terminal of oscilloscope intensity modulation and the output terminal of the sweep delay control block, the output terminal of the block for mains frequency division, and the output terminal of the pulse shaper block. It consists of a dual-input AND circuit and a dual-input OR circuit whose one input is wired to the output of one of the dual-input AND circuit. (J.P.)

  1. Domain Wall Mobility in Co-Based Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kladivova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of the domain wall between opposite circularly magnetized domains in amorphous cylindrical sample with circular easy direction is theoretically studied. The wall is driven by DC current. Various mechanisms which influence the wall velocity were taken into account: current magnitude, deformation of the mowing wall, Hall effect, axially magnetized domain in the middle of the wire. Theoretical results obtained are in a good agreement with experiments on Cobased amorphous ferromagnetic wires.

  2. Comparison of the copper and gold wire bonding processes for LED packaging*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhaohui; Liu Yong; Liu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wire bonding is one of the main processes of the LED packaging which provides electrical interconnection between the LED chip and lead frame The gold wire bonding process has been widely used in LED packaging industry currently. However, due to the high cost of gold wire, copper wire bonding is a good substitute for the gold wire bonding which can lead to significant cost saving. In this paper, the copper and gold wire bonding processes on the high power LED chip are compared and analyzed with finite element simulation. This modeling work may provide guidelines for the parameter optimization of coppor wire bonding process on the high power LED packaging.

  3. Effect of the Circuit and Wire Parameters on Exploding an Al Wire in Water%Effect of the Circuit and Wire Parameters on Exploding an Al Wire in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆; 张乔根; 张俊; 赵军平; 任保忠; 庞磊

    2011-01-01

    The underwater electrical explosion of an aluminum wire is influenced by many factors, such as wire parameters, pulsed power energy, etc. In this paper, underwater electrical explosion of an aluminum wire was investigated with pulsed voltage in the time scale of a few microseconds. A self-integrated Rogowski coil and a voltage divider were used for the measurements of current and voltage at the wire load, respectively. The deposited energy before breakdown was calculated based on experimental waveforms of current and voltage by mathematical method. Effects of the applied voltage, circuit inductance and sion and energy deposition were analyzed by means parameters of Al wire on the electrical exploof experiments and calculation. The results show that the current rise rate has an important influence on explosion process, such as the energy deposition before breakdown, the electrical power as well as the various explosion stages. A higher current rise rate can be achieved by increasing applied voltage and decreasing circuit inductance. The inhomogeneity of the energy deposition will result in prematured breakdown as well as lowered energy deposition, making the explosion process of wire more complicated.

  4. Metal forming processes to produce ECN superconducting wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaap, E.C.M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The main subject is modelling techniques for metal forming processes. Attention is paid to wire drawing and tube sinking. Part 1 presents the necessary mechanical background. Chapter 2 concerns the issues of the wire drawing of homogeneous isotropic material. Analytic as well as numerical approaches for modelling metal forming processes are discussed in chapter 3, each with their advantages and deficiencies. In Part 2 the applications of the simple upper-bound methods are discussed thoroughly, not because they are expected to bring the ultimate answer in solving deformation problems, but because they can bring some clarity quickly, since they are easy to apply. The upper-bound method applied on wire drawing is discussed in chapter 4; the significance of tube sinking theories is demonstrated in chapter 5 and bi-metal wire drawing in chapter 6. With the aid of the formulas based on these theories, FORTRAN programs for tube sinking and the criterion of core fraction in drawing bi-metal wire have been developed. Their purpose is explained. The finite element method will be discussed in a future report more extensively. In the last chapters some concluding remarks are made on the selection of appropriate values for process and material parameters as to produce sound wire. Recommendations are given for further research. 58 figs., 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Heat resistant wire and cable and heat shrinkable tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processes have been used in industrial fields (e.g. wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubes) for about 30 years. In Japan, 60 electron beam accelerators were used in R and D, 54 in wire and cable, 24 in tire rubber, 16 in paint curing, 14 in PE foam and 9 accelerators were used in heat shrinkable tubes in 1993. Many properties (e.g. solder resistance, thermal deformation, and solven resistance) of wire and cable are improved by using radiation processes, and many kinds of radiation crosslinked wire and cable are used in the consumer market (TV sets, VTR's, audio disc players, etc.), automobiles (automobile wire harnesses, fusible link wires, sensor cables etc.), and the industrial market (computer cables, cables for keyboards, coaxial cables, etc.). Another important industrial application of Eβ radiation process is heat shrinkable tubes. Heat shinkable tubes, heated by a hot gun, shrink 1/2 ∼ 1/3 of their inner diameters. Heat shrinkable tubes are used for covers of distributing line terminals, joint covers of telecommunication lines, protection of fuel pipe lines and so on. In this seminar, actual applications and characteristic properties of radiation crosslinked materials are presented

  6. LANSCE wire scanner AFE: analysis, design, and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the design LANSCE-R Wire-Scanner Analog Front-end Electronics is to develop a high-performance, dual-axis wire-scanner analog front-end system implemented in a single cRIO module. This new design accommodates macropulse widths as wide as 700 μs at a maximum pulse rate of 120Hz. A lossey integrator is utilized as the integration element to eliminate the requirement for providing gating signals to each wire scanner. The long macropulse and the high repetition rate present conflicting requirements for the design of the integrator. The long macropulse requires a long integration time constant to assure minimum integrator droop for accurate charge integration, and the high repetition rate requires a short time constant to assure adequate integrator reset between macropulses. Also, grounding is a serious concern due to the small signal levels. This paper reviews the basic Wire Scanner AFE system design implemented in the cRIO-module form factor to capture the charge information from the wire sensors and the grounding topology to assure minimum noise contamination of the wire signals.

  7. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. MECL delay and wiring tests for MECL 10000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delay and wiring tests for two delay circuits for MECL 10000 are discussed. Circuit A is designed such that the delay between the input and the output signals can be determined by the value of the capacitor. Circuit B contains two capacitors with C1 controlling the delay of the positive edge and C2 controlling the delay of the negative edge. The test results showed that both delay circuits, A and B, performed satisfactorily, but circuit A demonstrated better tracking between delay of positive and negative edges. Wiring tests demonstrated that the MECL 10000 can be used quite successfully with limited length wire-wrap, due primarily to the measured 3 nsec edge speeds. As expected, the shapes are considerably better with receiving end termination rather than sending end termination, even at a length of 5''. One can estimate from the photographs the signal delay resulting from the length of the wire. Concerning twisted pair, there is very little evidence from the experiments that this wiring technique is a significant improvement over conventional wiring, although some improvement in edge speed is noticeable

  9. Copper Refinement from Anode to Cathode and then to Wire Rod: Effects of Impurities on Recrystallization Kinetics and Wire Ductility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, Anne-Laure; Moya, Alice; Jil, Tomas; Andrieux, Michel; Ignat, Michel; Brisset, François; Baudin, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the traceability of copper from the anode to the cathode and then the wire rod has been studied in terms of impurity content, microstructure, texture, recrystallization kinetics, and ductility. These characterizations were obtained based on secondary ion mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, HV hardness, and electron backscattered diffraction. It is shown that the recrystallization was delayed by the total amount of impurities. From tensile tests performed on cold drawn and subsequently annealed wires for a given time, a simplified model has been developed to link tensile elongation to the chemical composition. This model allowed quantification of the contribution of some additional elements, present in small quantity, on the recrystallization kinetics. The proposed model adjusted for the cold-drawn wires was also validated on both the cathode and wire rod used for the study of traceability.

  10. Arrest Decisions as Precludes To? An Evaluation of Policy Related Research. Volume I: Administrative Summary and Training Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neithercutt, M. G.; And Others

    The document is the first part of a study conducted to evaluate policy-related research on police arrest discretion as an alternative solution to arrest. It presents the administrative summary of the Arrest Decisions as Preludes To? (ADAPT) project and contains scripts intended for use by police departments as a staff training device. The…

  11. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment.

  12. Autoclaving and clinical recycling: Effects on mechanical properties of orthodontic wires

    OpenAIRE

    Oshagh, M.; M R Hematiyan; Y Mohandes; M R Oshagh; L Pishbin

    2012-01-01

    Background: About half of the orthodontists recycle and reuse orthodontic wires because of their costs. So when talking about reuse and sterilization of wires, their effects on mechanical properties of wires should be clarified. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sterilization and clinical use on mechanical properties of stainless steel wires. Materials and Methods: Thirty stainless steel orthodontic wires were divided into three equal groups of control, autoclave (ster...

  13. Method of fabricating high-density hermetic electrical feedthroughs using insulated wire bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Kedar G.; Benett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2016-05-10

    A method of fabricating electrical feedthroughs coats of a plurality of electrically conductive wires with an electrically insulating material and bundles the coated wires together in a substantially parallel arrangement. The bundled coated wires are secured to each other by joining the electrically insulating material of adjacent wires together to form a monolithic block which is then cut transverse to the wires to produce a block section having opposing first and second sides with a plurality of electrically conductive feedthroughs extending between them.

  14. Weld-cost saving accomplished by replacing single-wire submerged arc welding with triple-wire welding

    OpenAIRE

    Bajcer, Božidar; Umek, I.; Tušek, Janez

    2015-01-01

    A comparison is made of different submerged arc welding processes, that is ones using singlewire, twin-wire and triple-wire electrodes, applied to welding of two webs consisting of L sections 16x90x4100 mm in size. Experimental welding, measurement of welding parameters, calculation of the melting rate, measurement and calculation of shielding flux consumption, a visual examination of the welds made, an analysis of macro sections, and an economic calculation of the respective total cost of th...

  15. Experimental study and local approach of cleavage crack arrest in a bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF wants to complete the assessment of reactor pressure vessels, usually based on crack initiation concept, by crack arrest concept. The work aims at improving the knowledge of cleavage crack arrest in a reactor pressure vessel steel. For that purpose, isothermal crack arrest experiments were performed for temperatures ranging from - 150 C up to - 50 C on compact tensile specimens and on pre-cracked rings submitted to compressive loading. Fractographic observations revealed that the whole crack propagation and arrest occurs by cleavage even if ductile tearing occurs before initiation of the unstable crack propagation. A local cleavage crack arrest criterion is applied in finite element computations carried out in elasto-visco-plasticity and in full dynamics: the crack propagates since the largest principal stress reaches a critical stress. The application of this criterion on the experiments leads to a good prediction of the crack speed and of the crack length and shows that the critical stress increases with the temperature in relation with dissipation features observed on the fracture surfaces. Dependence to the geometry is observed; it can be due to the assumption used for the 2D computations. The study of the structural dynamic shows that the crack arrest phenomenon is very linked to the global dynamics of the structure: crack arrest and crack closure occur approximately at the same time. (author)

  16. Early Recognition of Foreign Body Aspiration as the Cause of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration (FBA is uncommon in the adult population but can be a life-threatening condition. Clinical manifestations vary according to the degree of airway obstruction, and, in some cases, making the correct diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion combined with a detailed history and exam. Sudden cardiac arrest after FBA may occur secondary to asphyxiation. We present a 48-year-old male with no history of cardiac disease brought to the emergency department after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. The patient was resuscitated after 15 minutes of cardiac arrest. He was initially managed with therapeutic hypothermia (TH. Subsequent history suggested FBA as a possible etiology of the cardiac arrest, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a piece of meat and bone lodged in the left main stem bronchus. The foreign body was removed with the bronchoscope and the patient clinically improved with full neurological recovery. Therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest due to asphyxia has been reported to have high mortality and poor neurological outcomes. This case highlights the importance of early identification of FBA causing cardiac arrest, and we report a positive neurological outcome for postresuscitation therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest due to asphyxia.

  17. Inductor Design Comparison of Three-wire and Four-wire Three-phase Voltage Source Converters in Power Factor Correction Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the inductor design for three-wire and four-wire power factor correction converter (PFC). Designing the efficient inductor for this converter (regardless of connecting the midpoint to the ground) requires a comprehensive knowledge of the inductor current and voltage behavior. T......W PFC experimental setup. The experimental results which are performed for three-wire and four-wire PFC show a good match with the analyses....

  18. Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p.

    OpenAIRE

    Cherkasova, V; Lyons, D M; Elion, E A

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating pheromones activate two MAP kinases (MAPKs), Fus3p and Kss1p, to induce G1 arrest prior to mating. Fus3p is known to promote G1 arrest by activating Far1p, which inhibits three Clnp/Cdc28p kinases. To analyze the contribution of Fus3p and Kss1p to G1 arrest that is independent of Far1p, we constructed far1 CLN strains that undergo G1 arrest from increased activation of the mating MAP kinase pathway. We find that Fus3p and Kss1p both control G1 arrest throug...

  19. Performance analysis of surge arrester on high voltage systems using ATP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallagownden, P.; Magumane, A.H. [Univ. Teknologi Petronas, Perak (Malaysia); Kanth, K.S.R. [Tenaga National Berhad (Malaysia)

    2008-07-01

    Lightning strikes are among the major factors that cause failures in electrical power systems. Phase to ground arresters are commonly installed at power transformer terminals to offer some lightning protection. However, it is important to understand the performance of metal oxide arresters under very fast transient overvoltages in order to determine the protection zone of the arrester and to achieve economical benefits. This study investigated lightning overvoltage protection in a complete three-phase scheme of a 500 KV substation. Overvoltages originated from direct lightning stroke on a phase of a real overhead line (OHL) model. The effect of the separation distance of the arrester from the transformer connected at the open end of the substations was investigated as well as the performance of the arrester for different substation configurations. In the first scenario, the connection of the arrester and transformer was done with a direct connection of an overhead line. In the second scenario, the connection of these devices was done through a cable. Both the overhead line and cable lengths were varied and the maximum overvoltages coming to the transformer were recorded. The results showed that there is a direct proportionality between overvoltages and length of the overhead line or cable. As long the length of the line or cable between the arrester and the transformer was increased, the vulnerability of the transformer to receive high overvoltages also increased. Surge overvoltages were found to be very sensitive to impedance of the line or cable. The direct connections of overhead lines between the arrester and transformer make it necessary to add some protective device. It was suggested that surge arresters should be installed every 200 meters along the overhead lines in order to ensure the safety of equipment. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Prehospital behaviour of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or witnessed cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Michael Mundt; Dixen, Ulrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study prehospital behaviour of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or witnessed cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Structured interview of 250 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome and relatives of 48 patients with witnessed cardiac arrest. The following courses of action......-four per cent of the patients admitted with cardiac arrest expressed no prior symptoms. Two-thirds of patients with typical symptoms interpreted it as cardiac-still only half took action within 20 min. Fifty per cent of patients who called a physician were delayed by wrong advice or misinterpretation. One...

  1. Gold Wire-networks: Particle Array Guided Evaporation Lithograpy

    KAUST Repository

    Lone,Saifullah

    2015-06-29

    We exploited the combination of dry deposition of monolayer of 2D (two dimensional) templates, lift-up transfer of 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography [1] to fabricate gold micro- and submicron size wire networks. The approach relies upon the defect free dry deposition of 2D monolayer of latex particles [2] on patterned silicon template and flat PDMS-substrate to create square centered and honey-comb wire networks respectively. The process is followed by lift-up transfer of 2D latex crystal on glass substrate. Subsequently, a small amount of AuNP-suspension is doped on top of the transferred crystal; the suspension is allowed to spread instantaneously and dried at low temperature. The liquid evaporates uniformly to the direction perpendicular to glass substrate. During evaporation, AuNPs are de-wetted along with the movement of liquid to self-assemble in-between the inter-particle spaces and therefore, giving rise to liquid-bridge networks which upon delayed evaporation, transforms into wire networks. The approach is used to fabricate both micro- and submicron wire-networks by simply changing the template dimensions. One of the prime motives behind this study is to down-scale the existing particle array template-based evaporation lithography process to fabricate connected gold wire networks at both micro- and submicron scale. Secondly, the idea of combining the patterned silicon wafer with lifted latex particle template creates an opportunity to clean and res-use the patterned wafer more often and thereby, saving fabrication time and resources. Finally, we illustrated the validity of this approach by creating an easy and high-speed approach to develop gold wire networks on a flexible substrate with a thin deposited adhesive. These advances will not only serve as a platform to scale up the production, but also demonstrated that the fabrication method can produce metallic wire networks of different scale and onto a variety of substrates.

  2. Influences on lifetime of wire ropes in traction lifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, W.

    2016-05-01

    Traction lifts are complex systems with rotating and translating moving masses, springs and dampers and several system inputs from the lifts and the users. The wire ropes are essential mechanical elements. The mechanical properties of the ropes in use depend on the rope construction, the load situation, nonlinearities and the lift dimensions. The mechanical properties are important for the proper use in lifts and the ride quality. But first of all the wire ropes (for all other suspension means as well) have to satisfy the safety relevant requirements sufficient lifetime, reliable determination of discard and sufficient and limited traction capacity. The lifetime of the wire ropes better the number of trips until rope discard depends on a lot of parameters of the rope and the rope application eg use of plastic deflection sheaves and reverse bending layouts. New challenges for rope lifetime are resulting from the more or less open D/d-ratio limits possible by certificates concerning the examination of conformity by notified bodies. This paper will highlight the basics of wire rope technology, the endurance and lifetime of wire ropes running over sheaves, and the different influences from the ropes and more and more important from the lift application parameters. Very often underestimated are the influences of transport, storage, installation and maintenance. With this background we will lead over to the calculation methods of wire rope lifetime considering the actual findings of wire rope endurance research. We'll show in this paper new and innovative facts as the influence of rope length and size factor in the lifetime formular, the reduction of lifetime caused by traction grooves, the new model for the calculation in reverse bending operations and the statistically firmed possibilities for machine roomless lifts (MRL) under very small bending conditions.

  3. Polaron in a quasi 1D cylindrical quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Nsangou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Polaron states in a quasi 1D cylindrical quantum wire with a parabolic confinement potential are investigated applying the Feynman variational principle. The effect of the wire radius on the polaron ground state energy level, the mass and the Fröhlich electron-phonon-coupling constant are obtained for the case of a quasi 1D cylindrical quantum wire. The effect of anisotropy of the structure on the polaron ground state energy level and the mass are also investigated. It is observed that as the wire radius tends to zero, the polaron mass and energy diverge logarithmically. The polaron mass and energy differ from the canonical strong-coupling behavior by the Fröhlich electron-phonon coupling constant and the radius of the quasi 1D cylindrical quantum wire that are expressed through a logarithmic function. Moreover, it is observed that the polaron energy and mass for strong coupling for the case of the quasi 1D cylindrical quantum wire are greater than those for bulk crystals. It is also observed that the anisotropy of the structure considerably affects both the polaron ground state energy level and the mass. It is found that as the radius of the cylindrical wire reduces, the regimes of the weak and intermediate coupling polaron shorten while the region of the strong coupling polaron broadens and extends into those of the weak and intermediate ones. Analytic expressions for the polaron ground state energy level and mass are derived for the case of strong coupling polarons.

  4. Analysis on Lighting Withstand Characteristics of Polymeric ZnO Surge Arrester for Transmission Line against Lightning Overvoltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.W.; Cho, H.G. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea); He, J.L. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (Switzerland)

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the lightning withstand levels (LWLs) of two 110 kV transmission lines before and after line arresters made with polymeric housing are installed on the towers, the lightning discharging currents through arresters and lightning energies absorbed by line arresters. The LWLs can be highly increased by installing line arresters on the transmission line towers in parallel with the insulator strings. It is not problem that the polymeric ZnO surge arresters are used in transmission lines to limit lightning overvoltages. (author). 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A Literature Review Revisiting Phenytoin-Induced Sinus Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsai, Shireen; Hariri, Imad; Taleb, Mohammad; Yoon, Youngsook

    2016-01-01

    Classically, phenytoin (PTN) infusion for the treatment of status epilepticus has been proven to be associated with cardiovascular toxicity, including dysrhythmias, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse. Subsequently, fosphenytoin (FOS) was introduced on the market in 1997 with claims of having less cardiac toxicity. However, since then, many accounts of cardiac events have been reported undermining these claims. FOS gained popularity due to its water solubility, which allows 3 times faster infusion in comparison with PTN with less venous irritation and local toxicity. FOS is the phosphate ester prodrug of PTN and is rapidly converted to PTN independent of the dose and rate of administration. Intravenous FOS and PTN are bioequivalent. Adverse cardiac effects of both intravenous FOS and PTN have been correlated to the rate of infusion, concentration of the agent, known risk factors, or pre-existing hypersensitivity, and most cases have been identified after infusing a loading dose of these medications. This case report is unique, in that, the patient developed sinus arrest while concurrently receiving oral PTN and intravenous FOS. Clinicians should be more cognizant of the association of FOS and PTN with adverse cardiac events. Baseline electrocardiogram should be obtained on all patients prescribed FOS or PTN to identify underlying cardiac problems that may place the patient in a higher risk category. Telemetry should be performed on all patients receiving PTN in an inpatient setting. PMID:25549077

  6. Nitisinone Arrests but Does Not Reverse Ochronosis in Alkaptonuric Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Craig M; Preston, Andrew J; Sutherland, Hazel; Wilson, Peter J; Psarelli, Eftychia E; Cox, Trevor F; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Jarvis, Jonathan C; Gallagher, James A

    2015-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultrarare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a deficiency of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGD), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Loss of HGD function prevents metabolism of homogentisic acid (HGA), leading to increased levels of plasma HGA and urinary excretion. Excess HGA becomes deposited in collagenous tissues and subsequently undergoes polymerisation, principally in the cartilages of loaded joints, in a process known as ochronosis. This results in an early-onset, devastating osteoarthropathy for which there is currently no effective treatment. We recently described the natural history of ochronosis in a murine model of AKU, demonstrating that deposition of ochronotic pigment begins very early in life and accumulates with age. Using this model, we were able to show that lifetime treatment with nitisinone, a potential therapy for AKU, was able to completely prevent deposition of ochronotic pigment. However, although nitisinone has been shown to inhibit ochronotic deposition, whether it can also facilitate removal of existing pigment has not yet been examined. We describe here that midlife administration of nitisinone to AKU mice arrests further deposition of ochronotic pigment in the tibiofemoral joint, but does not result in the clearance of existing pigment. We also demonstrate the dose-dependent response of plasma HGA to nitisinone, highlighting its efficacy for personalised medicine, where dosage can be tailored to the individual AKU patient. PMID:25940034

  7. A Literature Review Revisiting Phenytoin-Induced Sinus Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsai, Shireen; Hariri, Imad; Taleb, Mohammad; Yoon, Youngsook

    2016-01-01

    Classically, phenytoin (PTN) infusion for the treatment of status epilepticus has been proven to be associated with cardiovascular toxicity, including dysrhythmias, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse. Subsequently, fosphenytoin (FOS) was introduced on the market in 1997 with claims of having less cardiac toxicity. However, since then, many accounts of cardiac events have been reported undermining these claims. FOS gained popularity due to its water solubility, which allows 3 times faster infusion in comparison with PTN with less venous irritation and local toxicity. FOS is the phosphate ester prodrug of PTN and is rapidly converted to PTN independent of the dose and rate of administration. Intravenous FOS and PTN are bioequivalent. Adverse cardiac effects of both intravenous FOS and PTN have been correlated to the rate of infusion, concentration of the agent, known risk factors, or pre-existing hypersensitivity, and most cases have been identified after infusing a loading dose of these medications. This case report is unique, in that, the patient developed sinus arrest while concurrently receiving oral PTN and intravenous FOS. Clinicians should be more cognizant of the association of FOS and PTN with adverse cardiac events. Baseline electrocardiogram should be obtained on all patients prescribed FOS or PTN to identify underlying cardiac problems that may place the patient in a higher risk category. Telemetry should be performed on all patients receiving PTN in an inpatient setting.

  8. ASPECTS REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN ARREST WARRANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin, MARINESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Treaty of Amsterdam stipulated the fact that the European Union must maintain and develop an area of freedom, security and justice, freedom assuming the existence of a common judicial area in which European citizens are able to seek justice in any of the member state same as in their own country. This goal aims to eliminate the possibility that criminals exploit the differences between the legal systems of the member states, imposing that the judgments are recognized and enforced abroad without the formalities laid down by the classical conventions on international judicial assistance. The Council Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA of 13 June 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States, materialized the decision taken in Tampere, following that between EU Member States to be replace the formal extradition procedure of the people who evade the execution of a sentence of imprisonment imposed by a judgment of conviction became final, with a simplified surrender procedure..

  9. Dexmedetomidine Related Bradycardia Leading to Cardiac Arrest in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Chen2, K-S. Chen1,2, K. M. Chang2, W. M. Lee1,2, S. C. Chang1,2 and H. C. Wang1,2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old, mixed breed female dog (16 kg underwent an exploratory laparotomy following ultrasonographic diagnosis of foreign body and a segment of small intestine intussusceptions. The patient was classified as an ASA II. Ketamine (1mg/kg, IV, and dexmedetomidine (2.5 µg/kg, IV, and morphine (0.6 mg/kg, SC were given as anesthetic premedication. Propofol (0.1 mg/kg, IV titrated to a total amount of 4 ml (2.5 mg/ kg was given for intubation. Asystole was occurred. Cardiac resuscitation was then conducted immediately. Atipamezole (0.1 ml was injected, but showed no response on ECG. Atropine (0.02 mg/kg was then injected, and a second dosage was given. Two-three mins later, the heart rate at 84 beats/min. The NIBP showed 203/132 with MAP 153 mmHg, and the SpO2 showed 95% after the cardiac function was regained. Dexmedetomidine related bradycardia leading to cardiac arrest has been suggested in this case.

  10. A conservative approach to esthetically treat stained arrested caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Angari, Sarah S; Hara, Anderson T

    2016-01-01

    Esthetic treatment of stained arrested caries lesions (ACLs) has mostly been done using invasive restorative techniques. The aim of this paper was to propose and report the efficacy of a conservative approach based on dental bleaching to esthetically treat these lesions, both experimentally (extracted teeth) and clinically. In a laboratory experiment, ten extracted human teeth with stained ACLs in either pit and fissure or smooth surface were selected and treated with 15% carbamide peroxide gel, 4 h per day, for a total of 6 days. The second part of the paper reports a clinical case of pit and fissure-stained ACLs in four posterior teeth, which were treated with 40% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching. Digital photographs were taken in both parts to document the efficacy of the treatment. The lesions showed noticeable increase in color lightness indicating the efficacy and suitability of the proposed approach. By using the conservative clinical technique presented, the esthetics of most stained ACLs could be improved, eliminating the need for invasive restorative treatments. PMID:27092359

  11. Near-death experiences in cardiac arrest survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Near-death experiences (NDEs) have become the focus of much interest in the last 30 years or so. Such experiences can occur both when individuals are objectively near to death and also when they simply believe themselves to be. The experience typically involves a number of different components including a feeling of peace and well-being, out-of-body experiences (OBEs), entering a region of darkness, seeing a brilliant light, and entering another realm. NDEs are known to have long-lasting transformational effects upon those who experience them. An overview is presented of the various theoretical approaches that have been adopted in attempts to account for the NDE. Spiritual theories assume that consciousness can become detached from the neural substrate of the brain and that the NDE may provide a glimpse of an afterlife. Psychological theories include the proposal that the NDE is a dissociative defense mechanism that occurs in times of extreme danger or, less plausibly, that the NDE reflects memories of being born. Finally, a wide range of organic theories of the NDE has been put forward including those based upon cerebral hypoxia, anoxia, and hypercarbia; endorphins and other neurotransmitters; and abnormal activity in the temporal lobes. Finally, the results of studies of NDEs in cardiac arrest survivors are reviewed and the implications of these results for our understanding of mind-brain relationships are discussed.

  12. Efficiency of Super-Eddington Magnetically-Arrested Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    McKinney, Jonathan C; Avara, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The radiative efficiency of super-Eddington accreting black holes (BHs) is explored for magnetically-arrested disks (MADs), where magnetic flux builds-up to saturation near the BH. Our three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (GRRMHD) simulation of a spinning BH (spin $a/M=0.8$) accreting at $\\sim 50$ times Eddington shows a total efficiency $\\sim 50\\%$ when time-averaged and total efficiency $\\gtrsim 100\\%$ in moments. Magnetic compression by the magnetic flux near the rotating BH leads to a thin disk, whose radiation escapes via advection by a magnetized wind and via transport through a low-density channel created by a Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet. The BZ efficiency is sub-optimal due to inertial loading of field lines by optically thick radiation, leading to BZ efficiency $\\sim 40\\%$ on the horizon and BZ efficiency $\\sim 5\\%$ by $r\\sim 400r_g$ (gravitational radii) via absorption by the wind. Importantly, radiation escapes at $r\\sim 400r_g$ with efficiency $\\eta\\approx 15\\%$ (lumi...

  13. Efficiency of Thin Magnetically-Arrested Disks Around Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Avara, Mark J; Reynolds, Chris S

    2015-01-01

    The radiative and jet efficiencies of thin magnetized accretion disks around black holes (BHs) are affected by BH spin and the presence of a magnetic field that, when strong, could lead to large deviations from Novikov-Thorne (NT) thin disk theory. To seek the maximum deviations, we perform general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of radiatively efficient thin (half-height $H$ to radius $R$ of $H/R\\approx 0.10$) disks around moderately rotating BHs with $a/M=0.5$. First, our simulations, evolved for $108,000r_g/c$ (gravitational radius $r_g$ and speed of light $c$), show that large-scale magnetic field readily accretes inward even through our thin disk and builds-up to the magnetically-arrested disk (MAD) state. Second, our simulations of thin MADs show the disk achieves a radiative efficiency of $\\eta_{\\rm r}\\approx 15\\%$ (after estimating photon capture), which is about twice the NT value of $\\eta_{\\rm r}\\sim 8\\%$ for $a/M=0.5$ and gives the same luminosity as a NT disk with $a/M\\approx ...

  14. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  15. DNA damage mediated transcription arrest: Step back to go forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenders, Leon

    2015-12-01

    The disturbance of DNA helix conformation by bulky DNA damage poses hindrance to transcription elongating due to stalling of RNA polymerase at transcription blocking lesions. Stalling of RNA polymerase provokes the formation of R-loops, i.e. the formation of a DNA-RNA hybrid and a displaced single stranded DNA strand as well as displacement of spliceosomes. R-loops are processed into DNA single and double strand breaks by NER factors depending on TC-NER factors leading to genome instability. Moreover, stalling of RNA polymerase induces a strong signal for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These toxic and mutagenic effects are counteracted by a rapid recruitment of DNA repair proteins to perform transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) to remove the blocking DNA lesions and to restore transcription. Recent studies have highlighted the role of backtracking of RNA polymerase to facilitate TC-NER and identified novel factors that play key roles in TC-NER and in restoration of transcription. On the molecular level these factors facilitate stability of the repair complex by promotion and regulation of various post-translational modifications of NER factors and chromatin substrate. In addition, the continuous flow of new factors that emerge from screening assays hints to several regulatory levels to safeguard the integrity of transcription elongation after disturbance by DNA damage that have yet to be explored.

  16. Room temperature mushrooming of gallium wires and its growth mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P.; Shen, L.W.; Ouyang, J.; Zhang, Y.M.; Wu, S.Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Z.M., E-mail: sunzhengming@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, Jiangsu (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Fast spontaneous growth of Ga wires (∼200 nm/s) from a composite system of Cr{sub 2}GaC–Ga is reported. • The fact that Ga wires’ growth phenomena on the composite share most features with metals whiskers with metal/alloy substrates suggests the same mechanism highly likely operating with both systems. • Compelling evidences indicate that the popular stress-based mechanism developed in metal/alloy systems does not hold water in the Cr{sub 2}GaC–Ga composite system. • A new catalysis mechanism is proposed, in which the cleavage planes of Cr{sub 2}GaC grains act as a catalyst for the Ga wires growth. • The new findings in this composite system would lead a new route to address this old problem, and it might see significance in the electronics industry. On the other hand, it is likely to be harnessed to engineer a promising and facile route to prepare various metal wires in large scale. - Abstract: Spontaneous growth of Ga wires at high rate (∼200 nm/s) from a composite system of Cr{sub 2}GaC (a MAX phase) and Ga is presented. A Ga wire growth mechanism based on a catalysis model, which involves fractured Cr{sub 2}GaC grains as the catalyst, is proposed. Regarding the morphologies and the incubation time of the Ga wires, this system shares most features with metal/alloy substrates, such as tin and zinc, where the whiskering phenomenon has been well established and has resisted interpretation for 60+ years. The same growth mechanism is thus considered to operate across different substrates, including the composite one in this study. However, the experimental findings in this composite system oppose the popular stress-based mechanism for the whisker growth with metal/alloy substrates, and provide new sights on this phenomenon. In addition, compelling evidences strongly indicate that fractured Cr{sub 2}GaC grains produced by ball milling initiated the growth of Ga wires, like a ‘catalyst’, and the pristine Cr{sub 2}GaC grains do not

  17. [Study of a wire-to-plate positive pulsed corona discharge reactor by emission spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen-Bing; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Zhao, Lei; Xuan, Jian-Yong; Jiang, Jian-Ping; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2011-11-01

    In order to get extensive knowledge of wire-to-plate pulsed corona discharge reactor, the influences of different diameters of wire electrode, different wire-to-plate and wire-to-wire spacing on OH radical generation were experimentally investigated under atmospheric pressure based on emission spectrum, and the spatial distribution of OH radicals in the electric field was also discussed in detail The results showed that OH radicals decrease along the X-axis, and the activation radius is approximately 20 mm; showing a trend of first increase and then decrease along the Y-axis, with the activation radius being more than 30 mm. OH radical has small change as the diameter of wire electrode changes below 2 mm, with a sharp decline as the diameter continues to increase. OH radical emission intensity increases as wire-to-wire spacing increases and decrease as wire-to-plate spacing increases. PMID:22242480

  18. Wireless Connection between Guide Wires and Bone Cement: Extravasated Methyl Methacrylate Mimicking a Retained Guide Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Ching

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 56-year-old double lung transplant recipient with chest pain who underwent an attempted endovascular retrieval of what was described as a retained guide wire in the azygos vein. After successfully grasping the tip, the object further migrated to the right pulmonary artery complicating the retrieval. It was realized that the “wire” was extravasated methyl methacrylate from a recent percutaneous kyphoplasty. This is believed to be the first report of attempted endovascular retrieval of extravasated methyl methacrylate in the azygos system. We include the details of this case and briefly review the current literature on the management of extravasated methyl methacrylate from vertebral augmentation procedures. Extravasated methyl methacrylate in the venous system is a common finding after vertebral augmentation procedures and any radiopaque stripe arising from a cemented vertebral body should be first described as probable cement leakage.

  19. Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

  20. Understanding the mechanism of nanoparticle formation in wire explosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of nanoparticle formation by wire explosion process has been investigated by optical emission spectroscopy in Antony et al. 2010 [2] [J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 2010; 111:2509]. It was reported that the size of the nanoparticles formed in Ar ambience increases with increasing pressure, while an opposite trend was observed for the nanoparticles produced in N2 and He ambiences. However, the physics behind this opposite trend seems unclear. In this work, we have investigated the probable mechanism behind the opposite trend in particle size with pressure of different gases and understand the mechanism of nanoparticle formation in wire explosion process. The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of ambient gas species (Ar and N2) and pressure on arc plasma formation and its corresponding effects on the characteristics of the produced nanoparticles in wire explosion process. Our results show that the arc plasma formation is probably the mechanism that may account for the opposite trend of particle size with pressure of different gases. -- Highlights: ► Cu nanoparticles have been synthesized by wire explosion technique. ► Investigate the effect of the ambient gas species and pressure. ► Arc plasma formation in wire explosion process is investigated. ► Arc plasma formation plays a crucial role in characteristic of the nanoparticles